Science.gov

Sample records for aboriginal foraging strategies

  1. Identifying Multi-Level Culturally Appropriate Smoking Cessation Strategies for Aboriginal Health Staff: A Concept Mapping Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Anna P.; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco…

  2. Spatiotemporal resource distribution and foraging strategies of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lanan, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of food resources in space and time is likely to be an important factor governing the type of foraging strategy used by ants. However, no previous systematic attempt has been made to determine whether spatiotemporal resource distribution is in fact correlated with foraging strategy across the ants. In this analysis, I present data compiled from the literature on the foraging strategy and food resource use of 402 species of ants from across the phylogenetic tree. By categorizing the distribution of resources reported in these studies in terms of size relative to colony size, spatial distribution relative to colony foraging range, frequency of occurrence in time relative to worker life span, and depletability (i.e., whether the colony can cause a change in resource frequency), I demonstrate that different foraging strategies are indeed associated with specific spatiotemporal resource attributes. The general patterns I describe here can therefore be used as a framework to inform predictions in future studies of ant foraging behavior. No differences were found between resources collected via short-term recruitment strategies (group recruitment, short-term trails, and volatile recruitment), whereas different resource distributions were associated with solitary foraging, trunk trails, long-term trail networks, group raiding, and raiding. In many cases, ant species use a combination of different foraging strategies to collect diverse resources. It is useful to consider these foraging strategies not as separate options but as modular parts of the total foraging effort of a colony. PMID:25525497

  3. Habitat-specific foraging strategies in Australasian gannets

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Melanie R.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Knowledge of top predator foraging adaptability is imperative for predicting their biological response to environmental variability. While seabirds have developed highly specialised techniques to locate prey, little is known about intraspecific variation in foraging strategies with many studies deriving information from uniform oceanic environments. Australasian gannets (Morus serrator) typically forage in continental shelf regions on small schooling prey. The present study used GPS and video data loggers to compare habitat-specific foraging strategies at two sites of contrasting oceanographic regimes (deep water near the continental shelf edge, n=23; shallow inshore embayment, n=26), in south-eastern Australia. Individuals from the continental shelf site exhibited pelagic foraging behaviours typical of gannet species, using local enhancement to locate and feed on small schooling fish; in contrast only 50% of the individuals from the inshore site foraged offshore, displaying the typical pelagic foraging strategy. The remainder adopted a strategy of searching sand banks in shallow inshore waters in the absence of conspecifics and other predators for large, single prey items. Furthermore, of the individuals foraging inshore, 93% were male, indicating that the inshore strategy may be sex-specific. Large inter-colony differences in Australasian gannets suggest strong plasticity in foraging behaviours, essential for adapting to environmental change. PMID:27305927

  4. Habitat-specific foraging strategies in Australasian gannets.

    PubMed

    Wells, Melanie R; Angel, Lauren P; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-07-15

    Knowledge of top predator foraging adaptability is imperative for predicting their biological response to environmental variability. While seabirds have developed highly specialised techniques to locate prey, little is known about intraspecific variation in foraging strategies with many studies deriving information from uniform oceanic environments. Australasian gannets (Morus serrator) typically forage in continental shelf regions on small schooling prey. The present study used GPS and video data loggers to compare habitat-specific foraging strategies at two sites of contrasting oceanographic regimes (deep water near the continental shelf edge, n=23; shallow inshore embayment, n=26), in south-eastern Australia. Individuals from the continental shelf site exhibited pelagic foraging behaviours typical of gannet species, using local enhancement to locate and feed on small schooling fish; in contrast only 50% of the individuals from the inshore site foraged offshore, displaying the typical pelagic foraging strategy. The remainder adopted a strategy of searching sand banks in shallow inshore waters in the absence of conspecifics and other predators for large, single prey items. Furthermore, of the individuals foraging inshore, 93% were male, indicating that the inshore strategy may be sex-specific. Large inter-colony differences in Australasian gannets suggest strong plasticity in foraging behaviours, essential for adapting to environmental change.

  5. Promoting Interactive Learning: A Classroom Exercise to Explore Foraging Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Ellen S.; Rowe, Graham; Mikhaylov, Natalie S.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a classroom exercise to allow students to explore foraging strategies in higher vertebrates. The exercise includes an initial interactive session in which students act as predators and are guided through foraging simulations, and a subsequent student-led session where classmates are employed as experimental subjects. Students rated the…

  6. Individual foraging strategies reveal niche overlap between endangered galapagos pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Villegas-Amtmann, Stella; Jeglinski, Jana W E; Costa, Daniel P; Robinson, Patrick W; Trillmich, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Most competition studies between species are conducted from a population-level approach. Few studies have examined inter-specific competition in conjunction with intra-specific competition, with an individual-based approach. To our knowledge, none has been conducted on marine top predators. Sympatric Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis) and sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) share similar geographic habitats and potentially compete. We studied their foraging niche overlap at Cabo Douglas, Fernandina Island from simultaneously collected dive and movement data to examine spatial and temporal inter- and intra-specific competition. Sea lions exhibited 3 foraging strategies (shallow, intermediate and deep) indicating intra-specific competition. Fur seals exhibited one foraging strategy, diving predominantly at night, between 0-80 m depth and mostly at 19-22 h. Most sea lion dives also occurred at night (63%), between 0-40 m, within fur seals' diving depth range. 34% of sea lions night dives occurred at 19-22 h, when fur seals dived the most, but most of them occurred at dawn and dusk, when fur seals exhibited the least amount of dives. Fur seals and sea lions foraging behavior overlapped at 19 and 21 h between 0-30 m depths. Sea lions from the deep diving strategy exhibited the greatest foraging overlap with fur seals, in time (19 h), depth during overlapping time (21-24 m), and foraging range (37.7%). Fur seals foraging range was larger. Cabo Douglas northwest coastal area, region of highest diving density, is a foraging "hot spot" for both species. Fur seals and sea lions foraging niche overlap occurred, but segregation also occurred; fur seals primarily dived at night, while sea lions exhibited night and day diving. Both species exploited depths and areas exclusive to their species. Niche breadth generally increases with environmental uncertainty and decreased productivity. Potential competition between these species could be greater during warmer periods

  7. Insect prey foraging strategies in Callicebus oenanthe in northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Deluycker, Anneke M

    2012-05-01

    Titi monkeys (genus Callicebus) are small-bodied platyrrhines that supplement their predominantly frugivorous diet with variable amounts of leaves, seeds, and/or arthropod prey. Notable interspecific variation in the amount of insect prey in the diet has been observed in Callicebus, ranging from 0% to 20%. In this study, I investigate the degree and type of prey foraging in a little-known species, Callicebus oenanthe inhabiting a fragmented, secondary forest on the foothills of the Andes in northern Peru. I present data on prey type, prey search and capture techniques, substrate/vegetation use, foraging height, prey capture efficiency, and seasonal variation of insect prey foraging in one group of C. oenanthe observed from January to August 2005. Insect prey accounted for 22% of the diet, the highest amount reported for any Callicebus species to date, and insects from at least six different orders were included. C. oenanthe was mainly an investigative forager of hidden prey, manipulating easy-to-open substrates such as rolled up leaves, and hunted ant swarms and larger insects opportunistically. Insect foraging was predominant during the dry season (26%) and decreased during the wet season (13%). The study group foraged mostly in the understory (2-6 m) within vine-laden shrubs and trees, which may conform to an anti-predator strategy of crypticity. Overall the group had an 83% insect capture success rate. These data suggest that insect prey is an important part of the diet of C. oenanthe and may be especially notable during periods of resource scarcity. This study adds to the knowledge concerning insect prey foraging in Callicebus, which can have an important role in defining ecological strategies in the selection of secondary protein food resources within a given ecosystem.

  8. Individual foraging strategies of kleptoparasitic Roseate Terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shealer, D.A.; Spendelow, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the kleptoparasitic behavior of ten adult Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) breeding at a colony at Falkner Island, Connecticut, USA between 1995 and 1998. These birds were considered habitual kleptoparasites because they stole fish repeatedly from other terns in every year they were observed at the site. No other breeding individuals were observed attempting to steal fish during our study. Kleptoparasitic techniques included aerial piracy, ground-based attacks, and deceptive behavior, but with one exception, each individual used one method exclusively. Success varied among individuals, but overall, kleptoparasites obtained prey at a significantly higher rate than did 'honest' foragers. Eight of the ten kleptoparasites were females, suggesting a sex-biased tendency in Roseate Terns to engage in this behavior. Our observations indicate that kleptoparasitism by Roseate Terns is a specialized behavior, used regularly by only a few individuals at this breeding colony. This conclusion is consistent with a recent theoretical prediction regarding kleptoparasitism in birds.

  9. Co-evolution of learning complexity and social foraging strategies.

    PubMed

    Arbilly, Michal; Motro, Uzi; Feldman, Marcus W; Lotem, Arnon

    2010-12-21

    Variation in learning abilities within populations suggests that complex learning may not necessarily be more adaptive than simple learning. Yet, the high cost of complex learning cannot fully explain this variation without some understanding of why complex learning is too costly for some individuals but not for others. Here we propose that different social foraging strategies can favor different learning strategies (that learn the environment with high or low resolution), thereby maintaining variable learning abilities within populations. Using a genetic algorithm in an agent-based evolutionary simulation of a social foraging game (the producer-scrounger game) we demonstrate how an association evolves between a strategy based on independent search for food (playing a producer) and a complex (high resolution) learning rule, while a strategy that combines independent search and following others (playing a scrounger) evolves an association with a simple (low resolution) learning rule. The reason for these associations is that for complex learning to have an advantage, a large number of learning steps, normally not achieved by scroungers, are necessary. These results offer a general explanation for persistent variation in cognitive abilities that is based on co-evolution of learning rules and social foraging strategies.

  10. COMMUNICATION: Stochastic resonance and the evolution of Daphnia foraging strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dees, Nathan D.; Bahar, Sonya; Moss, Frank

    2008-12-01

    Search strategies are currently of great interest, with reports on foraging ranging from albatrosses and spider monkeys to microzooplankton. Here, we investigate the role of noise in optimizing search strategies. We focus on the zooplankton Daphnia, which move in successive sequences consisting of a hop, a pause and a turn through an angle. Recent experiments have shown that their turning angle distributions (TADs) and underlying noise intensities are similar across species and age groups, suggesting an evolutionary origin of this internal noise. We explore this hypothesis further with a digital simulation (EVO) based solely on the three central Darwinian themes: inheritability, variability and survivability. Separate simulations utilizing stochastic resonance (SR) indicate that foraging success, and hence fitness, is maximized at an optimum TAD noise intensity, which is represented by the distribution's characteristic width, σ. In both the EVO and SR simulations, foraging success is the criterion, and the results are the predicted characteristic widths of the TADs that maximize success. Our results are twofold: (1) the evolving characteristic widths achieve stasis after many generations; (2) as a hop length parameter is changed, variations in the evolved widths generated by EVO parallel those predicted by SR. These findings provide support for the hypotheses that (1) σ is an evolved quantity and that (2) SR plays a role in evolution.

  11. Swimming speed and foraging strategies of northern elephant seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassrick, Jason L.; Crocker, Daniel E.; Zeno, Ramona L.; Blackwell, Susanna B.; Costa, Daniel P.; Le Boeuf, Burney J.

    2007-02-01

    We investigated swimming speed, a key variable in both the management of oxygen stores and foraging strategies, and its relationship to diving behaviour in northern elephant seals , Mirounga angustirostris. Swimming speed significantly reduced the dive duration and time at depth for presumed foraging dives, but increased with dive depth. This suggests that the extended duration of deep dives is made possible by physiological adjustments and not by changes in swimming speed or effort. Swimming speeds were similar across sex and age classes despite different predicted minimum cost of transport speeds. All seals exhibited characteristic dive shapes and swimming speed patterns that support their putative functions, but two-dimensional dive shapes and swimming angles varied between sexes and age classes. Mean dive angles on descent were markedly shallow, suggesting use of negative buoyancy to cover horizontal distance while diving. Buoyancy also appeared to affect two-dimensional dive shapes and ability to use extended gliding behaviours between surface and deep foraging zones. Significant differences in diving behaviour between sexes and between young and adult females were evident for various phases of the dive cycle, potentially resulting from physical constraints or differences in dive functionality.

  12. Challenges and strategies for cohort retention and data collection in an indigenous population: Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Longitudinal prospective birth cohort studies are pivotal to identifying fundamental causes and determinants of disease and health over the life course. There is limited information about the challenges, retention, and collection strategies in the study of Indigenous populations. The aim is to describe the follow-up rates of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study and how they were achieved. Methods Participants were 686 babies enrolled between January 1987 and March 1990, born to a mother recorded in the Delivery Suite Register of the Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH) as a self-identified Aboriginal. The majority of the participants (70%) resided in Northern Territory within rural, remote and very remote Aboriginal communities that maintain traditional connections to their land and culture. The Aboriginal communities are within a sparsely populated (0.2 people/ km2) area of approximately 900,000 km2 (347sq miles), with poor communication and transport infrastructures. Follow-ups collecting biomedical and lifestyle data directly from participants in over 40 locations were conducted at 11.4 years (Wave-2) and 18.2 years (Wave-3), with Wave-4 follow-up currently underway. Results Follow-ups at 11 and 18 years of age successfully examined 86% and 72% of living participants respectively. Strategies addressing logistic, cultural and ethical challenges are documented. Conclusions Satisfactory follow-up rates of a prospective longitudinal Indigenous birth cohort with traditional characteristics are possible while maintaining scientific rigor in a challenging setting. Approaches included flexibility, respect, and transparent communication along with the adoption of culturally sensitive behaviours. This work should inform and assist researchers undertaking or planning similar studies in Indigenous and developing populations. PMID:24568142

  13. Mining Aboriginal Labour: Examining Capital Reconversion Strategies Occurring on the Risk Management Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkins, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines a vocational education and training partnership occurring in the Canadian oil sands mining industry. The case study involves a corporate-sponsored pre-apprenticeship training programme designed to procure aboriginal labour in the province of Alberta. Interviews with members of key partner groups and stakeholders occurred…

  14. Combined foraging strategies and soldier behaviour in Nasutitermes aff. coxipoensis (Blattodea: Termitoidea: Termitidae).

    PubMed

    Almeida, Camilla S; Cristaldo, Paulo F; Florencio, Daniela F; Cruz, Nayara G; Santos, Abraão A; Oliveira, Alexandre P; Santana, Alisson S; Ribeiro, Efrem J M; Lima, Ana P S; Bacci, Leandro; Araújo, Ana P A

    2016-05-01

    A range of behavioural strategies and sensory abilities allows animals to minimize costs involved in food search. By building a network of tunnels and presenting a large number of soldiers (i.e., trophically dependent individuals), Nasutitermes spp. termites feature behaviours that imply additional costs during this process. Here we evaluated N. aff. coxipoensis foraging strategies focusing on the role of soldiers during foraging. Field experiments were carried out via nests transplantation to dune areas, and laboratory experiments evaluated termite responses to sternal gland chemical signals from workers and soldiers. N. aff. coxipoensis presented primarily nocturnal foraging. Soldiers typically initiated foraging; however, in established trails, the number of workers was always higher than that of soldiers. The number of trails remained constant over time, while the number of tunnels increased linearly over time. A higher proportion of tunnels originated in surrounding areas than directly from the nests. At observation points with tunnels, there were more stationary than walking soldiers; the opposite was true at observation points without tunnels. In mixed groups, the workers chose to follow soldier chemical signals, and in these groups, soldiers were the first to follow trails. Our results allowed us to identify a not common foraging strategy in termite species; which included the establishment of trails followed by construction of tunnels. Such foraging strategies occur predominantly at night and soldiers play a key role in the foraging process. This foraging strategy reported here seems to be employed to optimize energetic gain.

  15. Foraging fidelity as a recipe for a long life: foraging strategy and longevity in male Southern Elephant Seals.

    PubMed

    Authier, Matthieu; Bentaleb, Ilham; Ponchon, Aurore; Martin, Céline; Guinet, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Identifying individual factors affecting life-span has long been of interest for biologists and demographers: how do some individuals manage to dodge the forces of mortality when the vast majority does not? Answering this question is not straightforward, partly because of the arduous task of accurately estimating longevity in wild animals, and of the statistical difficulties in correlating time-varying ecological covariables with a single number (time-to-event). Here we investigated the relationship between foraging strategy and life-span in an elusive and large marine predator: the Southern Elephant Seal (Mirounga leonina). Using teeth recovered from dead males on îles Kerguelen, Southern Ocean, we first aged specimens. Then we used stable isotopic measurements of carbon (δ13C) in dentin to study the effect of foraging location on individual life-span. Using a joint change-point/survival modelling approach which enabled us to describe the ontogenetic trajectory of foraging, we unveiled how a stable foraging strategy developed early in life positively covaried with longevity in male Southern Elephant Seals. Coupled with an appropriate statistical analysis, stable isotopes have the potential to tackle ecological questions of long standing interest but whose answer has been hampered by logistic constraints.

  16. Foraging Fidelity as a Recipe for a Long Life: Foraging Strategy and Longevity in Male Southern Elephant Seals

    PubMed Central

    Authier, Matthieu; Bentaleb, Ilham; Ponchon, Aurore; Martin, Céline; Guinet, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Identifying individual factors affecting life-span has long been of interest for biologists and demographers: how do some individuals manage to dodge the forces of mortality when the vast majority does not? Answering this question is not straightforward, partly because of the arduous task of accurately estimating longevity in wild animals, and of the statistical difficulties in correlating time-varying ecological covariables with a single number (time-to-event). Here we investigated the relationship between foraging strategy and life-span in an elusive and large marine predator: the Southern Elephant Seal (Mirounga leonina). Using teeth recovered from dead males on îles Kerguelen, Southern Ocean, we first aged specimens. Then we used stable isotopic measurements of carbon () in dentin to study the effect of foraging location on individual life-span. Using a joint change-point/survival modelling approach which enabled us to describe the ontogenetic trajectory of foraging, we unveiled how a stable foraging strategy developed early in life positively covaried with longevity in male Southern Elephant Seals. Coupled with an appropriate statistical analysis, stable isotopes have the potential to tackle ecological questions of long standing interest but whose answer has been hampered by logistic constraints. PMID:22505993

  17. Foraging strategies of a generalist marine predator inhabiting a dynamic environment.

    PubMed

    McHuron, E A; Robinson, P W; Simmons, S E; Kuhn, C E; Fowler, M; Costa, D P

    2016-12-01

    Intraspecific variability is increasingly recognized as an important component of foraging behavior that can have implications for both population and community dynamics. We used an individual-level approach to describe the foraging behavior of an abundant, generalist predator that inhabits a dynamic marine ecosystem, focusing specifically on the different foraging strategies used by individuals in the same demographic group. We collected data on movements and diving behavior of adult female California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) across multiple foraging trips to sea. Sea lions (n = 35) used one of three foraging strategies that primarily differed in their oceanic zone and dive depth: a shallow, epipelagic strategy, a mixed epipelagic/benthic strategy, and a deep-diving strategy. Individuals varied in their degree of fidelity to a given strategy, with 66 % of sea lions using only one strategy on all or most of their foraging trips across the two-month tracking period. All foraging strategies were present in each of the sampling years, but there were inter-annual differences in the population-level importance of each strategy that may reflect changes in prey availability. Deep-diving sea lions traveled shorter distances and spent a greater proportion of time at the rookery than sea lions using the other two strategies, which may have energetic and reproductive implications. These results highlight the importance of an individual-based approach in describing the foraging behavior of female California sea lions and understanding how they respond to the seasonal and annual changes in prey availability that characterize the California Current System.

  18. Optimal foraging: the difficulty of exploiting different feeding strategies simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Persson, Lennart

    1985-10-01

    The foraging efficiency of a visually feeding fish, perch (Perca fluviatilis) was studied on two prey species (Daphnia magna and Chaoborus obscuripus) presented either separately or combined. It is shown that when both prey species are present, the foraging efficiency of the predator is reduced. This is due to the predator's inability to simultaneously cope with prey species with different anti-predatory behaviour. In the mixed-meal experiment the predator captured both prey species in equal proportions in disagreement with optimal foraging models assuming that handling time and encounter rate for a prey species are independent of other prey species. The results are, however, in agreement with optimal foraging models assuming that handling time and encounter rate are influenced by short time learning.

  19. Aboriginal Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Sherry

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project for high school students in which they create Aboriginal-style paintings using cotton swabs. Discusses the process of creating the works of art in detail. Includes learning objectives, art materials, and a bibliography. (CMK)

  20. Body size affects individual winter foraging strategies of thick-billed murres in the Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Orben, Rachael A; Paredes, Rosana; Roby, Daniel D; Irons, David B; Shaffer, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    Foraging and migration often require different energetic and movement strategies. Though not readily apparent, constraints during one phase might influence the foraging strategies observed in another. For marine birds that fly and dive, body size constraints likely present a trade-off between foraging ability and migration as smaller bodies reduce flight costs, whereas larger bodies are advantageous for diving deeper. This study examines individual wintering strategies of deep diving thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) breeding at three colonies in the south-eastern Bering Sea: St Paul, St George and Bogoslof. These colonies, arranged north to south, are located such that breeding birds forage in a gradient from shelf to deep-water habitats. We used geolocation time-depth recorders and stable isotopes from feathers to determine differences in foraging behaviour and diet of murres during three non-breeding periods, 2008-2011. Body size was quantified by a principal component analysis (wing, culmen, head+bill and tarsus length). A hierarchical cluster analysis identified winter foraging strategies based on individual movement, diving behaviour and diet (inferred from stable isotopes). Structural body size differed by breeding island. Larger birds from St Paul had higher wing loading than smaller birds from St George. Larger birds, mainly from St Paul, dove to deeper depths, spent more time in the Bering Sea, and likely consumed higher trophic-level prey in late winter. Three winter foraging strategies were identified. The main strategy, employed by small birds from all three breeding colonies in the first 2 years, was characterized by high residency areas in the North Pacific south of the Aleutians and nocturnal diving. In contrast, 31% of birds from St Paul remained in the Bering Sea and foraged mainly during the day, apparently feeding on higher trophic-level prey. Throat feather stable isotopes indicated that individuals exhibited flexibility in the use of this

  1. Plant Trait Assembly Affects Superiority of Grazer's Foraging Strategies in Species-Rich Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Mládek, Jan; Mládková, Pavla; Hejcmanová, Pavla; Dvorský, Miroslav; Pavlu, Vilém; De Bello, Francesco; Duchoslav, Martin; Hejcman, Michal; Pakeman, Robin J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Current plant – herbivore interaction models and experiments with mammalian herbivores grazing plant monocultures show the superiority of a maximizing forage quality strategy (MFQ) over a maximizing intake strategy (MI). However, there is a lack of evidence whether grazers comply with the model predictions under field conditions. Methodology/Findings We assessed diet selection of sheep (Ovis aries) using plant functional traits in productive mesic vs. low-productivity dry species-rich grasslands dominated by resource-exploitative vs. resource-conservative species respectively. Each grassland type was studied in two replicates for two years. We investigated the first grazing cycle in a set of 288 plots with a diameter of 30 cm, i.e. the size of sheep feeding station. In mesic grasslands, high plot defoliation was associated with community weighted means of leaf traits referring to high forage quality, i.e. low leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and high specific leaf area (SLA), with a high proportion of legumes and the most with high community weighted mean of forage indicator value. In contrast in dry grasslands, high community weighted mean of canopy height, an estimate of forage quantity, was the best predictor of plot defoliation. Similar differences in selection on forage quality vs. quantity were detected within plots. Sheep selected plants with higher forage indicator values than the plot specific community weighted mean of forage indicator value in mesic grasslands whereas taller plants were selected in dry grasslands. However, at this scale sheep avoided legumes and plants with higher SLA, preferred plants with higher LDMC while grazing plants with higher forage indicator values in mesic grasslands. Conclusions Our findings indicate that MFQ appears superior over MI only in habitats with a predominance of resource-exploitative species. Furthermore, plant functional traits (LDMC, SLA, nitrogen fixer) seem to be helpful correlates of forage quality

  2. Energetic optimisation of foraging honeybees: flexible change of strategies in response to environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Heterothermic insects like honeybees, foraging in a variable environment, face the challenge of keeping their body temperature high to enable immediate flight and to promote fast exploitation of resources. Because of their small size they have to cope with an enormous heat loss and, therefore, high costs of thermoregulation. This calls for energetic optimisation which may be achieved by different strategies. An 'economizing' strategy would be to reduce energetic investment whenever possible, for example by using external heat from the sun for thermoregulation. An 'investment-guided' strategy, by contrast, would be to invest additional heat production or external heat gain to optimize physiological parameters like body temperature which promise increased energetic returns. Here we show how honeybees balance these strategies in response to changes of their local microclimate. In a novel approach of simultaneous measurement of respiration and body temperature foragers displayed a flexible strategy of thermoregulatory and energetic management. While foraging in shade on an artificial flower they did not save energy with increasing ambient temperature as expected but acted according to an 'investment-guided' strategy, keeping the energy turnover at a high level (∼56-69 mW). This increased thorax temperature and speeded up foraging as ambient temperature increased. Solar heat was invested to increase thorax temperature at low ambient temperature ('investment-guided' strategy) but to save energy at high temperature ('economizing' strategy), leading to energy savings per stay of ∼18-76% in sunshine. This flexible economic strategy minimized costs of foraging, and optimized energetic efficiency in response to broad variation of environmental conditions.

  3. Trade-offs between predation risk and forage differ between migrant strategies in a migratory ungulate.

    PubMed

    Hebblewhite, Mark; Merrill, Evelyn H

    2009-12-01

    Trade-offs between predation risk and forage fundamentally drive resource selection by animals. Among migratory ungulates, trade-offs can occur at large spatial scales through migration, which allows an "escape" from predation, but trade-offs can also occur at finer spatial scales. Previous authors suggest that ungulates will avoid predation risk at the largest scale, although few studies have examined multi-scale trade-offs to test for the relative benefits of risk avoidance across scales. Building on previously developed spatial models of forage and wolf predation risk, we tested for trade-offs at the broad landscape scale and at a finer, within-home-range scale for migratory and non-migratory resident elk (Cervus elaphus) during summer in the Canadian Rockies in Banff National Park (BNP) and adjacent Alberta, Canada. Migration reduced exposure to wolf predation risk by 70% relative to residents at the landscape scale; at the fine scale, migrants used areas that were, on average, 6% higher in forage digestibility. In contrast, by forgoing migration, resident elk were exposed to higher predation risk, but they reduced predation risk at fine scales to only 15% higher than migrants by using areas close to human activity, which wolves avoided. Thus, residents paid for trying to avoid predation risk with lower forage quality. Residents may have been able to compensate, however, by using areas of abundant forage close to human activity where they may have been able to forage more selectively while avoiding predation risk. Human activity effectively decoupled the positive correlation between high forage quality and wolf predation, providing an effective alternate strategy for residents, similar to recent findings in other systems. Although ungulates appear capable of balancing risk and forage at different spatial scales, risk avoidance at large landscape scales may be more effective in the absence of human-caused refugia from predation.

  4. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…

  5. Personality-dependent differences in problem-solving performance in a social context reflect foraging strategies.

    PubMed

    Zandberg, Lies; Quinn, John L; Naguib, Marc; van Oers, Kees

    2017-01-01

    Individuals develop innovative behaviours to solve foraging challenges in the face of changing environmental conditions. Little is known about how individuals differ in their tendency to solve problems and in their subsequent use of this solving behaviour in social contexts. Here we investigated whether individual variation in problem-solving performance could be explained by differences in the likelihood of solving the task, or if they reflect differences in foraging strategy. We tested this by studying the use of a novel foraging skill in groups of great tits (Parus major), consisting of three naive individuals with different personality, and one knowledgeable tutor. We presented them with multiple, identical foraging devices over eight trials. Though birds of different personality type did not differ in solving latency; fast and slow explorers showed a steeper increase over time in their solving rate, compared to intermediate explorers. Despite equal solving potential, personality influenced the subsequent use of the skill, as well as the pay-off received from solving. Thus, variation in the tendency to solve the task reflected differences in foraging strategy among individuals linked to their personality. These results emphasize the importance of considering the social context to fully understand the implications of learning novel skills.

  6. Root morphology and mycorrhizal symbioses together shape nutrient foraging strategies of temperate trees

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weile; Koide, Roger T.; Adams, Thomas S.; DeForest, Jared L.; Cheng, Lei; Eissenstat, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis by leaves and acquisition of water and minerals by roots are required for plant growth, which is a key component of many ecosystem functions. Although the role of leaf functional traits in photosynthesis is generally well understood, the relationship of root functional traits to nutrient uptake is not. In particular, predictions of nutrient acquisition strategies from specific root traits are often vague. Roots of nearly all plants cooperate with mycorrhizal fungi in nutrient acquisition. Most tree species form symbioses with either arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) or ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi. Nutrients are distributed heterogeneously in the soil, and nutrient-rich “hotspots” can be a key source for plants. Thus, predicting the foraging strategies that enable mycorrhizal root systems to exploit these hotspots can be critical to the understanding of plant nutrition and ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycling. Here, we show that in 13 sympatric temperate tree species, when nutrient availability is patchy, thinner root species alter their foraging to exploit patches, whereas thicker root species do not. Moreover, there appear to be two distinct pathways by which thinner root tree species enhance foraging in nutrient-rich patches: AM trees produce more roots, whereas EM trees produce more mycorrhizal fungal hyphae. Our results indicate that strategies of nutrient foraging are complementary among tree species with contrasting mycorrhiza types and root morphologies, and that predictable relationships between below-ground traits and nutrient acquisition emerge only when both roots and mycorrhizal fungi are considered together. PMID:27432986

  7. Individual-learning ability predicts social-foraging strategy in house sparrows.

    PubMed

    Katsnelson, Edith; Motro, Uzi; Feldman, Marcus W; Lotem, Arnon

    2011-02-22

    Social foragers can use either a 'producer' strategy, which involves searching for food, or a 'scrounger' strategy, which involves joining others' food discoveries. While producers rely on personal information and past experience, we may ask whether the tendency to forage as a producer is related to being a better learner. To answer this question, we hand-raised house sparrow (Passer domesticus) nestlings that upon independence were given an individual-learning task that required them to associate colour signal and food presence. Following the testing phase, all fledglings were released into a shared aviary, and their social-foraging tendencies were measured. We found a significant positive correlation between individual's performance in the individual-learning task and subsequent tendency to use searching (producing) behaviour. Individual-learning score was negatively correlated with initial fear of the test apparatus and with body weight. However, the correlation between individual learning and searching remained significant after controlling for these variables. Since it was measured before the birds entered a social group, individual-learning ability could not be the outcome of being a producer. However, the two traits may be initially associated, or individual learning could facilitate producing behaviour. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that associates individual-learning abilities with social-foraging strategies in animal groups.

  8. Anthelmintic Treatment Does Not Change Foraging Strategies of Female Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, Jemma K.; Martin, Jennifer K.; Coulson, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Large mammalian herbivores are commonly infected with gastrointestinal helminths. Heavily parasitised hosts are likely to have increased nutritional requirements and would be predicted to increase their food intake to compensate for costs of being parasitised, but experimental tests of the impacts of these parasites on the foraging efficiency of hosts are lacking, particularly in free-ranging wildlife. We conducted a field experiment on a population of free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) to test this prediction, removing nematodes from one group of adult females using an anthelmintic treatment. We then carried out observations before and following treatment to assess the influence of parasites on foraging behaviour. Contrary to our predictions, the manipulation of parasite burdens did not result in changes in any of the key foraging variables we measured. Our results suggest that despite carrying large burdens of gastrointestinal parasites, the foraging strategy of female kangaroos is likely be driven by factors unrelated to parasitism, and that kangaroos in high nutritional environments may be able acquire sufficient nutrients to offset the costs of parasitism. We conclude that the drivers of forage intake likely differ between domesticated and free-ranging herbivores, and that free-ranging hosts are likely more resilient to parasitism. PMID:26784582

  9. Contribution of Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services to improving Aboriginal health: an evidence review.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Megan Ann; Hunt, Jennifer; Scrimgeour, David J; Davey, Maureen; Jones, Victoria

    2017-03-07

    Objective Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) deliver comprehensive, culturally appropriate primary health care to Aboriginal people and communities. The published literature acknowledging and supporting the roles of ACCHSs in improving Aboriginal health is limited. This paper seeks to collate and analyse the published evidence supporting the contribution of ACCHSs to improving the health of Aboriginal people.Methods A conceptual framework for exploring the contribution of ACCHSs was developed, drawing on the literature on the core functions of ACCHSs and the components of quality primary health care. This framework was used to structure the search strategy, inclusion criteria and analysis of the review.Results ACCHSs contribute to improving the health and well being of Aboriginal peoples through several pathways, including community controlled governance, providing employment and training, strengthening the broader health system and providing accessible, comprehensive primary health care.Conclusions ACCHSs make a range of important contributions to improving the health of Aboriginal peoples that are under-acknowledged. Consideration of the different ways ACCHSs contribute to improving Aboriginal health is of value in the design and evaluation of programs and policies that aim to improve the health of Aboriginal peoples.What is known about the topic? Aboriginal communities have long argued the vital role of ACCHSs in improving Aboriginal health.What does this paper add? This paper provides a comprehensive collation and analysis of the evidence supporting the contributions ACCHSs are making to improving Aboriginal health.What are the implications for practitioners? The conceptual framework and findings outlined in this paper illustrate that ACCHSs are making important contributions to improving Aboriginal health through several pathways. This information can be used to ensure actions to improve Aboriginal health are appropriate and effective

  10. Deep diving odontocetes foraging strategies and their prey field as determined by acoustic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorli, Giacomo

    Deep diving odontocetes, like sperm whales, beaked whales, Risso's dolphins, and pilot whales are known to forage at deep depths in the ocean on squid and fish. These marine mammal species are top predators and for this reason are very important for the ecosystems they live in, since they can affect prey populations and control food web dynamics through top-down effects. The studies presented in this thesis investigate deep diving odontocetes. foraging strategies, and the density and size of their potential prey in the deep ocean using passive and active acoustic techniques. Ecological Acoustic Recorders (EAR) were used to monitor the foraging activity of deep diving odontocetes at three locations around the world: the Josephine Seamount High Sea Marine Protected Area (JHSMPA), the Ligurian Sea, and along the Kona coast of the island of Hawaii. In the JHSMPA, sperm whales. and beaked whales. foraging rates do not differ between night-time and day-time. However, in the Ligurian Sea, sperm whales switch to night-time foraging as the winter approaches, while beaked whales alternate between hunting mainly at night, and both at night and at day. Spatial differences were found in deep diving odontocetes. foraging activity in Hawaii where they forage most in areas with higher chlorophyll concentrations. Pilot whales (and false killer whales, clustered together in the category "blackfishes") and Risso's dolphins forage mainly at night at all locations. These two species adjust their foraging activity with the length of the night. The density and size of animals living in deep sea scattering layers was studied using a DIDSON imaging sonar at multiple stations along the Kona coast of Hawaii. The density of animals was affected by location, depth, month, and the time of day. The size of animals was influenced by station and month. The DIDSON proved to be a successful, non-invasive technique to study density and size of animals in the deep sea. Densities were found to be an

  11. Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered.

  12. Bison distribution under conflicting foraging strategies: site fidelity vs. energy maximization.

    PubMed

    Merkle, Jerod A; Cherry, Seth G; Fortin, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Foraging strategies based on site fidelity and maximization of energy intake rate are two adaptive forces shaping animal behavior. Whereas these strategies can both be evolutionarily stable, they predict conflicting optimal behaviors when population abundance is in decline. In such a case, foragers employing an energy-maximizing strategy should reduce their use of low-quality patches as interference competition becomes less intense for high-quality patches. Foragers using a site fidelity strategy, however, should continue to use familiar patches. Because natural fluctuations in population abundance provide the only non-manipulative opportunity to evaluate adaptation to these evolutionary forces, few studies have examined these foraging strategies simultaneously. Using abundance and space use data from a free-ranging bison (Bison bison) population living in a meadow-forest matrix in Prince Albert National Park, Canada, we determined how individuals balance the trade-off between site fidelity and energy-maximizing patch choice strategies with respect to changes in population abundance. From 1996 to 2005, bison abundance increased from 225 to 475 and then decreased to 225 by 2013. During the period of population increase, population range size increased. This expansion involved the addition of relatively less profitable areas and patches, leading to a decrease in the mean expected profitability of the range. Yet, during the period of population decline, we detected neither a subsequent retraction in population range size nor an increase in mean expected profitability of the range. Further, patch selection models. during the population decline indicated that, as density decreased, bison portrayed stronger fidelity to previously visited meadows, but no increase in selection strength for profitable meadows. Our analysis reveals that an energy-maximizing patch choice strategy alone cannot explain the distribution ofindividuals and populations, and site fidelity is an

  13. Foraging strategies of Southern sea lion females in the La Plata River Estuary (Argentina-Uruguay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Diego H.; Dassis, Mariela; Ponce de León, Alberto; Barreiro, César; Farenga, Marcelo; Bastida, Ricardo O.; Davis, Randall W.

    2013-04-01

    The stocks of Southern sea lions (Otaria flavescens, SSL) and South American fur seals (SAFS) that breed on coastal islands of Uruguay constitute the most important focal concentration of pinnipeds in South America, with a significant increase in SAFS and a steady decrease of SSL over the past decades. Because females are a key element of population dynamics and no information exists on the post-breeding pup rearing period, we studied the foraging patterns of SSL females in the La Plata River Estuary (LPRE) during mid and late lactation (late austral autumn and winter), analyzing the foraging performance, geographic coverage and ontogenetic differences in foraging strategies for a period of 1-5 months. At-sea movements of 22 SSL females (6 subadults and 16 adults) from Isla de Lobos (IL, 35°01'28"S-54°52'59"W, Uruguay) were monitored using satellite transmitters (SPOT4, SPOT5 and STDR-S16, Wildlife Computers) in 2007 and 2010. An algorithm [McConnell, B.J., Chambers, C., Fedak, M.A., 1992. Foraging ecology of southern elephant seals in relation to the bathymetry and productivity of the Southern Ocean. Antarct. Sci. 4, 393-398.] with a maximum transit speed of 3 m s-1 was applied to the Argos information, resulting in a total of 2522 filtered locations. A daily mean of 3.5±1.74 filtered locations per animal was received. One hundred and eighty three foraging trips (FT) were recorded with no significant differences (p<0.05) between subadults and adults in the duration of FT (6.1±3.15 day), distance traveled per FT (237.2±105.25 km), mean distance from IL (57.2±25.90 km), maximum straight line (Spider) distance (100.2±41.40 km) and transit speed (1.1±1.04 m s-1). SSL showed directional fidelity to foraging sites, indicated by high mean vector (r) values (0.74±0.14) calculated from FT mean bearings. Kernel ranges for 50% and 95% of all FT locations were 5420 km2 and 36,222 km2, respectively, and the extension of the foraging areas appeared to be influenced by

  14. Of hummingbirds and helicopters: hovering costs, competitive ability, and foraging strategies.

    PubMed

    Altshuler, Douglas L

    2004-01-01

    Wing morphology and flight kinematics profoundly influence foraging costs and the overall behavioral ecology of hummingbirds. By analogy with helicopters, previous energetic studies have applied the momentum theory of aircraft propellers to estimate hovering costs from wing disc loading (WDL), a parameter incorporating wingspan (or length) and body mass. Variation in WDL has been used to elucidate differences either among hummingbird species in nectar-foraging strategies (e.g., territoriality, traplining) and dominance relations or among gender-age categories within species. We first demonstrate that WDL, as typically calculated, is an unreliable predictor of hovering (induced power) costs; predictive power is increased when calculations use wing length instead of wingspan and when actual wing stroke amplitudes are incorporated. We next evaluate the hypotheses that foraging strategy and competitive ability are functions of WDL, using our data in combination with those of published sources. Variation in hummingbird behavior cannot be easily classified using WDL and instead is correlated with a diversity of morphological and physiological traits. Evaluating selection pressures on hummingbird wings will require moving beyond wing and body mass measurements to include the assessment of the aerodynamic forces, power requirements, and power reserves of hovering, forward flight, and maneuvering. However, the WDL-helicopter dynamics model has been instrumental in calling attention to the importance of comparative wing morphology and related aerodynamics for understanding the behavioral ecology of hummingbirds.

  15. Plasticity in foraging strategies of inshore birds: how Little Penguins maintain body reserves while feeding offspring.

    PubMed

    Saraux, Claire; Robinson-Laverick, Sarah M; Le Maho, Yvon; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Chiaradia, André

    2011-10-01

    Breeding animals face important time and energy constraints when caring for themselves and their offspring. For long-lived species, life-history theory predicts that parents should favor survival over current reproductive attempts, thus investing more into their own maintenance than the provisioning of their young. In seabirds, provisioning strategies may additionally be influenced by the distance between breeding sites and foraging areas, and offshore and inshore species should thus exhibit different strategies. Here, we examine the provisioning strategies of an inshore seabird using a long-term data set on more than 200 Little Penguins, Eudyptula minor. They alternated between two consecutive long and several short foraging trips all along chick rearing, a strategy almost never observed for inshore animals. Short trips allowed for regular provisioning of the chicks (high feeding frequency and larger meals), whereas long trips were performed when parent body mass was low and enabled them to rebuild their reserves, suggesting that adult body condition may be a key factor in initiating long trips. Inshore seabirds do use dual strategies of alternating short and long trips, but from our data, on a simpler and less flexible way than for offshore birds.

  16. The movement of a forager: strategies for the efficient use of resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazimierski, Laila D.; Abramson, Guillermo; Kuperman, Marcelo N.

    2016-10-01

    We study a simple model of a foraging animal that modifies the substrate on which it moves. This substrate provides its only resource, and the forager manages it by taking a limited portion at each visited site. The resource recovers its value after the visit following a relaxation law. We study different scenarios to analyze the efficiency of the managing strategy, corresponding to control the bite size. We observe the non trivial emergence of a home range, that is visited in a periodic way. The duration of the corresponding cycles and the transient until it emerges is affected by the bite size. Our results show that the most efficient use of the resource, measured as the balance between gathering and traveled distance, corresponds to foragers that take larger portions but without exhausting the resource. We also analyze the use of space determining the number of attractors of the dynamics, and we observe that it depends on the bite size and the recovery time of the resource.

  17. Sequential Isotopic Signature Along Gladius Highlights Contrasted Individual Foraging Strategies of Jumbo Squid (Dosidicus gigas)

    PubMed Central

    Lorrain, Anne; Argüelles, Juan; Alegre, Ana; Bertrand, Arnaud; Munaron, Jean-Marie; Richard, Pierre; Cherel, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Background Cephalopods play a major role in marine ecosystems, but knowledge of their feeding ecology is limited. In particular, intra- and inter-individual variations in their use of resources has not been adequatly explored, although there is growing evidence that individual organisms can vary considerably in the way they use their habitats and resources. Methodology/Principal Findings Using δ13C and δ15N values of serially sampled gladius (an archival tissue), we examined high resolution variations in the trophic niche of five large (>60 cm mantle length) jumbo squids (Dosidicus gigas) that were collected off the coast of Peru. We report the first evidence of large inter-individual differences in jumbo squid foraging strategies with no systematic increase of trophic level with size. Overall, gladius δ13C values indicated one or several migrations through the squid's lifetime (∼8–9 months), during which δ15N values also fluctuated (range: 1 to 5‰). One individual showed an unexpected terminal 4.6‰ δ15N decrease (more than one trophic level), thus indicating a shift from higher- to lower-trophic level prey at that time. The data illustrate the high diversity of prey types and foraging histories of this species at the individual level. Conclusions/Significance The isotopic signature of gladii proved to be a powerful tool to depict high resolution and ontogenic variations in individual foraging strategies of squids, thus complementing traditional information offered by stomach content analysis and stable isotopes on metabolically active tissues. The observed differences in life history strategies highlight the high degree of plasticity of the jumbo squid and its high potential to adapt to environmental changes. PMID:21779391

  18. Root foraging for Patchy Phosphorus of Plant Species with Contrasting Foraging Strategy - Role of Roots and Mycorrhiza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felderer, B.; Robinson, B. H.; Jansa, J.; Vontobel, P.; Frossard, E.; Schulin, R.

    2009-04-01

    Plant nutrients are distributed heterogeneously in soil. Thus the nutrient distribution together with nutrient availability, temporal and spatial development of roots determine nutrient uptake by the plants. Plants have developed several strategies to cope with the patchy nutrient distribution. Preferential root development within nutrient-enriched patches is a prominent response to heterogeneous nutrient distribution. This capacity to precisely allocate roots is called morphological plasticity and is highly variable between plant species. Another strategy is the increased nutrient uptake per unit of root surface in the nutrient-rich patches as compared to root zones outside such patches, so-called physiological plasticity . Additionally, enhanced nutrient uptake from nutrient-rich patches might be supported by increased production of mycorrhizal extraradical hyphae. We refer to this phenomenon as plastic response of the mycorrhiza-plant association. Relative importance for nutrient acquisition of these responses to heterogeneous nutrient distribution might vary between plant species. However, quantitative data are very rare. We will investigate nutrient acquisition and root development over time in sandy substrate with heterogeneous phosphorus (P) distribution of two model plant species with different nutrient foraging strategies (Lotus corniculatus, Trifolium arvense). These plant species are characterized by high and low morphological plasticity, respectively (according to results of preliminary experiments). We follow three main goals in a single mesocosm experiment, where P is to be homogeneously or patchily distributed in a sandy substrate: 1. - Imaging of root architecture of Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium arvense on a time line. 2. - Assessment of the physiological plasticity of Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium arvense 3. - Determination of the plasticity of mycorrhiza-plant association of Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium arvense associated with either of

  19. Comparisons of substance use disorders and correlates between aboriginal and non-aboriginal adolescents living in a mountain region in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Hsu, Chia-Chuang; Liu, Shu-Chun; Huang, Chi-Fen

    2007-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the differences in prevalence of lifetime substance use disorders (SUDs), age at initial substance use, and knowledge and attitudes toward substance use between aboriginal and non-aboriginal adolescents living in a mountain region of southern Taiwan, and to separately examine the correlates of SUDs among the two groups. A total of 251 aboriginal and 79 non-aboriginal adolescents were recruited into this study. The results revealed that although the prevalence of SUDs was high in both aboriginal and non-aboriginal adolescents, no difference in the prevalence of SUDs between the two groups was found. Attitudes toward substance use and several dimensions of peer influence were associated with SUDs in both aboriginal and non-aboriginal adolescents. However, there were different socio-demographic and family correlates with SUDs in aboriginal and non-aboriginal adolescents, and an association between characteristics of personality and SUDs was found only in aboriginal adolescents. Those who devise strategies to prevent adolescent substance use may consider the differences in the correlates of SUDs between aboriginal and non-aboriginal adolescents.

  20. Sex-specific foraging strategies and resource partitioning in the southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina)

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Rebecca; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Lewis, Mirtha; Campagna, Claudio; Hoelzel, A. Rus

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of resource specializations is poorly understood, especially in marine systems. The southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) is the largest of the phocid seals, sexually dimorphic, and thought to prey predominantly on fish and squid. We collected vibrissae from male and female southern elephant seals, and assessed stable C and N isotope ratios along the length of the vibrissae. Given that whiskers grow slowly, this sampling strategy reflects any variation in feeding behaviour over a period of time. We found that isotopic variation among females was relatively small, and that the apparent prey choice and trophic level of females was different from that for males. Further, males showed a very broad range of trophic/prey choice positions, grouped into several clusters, and this included isotopic values too low to match a broad range of potential fish and cephalopod prey tested. One of these clusters overlapped with data for South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens), which were measured for comparison. Both male southern elephant seals and southern sea lions forage over the continental shelf, providing the potential for competition. We discuss the possibility that individual southern elephant seals are pursuing specialist foraging strategies to avoid competition, both with one another, and with the South American sea lions that breed nearby. PMID:17015314

  1. Sex-specific foraging strategies and resource partitioning in the southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina).

    PubMed

    Lewis, Rebecca; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Lewis, Mirtha; Campagna, Claudio; Hoelzel, A Rus

    2006-11-22

    The evolution of resource specializations is poorly understood, especially in marine systems. The southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) is the largest of the phocid seals, sexually dimorphic, and thought to prey predominantly on fish and squid. We collected vibrissae from male and female southern elephant seals, and assessed stable C and N isotope ratios along the length of the vibrissae. Given that whiskers grow slowly, this sampling strategy reflects any variation in feeding behaviour over a period of time. We found that isotopic variation among females was relatively small, and that the apparent prey choice and trophic level of females was different from that for males. Further, males showed a very broad range of trophic/prey choice positions, grouped into several clusters, and this included isotopic values too low to match a broad range of potential fish and cephalopod prey tested. One of these clusters overlapped with data for South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens), which were measured for comparison. Both male southern elephant seals and southern sea lions forage over the continental shelf, providing the potential for competition. We discuss the possibility that individual southern elephant seals are pursuing specialist foraging strategies to avoid competition, both with one another, and with the South American sea lions that breed nearby.

  2. Spider foraging strategy affects trophic cascades under natural and drought conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Jin; Gan, Wenjin; Schaefer, Douglas; Gan, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Spiders can cause trophic cascades affecting litter decomposition rates. However, it remains unclear how spiders with different foraging strategies influence faunal communities, or present cascading effects on decomposition. Furthermore, increased dry periods predicted in future climates will likely have important consequences for trophic interactions in detritus-based food webs. We investigated independent and interactive effects of spider predation and drought on litter decomposition in a tropical forest floor. We manipulated densities of dominant spiders with actively hunting or sit-and-wait foraging strategies in microcosms which mimicked the tropical-forest floor. We found a positive trophic cascade on litter decomposition was triggered by actively hunting spiders under ambient rainfall, but sit-and-wait spiders did not cause this. The drought treatment reversed the effect of actively hunting spiders on litter decomposition. Under drought conditions, we observed negative trophic cascade effects on litter decomposition in all three spider treatments. Thus, reduced rainfall can alter predator-induced indirect effects on lower trophic levels and ecosystem processes, and is an example of how such changes may alter trophic cascades in detritus-based webs of tropical forests. PMID:26202370

  3. Foraging strategies in trees of different root morphology: the role of root lifespan.

    PubMed

    Adams, Thomas S; McCormack, M Luke; Eissenstat, David M

    2013-09-01

    Resource exploitation of patches is influenced not simply by the rate of root production in the patches but also by the lifespan of the roots inhabiting the patches. We examined the effect of sustained localized nitrogen (N) fertilization on root lifespan in four tree species that varied widely in root morphology and presumed foraging strategy. The study was conducted in a 12-year-old common garden in central Pennsylvania using a combination of data from minirhizotron and root in-growth cores. The two fine-root tree species, Acer negundo L. and Populus tremuloides Michx., exhibited significant increases in root lifespan with local N fertilization; no significant responses were observed in the two coarse-root tree species, Sassafras albidum Nutt. and Liriodendron tulipifera L. Across species, coarse-root tree species had longer median root lifespan than fine-root tree species. Localized N fertilization did not significantly increase the N concentration or the respiration of the roots growing in the N-rich patch. Our results suggest that some plant species appear to regulate the lifespan of different portions of their root system to improve resource acquisition while other species do not. Our results are discussed in the context of different strategies of foraging of nutrient patches in species of different root morphology.

  4. Spider foraging strategy affects trophic cascades under natural and drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Jin; Gan, Wenjin; Schaefer, Douglas; Gan, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-07-23

    Spiders can cause trophic cascades affecting litter decomposition rates. However, it remains unclear how spiders with different foraging strategies influence faunal communities, or present cascading effects on decomposition. Furthermore, increased dry periods predicted in future climates will likely have important consequences for trophic interactions in detritus-based food webs. We investigated independent and interactive effects of spider predation and drought on litter decomposition in a tropical forest floor. We manipulated densities of dominant spiders with actively hunting or sit-and-wait foraging strategies in microcosms which mimicked the tropical-forest floor. We found a positive trophic cascade on litter decomposition was triggered by actively hunting spiders under ambient rainfall, but sit-and-wait spiders did not cause this. The drought treatment reversed the effect of actively hunting spiders on litter decomposition. Under drought conditions, we observed negative trophic cascade effects on litter decomposition in all three spider treatments. Thus, reduced rainfall can alter predator-induced indirect effects on lower trophic levels and ecosystem processes, and is an example of how such changes may alter trophic cascades in detritus-based webs of tropical forests.

  5. Knowledge translation in the context of Aboriginal health.

    PubMed

    Estey, Elizabeth; Kmetic, Andrew; Reading, Jeffrey

    2008-06-01

    Interest in the concept of knowledge translation (KT), one of the many terms used to describe the process(es) through which knowledge is transformed into action, is increasingly prevalent in the mainstream health literature. Despite a pressing need, little has been done to address the implications of evolving theories and strategies for KT in an Aboriginal context. The authors attempt to narrow the gap by reviewing the literature on Aboriginal KT and exploring ways to extend this work by engaging with the Aboriginal health research literature and the KT literature. They argue that the inclusion of multiple perspectives and an examination of the social and political context in which Aboriginal KT takes shape are important for the conceptual development of Aboriginal KT. This article is particularly relevant for those involved at the interface between nursing practice and efforts to improve Aboriginal health.

  6. Meeting reproductive demands in a dynamic upwelling system: Foraging strategies of a pursuit-diving seabird, the marbled murrelet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peery, M.Z.; Newman, S.H.; Storlazzi, C.D.; Beissinger, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Seabirds maintain plasticity in their foraging behavior to cope with energy demands and foraging constraints that vary over the reproductive cycle, but behavioral studies comparing breeding and nonbreeding individuals are rare. Here we characterize how Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) adjust their foraging effort in response to changes in reproductive demands in an upwelling system in central California. We radio-marked 32 murrelets of known reproductive status (9 breeders, 12 potential breeders, and 11 nonbreeders) and estimated both foraging ranges and diving rates during the breeding season. Murrelets spent more time diving during upwelling than oceanographic relaxation, increased their foraging ranges as the duration of relaxation grew longer, and reduced their foraging ranges after transitions to upwelling. When not incubating, murrelets moved in a circadian pattern, spending nighttime hours resting near flyways used to reach nesting habitat and foraging during the daytime an average of 5.7 km (SD 6.7 km) from nighttime locations. Breeders foraged close to nesting habitat once they initiated nesting and nest attendance was at a maximum, and then resumed traveling longer distances following the completion of nesting. Nonbreeders had similar nighttime and daytime distributions and tended to be located farther from inland flyways. Breeders increased the amount of time they spent diving by 71-73% when they had an active nest by increasing the number of dives rather than by increasing the frequency of anaerobiosis. Thus, to meet reproductive demands during nesting, murrelets adopted a combined strategy of reducing energy expended commuting to foraging sites and increasing aerobic dive rates. ?? 2009 by The Cooper Ornithological Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Contrasting strategies to cope with drought conditions by two tropical forage C4 grasses

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Juan Andrés; Pineda, Marcela; Jiménez, Juan de la Cruz; Vergara, Manuel Fernando; Rao, Idupulapati M.

    2015-01-01

    Drought severely limits forage productivity of C4 grasses across the tropics. The avoidance of water deficit by increasing the capacity for water uptake or by controlling water loss are common responses in forage C4 grasses. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Brachiaria hybrid cv. Mulato II are tropical C4 grasses used for livestock production due to their reputed resistance to drought conditions. However, there is scant information on the mechanisms used by these grasses to overcome water-limited conditions. Therefore, assessments of cumulative transpired water, shoot growth, leaf rolling, leaf gas exchange, dry mass production and a number of morpho-physiological traits were recorded over a period of 21 days under well-watered or drought conditions. Drought reduced shoot dry mass of both grasses by 35 %, yet each grass exhibited contrasting strategies to cope with water shortage. Napier grass transpired most available water by the end of the drought treatment, whereas a significant amount of water was still available for Mulato II. Napier grass maintained carbon assimilation until the soil was fairly dry, whereas Mulato II restricted water loss by early stomatal closure at relatively wet soil conditions. Our results suggest that Napier grass exhibits a ‘water-spending’ behaviour that might be targeted to areas with intermittent drought stress, whereas Mulato II displays a ‘water-saving’ nature that could be directed to areas with longer dry periods. PMID:26333827

  8. Linking GPS Telemetry Surveys and Scat Analyses Helps Explain Variability in Black Bear Foraging Strategies.

    PubMed

    Lesmerises, Rémi; Rebouillat, Lucie; Dussault, Claude; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues

    2015-01-01

    Studying diet is fundamental to animal ecology and scat analysis, a widespread approach, is considered a reliable dietary proxy. Nonetheless, this method has weaknesses such as non-random sampling of habitats and individuals, inaccurate evaluation of excretion date, and lack of assessment of inter-individual dietary variability. We coupled GPS telemetry and scat analyses of black bears Ursus americanus Pallas to relate diet to individual characteristics and habitat use patterns while foraging. We captured 20 black bears (6 males and 14 females) and fitted them with GPS/Argos collars. We then surveyed GPS locations shortly after individual bear visits and collected 139 feces in 71 different locations. Fecal content (relative dry matter biomass of ingested items) was subsequently linked to individual characteristics (sex, age, reproductive status) and to habitats visited during foraging bouts using Brownian bridges based on GPS locations prior to feces excretion. At the population level, diet composition was similar to what was previously described in studies on black bears. However, our individual-based method allowed us to highlight different intra-population patterns, showing that sex and female reproductive status had significant influence on individual diet. For example, in the same habitats, females with cubs did not use the same food sources as lone bears. Linking fecal content (i.e., food sources) to habitat previously visited by different individuals, we demonstrated a potential differential use of similar habitats dependent on individual characteristics. Females with cubs-of-the-year tended to use old forest clearcuts (6-20 years old) to feed on bunchberry, whereas females with yearling foraged for blueberry and lone bears for ants. Coupling GPS telemetry and scat analyses allows for efficient detection of inter-individual or inter-group variations in foraging strategies and of linkages between previous habitat use and food consumption, even for cryptic

  9. Linking GPS Telemetry Surveys and Scat Analyses Helps Explain Variability in Black Bear Foraging Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Lesmerises, Rémi; Rebouillat, Lucie; Dussault, Claude; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues

    2015-01-01

    Studying diet is fundamental to animal ecology and scat analysis, a widespread approach, is considered a reliable dietary proxy. Nonetheless, this method has weaknesses such as non-random sampling of habitats and individuals, inaccurate evaluation of excretion date, and lack of assessment of inter-individual dietary variability. We coupled GPS telemetry and scat analyses of black bears Ursus americanus Pallas to relate diet to individual characteristics and habitat use patterns while foraging. We captured 20 black bears (6 males and 14 females) and fitted them with GPS/Argos collars. We then surveyed GPS locations shortly after individual bear visits and collected 139 feces in 71 different locations. Fecal content (relative dry matter biomass of ingested items) was subsequently linked to individual characteristics (sex, age, reproductive status) and to habitats visited during foraging bouts using Brownian bridges based on GPS locations prior to feces excretion. At the population level, diet composition was similar to what was previously described in studies on black bears. However, our individual-based method allowed us to highlight different intra-population patterns, showing that sex and female reproductive status had significant influence on individual diet. For example, in the same habitats, females with cubs did not use the same food sources as lone bears. Linking fecal content (i.e., food sources) to habitat previously visited by different individuals, we demonstrated a potential differential use of similar habitats dependent on individual characteristics. Females with cubs-of-the-year tended to use old forest clearcuts (6–20 years old) to feed on bunchberry, whereas females with yearling foraged for blueberry and lone bears for ants. Coupling GPS telemetry and scat analyses allows for efficient detection of inter-individual or inter-group variations in foraging strategies and of linkages between previous habitat use and food consumption, even for cryptic

  10. Individual Differences in Foraging Strategies of Parasitic Sabre-Tooth Blennies

    PubMed Central

    Bshary, Andrea; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-01-01

    Originally, evolutionary game theory typically predicted that optimal behaviour in a given situation is uniform or bimodal. However, the growing evidence that animals behave more variably while individuals may differ consistently in their behaviour, has led to the development of models that predict a distribution of strategies. Here we support the importance of such models in a study on a coral reef fish host–parasite system. Parasitic blennies (Plagiotremus sp.) regularly attack other fishes to bite off scales and mucus. Individuals of some victim species react to being bitten with punishing the parasite through aggressive chasing. Our field observations and laboratory experiments show that individual blennies differ markedly in how they incorporate being punished into their foraging decisions. We discuss how these differences may affect the payoff structure and hence the net effect of punishment on punishers and on the appearance of a public good for look-alikes. PMID:23029356

  11. Aboriginal English. PEN 93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eades, Diana

    This report focuses on the teaching of English to Aboriginal children in primary schools in Australia. A definition and analysis of dialectal differences between Aboriginal (Australian) English and Standard (Australian) English is offered that includes the phonological, morpho-syntactic, lexico-semantic, and pragmatic differences of the Aboriginal…

  12. Aboriginal Education Program, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since the beginning of time, Aboriginal people have had a high regard for education. Euro-Canadian contact with Aboriginal peoples has and continues to have devastating effects. The encroachment on their traditional territory has affected the lands and resources forever. Generations of experience within the residential school system have greatly…

  13. Transformation and Aboriginal Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamlin, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Literacy is discussed in the broadest sense. From an Aboriginal perspective, literacy is about sustaining a world view and culture, resymbolizing and reinterpreting past experience while honoring traditional values, living these values, and visioning a future in which an Aboriginal way of being will continue to thrive. Meaningful Aboriginal…

  14. Bullying in an Aboriginal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Juli; Larson, Ann; Cross, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Aboriginal children appear to be more likely to be involved in bullying than non-Aboriginal children. This paper describes part of the "Solid Kids Solid Schools" research process and discusses some of the results from this three year study involving over 260 Aboriginal children, youth, elders, teachers and Aboriginal Indigenous Education…

  15. Foraging Strategies of Laysan Albatross Inferred from Stable Isotopes: Implications for Association with Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ann E.; Fitzgerald, Shannon M.; Parrish, Julia K.; Klavitter, John L.; Romano, Marc D.

    2015-01-01

    Fatal entanglement in fishing gear is the leading cause of population decline for albatross globally, a consequence of attraction to bait and fishery discards of commercial fishing operations. We investigated foraging strategies of Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis), as inferred from nitrogen and carbon isotope values of primary feathers, to determine breeding-related, seasonal, and historic factors that may affect the likelihood of association with Alaskan or Hawaiian longline fisheries. Feather samples were collected from live birds monitored for breeding status and breeding success on Midway Atoll in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, birds salvaged as fisheries-bycatch, and birds added to museum collections before 1924. During the chick-rearing season (sampled April-May), means and variances of stable isotope values of birds with the highest, most consistent reproductive success were distinct from less productive conspecifics and completely different from birds caught in Hawaiian or Alaskan longline fisheries, suggesting birds with higher multi-annual reproductive success were less likely to associate with these fisheries. Contemporary birds with the highest reproductive success had mean values most similar to historic birds. Values of colony-bound, courting prebreeders were similar to active breeders but distinct from prebreeders caught in Alaskan longline fisheries. During the breeding season, δ15N values were highly variable for both contemporary and historic birds. Although some historic birds exhibited extremely low δ15N values unmatched by contemporary birds (< 11.2‰), others had values as high as the highest fishery-associated contemporary birds. During the non-breeding season (sampled July-September), isotopic variability coalesced into a more narrow set of values for both contemporary and historic birds. Our results suggest that foraging strategies of Laysan albatross are a complex function of season, breeding status, and multi

  16. Foraging Strategies of Laysan Albatross Inferred from Stable Isotopes: Implications for Association with Fisheries.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ann E; Fitzgerald, Shannon M; Parrish, Julia K; Klavitter, John L; Romano, Marc D

    2015-01-01

    Fatal entanglement in fishing gear is the leading cause of population decline for albatross globally, a consequence of attraction to bait and fishery discards of commercial fishing operations. We investigated foraging strategies of Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis), as inferred from nitrogen and carbon isotope values of primary feathers, to determine breeding-related, seasonal, and historic factors that may affect the likelihood of association with Alaskan or Hawaiian longline fisheries. Feather samples were collected from live birds monitored for breeding status and breeding success on Midway Atoll in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, birds salvaged as fisheries-bycatch, and birds added to museum collections before 1924. During the chick-rearing season (sampled April-May), means and variances of stable isotope values of birds with the highest, most consistent reproductive success were distinct from less productive conspecifics and completely different from birds caught in Hawaiian or Alaskan longline fisheries, suggesting birds with higher multi-annual reproductive success were less likely to associate with these fisheries. Contemporary birds with the highest reproductive success had mean values most similar to historic birds. Values of colony-bound, courting prebreeders were similar to active breeders but distinct from prebreeders caught in Alaskan longline fisheries. During the breeding season, δ15N values were highly variable for both contemporary and historic birds. Although some historic birds exhibited extremely low δ15N values unmatched by contemporary birds (< 11.2‰), others had values as high as the highest fishery-associated contemporary birds. During the non-breeding season (sampled July-September), isotopic variability coalesced into a more narrow set of values for both contemporary and historic birds. Our results suggest that foraging strategies of Laysan albatross are a complex function of season, breeding status, and multi

  17. GPS tracking devices reveal foraging strategies of black-legged kittiwakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kotzerka, Jana; Garthe, Stefan; Hatch, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    The Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla is the most abundant gull species in the world, but some populations have declined in recent years, apparently due to food shortage. Kittiwakes are surface feeders and thus can compensate for low food availability only by increasing their foraging range and/or devoting more time to foraging. The species is widely studied in many respects, but long-distance foraging and the limitations of conventional radio telemetry have kept its foraging behavior largely out of view. The development of Global Positioning System (GPS) loggers is advancing rapidly. With devices as small as 8 g now available, it is possible to use this technology for tracking relatively small species of oceanic birds like kittiwakes. Here we present the first results of GPS telemetry applied to Black-legged Kittiwakes in 2007 in the North Pacific. All but one individual foraged in the neritic zone north of the island. Three birds performed foraging trips only close to the colony (within 13 km), while six birds had foraging ranges averaging about 40 km. The maximum foraging range was 59 km, and the maximum distance traveled was 165 km. Maximum trip duration was 17 h (mean 8 h). An apparently bimodal distribution of foraging ranges affords new insight on the variable foraging behaviour of Black-legged Kittiwakes. Our successful deployment of GPS loggers on kittiwakes holds much promise for telemetry studies on many other bird species of similar size and provides an incentive for applying this new approach in future studies.

  18. Signatures of a globally optimal searching strategy in the three-dimensional foraging flights of bumblebees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihoreau, Mathieu; Ings, Thomas C.; Chittka, Lars; Reynolds, Andy M.

    2016-07-01

    Simulated annealing is a powerful stochastic search algorithm for locating a global maximum that is hidden among many poorer local maxima in a search space. It is frequently implemented in computers working on complex optimization problems but until now has not been directly observed in nature as a searching strategy adopted by foraging animals. We analysed high-speed video recordings of the three-dimensional searching flights of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) made in the presence of large or small artificial flowers within a 0.5 m3 enclosed arena. Analyses of the three-dimensional flight patterns in both conditions reveal signatures of simulated annealing searches. After leaving a flower, bees tend to scan back-and forth past that flower before making prospecting flights (loops), whose length increases over time. The search pattern becomes gradually more expansive and culminates when another rewarding flower is found. Bees then scan back and forth in the vicinity of the newly discovered flower and the process repeats. This looping search pattern, in which flight step lengths are typically power-law distributed, provides a relatively simple yet highly efficient strategy for pollinators such as bees to find best quality resources in complex environments made of multiple ephemeral feeding sites with nutritionally variable rewards.

  19. Signatures of a globally optimal searching strategy in the three-dimensional foraging flights of bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Lihoreau, Mathieu; Ings, Thomas C; Chittka, Lars; Reynolds, Andy M

    2016-07-27

    Simulated annealing is a powerful stochastic search algorithm for locating a global maximum that is hidden among many poorer local maxima in a search space. It is frequently implemented in computers working on complex optimization problems but until now has not been directly observed in nature as a searching strategy adopted by foraging animals. We analysed high-speed video recordings of the three-dimensional searching flights of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) made in the presence of large or small artificial flowers within a 0.5 m(3) enclosed arena. Analyses of the three-dimensional flight patterns in both conditions reveal signatures of simulated annealing searches. After leaving a flower, bees tend to scan back-and forth past that flower before making prospecting flights (loops), whose length increases over time. The search pattern becomes gradually more expansive and culminates when another rewarding flower is found. Bees then scan back and forth in the vicinity of the newly discovered flower and the process repeats. This looping search pattern, in which flight step lengths are typically power-law distributed, provides a relatively simple yet highly efficient strategy for pollinators such as bees to find best quality resources in complex environments made of multiple ephemeral feeding sites with nutritionally variable rewards.

  20. Signatures of a globally optimal searching strategy in the three-dimensional foraging flights of bumblebees

    PubMed Central

    Lihoreau, Mathieu; Ings, Thomas C.; Chittka, Lars; Reynolds, Andy M.

    2016-01-01

    Simulated annealing is a powerful stochastic search algorithm for locating a global maximum that is hidden among many poorer local maxima in a search space. It is frequently implemented in computers working on complex optimization problems but until now has not been directly observed in nature as a searching strategy adopted by foraging animals. We analysed high-speed video recordings of the three-dimensional searching flights of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) made in the presence of large or small artificial flowers within a 0.5 m3 enclosed arena. Analyses of the three-dimensional flight patterns in both conditions reveal signatures of simulated annealing searches. After leaving a flower, bees tend to scan back-and forth past that flower before making prospecting flights (loops), whose length increases over time. The search pattern becomes gradually more expansive and culminates when another rewarding flower is found. Bees then scan back and forth in the vicinity of the newly discovered flower and the process repeats. This looping search pattern, in which flight step lengths are typically power-law distributed, provides a relatively simple yet highly efficient strategy for pollinators such as bees to find best quality resources in complex environments made of multiple ephemeral feeding sites with nutritionally variable rewards. PMID:27459948

  1. Aboriginal nurses' beliefs, attitudes, and values about sexuality in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2002-11-01

    The potential of risky sexual behaviors and adolescent unplanned pregnancy has become a primary issue in the health care system for aborigines in eastern Taiwan. Using aboriginal nurses to provide information on sexual behaviors may have potential in promoting healthy sexual practices among aborigines. The purposes of this study were to explore Taiwanese aboriginal nurses beliefs. attitudes, and values about sexuality. Several health centers in eastern Taiwan were randomly selected to recruit participants in the year 2000. A self-report questionnaire was administered to 206 female nurses (mean age = 28.4, SD = 7.4) who worked in various clinical units. The results revealed that aboriginal nurses hold moderately positive beliefs, attitudes, and values about sexuality. The conflict between aboriginal nurses' belief and value systems about sexuality was clear. A conflict between aboriginal nurses' value systems and patients behaviors also existed. Strategies to help aboriginal nurses to be more aware of their beliefs, attitudes, and values about sexuality should be an essential issue in the practice and education of nurses.

  2. Temperature dependence of trophic interactions are driven by asymmetry of species responses and foraging strategy.

    PubMed

    Dell, Anthony I; Pawar, Samraat; Savage, Van M

    2014-01-01

    Environmental temperature has systematic effects on rates of species interactions, primarily through its influence on organismal physiology. We present a mechanistic model for the thermal response of consumer-resource interactions. We focus on how temperature affects species interactions via key traits - body velocity, detection distance, search rate and handling time - that underlie per capita consumption rate. The model is general because it applies to all foraging strategies: active-capture (both consumer and resource body velocity are important), sit-and-wait (resource velocity dominates) and grazing (consumer velocity dominates). The model predicts that temperature influences consumer-resource interactions primarily through its effects on body velocity (either of the consumer, resource or both), which determines how often consumers and resources encounter each other, and that asymmetries in the thermal responses of interacting species can introduce qualitative, not just quantitative, changes in consumer-resource dynamics. We illustrate this by showing how asymmetries in thermal responses determine equilibrium population densities in interacting consumer-resource pairs. We test for the existence of asymmetries in consumer-resource thermal responses by analysing an extensive database on thermal response curves of ecological traits for 309 species spanning 15 orders of magnitude in body size from terrestrial, marine and freshwater habitats. We find that asymmetries in consumer-resource thermal responses are likely to be a common occurrence. Overall, our study reveals the importance of asymmetric thermal responses in consumer-resource dynamics. In particular, we identify three general types of asymmetries: (i) different levels of performance of the response, (ii) different rates of response (e.g. activation energies) and (iii) different peak or optimal temperatures. Such asymmetries should occur more frequently as the climate changes and species' geographical

  3. AFRICAN ABORIGINAL THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Philip A. E.

    1920-01-01

    No other man in America has so complete a knowledge of the aborigines of South Africa as Dr. Sheppard. For twenty-one years he spent his vacations in their kraals. He is a blood-brother in two tribes, and a chief, and sits on his own mat at tribal councils. His picture of their aboriginal therapy is unique. Imagesp228-ap228-bp229-ap229-bp231-ap232-ap232-bp233-ap235-ap235-b PMID:18010265

  4. Raiders of the Lost Bark: Orangutan Foraging Strategies in a Degraded Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Smith, Gail; Campbell-Smith, Miran; Singleton, Ian; Linkie, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation is rapidly transforming primary forests across the tropics into human-dominated landscapes. Consequently, conservationists need to understand how different taxa respond and adapt to these changes in order to develop appropriate management strategies. Our two year study seeks to determine how wild Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) adapt to living in an isolated agroforest landscape by investigating the sex of crop-raiders related to population demographics, and their temporal variations in feeding behaviour and dietary composition. From focal animal sampling we found that nine identified females raided cultivated fruits more than the four males. Seasonal adaptations were shown through orangutan feeding habits that shifted from being predominantly fruit-based (56% of the total feeding time, then 22% on bark) to the fallback food of bark (44%, then 35% on fruits), when key cultivated resources such as jackfruit (Artocarpus integer), were unavailable. Cultivated fruits were mostly consumed in the afternoon and evening, when farmers had returned home. The finding that females take greater crop-raiding risks than males differs from previous human-primate conflict studies, probably because of the low risks associated (as farmers rarely retaliated) and low intraspecific competition between males. Thus, the behavioral ecology of orangutans living in this human-dominated landscape differs markedly from that in primary forest, where orangutans have a strictly wild food diet, even where primary rainforests directly borders farmland. The importance of wild food availability was clearly illustrated in this study with 21% of the total orangutan feeding time being allocated to feeding on cultivated fruits. As forests are increasingly converted to cultivation, humans and orangutans are predicted to come into conflict more frequently. This study reveals orangutan adaptations for coexisting with humans, e.g. changes in temporal foraging patterns, which should be used

  5. Raiders of the lost bark: orangutan foraging strategies in a degraded landscape.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Smith, Gail; Campbell-Smith, Miran; Singleton, Ian; Linkie, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation is rapidly transforming primary forests across the tropics into human-dominated landscapes. Consequently, conservationists need to understand how different taxa respond and adapt to these changes in order to develop appropriate management strategies. Our two year study seeks to determine how wild Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) adapt to living in an isolated agroforest landscape by investigating the sex of crop-raiders related to population demographics, and their temporal variations in feeding behaviour and dietary composition. From focal animal sampling we found that nine identified females raided cultivated fruits more than the four males. Seasonal adaptations were shown through orangutan feeding habits that shifted from being predominantly fruit-based (56% of the total feeding time, then 22% on bark) to the fallback food of bark (44%, then 35% on fruits), when key cultivated resources such as jackfruit (Artocarpus integer), were unavailable. Cultivated fruits were mostly consumed in the afternoon and evening, when farmers had returned home. The finding that females take greater crop-raiding risks than males differs from previous human-primate conflict studies, probably because of the low risks associated (as farmers rarely retaliated) and low intraspecific competition between males. Thus, the behavioral ecology of orangutans living in this human-dominated landscape differs markedly from that in primary forest, where orangutans have a strictly wild food diet, even where primary rainforests directly borders farmland. The importance of wild food availability was clearly illustrated in this study with 21% of the total orangutan feeding time being allocated to feeding on cultivated fruits. As forests are increasingly converted to cultivation, humans and orangutans are predicted to come into conflict more frequently. This study reveals orangutan adaptations for coexisting with humans, e.g. changes in temporal foraging patterns, which should be used

  6. Foraging strategies of black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons) in relation to food availability in a seasonal tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Nagy-Reis, Mariana B; Setz, Eleonore Z F

    2017-01-01

    Many primates have to cope with a temporal scarcity in food availability that shapes their foraging strategies. Here we investigated the changes in diet, activity, and ranging behavior of a group of black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons) according to the availability of the main high-nutritional-density item in their diet and the foraging strategy adopted when this food is scarce. We monitored one habituated group using instantaneous scan sampling over 1 year (533 h of observation, 61 days) in a seasonal tropical forest fragment (245 ha). We simultaneously collected data on food availability with fruit traps. The titi monkeys consumed fleshy fruits, the main high-nutritional-density item of their diet, in accordance with its availability, and the availability of this item modulated the ingestion of vegetative plant parts, a relatively low-nutritional-density food. During high fleshy fruit availability, the titi monkeys consumed more fleshy fruits, flowers, and invertebrates. They also traveled more, but concentrated their activity in a central area of their home range. Conversely, during fleshy fruit scarcity, they increased the breadth of their diet, switching to one richer in seeds and vegetative plant parts, and with greater plant diversity. At the same time, they reduced most energy-demanding activities, traveling less and over shorter distances, but using their home range more broadly. Corroborating the optimal foraging theory, titi monkeys altered foraging strategies according to temporal food fluctuations and responded to low fleshy fruit availability by changing their diet, activity, and ranging behavior. The adoption of a low-cost/low-yield strategy allowed us to classify them as energy minimizers.

  7. Complementarity in nutrient foraging strategies of absorptive fine roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi across 14 coexisting subtropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bitao; Li, Hongbo; Zhu, Biao; Koide, Roger T; Eissenstat, David M; Guo, Dali

    2015-10-01

    In most cases, both roots and mycorrhizal fungi are needed for plant nutrient foraging. Frequently, the colonization of roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi seems to be greater in species with thick and sparsely branched roots than in species with thin and densely branched roots. Yet, whether a complementarity exists between roots and mycorrhizal fungi across these two types of root system remains unclear. We measured traits related to nutrient foraging (root morphology, architecture and proliferation, AM colonization and extramatrical hyphal length) across 14 coexisting AM subtropical tree species following root pruning and nutrient addition treatments. After root pruning, species with thinner roots showed more root growth, but lower mycorrhizal colonization, than species with thicker roots. Under multi-nutrient (NPK) addition, root growth increased, but mycorrhizal colonization decreased significantly, whereas no significant changes were found under nitrogen or phosphate additions. Moreover, root length proliferation was mainly achieved by altering root architecture, but not root morphology. Thin-root species seem to forage nutrients mainly via roots, whereas thick-root species rely more on mycorrhizal fungi. In addition, the reliance on mycorrhizal fungi was reduced by nutrient additions across all species. These findings highlight complementary strategies for nutrient foraging across coexisting species with contrasting root traits.

  8. Cost of Living Dictates what Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises Eat: The Importance of Prey Quality on Predator Foraging Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Spitz, Jérôme; Trites, Andrew W.; Becquet, Vanessa; Brind'Amour, Anik; Cherel, Yves; Galois, Robert; Ridoux, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that drive prey selection is a major challenge in foraging ecology. Most studies of foraging strategies have focused on behavioural costs, and have generally failed to recognize that differences in the quality of prey may be as important to predators as the costs of acquisition. Here, we tested whether there is a relationship between the quality of diets (kJ·g−1) consumed by cetaceans in the North Atlantic and their metabolic costs of living as estimated by indicators of muscle performance (mitochondrial density, n = 60, and lipid content, n = 37). We found that the cost of living of 11 cetacean species is tightly coupled with the quality of prey they consume. This relationship between diet quality and cost of living appears to be independent of phylogeny and body size, and runs counter to predictions that stem from the well-known scaling relationships between mass and metabolic rates. Our finding suggests that the quality of prey rather than the sheer quantity of food is a major determinant of foraging strategies employed by predators to meet their specific energy requirements. This predator-specific dependence on food quality appears to reflect the evolution of ecological strategies at a species level, and has implications for risk assessment associated with the consequences of changing the quality and quantities of prey available to top predators in marine ecosystems. PMID:23185542

  9. Aboriginal Education: Fulfilling the Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Marlene Brant, Ed.; Davis, Lynne, Ed.; Lahache, Louise, Ed.

    Education is at the heart of the struggle of Canada's Aboriginal peoples to regain control over their lives as communities and nations. Based on hearings and research generated by the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP), this collection of articles documents recent progress in transforming Aboriginal education to support…

  10. Nutrition and foraging strategies of the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) in Palenque National Park, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Amato, Katherine R; Garber, Paul A

    2014-08-01

    Food resources consumed by primates vary markedly in nutritional content. As a result, foragers must develop a feeding strategy to select resources that balance energy and macronutrient intake and reduce the consumption of fiber and toxins. In this study, we collected data on dietary patterns, rates of food consumption, and weight of food items consumed and combined them with published values of the nutritional content of Neotropical foods to estimate energy and nutrient intake during a 10-month period in two groups (N=16 individuals) of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) inhabiting Palenque National Park, Mexico. Although howler monkeys are generally assumed to exploit a leaf-dominated diet and be energy-limited, our results indicated that black howlers met their estimated energy requirements, consuming an average of 0.58 MJ of overall energy per metabolic body mass per day. The howlers also surpassed protein requirements by consuming an average of 8.2 g of protein per metabolic body mass per day. The amount of time they spent resting was not correlated with the amount of leaves or fruit in the diet or with overall energy intake. Therefore, despite consuming a leaf-heavy diet during some months of the year, black howlers do not appear to be energy-limited. Additionally, the howlers maintained a relatively consistent level of average daily protein energy intake regardless of diet composition, while non-protein energy intake varied in response to the amount of ripe fruits consumed. Although our use of published nutritional data introduces error, these findings suggest that black howler feeding ecology is more similar to other fruit-eating atelines than previously suspected, and several common assumptions regarding howler behavior and feeding ecology need to be reexamined.

  11. Comparison of microhabitats and foraging strategies between the captive-born Zhangxiang and wild giant pandas: implications for future reintroduction.

    PubMed

    Lei, Miaowen; Yuan, Shibin; Yang, Zisong; Hong, Mingsheng; Yang, Xuyu; Gu, Xiaodong; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Zejun

    2015-10-01

    The female giant panda Zhangxiang (pedigree number 826) was born on August 20, 2011 in Wolong Nature Reserve, China. On November 6, 2013, Zhangxiang was transported into the acclimatization enclosure in the Liziping Nature Reserve. Before Zhangxiang left the enclosure into the wild, we conducted the first study to compare microhabitats and foraging strategies between Zhangxiang in the enclosure and giant pandas in the wild. Compared with the latter, microhabitats of Zhangxiang in the enclosure are characteristic of gentler slope, more trees, higher canopy, smaller tree DBH, and lower density of living bamboos. Diet composition and foraging behaviors significantly differed between Zhangxiang and wild giant pandas, perhaps reflecting the combined consequence of environmental conditions (e.g., bamboo species) and individual status (e.g., age, mastication ability, etc.). The difference in microhabitats and foraging strategies between Zhangxiang and wild giant pandas implied that after being released into the natural habitat in the reserve, Zhangxiang will have to adapt to the environmental conditions once again. For future reintroduction, the enclosure can be extended to the Bashania spanostachya forest in the reserve, and captive giant pandas for release can thus normally transit into the wild without human intervention during acclimatization period. For other acclimatization enclosures to be constructed in the future, ecological environment inside, including topography, forests, and bamboos as well, should as possible as can match the habitat that the giant panda to-be-reinforced populations inhabit.

  12. Fast carnivores and slow herbivores: differential foraging strategies among grizzly bears in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Mark A; Derocher, Andrew E; Hobson, Keith A; Branigan, Marsha; Nagy, John A

    2011-04-01

    Categorizing animal populations by diet can mask important intrapopulation variation, which is crucial to understanding a species' trophic niche width. To test hypotheses related to intrapopulation variation in foraging or the presence of diet specialization, we conducted stable isotope analysis (δ(13)C, δ(15)N) on hair and claw samples from 51 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) collected from 2003 to 2006 in the Mackenzie Delta region of the Canadian Arctic. We examined within-population differences in the foraging patterns of males and females and the relationship between trophic position (derived from δ(15)N measurements) and individual movement. The range of δ(15)N values in hair and claw (2.0-11.0‰) suggested a wide niche width and cluster analyses indicated the presence of three foraging groups within the population, ranging from near-complete herbivory to near-complete carnivory. We found no linear relationship between home range size and trophic position when the data were continuous or when grouped by foraging behavior. However, the movement rate of females increased linearly with trophic position. We used multisource dual-isotope mixing models to determine the relative contributions of seven prey sources within each foraging group for both males and females. The mean bear dietary endpoint across all foraging groups for each sex fell toward the center of the mixing polygon, which suggested relatively well-mixed diets. The primary dietary difference across foraging groups was the proportional contribution of herbaceous foods, which decreased for both males and females from 42-76 to 0-27% and 62-81 to 0-44%, respectively. Grizzlies of the Mackenzie Delta live in extremely harsh conditions and identifying within-population diet specialization has improved our understanding of varying habitat requirements within the population.

  13. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  14. Social Learning in Vespula Germanica Wasps: Do They Use Collective Foraging Strategies?

    PubMed

    Lozada, Mariana; D' Adamo, Paola; Buteler, Micaela; Kuperman, Marcelo N

    2016-01-01

    Vespula germanica is a social wasp that has become established outside its native range in many regions of the world, becoming a major pest in the invaded areas. In the present work we analyze social communication processes used by V. germanica when exploiting un-depleted food sources. For this purpose, we investigated the arrival pattern of wasps at a protein bait and evaluated whether a forager recruited conspecifics in three different situations: foragers were able to return to the nest (full communication), foragers were removed on arrival (communication impeded), or only one forager was allowed to return to the nest (local enhancement restricted). Results demonstrated the existence of recruitment in V. germanica, given that very different patterns of wasp arrivals and a higher frequency of wasp visits to the resource were observed when communication flow between experienced and naive foragers was allowed. Our findings showed that recruitment takes place at a distance from the food source, in addition to local enhancement. When both local enhancement and distant recruitment were occurring simultaneously, the pattern of wasp arrival was exponential. When recruitment occurred only distant from the feeder, the arrival pattern was linear, but the number of wasps arriving was twice as many as when neither communication nor local enhancement was allowed. Moreover, when return to the nest was impeded, wasp arrival at the bait was regular and constant, indicating that naive wasps forage individually and are not spatially aggregated. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate recruitment in V. germanica at a distance from the food source by modelling wasps' arrival to a protein-based resource. In addition, the existence of correlations when communication was allowed and reflected in tandem arrivals indicates that we were not in the presence of random processes.

  15. Macronutrient ratios in pollen shape bumble bee (Bombus impatiens) foraging strategies and floral preferences.

    PubMed

    Vaudo, Anthony D; Patch, Harland M; Mortensen, David A; Tooker, John F; Grozinger, Christina M

    2016-07-12

    To fuel their activities and rear their offspring, foraging bees must obtain a sufficient quality and quantity of nutritional resources from a diverse plant community. Pollen is the primary source of proteins and lipids for bees, and the concentrations of these nutrients in pollen can vary widely among host-plant species. Therefore we hypothesized that foraging decisions of bumble bees are driven by both the protein and lipid content of pollen. By successively reducing environmental and floral cues, we analyzed pollen-foraging preferences of Bombus impatiens in (i) host-plant species, (ii) pollen isolated from these host-plant species, and (iii) nutritionally modified single-source pollen diets encompassing a range of protein and lipid concentrations. In our semifield experiments, B impatiens foragers exponentially increased their foraging rates of pollen from plant species with high protein:lipid (P:L) ratios; the most preferred plant species had the highest ratio (∼4.6:1). These preferences were confirmed in cage studies where, in pairwise comparisons in the absence of other floral cues, B impatiens workers still preferred pollen with higher P:L ratios. Finally, when presented with nutritionally modified pollen, workers were most attracted to pollen with P:L ratios of 5:1 and 10:1, but increasing the protein or lipid concentration (while leaving ratios intact) reduced attraction. Thus, macronutritional ratios appear to be a primary factor driving bee pollen-foraging behavior and may explain observed patterns of host-plant visitation across the landscape. The nutritional quality of pollen resources should be taken into consideration when designing conservation habitats supporting bee populations.

  16. Social Learning in Vespula Germanica Wasps: Do They Use Collective Foraging Strategies?

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Mariana; D’ Adamo, Paola; Buteler, Micaela; Kuperman, Marcelo N.

    2016-01-01

    Vespula germanica is a social wasp that has become established outside its native range in many regions of the world, becoming a major pest in the invaded areas. In the present work we analyze social communication processes used by V. germanica when exploiting un-depleted food sources. For this purpose, we investigated the arrival pattern of wasps at a protein bait and evaluated whether a forager recruited conspecifics in three different situations: foragers were able to return to the nest (full communication), foragers were removed on arrival (communication impeded), or only one forager was allowed to return to the nest (local enhancement restricted). Results demonstrated the existence of recruitment in V. germanica, given that very different patterns of wasp arrivals and a higher frequency of wasp visits to the resource were observed when communication flow between experienced and naive foragers was allowed. Our findings showed that recruitment takes place at a distance from the food source, in addition to local enhancement. When both local enhancement and distant recruitment were occurring simultaneously, the pattern of wasp arrival was exponential. When recruitment occurred only distant from the feeder, the arrival pattern was linear, but the number of wasps arriving was twice as many as when neither communication nor local enhancement was allowed. Moreover, when return to the nest was impeded, wasp arrival at the bait was regular and constant, indicating that naive wasps forage individually and are not spatially aggregated. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate recruitment in V. germanica at a distance from the food source by modelling wasps’ arrival to a protein-based resource. In addition, the existence of correlations when communication was allowed and reflected in tandem arrivals indicates that we were not in the presence of random processes. PMID:26990864

  17. Terrestrial and Marine Foraging Strategies of an Opportunistic Seabird Species Breeding in the Wadden Sea.

    PubMed

    Garthe, Stefan; Schwemmer, Philipp; Paiva, Vitor H; Corman, Anna-Marie; Fock, Heino O; Voigt, Christian C; Adler, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Lesser black-backed gulls Larus fuscus are considered to be mainly pelagic. We assessed the importance of different landscape elements (open sea, tidal flats and inland) by comparing marine and terrestrial foraging behaviours in lesser black-backed gulls breeding along the coast of the southern North Sea. We attached GPS data loggers to eight incubating birds and collected information on diet and habitat use. The loggers recorded data for 10-19 days to allow flight-path reconstruction. Lesser black-backed gulls foraged in both offshore and inland areas, but rarely on tidal flats. Targets and directions were similar among all eight individuals. Foraging trips (n = 108) lasted 0.5-26.4 h (mean 8.7 h), and ranges varied from 3.0-79.9 km (mean 30.9 km). The total distance travelled per foraging trip ranged from 7.5-333.6 km (mean 97.9 km). Trips out to sea were significantly more variable in all parameters than inland trips. Presence in inland areas was closely associated with daylight, whereas trips to sea occurred at day and night, but mostly at night. The most common items in pellets were grass (48%), insects (38%), fish (28%), litter (26%) and earthworms (20%). There was a significant relationship between the carbon and nitrogen isotope signals in blood and the proportional time each individual spent foraging at sea/land. On land, gulls preferentially foraged on bare ground, with significantly higher use of potato fields and significantly less use of grassland. The flight patterns of lesser black-backed gulls at sea overlapped with fishing-vessel distribution, including small beam trawlers fishing for shrimps in coastal waters close to the colony and large beam-trawlers fishing for flatfish at greater distances. Our data show that individuals made intensive use of the anthropogenic landscape and seascape, indicating that lesser black-backed gulls are not a predominantly marine species during the incubation period.

  18. Macronutrient ratios in pollen shape bumble bee (Bombus impatiens) foraging strategies and floral preferences

    PubMed Central

    Vaudo, Anthony D.; Patch, Harland M.; Mortensen, David A.; Tooker, John F.; Grozinger, Christina M.

    2016-01-01

    To fuel their activities and rear their offspring, foraging bees must obtain a sufficient quality and quantity of nutritional resources from a diverse plant community. Pollen is the primary source of proteins and lipids for bees, and the concentrations of these nutrients in pollen can vary widely among host-plant species. Therefore we hypothesized that foraging decisions of bumble bees are driven by both the protein and lipid content of pollen. By successively reducing environmental and floral cues, we analyzed pollen-foraging preferences of Bombus impatiens in (i) host-plant species, (ii) pollen isolated from these host-plant species, and (iii) nutritionally modified single-source pollen diets encompassing a range of protein and lipid concentrations. In our semifield experiments, B. impatiens foragers exponentially increased their foraging rates of pollen from plant species with high protein:lipid (P:L) ratios; the most preferred plant species had the highest ratio (∼4.6:1). These preferences were confirmed in cage studies where, in pairwise comparisons in the absence of other floral cues, B. impatiens workers still preferred pollen with higher P:L ratios. Finally, when presented with nutritionally modified pollen, workers were most attracted to pollen with P:L ratios of 5:1 and 10:1, but increasing the protein or lipid concentration (while leaving ratios intact) reduced attraction. Thus, macronutritional ratios appear to be a primary factor driving bee pollen-foraging behavior and may explain observed patterns of host-plant visitation across the landscape. The nutritional quality of pollen resources should be taken into consideration when designing conservation habitats supporting bee populations. PMID:27357683

  19. Optimal Foraging in Semantic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas T.; Jones, Michael N.; Todd, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Do humans search in memory using dynamic local-to-global search strategies similar to those that animals use to forage between patches in space? If so, do their dynamic memory search policies correspond to optimal foraging strategies seen for spatial foraging? Results from a number of fields suggest these possibilities, including the shared…

  20. Differing foraging strategies influence mercury (Hg) exposure in an Antarctic penguin community.

    PubMed

    Polito, Michael J; Brasso, Rebecka L; Trivelpiece, Wayne Z; Karnovsky, Nina; Patterson, William P; Emslie, Steven D

    2016-11-01

    Seabirds are ideal model organisms to track mercury (Hg) through marine food webs as they are long-lived, broadly distributed, and are susceptible to biomagnification due to foraging at relatively high trophic levels. However, using these species as biomonitors requires a solid understanding of the degree of species, sexual and age-specific variation in foraging behaviors which act to mediate their dietary exposure to Hg. We combined stomach content analysis along with Hg and stable isotope analyses of blood, feathers and common prey items to help explain inter and intra-specific patterns of dietary Hg exposure across three sympatric Pygoscelis penguin species commonly used as biomonitors of Hg availability in the Antarctic marine ecosystem. We found that penguin tissue Hg concentrations differed across species, between adults and juveniles, but not between sexes. While all three penguins species diets were dominated by Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and to a lesser extent fish, stable isotope based proxies of relative trophic level and krill consumption could not by itself sufficiently explain the observed patterns of inter and intra-specific variation in Hg. However, integrating isotopic approaches with stomach content analysis allowed us to identify the relatively higher risk of Hg exposure for penguins foraging on mesopelagic prey relative to congeners targeting epipelagic or benthic prey species. When possible, future seabird biomonitoring studies should seek to combine isotopic approaches with other, independent measures of foraging behavior to better account for the confounding effects of inter and intra-specific variation on dietary Hg exposure.

  1. Innovation and Aboriginal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnochie, K. R.

    After defining educational and cultural terms and establishing a model representing cultural reproduction, case studies illustrate how three Aboriginal communities are educating and socializing their children. Strelley, a community in Western Australia, has a history of determined independence that has resulted in a unique level of economic and…

  2. To bite, or not to bite? A quantitative comparison of foraging strategies among three brackish crustaceans feeding on leaf litters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, Giorgio

    2012-09-01

    A computerized image analysis technique was implemented to evaluate the damage done to leaf litters by macrophagous crustaceans characterized by different feeding strategies. In addition, a foraging strategy index (FSI) was tested to provide a quantitative estimation of both inter- and intra-specific, density-dependent changes in feeding strategies. Laboratory trials were run with the isopods Idotea baltica and Lekanesphaera hookeri and the amphipod Gammarus aequicauda. The effect of their feeding activities was tested on decaying leaves of Cymodocea nodosa and Phragmites australis. In addition, tests were run using three different abundances of each species to assess the occurrence of density-dependent shifts in feeding strategies. Independently from the leaf litter type, opposite foraging strategies characterized the isopods. Idotea baltica shredded the leaf blade heavily, whereas L. hookeri scraped the leaf surface removing the epidermis. Qualitative observations corresponded to consistent variations in FSI values, with Idotea showing the lowest and Lekanesphaera the highest FSI values. Leaves consumed by G. aequicauda, conversely, were characterized by both shredding and scraping damages, corresponding to intermediate FSI values compared to those measured for the isopods. Furthermore, negligible density-dependent changes in FSI values occurred for both isopods; Gammarus, in contrast, showed a significant shift in trophic strategies, with FSI values close to that observed for Lekanesphaera at high densities and to Idotea at low densities of conspecifics, respectively. The methodology and the FSI index herein presented provided an effective, quantitative assessment of species-specific differences in the feeding strategy of three ubiquitous components of Mediterranean detritivorous epifauna, for which only qualitative, phenomenological descriptions have been to date provided.

  3. Approximating Optimal Behavioural Strategies Down to Rules-of-Thumb: Energy Reserve Changes in Pairs of Social Foragers

    PubMed Central

    Rands, Sean A.

    2011-01-01

    Functional explanations of behaviour often propose optimal strategies for organisms to follow. These ‘best’ strategies could be difficult to perform given biological constraints such as neural architecture and physiological constraints. Instead, simple heuristics or ‘rules-of-thumb’ that approximate these optimal strategies may instead be performed. From a modelling perspective, rules-of-thumb are also useful tools for considering how group behaviour is shaped by the behaviours of individuals. Using simple rules-of-thumb reduces the complexity of these models, but care needs to be taken to use rules that are biologically relevant. Here, we investigate the similarity between the outputs of a two-player dynamic foraging game (which generated optimal but complex solutions) and a computational simulation of the behaviours of the two members of a foraging pair, who instead followed a rule-of-thumb approximation of the game's output. The original game generated complex results, and we demonstrate here that the simulations following the much-simplified rules-of-thumb also generate complex results, suggesting that the rule-of-thumb was sufficient to make some of the model outcomes unpredictable. There was some agreement between both modelling techniques, but some differences arose – particularly when pair members were not identical in how they gained and lost energy. We argue that exploring how rules-of-thumb perform in comparison to their optimal counterparts is an important exercise for biologically validating the output of agent-based models of group behaviour. PMID:21765938

  4. Terrestrial and Marine Foraging Strategies of an Opportunistic Seabird Species Breeding in the Wadden Sea

    PubMed Central

    Schwemmer, Philipp; Paiva, Vitor H.; Corman, Anna-Marie; Fock, Heino O.; Voigt, Christian C.; Adler, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Lesser black-backed gulls Larus fuscus are considered to be mainly pelagic. We assessed the importance of different landscape elements (open sea, tidal flats and inland) by comparing marine and terrestrial foraging behaviours in lesser black-backed gulls breeding along the coast of the southern North Sea. We attached GPS data loggers to eight incubating birds and collected information on diet and habitat use. The loggers recorded data for 10–19 days to allow flight-path reconstruction. Lesser black-backed gulls foraged in both offshore and inland areas, but rarely on tidal flats. Targets and directions were similar among all eight individuals. Foraging trips (n = 108) lasted 0.5–26.4 h (mean 8.7 h), and ranges varied from 3.0–79.9 km (mean 30.9 km). The total distance travelled per foraging trip ranged from 7.5–333.6 km (mean 97.9 km). Trips out to sea were significantly more variable in all parameters than inland trips. Presence in inland areas was closely associated with daylight, whereas trips to sea occurred at day and night, but mostly at night. The most common items in pellets were grass (48%), insects (38%), fish (28%), litter (26%) and earthworms (20%). There was a significant relationship between the carbon and nitrogen isotope signals in blood and the proportional time each individual spent foraging at sea/land. On land, gulls preferentially foraged on bare ground, with significantly higher use of potato fields and significantly less use of grassland. The flight patterns of lesser black-backed gulls at sea overlapped with fishing-vessel distribution, including small beam trawlers fishing for shrimps in coastal waters close to the colony and large beam-trawlers fishing for flatfish at greater distances. Our data show that individuals made intensive use of the anthropogenic landscape and seascape, indicating that lesser black-backed gulls are not a predominantly marine species during the incubation period. PMID:27525661

  5. A strategy for translating evidence into policy and practice to close the gap - developing essential service standards for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cardiovascular care.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alex; O'Shea, Rebekah L; Mott, Kathy; McBride, Katharine F; Lawson, Tony; Jennings, Garry L R

    2015-02-01

    The development and application of essential standards for cardiovascular care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people creates a strategic platform on which to systematically close the gap in the health outcomes and life expectancy between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous people in Australia. We outline six developmental stages that can be used to enhance the effective translation of evidence into practice that reduces life expectancy differentials. Focussing efforts where the biggest gain can be made; considering how to make a policy-relevant difference with an emphasis on translation into policy and practice; establishing a foundation for action by engaging with stakeholders throughout the process; developing a framework to guide action; drafting policy-relevant and framework-appropriate essential service standards; and defining standards that help policy decision makers achieve current priority policy targets.

  6. Identifying barriers and improving communication between cancer service providers and Aboriginal patients and their families: the perspective of service providers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared to the non-Aboriginal population. Some progress has been made in understanding Aboriginal Australians’ perspectives about cancer and their experiences with cancer services. However, little is known of cancer service providers’ (CSPs) thoughts and perceptions regarding Aboriginal patients and their experiences providing optimal cancer care to Aboriginal people. Communication between Aboriginal patients and non-Aboriginal health service providers has been identified as an impediment to good Aboriginal health outcomes. This paper reports on CSPs’ views about the factors impairing communication and offers practical strategies for promoting effective communication with Aboriginal patients in Western Australia (WA). Methods A qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 62 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal CSPs from across WA was conducted between March 2006 - September 2007 and April-October 2011. CSPs were asked to share their experiences with Aboriginal patients and families experiencing cancer. Thematic analysis was carried out. Our analysis was primarily underpinned by the socio-ecological model, but concepts of Whiteness and privilege, and cultural security also guided our analysis. Results CSPs’ lack of knowledge about the needs of Aboriginal people with cancer and Aboriginal patients’ limited understanding of the Western medical system were identified as the two major impediments to communication. For effective patient–provider communication, attention is needed to language, communication style, knowledge and use of medical terminology and cross-cultural differences in the concept of time. Aboriginal marginalization within mainstream society and Aboriginal people’s distrust of the health system were also key issues impacting on communication. Potential solutions to effective Aboriginal patient-provider communication included recruiting more Aboriginal staff

  7. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  8. Aborigines of the Imaginary: Applying Lacan to Aboriginal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper applies the work of Jacques Lacan, a French psychoanalyst, to decipher the desire of the teacher in Aboriginal education. It argues that the images of Aboriginal people represented in Australian classrooms are effects of the teacher's Imaginary, the Imaginary being one of the three psychoanalytic domains theorised by Lacan over a period…

  9. Dynamic habitat selection by two wading bird species with divergent foraging strategies in a seasonally fluctuating wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beerens, J.M.; Gawlik, D.E.; Herring, G.; Cook, Mark I.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal and annual variation in food availability during the breeding season plays an influential role in the population dynamics of many avian species. In highly dynamic ecosystems like wetlands, finding and exploiting food resources requires a flexible behavioral response that may produce different population trends that vary with a species' foraging strategy. We quantified dynamic foraging-habitat selection by breeding and radiotagged White Ibises (Eudocimus albus) and Great Egrets (Ardea alba) in the Florida Everglades, where fluctuation in food resources is pronounced because of seasonal drying and flooding. The White Ibis is a tactile "searcher" species in population decline that specializes on highly concentrated prey, whereas the Great Egret, in a growing population, is a visual "exploiter" species that requires lower prey concentrations. In a year with high food availability, resource-selection functions for both species included variables that changed over multiannual time scales and were associated with increased prey production. In a year with low food availability, resource-selection functions included short-term variables that concentrated prey (e.g., water recession rates and reversals in drying pattern), which suggests an adaptive response to poor foraging conditions. In both years, the White Ibis was more restricted in its use of habitats than the Great Egret. Real-time species-habitat suitability models were developed to monitor and assess the daily availability and quality of spatially explicit habitat resources for both species. The models, evaluated through hindcasting using independent observations, demonstrated that habitat use of the more specialized White Ibis was more accurately predicted than that of the more generalist Great Egret. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2011.

  10. The early bird gets the worm: foraging strategies of wild songbirds lead to the early discovery of food sources.

    PubMed

    Farine, Damien R; Lang, Stephen D J

    2013-01-01

    Animals need to manage the combined risks of predation and starvation in order to survive. Theoretical and empirical studies have shown that individuals can reduce predation risk by delaying feeding (and hence fat storage) until late afternoon. However, little is known about how individuals manage the opposing pressures of resource uncertainty and predation risks. We suggest that individuals should follow a two-part strategy: prioritizing the discovery of food early in the day and exploiting the best patch late in the day. Using automated data loggers, we tested whether a temporal component exists in the discovery of novel foraging locations by individuals in a mixed-species foraging guild. We found that food deployed in the morning was discovered significantly more often than food deployed in the afternoon. Based on the diurnal activity patterns in this population, overall rates of new arrivals were also significantly higher than expected in the morning and significantly lower than expected in the afternoon. These results align with our predictions of a shift from patch discovery to exploitation over the course of the day.

  11. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-07-01

    We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.

  12. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  13. Forage Budgeting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture management in tropical agro-ecosystems is challenging because of unique soil, climate, and animal interactions. Budgeting forage as part of the grazing system can be difficult because of the strong seasonality of forage production and rapidly changing forage quality. Planning, measuring, and...

  14. Kick the habit: a social marketing campaign by Aboriginal communities in NSW.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M A; Finlay, S; Lucas, K; Neal, N; Williams, R

    2014-01-01

    Tackling smoking is an integral component of efforts to improve health outcomes in Aboriginal communities. Social marketing is an effective strategy for promoting healthy attitudes and influencing behaviours; however, there is little evidence for its success in reducing smoking rates in Aboriginal communities. This paper outlines the development, implementation and evaluation of Kick the Habit Phase 2, an innovative tobacco control social marketing campaign in Aboriginal communities in New South Wales (NSW). The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council worked with three Aboriginal communities and a creative agency to develop locally tailored, culturally relevant social marketing campaigns. Each community determined the target audience and main messages, and identified appropriate local champions and marketing tools. Mixed methods were used to evaluate the campaign, including surveys and interviews with community members and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service staff. Community survey participants demonstrated high recall of smoking cessation messages, particularly for messages and images specific to the Kick the Habit campaign. Staff participating in interviews reported an increased level of interest from community members in smoking cessation programs, as well as increased confidence and skills in developing further social marketing campaigns. Aboriginal community-driven social marketing campaigns in tobacco control can build capacity, are culturally relevant and lead to high rates of recall in Aboriginal communities.

  15. Synchronization of circadian bioluminescence as a group-foraging strategy in cave glowworms.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Andrew J; Merritt, David J

    2013-07-01

    Flies of the genus Arachnocampa are sit-and-lure predators that use bioluminescence to attract flying prey to their silk webs. Some species are most common in rainforest habitat and others inhabit both caves and rainforest. We have studied the circadian regulation of bioluminescence in two species: one found in subtropical rainforest with no known cave populations and the other found in temperate rainforest with large populations in limestone caves. The rainforest species is typical of most nocturnal animals in that individuals are entrained by the light:dark (LD) cycle to be active at night; in this case, their propensity to bioluminesce is greatest at night. The dual-habitat species shows an opposite phase response to the same entrainment; its bioluminescence propensity rhythm is entrained by LD exposure to peak during the day. Nevertheless, in LD environments, individuals do not bioluminesce during the day because ambient light inhibits their bioluminescence (negative masking), pushing bioluminescence into the dark period. This unusual and unexpected phenomenon could be related to their association with caves and has been suggested to be an adaptation of the circadian system that promotes synchronization of a colony's output of bioluminescence. Here, we use controlled laboratory experiments to show that individuals do synchronize their bioluminescence rhythms when in visual contact with each other. Entrainment of the bioluminescence rhythm to the biological photophase causes colony-wide synchronization, creating a daily sinusoidal rhythm of the intensity of bioluminescence in the many thousands of individuals making up a colony. This synchronization could provide a group-foraging advantage, allowing the colony to glow most brightly when the prey are most likely to be active.

  16. Simulation of the evolution of root water foraging strategies in dry and shallow soils

    PubMed Central

    Renton, Michael; Poot, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The dynamic structural development of plants can be seen as a strategy for exploiting the limited resources available within their environment, and we would expect that evolution would lead to efficient strategies that reduce costs while maximizing resource acquisition. In particular, perennial species endemic to habitats with shallow soils in seasonally dry environments have been shown to have a specialized root system morphology that may enhance access to water resources in the underlying rock. This study aimed to explore these hypotheses by applying evolutionary algorithms to a functional–structural root growth model. Methods A simulation model of a plant's root system was developed, which represents the dynamics of water uptake and structural growth. The model is simple enough for evolutionary optimization to be computationally feasible, yet flexible enough to allow a range of structural development strategies to be explored. The model was combined with an evolutionary algorithm in order to investigate a case study habitat with a highly heterogeneous distribution of resources, both spatially and temporally – the situation of perennial plants occurring on shallow soils in seasonally dry environments. Evolution was simulated under two contrasting fitness criteria: (1) the ability to find wet cracks in underlying rock, and (2) maximizing above-ground biomass. Key Results The novel approach successfully resulted in the evolution of more efficient structural development strategies for both fitness criteria. Different rooting strategies evolved when different criteria were applied, and each evolved strategy made ecological sense in terms of the corresponding fitness criterion. Evolution selected for root system morphologies which matched those of real species from corresponding habitats. Conclusions Specialized root morphology with deeper rather than shallower lateral branching enhances access to water resources in underlying rock. More

  17. Real Stories, Extraordinary People: Preliminary Findings from an Aboriginal Community-Controlled Cultural Immersion Program for Local Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Cathie; Cavanagh, Pat

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on effective strategies for developing the cultural competence of teachers involved in Aboriginal education and presents the preliminary findings of a review into the Connecting to Country Program (CTC), a joint venture of the NSW Aboriginal Education Consultative Group (AECG) and the NSW Department of Education and Communities…

  18. Aboriginal Education and the Arts Policy (Draft).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Kaye

    This document outlines a policy for the art education of and about Aboriginal people. Teachers in art education should have an understanding of Aboriginal education issues, and developers of art programs should consult with Aboriginal people before beginning work on a program and continuously throughout development. Teachers should take into…

  19. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  20. Aboriginal English Inside and Outside the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    1994-01-01

    Presents an analysis of five first-person oral narratives of Aboriginal children of Western Australia recorded outside the classroom. These narratives are compared with a first-person oral narrative of a non-Aboriginal child and with teacher-led interactions in the classes of which the Aboriginal children are members. (26 references) (Author/CK)

  1. Culturally Framing Aboriginal Literacy and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antone, Eileen

    2003-01-01

    More than just the development of reading and writing skills, Aboriginal literacy is a wholistic concept, with spiritual, physical, mental, and emotional aspects, involving relationships between self, community, nation, and creation. Models are presented for incorporating traditional Aboriginal knowledge and methodologies into Aboriginal learning…

  2. Screening for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and developmental delay in Taiwanese aboriginal preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Hsiang-Lin; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Hsieh, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Chiao-Fan; Ling, Tiing-Soon; Huang, Yu-Shu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to estimate the percentages of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Taiwanese aboriginal preschool children. Child development level was compared between the two groups. Methods Teachers completed screening questionnaires for ADHD, ASD, and development level for 36- to 72-month-old children in kindergartens in Taiwan. The questionnaire results were compared between the aboriginal and nonaboriginal children. One child psychiatrist then interviewed the aboriginal preschool children to determine if they had ADHD and/or ASD. Results We collected 93 questionnaires from the aboriginal group and 60 from the nonaboriginal group. In the aboriginal group, 5.37% of the children were identified to have ADHD, while 1.08% were identified to have ASD. Significantly fewer aboriginal children had developmental delays for situation comprehension and personal–social development (P=0.012 and 0.002, respectively) than nonaboriginal children. Conclusion Aboriginal children in Taiwan had typical percentages of ADHD and ASD compared to those published in the literature. Aboriginal children showed relative strengths in situation comprehension and personal–social skills. Further studies are required to understand the learning styles of the aboriginal children and to develop effective screening and intervention strategies for ADHD and ASD. PMID:27785028

  3. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Antonio; Giuberti, Gianluca; Frisvad, Jens C.; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Nielsen, Kristian F.

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be contaminated by several exometabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi that increase and diversify the risk of mycotoxin exposure in ruminants compared to swine and poultry that have less varied diets. Evidence suggests the greatest exposure for ruminants to some regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone) and to many other secondary metabolites produced by different species of Alternaria spp. (e.g., AAL toxins, alternariols, tenuazonic acid or 4Z-infectopyrone), Aspergillus flavus (e.g., kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid or β-nitropropionic acid), Aspergillus fuminatus (e.g., gliotoxin, agroclavine, festuclavines or fumagillin), Penicillium roqueforti and P. paneum (e.g., mycophenolic acid, roquefortines, PR toxin or marcfortines) or Monascus ruber (citrinin and monacolins) could be mainly related to forage contamination. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxin occurrence reported in the last 15 years, with special emphasis on mycotoxins detected in forages, and animal toxicological issues due to their ingestion. Strategies for preventing the problem of mycotoxin feed contamination under farm conditions are discussed. PMID:26274974

  4. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Antonio; Giuberti, Gianluca; Frisvad, Jens C; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Nielsen, Kristian F

    2015-08-12

    Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be contaminated by several exometabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi that increase and diversify the risk of mycotoxin exposure in ruminants compared to swine and poultry that have less varied diets. Evidence suggests the greatest exposure for ruminants to some regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone) and to many other secondary metabolites produced by different species of Alternaria spp. (e.g., AAL toxins, alternariols, tenuazonic acid or 4Z-infectopyrone), Aspergillus flavus (e.g., kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid or β-nitropropionic acid), Aspergillus fuminatus (e.g., gliotoxin, agroclavine, festuclavines or fumagillin), Penicillium roqueforti and P. paneum (e.g., mycophenolic acid, roquefortines, PR toxin or marcfortines) or Monascus ruber (citrinin and monacolins) could be mainly related to forage contamination. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxin occurrence reported in the last 15 years, with special emphasis on mycotoxins detected in forages, and animal toxicological issues due to their ingestion. Strategies for preventing the problem of mycotoxin feed contamination under farm conditions are discussed.

  5. Smoking among Aboriginal adults in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Punitha; Poder, Natasha; Welsh, Kerry; Bellear, LaVerne; Heathcote, Jeremy; Wright, Darryl; Millen, Elizabeth; Spinks, Mark; Williams, Mandy; Wen, Li Ming

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Tobacco consumption contributes to health disparities among Aboriginal Australians who experience a greater burden of smoking-related death and diseases. This paper reports findings from a baseline survey on factors associated with smoking, cessation behaviours and attitudes towards smoke-free homes among the Aboriginal population in inner and south-western Sydney. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in inner and south-western Sydney from October 2010 to July 2011. The survey applied both interviewer-administered and self-administered data collection methods. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with smoking. Results Six hundred and sixty-three participants completed the survey. The majority were female (67.5%), below the age of 50 (66.6%) and more than half were employed (54.7%). Almost half were current smokers (48.4%) with the majority intending to quit in the next 6 months (79.0%) and living in a smoke-free home (70.4%). Those aged 30-39 years (AOR 3.28; 95% CI: 2.06-5.23) and the unemployed (AOR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.11-2.51) had higher odds for current smoking. Participants who had a more positive attitude towards smoke-free homes were less likely to smoke (AOR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.74-.85). Conclusions A high proportion of participants were current smokers among whom intention to quit was high. Age, work status and attitudes towards smoke-free home were factors associated with smoking. So what? The findings address the scarcity of local evidence crucial for promoting cessation among Aboriginal tobacco smokers. Targeted promotions for socio-demographic subgroups and of attitudes towards smoke-free homes could be meaningful strategies for future smoking-cessation initiatives.

  6. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.

  7. Cultivating Aboriginal Cultures and Educating Aboriginal Children in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Karen; Kuo, Li Tsung Wen

    2007-01-01

    Many Americans believe that diversity issues are limited to the United States. The truth is, however, that many cultures struggle to recognize and foster cultural diversity. In this article, the authors have two aims: (1) to recognize various ethnic groups in Taiwan, in particular aboriginal groups; and (2) to inform educators about what they can…

  8. Australian Aboriginal Deaf People and Aboriginal Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Des

    2013-01-01

    Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf…

  9. Provisioning offspring and others: risk-energy trade-offs and gender differences in hunter-gatherer foraging strategies.

    PubMed

    Codding, Brian F; Bird, Rebecca Bliege; Bird, Douglas W

    2011-08-22

    Offspring provisioning is commonly referenced as the most important influence on men's and women's foraging decisions. However, the provisioning of other adults may be equally important in determining gender differences in resource choice, particularly when the goals of provisioning offspring versus others cannot be met with the acquisition of the same resources. Here, we examine how resources vary in their expected daily energetic returns and in the variance or risk around those returns. We predict that when available resources impose no trade-off between risk and energy, the targets of men's and women's foraging will converge on high-energy, low-risk resources that allow for the simultaneous provisioning of offspring and others. However, when minimizing risk and maximizing energy trade-off with one another, we expect men's foraging to focus on provisioning others through the unreliable acquisition of large harvests, while women focus on reliably acquiring smaller harvests to feed offspring. We test these predictions with foraging data from three populations (Aché, Martu and Meriam). The results uphold the predictions, suggesting that men's and women's foraging interests converge when high-energy resources can be reliably acquired, but diverge when higher-energy resources are associated with higher levels of risk. Social factors, particularly the availability of alloparental support, may also play a major role.

  10. Provisioning offspring and others: risk–energy trade-offs and gender differences in hunter–gatherer foraging strategies

    PubMed Central

    Codding, Brian F.; Bird, Rebecca Bliege; Bird, Douglas W.

    2011-01-01

    Offspring provisioning is commonly referenced as the most important influence on men's and women's foraging decisions. However, the provisioning of other adults may be equally important in determining gender differences in resource choice, particularly when the goals of provisioning offspring versus others cannot be met with the acquisition of the same resources. Here, we examine how resources vary in their expected daily energetic returns and in the variance or risk around those returns. We predict that when available resources impose no trade-off between risk and energy, the targets of men's and women's foraging will converge on high-energy, low-risk resources that allow for the simultaneous provisioning of offspring and others. However, when minimizing risk and maximizing energy trade-off with one another, we expect men's foraging to focus on provisioning others through the unreliable acquisition of large harvests, while women focus on reliably acquiring smaller harvests to feed offspring. We test these predictions with foraging data from three populations (Aché, Martu and Meriam). The results uphold the predictions, suggesting that men's and women's foraging interests converge when high-energy resources can be reliably acquired, but diverge when higher-energy resources are associated with higher levels of risk. Social factors, particularly the availability of alloparental support, may also play a major role. PMID:21227967

  11. Bush tucker, shop tucker: production, consumption, and diet at an Aboriginal outstation.

    PubMed

    Scelza, Brooke A; Bird, Douglas W; Bird, Rebecca Bliege

    2014-01-01

    Foraging models have rarely been used to address how behavior is altered by the presence of non-foraged foods. Here, choices of store-bought and hunted foods in one Aboriginal community are analyzed. Hunting occurs frequently, but community residents also purchase food from the shop. Increases in the frequency of hunting certain large and small prey are associated with reduced access to food in the shop. Higher-variance hunt types are not associated with shop purchases, but continue to be acquired due to their cultural significance. The variation in these results highlights the complexity of dietary behavior in a mixed economy.

  12. Aboriginal hunting buffers climate-driven fire-size variability in Australia’s spinifex grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Bliege Bird, Rebecca; Codding, Brian F.; Kauhanen, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Across diverse ecosystems, greater climatic variability tends to increase wildfire size, particularly in Australia, where alternating wet–dry cycles increase vegetation growth, only to leave a dry overgrown landscape highly susceptible to fire spread. Aboriginal Australian hunting fires have been hypothesized to buffer such variability, mitigating mortality on small-mammal populations, which have suffered declines and extinctions in the arid zone coincident with Aboriginal depopulation. We test the hypothesis that the relationship between climate and fire size is buffered through the maintenance of an anthropogenic, fine-grained fire regime by comparing the effect of climatic variability on landscapes dominated by Martu Aboriginal hunting fires with those dominated by lightning fires. We show that Aboriginal fires are smaller, more tightly clustered, and remain small even when climate variation causes huge fires in the lightning region. As these effects likely benefit threatened small-mammal species, Aboriginal hunters should be considered trophic facilitators, and policies aimed at reducing the risk of large fires should promote land-management strategies consistent with Aboriginal burning regimes. PMID:22689979

  13. Factors influencing health care utilisation among Aboriginal cardiac patients in central Australia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians suffer from poorer overall health compared to the general Australian population, particularly in terms of cardiovascular disease and prognosis following a cardiac event. Despite such disparities, Aboriginal Australians utilise health care services at much lower rates than the general population. Improving health care utilisation (HCU) among Aboriginal cardiac patients requires a better understanding of the factors that constrain or facilitate use. The study aimed to identify ecological factors influencing health care utilisation (HCU) for Aboriginal cardiac patients, from the time of their cardiac event to 6–12 months post-event, in central Australia. Methods This qualitative descriptive study was guided by an ecological framework. A culturally-sensitive illness narrative focusing on Aboriginal cardiac patients’ “typical” journey guided focus groups and semi-structured interviews with Aboriginal cardiac patients, non-cardiac community members, health care providers and community researchers. Analysis utilised a thematic conceptual matrix and mixed coding method. Themes were categorised into Predisposing, Enabling, Need and Reinforcing factors and identified at Individual, Interpersonal, Primary Care and Hospital System levels. Results Compelling barriers to HCU identified at the Primary Care and Hospital System levels included communication, organisation and racism. Individual level factors related to HCU included language, knowledge of illness, perceived need and past experiences. Given these individual and health system barriers patients were reliant on utilising alternate family-level supports at the Interpersonal level to enable their journey. Conclusion Aboriginal cardiac patients face significant barriers to HCU, resulting in sub-optimal quality of care, placing them at risk for subsequent cardiovascular events and negative health outcomes. To facilitate HCU amongst Aboriginal people, strategies must be implemented

  14. Engaging with holism in Australian Aboriginal health policy – a review

    PubMed Central

    Lutschini, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Background The ideal concept of Aboriginal holistic health is centrally placed in Australian Aboriginal health policies and strategies. Its effective uptake promises, as advocates suggest, reorienting the complex Australian health system to enable health improvements. However, continual reminders assail us that Aboriginal health is shocking, appalling, disastrous, disgraceful and damning. Could incapacity to engage effectively with the concept undermine health system improvements? The aim of this review of Australian literature was to identify the range of meanings attached to Aboriginal holistic health and engage with their implications for the health system. Results In terms of literature synthesis I found that policy makers cannot rely on this approach to provide coherent arguments for meaningful engagement with the concept because authors in general: are uncritical and un-reflexive in the use and interpretation of the concept; often provide no reference for their understandings; tend to alter the concept's definition and constituent elements without justification; ignore the wide range of mainstream literature about holism and health; and fail to acknowledge and examine the range of Aboriginal concepts of health. I used the ten themes from this literature to highlight implications for the health system, and found that a most profound contradiction exists in the acceptance of the English language concept 'holistic' as immutably Aboriginal. Additionally, a range of contradictions and mixed messages within the themes challenge the validity of the concept. Significantly, with the boundary of the concept constructed as diffuse and ethereal, the diverse and uncritical literature, and mixed thematic meanings, it is possible to justify any claim about the health system as holistic. Conclusion It seems not so much incapacity to engage, but incapacity to coherently articulate Aboriginal concepts of health, which prevents advisory bodies such as the National Indigenous

  15. Improving cardiovascular outcomes among Aboriginal Australians: Lessons from research for primary care

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Sandra C; Haynes, Emma; Woods, John A; Bessarab, Dawn C; Dimer, Lynette A; Wood, Marianne M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Hamilton, Sandra J; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Aboriginal people of Australia have much poorer health and social indicators and a substantial life expectancy gap compared to other Australians, with premature cardiovascular disease a major contributor to poorer health. This article draws on research undertaken to examine cardiovascular disparities and focuses on ways in which primary care practitioners can contribute to reducing cardiovascular disparities and improving Aboriginal health. Methods: The overall research utilised mixed methods and included data analysis, interviews and group processes which included Aboriginal people, service providers and policymakers. Workshop discussions to identify barriers and what works were recorded by notes and on whiteboards, then distilled and circulated to participants and other stakeholders to refine and validate information. Additional engagement occurred through circulation of draft material and further discussions. This report distils the lessons for primary care practitioners to improve outcomes through management that is attentive to the needs of Aboriginal people. Results: Aspects of primordial, primary and secondary prevention are identified, with practical strategies for intervention summarised. The premature onset and high incidence of Aboriginal cardiovascular disease make prevention imperative and require that primary care practitioners understand and work to address the social underpinnings of poor health. Doctors are well placed to reinforce the importance of healthy lifestyle at all visits to involve the family and to reduce barriers which impede early care seeking. Ensuring better information for Aboriginal patients and better integrated care for patients who frequently have complex needs and multi-morbidities will also improve care outcomes. Conclusion: Primary care practitioners have an important role in improving Aboriginal cardiovascular care outcomes. It is essential that they recognise the special needs of their Aboriginal patients

  16. As We See...Aboriginal Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiffarm, Lenore A., Ed.

    For many years, Aboriginal knowledge was invalidated by Western ways of knowing. This collection of papers discusses ways of teaching, ways of knowing, and ways of being that have sustained Aboriginal people for over 500 years. The papers are: "Spirit Writing: Writing Circles as Healing Pedagogy" (Lenore A. Stiffarm); "Pedagogy from…

  17. Supporting Success: Aboriginal Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallop, Cynthia J.; Bastien, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    For most Aboriginal students in Canada, the term "success" in postsecondary education is more complicated than the mainstream notions of higher socioeconomic status and career advancement. Historically, "success" for Aboriginal peoples in postsecondary education was linked to issues of assimilation, since to be successful meant…

  18. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  19. Preparing Aboriginal Students for Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Krause, R.G.; Stephens, M.C.C.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the Special Premedical Studies Program at the University of Manitoba and results of interviews with its graduates. This program prepares aboriginal students for admission to medical school. Six physicians and several other health professionals have graduated from the program. Respondents noted similarities in the needs of rural students and those of aboriginal students. PMID:21221337

  20. No Aboriginal Students left Behind in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sue-Jen; Hartzler-Miller, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    The project is motivated by Taiwan's huge gap of educational levels between the aborigines and the Hans. The low achievement of aboriginal students lies in factors related to problems in finance, health, and cultural difference, which contribute to their sense of self-deprecation. The purpose of the project is to provide early intervention and…

  1. Knowledge Building in an Aboriginal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The report on the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1996), the Kelowna Accord announced in 2005 (five-billion dollars) followed by its demise in 2006, and the settlement in 2006 for Aboriginal survivors of residential schools (1.9 billion dollars), are but some of the recent high-profile indicators of the challenges to Canada in dealing with…

  2. Aboriginal Healing Foundation Annual Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboriginal Healing Foundation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Aboriginal Healing Foundation (AHF) is a nonprofit organization established in 1998 with funding from the Canadian Government. Its mission is to support Aboriginal people in building sustainable healing processes that address the legacy of physical and sexual abuse in the residential school system, including intergenerational impacts. AHF…

  3. Weeding out or Developing Capacity? Challenges for Aboriginal Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Julian; Cherubini, Lorenzo; Trudeau, Lyn; Hodson, Janie

    2010-01-01

    Teacher education is critical to the development of Aboriginal teachers able to ensure success among Aboriginal learners and contribute to the preservation and renewal of Aboriginal communities. In a series of talking circles, six beginning Aboriginal teachers discussed their teacher preparation and their first years of practice. They expressed…

  4. Teacher Awareness and Understandings about Aboriginal English in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Vanderford, Samantha; Grote, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Repeated assessments of literacy skills have shown that Aboriginal students do not achieve at the same level as their non-Aboriginal peers. Many Aboriginal students speak Aboriginal English, a dialect different from the Standard Australian English used in schools. Research shows that it is crucial for educators in bidialectal contexts to be aware…

  5. Reconstructing the star knowledge of Aboriginal Tasmanians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantevoort, Michelle; Hamacher, Duane W.; Lischick, Savannah

    2016-12-01

    The canopy of stars is a central presence in the daily and spiritual lives of Aboriginal Tasmanians. With the arrival of European colonists, Tasmanian astronomical knowledge and traditions were interrupted and dispersed. Fragments can be found scattered in the ethnographic and historical record throughout the nineteenth century. We draw from these ethnohistorical documents to analyse and reconstruct Aboriginal astronomical knowledge in Tasmania. This analysis demonstrates that stars, the Milky Way, constellations, dark nebula, the Sun, Moon, meteors and aurorae held cultural, spiritual and subsistence significance for the Aboriginal cultures of Tasmania. We move beyond a monolithic view of Aboriginal astronomical knowledge in Tasmania, commonly portrayed in previous research, to lay the groundwork for future ethnographic and archaeological fieldwork with Aboriginal elders and communities.

  6. Innovations on a shoestring: a study of a collaborative community-based Aboriginal mental health service model in rural Canada

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Collaborative, culturally safe services that integrate clinical approaches with traditional Aboriginal healing have been hailed as promising approaches to ameliorate the high rates of mental health problems in Aboriginal communities in Canada. Overcoming significant financial and human resources barriers, a mental health team in northern Ontario is beginning to realize this ideal. We studied the strategies, strengths and challenges related to collaborative Aboriginal mental health care. Methods A participatory action research approach was employed to evaluate the Knaw Chi Ge Win services and their place in the broader mental health system. Qualitative methods were used as the primary source of data collection and included document review, ethnographic interviews with 15 providers and 23 clients; and 3 focus groups with community workers and managers. Results The Knaw Chi Ge Win model is an innovative, community-based Aboriginal mental health care model that has led to various improvements in care in a challenging rural, high needs environment. Formal opportunities to share information, shared protocols and ongoing education support this model of collaborative care. Positive outcomes associated with this model include improved quality of care, cultural safety, and integration of traditional Aboriginal healing with clinical approaches. Ongoing challenges include chronic lack of resources, health information and the still cursory understanding of Aboriginal healing and outcomes. Conclusions This model can serve to inform collaborative care in other rural and Indigenous mental health systems. Further research into traditional Aboriginal approaches to mental health is needed to continue advances in collaborative practice in a clinical setting. PMID:20017919

  7. Contextualising the social capital of Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in prison.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Lise; Treloar, Carla; Chambers, Georgina M; Butler, Tony; Guthrie, Jill

    2016-10-01

    Social capital is a valuable resource that has received little attention in the prison context. Differences in the construct and accessibility of bonding, bridging, and linking social capital exist for Aboriginal Australians in mainstream society, but were previously unexplored in prison. This study seeks to understand contextual differences of social capital for Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in prison. Thirty male inmates participated in qualitative interviews across three New South Wales (NSW) correctional centres. Interviews were completed between November 2014 and March 2015. Experiences of bonding and linking social capital varied among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants. Opportunities for bridging social capital were limited for all participants. There is greater scope for building bonding social capital among male inmates than either bridging or linking social capital. Bonding social capital, particularly among Aboriginal men in prison, should be utilised to promote health and other programs to inmates.

  8. Altered feeding habits and strategies of a benthic forage fish (Fundulus heteroclitus) in chronically polluted tidal salt marshes.

    PubMed

    Goto, Daisuke; Wallace, William G

    2011-07-01

    Responses in feeding ecology of a benthic forage fish, mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus), to altered prey resources were investigated in chronically polluted salt marshes (the Arthur Kill-AK, New York, USA). The diet niche breadth of the AK populations of mummichogs was significantly lower than that of the reference population, reflecting reduced benthic macroinfaunal species diversity. Most of the AK populations also had 2-3 times less food in their gut than the reference population. This disparity in gut fullness among the populations appeared to be partly due to ingested prey size shifts; some of the AK populations ingested fewer large prey than the reference population. Furthermore, benthic assemblages were strongly associated with sediment-associated mercury; gut fullness of the AK populations also significantly decreased with increasing mercury body burdens. These results indicate that chronic pollution may have directly (chemical bioaccumulation) and indirectly (reduced prey availability) altered the feeding ecology of mummichogs.

  9. Ontogenetic and among-individual variation in foraging strategies of northeast Pacific white sharks based on stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sora L; Tinker, M Tim; Estes, James A; Koch, Paul L

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence for individuality in dietary preferences and foraging behaviors within populations of various species. This is especially important for apex predators, since they can potentially have wide dietary niches and a large impact on trophic dynamics within ecosystems. We evaluate the diet of an apex predator, the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of vertebral growth bands to create lifetime records for 15 individuals from California. Isotopic variations in white shark diets can reflect within-region differences among prey (most importantly related to trophic level), as well as differences in baseline values among the regions in which sharks forage, and both prey and habitat preferences may shift with age. The magnitude of isotopic variation among sharks in our study (>5‰ for both elements) is too great to be explained solely by geographic differences, and so must reflect differences in prey choice that may vary with sex, size, age and location. Ontogenetic patterns in δ(15)N values vary considerably among individuals, and one third of the population fit each of these descriptions: 1) δ(15)N values increased throughout life, 2) δ(15)N values increased to a plateau at ∼5 years of age, and 3) δ(15)N values remained roughly constant values throughout life. Isotopic data for the population span more than one trophic level, and we offer a qualitative evaluation of diet using shark-specific collagen discrimination factors estimated from a 3+ year captive feeding experiment (Δ(13)C(shark-diet) and Δ(15)N(shark-diet) equal 4.2‰ and 2.5‰, respectively). We assess the degree of individuality with a proportional similarity index that distinguishes specialists and generalists. The isotopic variance is partitioned among differences between-individual (48%), within-individuals (40%), and by calendar year of sub-adulthood (12%). Our data reveal substantial ontogenetic and

  10. Productivity and carbon footprint of perennial grass-forage legume intercropping strategies with high or low nitrogen fertilizer input.

    PubMed

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Lachouani, Petra; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Ambus, Per; Boelt, Birte; Gislum, René

    2016-01-15

    A three-season field experiment was established and repeated twice with spring barley used as cover crop for different perennial grass-legume intercrops followed by a full year pasture cropping and winter wheat after sward incorporation. Two fertilization regimes were applied with plots fertilized with either a high or a low rate of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the carbon footprint (global warming potential) of the grassland management including measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions after sward incorporation. Without applying any mineral N fertilizer, the forage legume pure stand, especially red clover, was able to produce about 15 t above ground dry matter ha(-1) year(-1) saving around 325 kg mineral Nfertilizer ha(-1) compared to the cocksfoot and tall fescue grass treatments. The pure stand ryegrass yielded around 3t DM more than red clover in the high fertilizer treatment. Nitrous oxide emissions were highest in the treatments containing legumes. The LCA showed that the low input N systems had markedly lower carbon footprint values than crops from the high N input system with the pure stand legumes without N fertilization having the lowest carbon footprint. Thus, a reduction in N fertilizer application rates in the low input systems offsets increased N2O emissions after forage legume treatments compared to grass plots due to the N fertilizer production-related emissions. When including the subsequent wheat yield in the total aboveground production across the three-season rotation, the pure stand red clover without N application and pure stand ryegrass treatments with the highest N input equalled. The present study illustrate how leguminous biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) represents an important low impact renewable N source without reducing crop yields and thereby farmers earnings.

  11. Ontogenetic and among-individual variation in foraging strategies of northeast Pacific white sharks based on stable isotope analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, S.L.; Tinker, M. Tim; Estes, J.A.; Koch, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence for individuality in dietary preferences and foraging behaviors within populations of various species. This is especially important for apex predators, since they can potentially have wide dietary niches and a large impact on trophic dynamics within ecosystems. We evaluate the diet of an apex predator, the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of vertebral growth bands to create lifetime records for 15 individuals from California. Isotopic variations in white shark diets can reflect within-region differences among prey (most importantly related to trophic level), as well as differences in baseline values among the regions in which sharks forage, and both prey and habitat preferences may shift with age. The magnitude of isotopic variation among sharks in our study (>5‰ for both elements) is too great to be explained solely by geographic differences, and so must reflect differences in prey choice that may vary with sex, size, age and location. Ontogenetic patterns in δ15N values vary considerably among individuals, and one third of the population fit each of these descriptions: 1) δ15N values increased throughout life, 2) δ15N values increased to a plateau at ~5 years of age, and 3) δ15N values remained roughly constant values throughout life. Isotopic data for the population span more than one trophic level, and we offer a qualitative evaluation of diet using shark-specific collagen discrimination factors estimated from a 3+ year captive feeding experiment (Δ13Cshark-diet and Δ15Nshark-diet equal 4.2‰ and 2.5‰, respectively). We assess the degree of individuality with a proportional similarity index that distinguishes specialists and generalists. The isotopic variance is partitioned among differences between-individual (48%), within-individuals (40%), and by calendar year of sub-adulthood (12%). Our data reveal substantial ontogenetic and individual dietary

  12. Ontogenetic and Among-Individual Variation in Foraging Strategies of Northeast Pacific White Sharks Based on Stable Isotope Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sora L.; Tinker, M. Tim; Estes, James A.; Koch, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence for individuality in dietary preferences and foraging behaviors within populations of various species. This is especially important for apex predators, since they can potentially have wide dietary niches and a large impact on trophic dynamics within ecosystems. We evaluate the diet of an apex predator, the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of vertebral growth bands to create lifetime records for 15 individuals from California. Isotopic variations in white shark diets can reflect within-region differences among prey (most importantly related to trophic level), as well as differences in baseline values among the regions in which sharks forage, and both prey and habitat preferences may shift with age. The magnitude of isotopic variation among sharks in our study (>5‰ for both elements) is too great to be explained solely by geographic differences, and so must reflect differences in prey choice that may vary with sex, size, age and location. Ontogenetic patterns in δ15N values vary considerably among individuals, and one third of the population fit each of these descriptions: 1) δ15N values increased throughout life, 2) δ15N values increased to a plateau at ∼5 years of age, and 3) δ15N values remained roughly constant values throughout life. Isotopic data for the population span more than one trophic level, and we offer a qualitative evaluation of diet using shark-specific collagen discrimination factors estimated from a 3+ year captive feeding experiment (Δ13Cshark-diet and Δ15Nshark-diet equal 4.2‰ and 2.5‰, respectively). We assess the degree of individuality with a proportional similarity index that distinguishes specialists and generalists. The isotopic variance is partitioned among differences between-individual (48%), within-individuals (40%), and by calendar year of sub-adulthood (12%). Our data reveal substantial ontogenetic and individual dietary

  13. Effects of artificial illumination on the nocturnal foraging of waders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Carlos D.; Miranda, Ana C.; Granadeiro, José P.; Lourenço, Pedro M.; Saraiva, Sara; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2010-03-01

    Large areas of natural and semi-natural habitats are exposed to artificial illumination from adjacent urban areas and roads. Estuarine and coastal wetlands are particularly exposed to such illumination because shorelines often are heavily utilized by man. However, the impact of artificial illumination on the waders that forage in these highly productive habitats is virtually unknown. We evaluated the effects of artificial illumination on the nocturnal habitat selection and foraging behaviour of six wader species with different feeding strategies: three visual foragers, two species that alternate visual and tactile strategies (mixed foragers), and one tactile forager. We quantified the number of birds and their foraging behaviour at sites affected and not affected by streetlights, and also before and after illuminating experimental sites. Areas illuminated by streetlights were used more during the night by visual foragers, and to a lesser extent by mixed foragers, than non-illuminated areas. Visual foragers increased their foraging effort in illuminated areas, and mixed foragers changed to more efficient visual foraging strategies. These behavioural shifts improved prey intake rate by an average of 83% in visual and mixed foragers. We have showed that artificial illumination has a positive effect on the nocturnal foraging of waders, but on the other hand may draw them to degraded areas close to urban centres, and potentially raises their exposure to predators. Our findings suggest that artificial illumination is worth investigation as a tool in the management of intertidal habitats for waders.

  14. Melq'ilwiye: coming together--intersections of identity, culture, and health for urban Aboriginal youth.

    PubMed

    Clark, Natalie; Walton, Patrick; Drolet, Julie; Tribute, Tara; Jules, Georgia; Main, Talicia; Arnouse, Mike

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this exploratory community-based participatory action research project was twofold: to determine how urban Aboriginal youth identify their health needs within a culturally centred model of health and wellness, and to create new knowledge and research capacity by and with urban Aboriginal youth and urban Aboriginal health-care providers. A mixed-method approach was employed to examine these experiences using talking circles and a survey. The study contributes to anticolonial research in that it resists narratives of dis(ease) put forth through neocolonial research paradigms.A key focus was the development of strategies that address the aspirations of urban Aboriginal youth, laying foundations upon which their potential in health and wellness can be nurtured, supported, and realized. The study contributes to a new narrative of the health of urban Aboriginal youth within a culturally centred and culturally safe framework that acknowledges their strong connection to their Indigenous lands, languages, and traditions while also recognizing the spaces between which they move.

  15. Understanding Canada's Aboriginal Peoples: A Regional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Terry

    1993-01-01

    Reviews materials from history, anthropology, art, and journalism related Canada's aboriginal peoples. Uses a regional geography approach to present information. Includes an extensive annotated bibliography of resources for classroom teachers. (CFR)

  16. Aboriginal fractions: enumerating identity in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jennifer A

    2012-01-01

    Notions of identity in Taiwan are configured in relation to numbers. I examine the polyvalent capacities of enumerative technologies in both the production of ethnic identities and claims to political representation and justice. By critically historicizing the manner in which Aborigines in Taiwan have been, and continue to be, constructed as objects and subjects of scientific knowledge production through technologies of measuring, I examine the genetic claim made by some Taiwanese to be "fractionally" Aboriginal. Numbers and techniques of measuring are used ostensibly to know the Aborigines, but they are also used to construct a genetically unique Taiwanese identity and to incorporate the Aborigines within projects of democratic governance. Technologies of enumeration thus serve within multiple, and sometimes contradictory, projects of representation and knowledge production.

  17. Supporting Australian Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal Nursing Students Using Mentoring Circles: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jane; Felton-Busch, Catrina; Park, Tanya; Maza, Karen; Mills, Frances; Ghee, McCauley; Hitchins, Marnie; Chamberlain-Salaun, Jennifer; Neuendorf, Nalisa

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to recruit Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students into nursing degrees have made minimal impact on the number of registered nurses working in Australia's healthcare sector. Yet increasing the number of Indigenous nurses remains one of the most important objectives in strategies to close the health gap between Indigenous and…

  18. Adolescent Career Development in Urban-Residing Aboriginal Families in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Sheila K.; Young, Richard A.; Stevens, Alison; Spence, Wayne; Deyell, Stewart; Easterbrook, Adam; Brokenleg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how urban-residing Aboriginal adolescent-parent dyads (n = 11) jointly constructed and acted on goals and strategies with their social supports (n = 17) to facilitate the adolescents' career development. A modified protocol following the qualitative action-project method was used. A discrete joint…

  19. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia.

    PubMed

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C; Muller, Craig; Sousa, Vitor C; Lao, Oscar; Alves, Isabel; Bergström, Anders; Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y; Crawford, Jacob E; Heupink, Tim H; Macholdt, Enrico; Peischl, Stephan; Rasmussen, Simon; Schiffels, Stephan; Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L; Albrechtsen, Anders; Barbieri, Chiara; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Eriksson, Anders; Margaryan, Ashot; Moltke, Ida; Pugach, Irina; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Levkivskyi, Ivan P; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Ni, Shengyu; Racimo, Fernando; Sikora, Martin; Xue, Yali; Aghakhanian, Farhang A; Brucato, Nicolas; Brunak, Søren; Campos, Paula F; Clark, Warren; Ellingvåg, Sturla; Fourmile, Gudjugudju; Gerbault, Pascale; Injie, Darren; Koki, George; Leavesley, Matthew; Logan, Betty; Lynch, Aubrey; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; McAllister, Peter J; Mentzer, Alexander J; Metspalu, Mait; Migliano, Andrea B; Murgha, Les; Phipps, Maude E; Pomat, William; Reynolds, Doc; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Siba, Peter; Thomas, Mark G; Wales, Thomas; Wall, Colleen Ma'run; Oppenheimer, Stephen J; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Durbin, Richard; Dortch, Joe; Manica, Andrea; Schierup, Mikkel H; Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta Mirazón; Bowern, Claire; Wall, Jeffrey D; Mailund, Thomas; Stoneking, Mark; Nielsen, Rasmus; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Excoffier, Laurent; Lambert, David M; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-10-13

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ~10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert.

  20. Aboriginal Education as Cultural Brokerage: New Aboriginal Teachers Reflect on Language and Culture in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Julian; Cherubini, Lorenzo; Trudeau, Lyn; Hodson, Janie M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a Talking Circle of six beginning Aboriginal teachers who discussed their roles as teachers. Participants criticized teacher education programs for not preparing them to teach in ways that are respectful of Aboriginal languages and culture. They discussed the importance of coming to know themselves and their culture. The…

  1. How Aboriginal Peer Interactions in Upper Primary School Sport Support Aboriginal Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kickett-Tucker, Cheryl S.

    2008-01-01

    This ethnographic study tested the hypothesis that positive social interactions in sport will contribute positively to the Aboriginal identity of urban, Australian Aboriginal children. Nine male and female children aged 11-12 years were observed and interviewed. Significant responses were extracted and meanings were identified and grouped into…

  2. Differences between Values of Australian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Gerald J.; White, Colin

    1994-01-01

    Examines differences in the values of 112 aboriginal university students and 106 nonaboriginal students at an Australian university. Aboriginal students placed more emphasis on values associated with tradition, conformity, and security, and less on values associated with achievement, self-direction, stimulation, hedonism, and benevolence. Results…

  3. Phonemic awareness and early spelling skills in urban Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children.

    PubMed

    Williams, Corinne J; Masterson, Julie J

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the phonological awareness and early spelling skills of 10 Australian Aboriginal and 10 non-Aboriginal children in their first year of schooling at urban schools. Phonological awareness was assessed using a standardized test (the Queensland University Inventory of Literacy), and children completed a standard spelling task that required them to generate spelling attempts in response to 12 line drawings of familiar animals. Spelling was analysed using the Spelling Scoring Sensitivity procedure. All children performed within the normal range for scores on the QUIL. However, as a group, Aboriginal children performed more poorly than their non-Aboriginal peers. Statistically significant differences were found on the subtests non-word spelling, non-word reading, and phoneme segmentation. Both formal scoring and informal observations were used to examine the spelling skills of participants. Possible explanations of the differences between groups are discussed in terms of health and cultural factors, and implications for the education of Aboriginal children are suggested.

  4. Evidence of trapline foraging in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Buatois, Alexis; Lihoreau, Mathieu

    2016-08-15

    Central-place foragers exploiting floral resources often use multi-destination routes (traplines) to maximise their foraging efficiency. Recent studies on bumblebees have showed how solitary foragers can learn traplines, minimising travel costs between multiple replenishing feeding locations. Here we demonstrate a similar routing strategy in the honeybee (Apis mellifera), a major pollinator known to recruit nestmates to discovered food resources. Individual honeybees trained to collect sucrose solution from four artificial flowers arranged within 10 m of the hive location developed repeatable visitation sequences both in the laboratory and in the field. A 10-fold increase of between-flower distances considerably intensified this routing behaviour, with bees establishing more stable and more efficient routes at larger spatial scales. In these advanced social insects, trapline foraging may complement cooperative foraging for exploiting food resources near the hive (where dance recruitment is not used) or when resources are not large enough to sustain multiple foragers at once.

  5. Explaining aboriginal/non-aboriginal inequalities in postseparation violence against Canadian women: application of a structural violence approach.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Jeanette Somlak; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Pulkingham, Jane

    2013-08-01

    Adopting a structural violence approach, we analyzed 2004 Canadian General Social Survey data to examine Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal inequalities in postseparation intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Aboriginal women had 4.12 times higher odds of postseparation IPV than non-Aboriginal women (p < .001). Coercive control and age explained most of this inequality. The final model included Aboriginal status, age, a seven-item coercive control index, and stalking, which reduced the odds ratio for Aboriginal status to 1.92 (p = .085) and explained 70.5% of the Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal inequality in postseparation IPV. Research and action are needed that challenge structural violence, especially colonialism and its negative consequences.

  6. The Rainbow/Holistic Approach to Aboriginal Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Ningwakwe Priscilla

    2003-01-01

    Aboriginal literacy programs in Canada are using literacy as a means of reclaiming Aboriginal languages and a positive cultural identity. The Rainbow/Holistic Approach to Aboriginal literacy uses seven ways of knowing, each corresponding to a color. The approach recognizes that spirit, heart, mind, and body equally contribute to a life of balance,…

  7. Supporting Educational Success for Aboriginal Students: Identifying Key Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The academic difficulties experienced by many Aboriginal (First Nations, Métis, Inuit) students in Canada have been well-documented. Indicators such as school persistence and post-secondary enrollment are typically far lower for Aboriginal students as a group compared to non-Aboriginal students. Identifying facilitators of success is key to…

  8. The Coercive Sterilization of Aboriginal Women in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stote, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the coercive sterilization of Aboriginal women in legislated and non-legislated form in Canada. I provide an historical and materialist critique of coercive sterilization. I argue for coercive sterilization to be understood as one of many policies employed to undermine Aboriginal women, to separate Aboriginal peoples from…

  9. Decolonizing Aboriginal Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munroe, Elizabeth Ann; Lunney-Borden, Lisa; Murray-Orr, Anne; Toney, Denise; Meader, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Concerned by the need to decolonize education for Aboriginal students, the authors explore philosophies of Indigenous ways of knowing and those of the 21st century learning movement. In their efforts to propose a way forward with Aboriginal education, the authors inquire into harmonies between Aboriginal knowledges and tenets of 21st century…

  10. Decolonization, Reinhabitation and Reconciliation: Aboriginal and Place-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal/Indigenous education is being increasingly emphasized in Faculties of Education across Canada. Through self-study as an instructor of a mandatory course in Aboriginal education in a Faculty of Education, the author is exploring the use of local, place-based education in the fostering of cross-cultural understanding of Aboriginal and…

  11. Aboriginal Early Childhood Education in Canada: Issues of Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jane P.; Cottrell, Michael; Pelletier, Terrance R.; Pearce, Joseph V.

    2012-01-01

    Herein we provide a literature synthesis pertaining to the state of Aboriginal early childhood education in Canada. We identify key features of quality Aboriginal early childhood programs. The background and significance of early childhood education for Aboriginal peoples is explicated. Cultural compatibility theory is employed as the…

  12. A Handbook for Aboriginal Parents of Children with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowchief-McHugh, Daphne; Yellowhorne-Breaker, Kathy; Weasel Fat-White, Freda

    To develop this handbook, three Aboriginal teachers gathered extensive data through workshops; questionnaires; and research with Elders, Aboriginal parents, teachers, advocates, and others who work first-hand with children with special needs. The handbook opens by presenting the traditional Aboriginal perspective on disabled children--that they…

  13. Risk of predation reflects variation in the reproductive strategy of a dominant forage fish in mangrove tidal tributaries.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Justin M; Bell, Susan S

    2012-03-01

    The role of predators in shaping prey life histories is a central theme in the ecological literature. However, the association between degree of predation risk and prey reproductive strategies has not been clearly established. We examined reproduction in the sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna) from small tidal tributaries in a subtropical estuary. Our results revealed a gradient along which females produced many, small offspring at one extreme (mean = 42 offspring, 17 mg each) and fewer, larger offspring at the other (24 offspring, 29 mg each). Reproductive allotment ranged from 14.9-21.5% of maternal biomass. Based on our observation of divergent reproductive strategies, we experimentally tested the null hypothesis of no difference in predation risk among tributaries using a novel quantitative approach to estimate predation. We predicted greater risk in tributaries where mollies produced many, small offspring. Tethering confirmed increasing risk from 16.2 ± 5.3% SE to 54.7 ± 3.6% fish lost h(-1) across sites in agreement with observed variation in reproduction. Predation was unexpectedly higher than predicted at one of the four sites suggesting that additional factors (e.g., food) had influenced reproduction there. Our results provide insight into the well-studied concept of predator-mediated variation in prey reproduction by quantitatively demonstrating differential risk for mollies exhibiting divergent reproductive strategies. While the observed range of variation in reproductive traits was consistent with previous studies reporting strong predator effects, higher than expected predation in one case may suggest that the prey response does not follow a continuous trajectory of incremental change with increasing predation risk, but may be better defined as a threshold beyond which a significant shift in reproductive strategy occurs.

  14. Culture-based literacy and Aboriginal health.

    PubMed

    Smylie, Janet; Williams, Lewis; Cooper, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    This is a summary report of the Aboriginal content of the Language and Culture theme at the Canadian Public Health Association's Second Canadian Conference on Literacy and Health. Our key premise is that Indigenous conceptualizations of literacy need to build on Indigenous understandings and perspectives. We support this premise through a review of the relevant literature in the disciplines of Aboriginal literacy, Indigenous education, health literacy, health promotion, and knowledge translation and our synthesis of the presentations, workshops, and discussions at the meeting. Key emergent themes include: the unique and culturally determined ways in which Aboriginal peoples and their languages conceptualize learning, education, and health; and the recognition that self-determination of language and learning are human rights. Aboriginal concepts of and approaches to literacy naturally link to and overlap with Aboriginal concepts of and approaches to health. The paper includes an overview of gaps in the field and an example of the way that research and practice can be brought together in the context of one First Nations community.

  15. Closing the Education Gap: A Case for Aboriginal Early Childhood Education in Canada, a Look at the Aboriginal Headstart Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Mai

    2011-01-01

    This paper raises awareness concerning the education gap between Aboriginal youth and the non-Aboriginal youth population in Canada. It argues that the historical consequences of colonialism that resulted in diminished sense of self-worth, self-determination, and culture have placed Aboriginals at the low-end of the socio-economic strata. This…

  16. Knowledge translation lessons from an audit of Aboriginal Australians with acute coronary syndrome presenting to a regional hospital

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Emma; Hohnen, Harry; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Scalley, Benjamin D; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Translation of evidence into practice by health systems can be slow and incomplete and may disproportionately impact disadvantaged populations. Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death among Aboriginal Australians. Timely access to effective medical care for acute coronary syndrome substantially improves survival. A quality-of-care audit conducted at a regional Western Australian hospital in 2011–2012 compared the Emergency Department management of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal acute coronary syndrome patients. This audit is used as a case study of translating knowledge processes in order to identify the factors that support equity-oriented knowledge translation. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of the audit team and further key stakeholders with interest/experience in knowledge translation in the context of Aboriginal health. Interviews were analysed for alignment of the knowledge translation process with the thematic steps outlined in Tugwell’s cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation framework. Results: In preparing the audit, groundwork helped shape management support to ensure receptivity to targeting Aboriginal cardiovascular outcomes. Reporting of audit findings and resulting advocacy were undertaken by the audit team with awareness of the institutional hierarchy, appropriate timing, personal relationships and recognising the importance of tailoring messages to specific audiences. These strategies were also acknowledged as important in the key stakeholder interviews. A follow-up audit documented a general improvement in treatment guideline adherence and a reduction in treatment inequalities for Aboriginal presentations. Conclusion: As well as identifying outcomes such as practice changes, a useful evaluation increases understanding of why and how an intervention worked. Case studies such as this enrich our understanding of the complex human factors, including individual attributes

  17. The politics of evaluating Aboriginal Health Services.

    PubMed

    Moodie, R

    1989-01-01

    Evaluation of Aboriginal Health Services (AHSs) has become a topic of importance to service providers and governments in recent years. This paper examines some of the difficulties AHSs have in conducting evaluation and presents an example of an inappropriate evaluation methodology as proposed by the Commonwealth Department of Aboriginal Affairs (DAA) in 1986. The paper examines the contradictory nature of the DAA proposal and the mistrust it has engendered in many AHSs. It then highlights some of the political difficulties in developing meaningful national and community health objectives as a basis for sound evaluation of health services. The paper concludes by identifying some of the processes whereby more appropriate evaluation methodologies might be developed and suggests that negotiation and consultation with the Aboriginal communities and their health services are imperative to successful evaluation.

  18. Do crabeater seals forage cooperatively?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gales, Nicholas J.; Fraser, William R.; Costa, Daniel P.; Southwell, Colin

    2004-08-01

    Crabeater seals are abundant pack-ice predators that feed almost exclusively on krill. They have a circumpolar distribution and are generally sighted hauled out on ice floes alone or in pairs. Here we report our observations of a sighting of 150-200 crabeater seals, which were synchronised in their diving and surfacing behaviour, along with a summary of similar observations from western Antarctica of large groups of crabeater seals in synchronous dive cycles. We report on the low frequency of sightings of such groups during Antarctic pack-ice seal surveys in eastern (Greater) Antarctica. We examine plausible hypotheses to explain these observations, and suggest this behaviour is likely to represent some form of cooperative foraging behaviour, whereby a net advantage in individual energy intake rates is conferred to each seal. Current research on crabeater seal foraging using satellite-linked dive recorders is unlikely to provide sufficiently fine-scale data to examine this hypothesis. Nor will this approach indicate if a seal is foraging with conspecifics. The use of remote or animal-borne camera systems is more likely to provide an insight into fine-scale foraging tactics, as well as the possible, occasional use of cooperative foraging strategies.

  19. Predictive accuracy of dynamic risk factors for aboriginal and non-aboriginal sex offenders: an exploratory comparison using STABLE-2007.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Leslie; Babchishin, Kelly M; Blais, Julie

    2012-09-01

    Although Aboriginal offenders are overrepresented in Canadian prisons, there is limited research examining the extent to which commonly used risk factors and risk scales are applicable to Aboriginals. Aboriginal (n = 88) and non-Aboriginal (n = 509) sex offenders on community supervision were compared on the dynamic risk factors of STABLE-2007. Data on sexual, violent, any crime, and any recidivism (including breaches) were collected with an average follow-up of 3.4 years. Aboriginal offenders scored significantly higher than non-Aboriginal offenders on STABLE-2007 total scores and on several items measuring general criminality. STABLE-2007 did not significantly predict recidivism with Aboriginal offenders (although it did for non-Aboriginals). The general antisociality items were generally significantly less predictive for Aboriginals than non-Aboriginals, whereas items assessing sexual self-regulation and relationship stability predicted similarly for both groups. These exploratory results suggest that Aboriginal sex offenders are a higher-needs group but that some STABLE-2007 items are not predictive with this population.

  20. The Public Health Implications of the Use and Misuse of Tobacco among the Aboriginals in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Orisatoki, Rotimi

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking among the Aboriginal populations is a major public health issue in Canada. It remains a major contributory risk factor to the poor health status as well as years of potential life lost seen among the indigenous people. The use of tobacco has a spiritual importance to the people as a means of making connection to the Creator, but unfortunately tobacco smoking has taken a recreational aspect which has little or no connection with Aboriginal spirituality. The non-traditional use of tobacco is believed by the Elders to be disrespectful to the Aboriginal culture and traditional way of life. There is an increase in rate of use of smokeless tobacco as well as smoking of tobacco among the youth with increase in percentage among females. There are socioeconomic implications as well as adverse health effects of the misuse of tobacco on the Aboriginal people that need to be addressed. The healthcare professionals have a unique role in helping patients to reduce tobacco use within the community through programs that are culturally sensitive and relevant. Successful strategies requires general support from the community and it is very important that some of that support comes from community leaders, including spiritual, professional, administrative and elected policy makers. PMID:23283033

  1. The public health implications of the use and misuse of tobacco among the Aboriginals in Canada.

    PubMed

    Orisatoki, Rotimi

    2012-10-28

    Tobacco smoking among the Aboriginal populations is a major public health issue in Canada. It remains a major contributory risk factor to the poor health status as well as years of potential life lost seen among the indigenous people. The use of tobacco has a spiritual importance to the people as a means of making connection to the Creator, but unfortunately tobacco smoking has taken a recreational aspect which has little or no connection with Aboriginal spirituality. The non-traditional use of tobacco is believed by the Elders to be disrespectful to the Aboriginal culture and traditional way of life. There is an increase in rate of use of smokeless tobacco as well as smoking of tobacco among the youth with increase in percentage among females. There are socioeconomic implications as well as adverse health effects of the misuse of tobacco on the Aboriginal people that need to be addressed. The healthcare professionals have a unique role in helping patients to reduce tobacco use within the community through programs that are culturally sensitive and relevant. Successful strategies requires general support from the community and it is very important that some of that support comes from community leaders, including spiritual, professional, administrative and elected policy makers.

  2. Knowledge transfer and exchange processes for environmental health issues in Canadian Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Jack, Susan M; Brooks, Sandy; Furgal, Chris M; Dobbins, Maureen

    2010-02-01

    Within Canadian Aboriginal communities, the process for utilizing environmental health research evidence in the development of policies and programs is not well understood. This fundamental qualitative descriptive study explored the perceptions of 28 environmental health researchers, senior external decision-makers and decision-makers working within Aboriginal communities about factors influencing knowledge transfer and exchange, beliefs about research evidence and Traditional Knowledge and the preferred communication channels for disseminating and receiving evidence. The results indicate that collaborative relationships between researchers and decision-makers, initiated early and maintained throughout a research project, promote both the efficient conduct of a study and increase the likelihood of knowledge transfer and exchange. Participants identified that empirical research findings and Traditional Knowledge are different and distinct types of evidence that should be equally valued and used where possible to provide a holistic understanding of environmental issues and support decisions in Aboriginal communities. To facilitate the dissemination of research findings within Aboriginal communities, participants described the elements required for successfully crafting key messages, locating and using credible messengers to deliver the messages, strategies for using cultural brokers and identifying the communication channels commonly used to disseminate and receive this type of information.

  3. Diabetes mellitus and the Aboriginal diabetic initiative in Canada: An update review

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease of major global health concern due to its increasing prevalence in both developing and developed counties, with a projection increase of 214% from the year 2000 to 2030. Among the Aboriginal population of Canada (which includes the First Nations, Inuit and Metis), diabetes mellitus contribute significantly to their higher morbidity and increased health disparity when compared to the non-Aboriginal Canadians. In view of this, the Federal Government of Canada had launched the Aboriginal Diabetes Initiative (ADI) in 1999 as part of the bigger Canadian Diabetes Strategy to provide a better framework for surveillance, public education and community-based management of diabetes. Originally, ADI was intended for a 5-year cycle, but it was renewed twice in 2005 and then 2010, with a total funding of C$523 million. Given its long history of operation and the massive amount of revenue being injected, it is worthwhile to review the background information and the relevant data that had fostered the ADI; and more importantly, to critically evaluate the benefits and impact of the ADI in terms of the actual health of the Aboriginals and their social inequalities. PMID:27843824

  4. Evaluation of the pilot phase of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Male Health Module.

    PubMed

    Tsey, Komla; Chigeza, Philemon; Holden, Carol A; Bulman, Jack; Gruis, Hilton; Wenitong, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article evaluates the pilot phase of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Male Health Module. Although men experience higher levels of illness and die younger than women, educational programs to support health workers utilise a gender-based approach to increase participation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males in health care are rare and lack appropriate content. Recognising this gap in service provision, and under the guidance of a Reference Group comprising community leaders in Aboriginal and Torres Strait male health, a comprehensive and culturally appropriate Male Health Module has been developed to enhance the capacity of health workers to improve access to services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males. Methods used were: in-depth interviews with Module developers, pilot workshops for trainers and health workers, questionnaires and focus group discussions with workshop participants, and participant observations. As well as enhancing capacity to facilitate access to health services for men, the Module was deemed relevant because of its potential to promote health worker empowerment and wellbeing. Findings revealed that improving access to services for men required male and female health workers working in partnership. Despite overall enthusiasm for the Module, the findings also revealed deep fear that it would end up 'collecting dust on shelves'. Strategies to improve the Module quality and accessibility are highlighted.

  5. Understanding Australian Aboriginal Tertiary Student Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…

  6. Community Control and Self-Determination in Aboriginal Education Research: The Changed Roles, Relationships and Responsibilities of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Researchers and Aboriginal Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Shayne; Stewart, Ian

    This paper examines ongoing changes related to appropriate methods and practices in Aboriginal educational research, including community control of research based on the principle of self-determination. This assertion of control includes the redefinition of relationships in the research process; appropriate initiation of research projects;…

  7. Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Designed to renew the relationship between the Canadian government and the Aboriginal peoples of Canada, this action plan contains a statement of reconciliation, a statement of renewal, and four key objectives for action. First, renewing partnerships includes community-based healing to address the negative effects of the residential schools…

  8. Developing a Living Archive of Aboriginal Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bow, Catherine; Christie, Michael; Devlin, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The fluctuating fortunes of Northern Territory bilingual education programs in Australian languages and English have put at risk thousands of books developed for these programs in remote schools. In an effort to preserve such a rich cultural and linguistic heritage, the Living Archive of Aboriginal Languages project is establishing an open access,…

  9. Native Americans and Aboriginal Australian Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Sharon Pray

    Aboriginal Australians represent 1.5% of Australia's population, nearly double the percentage of native people in the U.S. population. While indigenous peoples throughout the world share common similarities, particularly contemporary issues and their spiritual regard for nature, many aspects of their lifestyles are different, such as governance,…

  10. Aboriginal Knowledge Traditions in Digital Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Michael

    2005-01-01

    According to Manovich (2001), the database and the narrative are natural enemies, each competing for the same territory of human culture. Aboriginal knowledge traditions depend upon narrative through storytelling and other shared performances. The database objectifies and commodifies distillations of such performances and absorbs them into data…

  11. Developmental milestones among Aboriginal children in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, Leanne; Kohen, Dafna; Miller, Anton

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Windows of achievement provide age ranges for the attainment of early developmental skills. Group-specific research is warranted given that development may be influenced by social or cultural factors. OBJECTIVES: To examine developmental milestones for Inuit, Métis and off-reserve First Nation children in Canada, based on developmental domains collected from the 2006 Aboriginal Children’s Survey. Sociodemographic and health predictors of risk for developmental delay were also examined. RESULTS: The ranges in which children achieve certain developmental milestones are presented. Gross motor and self-help skills were found to be achieved earlier (across the three Aboriginal groups), whereas language skills were achieved slightly later than in Canadian children in general. Furthermore, health factors (eg, low birth weight, chronic health conditions) were associated with late achievement of developmental outcomes even when sociodemographic characteristics were considered. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that the timing of milestone achievement may differ for Aboriginal children, highlighting the importance of establishing culturally specific norms and standards rather than relying on those derived from general populations. This information may be useful for practitioners and parents interested in identifying the age ranges for development, as well as age ranges indicating potential for developmental risk and opportunities for early intervention among Aboriginal children. PMID:24855426

  12. Australian Aboriginal Language Early Childhood Education Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Tony

    This report discusses the provision of culturally appropriate early childhood programs in Australian Aboriginal language in Australia, and the education of teachers for these programs. The first section of the report examines the education of indigenous peoples in the context of the current Australian education system. Evidence in support of the…

  13. Micmac Indians Present Aboriginal Rights Claim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northian, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Nova Scotia's Micmac Indian leaders presented their claim for aboriginal rights to the Federal Government April 25, 1977 in an historic and symbolic ceremony on their home ground at the Eskasoni Reserve. The article discusses this event and some of the Micmacs' demands. (NQ)

  14. Governance and Aboriginal Claims in Northern Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozzetto, Don

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on problems of organization and governance that may follow settlement of Canadian aboriginal land claims. Compares financial problems, cultural issues such as subsistence lifestyles, and intergovernmental relations following the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, and Western Arctic (Inuvialuit)…

  15. Optimal forager against ideal free distributed prey.

    PubMed

    Garay, József; Cressman, Ross; Xu, Fei; Varga, Zoltan; Cabello, Tomás

    2015-07-01

    The introduced dispersal-foraging game is a combination of prey habitat selection between two patch types and optimal-foraging approaches. Prey's patch preference and forager behavior determine the prey's survival rate. The forager's energy gain depends on local prey density in both types of exhaustible patches and on leaving time. We introduce two game-solution concepts. The static solution combines the ideal free distribution of the prey with optimal-foraging theory. The dynamical solution is given by a game dynamics describing the behavioral changes of prey and forager. We show (1) that each stable equilibrium dynamical solution is always a static solution, but not conversely; (2) that at an equilibrium dynamical solution, the forager can stabilize prey mixed patch use strategy in cases where ideal free distribution theory predicts that prey will use only one patch type; and (3) that when the equilibrium dynamical solution is unstable at fixed prey density, stable behavior cycles occur where neither forager nor prey keep a fixed behavior.

  16. The missing link in Aboriginal care: resource accounting.

    PubMed

    Ashton, C W; Duffie-Ashton, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Resource accounting principles provide more effective planning for Aboriginal healthcare delivery through driving best management practices, efficacious techniques for long-term resource allocation, transparency of information and performance measurement. Major improvements to Aboriginal health in New Zealand and Australia were facilitated in the context of this public finance paradigm, rather than cash accounting systems that remain the current method for public departments in Canada. Multiple funding sources and fragmented delivery of Aboriginal healthcare can be remedied through similar adoption of such principles.

  17. A phase II clinical trial of a dental health education program delivered by aboriginal health workers to prevent early childhood caries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a widespread problem in Australian Aboriginal communities causing severe pain and sepsis. In addition dental services are difficult to access for many Aboriginal children and trying to obtain care can be stressful for the parents. The control of dental caries has been identified as a key indictor in the reduction of Indigenous disadvantage. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to prevent ECC, which reflect the cultural norms of Aboriginal communities. Methods/Design This is a Phase II single arm trial designed to gather information on the effectiveness of a dental health education program for Aboriginal children aged 6 months, followed over 2 years. The program will deliver advice from Aboriginal Health Workers on tooth brushing, diet and the use of fluoride toothpaste to Aboriginal families. Six waves of data collection will be conducted to enable estimates of change in parental knowledge and their views on the acceptability of the program. The Aboriginal Health Workers will also be interviewed to record their views on the acceptability and program feasibility. Clinical data on the child participants will be recorded when they are 30 months old and compared with a reference population of similar children when the study began. Latent variable modeling will be used to interpret the intervention effects on disease outcome. Discussion The research project will identify barriers to the implementation of a family centered Aboriginal oral health strategy, as well as the development of evidence to assist in the planning of a Phase III cluster randomized study. Trial registration ACTRN12612000712808 PMID:22909327

  18. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-03-21

    Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia.

  19. The hidden cost of information in collective foraging

    PubMed Central

    Dechaume-Moncharmont, François-Xavier; Dornhaus, Anna; Houston, Alasdair I; McNamara, John M; Collins, Edmund J; Franks, Nigel R

    2005-01-01

    Many animals nest or roost colonially. At the start of a potential foraging period, they may set out independently or await information from returning foragers. When should such individuals act independently and when should they wait for information? In a social insect colony, for example, information transfer may greatly increase a recruit's probability of finding food, and it is commonly assumed that this will always increase the colony's net energy gain. We test this assumption with a mathematical model. Energy gain by a colony is a function both of the probability of finding food sources and of the duration of their availability. A key factor is the ratio of pro-active foragers to re-active foragers. When leaving the nest, pro-active foragers search for food independently, whereas re-active foragers rely on information from successful foragers to find food. Under certain conditions, the optimum strategy is totally independent (pro-active) foraging because potentially valuable information that re-active foragers may gain from successful foragers is not worth waiting for. This counter-intuitive outcome is remarkably robust over a wide range of parameters. It occurs because food sources are only available for a limited period. Our study emphasizes the importance of time constraints and the analysis of dynamics, not just steady states, to understand social insect foraging. PMID:16087424

  20. Starting points and pathways in Aboriginal students' learning of number: recognising different world views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treacy, Kaye; Frid, Sandra; Jacob, Lorraine

    2015-09-01

    This research was designed to investigate the conceptualisations and thinking strategies Indigenous Australian students use in counting tasks. Eighteen Aboriginal students, in years 1 to 11 at a remote community school, were interviewed using standard counting tasks and a `counting' task that involved fetching `maku' (witchetty grubs) to have enough to give a maku to each person in a picture. The tasks were developed with, and the interviews conducted by, an Aboriginal research assistant, to ensure appropriate cultural and language contexts. A main finding was that most of the students did not see the need to use counting to make equivalent sets, even though they were able to demonstrate standard counting skills. The findings highlight a need to further examine the world views, orientations and related mathematical concepts and processes that Indigenous students bring to school.

  1. Using participatory action research to prevent suicide in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.

    PubMed

    Cox, Adele; Dudgeon, Pat; Holland, Christopher; Kelly, Kerrie; Scrine, Clair; Walker, Roz

    2014-01-01

    The National Empowerment Project is an innovative Aboriginal-led community empowerment project that has worked with eight Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities across Australia over the period 2012-13. The aim of the Project was to develop, deliver and evaluate a program to: (1) promote positive social and emotional well-being to increase resilience and reduce the high reported rates of psychological distress and suicide among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; and (2) empower communities to take action to address the social determinants that contribute to psychological distress, suicide and self-harm. Using a participatory action research approach, the communities were supported to identify the risk factors challenging individuals, families and communities, as well as strategies to strengthen protective factors against these challenges. Data gathered during Stage 1 were used to develop a 12-month program to promote social and emotional well-being and build resilience within each community. A common framework, based on the social and emotional well-being concept, was used to support each community to target community-identified protective factors and strategies to strengthen individual, family and community social and emotional well-being. Strengthening the role of culture is critical to this approach and marks an important difference between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous mental health promotion and prevention activities, including suicide prevention. It has significant implications for policy makers and service providers and is showing positive impact through the translation of research into practice, for example through the development of a locally run empowerment program that aims to address the social determinants of health and their ongoing negative impact on individuals, families and communities. It also provides a framework in which to develop and strengthen culture, connectedness and foster self

  2. Aboriginal English: Some Grammatical Features and Their Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal English has been documented in widely separated parts of Australia and, despite some stylistic and regional variation, is remarkably consistent across the continent, and provides a vehicle for the common expression of Aboriginal identity. There is, however, some indeterminacy in the way in which the term is used in much academic and…

  3. Intellectual Disability in Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In mid-2001, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population in Australia was approximately 458,500 people (2.4% of the national population). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia experience disadvantage compared to non-Indigenous Australians in a number of areas, including greater prevalence of health risk factors, early…

  4. Research: Documenting an Urban/Rural Aboriginal Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Margaret R.

    During research on cultural differences in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander pedagogy, it became obvious that the lack of an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander cultural typology was impeding research progress. The author's cultural heritage group, the Malara People, a subgroup of the Bandjalang People of northern New South Wales,…

  5. Residential Schools: Impact on Aboriginal Students' Academic and Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Rosemary; Josefowitz, Nina; Cole, Ester

    2006-01-01

    Government commissions have demonstrated that residential schools' ability to educate aboriginal students was compromised by widespread problems including (a) inadequate curriculum, staffing, instruction time, and parental involvement; (b) racism; (c) prohibition against the use of aboriginal language; and (d) maltreatment. This article uses…

  6. An Exploratory Study of Binge Drinking in the Aboriginal Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardman, Dennis; Quantz, Darryl

    2005-01-01

    There is little research available on binge drinking among the Aboriginal population. Between March and June 2004, 15 Aboriginal persons participated in a semi-structured interview related to their binge drinking behaviors. The majority of participants were women and described a family history of alcoholism and childhood abuse. Factors that…

  7. The Ancestor Project: Aboriginal Computer Education through Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Marla; Biin, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the ANCESTOR program is to use digital storytelling as a means of promoting an interest in technology careers for Aboriginal learners, as well as increasing cultural literacy. A curriculum was developed and first tested with Aboriginal students at the LÁU,WELNEW Tribal School near Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Based on feedback…

  8. Aspirations of Adult Learners in Aboriginal Family Service Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jason; Fraehlich, Cheryl; Debassige, Brent

    2012-01-01

    There is a gap in the literature on the experiences of Aboriginal adults who have made the transition into education and employment after moving to an urban community. Staff of three Aboriginal inner-city family services agencies participated in an interview that included the question: What changes do you see in your employment and education?…

  9. Seeding Success: Schools That Work for Aboriginal Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munns, Geoff; O'Rourke, Virginia; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a large mixed methods research project that investigated the conditions of success for Aboriginal school students. The article presents the qualitative case study component of the research. It details the work of four schools identified as successful for Aboriginal students with respect to social and academic outcomes, and…

  10. Aboriginal Street-involved Youth Experience Elevated Risk of Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Brittany; Alfred, Gerald Taiaiake; Fleming, Kim; Nguyen, Paul; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; DeBeck, Kora

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Past research has identified risk factors associated with incarceration among adult Aboriginal populations; however, less is known about incarceration among street-involved Aboriginal youth. Therefore, we undertook this study to longitudinally investigate recent reports of incarceration among a prospective cohort of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Data were collected from a cohort of street-involved, drug-using youth from September 2005 to May 2013. Multivariate generalized estimating equation analyses were employed to examine the potential relationship between Aboriginal ancestry and recent incarceration. Results Among our sample of 1050 youth, 248 (24%) reported being of aboriginal ancestry, and 378 (36%) reported being incarcerated in the previous six months at some point during the study period. In multivariate analysis controlling for a range of potential confounders including drug use patterns and other risk factors, Aboriginal ancestry remained significantly associated with recent incarceration (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12–1.86). Conclusions Even after adjusting for drug use patterns and other risk factors associated with incarceration, this study found that Aboriginal street-involved youth were still significantly more likely to be incarcerated than their non-Aboriginal peers. Given the established harms associated with incarceration these findings underscore the pressing need for systematic reform including culturally appropriate interventions to prevent Aboriginal youth from becoming involved with the criminal justice system. PMID:26390949

  11. Aboriginal Pygmalion in Australia: An Open and Closed Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, B.

    1978-01-01

    Racism in Australian schools is indicated by an attitude survey which reveals that teachers from traditional classrooms believe that Aboriginal students will do less well than White students, whereas teachers from an open school predict that Aboriginal children should do as well as White children, given equal ability. (Author/EB)

  12. Aboriginal Education at Two Australian Schools: Under One Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hones, Donald F.

    2005-01-01

    In this article the author shares his experience visiting two schools that serve Aboriginal children in the state of Queensland, Australia: (1) Cherbourg State School in central Queensland; and (2) Kuranda State School in the Far North. Prior to his visit he had learned somewhat of Australia's troubled history regarding Aboriginal education, a…

  13. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy in the International Year of Astronomy 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, R. P.

    2010-10-01

    Each of the 400 different Aboriginal cultures in Australia has a distinct mythology, and its own ceremonies and art forms, some of which have a strong astronomical component. Sadly, the Australian media tend to focus on negative aspects of contemporary Aboriginal culture, and very few non-Aboriginal people in the wider Australian community are aware of the intellectual depth of traditional Aboriginal cultures. The International Year of Astronomy 2009 seemed an excellent opportunity to tell the wider public about Aboriginal astronomy, so that they might understand something of the depth and complexity of traditional Aboriginal cultures. This article describes some of the challenges and successes of this programme, and the impact that this work has had on Australian perceptions of Aboriginal culture, helping to build a bridge across the cultures. It also describes the achievement of an unexpected and unplanned goal: the inclusion of Aboriginal astronomy opened up astronomy to a section of the population who had never before intentionally attended a talk on science.

  14. Identity and Culture Shock: Aboriginal Children and Schooling in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Gisela; Eckermann, Anne-Katrin

    1996-01-01

    Observes the activities and characteristics of Aboriginal children in an Aboriginal school and compares these to the culture shock and alienation experienced when they transfer to a mainstream school. Identifies five major stressors of culture shock as mechanical differences, communication, attitudes and beliefs, customs, and isolation. (MJP)

  15. Creating Community: A Roundtable on Canadian Aboriginal Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eigenbrod, Renate, Ed.; Episkenew, Jo-Ann, Ed.

    This book contains 13 essays on Canadian Aboriginal literature. Topics include literary criticism, pedagogical issues, and the experiences of Native authors and of faculty teaching Aboriginal literature in mainstream institutions. Entries are: (1) "Natives on Native Literature: What Do We Rightly Write? Or: Shot Headfirst from the Canon"…

  16. Aboriginal Language Standardisation Project: Progress Report, 2000. Literacy Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities, Toronto. Literacy and Basic Skills Section.

    The Aboriginal Language Standardisation (ALS) Project's task is to develop quality literacy materials in order to help preserve aboriginal languages of Canada. The Canadian Assembly of First Nations, a group of tribal leaders, recently called for the establishment of standards for written and oral languages by approving terminology, developing…

  17. A Pedagogical Model for Engaging Aboriginal Children with Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackling, Mark; Byrne, Matt; Gower, Graeme; Anderson, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal children experience social and educational disadvantage and many are not engaged with schooling or learning, which results in significantly lower levels of educational attainment. The Aboriginal Education Program delivered by Scitech to remote Western Australian schools has been shown to significantly increase student ratings of their…

  18. Relationships Matter: Supporting Aboriginal Graduate Students in British Columbia, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pidgeon, Michelle; Archibald, Jo-ann; Hawkey, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    The current Canadian landscape of graduate education has pockets of presence of Indigenous faculty, students, and staff. The reality is that all too often, Aboriginal graduate students are either among the few, or is the sole Aboriginal person in an entire faculty. They usually do not have mentorship or guidance from an Indigenous faculty member…

  19. Task Force on Aboriginal Peoples in Federal Corrections. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of the Solicitor General, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This report presents the findings and recommendations of the Canadian Task Force on the Reintegration of Aboriginal Offenders as Law-Abiding Citizens. This task force was established in March 1987 by the Canadian federal government to examine and recommend changes for improving services to help incarcerated Aboriginals achieve successful social…

  20. Imaginative Education Engages Aboriginal Learners in Prince Rupert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2009-01-01

    Ten years ago, only 10% of the aboriginal students attending the public school of Prince Rupert took down their diploma of secondary studies. Across British Columbia, only 47 percent of the Aboriginal students who entered Grade 8 in 2003 have since completed high school, compared to 79 percent for all students in the province, an inequity that…

  1. Becoming Aboriginal: Experiences of a European Woman in Kamchatka's Wilderness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churikova, Victoria

    2000-01-01

    A Russian woman describes how living in remote Kamchatka helped her develop an aboriginal perspective. Chopping wood, hauling water, gathering food, alternately homeschooling her children and sending them to an ecological school, and interacting with local aboriginal people taught her the importance of conserving natural resources and living in…

  2. 50 CFR 230.4 - Aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aboriginal subsistence whaling. 230.4 Section 230.4 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.4 Aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a)...

  3. Becoming "Real" Aboriginal Teachers: Attending to Intergenerational Narrative Reverberations and Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mary; Chester, Jerri-Lynn; Flett, Brenda Mary; Joe, Lucy; Marshall, Laura; Moore, Dorothy; Paul, Khea; Paynter, Florence; Williams, Jennifer; Huber, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Our paper, and the inquiry from which it emerges, is situated in world-wide concern to increase the numbers of Aboriginal teachers in schools. In Canada, the population of Aboriginal young people is rapidly increasing. Yet, at the same time, the gap between the attainment of a university credential in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations is…

  4. Tertiary Success for the Aboriginal Student: The Numerous Factors Impacting on the Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eltchelebi, Wadda

    This paper presents an overview of Aboriginal education in the state of Victoria, Australia, as a frame for the role of the Aboriginal Tertiary Support Unit (ATSU) at La Trobe University, Bendigo. At the elementary and secondary levels, Aboriginal advocacy and support are provided by the Victorian Aboriginal Education Association, which promotes…

  5. Stolen from Our Embrace: The Abduction of First Nations Children and the Restoration of Aboriginal Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Suzanne; Crey, Ernie

    A deliberate policy to separate and forcibly assimilate Aboriginal First Nations children into the mainstream has pervaded every era of Aboriginal history in Canada. Each era saw a new reason to take Aboriginal children away from their homes, placing them in residential schools, foster care, or non-Aboriginal adoptive families. In the words of…

  6. Prevalence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Maria B; Voaklander, Donald C; Stickland, Michael K; King, Malcolm; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Rowe, Brian H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have considerable potential for inequities in diagnosis and treatment, thereby affecting vulnerable groups. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in asthma and COPD prevalence between adult Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, specialized databases and the grey literature up to October 2011 were searched to identify epidemiological studies comparing asthma and COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adult populations. Prevalence ORs (PORs) and 95% CIs were calculated in a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Of 132 studies, eight contained relevant data. Aboriginal populations included Native Americans, Canadian Aboriginals, Australian Aboriginals and New Zealand Maori. Overall, Aboriginals were more likely to report having asthma than non-Aboriginals (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.23 to 1.60]), particularly among Canadian Aboriginals (POR 1.80 [95% CI 1.68 to 1.93]), Native Americans (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.13 to 1.76]) and Maori (POR 1.64 [95% CI 1.40 to 1.91]). Australian Aboriginals were less likely to report asthma (POR 0.49 [95% CI 0.28 to 0.86]). Sex differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginals and their non-Aboriginal counterparts were not identified. One study compared COPD prevalence between Native and non-Native Americans, with similar rates in both groups (POR 1.08 [95% CI 0.81 to 1.44]). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations exist in a variety of countries. Studies comparing COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations are scarce. Further investigation is needed to identify and account for factors associated with respiratory health inequalities among Aboriginal peoples. PMID:23248798

  7. Aboriginal Self-Government in Canada: Current Trends and Issues. Purich's Aboriginal Issues Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton, John H., Ed.

    This book contains 13 chapters analyzing important practical issues that must be addressed as Aboriginal self-government becomes fully operational in Canada. These issues are related to social problems and policies, criminal justice, community services, education, employment and job training, finance, the land base of government, women's rights…

  8. Raising Awareness of Australian Aboriginal Peoples Reality: Embedding Aboriginal Knowledge in Social Work Education through the Use of Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duthie, Deb; King, Julie; Mays, Jenni

    2013-01-01

    Effective social work practice with Aboriginal peoples and communities requires knowledge of operational communication skills and practice methods. In addition, there is also a need for practitioners to be aware of the history surrounding white engagement with Aboriginal communities and their cultures. Indeed, the Australian Association of Social…

  9. Aboriginal Digital Opportunities: Addressing Aboriginal Learning Needs through the Use of Learning Technologies. 328-01 Detailed Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenall, David; Loizides, Stelios

    Aboriginal educators and economic development practitioners in Canada are developing and implementing initiatives to promote the achievement of "digital opportunities" so that Aboriginal communities can both develop and be in a position to take advantage of economic opportunities without falling deeper into the "digital…

  10. The Structural and Predictive Properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in Canadian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olver, Mark E.; Neumann, Craig S.; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Hare, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the structural and predictive properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in large samples of Canadian male Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. The PCL-R ratings were part of a risk assessment for criminal recidivism, with a mean follow-up of 26 months postrelease. Using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, we were…

  11. Experience of providing cultural safety in mental health to Aboriginal patients: A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    McGough, Shirley; Wynaden, Dianne; Wright, Michael

    2017-02-06

    The need for mental health clinicians to practice cultural safety is vital in ensuring meaningful care and in moving towards improving the mental health outcomes for Aboriginal people. The concept of cultural safety is particularly relevant to mental health professionals as it seeks to promote cultural integrity and the promotion of social justice, equity and respect. A substantive theory that explained the experience of providing cultural safety in mental health care to Aboriginal patients was developed using grounded theory methodology. Mental health professionals engaged in a social psychological process, called seeking solutions by navigating the labyrinth to overcome the experience of being unprepared. During this process participants moved from a state of being unprepared to one where they began to navigate the pathway of cultural safety. The findings of this research suggest health professionals have a limited understanding of the concept of cultural safety. The experience of providing cultural safety has not been adequately addressed by organizations, health services, governments, educational providers and policy makers. Health services, organizations and government agencies must work with Aboriginal people to progress strategies that inform and empower staff to practice cultural safety.

  12. Sharing the tracks to good tucker: identifying the benefits and challenges of implementing community food programs for Aboriginal communities in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Murray, Margaret; Bonnell, Emily; Thorpe, Sharon; Browne, Jennifer; Barbour, Liza; MacDonald, Catherine; Palermo, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity is a significant issue in the Victorian Aboriginal population, contributing to the health disparity and reduced life expectancy. Community food programs are a strategy used to minimise individual level food insecurity, with little evidence regarding their effectiveness for Aboriginal populations. The aim of this study was to explore the role of community food programs operating for Aboriginal people in Victoria and their perceived influence on food access and nutrition. Semistructured interviews were conducted with staff (n=23) from a purposive sample of 18 community food programs across Victoria. Interviews explored the programs' operation, key benefits to the community, challenges and recommendations for setting up a successful community food program. Results were analysed using a qualitative thematic approach and revealed three main themes regarding key factors for the success of community food programs: (1) community food programs for Aboriginal people should support access to safe, affordable, nutritious food in a socially and culturally acceptable environment; (2) a community development approach is essential for program sustainability; and (3) there is a need to build the capacity of community food programs as part of a strategy to ensure sustainability. Community food programs may be an effective initiative for reducing food insecurity in the Victorian Aboriginal population.

  13. Inter-cohort cannibalism of early benthic phase blue king crabs (Paralithodes platypus): alternate foraging strategies in different habitats lead to different functional responses.

    PubMed

    Daly, Benjamin; Long, W Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Blue king crabs (Paralithodes platypus) are commercially and ecologically important in Alaska, USA, but population abundances have fluctuated over the past several decades likely resulting from a combination of environmental and biological factors, including recruitment variability. Cannibalism between cohorts may be a source of mortality limiting recruitment success in the wild, but the degree of inter-cohort cannibalism is unknown for early benthic phase blue king crabs. In laboratory experiments, we evaluated the effects of habitat type (sand and shell) on the predator functional response and foraging behavior of year-1 blue king crabs as predators of year-0 conspecifics and examined the effects of predator presence on crypsis of prey crabs. In sand, consumption rates increased with predator size and prey density until satiation, while predation rates in shell were low regardless of predator size or prey density. These differential predation rates yielded a type III functional response in sand but a type I functional response in shell habitat. Crypsis of prey crabs was generally high and did not change in the presence of predators. Predator foraging activity was reduced in shell and may be an adaptive behavior to balance foraging efficiency and susceptibility to larger predators. Our results demonstrate that early benthic phase blue king crabs are cannibalistic between cohorts in the laboratory and that shell material is extremely effective for reducing encounter rates with conspecific predators. The distribution and abundance of such habitat may be important for recruitment success in some populations. Future studies should compare benthic habitat and species assemblages in areas with variable abundances, such as the Pribilof Islands and Saint Matthew Island in the eastern Bering Sea, to better understand possible mechanisms for recruitment variability.

  14. Do wintering Harlequin Ducks forage nocturnally at high latitudes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rizzolo, D.J.; Esler, Daniel; Roby, D.D.; Jarvis, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    We monitored radio-tagged Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to determine whether nocturnal feeding was part of their foraging strategy during winter in south-central Alaska. Despite attributes of our study site (low ambient temperatures, harsh weather, short day length) and study species (small body size, high daytime foraging rates) that would be expected to favor nocturnal foraging, we found no evidence of nocturnal dive-feeding. Signals from eight radio-tagged Harlequin Ducks never exhibited signal loss due to diving during a total of 780 minutes of nocturnal monitoring. In contrast, the same eight birds exhibited signal loss during 62 ± 7% (SE) of 5-minute diurnal monitoring periods (total of 365 minutes of monitoring). Our results suggest that Harlequin Ducks in south-central Alaska face a stringent time constraint on daytime foraging during midwinter. Harlequin Ducks wintering at high latitudes, therefore, may be particularly sensitive to factors that increase foraging requirements or decrease foraging efficiency.

  15. Asthma Prevention and Management for Aboriginal People: Lessons From Mi’kmaq Communities, Unama’ki, Canada, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Robert; Bennett, Ella; Masuda, Jeffrey; King, Malcolm; Stewart, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Background Asthma affects at least 10% of Aboriginal children (aged 11 or younger) in Canada, making it the second most common chronic disease suffered by this demographic group; yet asthma support strategies specific to Aboriginal peoples have only begun to be identified. Community Context This research builds on earlier phases of a recent study focused on identifying the support needs and intervention preferences of Aboriginal children with asthma and their parents or caregivers. Here, we seek to identify the implications of our initial findings for asthma programs, policies, and practices in an Aboriginal context and to determine strategies for implementing prevention programs in Aboriginal communities. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with 22 recruited community health care professionals and school personnel in 5 Mi’kmaq communities in Unama’ki (Cape Breton), Nova Scotia, Canada, through a community-based participatory research design. Each focus group was first introduced to findings from a local “social support for asthma” intervention, and then the groups explored issues associated with implementing social support from their respective professional positions. Outcome Thematic analysis revealed 3 key areas of opportunity and challenges for implementing asthma prevention and management initiatives in Mi’kmaq communities in terms of 1) professional awareness, 2) local school issues, and 3) community health centers. Interpretation Culturally relevant support initiatives are feasible and effective community-driven ways of improving asthma support in Mi’kmaq communities; however, ongoing assistance from the local leadership (ie, chief and council), community health directors, and school administrators, in addition to partnerships with respiratory health service organizations, is needed. PMID:26766847

  16. Experience of menopause in aboriginal women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chadha, N; Chadha, V; Ross, S; Sydora, B C

    2016-01-01

    Every woman experiences the menopause transition period in a very individual way. Menopause symptoms and management are greatly influenced by socioeconomic status in addition to genetic background and medical history. Because of their very unique cultural heritage and often holistic view of health and well-being, menopause symptoms and management might differ greatly in aboriginals compared to non-aboriginals. Our aim was to investigate the extent and scope of the current literature in describing the menopause experience of aboriginal women. Our systematic literature review included nine health-related databases using the keywords 'menopause' and 'climacteric symptoms' in combination with various keywords describing aboriginal populations. Data were collected from selected articles and descriptive analysis was applied. Twenty-eight relevant articles were included in our analysis. These articles represent data from 12 countries and aboriginal groups from at least eight distinctive geographical regions. Knowledge of menopause and symptom experience vary greatly among study groups. The average age of menopause onset appears earlier in most aboriginal groups, often attributed to malnutrition and a harsher lifestyle. This literature review highlights a need for further research of the menopause transition period among aboriginal women to fully explore understanding and treatment of menopause symptoms and ultimately advance an important dialogue about women's health care.

  17. A quantitative study of Australian aboriginal and Caucasian brains.

    PubMed Central

    Klekamp, J; Riedel, A; Harper, C; Kretschmann, H J

    1987-01-01

    The brain volumes of 8 male Australian Aborigines and 11 male Caucasians were determined. Total brain volume was significantly smaller for Aborigines (1199 +/- 84 ml) compared to Caucasians (1386 +/- 98 ml). Significantly smaller volumes were also found for cerebellum, prosencephalon-mesencephalon unit, cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, parieto-occipitotemporal cortex, and hippocampus. Volumes of ponsmedulla oblongata unit (21 +/- 3 ml for Aborigines and 22 +/- 3 ml for Caucasians) and visual cortex (14.9 ml +/- 2.6 ml and 14.6 +/- 2.2 ml, respectively) did not differ significantly. The striate cortex extended further onto the lateral surface of the occipital lobe in Aboriginal brains. The frontal portion of cerebral cortex was larger in Aboriginal than in Caucasian brains. According to the specific growth periods for the areas studied, these differences could be explained by the higher incidence of malnutrition and infectious diseases for Aboriginals during the development of the brain in early childhood, especially after the 6th postnatal month. However, genetic influences cannot be excluded. The results for the visual cortex of Aborigines might represent an adaptation to living conditions in the bush and desert regions of Australia. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3654333

  18. Exploring disparities in acute myocardial infarction events between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: roles of age, gender, geography and area-level disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Randall, D A; Jorm, L R; Lujic, S; Eades, S J; Churches, T R; O'Loughlin, A J; Leyland, A H

    2014-07-01

    We investigated disparities in rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in the 199 Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) in New South Wales, Australia. Using routinely collected and linked hospital and mortality data from 2002 to 2007, we developed multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the relative rates of first AMI events in the study period accounting for area of residence. Rates of AMI in Aboriginal people were more than two times that in non-Aboriginal people, with the disparity greatest in more disadvantaged and remote areas. AMI rates in Aboriginal people varied significantly by SLA, as did the Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal rate ratio. We identified almost 30 priority areas for universal and targeted preventive interventions that had both high rates of AMI for Aboriginal people and large disparities in rates.

  19. Net effects of nitrogen fertilization on the nutritive value and digestibility of oat forages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applications of soil amendments containing N are part of routine forage management strategies for grasses, with a primary goal of increasing forage yield. However, the effects of N fertilization on forage nutritive value, estimates of energy density, and in-vitro DM or NDF disappearance often have b...

  20. Investigating Optimal Foraging Theory in the Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Siegfried; Grilliot, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    Optimal foraging theory is a principle that is often presented in the community ecology section of biology textbooks, but also can be demonstrated in the laboratory. We introduce a lab activity that uses an interactive strategy to teach high school and/or college students about this ecological concept. The activity is ideal because it engages…

  1. Foraging Experiences with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Helen Ross

    1976-01-01

    Provided are foraging experiences and wild foods information for utilization in the urban school curriculum. Food uses are detailed for roses, dandelions, wild onions, acorns, cattails, violets and mints. (BT)

  2. Foraging search: Prototypical intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobus, George

    2000-05-01

    We think because we eat. Or as Descartes might have said, on a little more reflection, "I need to eat, therefore I think." Animals that forage for a living repeatedly face the problem of searching for a sparsely distributed resource in a vast space. Furthermore, the resource may occur sporadically and episodically under conditions of true uncertainty (nonstationary, complex and non-linear dynamics). I assert that this problem is the canonical problem solved by intelligence. It's solution is the basis for the evolution of more advanced intelligence in which the space of search includes that of concepts (objects and relations) encoded in cortical structures. In humans the conscious experience of searching through concept space we call thinking. The foraging search model is based upon a higher-order autopoeitic system (the forager) employing anticipatory processing to enhance its success at finding food while avoiding becoming food or having accidents in a hostile world. I present a semi-formal description of the general foraging search problem and an approach to its solution. The latter is a brain-like structure employing dynamically adaptive neurons. A physical robot, MAVRIC, embodies some principles of foraging. It learns cues that lead to improvements in finding targets in a dynamic and nonstationary environment. This capability is based on a unique learning mechanism that encodes causal relations in the neural-like processing element. An argument is advanced that searching for resources in the physical world, as per the foraging model, is a prototype for generalized search for conceptual resources as when we think. A problem represents a conceptual disturbance in a homeostatic sense. The finding of a solution restores the homeostatic balance. The establishment of links between conceptual cues and solutions (resources) and the later use of those cues to think through to solutions of quasi-isomorphic problems is, essentially, foraging for ideas. It is a quite

  3. Information Foraging in Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Boring

    2011-09-01

    nformation foraging theory articulates the role of the human as an 'informavore' that seeks information and follows optimal foraging strategies (i.e., the 'information scent') to find meaningful information. This paper briefly reviews the findings from information foraging theory outside the nuclear domain and then discusses the types of information foraging strategies operators employ for normal and off-normal operations in the control room. For example, operators may employ a predatory 'wolf' strategy of hunting for information in the face of a plant upset. However, during routine operations, the operators may employ a trapping 'spider' strategy of waiting for relevant indicators to appear. This delineation corresponds to information pull and push strategies, respectively. No studies have been conducted to determine explicitly the characteristics of a control room interface that is optimized for both push and pull information foraging strategies, nor has there been empirical work to validate operator performance when transitioning between push and pull strategies. This paper explores examples of control room operators as wolves vs. spiders and con- cludes by proposing a set of research questions to investigate information foraging in control room settings.

  4. Individual dietary specialization and dive behaviour in the California sea otter: Using archival time-depth data to detect alternative foraging strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tinker, M.T.; Costa, D.P.; Estes, J.A.; Wieringa, N.

    2007-01-01

    The existence of individual prey specializations has been reported for an ever-growing number of taxa, and has important ramifications for our understanding of predator-prey dynamics. We use the California sea otter population as a case study to validate the use of archival time-depth data to detect and measure differences in foraging behaviour and diet. We collected observational foraging data from radio-tagged sea otters that had been equipped with Mk9 time depth recorders (TDRs, Wildlife Computers, Redmond, WA). After recapturing the study animals and retrieving the TDRs it was possible to compare the two data types, by matching individual dives from the TDR record with observational data and thus examining behavioural correlates of capture success and prey species. Individuals varied with respect to prey selection, aggregating into one of three distinct dietary specializations. A number of TDR-derived parameters, particularly dive depth and post-dive surface interval, differed predictably between specialist types. A combination of six dive parameters was particularly useful for discriminating between specialist types, and when incorporated into a multivariate cluster analysis, these six parameters resulted in classification of 13 adult female sea otters into three clusters that corresponded almost perfectly to the diet-based classification (1 out of 13 animals was misclassified). Thus based solely on quantifiable traits of time-depth data that have been collected over an appropriate period (in this case 1 year per animal), it was possible to assign female sea otters to diet type with >90% accuracy. TDR data can thus be used as a tool to measure the degree of individual specialization in sea otter populations, a conclusion that will likely apply to other diving marine vertebrates as well. Our ultimate goals must be both to understand the causes of individual specialization, and to incorporate such variation into models of population- and community-level food web

  5. Individual dietary specialization and dive behaviour in the California sea otter: Using archival time depth data to detect alternative foraging strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinker, M. T.; Costa, D. P.; Estes, J. A.; Wieringa, N.

    2007-02-01

    The existence of individual prey specializations has been reported for an ever-growing number of taxa, and has important ramifications for our understanding of predator-prey dynamics. We use the California sea otter population as a case study to validate the use of archival time-depth data to detect and measure differences in foraging behaviour and diet. We collected observational foraging data from radio-tagged sea otters that had been equipped with Mk9 time depth recorders (TDRs, Wildlife Computers, Redmond, WA). After recapturing the study animals and retrieving the TDRs it was possible to compare the two data types, by matching individual dives from the TDR record with observational data and thus examining behavioural correlates of capture success and prey species. Individuals varied with respect to prey selection, aggregating into one of three distinct dietary specializations. A number of TDR-derived parameters, particularly dive depth and post-dive surface interval, differed predictably between specialist types. A combination of six dive parameters was particularly useful for discriminating between specialist types, and when incorporated into a multivariate cluster analysis, these six parameters resulted in classification of 13 adult female sea otters into three clusters that corresponded almost perfectly to the diet-based classification (1 out of 13 animals was misclassified). Thus based solely on quantifiable traits of time-depth data that have been collected over an appropriate period (in this case 1 year per animal), it was possible to assign female sea otters to diet type with >90% accuracy. TDR data can thus be used as a tool to measure the degree of individual specialization in sea otter populations, a conclusion that will likely apply to other diving marine vertebrates as well. Our ultimate goals must be both to understand the causes of individual specialization, and to incorporate such variation into models of population- and community-level food web

  6. Adaptive collective foraging in groups with conflicting nutritional needs.

    PubMed

    Senior, Alistair M; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Charleston, Michael A; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    Collective foraging, based on positive feedback and quorum responses, is believed to improve the foraging efficiency of animals. Nutritional models suggest that social information transfer increases the ability of foragers with closely aligned nutritional needs to find nutrients and maintain a balanced diet. However, whether or not collective foraging is adaptive in a heterogeneous group composed of individuals with differing nutritional needs is virtually unexplored. Here we develop an evolutionary agent-based model using concepts of nutritional ecology to address this knowledge gap. Our aim was to evaluate how collective foraging, mediated by social retention on foods, can improve nutrient balancing in individuals with different requirements. The model suggests that in groups where inter-individual nutritional needs are unimodally distributed, high levels of collective foraging yield optimal individual fitness by reducing search times that result from moving between nutritionally imbalanced foods. However, where nutritional needs are highly bimodal (e.g. where the requirements of males and females differ) collective foraging is selected against, leading to group fission. In this case, additional mechanisms such as assortative interactions can coevolve to allow collective foraging by subgroups of individuals with aligned requirements. Our findings indicate that collective foraging is an efficient strategy for nutrient regulation in animals inhabiting complex nutritional environments and exhibiting a range of social forms.

  7. Adaptive collective foraging in groups with conflicting nutritional needs

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Alistair M.; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Charleston, Michael A.; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Collective foraging, based on positive feedback and quorum responses, is believed to improve the foraging efficiency of animals. Nutritional models suggest that social information transfer increases the ability of foragers with closely aligned nutritional needs to find nutrients and maintain a balanced diet. However, whether or not collective foraging is adaptive in a heterogeneous group composed of individuals with differing nutritional needs is virtually unexplored. Here we develop an evolutionary agent-based model using concepts of nutritional ecology to address this knowledge gap. Our aim was to evaluate how collective foraging, mediated by social retention on foods, can improve nutrient balancing in individuals with different requirements. The model suggests that in groups where inter-individual nutritional needs are unimodally distributed, high levels of collective foraging yield optimal individual fitness by reducing search times that result from moving between nutritionally imbalanced foods. However, where nutritional needs are highly bimodal (e.g. where the requirements of males and females differ) collective foraging is selected against, leading to group fission. In this case, additional mechanisms such as assortative interactions can coevolve to allow collective foraging by subgroups of individuals with aligned requirements. Our findings indicate that collective foraging is an efficient strategy for nutrient regulation in animals inhabiting complex nutritional environments and exhibiting a range of social forms. PMID:27152206

  8. An Aboriginal Australian genome reveals separate human dispersals into Asia.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong; Lohmueller, Kirk E; Rasmussen, Simon; Albrechtsen, Anders; Skotte, Line; Lindgreen, Stinus; Metspalu, Mait; Jombart, Thibaut; Kivisild, Toomas; Zhai, Weiwei; Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea; Orlando, Ludovic; De La Vega, Francisco M; Tridico, Silvana; Metspalu, Ene; Nielsen, Kasper; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Muller, Craig; Dortch, Joe; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Lund, Ole; Wesolowska, Agata; Karmin, Monika; Weinert, Lucy A; Wang, Bo; Li, Jun; Tai, Shuaishuai; Xiao, Fei; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; van Driem, George; Jha, Aashish R; Ricaut, François-Xavier; de Knijff, Peter; Migliano, Andrea B; Gallego Romero, Irene; Kristiansen, Karsten; Lambert, David M; Brunak, Søren; Forster, Peter; Brinkmann, Bernd; Nehlich, Olaf; Bunce, Michael; Richards, Michael; Gupta, Ramneek; Bustamante, Carlos D; Krogh, Anders; Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta M; Balloux, Francois; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Villems, Richard; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske

    2011-10-07

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa.

  9. 75 FR 10223 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... captains or crew under the control of those captains may engage in whaling. They must follow the...

  10. Emu Dreaming: An Introduction to Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Ray P.; Norris, Cilla M.

    2009-07-01

    Each of the 400 different Aboriginal cultures in Australia has a distinct mythology, ceremonies, and art forms, some of which have a strong astronomical component. Many share common traditions such as the "emu in the sky" constellation of dark clouds, and stories about the Sun, Moon , Orion, and the Pleiades. Several use the rising and setting of particular stars to indicate the time to harvest a food source, and some link the Sun and Moon to tides, and even explain eclipses as a conjunction of the Sun and Moon. Thse traditions reveal a depth and complexity of Aboriginal cultures which are not widely appreciated by outsiders. This book explores the wonderful mystical Aboriginal astronomical stories and traditions, and the way in which these are used for practical applications such as navigation and harvesting. It also describes the journey of exploration which is opening Western eyes to this treasury of ancient Aboriginal knowledge.

  11. Learning about Aboriginal contexts: the reading circle approach.

    PubMed

    Begoray, Deborah L; Banister, Elizabeth

    2008-07-01

    As more opportunities arise for nursing students to obtain experience in community sites, they will be called on to practice in culturally appropriate ways more often. Although nurses remain challenged by the range of populations needing differentiated approaches, Aboriginal cultural contexts deserve special attention. Nurse educators must help students increase their understanding of Aboriginal life and ways of knowing. One way to facilitate this understanding is through a learning approach called reading circles. Reading circles offer a structure in the classroom for students to interact about ideas or readings. The reading circle process is congruent with Aboriginal ways of learning, which emphasize working in circle, with each member having a role and an equal chance to be heard. Aboriginal students in the class may be particularly comfortable with this learning method. This article describes specific steps for incorporating the reading circle approach into the nurse education classroom.

  12. Prenatal care through the eyes of Canadian Aboriginal women.

    PubMed

    Di Lallo, Sherri

    2014-01-01

    The Aboriginal Prenatal Wellness Program (APWP) in Canada represents a culturally safe approach to prenatal care. By understanding the history of colonization and residential schools and how this history has contributed to health disparities, a multidisciplinary team provides culturally competent and integrated prenatal care to Aboriginal women and their families. This article describes the APWP and discusses how increased participation in health care by historically marginalized populations can lead to better maternal and neonatal health outcomes.

  13. Optimal Lévy-flight foraging in a finite landscape.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kun; Jurdak, Raja; Liu, Jiajun; Westcott, David; Kusy, Branislav; Parry, Hazel; Sommer, Philipp; McKeown, Adam

    2015-03-06

    We present a simple model to study Lévy-flight foraging with a power-law step-size distribution [P(l) ∞ l-μ] in a finite landscape with countable targets. We find that different optimal foraging strategies characterized by a wide range of power-law exponent μopt, from ballistic motion (μopt → 1) to Lévy flight (1 < μopt < 3) to Brownian motion (μopt ≥ 3), may arise in adaptation to the interplay between the termination of foraging, which is regulated by the number of foraging steps, and the environmental context of the landscape, namely the landscape size and number of targets. We further demonstrate that stochastic returning can be another significant factor that affects the foraging efficiency and optimality of foraging strategy. Our study provides a new perspective on Lévy-flight foraging, opens new avenues for investigating the interaction between foraging dynamics and the environment and offers a realistic framework for analysing animal movement patterns from empirical data.

  14. Aboriginal pregnancies and births in South Australia, 1981-1982.

    PubMed

    Hart, G; MacHarper, T; Moore, D; Roder, D

    1985-10-28

    Information on 555 Aboriginal births which occurred during 1981 and 1982 was forwarded by midwives to the South Australian perinatal statistics unit. Corresponding information was also supplied for all other births in the state. This information showed that Aboriginal women appear to have a higher fertility rate than do other women, particularly in the teenage years. Aboriginal mothers are very young and have a high parity. They appear to receive little antenatal care and there is a greater tendency for their pregnancies to be complicated by medical conditions, such as anaemia, urinary tract infections, cardiac disorders and diabetes. Post-partum haemorrhages and retained placentas are relatively common, as are genital tract infections after delivery. Aboriginal babies are characterized by low birthweights, low Apgar scores, and prematurity. There is an indication that Aboriginal babies may have a high perinatal mortality rate in the country areas of South Australia. It is intended that this information be used as a baseline for evaluating trends in the health status of Aborigines.

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection in Canadian and related Arctic Aboriginal populations.

    PubMed

    Goodman, K J; Jacobson, K; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S

    2008-03-01

    In 2006, the Canadian Helicobacter Study Group identified Aboriginal communities among Canadian population groups most at risk of Helicobacter pylori-associated disease. The objective of this systematic review was to summarize what is known about the H pylori-associated disease burden in Canadian and related Arctic Aboriginal populations to identify gaps in knowledge. Six health literature databases were systematically searched to identify reports on H pylori prevalence in Canadian population groups, or any topic related to H pylori in Canadian Aboriginals, Alaska Natives or Aboriginals of other Arctic regions. Identified reports were organized by subtopic and summarized in narrative form. Key data from studies of H pylori prevalence in defined populations were summarized in tabular form. A few Arctic Aboriginal communities were represented in the literature: two Canadian Inuit; one Canadian First Nation; two Greenland Inuit; one Russian Chutkotka Native; and several Alaska Native studies. These studies uniformly showed elevated H pylori prevalence; a few studies also showed elevated occurrence of H pylori-related diseases and high rates of treatment failure. Based on the evidence, it would be warranted for clinicians to relax the criteria for investigating H pylori and related diseases in patients from Arctic Aboriginal communities, and to pursue post-therapy confirmation of eradication. Additional community-based research is needed to develop public health policies for reducing H pylori-associated health risks in such communities.

  16. Disparities in Paediatric Injury Mortality between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in British Columbia, 2001–2009

    PubMed Central

    Amram, Ofer; Walker, Blake Byron; Schuurman, Nadine; Pike, Ian; Yanchar, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death among children and youth in Canada. Significant disparities in injury mortality rates have been observed between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations, but little is known about the age-, sex-, and mechanism-specific patterns of injury causing death. This study examines paediatric mortality in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009 using comprehensive vital statistics registry data. We highlight important disparities in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mortality rates, and use the Preventable Years of Life Lost (PrYLL) metric to identify differences between age groups and the mechanisms of injury causing death. A significantly greater age-adjusted mortality rate was observed among Aboriginal children (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.41, 3.06), and significantly higher rates of death due to assault, suffocation, and fire were detected for specific age groups. Mapped results highlight regional disparities in PrYLL across the province, which may reflect higher Aboriginal populations in rural and remote areas. Crucially, these disparities underscore the need for community-specific injury prevention policies, particularly in regions with high PrYLL. PMID:27399748

  17. The Physics of Foraging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, Gandhimohan. M.; da Luz, Marcos G. E.; Raposo, Ernesto P.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-06-01

    Part I. Introduction: Movement: 1. Empirical motivation for studying movement; 2. Statistical physics of biological motion; 3. Random walks and Lévy flights; 4. Wandering albatrosses; Part II. Experimental Findings: 5. Early studies; 6. Evidence of anomalous diffusion; 7. Human dispersal; 8. How strong is the evidence?; Part III. Theory of Foraging: 9. Optimizing encounter rates; 10. Lévy flight foraging; 11. Other search models; Part IV. Finale: A Broader Context: 12. Superdiffusive random searches; 13. Adaptational versus emergent superdiffusion; 14. Perspectives and open problems; Appendices; References; Index.

  18. Balancing organization and flexibility in foraging dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tabone, Michaelangelo; Ermentrout, Bard; Doiron, Brent

    2010-10-07

    Proper pattern organization and reorganization are central problems facing many biological networks which thrive in fluctuating environments. However, in many cases the mechanisms that organize system activity oppose those that support behavioral flexibility. Thus, a balance between pattern organization and pattern flexibility is critically important for overall biological fitness. We study this balance in the foraging strategies of ant colonies exploiting food in dynamic environments. We present discrete time and space simulations of colony activity that uses a pheromone-based recruitment strategy biasing foraging towards a food source. After food relocation, the pheromone must evaporate sufficiently before foraging can shift colony attention to a new food source. The amount of food consumed within the dynamic environment depends non-monotonically on the pheromone evaporation time constant-with maximal consumption occurring at a time constant which balances trail formation and trail flexibility. A deterministic, 'mean field' model of pheromone and foragers on trails mimics our colony simulations. This reduced framework captures the essence of the flexibility-organization balance, and relates optimal pheromone evaporation to the timescale of the dynamic environment. We expect that the principles exposed in our study will generalize and motivate novel analysis across a broad range systems biology.

  19. Redesigning forages with condensed tannins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maximizing protein content in forages and minimizing protein loss during silage fermentation and rumen digestion are concerns for livestock and dairy producers. Substantial amounts of forage protein undergo proteolysis (breakdown) during the ensiling process and during rumen fermentation, transforme...

  20. New Developments in Forage Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage crops harvested for hay or haylage or grazed support dairy, beef, sheep and horse production. Additional livestock production from reduced forage acreage supports the need for forage variety improvement. The Consortium for Alfalfa Improvement is a partnership model of government, private no...

  1. Intellectual Property and Aboriginal People: A Working Paper = Propriete intellectuelle et Autochtones: Document de travail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brascoupe, Simon; Endemann, Karin

    Written in English and French, this paper outlines current Canadian intellectual property legislation as it relates to Aboriginal people in Canada, and provides a general review of the implications and limitations of this legislation for protecting the traditional knowledge of Aboriginal people. An initial discussion of Aboriginal perspectives…

  2. Non-Standard Assessment Practices in the Evaluation of Communication in Australian Aboriginal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal children typically receive communication assessment services from Standard Australian English (SAE) speaking non-Aboriginal speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Educational assessments, including intelligence testing, are also primarily conducted by non-Aboriginal educational professionals. While the current paper will show…

  3. A Social History of the Manitoba Metis. The Development and Loss of Aboriginal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Emile

    The concept of aboriginal rights has been interpreted in various ways. Too often the general public does not understand fully what is meant by aboriginal rights. This topic has been debated in Parliament since Confederation and the general attitude of the news media has been to overlook it as unimportant. By definition, an aboriginal right is what…

  4. Education for Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: An Overview of Four Realms of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jane P.

    2016-01-01

    In line with an Aboriginal worldview of interconnectivity, I outline successful educational programs, policies, and services for Aboriginal peoples in Canada. These programs and initiatives are presented within four thematic areas related to (a) early childhood education, (b) Aboriginal pedagogy, language, and culture (throughout kindergarten to…

  5. Knowledge of an Aboriginal Language and School Outcomes for Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevremont, Anne; Kohen, Dafna E.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses data from the child and adult components of the 2001 Canadian Aboriginal Peoples Survey to examine what factors are related to speaking an Aboriginal language and how speaking an Aboriginal language is related to school outcomes. Even after controlling for child and family factors (age, sex, health status, household income, number…

  6. Health and Quality of Life of Aboriginal Residential School Survivors, Bella Coola Valley, 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Sylvia S.; Thommasen, Harvey V.; Tallio, Bill; Zhang, William; Michalos, Alex C.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to make comparisons between Aboriginal residential school survivors' perceptions of health status and overall quality of life, and Aboriginal non-residential school attendees, as well as between non-Aboriginals. Data were obtained from thirty-three questions derived from the 2001 Determinants of Health and Quality of…

  7. The Process of Coping with Changes: A Study of Learning Experiences for the Aboriginal Nursing Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ruo Lan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the increasing presence of aborigines in Taiwan higher education, especially in nursing institutes, the retention and adaptation of aboriginal students is a critical issue for research. Understanding the adjustment and transformation process of aboriginal nursing freshmen is very important for improving their learning, but very…

  8. Attitudes of Aboriginal Students to Further Education: An Overview of a Questionnaire Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richer, Kaye; Godfrey, John; Partington, Gary; Harslett, Mort; Harrison, Bernard

    A study examined the attitudes of Aboriginal students concerning their education and their perceptions of their parents' views of education. Questionnaires completed by 473 Aboriginal students in grades 6-10 from 22 urban and rural schools in Western Australia indicated that Aboriginal children had a positive attitude toward their schools and…

  9. Dancing with Ethnic Identities: An Aboriginal Dance Club in a Taiwanese Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shwu-Meei; Lee, Young Ah

    2015-01-01

    Research in Taiwan has shown that aboriginal students often have low self-esteem and a negative view of their life due to their heritage. This research studied 14 Taiwan aboriginal students to understand how the experience of an aboriginal dance club influenced the development of their ethnic identity. The results showed that the experiences of…

  10. Aboriginal Students' Achievement in Science Education: The Effect of Teaching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourque, Jimmy; Bouchamma, Yamina; Larose, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Some authors assume that the academic difficulties encountered by Aboriginal students can be partly explained by the discrepancy between teaching methods and Aboriginal learning styles. However, this hypothesis lacks empirical foundations. Using pan-Canadian data, we tried to identify the most efficient teaching methods for Aboriginal students and…

  11. "We Can't Feel Our Language": Making Places in the City for Aboriginal Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloy, Natalie J. K.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores possibilities for extending aboriginal language education opportunities into the urban domain based on qualitative research in Vancouver, British Columbia. The author argues that aboriginal language revitalization efforts have a place in the city, as demonstrated by emerging language ideologies of urban aboriginal people…

  12. Food Perceptions and Concerns of Aboriginal Women Coping with Gestational Diabetes in Winnipeg, Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Hannah Tait

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe how Aboriginal women in an urban setting perceive dietary treatment recommendations associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design: Semi-structured explanatory model interviews explored Aboriginal women's illness experiences with GDM. Setting and Participants: Twenty-nine self-declared Aboriginal women who had…

  13. Building Cultural Bridges with Aboriginal Learners and Their "Classmates" for Transformative Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Annamarie

    2012-01-01

    The educational gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians is the most significant social policy challenge facing Canada (Richards 2008). This gap is particularly evident in the science fields. Educational institutions are still regarded as mechanisms of colonization by many Aboriginal people. Their "foreign" Eurocentric (or…

  14. E-Learning Access, Opportunities, and Challenges for Aboriginal Adult Learners Located in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawalilak, Colleen; Wells, Noella; Connell, Lynn; Beamer, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study focused on 1) the learning needs of Aboriginal adult learners residing in selected First Nations communities in rural Alberta and 2) the potential for increasing access to e-learning education. Through open dialogue with First Nations community leaders, Aboriginal adult learners, and Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal…

  15. A Study of Aboriginal Teachers' Professional Knowledge and Experience in Canadian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Denis, Verna

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study, initiated by the Canadian Teachers' Federation and its Advisory Committee on Aboriginal Education, explored the professional knowledge and experiences of Aboriginal (First Nations, Mets and Inuit) teachers. The rationale for the study was to address the urgent need to improve and promote Aboriginal education in public…

  16. Role, Impacts and Implications of Dedicated Aboriginal Student Space at a Canadian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Natasha L.; Varghese, Jeji

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on a case study of the University of Guelph's Aboriginal Resource Centre (ARC) to identify the role that dedicated spaces have in the lives of Aboriginal students. Three roles that were identified include how these spaces build a sense of community, foster and enhance Aboriginal identity, and provide a safe space for Aboriginal…

  17. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Calibrations Performed on Oven-Dried Green Forages for the Prediction of Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Preserved Forage for Ruminants.

    PubMed

    Andueza, Donato; Picard, Fabienne; Martin-Rosset, William; Aufrère, Jocelyne

    2016-08-01

    Predicting forage feed value is a vital part of estimating ruminant performances. Most near-infrared (NIR) reflectance calibration models have been developed on oven-dried green forages, but preserved forages such as hays or silages are a significant part of real-world farm practice. Fresh and preserved forages give largely similar fodder, but drying or ensiling processes could modify preserved forage spectra which would make the oven-dried green forage model unsuitable to use on preserved forage samples. The aim of this study was to monitor the performance of oven-dried green forage calibration models on a set of hay and silage to predict their nutritive value. Local and global approaches were tested and 1025 green permanent grassland forages, 46 types of hay, and 27 types of silage were used. The samples were scanned by NIR spectroscopy and analyzed for nitrogen, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and pepsin-cellulase dry matter digestibility (PCDMD). Local and global calibrations were developed on 975 oven-dried green forage spectra and tested on 50 samples of oven-dried green forages, 46 samples of hay, and 27 samples of silage. For oven-dried green forage and hay validation sets, Mahalanobis distance (H) between these samples and the calibration population center was lower than 3. No significant standard error of prediction differences was obtained when calibration models were applied to oven-dried green forage and hay validation sets. For silage, the H-distance was higher than 3, meaning that calibration models built from oven-dried green forages cannot be applied to silage samples. We conclude that local calibration outperforms global strategy on predicting the PCDMD of oven-dried green forages and hay.

  18. Personality, foraging and fitness consequences in a long lived seabird.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Samantha C; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2014-01-01

    While personality differences in animals are defined as consistent behavioural variation between individuals, the widely studied field of foraging specialisation in marine vertebrates has rarely been addressed within this framework. However there is much overlap between the two fields, both aiming to measure the causes and consequences of consistent individual behaviour. Here for the first time we use both a classic measure of personality, the response to a novel object, and an estimate of foraging strategy, derived from GPS data, to examine individual personality differences in black browed albatross and their consequences for fitness. First, we examine the repeatability of personality scores and link these to variation in foraging habitat. Bolder individuals forage nearer the colony, in shallower regions, whereas shyer birds travel further from the colony, and fed in deeper oceanic waters. Interestingly, neither personality score predicted a bird's overlap with fisheries. Second, we show that both personality scores are correlated with fitness consequences, dependent on sex and year quality. Our data suggest that shyer males and bolder females have higher fitness, but the strength of this relationship depends on year quality. Females who forage further from the colony have higher breeding success in poor quality years, whereas males foraging close to the colony always have higher fitness. Together these results highlight the potential importance of personality variation in seabirds and that the fitness consequences of boldness and foraging strategy may be highly sex dependent.

  19. Aboriginal urbanization and rights in Canada: examining implications for health.

    PubMed

    Senese, Laura C; Wilson, Kathi

    2013-08-01

    Urbanization among Indigenous peoples is growing globally. This has implications for the assertion of Indigenous rights in urban areas, as rights are largely tied to land bases that generally lie outside of urban areas. Through their impacts on the broader social determinants of health, the links between Indigenous rights and urbanization may be related to health. Focusing on a Canadian example, this study explores relationships between Indigenous rights and urbanization, and the ways in which they are implicated in the health of urban Indigenous peoples living in Toronto, Canada. In-depth interviews focused on conceptions of and access to Aboriginal rights in the city, and perceived links with health, were conduced with 36 Aboriginal people who had moved to Toronto from a rural/reserve area. Participants conceived of Aboriginal rights largely as the rights to specific services/benefits and to respect for Aboriginal cultures/identities. There was a widespread perception among participants that these rights are not respected in Canada, and that this is heightened when living in an urban area. Disrespect for Aboriginal rights was perceived to negatively impact health by way of social determinants of health (e.g., psychosocial health impacts of discrimination experienced in Toronto). The paper discusses the results in the context of policy implications and future areas of research.

  20. Combining aboriginal and non-aboriginal knowledge to assess and manage feral water buffalo impacts on perennial freshwater springs of the aboriginal-owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo (Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

  1. Combining Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Knowledge to Assess and Manage Feral Water Buffalo Impacts on Perennial Freshwater Springs of the Aboriginal-Owned Arnhem Plateau, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ens, Emilie-Jane; Cooke, Peter; Nadjamerrek, Ray; Namundja, Seraine; Garlngarr, Victor; Yibarbuk, Dean

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal land managers have observed that feral Asian water buffalo ( Bubalis bubalis Lydekker) are threatening the ecological and cultural integrity of perennial freshwater sources in Arnhem Land, Australia. Here we present collaborative research between the Aboriginal Rangers from Warddeken Land Management Limited and Western scientists which quantified the ground-level impacts of buffalo on seven perennial freshwater springs of the Arnhem Plateau. A secondary aim was to build the capacity of Aboriginal Rangers to self-monitor and evaluate the ecological outcomes of their land management activities. Sites with high buffalo abundance had significantly different ground, ground cover, and water quality attributes compared to sites with low buffalo abundance. The low buffalo abundance sites were characterized by tall herbaceous vegetation and flat ground, whereas wallows, bare ground, and short ungrazed grasses were indicators of sites with high buffalo abundance. Water turbidity was greater when buffalo abundance was high. The newly acquired monitoring skills and derived indicators of buffalo damage will be used by Aboriginal Rangers to assess the ecological outcomes of their future buffalo control efforts on the Arnhem Plateau.

  2. A snapshot of physical activity programs targeting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia.

    PubMed

    Macniven, Rona; Elwell, Michelle; Ride, Kathy; Bauman, Adrian; Richards, Justin

    2017-01-19

    Issue addressed: Participation in physical activity programs can be an effective strategy to reduce chronic disease risk factors and improve broader social outcomes. Health and social outcomes are worse among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders than non-Indigenous Australians, who represent an important group for culturally specific programs. The extent of current practice in physical activity programs is largely unknown. This study identifies such programs targeting this population group and describes their characteristics.Methods: Bibliographic and Internet searches and snowball sampling identified eligible programs operating between 2012 and 2015 in Australia (phase 1). Program coordinators were contacted to verify sourced information (phase 2). Descriptive characteristics were documented for each program.Results: A total of 110 programs were identified across urban, rural and remote locations within all states and territories. Only 11 programs were located through bibliographic sources; the remainder through Internet searches. The programs aimed to influence physical activity for health or broader social outcomes. Sixty five took place in community settings and most involved multiple sectors such as sport, health and education. Almost all were free for participants and involved Indigenous stakeholders. The majority received Government funding and had commenced within the last decade. More than 20 programs reached over 1000 people each; 14 reached 0-100 participants. Most included process or impact evaluation indicators, typically reflecting their aims.Conclusion: This snapshot provides a comprehensive description of current physical activity program provision for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people across Australia. The majority of programs were only identified through the grey literature. Many programs collect evaluation data, yet this is underrepresented in academic literature.So what?: Capturing current practice can inform future efforts to

  3. A pilot study of Aboriginal health promotion from an ecological perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background For health promotion to be effective in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities, interventions (and their evaluation) need to work within a complex social environment and respect Indigenous knowledge, culture and social systems. At present, there is a lack of culturally appropriate evaluation methods available to practitioners that are capable of capturing this complexity. As an initial response to this problem, we used two non-invasive methods to evaluate a community-directed health promotion program, which aimed to improve nutrition and physical activity for members of the Aboriginal community of the Goulburn-Murray region of northern Victoria, Australia. The study addressed two main questions. First, for members of an Aboriginal sporting club, what changes were made to the nutrition environment in which they meet and how is this related to national guidelines for minimising the risk of chronic disease? Second, to what degree was the overall health promotion program aligned with an ecological model of health promotion that addresses physical, social and policy environments as well as individual knowledge and behaviour? Methods Rather than monitoring individual outcomes, evaluation methods reported on here assessed change in the nutrition environment (sports club food supply) as a facilitator of dietary change and the 'ecological' nature of the overall program (that is, its complexity with respect to numbers of targets, settings and strategies). Results There were favourable changes towards the provision of a food supply consistent with Australian guidelines at the sports club. The ecological analysis indicated that the design and implementation of the program were consistent with an ecological model of health promotion. Conclusions The evaluation was useful for assessing the impact of the program on the nutrition environment and for understanding the ecological nature of program activities. PMID:21961906

  4. The Role of Non-Foraging Nests in Polydomous Wood Ant Colonies.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Samuel; Robinson, Elva J H

    2015-01-01

    A colony of red wood ants can inhabit more than one spatially separated nest, in a strategy called polydomy. Some nests within these polydomous colonies have no foraging trails to aphid colonies in the canopy. In this study we identify and investigate the possible roles of non-foraging nests in polydomous colonies of the wood ant Formica lugubris. To investigate the role of non-foraging nests we: (i) monitored colonies for three years; (ii) observed the resources being transported between non-foraging nests and the rest of the colony; (iii) measured the amount of extra-nest activity around non-foraging and foraging nests. We used these datasets to investigate the extent to which non-foraging nests within polydomous colonies are acting as: part of the colony expansion process; hunting and scavenging specialists; brood-development specialists; seasonal foragers; or a selfish strategy exploiting the foraging effort of the rest of the colony. We found that, rather than having a specialised role, non-foraging nests are part of the process of colony expansion. Polydomous colonies expand by founding new nests in the area surrounding the existing nests. Nests founded near food begin foraging and become part of the colony; other nests are not founded near food sources and do not initially forage. Some of these non-foraging nests eventually begin foraging; others do not and are abandoned. This is a method of colony growth not available to colonies inhabiting a single nest, and may be an important advantage of the polydomous nesting strategy, allowing the colony to expand into profitable areas.

  5. Melioidosis and Aboriginal seasons in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; Jacups, Susan P; Ward, Linda; Currie, Bart J

    2008-12-01

    Melioidosis, an infection due to the environmental bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is endemic to Southeast Asia and northern Australia, with cases strongly correlated with the monsoonal wet season. We hypothesized that seasonal variation in the mode of acquisition, informed by traditional knowledge, would result in variations in disease characteristics as well as disease incidence. We explored the seasonal variation in acute, culture-confirmed melioidosis using local Aboriginal definitions of seasons in presentations to the Royal Darwin Hospital, the referral centre for the Top End of the Northern Territory, Australia. In 387 patients, we observed an increased proportion of patients with pneumonia (60%) and severe sepsis (25%) associated with presentations in the wet seasons Gunumeleng (October-December) and Gudjewg (January-March) compared with the drier seasons Wurrgeng (June August) and Gurrung (August-October) (pneumonia 26%, severe sepsis 13%). This observation supports the hypothesis that in the wet seasons there may be changes in the mode and/or magnitude of exposure to B. pseudomallei, with a shift from percutaneous inoculation to aerosol inhalation, for instance.

  6. Washing machine usage in remote aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, C R

    1998-10-01

    The use of washing machines was investigated in two remote Aboriginal communities in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara homelands. The aim was to look both at machine reliability and to investigate the health aspect of washing clothes. A total of 39 machines were inspected for wear and component reliability every three months over a one-year period. Of these, 10 machines were monitored in detail for water consumption, hours of use and cycles of operation. The machines monitored were Speed Queen model EA2011 (7 kg washing load) commercial units. The field survey results suggested a high rate of operation of the machines with an average of around 1,100 washing cycles per year (range 150 and 2,300 cycles per year). The results were compared with available figures for the average Australian household. A literature survey, to ascertain the health outcomes relating to washing clothes and bedding, confirmed that washing machines are efficient at removal of bacteria from clothes and bedding but suggested that recontamination of clothing after washing often negated the prior removal. High temperature washing (> 60 degrees C) appeared to be advantageous from a health perspective. With regards to larger organisms, while dust mites and body lice transmission between people would probably be decreased by washing clothes, scabies appeared to be mainly transmitted by body contact and thus transmission would be only marginally decreased by the use of washing machines.

  7. Exploring behavior of an unusual megaherbivore: A spatially explicit foraging model of the hippopotamus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewison, R.L.; Carter, J.

    2004-01-01

    Herbivore foraging theories have been developed for and tested on herbivores across a range of sizes. Due to logistical constraints, however, little research has focused on foraging behavior of megaherbivores. Here we present a research approach that explores megaherbivore foraging behavior, and assesses the applicability of foraging theories developed on smaller herbivores to megafauna. With simulation models as reference points for the analysis of empirical data, we investigate foraging strategies of the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius). Using a spatially explicit individual based foraging model, we apply traditional herbivore foraging strategies to a model hippopotamus, compare model output, and then relate these results to field data from wild hippopotami. Hippopotami appear to employ foraging strategies that respond to vegetation characteristics, such as vegetation quality, as well as spatial reference information, namely distance to a water source. Model predictions, field observations, and comparisons of the two support that hippopotami generally conform to the central place foraging construct. These analyses point to the applicability of general herbivore foraging concepts to megaherbivores, but also point to important differences between hippopotami and other herbivores. Our synergistic approach of models as reference points for empirical data highlights a useful method of behavioral analysis for hard-to-study megafauna. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant and Aboriginal women in Canada: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to understand ethnocultural food and health practices of Aboriginal and immigrant women, and how these intersect with respect to the legacy of Aboriginal colonialism and to the social contexts of cultural adaptation and adjustment of immigrants. The findings will inform the development of visual tools for health promotion by practitioners. Methods/Design This four-phase study employs a case study design allowing for multiple means of data collection and different units of analysis. Phase 1 consists of a scoping review of the literature. Phases 2 and 3 incorporate pictorial representations of food choices (photovoice in Phase 2) with semi-structured photo-elicited interviews (in Phase 3). The findings from Phases 1-3 and consultations with key stakeholders will generate key understandings for Phase 4, the production of culturally appropriate visual tools. For the scoping review, an emerging methodological framework will be utilized in addition to systematic review guidelines. A research librarian will assist with the search strategy and retrieval of literature. For Phases 2 and 3, recruitment of 20-24 women will be facilitated by team member affiliations at perinatal clinics in one of the city's most diverse neighbourhoods. The interviews will reveal culturally normative practices surrounding maternal food choices and consumption, including how women negotiate these practices within their own worldview and experiences. A structured and comprehensive integrated knowledge translation plan has been

  9. Cribra orbitalia in the aborigines of Hawaii and Australia.

    PubMed

    Zaino, D E; Zaino, E C

    1975-01-01

    Cranii of 53 Hawaiian aboriginal infants and children, and 45 from Austrailian aboriginal children were inspected. Cribra orbitalia was present in 22.8% of the former and 26.6% of the latter; osteoporotic pitting (symmetrical osteoporosis; porotic hyperostosis) was also present in the latter. The frequency compares favorably with that found in pre-Columbian North American Pueblo Indians, 24.7%. It is associated with a widespread skeletal involvement suggestive of an active bone marrow. The findings support the concept that cribra orbitalia is related to symmetrical osteoporosis and that it may be associated with a blood disorder.

  10. The ideas of Frantz Fanon and culturally safe practices for aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Luke; Grootjans, John

    2014-03-01

    Mainstream mental health services in Australia have failed to provide culturally appropriate care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people despite several national reports and policies that have attempted to promote positive service development in response to the calls for change from the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. In light of this situation, this article considers the ideas of Frantz Fanon and their potential for promoting cultural safety (Ramsden, 2002) in mainstream mental health services. This article argues that Fanon's ideas provide a conceptual strategy for nurses that prompts reflection and establishes a critical theoretical perspective linking power imbalance and inequitable social relationships in health care, thus complementing the aims of cultural safety. The purpose of this critical reflection is to guide nurses' understanding of the relationship between colonization and health status in order to change their attitudes from those that continue to support current hegemonic practices and systems of health care to those that support the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

  11. Immunogenicity and safety of 3-dose primary vaccination with combined DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine in Canadian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, David W; Ferguson, Murdo; Predy, Gerald; Dawar, Meena; Assudani, Deepak; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Han, Htay-Htay

    2015-04-15

    This study compared immune responses of healthy Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) components of a DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine, 1 month after completing dosing at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. Of 112 infants enrolled in each group, 94 Aboriginal and 107 non-Aboriginal infants qualified for the immunogenicity analysis. Anti-PRP concentrations exceeded the protective minimum (≥0.15 μg/ml) in ≥97% of infants in both groups but geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were higher in Aboriginal infants (6.12 μg/ml versus 3.51 μg/ml). All subjects were seroprotected (anti-HBs ≥10 mIU/mL) against HBV, with groups having similar GMCs (1797.9 versus 1544.4 mIU/mL, Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal, respectively). No safety concerns were identified. We conclude that 3-dose primary vaccination with DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine elicited immune responses to Hib and HBV components that were at least as high in Aboriginal as in non-Aboriginal Canadian infants. Clinical Trial Registration NCT00753649.

  12. Foraging niche segregation in Malaysian babblers (Family: Timaliidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mansor, Mohammad Saiful; Ramli, Rosli

    2017-01-01

    Tropical rainforests are considered as hotspots for bird diversity, yet little is known about the system that upholds the coexistence of species. Differences in body size that are associated with foraging strategies and spatial distribution are believed to promote the coexistence of closely related species by reducing competition. However, the fact that many babbler species do not differ significantly in their morphology has challenged this view. We studied the foraging ecology of nine sympatric babbler species (i.e., Pellorneum capistratum, P. bicolor, P. malaccense, Malacopteron cinereum, M. magnum, Stachyris nigriceps, S. nigricollis, S. maculata, and Cyanoderma erythropterum) in the Krau Wildlife Reserve in Peninsular Malaysia. We investigated; i) how these babblers forage in the wild and use vegetation to obtain food, and ii) how these trophically similar species differ in spatial distribution and foraging tactics. Results indicated that most babblers foraged predominantly on aerial leaf litter and used gleaning manoeuvre in intermediate-density foliage but exhibited wide ranges of vertical strata usage, thus reducing interspecific competition. The principal component analysis indicated that two components, i.e., foraging height and substrate are important as mechanisms to allow the coexistence of sympatric babblers. The present findings revealed that these bird species have unique foraging niches that are distinct from each other, and this may apply to other insectivorous birds inhabiting tropical forests. This suggests that niche separation does occur among coexisting birds, thus following Gause’ law of competitive exclusion, which states two species occupying the same niche will not stably coexist. PMID:28253284

  13. Attention as foraging for information and value

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Sanjay G.; Husain, Masud

    2013-01-01

    What is the purpose of attention? One avenue of research has led to the proposal that attention might be crucial for gathering information about the environment, while other lines of study have demonstrated how attention may play a role in guiding behavior to rewarded options. Many experiments that study attention require participants to make a decision based on information acquired discretely at one point in time. In real-world situations, however, we are usually not presented with information about which option to select in such a manner. Rather we must initially search for information, weighing up reward values of options before we commit to a decision. Here, we propose that attention plays a role in both foraging for information and foraging for value. When foraging for information, attention is guided toward the unknown. When foraging for reward, attention is guided toward high reward values, allowing decision-making to proceed by accept-or-reject decisions on the currently attended option. According to this account, attention can be regarded as a low-cost alternative to moving around and physically interacting with the environment—“teleforaging”—before a decision is made to interact physically with the world. To track the timecourse of attention, we asked participants to seek out and acquire information about two gambles by directing their gaze, before choosing one of them. Participants often made multiple refixations on items before making a decision. Their eye movements revealed that early in the trial, attention was guided toward information, i.e., toward locations that reduced uncertainty about value. In contrast, late in the trial, attention was guided by expected value of the options. At the end of the decision period, participants were generally attending to the item they eventually chose. We suggest that attentional foraging shifts from an uncertainty-driven to a reward-driven mode during the evolution of a decision, permitting decisions to be

  14. State-dependent foraging: lactating voles adjust their foraging behavior according to the presence of a potential nest predator and season.

    PubMed

    Liesenjohann, Thilo; Liesenjohann, Monique; Trebaticka, Lenka; Sundell, Janne; Haapakoski, Marko; Ylönen, Hannu; Eccard, Jana A

    Parental care often produces a trade-off between meeting nutritional demands of offspring and the duties of offspring protection, especially in altricial species. Parents have to leave their young unattended for foraging trips, during which nestlings are exposed to predators. We investigated how rodent mothers of altricial young respond to risk of nest predation in their foraging decisions. We studied foraging behavior of lactating bank voles (Myodes glareolus) exposed to a nest predator, the common shrew (Sorex araneus). We conducted the experiment in summer (high resource provisioning for both species) and autumn (less food available) in 12 replicates with fully crossed factors "shrew presence" and "season." We monitored use of feeding stations near and far from the nest as measurement of foraging activity and strategic foraging behavior. Vole mothers adapted their strategies to shrew presence and optimized their foraging behavior according to seasonal constraints, resulting in an interaction of treatment and season. In summer, shrew presence reduced food intake from feeding stations, while it enhanced intake in autumn. Shrew presence decreased the number of visited feeding stations in autumn and concentrated mother's foraging efforts to fewer stations. Independent of shrew presence or season, mothers foraged more in patches further away from the nest than near the nest. Results indicate that females are not investing in nest guarding but try to avoid the accumulation of olfactory cues near the nest leading a predator to the young. Additionally, our study shows how foraging strategies and nest attendance are influenced by seasonal food provision.

  15. Chaos-order transition in foraging behavior of ants.

    PubMed

    Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Kurths, Jürgen; Yang, Yixian; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2014-06-10

    The study of the foraging behavior of group animals (especially ants) is of practical ecological importance, but it also contributes to the development of widely applicable optimization problem-solving techniques. Biologists have discovered that single ants exhibit low-dimensional deterministic-chaotic activities. However, the influences of the nest, ants' physical abilities, and ants' knowledge (or experience) on foraging behavior have received relatively little attention in studies of the collective behavior of ants. This paper provides new insights into basic mechanisms of effective foraging for social insects or group animals that have a home. We propose that the whole foraging process of ants is controlled by three successive strategies: hunting, homing, and path building. A mathematical model is developed to study this complex scheme. We show that the transition from chaotic to periodic regimes observed in our model results from an optimization scheme for group animals with a home. According to our investigation, the behavior of such insects is not represented by random but rather deterministic walks (as generated by deterministic dynamical systems, e.g., by maps) in a random environment: the animals use their intelligence and experience to guide them. The more knowledge an ant has, the higher its foraging efficiency is. When young insects join the collective to forage with old and middle-aged ants, it benefits the whole colony in the long run. The resulting strategy can even be optimal.

  16. Understanding visual attention in childhood: Insights from a new visual foraging task.

    PubMed

    Ólafsdóttir, Inga María; Kristjánsson, Tómas; Gestsdóttir, Steinunn; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2016-01-01

    A recently developed visual foraging task, involving multiple targets of different types, can provide a rich and dynamic picture of visual attention performance. We measured the foraging performance of 66 children aged 4-7 years, along with measures of two conceptually related constructs, self-regulation and verbal working memory. Our results show that foraging patterns of young children differ from adult patterns. Children have difficulty with foraging for two target types, not only when they are defined by a conjunction of features but, unlike adults, also when they forage simultaneously for two target types that are distinguished from distractors by a single feature. Importantly, such feature/conjunction differences between adults and children are not seen in more traditional single-target visual search tasks. Interestingly, the foraging patterns of the youngest children were slightly more adult-like than of the oldest ones, which may suggest that older children attempt to use strategies that they have not yet fully mastered. The older children were, however, able to complete more trials, during both feature and conjunction foraging. Self-regulation and verbal working memory did not seem to affect foraging strategies, but both were connected with faster and more efficient foraging. We propose that our visual foraging paradigm is a promising avenue for studying the development of visual cognitive abilities.

  17. Environmental variability drives shifts in the foraging behaviour and reproductive success of an inshore seabird.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Nicole D; Reina, Richard D; Preston, Tiana J; Chiaradia, André

    2015-08-01

    Marine animals forage in areas that aggregate prey to maximize their energy intake. However, these foraging 'hot spots' experience environmental variability, which can substantially alter prey availability. To survive and reproduce animals need to modify their foraging in response to these prey shifts. By monitoring their inter-annual foraging behaviours, we can understand which environmental variables affect their foraging efficiency, and can assess how they respond to environmental variability. Here, we monitored the foraging behaviour and isotopic niche of little penguins (Eudyptula minor), over 3 years (2008, 2011, and 2012) of climatic and prey variability within Port Phillip Bay, Australia. During drought (2008), penguins foraged in close proximity to the Yarra River outlet on a predominantly anchovy-based diet. In periods of heavy rainfall, when water depth in the largest tributary into the bay (Yarra River) was high, the total distance travelled, maximum distance travelled, distance to core-range, and size of core- and home-ranges of penguins increased significantly. This larger foraging range was associated with broad dietary diversity and high reproductive success. These results suggest the increased foraging range and dietary diversity of penguins were a means to maximize resource acquisition rather than a strategy to overcome local depletions in prey. Our results demonstrate the significance of the Yarra River in structuring predator-prey interactions in this enclosed bay, as well as the flexible foraging strategies of penguins in response to environmental variability. This plasticity is central to the survival of this small-ranging, resident seabird species.

  18. Learning foraging thresholds for lizards

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, L.A.; Hart, W.E.; Wilson, D.B.

    1996-01-12

    This work gives a proof of convergence for a randomized learning algorithm that describes how anoles (lizards found in the Carribean) learn a foraging threshold distance. This model assumes that an anole will pursue a prey if and only if it is within this threshold of the anole`s perch. This learning algorithm was proposed by the biologist Roughgarden and his colleagues. They experimentally confirmed that this algorithm quickly converges to the foraging threshold that is predicted by optimal foraging theory our analysis provides an analytic confirmation that the learning algorithm converses to this optimal foraging threshold with high probability.

  19. Teacher Education, Aboriginal Studies and the New National Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Clair

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in Australian schools continue to have poor education and health outcomes, and the introduction of a new national curriculum may assist in redressing this situation. This curriculum emphasises recommendations which have been circulating in the sector over many years, to require teacher education…

  20. Difficult Dialogue: Conversations with Aboriginal Parents and Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Debra; Johnston, Ken; Morris, Kristal; Power, Kerith; Roberts, Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Indigenous conversation and voice are increasingly heard in the research literature but there needs to be more dialogue in order for it to be a two-way conversation. This paper contributes to research that attempts to redress this situation by reporting on conversations with Aboriginal parents and caregivers of students enrolled in a public…

  1. Participatory Action Research: Lessons Learned with Aboriginal Grandmothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Geraldine; Green, Kathryn L.

    2001-01-01

    Twelve older Aboriginal women in a Canadian city were trained to be co-researchers as part of a participatory health assessment and health promotion project involving 40 such women. Lessons were learned about project ownership, Native perceptions of research, use of traditions, participants' capacity to engage in research and analysis, conflict…

  2. 50 CFR 230.5 - Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... whaling. 230.5 Section 230.5 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.5 Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) A license is hereby issued to whaling captains identified by the...

  3. 50 CFR 230.5 - Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... whaling. 230.5 Section 230.5 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.5 Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) A license is hereby issued to whaling captains identified by the...

  4. 50 CFR 230.5 - Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... whaling. 230.5 Section 230.5 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.5 Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) A license is hereby issued to whaling captains identified by the...

  5. 50 CFR 230.5 - Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... whaling. 230.5 Section 230.5 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.5 Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) A license is hereby issued to whaling captains identified by the...

  6. Personal Librarian for Aboriginal Students: A Programmatic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melançon, Jérôme; Goebel, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The Personal Librarian for Aboriginal Students (PLAS) program at the University of Alberta (UofA) is a creative outgrowth of the growing Personal Librarian programs in academic libraries, in which a student is partnered with an individual librarian for the academic year. In the case of the UofA's PLAS program, first-year undergraduate students who…

  7. Aboriginal Education in Canada: A Plea for Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, John W.; Friesen, Virginia Lyons

    This book is an appeal to First Nations leaders in Canada to promote educational integration--a mixing of ideas in which non-Aboriginal people are taught those elements of Native culture and philosophy that support a reverence for the Earth and all living things. The benefits of such an undertaking cannot be overemphasized since the very existence…

  8. An Analysis of Taiwanese Aboriginal Students' Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Hsiao-I; Huang, Chia-Kai

    2012-01-01

    By analysing the national data from the Junior Survey of the Taiwan Higher Education Dataset, this study identified significant variables influencing the educational aspirations of aboriginal students at technical and vocational institutions. The study shows that several variables are predictive of the educational aspirations of aboriginal…

  9. Quebec's Aboriginal Languages: History, Planning and Development. Multilingual Matters 107.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurais, Jacques, Ed.

    This book provides an overview of the history, present circumstances, and future prospects of the native languages of Quebec: Abenaki, Algonquin, Atikamekw, Cree, Inuktitut, Micmac, Mohawk, Montagnais, and Naskapi. Chapter 1, "The Situation of Aboriginal Languages in the Americas" (Jacques Maurais), discusses the linguistic demography of…

  10. An Assessment of Intellectual Disability Among Aboriginal Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasson, E. J.; Sullivan, S. G.; Hussain, R.; Bittles, A. H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The health and well-being of Indigenous people is a significant global problem, and Aboriginal Australians suffer from a considerably higher burden of disease and lower life expectancy than the non-Indigenous population. Intellectual disability (ID) can further compromise health, but there is little information that documents the…

  11. Psychological Sense of Community: An Australian Aboriginal Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Brian; Colquhoun, Simon; Johnson, Gemma

    2006-01-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is central to an individual's psychological wellbeing (Sarason, 1974). Eleven participants, mainly from the North West of Western Australia, took part in semistructured interviews investigating Australian Aboriginal notions of community and SOC. Five key themes emerged from the data. These included: kinship structure,…

  12. Schooling Taiwan's Aboriginal Baseball Players for the Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Junwei; Bairner, Alan

    2010-01-01

    One of the major challenges that faces nation-builders in postcolonial societies is the incorporation of subaltern groups, particularly aboriginal peoples, into a collective national project. One vehicle for addressing this challenge is sport with schools being amongst the most important venues. This article offers an empirical study of the role…

  13. 78 FR 13028 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC460 Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence... those captains may engage in whaling. Captains and crew must follow the provisions of the...

  14. 76 FR 16388 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA309 Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence... control of those captains may engage in whaling. They must follow the provisions of the...

  15. 77 FR 21540 - Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Quotas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA967 Whaling Provisions; Aboriginal Subsistence... under the control of those captains may engage in whaling. Captains and crew must follow the...

  16. Making Research Count at Minimbah Aboriginal Preschool, Armidale NSW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dianne; Power, Kerith

    This interview with Dianne Roberts, director of the Minimbah Aboriginal Preschool in Armidale, New South Wales (Australia), explores research issues, leadership styles, and how decision making and responsibilities are handled at Minimbah. Incoming researchers must show how research will benefit the community under study, how they will work in…

  17. Developmental Gender Differences for Overhand Throwing in Aboriginal Australian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jerry R.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Campbell, Amity C.; Elliott, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES greater than 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and…

  18. Bridging into Small Business: A Program for Aboriginal People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Jill

    This self-instructional kit is part of an entry-level training program that has been designed to support Aboriginal people in Australia in developing a business proposal and the skills required to achieve success. The manual, "Starting Your Own Small Business," includes information and activities that provide a thorough examination of…

  19. Dawes Review 5: Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Ray P.

    2016-08-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical knowledge includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, which was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars and for navigation. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, recorded unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees. Putative explanations of celestial phenomena appear throughout the oral record, suggesting traditional Aboriginal Australians sought to understand the natural world around them, in the same way as modern scientists, but within their own cultural context. There is also a growing body of evidence for sophisticated navigational skills, including the use of astronomically based songlines. Songlines are effectively oral maps of the landscape, and are an efficient way of transmitting oral navigational skills in cultures that do not have a written language. The study of Aboriginal astronomy has had an impact extending beyond mere academic curiosity, facilitating cross-cultural understanding, demonstrating the intimate links between science and culture, and helping students to engage with science.

  20. Partnering with an Aboriginal Community for Health and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lorraine; Rukholm, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Cultural awareness is a concept that is gaining much attention in health and education settings across North America. This article describes how the concepts of cultural awareness shaped the process and the curriculum of an online health education project called Interprofessional Collaboration: Culturally-informed Aboriginal Health Care. The…

  1. 50 CFR 230.5 - Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling. 230.5 Section 230.5 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.5 Licenses...

  2. Why closing the Aboriginal health gap is so elusive.

    PubMed

    Gracey, M

    2014-11-01

    A wide gap persists between the health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians despite a recent Federal government commitment to close the gap by 2030. The complex underlying factors include socioeconomic and environmental disadvantage, inadequate education, underemployment, racial prejudice, high-risk health-related behaviours and limited access to clinical services and health promotion programmes. Over recent decades some aspects of Aboriginal health have deteriorated badly, largely from a surge in chronic 'lifestyle' diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular and kidney disorders plus the effects of tobacco smoking, alcohol and drug abuse and high rates of violence and trauma. To correct these inequities will require improving many social and environmental factors. These include education, living conditions, vocational training, employment, closer cooperation between government and non-government agencies, access to affordable and nutritious fresh food, with better access to high-quality medical treatment, health promotion and disease prevention programmes. Indigenous people must be encouraged to become more involved in activities to improve their health and have more responsibility for the decision-making processes this will entail. Governments must support these changes to help close the Aboriginal health gap.

  3. Spatial working memory for clustered and linear configurations of sites in a virtual reality foraging task.

    PubMed

    De Lillo, Carlo; James, Frances C

    2012-08-01

    Two experiments using an immersive virtual reality foraging environment determined the spatial strategies spontaneously deployed by people in a foraging task and the effects on immediate serial recall of trajectories though the foraging space, which could conform or violate specific organisational constraints. People benefitted from the use of organised search patterns when attempting to monitor their travel though either a clustered "patchy" space or a matrix of locations. The results are discussed within a comparative framework.

  4. Opportunistic screening to detect atrial fibrillation in Aboriginal adults in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Flaskas, Yvonne; O'Brien, Ciaran; Jeffries, Thomas Lee; McCowen, Debbie; Finlayson, Heather; Martin, Tanya; Neubeck, Lis; Freedman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a 10-year gap in life expectancy between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. The leading cause of death for Aboriginal Australians is cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction and stroke. Although atrial fibrillation (AF) is a known precursor to stroke there are no published studies about the prevalence of AF for Aboriginal people and limited evidence about AF in indigenous populations globally. Methods and analysis This mixed methods study will recruit and train Aboriginal health workers to use an iECG device attached to a smartphone to consecutively screen 1500 Aboriginal people aged 45 years and older. The study will quantify the proportion of people who presented for follow-up assessment and/or treatment following a non-normal screening and then estimate the prevalence and age distribution of AF of the Australian Aboriginal population. The study includes semistructured interviews with the Aboriginal health workers about the effectiveness of the iECG device in their practice as well as their perceptions of the acceptability of the device for their patients. Thematic analysis will be undertaken on the qualitative data collected in the study. If the device and approach are acceptable to the Aboriginal people and widely adopted, it may help prevent the effects of untreated AF including ischaemic stroke and early deaths or impairment in Aboriginal people. Ethics and dissemination This mixed methods study received ethics approval from the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council (1135/15) and the Australian Health Council of Western Australia (HREC706). Ethics approval is being sought in the Northern Territory. The findings of this study will be shared with Aboriginal communities, in peer reviewed publications and at conferences. There are Aboriginal investigators in each state/territory where the study is being conducted who have been actively involved in the study. They will also be involved in data analysis

  5. The structural and predictive properties of the Psychopathy Checklist--revised in Canadian aboriginal and non-aboriginal offenders.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Neumann, Craig S; Wong, Stephen C P; Hare, Robert D

    2013-03-01

    We examined the structural and predictive properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in large samples of Canadian male Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. The PCL-R ratings were part of a risk assessment for criminal recidivism, with a mean follow-up of 26 months postrelease. Using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, we were able to show that the PCL-R items were invariant across these 2 groups and that a 4-factor model fit the data well. Predictive accuracy analyses (receiver operator characteristic curves and Cohen's d) generated effect sizes that were medium in magnitude overall for the PCL-R total score in the prediction of violent, nonviolent, and general criminal recidivism (area under the curve=.63-.70, Cohen's d=.28-.42) for both ancestral groups. When disaggregated into its constituent factors, for both ancestral groups, the Lifestyle and Antisocial factors consistently and significantly predicted all recidivism outcomes, whereas the Interpersonal and Affective factors did not significantly predict any of the recidivism outcomes. Finally, structural equation modeling results with the total sample indicated that the PCL-R factors were able to account for 32% of the variance in a latent recidivism factor. Implications regarding the latent structure of psychopathy and the clinical use of the instrument with Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal male offenders are discussed.

  6. Understanding the Role of Healing in Aboriginal Communities. Corrections. Aboriginal Peoples Collection = Comprendre le role de la guerison dans les collectivites autochtones. Affaires correctionnelles. Collection sur les autochtones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krawll, Marcia B.

    Written in English and French, this report presents views of Canadian Aboriginal community members about developing healthy communities. In-depth interviews were conducted with elders, youth, parents, political leaders, victims, offenders, and government employees in five Aboriginal communities, and telephone and mail surveys were conducted in…

  7. A Comparison of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Students on the Inter-Related Dimensions of Self-Concept, Strengths and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Jessica; Rawana, Edward; Brownlee, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Self-concept has been found to play a key role in academic and psychosocial outcomes for students. Appreciating the factors that have a bearing upon self-concept may be of particular importance for Aboriginal students, many of whom experience poorer outcomes than non-Aboriginal Canadians. In this study, we conducted a quantitative analysis of the…

  8. Spatial memory in foraging games.

    PubMed

    Kerster, Bryan E; Rhodes, Theo; Kello, Christopher T

    2016-03-01

    Foraging and foraging-like processes are found in spatial navigation, memory, visual search, and many other search functions in human cognition and behavior. Foraging is commonly theorized using either random or correlated movements based on Lévy walks, or a series of decisions to remain or leave proximal areas known as "patches". Neither class of model makes use of spatial memory, but search performance may be enhanced when information about searched and unsearched locations is encoded. A video game was developed to test the role of human spatial memory in a canonical foraging task. Analyses of search trajectories from over 2000 human players yielded evidence that foraging movements were inherently clustered, and that clustering was facilitated by spatial memory cues and influenced by memory for spatial locations of targets found. A simple foraging model is presented in which spatial memory is used to integrate aspects of Lévy-based and patch-based foraging theories to perform a kind of area-restricted search, and thereby enhance performance as search unfolds. Using only two free parameters, the model accounts for a variety of findings that individually support competing theories, but together they argue for the integration of spatial memory into theories of foraging.

  9. Balancing selection shapes density-dependent foraging behaviour.

    PubMed

    Greene, Joshua S; Brown, Maximillian; Dobosiewicz, May; Ishida, Itzel G; Macosko, Evan Z; Zhang, Xinxing; Butcher, Rebecca A; Cline, Devin J; McGrath, Patrick T; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2016-11-10

    The optimal foraging strategy in a given environment depends on the number of competing individuals and their behavioural strategies. Little is known about the genes and neural circuits that integrate social information into foraging decisions. Here we show that ascaroside pheromones, small glycolipids that signal population density, suppress exploratory foraging in Caenorhabditis elegans, and that heritable variation in this behaviour generates alternative foraging strategies. We find that natural C. elegans isolates differ in their sensitivity to the potent ascaroside icas#9 (IC-asc-C5). A quantitative trait locus (QTL) regulating icas#9 sensitivity includes srx-43, a G-protein-coupled icas#9 receptor that acts in the ASI class of sensory neurons to suppress exploration. Two ancient haplotypes associated with this QTL confer competitive growth advantages that depend on ascaroside secretion, its detection by srx-43 and the distribution of food. These results suggest that balancing selection at the srx-43 locus generates alternative density-dependent behaviours, fulfilling a prediction of foraging game theory.

  10. “We Are Not Being Heard”: Aboriginal Perspectives on Traditional Foods Access and Food Security

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Bethany; Jayatilaka, Deepthi; Brown, Contessa; Varley, Leslie; Corbett, Kitty K.

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike. PMID:23346118

  11. "We are not being heard": Aboriginal perspectives on traditional foods access and food security.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Bethany; Jayatilaka, Deepthi; Brown, Contessa; Varley, Leslie; Corbett, Kitty K

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike.

  12. On the Astronomical Knowledge and Traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-12-01

    Historian of science David Pingree defines science in a broad context as the process of systematically explaining perceived or imaginary phenomena. Although Westerners tend to think of science being restricted to Western culture, I argue in this thesis that astronomical scientific knowledge is found in Aboriginal traditions. Although research into the astronomical traditions of Aboriginal Australians stretches back for more than 150 years, it is relatively scant in the literature. We do know that the sun, moon, and night sky have been an important and inseparable component of the landscape to hundreds of Australian Aboriginal groups for thousands (perhaps tens-of-thousands) of years. The literature reveals that astronomical knowledge was used for time keeping, denoting seasonal change and the availability of food sources, navigation, and tidal prediction. It was also important for rituals and ceremonies, birth totems, marriage systems, cultural mnemonics, and folklore. Despite this, the field remains relatively unresearched considering the diversity of Aboriginal cultures and the length of time people have inhabited Australia (well over 40,000 years). Additionally, very little research investigating the nature and role of transient celestial phenomena has been conducted, leaving our understanding of Indigenous astronomical knowledge grossly incomplete. This thesis is an attempt to overcome this deficiency, with a specific focus on transient celestial phenomena. My research, situated in the field of cultural astronomy, draws from the sub-disciplines of archaeoastronomy, ethnoastronomy, historical astronomy, and geomythology. This approach incorporates the methodologies and theories of disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. This thesis, by publication, makes use of archaeological, ethnographic, and historical records, astronomical software packages, and geographic programs to better understand the ages of astronomical traditions and the

  13. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the nutritive value of oat forages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilization is a routine part of forage management strategies for grasses, but the effects on forage nutritive value have been inconsistent. Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of N fertilization on the nutritive value of fall-grown oat fertilized at planting with 20, 40, 60, 80, ...

  14. N fertilization for improved forage yields has little impact on nutritive value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applications of soil amendments or fertilizers containing nitrogen are a routine part of most grass forage management strategies, with the primary goal of improving forage yields. But an increase in yield is usually accompanied by a decrease in nutritive value. In order to better evaluate this trade...

  15. The community network: an Aboriginal community football club bringing people together.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Alister; Anders, Wendy; Rowley, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    There are few empirical studies about the role of Aboriginal sporting organisations in promoting wellbeing. The aim of the present study was to understand the impact of an Aboriginal community sporting team and its environment on the social, emotional and physical wellbeing of young Aboriginal men, and to identify barriers and motivators for participation. A literature review of the impact of sport on the health and wellbeing of Aboriginal participants was conducted. This informed a qualitative study design with a grounded theory approach. Four semistructured interviews and three focus groups were completed with nine current players and five past players of the Fitzroy Stars Football Club to collect data about the social, emotional and physical wellbeing impact of an Aboriginal football team on its Aboriginal players. Results of the interviews were consistent with the literature, with common concepts emerging around community connection, cultural values and identity, health, values, racism and discrimination. However, the interviews provided further detail around the significance of cultural values and community connection for Aboriginal people. The complex nature of social connections and the strength of Aboriginal community networks in sports settings were also evident. Social reasons were just as important as individual health reasons for participation. Social and community connection is an important mechanism for maintaining and strengthening cultural values and identity. Barriers and motivators for participation in Aboriginal sports teams can be complex and interrelated. Aboriginal sports teams have the potential to have a profound impact on the health of Aboriginal people, especially its players, by fostering a safe and culturally strengthening environment and encompassing a significant positive social hub for the Aboriginal community.

  16. The Durkheim-Tarde debate and the social study of aboriginal youth suicide.

    PubMed

    Niezen, Ronald

    2015-02-01

    A debate that took place in France in the early 20th century still has much to tell us about the interpretation and strategies of intervention of suicide, particularly the "cohort effect" of aboriginal youth suicide. The act of suicide, for Durkheim, was inseparable from the problem of social cohesion, with extremes in solidarity and regulation predictably reflected in high rates of suicide. For Gabriel Tarde, by contrast, suicide was seen as an outcome of changeable ideas found in processes of innovation and imitation among creatively receptive individuals. This latter approach remains overlooked in favor of a growing reliance on conceptions of historical trauma and conditions of social disintegration. Recognizing the idea of suicide itself as a potential locus of solidarity opens up other possibilities for responding to and intervening in suicide crises or "clusters."

  17. How phylogeny and foraging ecology drive the level of chemosensory exploration in lizards and snakes.

    PubMed

    Baeckens, S; Van Damme, R; Cooper, W E

    2017-03-01

    The chemical senses are crucial for squamates (lizards and snakes). The extent to which squamates utilize their chemosensory system, however, varies greatly among taxa and species' foraging strategies, and played an influential role in squamate evolution. In lizards, 'Scleroglossa' evolved a state where species use chemical cues to search for food (active foragers), whereas 'Iguania' retained the use of vision to hunt prey (ambush foragers). However, such strict dichotomy is flawed as shifts in foraging modes have occurred in all clades. Here, we attempted to disentangle effects of foraging ecology from phylogenetic trait conservatism as leading cause of the disparity in chemosensory investment among squamates. To do so, we used species' tongue-flick rate (TFR) in the absence of ecological relevant chemical stimuli as a proxy for its fundamental level of chemosensory investigation, that is baseline TFR. Based on literature data of nearly 100 species and using phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested whether and how foraging mode and diet affect baseline TFR. Our results show that baseline TFR is higher in active than ambush foragers. Although baseline TFRs appear phylogenetically stable in some lizard taxa, that is a consequence of concordant stability of foraging mode: when foraging mode shifts within taxa, so does baseline TFR. Also, baseline TFR is a good predictor of prey chemical discriminatory ability, as we established a strong positive relationship between baseline TFR and TFR in response to prey. Baseline TFR is unrelated to diet. Essentially, foraging mode, not phylogenetic relatedness, drives convergent evolution of similar levels of squamate chemosensory investigation.

  18. Simulating Secondary Succession of Elk Forage Values in a Managed Forest Landscape, Western Washington

    PubMed

    Jenkins; Starkey

    1996-09-01

    Modern timber management practices often influence forage production for elk (Cervus elaphus) on broad temporal and spatial scales in forested landscapes. We incorporated site-specific information on postharvesting forest succession and forage characteristics in a simulation model to evaluate past and future influences of forest management practices on forage values for elk in a commercially managed Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii, PSME)-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla, TSHE) forest in western Washington. We evaluated future effects of: (1) clear-cut logging 0, 20, and 40% of harvestable stands every five years; (2) thinning 20-year-old Douglas fir forests; and (3) reducing the harvesting cycle from 60 to 45 years. Reconstruction of historical patterns of vegetation succession indicated that forage values peaked in the 1960s and declined from the 1970s to the present, but recent values still were higher than may have existed in the unmanaged landscape in 1945. Increased forest harvesting rates had little short-term influence on forage trends because harvestable stands were scarce. Simulations of forest thinning also produced negligible benefits because thinning did not improve forage productivity appreciably at the stand level. Simulations of reduced harvesting cycles shortened the duration of declining forage values from approximately 30 to 15 years. We concluded that simulation models are useful tools for examining landscape responses of forage production to forest management strategies, but the options examined provided little potential for improving elk forages in the immediate future.KEY WORDS:Cervus elaphus; Elk; Forage; Forest management; Modeling; Secondary succession

  19. From the community to the classroom: the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Jacklin, Kristen; Strasser, Roger; Peltier, Ian

    2014-01-01

    More undergraduate medical education programs are including curricula concerning the health, culture and history of Aboriginal people. This is in response to growing international recognition of the large divide in health status between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and the role medical education may play in achieving health equity. In this paper, we describe the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM). We describe a process for curriculum development and delivery, which includes ongoing engagement with Aboriginal communities as well as faculty expertise. Aboriginal health is delivered as a core curriculum, and learning is evaluated in summative assessments. Aboriginal health objectives are present in 4 of 5 required courses, primarily in years 1 and 2. Students attend a required 4-week Aboriginal cultural immersion placement at the end of year 1. Resources of Aboriginal knowledge are integrated into learning. In this paper, we reflect on the key challenges encountered in the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum. These include differences in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal knowledge; risk of reinforcing stereotypes in case presentations; negotiation of curricular time; and faculty readiness and development. An organizational commitment to social accountability and the resulting community engagement model have been instrumental in creating a robust, sustainable program in Aboriginal health at NOSM.

  20. Distribution of Hepatitis C Risk Factors and HCV Treatment Outcomes among Central Canadian Aboriginal

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Parmvir; Corsi, Daniel J.; Cooper, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aboriginal Canadians face many lifestyle risk factors for hepatitis C exposure. Methods. An analysis of Ottawa Hospital Viral Hepatitis Clinic (Ottawa, Canada) patients between January 2000 and August 2013 was performed. HCV infection risk factors and HCV treatment outcomes were assessed. Socioeconomic status markers were based on area-level indicators linked to postal codes using administrative databases. Results. 55 (2.8%) Aboriginal and 1923 (97.2%) non-Aboriginal patients were evaluated. Aboriginals were younger (45.6 versus 49.6 years, p < 0.01). The distribution of gender (63.6% versus 68.3% male), HIV coinfection (9.1% versus 8.1%), advanced fibrosis stage (29.2% versus 28.0%), and SVR (56.3% versus 58.9%) was similar between groups. Aboriginals had a higher number of HCV risk factors, (mean 4.2 versus 3.1, p < 0.001) with an odds ratio of 2.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.4–4.4) for having 4+ risk factors. This was not explained after adjustment for income, social deprivation, and poor housing. Aboriginal status was not related to SVR. Aboriginals interrupted therapy more often due to loss to follow-up, poor adherence, and substance abuse (25.0% versus 4.6%). Conclusion. Aboriginal Canadians have higher levels of HCV risk factors, even when adjusting for socioeconomic markers. Despite facing greater barriers to care, SVR rates were comparable with non-Aboriginals. PMID:27446875

  1. Information Foraging for Perceptual Decisions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We tested an information foraging framework to characterize the mechanisms that drive active (visual) sampling behavior in decision problems that involve multiple sources of information. Experiments 1 through 3 involved participants making an absolute judgment about the direction of motion of a single random dot motion pattern. In Experiment 4, participants made a relative comparison between 2 motion patterns that could only be sampled sequentially. Our results show that: (a) Information (about noisy motion information) grows to an asymptotic level that depends on the quality of the information source; (b) The limited growth is attributable to unequal weighting of the incoming sensory evidence, with early samples being weighted more heavily; (c) Little information is lost once a new source of information is being sampled; and (d) The point at which the observer switches from 1 source to another is governed by online monitoring of his or her degree of (un)certainty about the sampled source. These findings demonstrate that the sampling strategy in perceptual decision-making is under some direct control by ongoing cognitive processing. More specifically, participants are able to track a measure of (un)certainty and use this information to guide their sampling behavior. PMID:27819455

  2. Root Nutrient Foraging1

    PubMed Central

    Giehl, Ricardo F.H.; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2014-01-01

    During a plant's lifecycle, the availability of nutrients in the soil is mostly heterogeneous in space and time. Plants are able to adapt to nutrient shortage or localized nutrient availability by altering their root system architecture to efficiently explore soil zones containing the limited nutrient. It has been shown that the deficiency of different nutrients induces root architectural and morphological changes that are, at least to some extent, nutrient specific. Here, we highlight what is known about the importance of individual root system components for nutrient acquisition and how developmental and physiological responses can be coupled to increase nutrient foraging by roots. In addition, we review prominent molecular mechanisms involved in altering the root system in response to local nutrient availability or to the plant's nutritional status. PMID:25082891

  3. Root nutrient foraging.

    PubMed

    Giehl, Ricardo F H; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2014-10-01

    During a plant's lifecycle, the availability of nutrients in the soil is mostly heterogeneous in space and time. Plants are able to adapt to nutrient shortage or localized nutrient availability by altering their root system architecture to efficiently explore soil zones containing the limited nutrient. It has been shown that the deficiency of different nutrients induces root architectural and morphological changes that are, at least to some extent, nutrient specific. Here, we highlight what is known about the importance of individual root system components for nutrient acquisition and how developmental and physiological responses can be coupled to increase nutrient foraging by roots. In addition, we review prominent molecular mechanisms involved in altering the root system in response to local nutrient availability or to the plant's nutritional status.

  4. The determinants of chronic bronchitis in Aboriginal children and youth

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Alomgir; Konrad, Stephanie; Dosman, James A; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; McCrosky, Jesse; Pahwa, Punam

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge concerning chronic bronchitis (CB) in Canadian Aboriginal peoples. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence (crude and adjusted) of CB and its associated risk factors in Canadian Aboriginal children and youth six to 14 years of age. METHODS: Data from the cross-sectional Aboriginal Peoples Survey were analyzed in the present study. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors influencing the prevalence of CB among Aboriginal children and youth. The balanced repeated replication method was used to compute standard errors of regression coefficients to account for clustering inherent in the study design. The outcome of interest was based on the question: “Have you been told by a doctor, nurse or other health professional that you have chronic bronchitis?” Demographics, environment and population characteristics (predisposing and enabling resources) were tested for an association with CB. RESULTS: The prevalence of CB was 3.1% for boys and 2.8% for girls. Other significant risk factors of CB were age (OR 1.38 [95% CI 1.24 to 1.52] for 12 to 14 year olds versus six to eight year olds), income (OR 2.28 [95% CI 2.02 to 2.59] for income category <$25,000/year versus ≥$85,000/year), allergies (OR 1.96 [95% CI 1.78 to 2.16] for having allergies versus no allergies), asthma (OR 7.61 [ 95% CI 6.91 to 8.37] for having asthma versus no asthma) and location of residence (rural/urban and geographical location). A significant two-way interaction between sex and body mass index indicated that the relationship between the prevalence of CB and body mass index was modified by sex. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of CB was related to well-known risk factors among adults, including older age and lower annual income. PMID:23248806

  5. The maternal aborigine colonization of La Palma (Canary Islands)

    PubMed Central

    Fregel, Rosa; Pestano, Jose; Arnay, Matilde; Cabrera, Vicente M; Larruga, Jose M; González, Ana M

    2009-01-01

    Teeth from 38 aboriginal remains of La Palma (Canary Islands) were analyzed for external and endogenous mitochondrial DNA control region sequences and for diagnostic coding positions. Informative sequences were obtained from 30 individuals (78.9%). The majority of lineages (93%) were from West Eurasian origin, being the rest (7%) from sub-Saharan African ascription. The bulk of the aboriginal haplotypes had exact matches in North Africa (70%). However, the indigenous Canarian sub-type U6b1, also detected in La Palma, has not yet been found in North Africa, the cradle of the U6 expansion. The most abundant H1 clade in La Palma, defined by transition 16260, is also very rare in North Africa. This means that the exact region from which the ancestors of the Canarian aborigines came has not yet been sampled or that they have been replaced by later human migrations. The high gene diversity found in La Palma (95.2±2.3), which is one of the farthest islands from the African continent, is of the same level than the previously found in the central island of Tenerife (92.4±2.8). This is against the supposition that the islands were colonized from the continent by island hopping and posterior isolation. On the other hand, the great similarity found between the aboriginal populations of La Palma and Tenerife is against the idea of an island-by-island independent maritime colonization without secondary contacts. Our data better fit to an island model with frequent migrations between islands. PMID:19337312

  6. Astronomical Heritage and Aboriginal People: Conflicts and Possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín López, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    In this presentation we will address the issues relating to the astronomical heritage of contemporary aboriginal groups and othe minorities. We will deal specially with the intangible astronomical heritage and their particularities. We will study (from the ethnographic experience with Aboriginal groups, Creoles and Europeans in the Argentine Chaco) the conflicts referring to the different ways, in which the native's knowledge and practice are categorized by the natives themselves, by the scientists, the state politicians, the professional artists and NGOs. We will address several cases to illustrate this kind of conflicts. We will analyze the complexities of patrimonial policies when it are applied to practices and representations of contemporary communities involved in power relations with national states and the global system. The essentialization of identities, the folklorization of representations and practices, the fossilization of aboriginal peoples are some of the risks of give the label of "cultural heritage" without a careful consideration of each specific case.In particular we will suggest possible forms by which he international scientific community could collaborate to improve the agenda of national states instead of reproducing colonial prejudices. In this way we will contribute to promote the respect for ethnic and religious minorities.

  7. Childhood Cryptosporidium infection among aboriginal communities in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mekhlafi, H M; Mahdy, M A K; ’Azlin, M Y; Fatmah, M S; Norhayati, M

    2011-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a coccidian parasite that is prevalent worldwide, some species of which cause morbidity in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. The prevalence and predictors of Cryptosporidium infection, and its effect on nutritional status, have recently been explored among 276 children (141 boys and 135 girls, aged 2–15 years) in aboriginal (Orang Asli) villages in the Malaysian state of Selangor. Faecal smears were examined by the modified Ziehl–Neelsen staining technique while socio–economic data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric measurements. Cryptosporidium infection, which was detected in 7·2% of the aboriginal children, was found to be significantly associated with low birthweight (⩽2·5 kg), being part of a large household (with more than seven members) and prolonged breast feeding (>2 years). The output of a binary logistic regression confirmed that large household size was a significant predictor of Cryptosporidium infection (giving an odds ratio of 2·15, with a 95% confidence interval of 1·25–5·02). Cryptosporidium infection is clearly a public-health problem among the aboriginal children of Selangor, with person-to-person the most likely mode of transmission. PMID:21396250

  8. Suicide Rates in Aboriginal Communities in Labrador, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Nathaniel J.; Mulay, Shree; Valcour, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To compare suicide rates in Aboriginal communities in Labrador, including Innu, Inuit, and Southern Inuit, with the general population of Newfoundland, Canada. Methods. In partnership with Aboriginal governments, we conducted a population-based study to understand patterns of suicide mortality in Labrador. We analyzed suicide mortality data from 1993 to 2009 from the Vital Statistics Death Database. We combined this with community-based methods, including consultations with Elders, youths, mental health and community workers, primary care clinicians, and government decision-makers. Results. The suicide rate was higher in Labrador than in Newfoundland. This trend persisted across all age groups; however, the disparity was greatest among those aged 10 to 19 years. Males accounted for the majority of deaths, although suicide rates were elevated among females in the Inuit communities. When comparing Aboriginal subregions, the Innu and Inuit communities had the highest age-standardized mortality rates of, respectively, 165.6 and 114.0 suicides per 100 000 person-years. Conclusions. Suicide disproportionately affects Innu and Inuit populations in Labrador. Suicide rates were high among male youths and Inuit females. PMID:27196659

  9. Otitis media in Australian Aboriginal children: an overview.

    PubMed

    Leach, A J

    1999-10-05

    Remote and rural Australian Aboriginal children achieve lower standards of numeracy and literacy than their non-Aboriginal peers. The reasons are complex, but extraordinarily high rates of conductive hearing loss (> 50%) are, in part, responsible for poor classroom success. In addition to the burden of acute bacterial respiratory illness (highest rates of invasive pneumococcal disease in the literature), chronic disease affects virtually every young child. In the Aboriginal community studied, otitis media commenced within 3 months of birth for all infants, progressed to chronic suppurative otitis media in 60% and did not resolve throughout early childhood. Our findings, supported by mathematical modelling, show that the vicious cycle of endemic chronic otitis media is perpetuated by high carriage rates of multiple species and multiple types of respiratory bacterial pathogens, by high cross-infection rates and thus, by early age of pathogen acquisition and prolonged carriage. Long-term damage to respiratory mucosa, possibly linked to later chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis, follows a constant series of infections by each of the concurrently held pathogens, without periods of recovery. Overcrowding and poor hygiene promote this vicious cycle. Medical and social options for intervention are limited by poor resources, low expectations for health and a complex biology that includes antibiotic resistant pneumococci.

  10. Astronomical Heritage and Aboriginal People: Conflicts and Possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Alejandro Martín

    2016-10-01

    In this presentation we address issues relating to the astronomical heritage of contemporary aboriginal groups and other minorities. We deal specially with intangible astronomical heritage and its particularities. Also, we study (from ethnographic experience with Aboriginal groups, Creoles and Europeans in the Argentine Chaco) the conflicts referring to the different ways in which the natives' knowledge and practice are categorized by the natives themselves, by scientists, state politicians, professional artists and NGOs. Furthermore, we address several cases that illustrate these kinds of conflicts. We aim to analyze the complexities of patrimonial policies when they are applied to practices and representations of contemporary communities involved in power relations with national states and the global system. The essentialization of identities, the folklorization of representations and practices, and the fossilization of aboriginal peoples are some of the risks of applying the label ``cultural heritage'' without a careful consideration of each specific case. In particular we suggest possible ways in which the international scientific community could collaborate to improve the agenda of national states instead of reproducing colonial prejudices. In this way, we aim to contribute to the promotion of respect for ethnic and religious minorities.

  11. Root foraging influences plant growth responses to earthworm foraging.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Erin K; Cahill, James F; Bayne, Erin M

    2014-01-01

    Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants.

  12. Modelling foraging movements of diving predators: a theoretical study exploring the effect of heterogeneous landscapes on foraging efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Bartoń, Kamil A.; Scott, Beth E.; Travis, Justin M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Foraging in the marine environment presents particular challenges for air-breathing predators. Information about prey capture rates, the strategies that diving predators use to maximise prey encounter rates and foraging success are still largely unknown and difficult to observe. As well, with the growing awareness of potential climate change impacts and the increasing interest in the development of renewable sources it is unknown how the foraging activity of diving predators such as seabirds will respond to both the presence of underwater structures and the potential corresponding changes in prey distributions. Motivated by this issue we developed a theoretical model to gain general understanding of how the foraging efficiency of diving predators may vary according to landscape structure and foraging strategy. Our theoretical model highlights that animal movements, intervals between prey capture and foraging efficiency are likely to critically depend on the distribution of the prey resource and the size and distribution of introduced underwater structures. For multiple prey loaders, changes in prey distribution affected the searching time necessary to catch a set amount of prey which in turn affected the foraging efficiency. The spatial aggregation of prey around small devices (∼ 9 × 9 m) created a valuable habitat for a successful foraging activity resulting in shorter intervals between prey captures and higher foraging efficiency. The presence of large devices (∼ 24 × 24 m) however represented an obstacle for predator movement, thus increasing the intervals between prey captures. In contrast, for single prey loaders the introduction of spatial aggregation of the resources did not represent an advantage suggesting that their foraging efficiency is more strongly affected by other factors such as the timing to find the first prey item which was found to occur faster in the presence of large devices. The development of this theoretical model represents a useful

  13. Modelling foraging movements of diving predators: a theoretical study exploring the effect of heterogeneous landscapes on foraging efficiency.

    PubMed

    Chimienti, Marianna; Bartoń, Kamil A; Scott, Beth E; Travis, Justin M J

    2014-01-01

    Foraging in the marine environment presents particular challenges for air-breathing predators. Information about prey capture rates, the strategies that diving predators use to maximise prey encounter rates and foraging success are still largely unknown and difficult to observe. As well, with the growing awareness of potential climate change impacts and the increasing interest in the development of renewable sources it is unknown how the foraging activity of diving predators such as seabirds will respond to both the presence of underwater structures and the potential corresponding changes in prey distributions. Motivated by this issue we developed a theoretical model to gain general understanding of how the foraging efficiency of diving predators may vary according to landscape structure and foraging strategy. Our theoretical model highlights that animal movements, intervals between prey capture and foraging efficiency are likely to critically depend on the distribution of the prey resource and the size and distribution of introduced underwater structures. For multiple prey loaders, changes in prey distribution affected the searching time necessary to catch a set amount of prey which in turn affected the foraging efficiency. The spatial aggregation of prey around small devices (∼ 9 × 9 m) created a valuable habitat for a successful foraging activity resulting in shorter intervals between prey captures and higher foraging efficiency. The presence of large devices (∼ 24 × 24 m) however represented an obstacle for predator movement, thus increasing the intervals between prey captures. In contrast, for single prey loaders the introduction of spatial aggregation of the resources did not represent an advantage suggesting that their foraging efficiency is more strongly affected by other factors such as the timing to find the first prey item which was found to occur faster in the presence of large devices. The development of this theoretical model represents a useful

  14. Fall Growth Potential of Cereal Grain Forages in Northern Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Arkansas, producers utilizing cereal grains as fall forage for weaned calves usually do not harvest a grain crop the following summer. This contrasts sharply from practices observed commonly in neighboring Oklahoma, and allows for much wider latitude with respect to management strategies, especia...

  15. Reconciling Mixed Methods Approaches with a Community Narrative Model for Educational Research Involving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dakich, Eva; Watt, Tony; Hooley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Researching the education of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australian schools is an exceedingly difficult and uncompromising task. Working respectfully with local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities must remain top priority with any research project regarding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander viewpoints of…

  16. Using "Slowmation" for Animated Storytelling to Represent Non-Aboriginal Preservice Teachers' Awareness of "Relatedness to Country"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Anthony; Hoban, Garry; Nielsen, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a group (N=15) of final year non-Aboriginal preservice teachers participated in an elective subject that aimed to raise their awareness about Aboriginal ways of knowing. A vital aspect of the course was developing the preservice teachers' awareness of "relatedness to country" which is a key belief for Aboriginal people.…

  17. Enough Bad News! Remote Social Health & Aboriginal Action in a Harsh Environment--Coober Pedy in South Australia's "Outback."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brice, G.; And Others

    This paper focuses on the complexities of health care in Coober Pedy (South Australia) and the nearby Umoona Aboriginal community, and highlights the vital role of Aboriginal health workers in the implementation of primary health care principles. The Aboriginal population in this "outback" area is characterized by considerable economic…

  18. "We Learn A Lot from Mr. Hart": A Qualitative Study of an Effective Teacher of Aboriginal Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harslett, Mort; Godfrey, John; Harrison, Bernard; Partington, Gary; Richer, Kaye

    A profile of an effective teacher of Aboriginal Australian students was constructed based on research on the teaching of Aboriginal students. Using the profile as a framework, this paper reports on an ethnographic study of an effective teacher in action with Aboriginal students. The study consisted of semi-participative observation of a teacher of…

  19. Hemostatic factors in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zaimin; Rowley, Kevin; Best, James; McDermott, Robyn; Taylor, Michael; O'Dea, Kerin

    2007-05-01

    Hemostatic processes are important in precipitating myocardial infarction and stroke. Elevated plasma fibrinogen is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but the results of previous studies on the association of plasma factor VIIc activity with CVD and diabetes have been inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to explore the association of plasma fibrinogen and factor VIIc to clinical characteristics and estimated coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Cross-sectional surveys of Australian Aboriginal people (n = 852) and Torres Strait Islanders (n = 276) aged 15 years and older were conducted from 1993 to 1995. Anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, fasting plasma fibrinogen, factor VIIc, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose were measured. Levels of fibrinogen (mean, 95% confidence interval) for Aboriginal (3.52, 3.44-3.59 g/L) and Torres Strait Islander people (3.62, 3.49-3.75 g/L) were higher compared with previous reports from other populations. Factor VIIc (mean, 95% confidence interval) was especially high in Torres Strait Islanders (116%, 111%-122%) compared with Aboriginal people (99%, 97%-102%). Fibrinogen increased with age in both ethnic groups and sexes. Fibrinogen was independently associated with female sex, body mass index, renal dysfunction, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and diabetes, whereas the independent predictors for factor VIIc were Torres Strait Islander ethnicity, female sex, body mass index, renal dysfunction, and total cholesterol. Average fibrinogen levels were high (>3.5 mg/dL) even for people considered "below average risk of coronary heart disease" according to conventional risk factor levels. For Aboriginal women, levels of fibrinogen and factor VIIc were significantly higher for persons at high risk than those at below average risk. The data suggest that plasma fibrinogen and factor VIIc might

  20. A Review of Programs That Targeted Environmental Determinants of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Leah; Doyle, Joyce; Morgan, Bec; Atkinson-Briggs, Sharon; Firebrace, Bradley; Marika, Mayatili; Reilly, Rachel; Cargo, Margaret; Riley, Therese; Rowley, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Effective interventions to improve population and individual health require environmental change as well as strategies that target individual behaviours and clinical factors. This is the basis of implementing an ecological approach to health programs and health promotion. For Aboriginal People and Torres Strait Islanders, colonisation has made the physical and social environment particularly detrimental for health. Methods and Results: We conducted a literature review to identify Aboriginal health interventions that targeted environmental determinants of health, identifying 21 different health programs. Program activities that targeted environmental determinants of health included: Caring for Country; changes to food supply and/or policy; infrastructure for physical activity; housing construction and maintenance; anti-smoking policies; increased workforce capacity; continuous quality improvement of clinical systems; petrol substitution; and income management. Targets were categorised according to Miller’s Living Systems Theory. Researchers using an Indigenous community based perspective more often identified interpersonal and community-level targets than were identified using a Western academic perspective. Conclusions: Although there are relatively few papers describing interventions that target environmental determinants of health, many of these addressed such determinants at multiple levels, consistent to some degree with an ecological approach. Interpretation of program targets sometimes differed between academic and community-based perspectives, and was limited by the type of data reported in the journal articles, highlighting the need for local Indigenous knowledge for accurate program evaluation. Implications: While an ecological approach to Indigenous health is increasingly evident in the health research literature, the design and evaluation of such programs requires a wide breadth of expertise, including local Indigenous knowledge. PMID

  1. Effective Teaching Practices for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Natalie J.; Lewthwaite, Brian Ellis; Osborne, Barry; Boon, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature pertaining to the teacher actions that influence Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander student learning outcomes. This review investigates two foci: the identification of teacher actions influencing learning outcomes for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander students and the methodological…

  2. Improving the Participation and Engagement of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dang, Thi Kim Anh; Vitartas, Peter; Ambrose, Kurt; Millar, Hayley

    2016-01-01

    Most Australian universities have among their goals to increase the number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students at their institutions. In the Australian higher education context, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students are seriously under-represented, particularly in business education compared to other disciplines. An…

  3. Theory and Research on Bullying and Racism from an Aboriginal Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Paradies, Yin; Parada, Roberto; Denson, Nida; Priest, Naomi; Bansel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a brief review of research on the impact of bullying and racism on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples within Australia. The overarching emphasis was on the variety of physical, social, mental, and educational outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and youth, whilst also critiquing the prevailing…

  4. Does a Culturally Sensitive Smoking Prevention Program Reduce Smoking Intentions among Aboriginal Children? A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKennitt, Daniel W.; Currie, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program would have short-term impacts on smoking intentions among Aboriginal children. Two schools with high Aboriginal enrollment were selected for the study. A grade 4 classroom in one school was randomly assigned to receive the culturally sensitive smoking…

  5. Shifting Perspectives and Practices: Teacher Candidates' Experiences of an Aboriginal Infusion in Mainstream Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blimkie, Melissa; Vetter, Diane; Haig-Brown, Celia

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory case study shares teacher candidates' perspectives and experiences of an Aboriginal infusion at York University's Faculty of Education field site in Barrie, Ontario. For this initiative, Aboriginal content and pedagogies were infused throughout placements and courses of the mainstream teacher education program. Teacher candidates…

  6. Hepatitis C virus infection among children in aboriginal areas in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ta-Chung; Chuang, Wan-Long; Dai, Chia-Yen; Huang, Jee-Fu; Hsieh, Ming-Yen; Hou, Nai-Jen; Lee, Li-Po; Lin, Wen-Yi; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chiu, Chao-Chin; Chen, Shinn-Cherng; Hsieh, Ming-Yuh; Chang, Wen-Yu; Yu, Ming-Lung

    2008-09-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among adults in aboriginal areas has been shown to be higher than in urban areas in Taiwan. Whether the prevalence of HCV infection is also higher among children in aboriginal areas remains unclear. In total, 1176 schoolchildren in four aboriginal areas were invited to participate in the study. All children were tested for serum antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV) and liver enzymes. The age range of children was 6-13 years. Another 606 sex- and age-matched schoolchildren from an urban area served as controls. There was no statistically significant difference in prevalence of anti-HCV between aboriginal and Han Chinese students in aboriginal areas. The prevalence of anti-HCV was 0.3% (4/1176) in aboriginal areas, which was similar to the prevalence of 0% (0/606) in the urban area. The four anti-HCV seropositive aboriginal children were all negative for HCV RNA. Our data suggest that the high prevalence of anti-HCV among aboriginal adults might be due to subsequent exposure to risk factors after school age.

  7. Culturally Competent Evaluation for Aboriginal Communities: A Review of the Empirical Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chouinard, Jill A.; Cousins, J. Bradley

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesize the current empirical literature on cross-cultural evaluation in Aboriginal communities, and to begin to address the recognized lack of critically engaged discussion about research on culturally competent evaluation. The term "Aboriginal" in this document refers to First Nations,…

  8. Preservice Teachers' Learning with Yuin Country: Becoming Respectful Teachers in Aboriginal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The ownership of Aboriginal knowledge and the Aboriginal perspective presented in school curriculum is always with Country. A number of preservice teachers were taken to a sacred story, "Gulaga a Living Spiritual Mountain," to participate in an elective subject to engage in respectful reciprocal relationship with Country. The…

  9. Completing the circle: elders speak about end-of-life care with aboriginal families in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Mary; Baydala, Angelina; Bourassa, Carrie; McKay-McNabb, Kim; Placsko, Cheryl; Goodwill, Ken; McKenna, Betty; McNabb, Pat; Boekelder, Roxanne

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we share words spoken by Aboriginal elders from Saskatchewan, Canada, in response to the research question, "What would you like non-Aboriginal health care providers to know when providing end-of-life care for Aboriginal families?" Our purpose in publishing these results in a written format is to place information shared by oral tradition in an academic context and to make the information accessible to other researchers. Recent theoretical work in the areas of death and dying suggests that cultural beliefs and practices are particularly influential at the end of life; however, little work describing the traditional beliefs and practices of Aboriginal peoples in Canada exists to guide culturally appropriate end-of-life care delivery. Purposive sampling procedures were used to recruit five elders from culturally diverse First Nations in southern Saskatchewan. Key informant Aboriginal elder participants were videotaped by two Aboriginal research assistants, who approached the elders at powwows. Narrative analysis of the key informant interview transcripts was conducted to identify key concepts and emerging narrative themes describing culturally appropriate end-of-life health care for Aboriginal families. Six themes were identified to organize the data into a coherent narrative: realization; gathering of community; care and comfort/transition; moments after death; grief, wake, funeral; and messages to health care providers. These themes told the story of the dying person's journey and highlighted important messages from elders to non-Aboriginal health care providers.

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Peer Mentorship Program for Aboriginal University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawana, Jennine S.; Sieukaran, Daniella D.; Nguyen, Hien T.; Pitawanakwat, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Although Aboriginal students encounter educational challenges, few post-secondary mentorship programs that facilitate positive educational and mental health outcomes within this population are described in the literature. This study describes the development and evaluation of a mentorship program for Aboriginal university students. Program…

  11. Effective Nutrition Education for Aboriginal Australians: Lessons from a Diabetes Cooking Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Penelope A.; Davison, Joyce E.; Moore, Louise F.; Rubinstein, Raechelle

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the experiences of Aboriginal Australians with or at risk of diabetes who attended urban community cooking courses in 2002-2007; and to develop recommendations for increasing the uptake and effectiveness of nutrition education in Aboriginal communities. Methods: Descriptive qualitative approach using semistructured…

  12. The Problem with Numbers: An Examination of the Aboriginal Skills and Employment Partnership Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkins, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines a federally funded pre-apprenticeship training programme designed to transition aboriginal northerners living in the Canadian Arctic into trades-related employment. Drawing from interviews involving programme partners and stakeholders, the Aboriginal Skills and Employment Partnership programme that operated in the Beaufort…

  13. Cultural Immersion: Developing a Community of Practice of Teachers and Aboriginal Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Cathie; Cavanagh, Paddy

    2016-01-01

    A lack of teacher awareness of the cultural and historical background of Aboriginal students has long been recognised as a major causative factor in the failure of Australian schools to fully engage Aboriginal students and deliver equitable educational outcomes for them. Using Wenger's communities of practice framework, this paper analyses the…

  14. Giibinenimidizomin: Owning Ourselves--Critical Incidents in the Attainment of Aboriginal Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwill, Alanaise O.; McCormick, Rod

    2012-01-01

    This research explored the facilitation and hindrance of Aboriginal identity attainment and developed a scheme of categories to describe what facilitates and hinders cultural identity among Canadian Aboriginal adults living in British Columbia. Twelve individuals, interviewed using the critical incident technique, were asked to describe observable…

  15. Aboriginal Women Working in Vocational Training and Education: A Story from Central Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Kate

    2006-01-01

    This article outlines research undertaken by an Aboriginal women's non-government organization (NGO) into vocational training and education (VTE) needs and issues for remote Aboriginal communities in Central Australia. It describes the Central Australian context, and in particular the impact of remoteness, inequity and disadvantage upon Aboriginal…

  16. Pathways to Equality: Hearings on Access to Public Education for Aboriginal People. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Human Rights Commission, Vancouver.

    Aboriginal people are not benefiting from the British Columbia school system, as evidenced by their poor performance on basic skills tests, overrepresentation in special education, and low high school completion rates. The British Columbia Human Rights Commission feels that Aboriginal students do not receive an equal education. Through research,…

  17. Context, Diversity and Engagement: Early Intervention with Australian Aboriginal Families in Urban and Remote Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Gary; Tyler, William; Jones, Yomei; Silburn, Sven; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes challenges met implementing an early intervention programme for Aboriginal parents and their children in the NT (Northern Territory) of Australia in the context of efforts to remediate Aboriginal disadvantage. The intervention is an adaptation of an 8- to 10-week, manualised parenting programme designed for four- to…

  18. Community as Teacher Model: Health Profession Students Learn Cultural Safety from an Aboriginal Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Cathy C.; Godolphin, William J.; Chhina, Gagun S.; Towle, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Communication between health care professionals and Aboriginal patients is complicated by cultural differences and the enduring effects of colonization. Health care providers need better training to meet the needs of Aboriginal patients and communities. We describe the development and outcomes of a community-driven service-learning program in…

  19. Can We Educate and Train Aboriginal Leaders within Our Tertiary Education Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The concept of Aboriginal leadership often results in debate. The fundamental question raised is if Australian Aboriginal people are equal members of a pluralistic society that is based on co-operation and consensuses then how can you have a leader? Consequently who determines leadership or is a leader someone that in effect is more equal than…

  20. Untying a Dreamcatcher: Coming to Understand Possibilities for Teaching Students of Aboriginal Inheritance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberg, Antoinette; Blades, David; Thom, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing the number of Aboriginal students graduating from university is a goal of many Canadian universities. Realizing this goal may present challenges to the orientation and methodology of university curricula that have been developed without consideration of the traditional epistemologies of Aboriginal peoples. In this article, three…

  1. The Early Childhood Education of Aboriginal Australians: A Review of Six Action-Research Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasdale, G. R.; Whitelaw, A. J.

    The book describes the setting, objectives, program, evaluation and achievement of six innovative action-research early childhood education projects for Aboriginal Australian children, traces various previous attempts to provide education, and provides an historical background of the estimated 140,000 Aboriginal people who make up 1% of…

  2. Disparity in cancer prevention and screening in aboriginal populations: recommendations for action

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, S.; Shahid, R.K.; Episkenew, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, cancer has occurred at a lower rate in aboriginal populations; however, it is now dramatically increasing. Unless preventive measures are taken, cancer rates among aboriginal peoples are expected to soon surpass those in non-aboriginal populations. Because a large proportion of malignant disorders are preventable, primary prevention through socioeconomic interventions, environmental changes, and lifestyle modification might provide the best option for reducing the increasing burden of cancers. Such efforts can be further amplified by making use of effective cancer screening programs for early detection of cancers at their most treatable stage. However, compared with non-aboriginal Canadians, many aboriginal Canadians lack equal access to cancer screening and prevention programs. In this paper, we discuss disparities in cancer prevention and screening in aboriginal populations in Canada. We begin with the relevant definitions and a theoretical perspective of disparity in health care in aboriginal populations. A framework of health determinants is proposed to explain the pathways associated with an increased risk of cancer that are potentially avoidable. Major challenges and knowledge gaps in relation to cancer care for aboriginal populations are addressed, and we make recommendations to eliminate disparities in cancer control and prevention. PMID:26715875

  3. Risk practices among aboriginal people who inject drugs in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Dana; McEwan, Monique; Bryant, Joanne

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes patterns of injecting drug use and blood borne virus (BBV)-related risk practices among Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people who inject drugs (PWID). A total of 588 participants, 120 of whom self-identified as Aboriginal completed a questionnaire. Aboriginal participants were more likely to have been in prison (37.6 vs. 16.5 %), to inject daily (72.7 vs. 55.0 %), to share ancillary equipment (64.9 vs. 44.8 %) and less likely to know about BBV transmission (72.0 vs. 87.7 %) and treatment (47.2 vs. 67.6 %). Aboriginal participants used services such as BBV testing and drug treatment at a comparable rate to non-Aboriginal participants. The findings suggest that Aboriginal PWID are at greater risk for acquiring BBV. The prison setting should be used to deliver health promotion information and risk reduction messages. More information is needed on Aboriginal people's access and use of services to ensure beneficial services are received in the most appropriate settings.

  4. Informal Learning: Cultural Experiences and Entrepreneurship among Aboriginal People. NALL Working Paper #04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wotherspoon, Terry; Butler, Joanne

    This discussion paper explores interactions among formal learning, informal learning, and life conditions and opportunities experienced by aboriginal people in Canada. The contradictory importance of education for aboriginal people is examined with respect to three related aspects of these relationships. First, the paper summarizes students'…

  5. Development of Oral Health Training for Rural and Remote Aboriginal Health Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacza, Tom; Steele, Lesley; Tennant, Marc

    2001-01-01

    A culturally appropriate oral health training course tailored to the needs of rural Aboriginal health workers was developed in Western Australia. The course is taught in three modules ranging from introductory material to comprehensive practical and theoretical knowledge of basic dental health care. The program encourages Aboriginal health workers…

  6. Distance Education and the Issue of Equity Online: Exploring the Perspectives of Rural Aboriginal Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores Aboriginal perspectives of tertiary education "online" from rural and remote community locations in New South Wales. It does so within a frame of enquiry as to how neo-liberal educational policy reforms are impacting on equity issues in distance education "online". Accounts from Aboriginal university…

  7. The reach and flow of health information in two Aboriginal communities: a social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Winch, Scott; Ahmed, Nageen; Rissel, Christopher; Maxwell, Michelle; Coutts, Joanna; Lucas, Kerri

    2016-10-19

    The aim of the present paper was to explore how social networks enable dissemination of health information within two Aboriginal communities in New South Wales. The study design was modelled on a social network analysis socio-centric model. Data collection was conducted primarily by Aboriginal community members who were trained as community researchers. Participants reported on their patterns of interaction and who they provided or received health information from, and awareness of the Aboriginal Enhancement of the Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service. In total, 122 participants across two sites participated in the study. Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations (ACCHOs) were cited as the main provider of health information in both sites. Between-ness, degree and closeness centrality showed that certain community members, ACCHS and ACCHO within the two communities in the present study were considerable enablers [actors] in enhancing the reach and flow of health information to their respective Aboriginal community. There is potential for future health-promotion activities to be increasingly targeted and effective in terms of reach and influence, if guided by local Aboriginal organisations and by key Aboriginal community members within and across family networks and communities.

  8. Translating Policies into Practice: Culturally Appropriate Practices in an Atayal Aboriginal Kindergarten Program in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Cecilia Lingfen

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the Atayal aboriginal kindergarten program in Taiwan, known as the Kui-whai kindergarten program. While teaching a course on "Designing Kindergarten Curriculum" at a teacher-training program in Taiwan, the author realized that she had seven aboriginal preservice teachers in her class; previously she had none. Those…

  9. Integrating Aboriginal Perspectives in Education: Perceptions of Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This study explored teacher candidates' perceptions of the potentialities and challenges associated with the integration of Aboriginal perspectives into mainstream education. Participants in this study were 2nd-year teacher candidates of a two-year teacher education programme who have completed a course on Aboriginal education. Using a qualitative…

  10. Community Development and Research. Aboriginal Peoples Collection = Developpement Communautaire et Recherches. Collection sur les Autochtones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of the Solicitor General, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This report provides Canadian Aboriginal communities with information and resources for carrying out participatory action research and applying the results to community development. Presented in English and French, the report is based on a literature review and a 2-day focus group involving 14 community development experts, Aboriginal community…

  11. Exploring Place from an Aboriginal Perspective: Considerations for Outdoor and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowan, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a recent study about Outward Bound Canada's Giwaykiwin program for Aboriginal youth. A key finding that emerged from the study was the need to design contemporary Aboriginal education programs based on a recognition of the evolution of Indigenous cultures and languages in close relationship with specific geographical areas.…

  12. Didgeridoo Playing and Singing to Support Asthma Management in Aboriginal Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eley, Robert; Gorman, Don

    2010-01-01

    Context: Asthma affects over 15% of Australian Aboriginal people. Compliance in asthma management is poor. Interventions that will increase compliance are required. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether Aboriginal children, adolescents and adults would engage in music lessons to increase their knowledge of asthma and support…

  13. Literacy: A Critical Element in the Survival of Aboriginal Languages. Chapter 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogwill, Lynn

    Six Aboriginal languages have been designated as official languages of the Northwest Territories (Canada) along with English and French. However, more than legislation is needed to support efforts to reclaim Aboriginal languages and culture. Both missionary schools and federally administered public schools (1940s-60s) disrupted the transmission of…

  14. Grounded in Country: Perspectives on Working within, alongside and for Aboriginal Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Barrett, Elizabeth; Price, Anne; Stomski, Norman; Walker, Bruce F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experiences of four researchers working within, alongside and for the Gumala Aboriginal Corporation in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. The focus of the research was a health and education needs analysis of Gumala Aboriginal Corporation members that would inform future education and health planning in the region.…

  15. Marine foraging ecology influences mercury bioaccumulation in deep-diving northern elephant seals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Sarah H.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury contamination of oceans is prevalent worldwide and methylmercury concentrations in the mesopelagic zone (200–1000 m) are increasing more rapidly than in surface waters. Yet mercury bioaccumulation in mesopelagic predators has been understudied. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) biannually travel thousands of kilometres to forage within coastal and open-ocean regions of the northeast Pacific Ocean. We coupled satellite telemetry, diving behaviour and stable isotopes (carbon and nitrogen) from 77 adult females, and showed that variability among individuals in foraging location, diving depth and δ13C values were correlated with mercury concentrations in blood and muscle. We identified three clusters of foraging strategies, and these resulted in substantially different mercury concentrations: (i) deeper-diving and offshore-foraging seals had the greatest mercury concentrations, (ii) shallower-diving and offshore-foraging seals had intermediate levels, and (iii) coastal and more northerly foraging seals had the lowest mercury concentrations. Additionally, mercury concentrations were lower at the end of the seven-month-long foraging trip (n = 31) than after the two-month- long post-breeding trip (n = 46). Our results indicate that foraging behaviour influences mercury exposure and mesopelagic predators foraging in the northeast Pacific Ocean may be at high risk for mercury bioaccumulation.

  16. Marine foraging ecology influences mercury bioaccumulation in deep-diving northern elephant seals

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Sarah H.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury contamination of oceans is prevalent worldwide and methylmercury concentrations in the mesopelagic zone (200–1000 m) are increasing more rapidly than in surface waters. Yet mercury bioaccumulation in mesopelagic predators has been understudied. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) biannually travel thousands of kilometres to forage within coastal and open-ocean regions of the northeast Pacific Ocean. We coupled satellite telemetry, diving behaviour and stable isotopes (carbon and nitrogen) from 77 adult females, and showed that variability among individuals in foraging location, diving depth and δ13C values were correlated with mercury concentrations in blood and muscle. We identified three clusters of foraging strategies, and these resulted in substantially different mercury concentrations: (i) deeper-diving and offshore-foraging seals had the greatest mercury concentrations, (ii) shallower-diving and offshore-foraging seals had intermediate levels, and (iii) coastal and more northerly foraging seals had the lowest mercury concentrations. Additionally, mercury concentrations were lower at the end of the seven-month-long foraging trip (n = 31) than after the two-month- long post-breeding trip (n = 46). Our results indicate that foraging behaviour influences mercury exposure and mesopelagic predators foraging in the northeast Pacific Ocean may be at high risk for mercury bioaccumulation. PMID:26085591

  17. Simulating secondary succession of elk forage values in a managed forest landscape, western Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Kurt; Starkey, Edward

    1996-09-01

    Modern timber management practices often influence forage production for elk ( Cervus elaphus) on broad temporal and spatial scales in forested landscapes. We incorporated site-specific information on postharvesting forest succession and forage characteristics in a simulation model to evaluate past and future influences of forest management practices on forage values for elk in a commercially managed Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii, PSME)-western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla, TSHE) forest in western Washington. We evaluated future effects of: (1) clear-cut logging 0, 20, and 40% of harvestable stands every five years; (2) thinning 20-year-old Douglas fir forests; and (3) reducing the harvesting cycle from 60 to 45 years. Reconstruction of historical patterns of vegetation succession indicated that forage values peaked in the 1960s and declined from the 1970s to the present, but recent values still were higher than may have existed in the unmanaged landscape in 1945. Increased forest harvesting rates had little short-term influence on forage trends because harvestable stands were scarce. Simulations of forest thinning also produced negligible benefits because thinning did not improve forage productivity appreciably at the stand level. Simulations of reduced harvesting cycles shortened the duration of declining forage values from approximately 30 to 15 years. We concluded that simulation models are useful tools for examining landscape responses of forage production to forest management strategies, but the options examined provided little potential for improving elk forages in the immediate future.

  18. Simulating secondary succession of elk forage values in a managed forest landscape, western Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Starkey, Edward E.

    1996-01-01

    Modern timber management practices often influence forage production for elk (Cervus elaphus) on broad temporal and spatial scales in forested landscapes. We incorporated site-specific information on postharvesting forest succession and forage characteristics in a simulation model to evaluate past and future influences of forest management practices on forage values for elk in a commercially managed Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii, PSME)-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla, TSHE) forest in western Washington. We evaluated future effects of: (1) clear-cut logging 0, 20, and 40% of harvestable stands every five years; (2) thinning 20-year-old Douglas fir forests; and (3) reducing the harvesting cycle from 60 to 45 years. Reconstruction of historical patterns of vegetation succession indicated that forage values peaked in the 1960s and declined from the 1970s to the present, but recent values still were higher than may have existed in the unmanaged landscape in 1945. Increased forest harvesting rates had little short-term influence on forage trends because harvestable stands were scarce. Simulations of forest thinning also produced negligible benefits because thinning did not improve forage productivity appreciably at the stand level. Simulations of reduced harvesting cycles shortened the duration of declining forage values from approximately 30 to 15 years. We concluded that simulation models are useful tools for examining landscape responses of forage production to forest management strategies, but the options examined provided little potential for improving elk forages in the immediate future.

  19. Marine foraging ecology influences mercury bioaccumulation in deep-diving northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Sarah H; Ackerman, Joshua T; Costa, Daniel P

    2015-07-07

    Mercury contamination of oceans is prevalent worldwide and methylmercury concentrations in the mesopelagic zone (200-1000 m) are increasing more rapidly than in surface waters. Yet mercury bioaccumulation in mesopelagic predators has been understudied. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) biannually travel thousands of kilometres to forage within coastal and open-ocean regions of the northeast Pacific Ocean. We coupled satellite telemetry, diving behaviour and stable isotopes (carbon and nitrogen) from 77 adult females, and showed that variability among individuals in foraging location, diving depth and δ(13)C values were correlated with mercury concentrations in blood and muscle. We identified three clusters of foraging strategies, and these resulted in substantially different mercury concentrations: (i) deeper-diving and offshore-foraging seals had the greatest mercury concentrations, (ii) shallower-diving and offshore-foraging seals had intermediate levels, and (iii) coastal and more northerly foraging seals had the lowest mercury concentrations. Additionally, mercury concentrations were lower at the end of the seven-month-long foraging trip (n = 31) than after the two-month- long post-breeding trip (n = 46). Our results indicate that foraging behaviour influences mercury exposure and mesopelagic predators foraging in the northeast Pacific Ocean may be at high risk for mercury bioaccumulation.

  20. An Australian Aboriginal birth cohort: a unique resource for a life course study of an Indigenous population. A study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Susan M; Mackerras, Dorothy; Singh, Gurmeet; Bucens, Ingrid; Flynn, Kathryn; Reid, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Background The global rise of Type 2 diabetes and its complications has drawn attention to the burden of non-communicable diseases on populations undergoing epidemiological transition. The life course approach of a birth cohort has the potential to increase our understanding of the development of these chronic diseases. In 1987 we sought to establish an Australian Indigenous birth cohort to be used as a resource for descriptive and analytical studies with particular attention on non-communicable diseases. The focus of this report is the methodology of recruiting and following-up an Aboriginal birth cohort of mobile subjects belonging to diverse cultural and language groups living in a large sparsely populated area in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Methods A prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal singletons born at the Royal Darwin Hospital 1987–1990, with second wave cross-sectional follow-up examination of subjects 1998–2001 in over 70 different locations. A multiphase protocol was used to locate and collect data on 686 subjects with different approaches for urban and rural children. Manual chart audits, faxes to remote communities, death registries and a full time subject locator with past experience of Aboriginal communities were all used. Discussion The successful recruitment of 686 Indigenous subjects followed up 14 years later with vital status determined for 95% of subjects and examination of 86% shows an Indigenous birth cohort can be established in an environment with geographic, cultural and climatic challenges. The high rates of recruitment and follow up indicate there were effective strategies of follow-up in a supportive population. PMID:12659639

  1. Multiple-stage decisions in a marine central-place forager.

    PubMed

    Friedlaender, Ari S; Johnston, David W; Tyson, Reny B; Kaltenberg, Amanda; Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Stimpert, Alison K; Curtice, Corrie; Hazen, Elliott L; Halpin, Patrick N; Read, Andrew J; Nowacek, Douglas P

    2016-05-01

    Air-breathing marine animals face a complex set of physical challenges associated with diving that affect the decisions of how to optimize feeding. Baleen whales (Mysticeti) have evolved bulk-filter feeding mechanisms to efficiently feed on dense prey patches. Baleen whales are central place foragers where oxygen at the surface represents the central place and depth acts as the distance to prey. Although hypothesized that baleen whales will target the densest prey patches anywhere in the water column, how depth and density interact to influence foraging behaviour is poorly understood. We used multi-sensor archival tags and active acoustics to quantify Antarctic humpback whale foraging behaviour relative to prey. Our analyses reveal multi-stage foraging decisions driven by both krill depth and density. During daylight hours when whales did not feed, krill were found in deep high-density patches. As krill migrated vertically into larger and less dense patches near the surface, whales began to forage. During foraging bouts, we found that feeding rates (number of feeding lunges per hour) were greatest when prey was shallowest, and feeding rates decreased with increasing dive depth. This strategy is consistent with previous models of how air-breathing diving animals optimize foraging efficiency. Thus, humpback whales forage mainly when prey is more broadly distributed and shallower, presumably to minimize diving and searching costs and to increase feeding rates overall and thus foraging efficiency. Using direct measurements of feeding behaviour from animal-borne tags and prey availability from echosounders, our study demonstrates a multi-stage foraging process in a central place forager that we suggest acts to optimize overall efficiency by maximizing net energy gain over time. These data reveal a previously unrecognized level of complexity in predator-prey interactions and underscores the need to simultaneously measure prey distribution in marine central place forager

  2. Opportunities to enhance performance and efficiency through nutrient synchrony in forage-fed ruminants.

    PubMed

    Hersom, M J

    2008-04-01

    Increasingly, the need for optimized nutrient utilization to address increasing production costs and environmental considerations will necessitate opportunities to improve nutrient synchrony. Historically, attempts at synchronizing nutrient supply in ruminants, particularly in cattle consuming high-forage diets, have met with variable results. The success of nutrient synchrony has been measured primarily in ruminants by increases in microbial yield, microbial efficiency, nutrient utilization, and to a lesser extent, animal performance. Successful synchrony of nutrient supply to cattle consuming forage-based diets faces several challenges. From a feed supply aspect, the challenges to nutrient synchrony include accurately measuring forage intake and consumed forage chemical composition. The issue of forage intake and chemical composition is perhaps the most daunting for producers grazing cattle. Indeed, for forage-fed cattle, the availability of forage protein and carbohydrate can be the most asynchronous aspect of the diet. In most grazed forages, digestion rates of the carbohydrate fractions are much slower than that of the corresponding protein fractions. Additionally, the forage-supplement interaction exerts a large impact on the synchrony of nutrients. The supplemental feedstuffs compose the component of the nutrient synchrony scenario that is most often manipulated to influence synchrony. The supplement type (e.g., starch vs. fiber, dry vs. liquid), nutrient profile, and degradation rates are often prime considerations associated with nutrient synchrony on high forage diets. Other considerations that warrant attention include temporal intake patterns of the forage and supplement, increased use and types of coproduct supplements, and an assessment of the success of nutrient synchrony. Synchronization of nutrient utilization by forage-fed ruminants has and will continue to encounter challenges for successful outcomes. Ultimately it is the improvement in animal

  3. Multiple-stage decisions in a marine central-place forager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlaender, Ari S.; Johnston, David W.; Tyson, Reny B.; Kaltenberg, Amanda; Goldbogen, Jeremy A.; Stimpert, Alison K.; Curtice, Corrie; Hazen, Elliott L.; Halpin, Patrick N.; Read, Andrew J.; Nowacek, Douglas P.

    2016-05-01

    Air-breathing marine animals face a complex set of physical challenges associated with diving that affect the decisions of how to optimize feeding. Baleen whales (Mysticeti) have evolved bulk-filter feeding mechanisms to efficiently feed on dense prey patches. Baleen whales are central place foragers where oxygen at the surface represents the central place and depth acts as the distance to prey. Although hypothesized that baleen whales will target the densest prey patches anywhere in the water column, how depth and density interact to influence foraging behaviour is poorly understood. We used multi-sensor archival tags and active acoustics to quantify Antarctic humpback whale foraging behaviour relative to prey. Our analyses reveal multi-stage foraging decisions driven by both krill depth and density. During daylight hours when whales did not feed, krill were found in deep high-density patches. As krill migrated vertically into larger and less dense patches near the surface, whales began to forage. During foraging bouts, we found that feeding rates (number of feeding lunges per hour) were greatest when prey was shallowest, and feeding rates decreased with increasing dive depth. This strategy is consistent with previous models of how air-breathing diving animals optimize foraging efficiency. Thus, humpback whales forage mainly when prey is more broadly distributed and shallower, presumably to minimize diving and searching costs and to increase feeding rates overall and thus foraging efficiency. Using direct measurements of feeding behaviour from animal-borne tags and prey availability from echosounders, our study demonstrates a multi-stage foraging process in a central place forager that we suggest acts to optimize overall efficiency by maximizing net energy gain over time. These data reveal a previously unrecognized level of complexity in predator-prey interactions and underscores the need to simultaneously measure prey distribution in marine central place forager

  4. Multiple-stage decisions in a marine central-place forager

    PubMed Central

    Friedlaender, Ari S.; Johnston, David W.; Tyson, Reny B.; Kaltenberg, Amanda; Goldbogen, Jeremy A.; Stimpert, Alison K.; Curtice, Corrie; Hazen, Elliott L.; Halpin, Patrick N.; Read, Andrew J.; Nowacek, Douglas P.

    2016-01-01

    Air-breathing marine animals face a complex set of physical challenges associated with diving that affect the decisions of how to optimize feeding. Baleen whales (Mysticeti) have evolved bulk-filter feeding mechanisms to efficiently feed on dense prey patches. Baleen whales are central place foragers where oxygen at the surface represents the central place and depth acts as the distance to prey. Although hypothesized that baleen whales will target the densest prey patches anywhere in the water column, how depth and density interact to influence foraging behaviour is poorly understood. We used multi-sensor archival tags and active acoustics to quantify Antarctic humpback whale foraging behaviour relative to prey. Our analyses reveal multi-stage foraging decisions driven by both krill depth and density. During daylight hours when whales did not feed, krill were found in deep high-density patches. As krill migrated vertically into larger and less dense patches near the surface, whales began to forage. During foraging bouts, we found that feeding rates (number of feeding lunges per hour) were greatest when prey was shallowest, and feeding rates decreased with increasing dive depth. This strategy is consistent with previous models of how air-breathing diving animals optimize foraging efficiency. Thus, humpback whales forage mainly when prey is more broadly distributed and shallower, presumably to minimize diving and searching costs and to increase feeding rates overall and thus foraging efficiency. Using direct measurements of feeding behaviour from animal-borne tags and prey availability from echosounders, our study demonstrates a multi-stage foraging process in a central place forager that we suggest acts to optimize overall efficiency by maximizing net energy gain over time. These data reveal a previously unrecognized level of complexity in predator–prey interactions and underscores the need to simultaneously measure prey distribution in marine central place

  5. Growing up our way: the first year of life in remote Aboriginal Australia.

    PubMed

    Kruske, Sue; Belton, Suzanne; Wardaguga, Molly; Narjic, Concepta

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we attempted to explore the experiences and beliefs of Aboriginal families as they cared for their children in the first year of life. We collected family stories concerning child rearing, development, behavior, health, and well-being between each infant's birth and first birthday. We found significant differences in parenting behaviors and child-rearing practices between Aboriginal groups and mainstream Australians. Aboriginal parents perceived their children to be autonomous individuals with responsibilities toward a large family group. The children were active agents in determining their own needs, highly prized, and included in all aspects of community life. Concurrent with poverty, neocolonialism, and medical hegemony, child-led parenting styles hamper the effectiveness of health services. Hence, until the planners of Australia's health systems better understand Aboriginal knowledge systems and incorporate them into their planning, we can continue to expect the failure of government and health services among Aboriginal communities.

  6. Foraging decisions in wild versus domestic Mus musculus: What does life in the lab select for?

    PubMed

    Troxell-Smith, Sandra M; Tutka, Michal J; Albergo, Jessica M; Balu, Deebika; Brown, Joel S; Leonard, John P

    2016-01-01

    What does domestication select for in terms of foraging and anti-predator behaviors? We applied principles of patch use and foraging theory to test foraging strategies and fear responses of three strains of Mus musculus: wild-caught, control laboratory, and genetically modified strains. Foraging choices were quantified using giving-up densities (GUDs) under three foraging scenarios: (1) patches varying in microhabitat (covered versus open), and initial resource density (low versus high); (2) daily variation in auditory cues (aerial predators and control calls); (3) patches with varying seed aggregations. Overall, both domestic strains harvested significantly more food than wild mice. Each strain revealed a significant preference for foraging under cover compared to the open, and predator calls had no detectable effects on foraging. Both domestic strains biased their harvest toward high quality patches; wild mice did not. In terms of exploiting favorable and avoiding unfavorable distributions of seeds within patches, the lab strain performed best, the wild strain worst, and the mutant strain in between. Our study provides support for hypothesis that domestic animals have more energy-efficient foraging strategies than their wild counterparts, but retain residual fear responses. Furthermore, patch-use studies can reveal the aptitudes and priorities of both domestic and wild animals.

  7. People's Study Time Allocation and its Relation to Animal Foraging

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Janet; Jacobs, W. Jake

    2010-01-01

    In this article we suggest a relation between people's metacognitively guided study time allocation strategies and animal foraging. These two domains are similar insofar as people use specific metacognitive cues to assist their study time allocation just as other species use cues, such as scent marking. People decline to study items that they know they already know, just as other species use a win-shift strategy – avoiding already visited and depleted patches – in foraging. People selectively study the easiest as-yet-unlearned items first, before turning to more difficult items just as other species take the ‘just right’ size and challenge of prey--the so-called Goldilocks principle. People use a stop rule by which they give up on one item and turn to another when the returns diminish just as others species use a stop rule that guides shifting from one patch to another. The value that each item is assigned on the criterion test, if known during study, influenced which items people choose to study and how long they study them just as knowledge of the nutritional or energy value of the food influences choices and perseverance in foraging. Finally, study time allocation strategies can differ in their effectiveness depending upon the expertise of the student just as some species forage close to optimally while others do not. PMID:20026197

  8. People's study time allocation and its relation to animal foraging.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Janet; Jacobs, W Jake

    2010-02-01

    In this article we suggest a relation between people's metacognitively guided study time allocation strategies and animal foraging. These two domains are similar insofar as people use specific metacognitive cues to assist their study time allocation just as other species use cues, such as scent marking. People decline to study items that they know they already know, just as other species use a win-shift strategy - avoiding already visited and depleted patches - in foraging. People selectively study the easiest as-yet-unlearned items first, before turning to more difficult items just as other species take the 'just right' size and challenge of prey-the so-called Goldilocks principle. People use a stop rule by which they give up on one item and turn to another when the returns diminish just as others species use a stop rule that guides shifting from one patch to another. The value that each item is assigned on the criterion test, if known during study, influences which items people choose to study and how long they study them just as knowledge of the nutritional or energy value of the food influences choices and perseverance in foraging. Finally, study time allocation strategies can differ in their effectiveness depending upon the expertise of the student just as some species forage close to optimally while others do not.

  9. Neuronal mechanism for acute mechanosensitivity in tactile-foraging waterfowl

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Eve R.; Mastrotto, Marco; Laursen, Willem J.; Schulz, Vincent P.; Goodman, Jena B.; Funk, Owen H.; Gallagher, Patrick G.; Gracheva, Elena O.; Bagriantsev, Sviatoslav N.

    2014-01-01

    Relying almost exclusively on their acute sense of touch, tactile-foraging birds can feed in murky water, but the cellular mechanism is unknown. Mechanical stimuli activate specialized cutaneous end organs in the bill, innervated by trigeminal afferents. We report that trigeminal ganglia (TG) of domestic and wild tactile-foraging ducks exhibit numerical expansion of large-diameter mechanoreceptive neurons expressing the mechano-gated ion channel Piezo2. These features are not found in visually foraging birds. Moreover, in the duck, the expansion of mechanoreceptors occurs at the expense of thermosensors. Direct mechanical stimulation of duck TG neurons evokes high-amplitude depolarizing current with a low threshold of activation, high signal amplification gain, and slow kinetics of inactivation. Together, these factors contribute to efficient conversion of light mechanical stimuli into neuronal excitation. Our results reveal an evolutionary strategy to hone tactile perception in vertebrates at the level of primary afferents. PMID:25246547

  10. Factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal people in Australia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Shaouli; Teng, Tiew-Hwa Katherine; Bessarab, Dawn; Aoun, Samar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives Delayed presentation of symptomatic cancer is associated with poorer survival. Aboriginal patients with cancer have higher rates of distant metastases at diagnosis compared with non-Aboriginal Australians. This paper examined factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal Australians from patient and service providers' perspectives. Methods In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted in two stages (2006–2007 and 2011). Inductive thematic analysis was assisted by use of NVivo looking around delays in presentation, diagnosis and referral for cancer. Participants Aboriginal patients with cancer/family members (n=30) and health service providers (n=62) were recruited from metropolitan Perth and six rural/remote regions of Western Australia. Results Three broad themes of factors were identified: (1) Contextual factors such as intergenerational impact of colonisation and racism and socioeconomic deprivation have negatively impacted on Aboriginal Australians' trust of the healthcare professionals; (2) health service-related factors included low accessibility to health services, long waiting periods, inadequate numbers of Aboriginal professionals and high staff turnover; (3) patient appraisal of symptoms and decision-making, fear of cancer and denial of symptoms were key reasons patients procrastinated in seeking help. Elements of shame, embarrassment, shyness of seeing the doctor, psychological ‘fear of the whole health system’, attachment to the land and ‘fear of leaving home’ for cancer treatment in metropolitan cities were other deterrents for Aboriginal people. Manifestation of masculinity and the belief that ‘health is women's domain’ emerged as a reason why Aboriginal men were reluctant to receive health checks. Conclusions Solutions to improved Aboriginal cancer outcomes include focusing on the primary care sector encouraging general practitioners to be proactive to suspicion of symptoms with appropriate

  11. The Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service: a decade of achievement in the health of women and babies in NSW.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Elisabeth; Best, Elizabeth

    2012-06-01

    The Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service was established to improve the health of Aboriginal women during pregnancy and decrease perinatal morbidity and mortality for Aboriginal babies. The Service is delivered through a continuity-of-care model, where midwives and Aboriginal Health Workers collaborate to provide a high quality maternity service that is culturally sensitive, women centred, based on primary health-care principles and provided in partnership with Aboriginal people. An evaluation of the Service found that the program is achieving its goals in relation to the provision of antenatal and postnatal care and has demonstrated improvements in perinatal morbidity and mortality rates.

  12. TILLING in forage grasses for gene discovery and breeding improvement.

    PubMed

    Manzanares, Chloe; Yates, Steven; Ruckle, Michael; Nay, Michelle; Studer, Bruno

    2016-09-25

    Mutation breeding has a long-standing history and in some major crop species, many of the most important cultivars have their origin in germplasm generated by mutation induction. For almost two decades, methods for TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) have been established in model plant species such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.), enabling the functional analysis of genes. Recent advances in mutation detection by second generation sequencing technology have brought its utility to major crop species. However, it has remained difficult to apply similar approaches in forage and turf grasses, mainly due to their outbreeding nature maintained by an efficient self-incompatibility system. Starting with a description of the extent to which traditional mutagenesis methods have contributed to crop yield increase in the past, this review focuses on technological approaches to implement TILLING-based strategies for the improvement of forage grass breeding through forward and reverse genetics. We present first results from TILLING in allogamous forage grasses for traits such as stress tolerance and evaluate prospects for rapid implementation of beneficial alleles to forage grass breeding. In conclusion, large-scale induced mutation resources, used for forward genetic screens, constitute a valuable tool to increase the genetic diversity for breeding and can be generated with relatively small investments in forage grasses. Furthermore, large libraries of sequenced mutations can be readily established, providing enhanced opportunities to discover mutations in genes controlling traits of agricultural importance and to study gene functions by reverse genetics.

  13. Meteoritics and cosmology among the Aboriginal cultures of Central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-03-01

    The night sky played an important role in the social structure, oral traditions, and cosmology of the Arrernte and Luritja Aboriginal cultures of Central Australia. A component of this cosmology relates to meteors, meteorites, and impact craters. This paper discusses the role of meteoritic phenomena in Arrernte and Luritja cosmology, showing not only that these groups incorporated this phenomenon in their cultural traditions, but that their oral traditions regarding the relationship between meteors, meteorites and impact structures suggests the Arrernte and Luritja understood that they are directly related.

  14. Racializing narratives: obesity, diabetes and the "Aboriginal" thrifty genotype.

    PubMed

    Fee, Margery

    2006-06-01

    This post-colonial reading of narratives of obesity, diabetes, and the hypothesized "thrifty genotype" ascribed to Aboriginal peoples shows how scientific and popular texts support the belief in biological "race." Although the scientific consensus is that "race" is not a empirical category, many scientists use it without comment as a "crude proxy" for presumed genetic differences. The division between science and the social sciences/humanities protects such confusing practices from full scientific and social critique, something interdisciplinary research teams, science studies and improved peer review could provide.

  15. Integrated forage crop refinery system

    SciTech Connect

    Barrier, J.W.; Broder, J.D.; Madewell, C.E.; Mays, D.A.

    1985-04-01

    The proposed program involves the development of an integrated agricultural-chemical refining system for converting forage crops to useful foods, feeds, fuels, and chemicals. TVA has facilities and resources available to support extensive research and development activities. Modification can easily be made in the existing experimental facility being used to develop acid hydrolysis of corn stover, to include production of products other than fuel ethanol from forages. These products include protein, lignin-derived products, chemicals, single-cell protein, methane, aquaculture feed, and distillers solids. Refining forage crops in this manner has potential to increase the value of that crop and produce an economical integrated system. The results of the program will also be directly applicable to other areas and regions of the US. 11 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Scale-free foraging by primates emerges from their interaction with a complex environment

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Denis; Ramos-Fernández, Gabriel; Miramontes, Octavio; Mateos, José L; Cocho, Germinal; Larralde, Hernán; Ramos, Humberto; Rojas, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Scale-free foraging patterns are widespread among animals. These may be the outcome of an optimal searching strategy to find scarce, randomly distributed resources, but a less explored alternative is that this behaviour may result from the interaction of foraging animals with a particular distribution of resources. We introduce a simple foraging model where individual primates follow mental maps and choose their displacements according to a maximum efficiency criterion, in a spatially disordered environment containing many trees with a heterogeneous size distribution. We show that a particular tree-size frequency distribution induces non-Gaussian movement patterns with multiple spatial scales (Lévy walks). These results are consistent with field observations of tree-size variation and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) foraging patterns. We discuss the consequences that our results may have for the patterns of seed dispersal by foraging primates. PMID:16790406

  17. Diet niches of major forage fish in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, B.M.; Savino, J.F.; Ogilvie, L.M.; ,

    2007-01-01

    A large complex of coregonine species historically dominated the fish community of Lake Michigan. The current species complex is simplified with one remaining coregonine, bloater (Coregonus hoyi), deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), and two dominant invaders, alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax). To better understand the diet relationships of the major offshore forage fishes now in Lake Michigan, diets of bloater, alewife, rainbow smelt, deepwater sculpin, and slimy sculpin were compared. The three sites, chosen to represent northern, central, and southern components of the lake, were sampled during spring, summer, and fall in 1994, and spring and fall in 1995. Forage fishes had diverse and variable diets, with niches differentiated by prey type or location. Diporeia hoyi, Mysis relicta, and zooplankton were the major diet items. The index of relative importance showed benthic (slimy and deepwater sculpins) and pelagic (alewife, rainbow smelt) feeding strategies with opportunistic bloaters incorporating both feeding strategies. Highest diet overlaps were between species of sculpin, and between large and small bloaters; both groups partitioned food by size. Though competition for food may be minimized by spatial segregation of potential competitors, the forage fish in Lake Michigan apparently partition food resources. Fishery management models incorporating food habits of pelagic forage fish would need to take into account diet variation associated with location and season. ?? 2007 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

  18. Honeybee economics: optimisation of foraging in a variable world.

    PubMed

    Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut

    2016-06-20

    In honeybees fast and efficient exploitation of nectar and pollen sources is achieved by persistent endothermy throughout the foraging cycle, which means extremely high energy costs. The need for food promotes maximisation of the intake rate, and the high costs call for energetic optimisation. Experiments on how honeybees resolve this conflict have to consider that foraging takes place in a variable environment concerning microclimate and food quality and availability. Here we report, in simultaneous measurements of energy costs, gains, and intake rate and efficiency, how honeybee foragers manage this challenge in their highly variable environment. If possible, during unlimited sucrose flow, they follow an 'investment-guided' ('time is honey') economic strategy promising increased returns. They maximise net intake rate by investing both own heat production and solar heat to increase body temperature to a level which guarantees a high suction velocity. They switch to an 'economizing' ('save the honey') optimisation of energetic efficiency if the intake rate is restricted by the food source when an increased body temperature would not guarantee a high intake rate. With this flexible and graded change between economic strategies honeybees can do both maximise colony intake rate and optimise foraging efficiency in reaction to environmental variation.

  19. Honeybee economics: optimisation of foraging in a variable world

    PubMed Central

    Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    In honeybees fast and efficient exploitation of nectar and pollen sources is achieved by persistent endothermy throughout the foraging cycle, which means extremely high energy costs. The need for food promotes maximisation of the intake rate, and the high costs call for energetic optimisation. Experiments on how honeybees resolve this conflict have to consider that foraging takes place in a variable environment concerning microclimate and food quality and availability. Here we report, in simultaneous measurements of energy costs, gains, and intake rate and efficiency, how honeybee foragers manage this challenge in their highly variable environment. If possible, during unlimited sucrose flow, they follow an ‘investment-guided’ (‘time is honey’) economic strategy promising increased returns. They maximise net intake rate by investing both own heat production and solar heat to increase body temperature to a level which guarantees a high suction velocity. They switch to an ‘economizing’ (‘save the honey’) optimisation of energetic efficiency if the intake rate is restricted by the food source when an increased body temperature would not guarantee a high intake rate. With this flexible and graded change between economic strategies honeybees can do both maximise colony intake rate and optimise foraging efficiency in reaction to environmental variation. PMID:27320240

  20. Latitudinal Range Influences the Seasonal Variation in the Foraging Behavior of Marine Top Predators

    PubMed Central

    Villegas-Amtmann, Stella; Simmons, Samantha E.; Kuhn, Carey E.; Huckstadt, Luis A.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    Non-migratory resident species should be capable of modifying their foraging behavior to accommodate changes in prey abundance and availability associated with a changing environment. Populations that are better adapted to change will have higher foraging success and greater potential for survival in the face of climate change. We studied two species of resident central place foragers from temperate and equatorial regions with differing population trends and prey availability associated to season, the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) (CSL) whose population is increasing and the endangered Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) (GSL) whose population is declining. To determine their response to environmental change, we studied and compared their diving behavior using time-depth recorders and satellite location tags and their diet by measuring C and N isotope ratios during a warm and a cold season. Based on latitudinal differences in oceanographic productivity, we hypothesized that the seasonal variation in foraging behavior would differ for these two species. CSL exhibited greater seasonal variability in their foraging behavior as seen in changes to their diving behavior, foraging areas and diet between seasons. Conversely, GSL did not change their diving behavior between seasons, presenting three foraging strategies (shallow, deep and bottom divers) during both. GSL exhibited greater dive and foraging effort than CSL. We suggest that during the warm and less productive season a greater range of foraging behaviors in CSL was associated with greater competition for prey, which relaxed during the cold season when resource availability was greater. GSL foraging specialization suggests that resources are limited throughout the year due to lower primary production and lower seasonal variation in productivity compared to CSL. These latitudinal differences influence their foraging success, pup survival and population growth reflected in contrasting population

  1. Does a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program reduce smoking intentions among Aboriginal children? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    McKennitt, Daniel W; Currie, Cheryl L

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program would have short-term impacts on smoking intentions among Aboriginal children. Two schools with high Aboriginal enrollment were selected for the study. A grade 4 classroom in one school was randomly assigned to receive the culturally sensitive smoking prevention program. A grade 4 classroom in the second school received a standard smoking prevention program delivered in this jurisdiction. Children in each classroom were tested pre- and post-intervention to measure attitude changes about smoking. There was a significant reduction in intentions to smoke among Aboriginal children who received the culturally sensitive smoking prevention program. The small overall sample size precluded a direct comparison of the efficacy of the culturally sensitive and standard programs. The present findings suggest a smoking prevention program that has been culturally adapted for Aboriginal children may reduce future smoking intentions among Aboriginal grade 4 students. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which school smoking prevention programs adapted to respect the long-standing use of tobacco in Aboriginal cultural traditions may be more effective than standard programs in reaching Aboriginal youth.

  2. Treatment Issues for Aboriginal Mothers with Substance Use Problems and Their Children

    PubMed Central

    Niccols, Allison; Dell, Colleen Anne; Clarke, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    In many cultures, approximately one third of people with drug dependence are women of child-bearing age. Substance use among pregnant and parenting women is a major public health concern. Aboriginal people have some of the highest rates of substance abuse in Canada, increasing concern for detrimental health impacts, including those for women and their children. For many women, substance abuse offers a means of coping with trauma, such as childhood abuse, partner violence, and, for Aboriginal women, the intergenerational effects of colonization. In this paper, we review treatment issues for Aboriginal mothers with substance use problems and their children. We discuss gender-specific issues in substance abuse, the need for women-specific treatment, the impact of substance abuse on children and parenting, the additional risks for Aboriginal women and children, and the need for integrated programs (those that integrate pregnancy-, parenting-, and child-related services with women-specific addiction treatment). We describe New Choices as an example of an integrated program, review research on existing treatment for Aboriginal mothers with substance use issues, and describe Sheway as a promising integrated program for Aboriginal women with substance abuse issues and their young children. There are few treatment programs specifically for Aboriginal mothers with substance use issues and their children and very little research on their effectiveness. Based on our review of existing evidence, we offer recommendations for future research and practice. PMID:24976814

  3. Peopling of Sahul: mtDNA variation in aboriginal Australian and Papua New Guinean populations.

    PubMed Central

    Redd, A J; Stoneking, M

    1999-01-01

    We examined genetic affinities of Aboriginal Australian and New Guinean populations by using nucleotide variation in the two hypervariable segments of the mtDNA control region (CR). A total of 318 individuals from highland Papua New Guinea (PNG), coastal PNG, and Aboriginal Australian populations were typed with a panel of 29 sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) probes. The SSO-probe panel included five new probes that were used to type an additional 1,037 individuals from several Asian populations. The SSO-type data guided the selection of 78 individuals from Australia and east Indonesia for CR sequencing. A gene tree of these CR sequences, combined with published sequences from worldwide populations, contains two previously identified highland PNG clusters that do not include any Aboriginal Australians; the highland PNG clusters have coalescent time estimates of approximately 80,000 and 122,000 years ago, suggesting ancient isolation and genetic drift. SSO-type data indicate that 84% of the sample of PNG highlander mtDNA belong to these two clusters. In contrast, the Aboriginal Australian sequences are intermingled throughout the tree and cluster with sequences from multiple populations. Phylogenetic and multidimensional-scaling analyses of CR sequences and SSO types split PNG highland and Aboriginal Australian populations and link Aboriginal Australian populations with populations from the subcontinent of India. These mtDNA results do not support a close relationship between Aboriginal Australian and PNG populations but instead suggest multiple migrations in the peopling of Sahul. PMID:10441589

  4. Exploring the expression of depression and distress in aboriginal men in central Australia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite being at heightened risk of developing mental illness, there has been little research into the experience of depression in Australian Aboriginal populations. This study aimed to outline the expression, experience, manifestations and consequences of emotional distress and depression in Aboriginal men in central Australia. Methods Utilizing a grounded theory approach, in depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 theoretically sampled young, middle aged and senior Aboriginal men and traditional healers. Analysis was conducted by a single investigator using constant comparison methods. Results Depressive symptoms were common and identifiable, and largely consistent with symptom profiles seen in non-Aboriginal groups. For Aboriginal men, depression was expressed and understood as primarily related to weakness or injury of the spirit, with a lack of reference to hopelessness and specific somatic complaints. The primary contributors to depression related to the loss of connection to social and cultural features of Aboriginal life, cumulative stress and marginalisation. Conclusions Depression and depressive symptomatology clearly exists in Aboriginal men, however its determinants and expression differ from mainstream populations. Emotions were understood within the construction of spirit, Kurunpa, which was vulnerable to repetitive and powerful negative social forces, loss, and stress across the life course, and served to frame the physical and emotional experience and expression of depression. PMID:22853622

  5. Forage characteristics affecting meat goat preferences for forage chicory cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentration of bitter sesquiterpene lactones (SL), lactucin, lactucopicrin, and 8-deoxylactucin, has been associated with low soil phosphorus fertility and reduced livestock preference for forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). We evaluated the effect of cultivar and available soil P (ASP) on mea...

  6. Geographic profiling applied to testing models of bumble-bee foraging

    PubMed Central

    Raine, Nigel E.; Rossmo, D. Kim; Le Comber, Steven C.

    2008-01-01

    Geographic profiling (GP) was originally developed as a statistical tool to help police forces prioritize lists of suspects in investigations of serial crimes. GP uses the location of related crime sites to make inferences about where the offender is most likely to live, and has been extremely successful in criminology. Here, we show how GP is applicable to experimental studies of animal foraging, using the bumble-bee Bombus terrestris. GP techniques enable us to simplify complex patterns of spatial data down to a small number of parameters (2–3) for rigorous hypothesis testing. Combining computer model simulations and experimental observation of foraging bumble-bees, we demonstrate that GP can be used to discriminate between foraging patterns resulting from (i) different hypothetical foraging algorithms and (ii) different food item (flower) densities. We also demonstrate that combining experimental and simulated data can be used to elucidate animal foraging strategies: specifically that the foraging patterns of real bumble-bees can be reliably discriminated from three out of nine hypothetical foraging algorithms. We suggest that experimental systems, like foraging bees, could be used to test and refine GP model predictions, and that GP offers a useful technique to analyse spatial animal behaviour data in both the laboratory and field. PMID:18664426

  7. Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD)—developing an Advanced Cancer Data System for Aboriginal people in South Australia: a mixed methods research protocol

    PubMed Central

    Yerrell, Paul Henry; Roder, David; Cargo, Margaret; Reilly, Rachel; Banham, David; Micklem, Jasmine May; Morey, Kim; Stewart, Harold Bundamurra; Stajic, Janet; Norris, Michael; Brown, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People carry a greater burden of cancer-related mortality than non-Aboriginal Australians. The Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities Project aims to develop and test an integrated, comprehensive cancer monitoring and surveillance system capable of incorporating epidemiological and narrative data to address disparities and advocate for clinical system change. Methods and analysis The Advanced Cancer Data System will integrate routinely collected unit record data from the South Australian Population Cancer Registry and a range of other data sources for a retrospective cohort of indigenous people with cancers diagnosed from 1990 to 2010. A randomly drawn non-Aboriginal cohort will be matched by primary cancer site, sex, age and year at diagnosis. Cross-tabulations and regression analyses will examine the extent to which demographic attributes, cancer stage and survival vary between the cohorts. Narratives from Aboriginal people with cancer, their families, carers and service providers will be collected and analysed using patient pathway mapping and thematic analysis. Statements from the narratives will structure both a concept mapping process of rating, sorting and prioritising issues, focusing on issues of importance and feasibility, and the development of a real-time Aboriginal Cancer Measure of Experience for ongoing linkage with epidemiological data in the Advanced Cancer Data System. Aboriginal Community engagement underpins this Project. Ethics and dissemination The research has been approved by relevant local and national ethics committees. Findings will be disseminated in local and international peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. In addition, the research will provide data for knowledge translation activities across the partner organisations and feed directly into the Statewide Cancer Control Plan. It will provide a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of

  8. Predictors of research use among staff in aboriginal addiction treatment programs serving women.

    PubMed

    Davey, Caitlin J; Niccols, Alison; Henderson, Joanna; Dobbins, Maureen; Sword, Wendy; Dell, Colleen; Wylie, Tammie; Sauve, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of research use among staff from Aboriginal addiction programs serving women. A total of 89 staff from 26 Aboriginal addiction programs completed an online survey that included items assessing the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control), intent to use research, and research use. Consistent with the theory of planned behavior, research use was predicted by attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Intent to use research was not a mediator, demonstrating partial applicability of the theory of planned behavior to staff in Aboriginal addiction programs serving women.

  9. Understanding inequalities in access to health care services for aboriginal people: a call for nursing action.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Brenda L; Carmargo Plazas, Maria Del Pilar; Salas, Anna Santos; Bourque Bearskin, R Lisa; Hungler, Krista

    2014-01-01

    We present findings from an Access Research Initiative to reduce health disparities and promote equitable access with Aboriginal peoples in Canada. We employed Indigenous, interpretive, and participatory research methodologies in partnership with Aboriginal people. Participants reported stories of bullying, fear, intimidation, and lack of cultural understanding. This research reveals the urgent need to enhance the delivery of culturally appropriate practices in emergency. As nurses, if we wish to affect equity of access, then attention is required to structural injustices that act as barriers to access such as addressing the stigma, stereotyping, and discrimination experienced by Aboriginal people in this study.

  10. Building Co-Management as a Process: Problem Solving Through Partnerships in Aboriginal Country, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurba, Melanie; Ross, Helen; Izurieta, Arturo; Rist, Philip; Bock, Ellie; Berkes, Fikret

    2012-06-01

    Collaborative problem solving has increasingly become important in the face of the complexities in the management of resources, including protected areas. The strategy undertaken by Girringun Aboriginal Corporation in north tropical Queensland, Australia, for developing co-management demonstrates the potential for a problem solving approach involving sequential initiatives, as an alternative to the more familiar negotiated agreements for co-management. Our longitudinal case study focuses on the development of indigenous ranger units as a strategic mechanism for the involvement of traditional owners in managing their country in collaboration with government and other interested parties. This was followed by Australia's first traditional use of marine resources agreement, and development of a multi-jurisdictional, land to sea, indigenous protected area. In using a relationship building approach to develop regional scale co-management, Girringun has been strengthening its capabilities as collaborator and regional service provider, thus, bringing customary decision-making structures into play to `care for country'. From this evolving process we have identified the key components of a relationship building strategy, `the pillars of co-management'. This approach includes learning-by-doing, the building of respect and rapport, sorting out responsibilities, practical engagement, and capacity-building.

  11. Contrafreeloading in grizzly bears: implications for captive foraging enrichment.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Ragen T S; Robbins, Charles T; Alldredge, J Richard; Newberry, Ruth C

    2010-01-01

    Although traditional feeding regimens for captive animals were focused on meeting physiological needs to assure good health, more recently emphasis has also been placed on non-nutritive aspects of feeding. The provision of foraging materials to diversify feeding behavior is a common practice in zoos but selective consumption of foraging enrichment items over more balanced "chow" diets could lead to nutrient imbalance. One alternative is to provide balanced diets in a contrafreeloading paradigm. Contrafreeloading occurs when animals choose resources that require effort to exploit when identical resources are freely available. To investigate contrafreeloading and its potential as a theoretical foundation for foraging enrichment, we conducted two experiments with captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). In Experiment 1, bears were presented with five foraging choices simultaneously: apples, apples in ice, salmon, salmon in ice, and plain ice under two levels of food restriction. Two measures of contrafreeloading were considered: weight of earned food consumed and time spent working for earned food. More free than earned food was eaten, with only two bears consuming food extracted from ice, but all bears spent more time manipulating ice containing salmon or apples than plain ice regardless of level of food restriction. In Experiment 2, food-restricted bears were presented with three foraging choices simultaneously: apples, apples inside a box, and an empty box. Although they ate more free than earned food, five bears consumed food from boxes and all spent more time manipulating boxes containing apples than empty boxes. Our findings support the provision of contrafreeloading opportunities as a foraging enrichment strategy for captive wildlife.

  12. Sex-Related Differences in the Trade-Off between Foraging and Vigilance in a Granivorous Forager

    PubMed Central

    Powolny, Thibaut; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Aguilar, Astrid; Eraud, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between intake rate and food density can provide the foundation for models that predict the spatiotemporal distribution of organisms across a range of resource densities. The functional response, describing the relationship between resource density and intake rate is often interpreted mechanistically as the relationships between times spend searching and handling. While several functional response models incorporate anti-predator vigilance (defined here as an interruption of feeding or some other activity to visually scan the environment, directed mainly towards detecting potential predators), the impacts of environmental factors influencing directly anti-predator vigilance remains unclear. We examined the combined effects of different scenarios of predation risk and food density on time allocation between foraging and anti-predator vigilance in a granivorous species. We experimentally exposed Skylarks to various cover heights and seed densities, and measured individual time budget and pecking and intake rates. Our results indicated that time devoted to different activities varied as a function of both seed density and cover height. Foraging time increased with seed density for all cover heights. Conversely, an increased cover height resulted in a decreased foraging time. Contrary to males, the decreased proportion of time spent foraging did not translate into a foraging disadvantage for females. When vegetation height was higher, females maintained similar pecking and intake rates compared to intermediate levels, while males consistently decreased their energy gain. This difference in anti-predator responses suggests a sexually mediated strategy in the food-safety trade-off: when resource density is high a females would adopt a camouflage strategy while an escape strategy would be adopted by males. In other words, males would leave risky-areas, whereas females would stay when resource density is high. Our results suggest that increased predation

  13. Creating a new dynamic in Aboriginal health.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dawn; Davies, Barbara

    2006-04-01

    In early 2004, an evidence-based prenatal care workshop was held for community health nurses working in First Nations communities in British Columbia. The purpose of the workshop was to begin a dialogue on the use of evidence to improve prenatal care in First Nations communities. Specifically, selected models of knowledge transfer to improve care were introduced and discussed. Of the 81 nurses who participated, 52 completed a feedback questionnaire. Most of the participants (73%) were community health nurses. They worked across diverse geographic settings and health-care administration models (federally managed, band managed, tribal council managed). Seventy-three per cent of the nurses reported that a participatory model of knowledge transfer was important or very important. They also identified priority target audiences (stakeholders) for knowledge transfer strategies. Exploring stakeholders' views, values and priorities related to prenatal care and creating informal dialogue among these groups was identified as a next step in participatory transfer and exchange of knowledge to improve prenatal care in First Nations communities.

  14. How anthropogenic noise affects foraging.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinhong; Siemers, Björn M; Koselj, Klemen

    2015-09-01

    The influence of human activity on the biosphere is increasing. While direct damage (e.g. habitat destruction) is relatively well understood, many activities affect wildlife in less apparent ways. Here, we investigate how anthropogenic noise impairs foraging, which has direct consequences for animal survival and reproductive success. Noise can disturb foraging via several mechanisms that may operate simultaneously, and thus, their effects could not be disentangled hitherto. We developed a diagnostic framework that can be applied to identify the potential mechanisms of disturbance in any species capable of detecting the noise. We tested this framework using Daubenton's bats, which find prey by echolocation. We found that traffic noise reduced foraging efficiency in most bats. Unexpectedly, this effect was present even if the playback noise did not overlap in frequency with the prey echoes. Neither overlapping noise nor nonoverlapping noise influenced the search effort required for a successful prey capture. Hence, noise did not mask prey echoes or reduce the attention of bats. Instead, noise acted as an aversive stimulus that caused avoidance response, thereby reducing foraging efficiency. We conclude that conservation policies may seriously underestimate numbers of species affected and the multilevel effects on animal fitness, if the mechanisms of disturbance are not considered.

  15. Breeding for increased forage quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage crops have a large number of benefits to society, including ecosystem services such as soil and water conservation, wildlife habitat, and diversification of the agricultural landscape. However, their principal function can only be realized when they are processed through livestock to produce ...

  16. Squirrel Foraging Preferences: Gone Nuts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Randi A.

    2007-01-01

    This field exercise examines the feeding preferences of Gray Squirrels ("Sciurus carolinensis"). Students present squirrels with a variety of food types in a cafeteria-style arrangement in order to test hypotheses about foraging preferences. This exercise, which is appropriate for introductory biology, ecology, and animal behavior classes, is…

  17. Handling manure on forage crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure application to alfalfa (and other perennial forages) is often necessary because of limited application windows during the year and limited land-to-livestock ratios to meet Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan requirements. Manure applied before alfalfa planting or during production can impr...

  18. Switchgrass for forage and bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass is a native warm-season grass that has been used for hay, forage, and conservation purposes for decades and switchgrass research in Nebraska has been ongoing since 1936. Recently, switchgrass has been identified as a model perennial grass for bioenergy in the Great Plains and Midwest. Si...

  19. Group foraging sensitivity to predictable and unpredictable changes in food distribution: past experience or present circumstances?

    PubMed

    Bell, Kenneth E; Baum, William M

    2002-09-01

    The ideal free distribution theory (Fretwell & Lucas, 1970) predicts that the ratio of foragers at two patches will equal the ratio of food resources obtained at the two patches. The theory assumes that foragers have "perfect knowledge" of patch profitability and that patch choice maximizes fitness. How foragers assess patch profitability has been debated extensively. One assessment strategy may be the use of past experience with a patch. Under stable environmental conditions, this strategy enhances fitness. However, in a highly unpredictable environment, past experience may provide inaccurate information about current conditions. Thus, in a nonstable environment, a strategy that allows rapid adjustment to present circumstances may be more beneficial. Evidence for this type of strategy has been found in individual choice. In the present experiments, a flock of pigeons foraged at two patches for food items and demonstrated results similar to those found in individual choice. Experiment 1 utilized predictable and unpredictable sequences of resource ratios presented across days or within a single session. Current foraging decisions depended on past experience, but that dependence diminished when the current foraging environment became more unpredictable. Experiment 2 repeated Experiment I with a different flock of pigeons under more controlled circumstances in an indoor coop and produced similar results.

  20. Mating success and body condition not related to foraging specializations in male fur seals

    PubMed Central

    Cherel, Y.; Guinet, C.; Arnould, J. P. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Individual specialization is widespread among wild populations. While its fitness consequences are central in predicting the ecological and evolutionary trajectories of populations, they remain poorly understood. Long-term individual foraging specializations occur in male Antarctic (Arctocephalus gazella) and Australian (A. pusillus doriferus) fur seals. Strong selective pressure is expected in these highly dimorphic and polygynous species, raising the question of the fitness payoffs associated with different foraging strategies. We investigated the relationship between individual isotopic niche (a proxy of foraging specialization), body size and condition, and an index of reproductive success (harem size) in territorial males. Individuals varied greatly in their skin and fur isotopic values reflecting a range of foraging strategies within the two populations. However, in both species, isotopic niche was not correlated to body size, condition or mating success (R2/ρ < 0.06). Furthermore, no foraging niche was predominant in either species, which would have indicated a substantial long-term fitness benefit of a particular strategy via a higher survival rate. These results suggest that the fitness consequences of a foraging strategy depend not only on the quality of prey and feeding habitat but also on an individual's hunting efficiency and skills. PMID:27493771

  1. Disparities and Trends in Birth Outcomes, Perinatal and Infant Mortality in Aboriginal vs. Non-Aboriginal Populations: A Population-Based Study in Quebec, Canada 1996–2010

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Xiao, Lin; Auger, Nathalie; Torrie, Jill; McHugh, Nancy Gros-Louis; Zoungrana, Hamado; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Aboriginal populations are at substantially higher risks of adverse birth outcomes, perinatal and infant mortality than their non-Aboriginal counterparts even in developed countries including Australia, U.S. and Canada. There is a lack of data on recent trends in Canada. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study (n = 254,410) using the linked vital events registry databases for singleton births in Quebec 1996–2010. Aboriginal (First Nations, Inuit) births were identified by mother tongue, place of residence and Indian Registration System membership. Outcomes included preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age, large-for-gestational-age, low birth weight, high birth weight, stillbirth, neonatal death, postneonatal death, perinatal death and infant death. Results Perinatal and infant mortality rates were 1.47 and 1.80 times higher in First Nations (10.1 and 7.3 per 1000, respectively), and 2.37 and 4.46 times higher in Inuit (16.3 and 18.1 per 1000, respectively) relative to non-Aboriginal (6.9 and 4.1 per 1000, respectively) births (all p<0.001). Compared to non-Aboriginal births, preterm birth rates were persistently (1.7–1.8 times) higher in Inuit, large-for-gestational-age birth rates were persistently (2.7–3.0 times) higher in First Nations births over the study period. Between 1996–2000 and 2006–2010, as compared to non-Aboriginal infants, the relative risk disparities increased for infant mortality (from 4.10 to 5.19 times) in Inuit, and for postneonatal mortality in Inuit (from 6.97 to 12.33 times) or First Nations (from 3.76 to 4.25 times) infants. Adjusting for maternal characteristics (age, marital status, parity, education and rural vs. urban residence) attenuated the risk differences, but significantly elevated risks remained in both Inuit and First Nations births for the risks of perinatal mortality (1.70 and 1.28 times, respectively), infant mortality (3.66 and 1.47 times, respectively) and postneonatal

  2. Visibility and Voice: Aboriginal People Experience Culturally Safe and Unsafe Health Care.

    PubMed

    Hole, Rachelle D; Evans, Mike; Berg, Lawrence D; Bottorff, Joan L; Dingwall, Carlene; Alexis, Carmella; Nyberg, Jessie; Smith, Michelle L

    2015-12-01

    In Canada, cultural safety (CS) is emerging as a theoretical and practice lens to orient health care services to meet the needs of Aboriginal people. Evidence suggests Aboriginal peoples' encounters with health care are commonly negative, and there is concern that these experiences can contribute to further adverse health outcomes. In this article, we report findings based on participatory action research drawing on Indigenous methods. Our project goal was to interrogate practices within one hospital to see whether and how CS for Aboriginal patients could be improved. Interviews with Aboriginal patients who had accessed hospital services were conducted, and responses were collated into narrative summaries. Using interlocking analysis, findings revealed a number of processes operating to produce adverse health outcomes. One significant outcome is the production of structural violence that reproduces experiences of institutional trauma. Positive culturally safe experiences, although less frequently reported, were described as interpersonal interactions with feelings visibility and therefore, treatment as a "human being."

  3. Cultural self-efficacy of Canadian nursing students caring for aboriginal patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Quine, Allisson; Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D; Alberts, Nicole M

    2012-07-01

    Cultural self-efficacy refers to how capable one feels functioning in culturally diverse situations. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of cultural self-efficacy among nursing students, specifically in relation to individuals of Aboriginal ancestry. The authors examined the extent to which intercultural anxiety, intercultural communication, and experience with persons of Aboriginal ancestry predicted two aspects of cultural self-efficacy, namely, knowledge and skills. In this correlational study, non-Aboriginal Canadian nursing students (N = 59) completed a survey assessing these variables. Overall, cultural self-efficacy was rated as moderate by nursing students. Regression analyses indicated that greater intercultural communication skills and experience with persons of Aboriginal ancestry were significant unique predictors of higher cultural knowledge self-efficacy. Greater intercultural communication and lower intercultural anxiety significantly predicted higher cultural skills self-efficacy. The results provide direction to nursing programs interested in facilitating higher levels of cultural self-efficacy among nursing students.

  4. Aboriginal women and Asian men: a maritime history of color in white Australia.

    PubMed

    Balint, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    In 1901, Broome—a port town on the northwest edge of the Australian continent—was one of the principal and most lucrative industrial pearling centers in the world and entirely dependent on Asian indentured labor. Relations between Asian crews and local Aboriginal people were strong, at a time when the project of White Australia was being pursued with vigorous, often fanatical dedication across the newly federated continent. It was the policing of Aboriginal women, specifically their relations with Asian men, that became the focus of efforts by authorities and missionaries to uphold and defend their commitment to the White Australia policy. This article examines the historical experience of Aboriginal women in the pearling industry of northwest Australia and the story of Asian-Aboriginal cohabitation in the face of oppressive laws and regulations. It then explores the meaning of “color” in contemporary Broome for the descendants of this mixed heritage today.

  5. Bringing safety and responsiveness into the forefront of care for pregnant and parenting aboriginal people.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dawn; Edwards, Nancy; Varcoe, Colleen; Martens, Patricia J; Davies, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Poor access to prenatal care for Aboriginal people is well documented, and is explicated as an unethical barrier to care resulting from colonial and neocolonial values, attitudes, and practices. A postcolonial standpoint, participatory research principles, and a case study design were used to investigate 2 Aboriginal organizations' experiences improving care for pregnant and parenting Aboriginal people. Data were collected through exploratory interviews and small-group discussions with purposefully selected community leaders, providers, and community members. The study found that safety in healthcare relationships and settings, and responsiveness to individuals' and families' unique experiences and capacities must be brought into the forefront of care. Results suggest that the intention of care must be situated within a broader view of colonizing relations to improve early access to, and relevance of, care during pregnancy and parenting for Aboriginal people.

  6. Improving the health status of aboriginal people in Canada: new directions, new responsibilities.

    PubMed Central

    Tookenay, V F

    1996-01-01

    The study findings reported in this issue by Dr. Harriet L. MacMillan and associates (see pages 1569 to 1578) demonstrate that aboriginal people in Canada bear a disproportionate burden of illness compared with the general population. In this editorial the author examines some of the factors that have contributed to this situation, such as poverty, cultural barriers and jurisdictional problems. The way forward lies in supporting the aspirations of aboriginal people for self-determination. Aboriginal people in Canada need to recognize and use their own professional human resources and to adopt more responsibility for improving the health status of their communities. At the same time, there is a need for greater acceptance by aboriginal people of existing initiatives for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:8956835

  7. Managing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Data for Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    van Gaans, D.; Ahmed, S.; D’Onise, K.; Taylor, S. M.; McDermott, R.

    2016-01-01

    Good quality data on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are needed to assess the effectiveness of programs and interventions, and to evaluate policies that are designed to improve the status of, and service delivery to, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Due to the lack of longitudinal data it is difficult to gain knowledge on the specific causes or consequences of changes in indigenous outcomes. Variables such as name, date of birth and address for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders may be subject to more variation and be less consistently reported than other Australians. Improving the collection and management of key identifying variables for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders are key to providing more quality information on this population group. PMID:28210423

  8. Adaptation of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire for Remote Aboriginal Australia.

    PubMed

    D'Aprano, Anita; Silburn, Sven; Johnston, Vanessa; Robinson, Gary; Oberklaid, Frank; Squires, Jane

    2016-04-01

    A key challenge to providing quality developmental care in remote Aboriginal primary health care (PHC) centers has been the absence of culturally appropriate developmental screening instruments. This study focused on the cross-cultural adaptation of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires, 3rd edition (ASQ-3), with careful attention to language and culture. We aimed to adapt the ASQ-3 for use with remote dwelling Australian Aboriginal children, and to investigate the cultural appropriateness and feasibility of the adapted ASQ-3 for use in this context. We undertook a qualitative study in two remote Australian Aboriginal communities, using a six-step collaborative adaptation process. Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) were trained to use the adapted ASQ-3, and follow-up interviews examined participants' views of the cultural acceptability and usefulness of the adapted instrument. The adapted ASQ-3 was found to have high face validity and to be culturally acceptable and relevant to parents, AHWs, and early childhood development experts.

  9. A Systematic Review of Community Interventions to Improve Aboriginal Child Passenger Safety

    PubMed Central

    Oudie, Eugenia; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Turcotte, Kate; Pike, Ian

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated evidence of community interventions to improve Aboriginal child passenger safety (CPS) in terms of its scientific merit and cultural relevance. We included studies if they reported interventions to improve CPS in Aboriginal communities, compared at least pre- and postintervention conditions, and evaluated rates and severity of child passenger injuries, child restraint use, or knowledge of CPS. We also appraised quality and cultural relevance of studies. Study quality was associated with community participation and cultural relevance. Strong evidence showed that multicomponent interventions tailored to each community improves CPS. Interventions in Aboriginal communities should incorporate Aboriginal views of health, involve the community, and be multicomponent and tailored to the community’s circumstances and culture. PMID:24754652

  10. Essential service standards for equitable national cardiovascular care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alex; O'Shea, Rebekah L; Mott, Kathy; McBride, Katharine F; Lawson, Tony; Jennings, Garry L R

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) constitute the largest cause of death for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and remain the primary contributor to life expectancy differentials between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous Australians. As such, CVD remains the most critical target for reducing the life expectancy gap. The Essential Service Standards for Equitable National Cardiovascular Care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (ESSENCE) outline elements of care that are necessary to reduce disparity in access and outcomes for five critical cardiovascular conditions. The ESSENCE approach builds a foundation on which the gap in life expectancy between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous Australians can be reduced. The standards purposefully focus on the prevention and management of CVD extending across the continuum of risk and disease. Each of the agreed essential service standards are presented alongside the most critical targets for policy development and health system reform aimed at mitigating population disparity in CVD and related conditions.

  11. Prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among the general and Aboriginal populations in Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Probst, Charlotte; Parunashvili, Nino; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure may cause a number of health complications for the mother and developing fetus, including Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). This study aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of i) alcohol use (any amount) and binge drinking (4 or more standard drinks on a single occasion) during pregnancy, and ii) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and FASD among the general and Aboriginal populations in Canada and the United States, based on the available literature. Comprehensive systematic literature searches and meta-analyses, assuming a random-effects model, were conducted. It was revealed that about 10% and 15% of pregnant women in the general population consume alcohol in Canada and the United States, respectively, and that about 3% of women engage in binge drinking during pregnancy in both countries. However, the prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy in the Aboriginal populations of the United States and Canada were found to be approximately 3-4 times higher, respectively, compared to the general population. Even more alarmingly, it was estimated that approximately one in five women in the Aboriginal populations in both countries engage in binge drinking during pregnancy. Further, among the general population of Canada, the pooled prevalence was estimated to be about 1 per 1000 for FAS and 5 per 1000 for FASD. However, compared to the general population, the prevalence of FAS and FASD among the Aboriginal population in Canada was estimated to be 38 times and 16 times higher, respectively. With respect to the United States, the pooled prevalence of FAS and FASD was estimated to be about 2 per 1000 and 15 per 1,000, respectively, among the general population, and 4 per 1000 and 10 per 1,000, respectively, among the Aboriginal population. The FAS and FASD pooled prevalence estimates presented here should be used with caution due to the limited number of existing studies and their methodological limitations. Based on the results of the current

  12. Shedding light on light: benefits of anthropogenic illumination to a nocturnally foraging shorebird.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Ross G; Bearhop, Stuart; Campbell, Hamish A; Bryant, David M

    2013-03-01

    Intertidal habitats provide important feeding areas for migratory shorebirds. Anthropogenic developments along coasts can increase ambient light levels at night across adjacent inter-tidal zones. Here, we report the effects of elevated nocturnal light levels upon the foraging strategy of a migratory shorebird (common redshank Tringa totanus) overwintering on an industrialised estuary in Northern Europe. To monitor behaviour across the full intertidal area, individuals were located by day and night using VHF transmitters, and foraging behaviour was inferred from inbuilt posture sensors. Natural light was scored using moon-phase and cloud cover information and nocturnal artificial light levels were obtained using geo-referenced DMSP/OLS night-time satellite imagery at a 1-km resolution. Under high illumination levels, the commonest and apparently preferred foraging behaviour was sight-based. Conversely, birds feeding in areas with low levels of artificial light had an elevated foraging time and fed by touch, but switched to visual rather than tactile foraging behaviour on bright moonlit nights in the absence of cloud cover. Individuals occupying areas which were illuminated continuously by lighting from a large petrochemical complex invariably exhibited a visually based foraging behaviour independently of lunar phase and cloud cover. We show that ambient light levels affect the timing and distribution of foraging opportunities for redshank. We argue that light emitted from an industrial complex improved nocturnal visibility. This allowed sight-based foraging in place of tactile foraging, implying both a preference for sight-feeding and enhanced night-time foraging opportunities under these conditions. The study highlights the value of integrating remotely sensed data and telemetry techniques to assess the effect of anthropogenic change upon nocturnal behaviour and habitat use.

  13. Phylogenetic meta-analysis of the functional traits of clonal plants foraging in changing environments.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiu-Fang; Song, Yao-Bin; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Pan, Xu; Dong, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Foraging behavior, one of the adaptive strategies of clonal plants, has stimulated a tremendous amount of research. However, it is a matter of debate whether there is any general pattern in the foraging traits (functional traits related to foraging behavior) of clonal plants in response to diverse environments. We collected data from 97 published papers concerning the relationships between foraging traits (e.g., spacer length, specific spacer length, branch intensity and branch angle) of clonal plants and essential resources (e.g., light, nutrients and water) for plant growth and reproduction. We incorporated the phylogenetic information of 85 plant species to examine the universality of foraging hypotheses using phylogenetic meta-analysis. The trends toward forming longer spacers and fewer branches in shaded environments were detected in clonal plants, but no evidence for a relation between foraging traits and nutrient availability was detected, except that there was a positive correlation between branch intensity and nutrient availability in stoloniferous plants. The response of the foraging traits of clonal plants to water availability was also not obvious. Additionally, our results indicated that the foraging traits of stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to resource availability than those of rhizomatous plants. In consideration of plant phylogeny, these results implied that the foraging traits of clonal plants (notably stoloniferous plants) only responded to light intensity in a general pattern but did not respond to nutrient or water availability. In conclusion, our findings on the effects of the environment on the foraging traits of clonal plants avoided the confounding effects of phylogeny because we incorporated phylogeny into the meta-analysis.

  14. Foraging patterns of voles at heterogeneous avian and uniform mustelid predation risk.

    PubMed

    Eccard, Jana A; Pusenius, Jyrki; Sundell, Janne; Halle, Stefan; Ylönen, Hannu

    2008-10-01

    Temporal variation of antipredatory behavior and a uniform distribution of predation risk over refuges and foraging sites may create foraging patterns different from those anticipated from risk in heterogenous habitats. We studied the temporal variation in foraging behavior of voles exposed to uniform mustelid predation risk and heterogeneous avian predation risk of different levels induced by vegetation types in eight outdoor enclosures (0.25 ha). We manipulated mustelid predation risk with weasel presence or absence and avian predation risk by reducing or providing local cover at experimental food patches. Foraging at food patches was monitored by collecting giving-up densities at artificial food patches, overall activity was automatically monitored, and mortality of voles was monitored by live-trapping and radiotracking. Voles depleted the food to lower levels in the sheltered patches than in the exposed ones. In enclosures with higher avian predation risk caused by lower vegetation height, trays were depleted to lower levels. Unexpectedly, voles foraged in more trays and depleted trays to lower levels in the presence of weasels than in the absence. Weasels match their prey's body size and locomotive abilities and therefore increase predation risk uniformly over both foraging sites and refuge sites that can both be entered by the predator. This reduces the costs of missing opportunities other than foraging. Voles changed their foraging strategy accordingly by specializing on the experimental food patches with predictable returns and probably reduced their foraging in the matrix of natural food source with unpredictable returns and high risk to encounter the weasel. Moreover, after 1 day of weasel presence, voles shifted their main foraging activities to avoid the diurnal weasel. This behavior facilitated bird predation, probably by nocturnal owls, and more voles were killed by birds than by weasels. Food patch use of voles in weasel enclosures increased with

  15. Varying foraging patterns in response to competition? A multicolony approach in a generalist seabird.

    PubMed

    Corman, Anna-Marie; Mendel, Bettina; Voigt, Christian C; Garthe, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    Reducing resource competition is a crucial requirement for colonial seabirds to ensure adequate self- and chick-provisioning during breeding season. Spatial segregation is a common avoidance strategy among and within species from neighboring breeding colonies. We determined whether the foraging behaviors of incubating lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) differed between six colonies varying in size and distance to mainland, and whether any differences could be related to the foraging habitats visited. Seventy-nine incubating individuals from six study colonies along the German North Sea coast were equipped with GPS data loggers in multiple years. Dietary information was gained by sampling food pellets, and blood samples were taken for stable isotope analyses. Foraging patterns clearly differed among and within colonies. Foraging range increased with increasing colony size and decreased with increasing colony distance from the mainland, although the latter might be due to the inclusion of the only offshore colony. Gulls from larger colonies with consequently greater density-dependent competition were more likely to forage at land instead of at sea. The diets of the gulls from the colonies furthest from each other differed, while the diets from the other colonies overlapped with each other. The spatial segregation and dietary similarities suggest that lesser black-backed gulls foraged at different sites and utilized two main habitat types, although these were similar across foraging areas for all colonies except the single offshore island. The avoidance of intraspecific competition results in colony-specific foraging patterns, potentially causing more intensive utilization of terrestrial foraging sites, which may offer more predictable and easily available foraging compared with the marine environment.

  16. Racial discrimination, post traumatic stress, and gambling problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada.

    PubMed

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul; Parlee, Brenda

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about risk factors for problem gambling (PG) within the rapidly growing urban Aboriginal population in North America. Racial discrimination may be an important risk factor for PG given documented associations between racism and other forms of addictive behaviour. This study examined associations between racial discrimination and problem gambling among urban Aboriginal adults, and the extent to which this link was mediated by post traumatic stress. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Results indicate more than 80 % of respondents experienced discrimination due to Aboriginal race in the past year, with the majority reporting high levels of racism in that time period. Past year racial discrimination was a risk factor for 12-month problem gambling, gambling to escape, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in bootstrapped regression models adjusted for confounders and other forms of social trauma. Elevated PTSD symptoms among those experiencing high levels of racism partially explained the association between racism and the use of gambling to escape in statistical models. These findings are the first to suggest racial discrimination may be an important social determinant of problem gambling for Aboriginal peoples. Gambling may be a coping response that some Aboriginal adults use to escape the negative emotions associated with racist experiences. Results support the development of policies to reduce racism directed at Aboriginal peoples in urban areas, and enhanced services to help Aboriginal peoples cope with racist events.

  17. Exploring Australian Aboriginal Women’s experiences of menopause: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women’s understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. Methods The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. Results A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term “change of life” was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. Conclusion There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current

  18. The Beat of Boyle Street: empowering Aboriginal youth through music making.

    PubMed

    Wang, Elaine L

    2010-01-01

    An irrepressibly popular musical phenomenon, hip-hop is close to spoken word and focuses on lyrics with a message, reviving local traditions of song that tell histories, counsel listeners, and challenge participants to outdo one another in clever exchanges. A hip-hop music-making program in Edmonton, Canada, successfully reengages at-risk Aboriginal youth in school with high levels of desertion and helps them establish a healthy sense of self and of their identity as Aboriginals.

  19. Providers' perceptions of Aboriginal palliative care in British Columbia's rural interior.

    PubMed

    Castleden, Heather; Crooks, Valorie A; Hanlon, Neil; Schuurman, Nadine

    2010-09-01

    Aboriginal Canadians experience a disproportionate burden of ill-health and have endured a history of racism in accessing and using health care. Meanwhile, this population is rapidly growing, resulting in an urgent need to facilitate better quality of living and dying in many ways, including through enhancing (cultural) access to palliative care. In this article, we report the findings from a qualitative case study undertaken in rural British Columbia, Canada through exploring the perceptions of Aboriginal palliative care in a region identified as lacking in formal palliative care services and having only a limited Aboriginal population. Using interview data collected from 31 formal and informal palliative care providers (May-September 2008), we thematically explore not only the existing challenges and contradictions associated with the prioritisation and provision of Aboriginal palliative care in the region in terms of (in)visibility but also identify the elements necessary to enhance such care in the future. The implications for service providers in rural regions are such that consideration of the presence of small, and not always 'visible', populations is necessary; while rural care providers are known for their resilience and resourcefulness, increased opportunities for meaningful two-way knowledge exchange with peers and consultation with experts cannot be overlooked. Doing so will serve to enhance culturally accessible palliative care in the region in general and for Aboriginal peoples specifically. This analysis thus contributes to a substantial gap in the palliative care literature concerning service providers' perceptions surrounding Aboriginal palliative care as well as Aboriginal peoples' experiences with receiving such care. Given the growing Aboriginal population and continued health inequities, this study serves to not only increase awareness but also create better living and dying conditions in small but incremental ways.

  20. Pollinator Foraging Adaptation and Coexistence of Competing Plants

    PubMed Central

    Revilla, Tomás A.; Křivan, Vlastimil

    2016-01-01

    We use the optimal foraging theory to study coexistence between two plant species and a generalist pollinator. We compare conditions for plant coexistence for non-adaptive vs. adaptive pollinators that adjust their foraging strategy to maximize fitness. When pollinators have fixed preferences, we show that plant coexistence typically requires both weak competition between plants for resources (e.g., space or nutrients) and pollinator preferences that are not too biased in favour of either plant. We also show how plant coexistence is promoted by indirect facilitation via the pollinator. When pollinators are adaptive foragers, pollinator’s diet maximizes pollinator’s fitness measured as the per capita population growth rate. Simulations show that this has two conflicting consequences for plant coexistence. On the one hand, when competition between pollinators is weak, adaptation favours pollinator specialization on the more profitable plant which increases asymmetries in plant competition and makes their coexistence less likely. On the other hand, when competition between pollinators is strong, adaptation promotes generalism, which facilitates plant coexistence. In addition, adaptive foraging allows pollinators to survive sudden loss of the preferred plant host, thus preventing further collapse of the entire community. PMID:27505254

  1. Planning, implementing, and evaluating a program to address the oral health needs of aboriginal children in port augusta, australia.

    PubMed

    Parker, E J; Misan, G; Shearer, M; Richards, L; Russell, A; Mills, H; Jamieson, L M

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1) quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2) identifying factors influencing participation, and (3) planning and establishing a program for delivery of Aboriginal children's dental services that would increase participation and adapt to community needs. In planning the program, levels of participation were quantified and key issues identified through semistructured interviews. After 3.5 years, the participation rate for dental care among the target population increased from 53 to 70 percent. Key areas were identified to encourage further improvements and ensure sustainability in Aboriginal child oral health in this regional location.

  2. Risk factors for cancer in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Castles, Simon; Wainer, Zoe; Jayasekara, Harindra

    2016-01-01

    Cancer incidence in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population is higher and survival lower compared with non-Indigenous Australians. A proportion of these cancers are potentially preventable if factors associated with carcinogenesis are known and successfully avoided. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature to examine risk factors for cancer in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Electronic databases Medline, Web of Science and the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Bibliographic Index were searched through August 2014 using broad search terms. Studies reporting a measure of association between a risk factor and any cancer site in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population were eligible for inclusion. Ten studies (1991-2014) were identified, mostly with small sample sizes, showing marked heterogeneity in terms of methods used to assess exposure and capture outcomes, and often using descriptive comparative analyses. Relatively young (as opposed to elderly) and geographically remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders were found to be at increased risk for selected cancers while most modifiable lifestyle and behavioural risk factors were rarely assessed. Further studies examining associations between potential risk factors and cancer will help define public health policy for cancer prevention in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population.

  3. Insights on end-of-life ceremonial practices of Australian Aboriginal peoples.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Pam; Phillips, Emma

    2008-01-01

    The ceremonies surrounding death are extremely important to Aboriginal peoples and take precedence over all other activities. This article presents research findings on Aboriginal mortuary ceremonies in the hope that it will be useful for non-indigenous nurses working with Aboriginal peoples. A qualitative research methodology was used, whereby data were collected by conducting 72 open-ended interviews with patients, carers, Aboriginal health care workers, health care workers and interpreters in four geographical areas in the Northern Territory. A descriptive phenomenological approach was taken to the recording and analysis of the data. The findings reveal that traditional practices including the smoking ceremony (a spiritual ritual conducted in the deceased's living space with the rationale of driving the deceased's spirit away), painting ochre on all living spaces inhabited by the deceased, or alternatively of putting up "flags" (which is considered to drive away the deceased's spirit and also to notify to the community that this is the house of a deceased) and the death ceremony (which includes practices such as keeping the deceased's body in the home, painting the bodies of the mourners and bringing kinship communities together to share food, song and dance) are of great significance in many Aboriginal cultures. It is the authors' hope and expectation that an understanding of these rituals, and their significance for different cultural groups, will assist nurses by increasing their knowledge of Aboriginal cultural and ceremonial practices associated with caring for the deceased and so aid their important work in this area.

  4. Healthy Weights Interventions in Aboriginal Children and Youth: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Towns, Claire; Cooke, Martin; Rysdale, Lee; Wilk, Piotr

    2014-09-01

    There is evidence that Aboriginal children and youth in Canada and elsewhere are at higher risk of obesity and overweight than other children. However, there has been no review of healthy weights interventions specifically aimed at Aboriginal children. A structured search for peer-reviewed articles presenting and evaluating healthy weights interventions for Aboriginal children and youth was conducted. Seventeen articles, representing seven interventions, were reviewed to identify their main characteristics, evaluation design, and evaluation outcomes. Interventions included several large community-based programs as well as several more focused programs that all targeted First Nations or American Indians, rather than Métis or Inuit. Only 1 program served an urban Aboriginal population. None of the published evaluations reported significant reductions in obesity or overweight or sustained increases in physical activity, although some evaluations presented evidence of positive effects on children's diets or on nutrition knowledge or intentions. We conclude that broader structural factors affecting the health of Aboriginal children may limit the effectiveness of these interventions, and that more evidence is required regarding interventions for Aboriginal children in various geographic and cultural contexts in Canada including Inuit and Métis communities.

  5. Guarding against an HIV epidemic within an Aboriginal community and cultural framework; lessons from NSW.

    PubMed

    Ward, James; Akre, Snehal P; Kaldor, John M

    2010-01-01

    The rate of HIV diagnosis in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population in Australia has been stable over the past 5 years. It is similar to the rate in non-Indigenous people overall, but there are major differences in the demographical and behaviour patterns associated with infection, with a history of injecting drug use and heterosexual contact much more prominent in Aboriginal people with HIV infection. Moreover there are a range of factors, such as social disadvantage, a higher incidence of sexually transmitted infections and poor access to health services that place Aboriginal people at special risk of HIV infection. Mainstream and Aboriginal community-controlled health services have an important role in preventing this epidemic. Partnerships developed within NSW have supported a range of services for Aboriginal people. There is a continuing need to support these services in their response to HIV, with a particular focus on Aboriginal Sexual Health Workers, to ensure that the prevention of HIV remains a high priority.

  6. Use of participatory research and photo-voice to support urban Aboriginal healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Adams, Karen; Burns, Cate; Liebzeit, Anna; Ryschka, Jodie; Thorpe, Sharon; Browne, Jennifer

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this research was to work collaboratively with an urban Aboriginal community to understand meanings of food and food insecurity and strengthen responses to this issue. The project took place at the Wathaurong Aboriginal Cooperative in Geelong, South Eastern Australia in 2009-2010. Photo-voice research methods were used to explore meanings of food and food insecurity. This identified that food selections were influenced by family harmony, collectivism and satiation of hunger with cheap high carbohydrate and fat foods. People were also proud of their hunter-gatherer heritage and saw the Wathaurong Aboriginal Cooperative as leaders in healthy food provision. Action research cycles were used to develop responses including plates depicting healthy food portions, social cooking opportunities, development of a cooking television series and a specialised cook-book. The partnership required researchers to listen carefully to respond to needs of the Wathaurong Aboriginal Cooperative, and this meant adapting research plans to suit the local environment and community partner needs. There is potential for Aboriginal organisations to provide further leadership for healthy eating and food security through workplace food policies and partnerships with food security agencies. Use of Aboriginal nutrition knowledge to provide nutrition education may be useful in health promotion approaches.

  7. Are primary healthcare services culturally appropriate for Aboriginal people? Findings from a remote community.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kaye; Fatima, Yaqoot; Knight, Sabina

    2017-04-13

    This study explored the views of key stakeholders on cultural appropriateness of primary health care (PHC) services for Aboriginal people. A total of 78 participants, including healthcare providers, administrative team members (n=24, ~30% of study sample) and Aboriginal community members (n=54, ~70% of study sample) living in remote North West Queensland participated in the study. Outcome measures were assessed by administering survey questionnaires comprising qualitative questions and various subscales (e.g. provider behaviours and attitudes, communication, physical environment and facilities, and support from administrative staff). Descriptive statistics were used to present quantitative findings, whereas inductive thematic analysis was used for qualitative data. In contrast to the views of PHC providers, a significant number of Aboriginal people did not perceive that they were receiving culturally appropriate services. Although PHC providers acknowledged cultural awareness training for familiarising themselves with Aboriginal culture, they found the training to be general, superficial and lacking prospective evaluation. PHC providers should understand that culturally inappropriate clinical encounters generate mistrust and dissatisfaction. Therefore, a broad approach involving culturally respectful association between PHC providers, Aboriginal consumers and administrative staff is required to bring sustainable changes at the practice level to improve the health of Aboriginal people.

  8. Supporting pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to quit smoking: views of antenatal care providers and pregnant indigenous women.

    PubMed

    Passey, Megan E; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Stirling, Janelle M

    2014-12-01

    To assess support for 12 potential smoking cessation strategies among pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers. Cross-sectional surveys of staff and women in antenatal services providing care for Indigenous women in the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of a list of possible strategies would be helpful in supporting pregnant Indigenous women to quit smoking. Current smokers (n = 121) were less positive about the potential effectiveness of most of the 12 strategies than the providers (n = 127). For example, family support was considered helpful by 64 % of smokers and 91 % of providers; between 56 and 62 % of smokers considered advice and support from midwives, doctors or Aboriginal Health Workers likely to be helpful, compared to 85-90 % of providers. Rewards for quitting were considered helpful by 63 % of smokers and 56 % of providers, with smokers rating them more highly and providers rating them lower, than most other strategies. Quitline was least popular for both. This study is the first to explore views of pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers on strategies to support smoking cessation. It has identified strategies which are acceptable to both providers and Indigenous women, and therefore have potential for implementation in routine care. Further research to explore their feasibility in real world settings, uptake by pregnant women and actual impact on smoking outcomes is urgently needed given the high prevalence of smoking among pregnant Indigenous women.

  9. Illicit and prescription drug problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada: the role of traditional culture in protection and resilience.

    PubMed

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Illicit and prescription drug use disorders are two to four times more prevalent among Aboriginal peoples in North America than the general population. Research suggests Aboriginal cultural participation may be protective against substance use problems in rural and remote Aboriginal communities. As Aboriginal peoples continue to urbanize rapidly around the globe, the role traditional Aboriginal beliefs and practices may play in reducing or even preventing substance use problems in cities is becoming increasingly relevant, and is the focus of the present study. Mainstream acculturation was also examined. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Associations were analysed using two sets of bootstrapped linear regression models adjusted for confounders with continuous illicit and prescription drug problem scores as outcomes. Psychological mechanisms that may explain why traditional culture is protective for Aboriginal peoples were examined using the cross-products of coefficients mediation method. The extent to which culture served as a resilience factor was examined via interaction testing. Results indicate Aboriginal enculturation was a protective factor associated with reduced 12-month illicit drug problems and 12-month prescription drug problems among Aboriginal adults in an urban setting. Increased self-esteem partially explained why cultural participation was protective. Cultural participation also promoted resilience by reducing the effects of high school incompletion on drug problems. In contrast, mainstream acculturation was not associated with illicit drug problems and served as a risk factor for prescription drug problems in this urban sample. Findings encourage the growth of programs and services that support Aboriginal peoples who strive to maintain their cultural traditions within cities, and further studies that examine how Aboriginal

  10. Factors influencing food choice in an Australian Aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Julie; Maypilama, Elaine; Colles, Susan; Scarlett, Maria; Dhurrkay, Joanne Garnggulkpuy; Ritchie, Jan; O'Dea, Kerin

    2014-03-01

    We explored with Aboriginal adults living in a remote Australian community the social context of food choice and factors perceived to shape food choice. An ethnographic approach of prolonged community engagement over 3 years was augmented by interviews. Our findings revealed that knowledge, health, and resources supporting food choice were considered "out of balance," and this imbalance was seen to manifest in a Western-imposed diet lacking variety and overrelying on familiar staples. Participants felt ill-equipped to emulate the traditional pattern of knowledge transfer through passing food-related wisdom to younger generations. The traditional food system was considered key to providing the framework for learning about the contemporary food environment. Practitioners seeking to improve diet and health outcomes for this population should attend to past and present contexts of food in nutrition education, support the educative role of caregivers, address the high cost of food, and support access to traditional foods.

  11. Remote area aboriginal health services managers: key practice challenges.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J

    2001-06-01

    The following reflections on the author's management practice are based on the text of an address given by the author at the 1999 International Conference of the Royal Australasian College of Medical Administrators in Sydney. These reflections arise out of the author's experience for the past 5 years as manager of Nganampa Health Council, an Aboriginal community-controlled health organisation located in the remote north-west of South Australia. Nganampa Health Council is a large regional service with a national reputation for clinical and administrative excellence. It has several leading-edge health programs, which provide an exemplar for other remote health services across Australia. The author discusses three generic key management issues that remote health services managers typically encounter and argues that services are likely to be most effective when resources are applied in a focused and strategic manner and when management practices that are pragmatic and culturally appropriate are adopted.

  12. Foraging currencies, metabolism and behavioural routines.

    PubMed

    Houston, Alasdair I; McNamara, John M

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental issue in foraging theory is whether it is possible to find a simple currency that characterizes foraging behaviour. If such a currency exists, then it is tempting to argue that the selective forces that have shaped the evolution of foraging behaviour have been understood. We review previous work on currencies for the foraging behaviour of an animal that maximizes total energy gained. In many circumstances, it is optimal to maximize a suitably modified form of efficiency. We show how energy gain, predation and damage can be combined in a single currency based on reproductive value. We draw attention to the idea that hard work may have an adverse effect on an animal's condition. We develop a model of optimal foraging over a day when a forager's state consists of its energy reserves and its condition. Optimal foraging behaviour in our model depends on energy reserves, condition and time of day. The pattern of optimal behaviour depends strongly on assumptions about the probability that the forager is killed by a predator. If condition is important, no simple currency characterizes foraging behaviour, but behaviour can be understood in terms of the maximization of reproductive value. It may be optimal to adopt a foraging option that results in a rate of energy expenditure that is less than the rate associated with maximizing efficiency.

  13. Australian findings on Aboriginal cultural practices associated with clothing, hair, possessions and use of name of deceased persons.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Pam; Phillips, Emma

    2008-02-01

    There is a significant cultural gap between westernized Australian and Aboriginal cultures, especially in regards to care of the dying. Thus, cultural sensitivity and respect, coupled with knowledge of the traditions and practices in respect of the death and dying, are of utmost importance in communicating with Aboriginal peoples. In order to make a contribution to furthering cultural safety in nursing practice, this article provides important insights on a wide range of Aboriginal cultural practices in relation to the clothing, hair, possessions and name of deceased persons that impact on the nursing care of the dying Aboriginal person.

  14. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Simon; Harrod, Mary-Ellen; Iversen, Jenny; Simone Hocking, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Context Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (Aboriginal) account for approximately 3% of the Australian population. They have the poorest health, economic and social outcomes. Higher notification rates of hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV) have been reported among Aboriginal compared with non-Aboriginal people. The identification of Aboriginal people in national surveillance has some weaknesses, with only four of the eight jurisdictions included in national reporting. To address some of these limitations, we aim to estimate the pooled prevalence of anti-HCV among Aboriginal people in Australia. Evidence Acquisition We searched the databases: Pubmed, Web of Science and Informit, and the New South Wales and Northern Territory Public Health Bulletins. A study was included if it reported the number of Aboriginal people testing positive for anti-HCV and the number tested for anti-HCV. A meta-analysis by population-group was conducted if three or more studies reported a prevalence estimate. Variables included: author, year of publication, study design, study period, gender (female, male), age, population group (Aboriginal people in prison, Aboriginal people who inject drugs), number testing anti-HCV positive, number tested for anti-HCV and prevalence (%). Due to a long time period, we separated the studies estimating the prevalence anti-HCV among Aboriginal people in prison into two time periods, 1994 - 2004 and 2005 - 2012. Results Overall, 15 studies met our inclusion criteria. Among Aboriginal people in prison, the pooled prevalence of anti-HCV was 18.1% (95%CI: 6.6 - 29.7). The pooled prevalence among Aboriginal people in prison was 25.7% (95%CI: 4.1-47.3) in studies published between 1994 - 2004 and 14.5% (95%CI: 1.7 - 27.3) in studies published from 2005 - 2012. The pooled prevalence of anti-HCV was 58.7% (95%CI: 53.9 - 63.5) among Aboriginal people who inject drugs and 2.9% (95%CI: 0.30 - 6.1) among Aboriginal people who did not inject drugs, however there was

  15. Heifer body weight gain and reproductive achievement in response to protein and energy supplementation while grazing dormant range forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heifers grazing winter range require supplemental nutrients to compliment dormant forage to achieve optimal growth and performance. A study was conducted to evaluate nutritional environment and effect of different supplementation strategies for developing heifers grazing dormant winter range. Eigh...

  16. In situ ruminal kinetics of DM and NDF disappearance for the biomass forages Amur silvergrass and big bluestem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative strategies, such as grazing, could minimize economic risk associated with biomass production. Minimal research is available that describes the nutritive value of biomass forages, specifically Amur silvergrass (AS; Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Benth., proprietary clone Msanag). Four...

  17. Early life adversity increases foraging and information gathering in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Clare; Viviani, Jérémie; Egan, Emily; Bedford, Thomas; Brilot, Ben; Nettle, Daniel; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Animals can insure themselves against the risk of starvation associated with unpredictable food availability by storing energy reserves or gathering information about alternative food sources. The former strategy carries costs in terms of mass-dependent predation risk, while the latter trades off against foraging for food; both trade-offs may be influenced by an individual's developmental history. Here, we consider a possible role of early developmental experience in inducing different mass regulation and foraging strategies in European starlings. We measured the body mass, body condition, foraging effort, food consumption and contrafreeloading (foraging for food hidden in sand when equivalent food is freely available) of adult birds (≥10 months old) that had previously undergone a subtle early life manipulation of food competition (cross-fostering into the highest or lowest ranks in the brood size hierarchy when 2–12 days of age). We found that developmentally disadvantaged birds were fatter in adulthood and differed in foraging behaviour compared with their advantaged siblings. Disadvantaged birds were hyperphagic compared with advantaged birds, but only following a period of food deprivation, and also spent more time contrafreeloading. Advantaged birds experienced a trade-off between foraging success and time spent contrafreeloading, whereas disadvantaged birds faced no such trade-off, owing to their greater foraging efficiency. Thus, developmentally disadvantaged birds appeared to retain a phenotypic memory of increased nestling food competition, employing both energy storage and information-gathering insurance strategies to a greater extent than their advantaged siblings. Our results suggest that subtle early life disadvantage in the form of psychosocial stress and/or food insecurity can leave a lasting legacy on foraging behaviour and mass regulation even in the absence of food insufficiency during development or adulthood. PMID:26566292

  18. Early life adversity increases foraging and information gathering in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Clare; Viviani, Jérémie; Egan, Emily; Bedford, Thomas; Brilot, Ben; Nettle, Daniel; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-11-01

    Animals can insure themselves against the risk of starvation associated with unpredictable food availability by storing energy reserves or gathering information about alternative food sources. The former strategy carries costs in terms of mass-dependent predation risk, while the latter trades off against foraging for food; both trade-offs may be influenced by an individual's developmental history. Here, we consider a possible role of early developmental experience in inducing different mass regulation and foraging strategies in European starlings. We measured the body mass, body condition, foraging effort, food consumption and contrafreeloading (foraging for food hidden in sand when equivalent food is freely available) of adult birds (≥10 months old) that had previously undergone a subtle early life manipulation of food competition (cross-fostering into the highest or lowest ranks in the brood size hierarchy when 2-12 days of age). We found that developmentally disadvantaged birds were fatter in adulthood and differed in foraging behaviour compared with their advantaged siblings. Disadvantaged birds were hyperphagic compared with advantaged birds, but only following a period of food deprivation, and also spent more time contrafreeloading. Advantaged birds experienced a trade-off between foraging success and time spent contrafreeloading, whereas disadvantaged birds faced no such trade-off, owing to their greater foraging efficiency. Thus, developmentally disadvantaged birds appeared to retain a phenotypic memory of increased nestling food competition, employing both energy storage and information-gathering insurance strategies to a greater extent than their advantaged siblings. Our results suggest that subtle early life disadvantage in the form of psychosocial stress and/or food insecurity can leave a lasting legacy on foraging behaviour and mass regulation even in the absence of food insufficiency during development or adulthood.

  19. The Effects of Spatially Heterogeneous Prey Distributions on Detection Patterns in Foraging Seabirds

    PubMed Central

    Miramontes, Octavio; Boyer, Denis; Bartumeus, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Many attempts to relate animal foraging patterns to landscape heterogeneity are focused on the analysis of foragers movements. Resource detection patterns in space and time are not commonly studied, yet they are tightly coupled to landscape properties and add relevant information on foraging behavior. By exploring simple foraging models in unpredictable environments we show that the distribution of intervals between detected prey (detection statistics) is mostly determined by the spatial structure of the prey field and essentially distinct from predator displacement statistics. Detections are expected to be Poissonian in uniform random environments for markedly different foraging movements (e.g. Lévy and ballistic). This prediction is supported by data on the time intervals between diving events on short-range foraging seabirds such as the thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia). However, Poissonian detection statistics is not observed in long-range seabirds such as the wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans) due to the fractal nature of the prey field, covering a wide range of spatial scales. For this scenario, models of fractal prey fields induce non-Poissonian patterns of detection in good agreement with two albatross data sets. We find that the specific shape of the distribution of time intervals between prey detection is mainly driven by meso and submeso-scale landscape structures and depends little on the forager strategy or behavioral responses. PMID:22514629

  20. Integrating multiple technologies to understand the foraging behaviour of Hawaiian monk seals

    PubMed Central

    Littnan, Charles; Halpin, Patrick; Read, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate and describe the foraging behaviour of monk seals in the main Hawaiian Islands. Specifically, our goal was to identify a metric to classify foraging behaviour from telemetry instruments. We deployed accelerometers, seal-mounted cameras and GPS tags on six monk seals during 2012–2014 on the islands of Molokai, Kauai and Oahu. We used pitch, calculated from the accelerometer, to identify search events and thus classify foraging dives. A search event and consequent ‘foraging dive’ occurred when the pitch was greater than or equal to 70° at a depth less than or equal to −3 m. By integrating data from the accelerometers with video and GPS, we were able to ground-truth this classification method and identify environmental variables associated with each foraging dive. We used Bayesian logistic regression to identify the variables that influenced search events. Dive depth, body motion (mean overall dynamic body acceleration during the dive) and proximity to the sea floor were the best predictors of search events for these seals. Search events typically occurred on long, deep dives, with more time spent at the bottom (more than 50% bottom time). We can now identify where monk seals are foraging in the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) and what covariates influence foraging behaviour in this region. This increased understanding will inform management strategies and supplement outreach and recovery efforts.

  1. Multidimensional differentiation in foraging resource use during breeding of two sympatric top predators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedemann, Guilad; Leshem, Yossi; Kerem, Lior; Shacham, Boaz; Bar-Massada, Avi; McClain, Krystaal M.; Bohrer, Gil; Izhaki, Ido

    2016-10-01

    Ecologically-similar species were found to develop specific strategies to partition their resources, leading to niche differentiation and divergence, in order to avoid interspecific competition. Our study determines multi-dimensional differentiation of two sympatric top-predators, long-legged buzzards (LLB) and short-toed eagles (STE), which recently became sympatric during their breeding season in the Judean Foothills, Israel. By combining information from comprehensive diet and movement analyses we found four dimensions of differentiation: (1) Geographic foraging area: LLB tended to forage relatively close to their nests (2.35 ± 0.62 km), while STE forage far from their nest (13.03 ± 2.20 km) (2) Foraging-habitat type: LLBs forage at low natural vegetation, avoiding cultivated fields, whereas STEs forage in cultivated fields, avoiding low natural vegetation; (3) Diurnal dynamics of foraging: LLBs are uniformly active during daytime, whereas STEs activity peaks in the early afternoon; and (4) Food-niche: while both species largely rely on reptiles (47.8% and 76.3% for LLB and STE, respectively), LLB had a more diverse diet and consumed significantly higher percentages of lizards, while STE consumed significantly higher percentages of snakes. Our results suggest that this multidimensional differentiation allows the spatial coexistence of these two dense populations in the study area.

  2. Multidimensional differentiation in foraging resource use during breeding of two sympatric top predators

    PubMed Central

    Friedemann, Guilad; Leshem, Yossi; Kerem, Lior; Shacham, Boaz; Bar-Massada, Avi; McClain, Krystaal M.; Bohrer, Gil; Izhaki, Ido

    2016-01-01

    Ecologically-similar species were found to develop specific strategies to partition their resources, leading to niche differentiation and divergence, in order to avoid interspecific competition. Our study determines multi-dimensional differentiation of two sympatric top-predators, long-legged buzzards (LLB) and short-toed eagles (STE), which recently became sympatric during their breeding season in the Judean Foothills, Israel. By combining information from comprehensive diet and movement analyses we found four dimensions of differentiation: (1) Geographic foraging area: LLB tended to forage relatively close to their nests (2.35 ± 0.62 km), while STE forage far from their nest (13.03 ± 2.20 km); (2) Foraging-habitat type: LLBs forage at low natural vegetation, avoiding cultivated fields, whereas STEs forage in cultivated fields, avoiding low natural vegetation; (3) Diurnal dynamics of foraging: LLBs are uniformly active during daytime, whereas STEs activity peaks in the early afternoon; and (4) Food-niche: while both species largely rely on reptiles (47.8% and 76.3% for LLB and STE, respectively), LLB had a more diverse diet and consumed significantly higher percentages of lizards, while STE consumed significantly higher percentages of snakes. Our results suggest that this multidimensional differentiation allows the spatial coexistence of these two dense populations in the study area. PMID:27725734

  3. Food searching behaviour of a Lepidoptera pest species is modulated by the foraging gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Chardonnet, Floriane; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Chouquet, Bastien; Joly, Nicolas; Harry, Myriam; Le Ru, Bruno; Silvain, Jean-François; Kaiser, Laure

    2014-10-01

    The extent of damage to crop plants from pest insects depends on the foraging behaviour of the insect's feeding stage. Little is known, however, about the genetic and molecular bases of foraging behaviour in phytophagous pest insects. The foraging gene (for), a candidate gene encoding a PKG-I, has an evolutionarily conserved function in feeding strategies. Until now, for had never been studied in Lepidoptera, which includes major pest species. The cereal stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides is therefore a relevant species within this order with which to study conservation of and polymorphism in the for gene, and its role in foraging - a behavioural trait that is directly associated with plant injuries. Full sequencing of for cDNA in S. nonagrioides revealed a high degree of conservation with other insect taxa. Activation of PKG by a cGMP analogue increased larval foraging activity, measured by how frequently larvae moved between food patches in an actimeter. We found one non-synonymous allelic variation in a natural population that defined two allelic variants. These variants presented significantly different levels of foraging activity, and the behaviour was positively correlated to gene expression levels. Our results show that for gene function is conserved in this species of Lepidoptera, and describe an original case of a single nucleotide polymorphism associated with foraging behaviour variation in a pest insect. By illustrating how variation in this single gene can predict phenotype, this work opens new perspectives into the evolutionary context of insect adaptation to plants, as well as pest management.

  4. Foraging flexibility and search patterns are unlinked during breeding in a free-ranging seabird.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Akiko; Aris-Brosou, Stéphane; Owen, Ellie; Bolton, Mark; Boyle, Dave; Fayet, Annette; Dean, Ben; Kirk, Holly; Freeman, Robin; Perrins, Chris; Guilford, Tim

    In order to maximize foraging efficiency in a varying environment, predators are expected to optimize their search strategy. Environmental conditions are one important factor affecting these movement patterns, but variations in breeding constraints (self-feeding vs. feeding young and self-feeding) during different breeding stages (incubation vs. chick-rearing) are often overlooked, so that the mechanisms responsible for such behavioral shifts are still unknown. Here, to test how search patterns are affected at different breeding stages and to explore the proximate causes of these variations, we deployed data loggers to record both position (global positioning system) and dive activity (time-depth recorders) of a colonial breeding seabird, the razorbill Alca torda. Over a period of 3 years, our recordings of 56 foraging trips from 18 breeders show that while there is no evidence for individual route fidelity, razorbills exhibit higher foraging flexibility during incubation than during chick rearing, when foraging becomes more focused on an area of high primary productivity. We further show that this behavioral shift is not due to a shift in search patterns, as reorientations during foraging are independent of breeding stage. Our results suggest that foraging flexibility and search patterns are unlinked, perhaps because birds can read cues from their environment, including conspecifics, to optimize their foraging efficiency.

  5. Foraging pattern, colony distribution, and foraging range of the Florida harvester ant Pogonomyrmex badius

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.S.; Gentry, J.B.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the foraging pattern of the Florida harvester ant Pogonomyrmex badius in a high-density population of colonies. The foraging pattern has both promoted and been influenced by the colony distribution. Pogonomyrmex badius forages from short trails which extend into a surrounding foraging range. Direction of foraging trails is influenced by the location of a colony's near neighbors. Seasonal nest relocations always occur along a foraging trail, usually the main trail. Foraging ranges are not actively defended, but are used almost exclusively by foragers from a single colony. Foraging ranges will be extended into an area abondoned by neighboring foragers, indicating that forager presence may define each colony's range. Colony distribution has remained essentially the same for several years, despite seasonal nest relocations and addition of new colonies. Establishment of trails and exclusive foraging ranges by each colony minimizes encounters with neighboring foragers and guarantees access to available resources; this pattern also pomotes maintenance of the existing colony distribution and partitioning of resources.

  6. Foraging pattern, colony distribution, and foraging range of the Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.S.; Gentry, J.B.; Aiken, S.C.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the foraging pattern of the Florida harvester ant Pogonomyrmex badius in a high-density population of colonies. The foraging pattern has both promoted and been influenced by the colony distribution. Pogonomyrmex badius forages from short trails which extend into a surrounding foraging range. Direction of foraging trails is influenced by the location of a colony's near neighbors. Seasonal nest relocations always occur along a foraging trail, usually the main trail. Foraging ranges are not actively defended, but are used almost exclusively by foragers from a single colony. Foraging ranges will be extended into an area abandoned by neighboring foragers, indicating that forager presence may define each colony's range. Colony distribution has remained essentially the same for several years, despite seasonal nest relocations and addition of new colonies. Establishment of trails and exclusive foraging ranges by each colony minimizes encounters with neighboring foragers and guarantees access to available resources; this pattern also promotes maintenance of the existing colony distribution and partitioning of resources.

  7. Flexible stocking strategies for adapting to climatic variability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a result of precipitation-induced variability on forage production, ranchers have difficulty matching animal demand with forage availability in their operations. Flexible stocking strategies could more effectively use extra forage in highly productive years and limit risk of overgrazing during dr...

  8. Picture of the health status of Aboriginal children living in an urban setting of Sydney.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Suzie; Woolfenden, Susan; Callaghan, Lola; Allende, Trudy; Winters, Jennifer; Wong, Grace; Caplice, Shea; Zwi, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The aims of the present study were to: (1) describe the health status and health indicators for urban Aboriginal children (age 0-16 years) in south-east Sydney; and (2) evaluate the quality of routinely collected clinical data and its usefulness in monitoring local progress of health outcomes. Methods Aboriginal maternal and child health routine data, from multiple databases, for individuals accessing maternal and child health services between January 2007 and December 2012 were examined and compared with state and national health indicators. Results Reductions in maternal smoking, premature delivery and low birthweight delivery rates were achieved in some years, but no consistent trends emerged. Paediatric services had increased referrals each year. The most frequent diagnoses were nutritional problems, language delay or disorder and developmental delay or learning difficulties. Twenty per cent of children had a chronic medical condition requiring long-term follow-up. Aboriginal children were more likely to be discharged from hospital against medical advice than non-Aboriginal children. Routinely collected data did not include some information essential to monitor determinants of health and health outcomes. Conclusions Aboriginal children living in this urban setting had high levels of need. Routinely recorded data were suboptimal for monitoring local health status and needed to reflect national and state health indicators. Routinely collected data can identify service gaps and guide service development. What is known about this topic? Despite improvements in some areas, there continue to be significant gaps in maternal and child health outcomes between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. These are poorly documented at a local service level. What does this paper add? Intensive, local services offered to Aboriginal women and children can result in rapid service engagement. Health service data routinely collected by local services can be used to

  9. Cumulative Effects of Foraging Behavior and Social Dominance on Brain Development in a Facultatively Social Bee (Ceratina australensis).

    PubMed

    Rehan, Sandra M; Bulova, Susan J; O'Donnell, Sean

    2015-01-01

    In social insects, both task performance (foraging) and dominance are associated with increased brain investment, particularly in the mushroom bodies. Whether and how these factors interact is unknown. Here we present data on a system where task performance and social behavior can be analyzed simultaneously: the small carpenter bee Ceratina australensis. We show that foraging and dominance have separate and combined cumulative effects on mushroom body calyx investment. Female C. australensis nest solitarily and socially in the same populations at the same time. Social colonies comprise two sisters: the social primary, which monopolizes foraging and reproduction, and the social secondary, which is neither a forager nor reproductive but rather remains at the nest as a guard. We compare the brains of solitary females that forage and reproduce but do not engage in social interactions with those of social individuals while controlling for age, reproductive status, and foraging experience. Mushroom body calyx volume was positively correlated with wing wear, a proxy for foraging experience. We also found that, although total brain volume did not vary among reproductive strategies (solitary vs. social nesters), socially dominant primaries had larger mushroom body calyx volumes (corrected for both brain and body size variation) than solitary females; socially subordinate secondaries (that are neither dominant nor foragers) had the least-developed mushroom body calyces. These data demonstrate that sociality itself does not explain mushroom body volume; however, achieving and maintaining dominance status in a group was associated with mushroom body calyx enlargement. Dominance and foraging effects were cumulative; dominant social primary foragers had larger mushroom body volumes than solitary foragers, and solitary foragers had larger mushroom body volumes than nonforaging social secondary guards. This is the first evidence for cumulative effects on brain development by

  10. Valuation of pollinator forage services provided by Eucalyptus cladocalyx.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Willem J; Veldtman, Ruan; Allsopp, Mike H

    2013-08-15

    We assess the monetary value of forage provisioning services for honeybees as provided by an alien tree species in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Although Eucalyptus cladocalyx is not an officially declared invader, it is cleared on a regular basis along with other invasive Eucalyptus species such as Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and Eucalyptus conferruminata (which have been prioritised for eradication in South Africa). We present some of the trade-offs associated with the clearing of E. cladocalyx by means of a practical example that illustrates a situation where the benefits of the species to certain stakeholders could support the containment of the species in demarcated areas, while allowing clearing outside such areas. Given the absence of market prices for such forage provisioning services, the replacement cost is used to present the value of the loss in forage as provided by E. cladocalyx if the alien tree species is cleared along with invasive alien tree species. Two replacement scenarios formed the basis for our calculations. The first scenario was an artificial diet as replacement for the forage provisioning service, which yielded a direct cost estimate of US$7.5 m per year. The second was based on a Fynbos cultivation/restoration initiative aimed at substituting the forage provisioning service of E. cladocalyx, which yielded a direct cost of US$20.2 m per year. These figures provide estimates of the potential additional cost burden on the beekeeping industry if E. cladocalyx is completely eradicated from the Western Cape. The cost estimates should be balanced against the negative impacts of E. cladocalyx on ecosystem services in order to make an informed decision with regard to appropriate management strategies for this species. The findings therefore serve as useful inputs to balance trade-offs for alien species that are considered as beneficial to some, but harmful to other.

  11. Foraging in an oxidative environment: relationship between δ13C values and oxidative status in Adélie penguins

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Michaël; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Le Maho, Yvon; Ancel, André; Criscuolo, François

    2010-01-01

    The alternation of short/coastal and long/pelagic foraging trips has been proposed as a strategy for seabirds to reconcile self-feeding and parental care. Both types of foraging trips may result in different foraging efforts and diet qualities, and consequently are likely to modify the oxidative status of seabirds. We examined the relationship between the oxidative status of Adélie penguins and (i) the duration of their foraging trips and (ii) their plasma δ13C values reflecting their spatial distribution. The oxidative status did not correlate with the foraging trip duration but with the δ13C values: high values being associated with high levels of oxidative damage. This relationship is likely to be related to the prey properties of penguins as both parameters are largely determined by the diet. Two non-exclusive hypotheses can be proposed to explain this relationship: (i) penguins foraging in coastal areas feed on a diet enriched in 13C and depleted in antioxidant compounds; (ii) birds with low antioxidant capacity are constrained to forage in coastal areas. Our study is the first to show that the adoption of different foraging strategies is associated with different levels of oxidative stress. However, further studies are needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this intriguing relationship. PMID:19955151

  12. From the Lab Bench: Is forage quality that complicated?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An article was written to discuss the definition of forage quality. The true definition of forage quality is based on performance of the cattle when the forage serves as the major source of nutrients. However, an estimate of forage quality will be needed before the forage is fed or grazed. Digest...

  13. Building better systems of care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: findings from the Kanyini health systems assessment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Australian federal and jurisdictional governments are implementing ambitious policy initiatives intended to improve health care access and outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. In this qualitative study we explored Aboriginal Medical Service (AMS) staff views on factors needed to improve chronic care systems and assessed their relevance to the new policy environment. Methods Two theories informed the study: (1) ‘candidacy’, which explores “the ways in which people’s eligibility for care is jointly negotiated between individuals and health services”; and (2) kanyini or ‘holding’, a Central Australian philosophy which describes the principle and obligations of nurturing and protecting others. A structured health systems assessment, locally adapted from Chronic Care Model domains, was administered via group interviews with 37 health staff in six AMSs and one government Indigenous-led health service. Data were thematically analysed. Results Staff emphasised AMS health care was different to private general practices. Consistent with kanyini, community governance and leadership, community representation among staff, and commitment to community development were important organisational features to retain and nurture both staff and patients. This was undermined, however, by constant fear of government funding for AMSs being withheld. Staff resourcing, information systems and high-level leadership were perceived to be key drivers of health care quality. On-site specialist services, managed by AMS staff, were considered an enabling strategy to increase specialist access. Candidacy theory suggests the above factors influence whether a service is ‘tractable’ and ‘navigable’ to its users. Staff also described entrenched patient discrimination in hospitals and the need to expend considerable effort to reinstate care. This suggests that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are still constructed as ‘non-ideal users

  14. Relationships between breeding status, social -congregation attendance, and foraging distance of xantus's murrelets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, C.D.; Golightly, R.T.; Takekawa, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    At night during the breeding season, Xantus's Murrelets (Synthliboramphus hypoleucus) congregate on the water adjacent to nesting colonies. We examined relationships of attendance at these nocturnal congregations, breeding status, and daytime foraging locations of radio-marked Xantus's Murrelets from Anacapa Island (33 in 2002, 44 in 2003) and Santa Barbara Island (35 in 2002) in the California Channel Islands. Murrelets thatspent more nights attending congregations were located closer to the island during the day, so regular attendance at the congregations may have constrained daytime traveling distances to foraging locations. In mid-May 2003 home-range sizes increased while congregation attendance decreased, likely indicating the end of colony attendance and declining availability of prey near Anacapa Island. In both years, incubating murrelets foraged farther from the colony than did nonbreeding murrelets, suggesting that breeding and nonbreeding murrelets use different foraging strategies to meet their energetic requirements. Copyright ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  15. Boa constrictor (Boa constrictor): foraging behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorrell, G.G.; Boback, M.S.; Reed, R.N.; Green, S.; Montgomery, Chad E.; DeSouza, L.S.; Chiaraviglio, M.

    2011-01-01

    Boa constrictor is often referred to as a sit-and-wait or ambush forager that chooses locations to maximize the likelihood of prey encounters (Greene 1983. In Janzen [ed.], Costa Rica Natural History, pp. 380-382. Univ. Chicago Press, Illinois). However, as more is learned about the natural history of snakes in general, the dichotomy between active versus ambush foraging is becoming blurred. Herein, we describe an instance of diurnal active foraging by a B. constrictor, illustrating that this species exhibits a range of foraging behaviors.

  16. Visual Foraging With Fingers and Eye Gaze

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Ian M.; Smith, Irene J.; Chetverikov, Andrey; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2016-01-01

    A popular model of the function of selective visual attention involves search where a single target is to be found among distractors. For many scenarios, a more realistic model involves search for multiple targets of various types, since natural tasks typically do not involve a single target. Here we present results from a novel multiple-target foraging paradigm. We compare finger foraging where observers cancel a set of predesignated targets by tapping them, to gaze foraging where observers cancel items by fixating them for 100 ms. During finger foraging, for most observers, there was a large difference between foraging based on a single feature, where observers switch easily between target types, and foraging based on a conjunction of features where observers tended to stick to one target type. The pattern was notably different during gaze foraging where these condition differences were smaller. Two conclusions follow: (a) The fact that a sizeable number of observers (in particular during gaze foraging) had little trouble switching between different target types raises challenges for many prominent theoretical accounts of visual attention and working memory. (b) While caveats must be noted for the comparison of gaze and finger foraging, the results suggest that selection mechanisms for gaze and pointing have different operational constraints. PMID:27433323

  17. Visual Foraging With Fingers and Eye Gaze.

    PubMed

    Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Thornton, Ian M; Smith, Irene J; Chetverikov, Andrey; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2016-03-01

    A popular model of the function of selective visual attention involves search where a single target is to be found among distractors. For many scenarios, a more realistic model involves search for multiple targets of various types, since natural tasks typically do not involve a single target. Here we present results from a novel multiple-target foraging paradigm. We compare finger foraging where observers cancel a set of predesignated targets by tapping them, to gaze foraging where observers cancel items by fixating them for 100 ms. During finger foraging, for most observers, there was a large difference between foraging based on a single feature, where observers switch easily between target types, and foraging based on a conjunction of features where observers tended to stick to one target type. The pattern was notably different during gaze foraging where these condition differences were smaller. Two conclusions follow: (a) The fact that a sizeable number of observers (in particular during gaze foraging) had little trouble switching between different target types raises challenges for many prominent theoretical accounts of visual attention and working memory. (b) While caveats must be noted for the comparison of gaze and finger foraging, the results suggest that selection mechanisms for gaze and pointing have different operational constraints.

  18. Mental health and Victorian Aboriginal people: what can data mining tell us?

    PubMed

    Adams, Karen; Halacas, Chris; Cincotta, Marion; Pesich, Corina

    2014-01-01

    Nationally, Aboriginal people experience high levels of psychological distress, primarily due to trauma from colonisation. In Victoria, Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations (ACCHOs) provide many services to support mental health. The aim of the present study was to improve understanding about Victorian Aboriginal people and mental health service patterns. We located four mental health administrative datasets to analyse descriptively, including Practice Health Atlas, Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Service (AODTS), Kids Helpline and Close The Gap Pharmaceutical Scheme data. A large proportion of the local Aboriginal population (70%) were regular ACCHO clients; of these, 21% had a mental health diagnosis and, of these, 23% had a Medicare Mental Health Care Plan (MHCP). There were higher rates of Medicare MHCP completion rates where general practitioners (GPs) had mental health training and the local Area Mental Health Service had a Koori Mental Health Liaison Officer. There was an over-representation of AODTS episodes, and referrals for these episodes were more likely to come through community, corrections and justice services than for non-Aboriginal people. Aboriginal episodes were less likely to have been referred by a GP or police and less likely to have been referrals to community-based or home-based treatment. There was an over-representation of Victorian Aboriginal calls to Kids Helpline, and these were frequently for suicide and self-harm reasons. We recommend primary care mental health programs include quality audits, GP training, non-pharmaceutical options and partnerships. Access to appropriate AODTS is needed, particularly given links to high incarcerations rates. To ensure access to mental health services, improved understanding of mental health service participation and outcomes, including suicide prevention services for young people, is needed.

  19. 'Connecting tracks': exploring the roles of an Aboriginal women's cancer support network.

    PubMed

    Cuesta-Briand, Beatriz; Bessarab, Dawn; Shahid, Shaouli; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-11-01

    Aboriginal Australians are at higher risk of developing certain types of cancer and, once diagnosed, they have poorer outcomes than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Lower access to cancer screening programmes, deficiencies in treatment and cultural barriers contribute to poor outcomes. Additional logistical factors affecting those living in rural areas compound these barriers. Cancer support groups have positive effects on people affected by cancer; however, there is limited evidence on peer-support programmes for Aboriginal cancer patients in Australia. This paper explores the roles played by an Aboriginal women's cancer support network operating in a regional town in Western Australia. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 24 participants including Aboriginal and mainstream healthcare service providers, and network members and clients. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were subjected to inductive thematic analysis. Connecting and linking people and services was perceived as the main role of the network. This role had four distinct domains: (i) facilitating access to cancer services; (ii) fostering social interaction; (iii) providing a culturally safe space; and (iv) building relationships with other agencies. Other network roles included providing emotional and practical support, delivering health education and facilitating engagement in cancer screening initiatives. Despite the network's achievements, unresolved tensions around role definition negatively impacted on the working relationship between the network and mainstream service providers, and posed a threat to the network's sustainability. Different perspectives need to be acknowledged and addressed in order to build strong, effective partnerships between service providers and Aboriginal communities. Valuing and honouring the Aboriginal approaches and expertise, and adopting an intercultural approach are suggested as necessary to the way forward.

  20. Diving deeper into individual foraging specializations of a large marine predator, the southern sea lion.

    PubMed

    Baylis, A M M; Orben, R A; Arnould, J P Y; Peters, K; Knox, T; Costa, D P; Staniland, I J

    2015-12-01

    Despite global declines in the abundance of marine predators, knowledge of foraging ecology, necessary to predict the ecological consequences of large changes in marine predator abundance, remains enigmatic for many species. Given that populations suffering severe declines are of conservation concern, we examined the foraging ecology of southern sea lions (SSL) (Otaria flavescens)-one of the least studied otariids (fur seal and sea lions)-which have declined by over 90% at the Falkland Islands since the 1930s. Using a combination of biologging devices and stable isotope analysis of vibrissae, we redress major gaps in the knowledge of SSL ecology and quantify patterns of individual specialization. Specifically, we revealed two discrete foraging strategies, these being inshore (coastal) and offshore (outer Patagonian Shelf). The majority of adult female SSL (72% or n = 21 of 29 SSL) foraged offshore. Adult female SSL that foraged offshore travelled further (92 ± 20 vs. 10 ± 4 km) and dived deeper (75 ± 23 vs. 21 ± 8 m) when compared to those that foraged inshore. Stable isotope analysis revealed long-term fidelity (years) to these discrete foraging habitats. In addition, we found further specialization within the offshore group, with adult female SSL separated into two clusters on the basis of benthic or mixed (benthic and pelagic) dive behavior (benthic dive proportion was 76 ± 9 vs. 51 ± 8%, respectively). We suggest that foraging specialization in depleted populations such as SSL breeding at the Falkland Islands, are influenced by foraging site fidelity, and could be independent of intraspecific competition. Finally, the behavioral differences we describe are crucial to understanding population-level dynamics, impediments to population recovery, and threats to population persistence.

  1. Foraging movements of great frigatebirds from Aldabra Island: Relationship with environmental variables and interactions with fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimerskirch, Henri; Corre, Matthieu Le; Kai, Emilie Tew; Marsac, Francis

    2010-07-01

    Great Frigatebirds ( Fregata minor) are large tropical seabirds that rely primarily on sub-surface predators such as tunas or cetaceans to capture their prey. We studied the foraging movements of 14 Great Frigatebirds breeding on Aldabra Island (9.4°S, 46.4°E), the largest colony in the Indian Ocean. This colony is located at more than 500 km from the main fishing grounds of a very important industrial purse-seine fishery targeting surface-dwelling tunas. Despite their slow flight speeds (16 km h -1), frigatebirds are able to forage at more than 1000 km from the colonies when breeding, using 2500-4750 km long foraging loops over oceanic waters. All trips were directed to the north of the island up to the equator. Foraging bouts, indicated by reduced flight speeds, were rare and located throughout the trips. Foraging spots tended to be more frequent on higher surface chlorophyll concentration and in association with some cyclonic vortices. However, mesoscale activity is relatively weak between Aldabra and the equator and the chlorophyll variability is mostly the result of wind-mixing processes during the southwest monsoon. These results suggest that frigatebirds forage for widely distributed resources to the north of Aldabra. The northernmost foraging bouts were located in the vicinity of the purse-seine fishing grounds, but without a significant overlap between frigatebirds and tuna fleets. The results of the study are compared with those from another population at Europa Island (22.3°S, 40.3°E) where birds were foraging on predictable features, the edge of cyclonic eddies that are marked in the Mozambique Channel. We discuss the consequences of the reliance of populations on contrasted oceanographic conditions on foraging strategies and on the evolution of life histories in these long-lived animals in a changing climate, as well as the possible effects of overfishing on frigatebird populations.

  2. Eating locally: Australasian gannets increase their foraging effort in a restricted range

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Lauren P.; Barker, Sophie; Berlincourt, Maud; Tew, Emma; Warwick-Evans, Victoria; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the breeding season, seabirds adopt a central place foraging strategy and are restricted in their foraging range by the fasting ability of their partner/chick and the cost of commuting between the prey resources and the nest. Because of the spatial and temporal variability of marine ecosystems, individuals must adapt their behaviour to increase foraging success within these constraints. The at-sea movements, foraging behaviour and effort of the Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) was determined over three sequential breeding seasons of apparent differing prey abundance to investigate how the species adapts to inter-annual fluctuations in food availability. GPS and tri-axial accelerometer data loggers were used to compare the degree of annual variation within two stages of breeding (incubation and chick rearing) at a small gannet colony situated between two larger, nearby colonies. Interestingly, neither males nor females increased the total distance travelled or duration of foraging trip in any breeding stage (P>0.05 in all cases) despite apparent low prey availability. However, consistently within each breeding stage, mean vectorial dynamic body acceleration (an index of energy expenditure) was greater in years of poorer breeding success (increased by a factor of three to eight), suggesting birds were working harder within their range. Additionally, both males and females increased the proportion of a foraging trip spent foraging in a poorer year across both breeding stages. Individuals from this colony may be limited in their ability to extend their range in years of low prey availability due to competition from conspecifics in nearby colonies and, consequently, increase foraging effort within this restricted foraging area. PMID:26369928

  3. Eating locally: Australasian gannets increase their foraging effort in a restricted range.

    PubMed

    Angel, Lauren P; Barker, Sophie; Berlincourt, Maud; Tew, Emma; Warwick-Evans, Victoria; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-09-14

    During the breeding season, seabirds adopt a central place foraging strategy and are restricted in their foraging range by the fasting ability of their partner/chick and the cost of commuting between the prey resources and the nest. Because of the spatial and temporal variability of marine ecosystems, individuals must adapt their behaviour to increase foraging success within these constraints. The at-sea movements, foraging behaviour and effort of the Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) was determined over three sequential breeding seasons of apparent differing prey abundance to investigate how the species adapts to inter-annual fluctuations in food availability. GPS and tri-axial accelerometer data loggers were used to compare the degree of annual variation within two stages of breeding (incubation and chick rearing) at a small gannet colony situated between two larger, nearby colonies. Interestingly, neither males nor females increased the total distance travelled or duration of foraging trip in any breeding stage (P>0.05 in all cases) despite apparent low prey availability. However, consistently within each breeding stage, mean vectorial dynamic body acceleration (an index of energy expenditure) was greater in years of poorer breeding success (increased by a factor of three to eight), suggesting birds were working harder within their range. Additionally, both males and females increased the proportion of a foraging trip spent foraging in a poorer year across both breeding stages. Individuals from this colony may be limited in their ability to extend their range in years of low prey availability due to competition from conspecifics in nearby colonies and, consequently, increase foraging effort within this restricted foraging area.

  4. Individual honey bee (Apis cerana) foragers adjust their fuel load to match variability in forage reward

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ken; Latty, Tanya; Dong, Shihao; Liu, Xiwen; Wang, Chao; Oldroyd, Benjamin P.

    2015-01-01

    Animals may adjust their behavior according to their perception of risk. Here we show that free-flying honey bee (Apis cerana) foragers mitigate the risk of starvation in the field when foraging on a food source that offers variable rewards by carrying more ‘fuel’ food on their outward journey. We trained foragers to a feeder located 1.2 km from each of four colonies. On average foragers carried 12.7% greater volume of fuel, equivalent to 30.2% more glucose when foraging on a variable source (a random sequence of 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 M sucrose solution, average sucrose content 1.5 M) than when forging on a consistent source (constant 1.5 M sucrose solution). Our findings complement an earlier study that showed that foragers decrease their fuel load as they become more familiar with a foraging place. We suggest that honey bee foragers are risk sensitive, and carry more fuel to minimize the risk of starvation in the field when a foraging trip is perceived as being risky, either because the forager is unfamiliar with the foraging site, or because the forage available at a familiar site offers variable rewards. PMID:26549746

  5. Bacterial foraging based edge detection for cell image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yongsheng; Zhou, Tao; Xia, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Edge detection is the most popular and common choices for cell image segmentation, in which local searching strategies are commonly used. In spite of their computational efficiency, traditional edge detectors, however, may either produce discontinued edges or rely heavily on initializations. In this paper, we propose a bacterial foraging based edge detection (BFED) algorithm for cell image segmentation. We model the gradients of intensities as the nutrient concentration and propel bacteria to forage along nutrient-rich locations via mimicking the behavior of Escherichia coli, including the chemotaxis, swarming, reproduction, elimination and dispersal. As a nature-inspired evolutionary technique, this algorithm can identify the desired edges and mark them as the tracks of bacteria. We have evaluated the proposed algorithm against the Canny, SUSAN, Verma's and an active contour model (ACM) based edge detectors on both synthetic and real cell images. Our results suggest that the BFED algorithm can identify boundaries more effectively and provide more accurate cell image segmentation.

  6. Sex-specific foraging behaviour in a seabird with reversed sexual dimorphism: the red-footed booby.

    PubMed

    Weimerskirch, Henri; Le Corre, Matthieu; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Kato, Akiko; Marsac, Francis

    2006-01-01

    Most hypotheses attempting to explain the evolution of reversed sexual dimorphism (RSD) assume that size-related differences in foraging ability are of prime importance, but the studies on sex-specific differences in foraging behaviour remain scarce. We compare the foraging behaviour of males and females in a seabird species with a RSD by using several miniaturised activity and telemetry loggers. In red-footed boobies males are 5% smaller and 15% lighter than females, but have a longer tail than females. Both sexes spend similar time on the nest while incubating or brooding. When foraging at sea, males and females spend similar time foraging in oceanic waters, forage in similar areas, spend similar proportion of their foraging trip in flight, and feed on similar prey-flying fishes and flying squids-of similar size. However, compared to males, females range farther during incubation (85 km vs. 50 km), and furthermore feed mostly at the extremity of their foraging trip, whereas males actively forage throughout the trip. Males are much more active than females, landing and diving more often. During the study period, males lost mass, whereas females showed no significant changes. These results indicate that males and females of the red-footed boobies differ in several aspects in their foraging behaviour. Although some differences found in the study may be the direct result of the larger size of females, that is, the slightly higher speeds and deeper depths attained by females, others indicate clearly different foraging strategies between the sexes. The smaller size and longer tail of males confer them a higher agility, and could allow them to occupy a foraging niche different from that of females. The higher foraging effort of males related to its different foraging strategy is probably at the origin of the rapid mass loss of males during the breeding period. These results suggest that foraging differences are probably the reason for the differential breeding

  7. Best Practice in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education. Proceedings of the Conference (Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia, November 17-18, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Languages and Literacy Inst., Deakin.

    Papers from the conference on the education of Australian Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders include: "English Language and Numeracy Program for Aboriginal Students" (Alison Jarred); "The Aboriginal Identity Course: A Midstream Evaluation" (Simon Vaughan); "Making the Curriculum Your Own: The Senior Girls at Lajamanu…

  8. Aboriginal Self-Determination in Australia: The Effects of Minority-Majority Frames and Target Universalism on Majority Collective Guilt and Compensation Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Scott A.; Gunter, Helen N.; Smith, Joanne R.

    2005-01-01

    In the context of Aboriginal-Anglo Australian relations, we tested the effect of framing (multiculturalism versus separatism) and majority group members' social values (universalism) on the persuasiveness of Aboriginal group rhetoric, majority collective guilt, attitudes toward compensation, and reparations for Aboriginals. As predicted, Anglo…

  9. Aboriginal Identity in Education Settings: Privileging Our Stories as a Way of Deconstructing the Past and Re-Imagining the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shay, Marnee; Wickes, Judi

    2017-01-01

    From Aboriginal Australian perspectives and experiences, Aunty Judi Wickes and Marnee Shay bring a cross-generational, critical race analysis of Aboriginal identities and how they are implicated in the schooling experiences of Aboriginal young people. Using autoethnography, Aunty Judi and Marnee discuss their educational experiences in the…

  10. The Aboriginal Motif in Children's Literature. Proceedings of a National Seminar Held at the University of Tasmania Tasmania, Australia, September 25-27, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, Twila A. J., Ed.

    This seminar on the Aboriginal motif in children's literature was opened by critic Walter McVitty with a paper entitled "The Presentation of Australian Aborigines and Their Culture in Children's Literature: A Brief Overview." In "Some Thoughts on the Aborigine as Presented in Children's Literature," Queensland author Bill Scott…

  11. Consultation with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People in Early Childhood Education: The Impact of Colonial Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Melinda G.

    2015-01-01

    In Australian early years education, consultation and partnerships with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are central to embedding Indigenous perspectives. Building sustained and reciprocal partnerships with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people supports access to local knowledges and perspectives to inform curriculum planning,…

  12. Establishing a Community-Controlled Multi-Institutional Centre for Clinical Research Excellence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Leilani; Fredericks, Bronwyn

    2007-01-01

    The Queensland Aboriginal and Islander Health Council (QAIHC) lead and govern the Centre for Clinical Research Excellence (CCRE), which has a focus on circulatory and associated conditions in urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. The CCRE is a partnership between QAIHC and Monash University, the Queensland University of…

  13. The Aboriginal Boys' Training Home, Kinchela, 1924-1970, and the Development of a Culture of Physical Fitness and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsland, John

    2006-01-01

    Kinchela Boys' Home on the mid-north coast of New South Wales, was established by the state's Aborigines Protection Board for Aboriginal boys and youths in 1924 and closed in 1970. By the 1930s the place had become known as a notorious carceral, poorly managed and psychologically isolated. An overdue government enquiry in 1940 concluded that it…

  14. Diabetic Foot Care: Developing Culturally Appropriate Educational Tools for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jennifer; Obersteller, Elizabeth A.; Rennie, Linda; Whitbread, Cherie

    2001-01-01

    Participatory research in Australia's Northern Territory sought opinions from nurses, general practitioners, Aboriginal health workers, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders on the development of culturally relevant foot care education for Indigenous people with diabetes. They decided to use a visual approach (posters and flip charts) to…

  15. Aboriginal Female Children in Kanyashrams of Orissa, India: A Critical Assessment of the Processes of Educational Institutionalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behera, Deepak Kumar; Nath, Nibedita

    2005-01-01

    In India, the Constitution now includes special educational safeguards for aboriginals (Mohanty, 2003). Aboriginal communities, commonly denoted as "tribal," constitute roughly 8 percent of the total Indian population. In 1960, the Scheduled Area and Scheduled Tribes Commission was established with the aim of integrating the aboriginal…

  16. Aboriginal Business Capacity Building Programs in the Central Interior of British Columbia: A Collaborative Project between the University and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, Titi; Schorcht, Blanca; Brazzoni, Randall

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal communities in Canada are typically marginalized, have very low employment participation rates, and have limited economic infrastructure. The downturn in global economies further marginalized these communities. The University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC) Continuing Studies department piloted an Aboriginal and Small Business…

  17. Aboriginal Bark Painting: Learning about the Beliefs of Others Is Important for Developing an Appreciation of Other Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, Jane

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes one classroom's experience engaging in a lesson on aboriginal painting. Aboriginal painting has a particular allure to middle school students. As this age group crosses the threshold from concrete knowing to conceptual understanding, they are ready to re-frame their perspective of the artist's intent. Learning…

  18. Academic Expectations of Australian Students from Aboriginal, Asian and Anglo Backgrounds: Perspectives of Teachers, Trainee-Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandy, Justine; Durkin, Kevin; Barber, Bonnie L.; Houghton, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There are ethnic group differences in academic achievement among Australian students, with Aboriginal students performing substantially below and Asian students above their peers. One factor that may contribute to these effects is societal stereotypes of Australian Asian and Aboriginal students, which may bias teachers' evaluations and influence…

  19. Toward Creation of a National Table for Aboriginal Literacy and Essential Skills (NTALES). Report on Meeting of May 27, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Literacy and Learning Network, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Canadian Literacy and Learning Network (CLLN), in partnership with Aboriginal community leaders and literacy experts, is leading an initiative to create a National Table for Aboriginal Literacy and Essential Skills (NTALES). A potential role of the National Table will be to represent First Nation, Metis and Inuit literacy and essential skills…

  20. Rethinking nursing best practices with aboriginal communities: informing dialogue and action.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dawn; Edwards, Nancy; Peterson, Wendy; Jaglarz, Maria; Laplante, Dorothy; Estable, Alma

    2010-01-01

    This paper stems from findings of a literature review and consultation with key informants to explore nursing best practices in public health with rural and isolated Aboriginal communities. It summarizes background information on population distribution, the impact of colonization on Aboriginal health and the potential benefits for nurses and communities in adopting a partnership approach, rather than risking cultural imposition while applying best practices and knowledge derived from the dominant culture. The authors provide an alternative working definition for best practices in the context of public health nursing with Aboriginal communities based on findings from the literature review and key informant consultations. Findings include three principles for the development and assessment of nursing best practices with isolated Aboriginal communities: use of indigenous frameworks, capacity building and cultural safety. The discussion highlights examples that demonstrate the feasibility and strengths of these three principles across a selection of isolated, rural and national settings. Implications include a call for nursing leaders, managers and policy makers to take up this challenge and support wider dialogue and action to enable nursing practice that supports the efforts of Aboriginal people to improve health and social conditions.