Science.gov

Sample records for aboriginal health issues

  1. Aboriginal health.

    PubMed Central

    MacMillan, H L; MacMillan, A B; Offord, D R; Dingle, J L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To inform health care workers about the health status of Canada's native people. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search for articles published from Jan. 1, 1989, to Nov. 31, 1995, with the use of subject headings "Eskimos" and "Indians, North American," excluding specific subject headings related to genetics and history. Case reports were excluded. Material was also identified from a review of standard references and bibliographies and from consultation with experts. STUDY SELECTION: Review and research articles containing original data concerning epidemiologic aspects of native health. Studies of Canadian populations were preferred, but population-based studies of US native peoples were included if limited Canadian information was available. DATA EXTRACTION: Information about target population, methods and conclusions was extracted from each study. RESULTS: Mortality and morbidity rates are higher in the native population than in the general Canadian population. The infant mortality rates averaged for the years 1986 to 1990 were 13.8 per 1000 live births among Indian infants, 16.3 per 1000 among Inuit infants, and only 7.3 per 1000 among all Canadian infants. Age-standardized all-cause mortality rates among residents of reserves averaged for the years 1979 to 1983 were 561.0 per 100,000 population among men and 334.6 per 100,000 among women, compared with 340.2 per 100,000 among all Canadian men and 173.4 per 100,000 among all Canadian women. Compared with the general Canadian population, specific native populations have an increased risk of death from alcoholism, homicide, suicide and pneumonia. Of the aboriginal population of Canada 15 years of age and older, 31% have been informed that they have a chronic health problem. Diabetes mellitus affects 6% of aboriginal adults, compared with 2% of all Canadian adults. Social problems identified by aboriginal people as a concern in their community include substance abuse, suicide, unemployment and family violence

  2. Knowledge Transfer and Exchange Processes for Environmental Health Issues in Canadian Aboriginal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Susan M.; Brooks, Sandy; Furgal, Chris M.; Dobbins, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Within Canadian Aboriginal communities, the process for utilizing environmental health research evidence in the development of policies and programs is not well understood. This fundamental qualitative descriptive study explored the perceptions of 28 environmental health researchers, senior external decision-makers and decision-makers working within Aboriginal communities about factors influencing knowledge transfer and exchange, beliefs about research evidence and Traditional Knowledge and the preferred communication channels for disseminating and receiving evidence. The results indicate that collaborative relationships between researchers and decision-makers, initiated early and maintained throughout a research project, promote both the efficient conduct of a study and increase the likelihood of knowledge transfer and exchange. Participants identified that empirical research findings and Traditional Knowledge are different and distinct types of evidence that should be equally valued and used where possible to provide a holistic understanding of environmental issues and support decisions in Aboriginal communities. To facilitate the dissemination of research findings within Aboriginal communities, participants described the elements required for successfully crafting key messages, locating and using credible messengers to deliver the messages, strategies for using cultural brokers and identifying the communication channels commonly used to disseminate and receive this type of information. PMID:20616996

  3. Multiliteracies and Life Transitions: Language, Literacy and Numeracy Issues in Aboriginal Health Worker Training--An Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Every, Anne; Young, Metta

    The issues of language, literacy, and numeracy (LL&N) in Aboriginal health worker (AHW) training in Australia were explored to determine how these issues interrelate, overlap, and influence the types of literacy practices required in indigenous contexts. Data were collected through two workshops and formal and informal discussions with a sample of…

  4. Theoretical and practical issues in the definition of health: insights from Aboriginal Australia.

    PubMed

    Boddington, Paula; Räisänen, Ulla

    2009-02-01

    This paper discusses attempts to define health within a public policy arena and practical and conceptual difficulties that arise. An Australian Aboriginal definition of health is examined. Although there are certain difficulties of translation, this definition is prominent in current Australian health policy and discourse about health. The definition can be seen as broadly holistic in comparison to other holistic definitions such as that of the World Health Organization. The nature of this holism and its grounding within the context of Aboriginal Australia is discussed. In particular, its implications for the phenomenon of medicalization, which may be associated with a holistic notion of health, is critically explored, as is the link of notions of health to culture and the question of the possibility of a universal definition of health. The question of to what extent a definition of health is inspirational or operational is also raised. PMID:19181891

  5. Spirituality and aboriginal mental health: an examination of the relationship between Aboriginal spirituality and mental health.

    PubMed

    Hatala, Andrew R

    2008-01-01

    Previous research on Aboriginal [Native American] spirituality has demonstrated that some of its dimensions have significant, positive effects on health and healing. This review will explore and highlight some important spiritual domains and characteristics of Aboriginal life that are significant factors in both the prevention of and recovery from various mental health issues afflicting the Canadian Aboriginal population today. Findings from current research in this area is explored and presented as grounds for supporting the current objectives. As demonstrated, Aboriginal perspectives on health and healing are broader than those of biomedicine, encompassing emotional and spiritual aspects as well as the mental and physical. Mental health practitioners should, therefore, include spiritual dimensions while working with Aboriginal patients, not only to respect the patients' worldview but also for the demonstrated positive effects on healing. PMID:20664135

  6. Contextual Issues Related to Aboriginal Children's Mathematical Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Peter

    This paper focuses on contextual issues arising during an ethnographic study of mathematics instruction for Aboriginal children in New South Wales, Australia. Conversational interviews with Aboriginal children in grades 5-6, Aboriginal parents, and Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal teachers and staff identified context as 1 of 17 core categories of…

  7. Efficacy of a 3-Hour Aboriginal Health Teaching in the Medical Curriculum: Are We Changing Student Knowledge and Attitudes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Alysia W.; Boshart, Samantha; Seelisch, Jennifer; Eshaghian, Reza; McLeod, Ryan; Nisker, Jeff; Richmond, Chantelle A. M.; Howard, John M.

    2012-01-01

    There is national recognition of the need to incorporate Aboriginal health issues within the medical school curricula. This study aims to evaluate changes in medical students' knowledge and attitudes about Aboriginal health, and their preparedness to work in Aboriginal communities after attending a 3-hour Aboriginal health seminar. A…

  8. Aboriginal Self-Government in Canada: Current Trends and Issues. Purich's Aboriginal Issues Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton, John H., Ed.

    This book contains 13 chapters analyzing important practical issues that must be addressed as Aboriginal self-government becomes fully operational in Canada. These issues are related to social problems and policies, criminal justice, community services, education, employment and job training, finance, the land base of government, women's rights…

  9. Aboriginal health promotion through addressing employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered. PMID:25155236

  10. Treatment Issues for Aboriginal Mothers with Substance Use Problems and Their Children

    PubMed Central

    Niccols, Allison; Dell, Colleen Anne; Clarke, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    In many cultures, approximately one third of people with drug dependence are women of child-bearing age. Substance use among pregnant and parenting women is a major public health concern. Aboriginal people have some of the highest rates of substance abuse in Canada, increasing concern for detrimental health impacts, including those for women and their children. For many women, substance abuse offers a means of coping with trauma, such as childhood abuse, partner violence, and, for Aboriginal women, the intergenerational effects of colonization. In this paper, we review treatment issues for Aboriginal mothers with substance use problems and their children. We discuss gender-specific issues in substance abuse, the need for women-specific treatment, the impact of substance abuse on children and parenting, the additional risks for Aboriginal women and children, and the need for integrated programs (those that integrate pregnancy-, parenting-, and child-related services with women-specific addiction treatment). We describe New Choices as an example of an integrated program, review research on existing treatment for Aboriginal mothers with substance use issues, and describe Sheway as a promising integrated program for Aboriginal women with substance abuse issues and their young children. There are few treatment programs specifically for Aboriginal mothers with substance use issues and their children and very little research on their effectiveness. Based on our review of existing evidence, we offer recommendations for future research and practice. PMID:24976814

  11. Development of oral health training for rural and remote aboriginal health workers.

    PubMed

    Pacza, T; Steele, L; Tennant, M

    2001-06-01

    Research data exists that highlight the discrepancy between the medical/dental status experienced by Aboriginal people compared with that of their non-Aboriginal counterparts. This, coupled with a health system that Aboriginal people often find alienating and difficult to access, further exacerbates the many health problems they face. Poor oral health and hygiene is an issue often overlooked that can significantly impact on a person's quality of life. In areas where Aboriginal people find access to health services difficult, the implementation of culturally acceptable forms of primary health care confers significant benefits. The Aboriginal community has seen that the employment and training of Aboriginal health workers (AHW), particularly in rural and remote regions, is significantly beneficial in improving general health. In the present study, an oral health training program was developed and trialled. This training program was tailored to the needs of rural and remote AHWs. The primary objective was to institute a culturally appropriate basic preventative oral health delivery program at a community level. It is envisaged that through this dental training program, AHWs will be encouraged to implement long-term preventive measures at a local level to improve community dental health. They will also be encouraged to pursue other oral health-care delivery programs. Additionally, it is considered that this project will serve to strengthen a trust-based relationship between Aboriginal people and the health-care profession. PMID:11421960

  12. Addressing Uncomfortable Issues: Reflexivity as a Tool for Culturally Safe Practice in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Annabelle

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognised that research with Aboriginal communities needs to be ethical, meaningful and useful, in a way that is defined by communities themselves. This article provides an example of how reflexivity, from a number of positions and paradigms, can be used to undertake such research. I used a reflexive journal to document and critically…

  13. Primary Health Networks and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health.

    PubMed

    Couzos, Sophia; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Page, Priscilla

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Government has established that the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples is a priority for the newly established 31 Primary Health Networks (PHNs). Efforts to reduce the high hospitalisation rates of Aboriginal people will require PHNs to build formal participatory structures with Aboriginal health organisations to support best practice service models. There are precedents as to how PHNs can build formal partnerships with Aboriginal community controlled health services (ACCHSs), establish an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander steering committee to guide strategic plan development, and work towards optimising comprehensive primary care. All health services within PHN boundaries can be supported to systematically and strategically improve their responsiveness to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people by assessing systems of care, adopting best practice models, embedding quality assurance activity, and participating in performance reporting. PHNs can be guided to adopt an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander-specific quality improvement framework, agree to local performance measures, review specialist and other outreach services to better integrate with primary health care, enhance the cultural competence of services, and measure and respond to progress in reducing potentially preventable hospitalisations. Through collaborations and capacity building, PHNs can transition certain health services towards greater Aboriginal community control. These proposals may assist policy makers to develop organisational performance reporting on PHN efforts to close the gap in Aboriginal health disparity. PMID:27031397

  14. Sustaining an Aboriginal mental health service partnership.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Jeffrey D; Martinez, Lee; Muyambi, Kuda; Verran, Kathy; Ryan, Bronwyn; Klee, Ruth

    2005-11-21

    The Regional Aboriginal Integrated Social and Emotional (RAISE) Wellbeing program commenced in February 2003 as an Aboriginal mental health service partnership between one Aboriginal Health Service and three mainstream services: a community mental health team, a hospital mental health liaison, and an "outback" community counselling service. A case study method was used to describe the drivers (incentives for program development), linkage processes (structures and activities through which the partnership operated), and sustainability of the program. Program drivers were longstanding problems with Aboriginal peoples' access to mental health care, policy direction favouring shared service responsibility, and a relatively small amount of new funding for mental health that allowed the program to commence. Linkage processes were the important personal relationships between key individuals. Developing the program as a part of routine practice within and across the partner organisations is now needed through formal agreements, common care-management tools, and training. The program's sustainability will depend on this development occurring, as well as better collection and use of data to communicate the value of the program and support calls for adequate recurrent funds. The development of care-management tools, training and data systems will require a longer period of start-up funding as well as some external expertise. PMID:16296956

  15. Planning, implementing, and evaluating a program to address the oral health needs of aboriginal children in port augusta, australia.

    PubMed

    Parker, E J; Misan, G; Shearer, M; Richards, L; Russell, A; Mills, H; Jamieson, L M

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1) quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2) identifying factors influencing participation, and (3) planning and establishing a program for delivery of Aboriginal children's dental services that would increase participation and adapt to community needs. In planning the program, levels of participation were quantified and key issues identified through semistructured interviews. After 3.5 years, the participation rate for dental care among the target population increased from 53 to 70 percent. Key areas were identified to encourage further improvements and ensure sustainability in Aboriginal child oral health in this regional location. PMID:22577401

  16. Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating a Program to Address the Oral Health Needs of Aboriginal Children in Port Augusta, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Parker, E. J.; Misan, G.; Shearer, M.; Richards, L.; Russell, A.; Mills, H.; Jamieson, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1) quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2) identifying factors influencing participation, and (3) planning and establishing a program for delivery of Aboriginal children's dental services that would increase participation and adapt to community needs. In planning the program, levels of participation were quantified and key issues identified through semistructured interviews. After 3.5 years, the participation rate for dental care among the target population increased from 53 to 70 percent. Key areas were identified to encourage further improvements and ensure sustainability in Aboriginal child oral health in this regional location. PMID:22577401

  17. "But My Students All Speak English": Ethical Research Issues of Aboriginal English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltse, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    In this article I explore ethical issues in relation to the topic of Aboriginal students who speak a dialect of English. Taking the form of a retrospective inquiry, I draw on data from an earlier study that examined Aboriginal English in the broader context of Aboriginal language loss and revival. Three interrelated ethical issues are discussed:…

  18. Comparison of the 1996 and 2001 census data for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal workers in health care occupations.

    PubMed

    Lecompte, Emily; Baril, Mireille

    2008-01-01

    To meet the unique health needs of Aboriginal peoples (First Nations, Inuit and Métis), it is important to increase and encourage Aboriginal representation in health care. One Federal initiative, the Aboriginal Health Human Resource Initiative (AHHRI) at Health Canada, focuses on: (1) increasing the number of Aboriginal people working in health careers; (2) adapting health care educational curricula to support the development of cultural competencies; and (3) improving the retention of health care workers in Aboriginal communities. A health care system that focuses on understanding the unique challenges, concerns, and needs of Aboriginal people can better respond to this specific population, which suffers disproportionately from ill health in comparison to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. This report examines the supply of Aboriginal health care providers in Canada, based on geographic region, area of residence, Aboriginal identity, and occupation. Findings are drawn from the 1996 and 2001 censuses from Statistics Canada. Quantitative results provide a greater understanding of labour force characteristics of First Nation, Inuit, Métis, and non-Aboriginal health providers. PMID:18447068

  19. Exploring the impact of an Aboriginal Health Worker on hospitalised Aboriginal experiences: lessons from cardiology.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kate P; Thompson, Sandra C; Smith, Julie S; Dimer, Lyn; Ali, Mohammed; Wood, Marianne M

    2009-11-01

    To enhance Aboriginal inpatient care and improve outpatient cardiac rehabilitation utilisation, a tertiary hospital in Western Australia recruited an Aboriginal Health Worker (AHW). Interviews were undertaken with the cardiology AHW, other hospital staff including another AHW, and recent Aboriginal cardiac patients to assess the impact of this position. The impact of the AHW included facilitating culturally appropriate care, bridging communication divides, reducing discharges against medical advice, providing cultural education, increasing inpatient contact time, improving follow-up practices and enhancing patient referral linkages. Challenges included poor job role definition, clinical restrictions and limitations in AHW training for hospital settings. This study demonstrates that AHWs can have significant impacts on Aboriginal cardiac inpatient experiences and outpatient care. Although this study was undertaken in cardiology, the lessons are transferable across the hospital setting. PMID:20166903

  20. The relevance of postcolonial theoretical perspectives to research in Aboriginal health.

    PubMed

    Browne, Annette J; Smye, Victoria L; Varcoe, Colleen

    2005-12-01

    The authors critically examine the relevance of postcolonial theoretical perspectives to nursing research in the area of Aboriginal health. They discuss key theoretical underpinnings of postcolonial theory, citing differences and commonalities in postcolonial theory, postcolonial indigenous thinking, and other forms of critical theory. Drawing on insights from Aboriginal scholars, they critique the relevance of postcolonial discourses to issues of concern to Aboriginal peoples, and the potential limitations of those discourses. They then consider the implications of conducting research that is informed by postcolonial perspectives. They argue that postcolonial perspectives provide direction for research with Aboriginal communities in 4 interrelated ways. These are focused on (a) issues of partnership and "voice" in the research process, (b) a commitment to engaging in praxis-oriented inquiry, (c) understanding how continuities from the past shape the present context of health and health care, and (d) the colonizing potential of research. The authors draw attention to the concept of cultural safety as an instrument for incorporating postcolonial perspectives into the realm of nursing. To illustrate applications of postcolonial theory, they give examples from recent research conducted in partnership with Aboriginal communities. Although postcolonial theories are relatively new in nursing discourses, they provide a powerful analytical framework for considering the legacy of the colonial past and the neocolonial present as the context in which health care is delivered. PMID:16541817

  1. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37–41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members’ satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. Results From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Conclusion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who

  2. Aboriginal Early Childhood Education in Canada: Issues of Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jane P.; Cottrell, Michael; Pelletier, Terrance R.; Pearce, Joseph V.

    2012-01-01

    Herein we provide a literature synthesis pertaining to the state of Aboriginal early childhood education in Canada. We identify key features of quality Aboriginal early childhood programs. The background and significance of early childhood education for Aboriginal peoples is explicated. Cultural compatibility theory is employed as the…

  3. Partnering with an Aboriginal Community for Health and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lorraine; Rukholm, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Cultural awareness is a concept that is gaining much attention in health and education settings across North America. This article describes how the concepts of cultural awareness shaped the process and the curriculum of an online health education project called Interprofessional Collaboration: Culturally-informed Aboriginal Health Care. The…

  4. Development of Oral Health Training for Rural and Remote Aboriginal Health Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacza, Tom; Steele, Lesley; Tennant, Marc

    2001-01-01

    A culturally appropriate oral health training course tailored to the needs of rural Aboriginal health workers was developed in Western Australia. The course is taught in three modules ranging from introductory material to comprehensive practical and theoretical knowledge of basic dental health care. The program encourages Aboriginal health workers…

  5. Aboriginal Health Care and Bioethics: A Reflection on the Teaching of the Seven Grandfathers.

    PubMed

    Kotalik, Jaro; Martin, Gerry

    2016-05-01

    Contemporary bioethics recognizes the importance of the culture in shaping ethical issues, yet in practice, a process for ethical analysis and decision making is rarely adjusted to the culture and ethnicity of involved parties. This is of a particular concern in a health care system that is caring for a growing Aboriginal population. We raise the possibility of constructing a bioethics grounded in traditional Aboriginal knowledge. As an example of an element of traditional knowledge that contains strong ethical guidance, we present the story of the Gifts of the Seven Grandfathers. We note a resemblance of this Ojibway teaching to virtue ethics in European traditions, but we suggest that there are also important differences in how these two traditions are currently presented. We hope that further engagement with a variety of indigenous moral teachings and traditions could improve health care involving Aboriginal patients and communities, and enrich the discipline of bioethics. PMID:27111368

  6. An ecological approach to health promotion in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Bailie, Ross; Grace, Jocelyn; Brewster, David

    2010-03-01

    Poor environmental conditions and poor child health in remote Australian Aboriginal communities are a symptom of a disjuncture in the cultures of a disadvantaged (and only relatively recently enfranchised) minority population and a proportionally large, wealthy dominant immigrant population, problematic social policies and the legacy of colonialism. Developing effective health promotion interventions in this environment is a challenge. Taking an ecological approach, the objective of this study was to identify the key social, economic, cultural and environmental factors that contribute to poor hygiene in remote Aboriginal communities, and to determine approaches that will improve hygiene and reduce the burden of infection among children. The methods included a mix of quantitative and qualitative community-based studies and literature reviews. Study findings showed that a combination of crowding, non-functioning health hardware and poor standards of personal and domestic hygiene underlie the high burden of infection experienced by children. Also, models of health promotion drawn from developed and developing countries can be adapted for use in remote Australian Aboriginal community contexts. High levels of disadvantage in relation to social determinants of health underlie the problem of poor environmental conditions and poor child health in remote Australian Aboriginal communities. Measures need to be taken to address the immediate problems that impact on children's health-for example, by ensuring the availability of functional and adequate water and sanitation facilities-but these interventions are unlikely to have a major effect unless the underlying issues are also addressed. PMID:20167824

  7. Why closing the Aboriginal health gap is so elusive.

    PubMed

    Gracey, M

    2014-11-01

    A wide gap persists between the health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians despite a recent Federal government commitment to close the gap by 2030. The complex underlying factors include socioeconomic and environmental disadvantage, inadequate education, underemployment, racial prejudice, high-risk health-related behaviours and limited access to clinical services and health promotion programmes. Over recent decades some aspects of Aboriginal health have deteriorated badly, largely from a surge in chronic 'lifestyle' diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular and kidney disorders plus the effects of tobacco smoking, alcohol and drug abuse and high rates of violence and trauma. To correct these inequities will require improving many social and environmental factors. These include education, living conditions, vocational training, employment, closer cooperation between government and non-government agencies, access to affordable and nutritious fresh food, with better access to high-quality medical treatment, health promotion and disease prevention programmes. Indigenous people must be encouraged to become more involved in activities to improve their health and have more responsibility for the decision-making processes this will entail. Governments must support these changes to help close the Aboriginal health gap. PMID:25367729

  8. Health and Quality of Life of Aboriginal Residential School Survivors, Bella Coola Valley, 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Sylvia S.; Thommasen, Harvey V.; Tallio, Bill; Zhang, William; Michalos, Alex C.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to make comparisons between Aboriginal residential school survivors' perceptions of health status and overall quality of life, and Aboriginal non-residential school attendees, as well as between non-Aboriginals. Data were obtained from thirty-three questions derived from the 2001 Determinants of Health and Quality of…

  9. The Public Health Implications of the Use and Misuse of Tobacco among the Aboriginals in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Orisatoki, Rotimi

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking among the Aboriginal populations is a major public health issue in Canada. It remains a major contributory risk factor to the poor health status as well as years of potential life lost seen among the indigenous people. The use of tobacco has a spiritual importance to the people as a means of making connection to the Creator, but unfortunately tobacco smoking has taken a recreational aspect which has little or no connection with Aboriginal spirituality. The non-traditional use of tobacco is believed by the Elders to be disrespectful to the Aboriginal culture and traditional way of life. There is an increase in rate of use of smokeless tobacco as well as smoking of tobacco among the youth with increase in percentage among females. There are socioeconomic implications as well as adverse health effects of the misuse of tobacco on the Aboriginal people that need to be addressed. The healthcare professionals have a unique role in helping patients to reduce tobacco use within the community through programs that are culturally sensitive and relevant. Successful strategies requires general support from the community and it is very important that some of that support comes from community leaders, including spiritual, professional, administrative and elected policy makers. PMID:23283033

  10. Evaluation of the first strategic plan for Aboriginal health in south western Sydney, 1993-98.

    PubMed

    Carriage, C; Harris, E; Kristensen, E

    2000-01-01

    The 1993-98 Aboriginal Health Strategic Plan for South Western Sydney represented the first partnership of its kind between an Area Health Service, local Aboriginal Health Workers and the local Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service in Australia. During 1998, an evaluation of the plan was undertaken as part of the preparation for the second Aboriginal Health Plan. Of the 45 strategies in the first plan, 38% had been fully implemented, 42% had been partly implemented, and 20% were not implemented at all. This paper discusses the importance of data collection and monitoring systems, the integration of Aboriginal health into mainstream services, the further development of Aboriginal health infrastructure, and continued leadership by senior managers. PMID:11186054

  11. Addressing HIV/AIDS among Aboriginal People using a Health Status, Health Determinants and Health Care Framework: A Literature Review and Conceptual Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nowgesic, Earl

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To describe the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among Aboriginal populations using a mixed methods approach (i.e. quantitative and qualitative methods); (2) to examine the individual-level and community-level relationships between HIV/AIDS, health determinants, and health care (e.g. diagnosis, access to treatment and health services planning); and (3) to explore innovative solutions to address HIV/AIDS among Aboriginal populations based upon research and infrastructure (e.g. partnerships, data sources and management, health indicators and culture) and policy (i.e. self-determination of Aboriginal Peoples). Methods Literature review and conceptual analysis using a health status, health determinants and health care framework. Results In comparison to non-Aboriginal persons, HIV infection is higher among Aboriginal persons, is more directly attributable to unique risk factors and socio-demographic characteristics, and yields more adverse health outcomes. Culture, poverty and self-determination are determinants of health for Aboriginal populations. Aboriginal people have inadequate primary care and, in particular, specialist care. It is necessary to include traditional Aboriginal approaches and culture when addressing Aboriginal health while understanding competing paradigms between modern medicine and Aboriginal traditions. Conclusion There is a need for self-determination of Aboriginal Peoples in order to improve the health of Aboriginal communities and those living with HIV/AIDS. Research and policy affecting Aboriginal people should be of the highest quality and based upon Aboriginal community relevance and involvement.

  12. Aboriginal Health Workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. Methods We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff) and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants) with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Results Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy level barriers. The

  13. Physical Functional Limitations among Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Older Adults: Associations with Socio-Demographic Factors and Health

    PubMed Central

    Gubhaju, Lina; Banks, Emily; MacNiven, Rona; McNamara, Bridgette J.; Joshy, Grace; Bauman, Adrian; Eades, Sandra J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Australian Aboriginal people are disproportionately affected by physical disability; the reasons for this are unclear. This study aimed to quantify associations between severe physical functional limitations and socio-demographic and health-related factors among older Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adults. Methods Questionnaire data from 1,563 Aboriginal and 226,802 non-Aboriginal participants aged ≥45 years from the Sax Institute’s 45 and Up Study (New South Wales, Australia) were used to calculate age- and sex-adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for severe limitation [MOS-PF score <60] according to socio-demographic and health-related factors. Results Overall, 26% (410/1563) of Aboriginal participants and 13% (29,569/226,802) of non-Aboriginal participants had severe limitations (aPR 2.8, 95%CI 2.5–3.0). In both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants, severe limitation was significantly associated with: being ≥70 vs <70 years old (aPRs 1.8, 1.3–2.4 and 5.3, 5.0–5.5, within Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants, respectively), none vs tertiary educational qualifications (aPRs 2.4, 1.7–3.3 and 3.1, 3.0–3.2), lower vs higher income (aPRs 6.6, 4.2–10.5 and 5.5, 5.2–5.8), current vs never-smoking (aPRs 2.0, 1.6–2.5 and 2.2, 2.1–2.3), obese vs normal weight (aPRs 1.7, 1.3–2.2 and 2.7, 2.7–2.8) and sitting for ≥7 vs <7 hours/day (aPRs 1.6, 1.2–2.0 and 1.6, 1.6–1.7). Severe limitations increased with increasing ill-health, with aPRs rising to 5–6 for ≥5 versus no chronic conditions. It was significantly higher in those with few vs many social contacts (aPRs 1.7, 1.4–2.0 and 1.4, 1.4–1.4) and with very high vs low psychological distress (aPRs 4.4, 3.6–5.4 and 5.7, 5.5–5.9). Conclusions Although the prevalence of severe physical limitation among Aboriginal people in this study is around three-fold that of non-Aboriginal people, the factors related to it are similar, indicating that Aboriginal people have higher

  14. From the community to the classroom: the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Jacklin, Kristen; Strasser, Roger; Peltier, Ian

    2014-01-01

    More undergraduate medical education programs are including curricula concerning the health, culture and history of Aboriginal people. This is in response to growing international recognition of the large divide in health status between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and the role medical education may play in achieving health equity. In this paper, we describe the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM). We describe a process for curriculum development and delivery, which includes ongoing engagement with Aboriginal communities as well as faculty expertise. Aboriginal health is delivered as a core curriculum, and learning is evaluated in summative assessments. Aboriginal health objectives are present in 4 of 5 required courses, primarily in years 1 and 2. Students attend a required 4-week Aboriginal cultural immersion placement at the end of year 1. Resources of Aboriginal knowledge are integrated into learning. In this paper, we reflect on the key challenges encountered in the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum. These include differences in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal knowledge; risk of reinforcing stereotypes in case presentations; negotiation of curricular time; and faculty readiness and development. An organizational commitment to social accountability and the resulting community engagement model have been instrumental in creating a robust, sustainable program in Aboriginal health at NOSM. PMID:25291039

  15. Community as Teacher Model: Health Profession Students Learn Cultural Safety from an Aboriginal Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Cathy C.; Godolphin, William J.; Chhina, Gagun S.; Towle, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Communication between health care professionals and Aboriginal patients is complicated by cultural differences and the enduring effects of colonization. Health care providers need better training to meet the needs of Aboriginal patients and communities. We describe the development and outcomes of a community-driven service-learning program in…

  16. Enough Bad News! Remote Social Health & Aboriginal Action in a Harsh Environment--Coober Pedy in South Australia's "Outback."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brice, G.; And Others

    This paper focuses on the complexities of health care in Coober Pedy (South Australia) and the nearby Umoona Aboriginal community, and highlights the vital role of Aboriginal health workers in the implementation of primary health care principles. The Aboriginal population in this "outback" area is characterized by considerable economic problems,…

  17. Treatment Issues for Aboriginal Mothers with Substance Use Problems and Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niccols, Alison; Dell, Colleen Anne; Clarke, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    In many cultures, approximately one third of people with drug dependence are women of child-bearing age. Substance use among pregnant and parenting women is a major public health concern. Aboriginal people have some of the highest rates of substance abuse in Canada, increasing concern for detrimental health impacts, including those for women and…

  18. Racism and Oral Health Outcomes among Pregnant Canadian Aboriginal Women.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Herenia P; Cidro, Jaime; Isaac-Mann, Sonia; Peressini, Sabrina; Maar, Marion; Schroth, Robert J; Gordon, Janet N; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Broughton, John R; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life. In the context of dental care, racism experienced by Aboriginal women can be a barrier to accessing services. Programs and policies should address racism's insidious effects on both mothers' and children's oral health outcomes. PMID:26853210

  19. Identifying Multi-Level Culturally Appropriate Smoking Cessation Strategies for Aboriginal Health Staff: A Concept Mapping Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Anna P.; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco…

  20. Addressing the realities [correction of realties] of health care in northern aboriginal communities through participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Minore, Bruce; Boone, Margaret; Katt, Mae; Kinch, Peggy; Birch, Stephen

    2004-11-01

    To address concerns about disruptions in the continuity of health care delivered to residents in three remote aboriginal communities in northern Ontario, Canada, the local health authority initiated a study in collaboration with the department of Health Canada responsible for ensuring that aboriginal reserves receive mandatory health services, and an inter-disciplinary team of researchers from two universities. The study focussed on the delivery of oncology, diabetes and mental health care, specifically, as well as systems issues such as recruitment and retention of health human resources and financial costs. The paper discusses the procedures involved, the benefits derived and the challenges encountered in doing this as a community driven participatory action research project. It also summarizes the findings that led to community formulated policy and program recommendations. PMID:15801551

  1. Historical Factors, Discrimination and Oral Health among Aboriginal Australians.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Margie; Jamieson, Lisa; Kapellas, Kostas

    2016-02-01

    Discrimination is a very real facet of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) life. Paradies has detailed the strong links between racism and chronic stress and the influence this may have on general health, confounding the pre-supposed notion that ATSI populations are more genetically predisposed to chronic diseases. For example a genetic predisposition promoting central adipose storage in populations with recent (in evolutionary terms) changes to hunter-gatherer dietary patterns is thought to contribute to the higher rates of diabetes seen in ATSI and other Native populations. This relationship, however, is far from causal in any straight-forward way. In support of the work by Paradies, research from the U.S. also shows that racism, both explicit and subtle, contributes to chronic disease and suffering among ethnic minorities. While the exploration of the perceived or self-reported racial discrimination is recent, this concept has increasing evidence to support its relationship to poor health outcomes. PMID:26853197

  2. Health inequities experienced by Aboriginal children with respiratory conditions and their parents.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Miriam; King, Malcolm; Blood, Roxanne; Letourneau, Nicole; Masuda, Jeffrey R; Anderson, Sharon; Bearskin, Lisa Bourque

    2013-09-01

    Asthma and allergies are common conditions among Aboriginal children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to assess the health and health-care inequities experienced by affected children and by their parents. Aboriginal research assistants conducted individual interviews with 46 Aboriginal children and adolescents who had asthma and/or allergies (26 First Nations, 19 Métis, 1 Inuit) and 51 parents or guardians of these children and adolescents. Followup group interviews were conducted with 16 adolescents and 25 parents/ guardians. Participants reported inadequate educational resources, environmental vulnerability, social and cultural pressures, exclusion, isolation, stigma, blame, and major support deficits. They also described barriers to health-service access, inadequate health care, disrespectful treatment and discrimination by health-care providers, and deficient health insurance. These children, adolescents, and parents recommended the establishment of culturally appropriate support and education programs delivered by Aboriginal peers and health professionals. PMID:24236369

  3. Visibility and Voice: Aboriginal People Experience Culturally Safe and Unsafe Health Care.

    PubMed

    Hole, Rachelle D; Evans, Mike; Berg, Lawrence D; Bottorff, Joan L; Dingwall, Carlene; Alexis, Carmella; Nyberg, Jessie; Smith, Michelle L

    2015-12-01

    In Canada, cultural safety (CS) is emerging as a theoretical and practice lens to orient health care services to meet the needs of Aboriginal people. Evidence suggests Aboriginal peoples' encounters with health care are commonly negative, and there is concern that these experiences can contribute to further adverse health outcomes. In this article, we report findings based on participatory action research drawing on Indigenous methods. Our project goal was to interrogate practices within one hospital to see whether and how CS for Aboriginal patients could be improved. Interviews with Aboriginal patients who had accessed hospital services were conducted, and responses were collated into narrative summaries. Using interlocking analysis, findings revealed a number of processes operating to produce adverse health outcomes. One significant outcome is the production of structural violence that reproduces experiences of institutional trauma. Positive culturally safe experiences, although less frequently reported, were described as interpersonal interactions with feelings visibility and therefore, treatment as a "human being." PMID:25583958

  4. Genomics in research and health care with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Rebekah; Nicol, Dianne; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Genomics is increasingly becoming an integral component of health research and clinical care. The perceived difficulties associated with genetic research involving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people mean that they have largely been excluded as research participants. This limits the applicability of research findings for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients. Emergent use of genomic technologies and personalised medicine therefore risk contributing to an increase in existing health disparities unless urgent action is taken. To allow the potential benefits of genomics to be more equitably distributed, and minimise potential harms, we recommend five actions: (1) ensure diversity of participants by implementing appropriate protocols at the study design stage; (2) target diseases that disproportionately affect disadvantaged groups; (3) prioritise capacity building to promote Indigenous leadership across research professions; (4) develop resources for consenting patients or participants from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds; and (5) integrate awareness of issues relating to Indigenous people into the governance structures, formal reviews, data collection protocols and analytical pipelines of health services and research projects. PMID:26507135

  5. Urban Aboriginal mobility in Canada: examining the association with health care utilization.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Marcie; Wilson, Kathi

    2012-12-01

    In recent decades, Indigenous peoples across the globe have become increasingly urbanized. Growing urbanization has been associated with high rates of geographic mobility between rural areas and cities, as well as within cities. In Canada, over 54 percent of Aboriginal peoples are urban and change their place of residence at a higher rate than the non-Aboriginal population. High rates of mobility may affect the delivery and use of health services. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between urban Aboriginal peoples' mobility and conventional (physician/nurse) as well as traditional (traditional healer) health service use in two distinct Canadian cities: Toronto and Winnipeg. Using data from Statistics Canada's 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, this analysis demonstrates that mobility is a significant predisposing correlate of health service use and that the impact of mobility on health care use varies by urban setting. In Toronto, urban newcomers were more likely to use a physician or nurse compared to long-term residents. This was in direct contrast to the effect of residency on physician and nurse use in Winnipeg. In Toronto, urban newcomers were less likely to use a traditional healer than long-term residents, indicating that traditional healing may represent an unmet health care need. The results demonstrate that distinct urban settings differentially influence patterns of health service utilization for mobile Aboriginal peoples. This has important implications for how health services are planned and delivered to urban Aboriginal movers on a local, and potentially global, scale. PMID:23078674

  6. Factors influencing health care utilisation among Aboriginal cardiac patients in central Australia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians suffer from poorer overall health compared to the general Australian population, particularly in terms of cardiovascular disease and prognosis following a cardiac event. Despite such disparities, Aboriginal Australians utilise health care services at much lower rates than the general population. Improving health care utilisation (HCU) among Aboriginal cardiac patients requires a better understanding of the factors that constrain or facilitate use. The study aimed to identify ecological factors influencing health care utilisation (HCU) for Aboriginal cardiac patients, from the time of their cardiac event to 6–12 months post-event, in central Australia. Methods This qualitative descriptive study was guided by an ecological framework. A culturally-sensitive illness narrative focusing on Aboriginal cardiac patients’ “typical” journey guided focus groups and semi-structured interviews with Aboriginal cardiac patients, non-cardiac community members, health care providers and community researchers. Analysis utilised a thematic conceptual matrix and mixed coding method. Themes were categorised into Predisposing, Enabling, Need and Reinforcing factors and identified at Individual, Interpersonal, Primary Care and Hospital System levels. Results Compelling barriers to HCU identified at the Primary Care and Hospital System levels included communication, organisation and racism. Individual level factors related to HCU included language, knowledge of illness, perceived need and past experiences. Given these individual and health system barriers patients were reliant on utilising alternate family-level supports at the Interpersonal level to enable their journey. Conclusion Aboriginal cardiac patients face significant barriers to HCU, resulting in sub-optimal quality of care, placing them at risk for subsequent cardiovascular events and negative health outcomes. To facilitate HCU amongst Aboriginal people, strategies must be implemented

  7. Picture of the health status of Aboriginal children living in an urban setting of Sydney.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Suzie; Woolfenden, Susan; Callaghan, Lola; Allende, Trudy; Winters, Jennifer; Wong, Grace; Caplice, Shea; Zwi, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The aims of the present study were to: (1) describe the health status and health indicators for urban Aboriginal children (age 0-16 years) in south-east Sydney; and (2) evaluate the quality of routinely collected clinical data and its usefulness in monitoring local progress of health outcomes. Methods Aboriginal maternal and child health routine data, from multiple databases, for individuals accessing maternal and child health services between January 2007 and December 2012 were examined and compared with state and national health indicators. Results Reductions in maternal smoking, premature delivery and low birthweight delivery rates were achieved in some years, but no consistent trends emerged. Paediatric services had increased referrals each year. The most frequent diagnoses were nutritional problems, language delay or disorder and developmental delay or learning difficulties. Twenty per cent of children had a chronic medical condition requiring long-term follow-up. Aboriginal children were more likely to be discharged from hospital against medical advice than non-Aboriginal children. Routinely collected data did not include some information essential to monitor determinants of health and health outcomes. Conclusions Aboriginal children living in this urban setting had high levels of need. Routinely recorded data were suboptimal for monitoring local health status and needed to reflect national and state health indicators. Routinely collected data can identify service gaps and guide service development. What is known about this topic? Despite improvements in some areas, there continue to be significant gaps in maternal and child health outcomes between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. These are poorly documented at a local service level. What does this paper add? Intensive, local services offered to Aboriginal women and children can result in rapid service engagement. Health service data routinely collected by local services can be used to

  8. Mental health and Victorian Aboriginal people: what can data mining tell us?

    PubMed

    Adams, Karen; Halacas, Chris; Cincotta, Marion; Pesich, Corina

    2014-01-01

    Nationally, Aboriginal people experience high levels of psychological distress, primarily due to trauma from colonisation. In Victoria, Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations (ACCHOs) provide many services to support mental health. The aim of the present study was to improve understanding about Victorian Aboriginal people and mental health service patterns. We located four mental health administrative datasets to analyse descriptively, including Practice Health Atlas, Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Service (AODTS), Kids Helpline and Close The Gap Pharmaceutical Scheme data. A large proportion of the local Aboriginal population (70%) were regular ACCHO clients; of these, 21% had a mental health diagnosis and, of these, 23% had a Medicare Mental Health Care Plan (MHCP). There were higher rates of Medicare MHCP completion rates where general practitioners (GPs) had mental health training and the local Area Mental Health Service had a Koori Mental Health Liaison Officer. There was an over-representation of AODTS episodes, and referrals for these episodes were more likely to come through community, corrections and justice services than for non-Aboriginal people. Aboriginal episodes were less likely to have been referred by a GP or police and less likely to have been referrals to community-based or home-based treatment. There was an over-representation of Victorian Aboriginal calls to Kids Helpline, and these were frequently for suicide and self-harm reasons. We recommend primary care mental health programs include quality audits, GP training, non-pharmaceutical options and partnerships. Access to appropriate AODTS is needed, particularly given links to high incarcerations rates. To ensure access to mental health services, improved understanding of mental health service participation and outcomes, including suicide prevention services for young people, is needed. PMID:25053190

  9. Understanding inequalities in access to health care services for aboriginal people: a call for nursing action.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Brenda L; Carmargo Plazas, Maria Del Pilar; Salas, Anna Santos; Bourque Bearskin, R Lisa; Hungler, Krista

    2014-01-01

    We present findings from an Access Research Initiative to reduce health disparities and promote equitable access with Aboriginal peoples in Canada. We employed Indigenous, interpretive, and participatory research methodologies in partnership with Aboriginal people. Participants reported stories of bullying, fear, intimidation, and lack of cultural understanding. This research reveals the urgent need to enhance the delivery of culturally appropriate practices in emergency. As nurses, if we wish to affect equity of access, then attention is required to structural injustices that act as barriers to access such as addressing the stigma, stereotyping, and discrimination experienced by Aboriginal people in this study. PMID:25102218

  10. Establishing health-promoting workplaces in Aboriginal community organisations: healthy eating policies.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Catherine; Genat, Bill; Thorpe, Sharon; Browne, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Aboriginal community controlled health organisations (ACCHOs) and cooperatives function at the centre of community life for local Aboriginal people across Victoria. Local Aboriginal people govern them, work within them as managers and service providers, access health and community services from them and form the constituents who determine their directions. Victorian ACCHOs reflect the unique characteristics of the local Aboriginal community. Thus, potentially, Victorian ACCHOs are key strategic sites for health promotion activities that seek to establish and nurture healthy community, family and peer norms. The Victorian Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation (VACCHO) partnered five metropolitan, regional and rural ACCHOs in a pilot project towards the establishment of healthy food policies and practices in their organisations. Project activities combined both 'top-down' policy-oriented and 'bottom-up' practice-oriented strategies. This paper, drawing upon both baseline and follow-up quantitative and qualitative data, describes initiatives leading to increases in healthy catering choices and related challenges for Aboriginal workplace health promotion practice. PMID:25720592

  11. Maternal health, breast-feeding and infant nutrition in Australian aborigines.

    PubMed

    Gracey, M

    1989-08-01

    Undernutrition is widespread in Australian Aboriginal infants and children and is associated with high rates of infections, particularly of the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Maternal ill-health and undernutrition seem to be neglected factors which contribute to the high incidence of low birthweight in Aboriginal babies and to their poor growth in the first five years of life. More effective preventive programmes are needed to help overcome these problems. PMID:2514558

  12. Overseas-trained doctors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health services: many unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Arkles, Rachelle S; Hill, Peter S; Pulver, Lisa R Jackson

    2007-05-21

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health services are heavily dependent on overseas-trained doctors (OTDs). These OTDs are increasingly from countries with variable English language and educational equivalency compared with locally trained doctors. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health services create particular demands for all doctors, such as negotiating "cultural domains" and acknowledging the contribution of Aboriginal health workers. Little is known about the roles and experience of OTDs in health service provision in Indigenous communities. Barriers to effective research into the experience of OTDs include privacy legislation and a lack of standardised data. Researching the narratives of OTDs in Indigenous health services offers an opportunity to explore the diversity and complexity of the cultural interfaces in health service provision. PMID:17516902

  13. Does more equitable governance lead to more equitable health care? A case study based on the implementation of health reform in Aboriginal health Australia.

    PubMed

    Kelaher, Margaret; Sabanovic, Hana; La Brooy, Camille; Lock, Mark; Lusher, Dean; Brown, Larry

    2014-12-01

    There is growing evidence that providing increased voice to vulnerable or disenfranchised populations is important to improving health equity. In this paper we will examine the engagement of Aboriginal community members and community controlled organisations in local governance reforms associated with the Aboriginal Health National Partnership Agreements (AHNPA) in Australia and its impact on the uptake of health assessments. The sample included qualitative and quantitative responses from 188 people involved in regional governance in Aboriginal health. The study included data on the uptake of Aboriginal health assessments from July 2008 to December 2012. The study population was 83190 in 2008/9, 856986 in 2009/10, 88256 in 2010/11 and 90903 in 2011/12. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between organisations within forums and the regional uptake of Aboriginal health assessments. The independent variables included before and after the AHNPA, state, remoteness, level of representation from Aboriginal organisations and links between Aboriginal and mainstream organisations. The introduction of the AHNPA was associated with a shift in power from central government to regional forums. This shift has enabled Aboriginal people a much greater voice in governance. The results of the analyses show that improvements in the uptake of health assessments were associated with stronger links between Aboriginal organisations and between mainstream organisations working with Aboriginal organisations. Higher levels of community representation were also associated with improved uptake of health assessments in the AHNPA. The findings suggest that the incorporation of Aboriginal community and community controlled organisations in regional planning plays an important role in improving health equity. This study makes an important contribution to understanding the processes through which the incorporation of disadvantaged groups into governance might contribute to

  14. Aboriginal Australians' experience of social capital and its relevance to health and wellbeing in urban settings.

    PubMed

    Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran; Gallaher, Gilbert

    2013-11-01

    Social capital has been linked to physical and mental health. While definitions of social capital vary, all include networks of social relationships and refer to the subsequent benefits and disadvantages accrued to members. Research on social capital for Aboriginal Australians has mainly focused on discrete rural and remote Aboriginal contexts with less known about the features and health and other benefits of social capital in urban settings. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 153 Aboriginal people living in urban areas on their experiences of social capital. Of particular interest was how engagement in bonding and bridging networks influenced health and wellbeing. Employing Bourdieu's relational theory of capital where resources are unequally distributed and reproduced in society we found that patterns of social capital are strongly associated with economic, social and cultural position which in turn reflects the historical experiences of dispossession and disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal Australians. Social capital was also found to both reinforce and influence Aboriginal cultural identity, and had both positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing. PMID:24161085

  15. Setting and meeting priorities in Indigenous health research in Australia and its application in the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Priority setting is about making decisions. Key issues faced during priority setting processes include identifying who makes these decisions, who sets the criteria, and who benefits. The paper reviews the literature and history around priority setting in research, particularly in Aboriginal health research. We explore these issues through a case study of the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health (CRCAH)'s experience in setting and meeting priorities. Historically, researchers have made decisions about what research gets done. Pressures of growing competition for research funds and an increased public interest in research have led to demands that appropriate consultation with stakeholders is conducted and that research is of benefit to the wider society. Within Australian Aboriginal communities, these demands extend to Aboriginal control of research to ensure that Aboriginal priorities are met. In response to these demands, research priorities are usually agreed in consultation with stakeholders at an institutional level and researchers are asked to develop relevant proposals at a project level. The CRCAH's experience in funding rounds was that scientific merit was given more weight than stakeholders' priorities and did not necessarily result in research that met these priorities. After reviewing these processes in 2004, the CRCAH identified a new facilitated development approach. In this revised approach, the setting of institutional priorities is integrated with the development of projects in a way that ensures the research reflects stakeholder priorities. This process puts emphasis on identifying projects that reflect priorities prior to developing the quality of the research, rather than assessing the relevance to priorities and quality concurrently. Part of the CRCAH approach is the employment of Program Managers who ensure that stakeholder priorities are met in the development of research projects. This has enabled researchers and stakeholders to

  16. Culturally Competent Service Provision Issues Experienced By Aboriginal People Living With HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Kevin; Loppie, Charlotte; Jackson, Randy; Akan, Margaret; MacLean, Lynne; Reimer, Gwen

    2010-01-01

    Cultural identity is an important factor in how well Aboriginal people respond to HIV/AIDS prevention or, once diagnosed with HIV or AIDS, how it affects their health care. This study explores the cultural skills among service providers who see Aboriginal people living with HIV/AIDS (APHAs) and the perspectives of APHAs. The purpose is to better understand the wellness needs of APHAs and how culturally competent care affects health service access and use. Data collection included face-to-face semi-structured interviews with APHAs and focus groups/interviews with community-based and primary health professionals in five regions of Canada. Interviews and focus groups were voice-recorded, verbatim transcribed, and coded using Atlas.ti® software. Thirty-five APHAs and fifty-two service providers were reached. Two key themes were noticed: Active addictions are a major obstacle to adherence to HIV drug regimes. Half of APHA participants said addictions are a major factor. A similar portion noted intensified substance use was an initial coping strategy when diagnosed. A slightly smaller portion noted that addictions were dealt with soon after diagnosis in order to begin antiretroviral treatment. Service providers who inform, encourage, and support APHAs’ choices are viewed as “culturally competent.”Addictions and HIV must be “treated together,” reflecting a holistic worldview of Aboriginal people. Programs that integrate addiction treatment with HIV/AIDS and service providers who encourage and support APHA’s choices are viewed as “wise practice” models by both sets of study participants offering some convergence and a set of five wise practices are identified. PMID:20835301

  17. The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH): a long-term platform for closing the gap.

    PubMed

    Wright, Darryl; Gordon, Raylene; Carr, Darren; Craig, Jonathan C; Banks, Emily; Muthayya, Sumithra; Wutzke, Sonia; Eades, Sandra J; Redman, Sally

    2016-01-01

    The full potential for research to improve Aboriginal health has not yet been realised. This paper describes an established long-term action partnership between Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs), the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council of New South Wales (AH&MRC), researchers and the Sax Institute, which is committed to using high-quality data to bring about health improvements through better services, policies and programs. The ACCHSs, in particular, have ensured that the driving purpose of the research conducted is to stimulate action to improve health for urban Aboriginal children and their families. This partnership established a cohort study of 1600 urban Aboriginal children and their caregivers, known as SEARCH (the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health), which is now having significant impacts on health, services and programs for urban Aboriginal children and their families. This paper describes some examples of the impacts of SEARCH, and reflects on the ways of working that have enabled these changes to occur, such as strong governance, a focus on improved health, AH&MRC and ACCHS leadership, and strategies to support the ACCHS use of data and to build Aboriginal capacity. PMID:27421347

  18. Anaesthesia for aboriginal Australians.

    PubMed

    Howe, P W; Condon, J R; Goodchild, C S

    1998-02-01

    This prospective study was designed to describe problems that arise when Aboriginal people undergo anaesthesia, in order to develop guidelines for anaesthetists who are not accustomed to treating Aboriginal people. Data were collected on 1122 consecutive different individuals undergoing anaesthesia at Royal Darwin Hospital, 24.5% of whom described themselves as Aboriginal. Aboriginal patients were in a poorer physiological state than were non-Aboriginal patients. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus, renal disease and rheumatic heart disease reported in Aboriginal patients was very high. Communication difficulties were more commonly reported in Aboriginal patients; the most common difficulty was apparent shyness or fear, rather than actual language difficulty. The results suggest that the treatment of Aboriginal people involves diagnosis and management of diverse preoperative medical problems, and that better management may be achieved by learning simple cultural strategies and by adding Aboriginal interpreters and health workers to the anaesthetic team. PMID:9513674

  19. Acceptability of Mental Health Apps for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Patj Patj Janama Robert; Dingwall, Kylie Maree; Lowell, Anne; Singer, Judy; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience high rates of mental illness and psychological distress compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. E-mental health tools offer an opportunity for accessible, effective, and acceptable treatment. The AIMhi Stay Strong app and the ibobbly suicide prevention app are treatment tools designed to combat the disproportionately high levels of mental illness and stress experienced within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. Objective This study aimed to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members’ experiences of using two culturally responsive e-mental health apps and identify factors that influence the acceptability of these approaches. Methods Using qualitative methods aligned with a phenomenological approach, we explored the acceptability of two culturally responsive e-mental health apps through a series of three 3-hour focus groups with nine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members. Thematic analysis was conducted and coresearcher and member checking were used to verify findings. Results Findings suggest strong support for the concept of e-mental health apps and optimism for their potential. Factors that influenced acceptability related to three key themes: personal factors (eg, motivation, severity and awareness of illness, technological competence, and literacy and language differences), environmental factors (eg, community awareness, stigma, and availability of support), and app characteristics (eg, ease of use, content, graphics, access, and security and information sharing). Specific adaptations, such as local production, culturally relevant content and graphics, a purposeful journey, clear navigation, meaningful language, options to assist people with language differences, offline use, and password protection may aid uptake. Conclusions When designed to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, e-mental health

  20. Developing Future Health Professionals' Capacities for Working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrick, Antonia; Britton, Katherine Frances; Hoffman, Julie; Kickett, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This article details reflections of an interdisciplinary team of educators working with groups of health sciences students in preparing them for working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The first-year common core unit discussed here is one attempt to equip future health practitioners with skills and knowledges to work adequately…

  1. The photovoice method: researching the experiences of Aboriginal health workers through photographs.

    PubMed

    Wilkin, Alice; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the methodological framework and perspectives that were used in a larger study aiming at examining the experience of working life among female Aboriginal health care workers. Currently, the voice of Aboriginal women who work in the Australian health system has not received much attention. In comparison to other occupations and backgrounds, there is virtually no literature on Aboriginal woman health care workers despite 15% of health care and social service industry employees in Australia being Aboriginal. In this study, we selected female participants because of the fact that of these 15% of health workers in the Victorian health system, 76% of them are women. This paper outlines some of the barriers in researching Indigenous communities. These barriers were overcome in this study by framing the research in feminist theory, decolonising theory, empowerment and by employing the photovoice method. The photovoice method was used because it is relatively unobtrusive and has the capacity to be empowering. All data was extrapolated from the participants' own narratives that were prompted by the photographs they had taken. The data produced were rich descriptions and narratives that were oral as well as visual. Finally, the article discusses the experience of using the photovoice method from the researcher and participants' perspective. PMID:20815993

  2. Establishing a Community-Controlled Multi-Institutional Centre for Clinical Research Excellence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Leilani; Fredericks, Bronwyn

    2007-01-01

    The Queensland Aboriginal and Islander Health Council (QAIHC) lead and govern the Centre for Clinical Research Excellence (CCRE), which has a focus on circulatory and associated conditions in urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. The CCRE is a partnership between QAIHC and Monash University, the Queensland University of…

  3. Yarning about health checks: barriers and enablers in an urban Aboriginal medical service.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Warren; Spurling, Geoffrey K; Askew, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    The annual health check for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People has been welcomed as a means of conducting a comprehensive assessment to address preventive health care delivery, identify new diagnoses and initiate new treatments. Rates of health check uptake across Australia have been poor with less than 12% of the eligible population receiving one during 2009/10. This qualitative study sought to identify barriers and enablers to undertaking health checks in an urban Aboriginal Medical Service through semistructured interviews with 25 clinical staff (doctors, nurses and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers). Clinical systems for conducting health checks were unclear to staff, with barriers relating to time pressures for both patients and clinic staff, and lack of clarity about staff responsibilities for initiating and conducting the health check. Additionally some staff perceived some content as sensitive, invasive, culturally inappropriate and of questionable value. Other barriers included concerns about community health literacy, disengagement with preventative health care, and suspicion about confidentiality and privacy. The development of clear service-wide systems that support the conduct of health checks are required to increase uptake, combined with supportive local clinical leadership and audit and feedback systems. Staff training, consideration of culture and roles, and critical review of health check content may improve staff confidence and community acceptance. Community-based health education and promotion is strongly supported by staff to increase client engagement, knowledge and acceptance of the health check. PMID:23552601

  4. Innovations on a shoestring: a study of a collaborative community-based Aboriginal mental health service model in rural Canada

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Collaborative, culturally safe services that integrate clinical approaches with traditional Aboriginal healing have been hailed as promising approaches to ameliorate the high rates of mental health problems in Aboriginal communities in Canada. Overcoming significant financial and human resources barriers, a mental health team in northern Ontario is beginning to realize this ideal. We studied the strategies, strengths and challenges related to collaborative Aboriginal mental health care. Methods A participatory action research approach was employed to evaluate the Knaw Chi Ge Win services and their place in the broader mental health system. Qualitative methods were used as the primary source of data collection and included document review, ethnographic interviews with 15 providers and 23 clients; and 3 focus groups with community workers and managers. Results The Knaw Chi Ge Win model is an innovative, community-based Aboriginal mental health care model that has led to various improvements in care in a challenging rural, high needs environment. Formal opportunities to share information, shared protocols and ongoing education support this model of collaborative care. Positive outcomes associated with this model include improved quality of care, cultural safety, and integration of traditional Aboriginal healing with clinical approaches. Ongoing challenges include chronic lack of resources, health information and the still cursory understanding of Aboriginal healing and outcomes. Conclusions This model can serve to inform collaborative care in other rural and Indigenous mental health systems. Further research into traditional Aboriginal approaches to mental health is needed to continue advances in collaborative practice in a clinical setting. PMID:20017919

  5. The perspectives of Aboriginal patients and their health care providers on improving the quality of hemodialysis services: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease has a higher prevalence in Indigenous populations globally. The incidence of end-stage kidney disease in Australian Aboriginal people is eight times higher than non-Aboriginal Australians. Providing services to rural and remote Aboriginal people with chronic disease is challenging because of access and cultural differences. This study aims to describe and analyze the perspectives of Aboriginal patients' and health care providers' experience of renal services, to inform service improvement for rural Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. We conducted a thematic analysis of interviews with Aboriginal patients (n = 18) receiving hemodialysis in rural Australia and health care providers involved in their care (n = 29). An overarching theme of avoiding the “costly” crisis encompassed four subthemes: (1) Engaging patients earlier (prevent late diagnosis, slow disease progression); (2) flexible family-focused care (early engagement of family, flexibility to facilitate family and cultural obligations); (3) managing fear of mainstream services (originating in family dialysis experiences and previous racism when engaging with government organizations); (4) service provision shaped by culture (increased home dialysis, Aboriginal support and Aboriginal-led cultural education). Patients and health care providers believe service redesign is required to meet the needs of Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. Participants identified early screening and improving the relationship of Aboriginal people with health systems would reduce crisis entry to hemodialysis. These strategies alongside improving the cultural competence of staff would reduce patients' fear of mainstream services, decrease the current emotional and family costs of care, and increase efficiency of health expenditure on a challenging and increasingly unsustainable treatment system. PMID:25056441

  6. The perspectives of Aboriginal patients and their health care providers on improving the quality of hemodialysis services: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease has a higher prevalence in Indigenous populations globally. The incidence of end-stage kidney disease in Australian Aboriginal people is eight times higher than non-Aboriginal Australians. Providing services to rural and remote Aboriginal people with chronic disease is challenging because of access and cultural differences. This study aims to describe and analyze the perspectives of Aboriginal patients' and health care providers' experience of renal services, to inform service improvement for rural Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. We conducted a thematic analysis of interviews with Aboriginal patients (n = 18) receiving hemodialysis in rural Australia and health care providers involved in their care (n = 29). An overarching theme of avoiding the "costly" crisis encompassed four subthemes: (1) Engaging patients earlier (prevent late diagnosis, slow disease progression); (2) flexible family-focused care (early engagement of family, flexibility to facilitate family and cultural obligations); (3) managing fear of mainstream services (originating in family dialysis experiences and previous racism when engaging with government organizations); (4) service provision shaped by culture (increased home dialysis, Aboriginal support and Aboriginal-led cultural education). Patients and health care providers believe service redesign is required to meet the needs of Aboriginal hemodialysis patients. Participants identified early screening and improving the relationship of Aboriginal people with health systems would reduce crisis entry to hemodialysis. These strategies alongside improving the cultural competence of staff would reduce patients' fear of mainstream services, decrease the current emotional and family costs of care, and increase efficiency of health expenditure on a challenging and increasingly unsustainable treatment system. PMID:25056441

  7. [Health system and aboriginal communities in the province of Formosa, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Mirassou, Cristina S

    2013-01-01

    The author comments her experience in the practice of medicine and public health among aborigines in Formosa, a long neglected province in northeast Argentina. Her experience goes through a span of 34 years, 11 in a small community in a far off region. The province has 530162 inhabitants, 43358 (6.5%) aborigines of the Wichí, Qom, and Pilagá ethnicities. Some particular public health problems of these aborigines are due to the great distance between communities and the regular medical assistance while others are related to cultural differences. The situation has gradually improved in the last 30 years due to government awareness in providing easy and close access to medical care, making the most of the abilities of local aborigines midwifes, teaching health assistants and conventional measures. The most apparent results are the decrease in infant mortality rates and the lower incidence of tuberculosis, with no deaths due to tuberculous meningitis since 1999. No less important was the opening of new opportunities for education and the teaching of both native and Spanish language in the schools retaining local customs. The changes have brought about new risks and challenges such as: traffic accidents involving youngsters riding motorcycles, alcoholism, obesity, diabetes (undiagnosed beforehand), high rate of adolescence pregnancy, and crisis of leadership within the communities. PMID:24152404

  8. Health literacy in relation to cancer: addressing the silence about and absence of cancer discussion among Aboriginal people, communities and health services.

    PubMed

    Treloar, Carla; Gray, Rebecca; Brener, Loren; Jackson, Clair; Saunders, Veronica; Johnson, Priscilla; Harris, Magdalena; Butow, Phyllis; Newman, Christy

    2013-11-01

    Cancer outcomes for Aboriginal Australians are poorer when compared with cancer outcomes for non-Aboriginal Australians despite overall improvements in cancer outcomes. One concept used to examine inequities in health outcomes between groups is health literacy. Recent research and advocacy have pointed to the importance of increasing health literacy as it relates to cancer among Aboriginal people. This study examined individual, social and cultural aspects of health literacy relevant to cancer among Aboriginal patients, carers and their health workers in New South Wales. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 Aboriginal people who had been diagnosed with cancer, 18 people who were carers of Aboriginal people with cancer and 16 healthcare workers (eight Aboriginal and eight non-Aboriginal health workers). Awareness, knowledge and experience of cancer were largely absent from people's lives and experiences until they were diagnosed, illustrating the need for cancer awareness raising among Aboriginal people, communities and services. Some beliefs about cancer (particularly equating cancer to death) differed from mainstream Western biomedical views of the body and cancer and this served to silence discussion on cancer. As such, these beliefs can be used to inform communication and help illuminate how beliefs can shape responses to cancer. Participants proposed some practical strategies that could work to fill absences in knowledge and build on beliefs about cancer. These results were characterised by a silence about cancer, an absence of discussions of cancer and an acknowledgement of an already full health agenda for Aboriginal communities. To promote health literacy in relation to cancer would require a multi-layered programme of work involving grass-roots community education, workers and Board members of Aboriginal community-controlled health organisations and speciality cancer services, with a particular focus on programmes to bridge community-based primary

  9. Relationships between Psychosocial Resilience and Physical Health Status of Western Australian Urban Aboriginal Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Katrina D.; Shepherd, Carrington C. J.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychosocial processes are implicated as mediators of racial/ethnic health disparities via dysregulation of physiological responses to stress. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which factors previously documented as buffering the impact of high-risk family environments on Aboriginal youths’ psychosocial functioning were similarly beneficial for their physical health status. Method and Results We examined the relationship between psychosocial resilience and physical health of urban Aboriginal youth (12–17 years, n = 677) drawn from a representative survey of Western Australian Aboriginal children and their families. A composite variable of psychosocial resilient status, derived by cross-classifying youth by high/low family risk exposure and normal/abnormal psychosocial functioning, resulted in four groups- Resilient, Less Resilient, Expected Good and Vulnerable. Separate logistic regression modeling for high and low risk exposed youth revealed that Resilient youth were significantly more likely to have lower self-reported asthma symptoms (OR 3.48, p<.001) and carer reported lifetime health problems (OR 1.76, p<.04) than Less Resilient youth. Conclusion The findings are consistent with biopsychosocial models and provide a more nuanced understanding of the patterns of risks, resources and adaptation that impact on the physical health of Aboriginal youth. The results support the posited biological pathways between chronic stress and physical health, and identify the protective role of social connections impacting not only psychosocial function but also physical health. Using a resilience framework may identify potent protective factors otherwise undetected in aggregated analyses, offering important insights to augment general public health prevention strategies. PMID:26716829

  10. Reference genotype and exome data from an Australian Aboriginal population for health-based research

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Dave; Anderson, Denise; Francis, Richard W.; Syn, Genevieve; Jamieson, Sarra E.; Lassmann, Timo; Blackwell, Jenefer M.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic analyses, including genome-wide association studies and whole exome sequencing (WES), provide powerful tools for the analysis of complex and rare genetic diseases. To date there are no reference data for Aboriginal Australians to underpin the translation of health-based genomic research. Here we provide a catalogue of variants called after sequencing the exomes of 72 Aboriginal individuals to a depth of 20X coverage in ∼80% of the sequenced nucleotides. We determined 320,976 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and 47,313 insertions/deletions using the Genome Analysis Toolkit. We had previously genotyped a subset of the Aboriginal individuals (70/72) using the Illumina Omni2.5 BeadChip platform and found ~99% concordance at overlapping sites, which suggests high quality genotyping. Finally, we compared our SNVs to six publicly available variant databases, such as dbSNP and the Exome Sequencing Project, and 70,115 of our SNVs did not overlap any of the single nucleotide polymorphic sites in all the databases. Our data set provides a useful reference point for genomic studies on Aboriginal Australians. PMID:27070114

  11. Reference genotype and exome data from an Australian Aboriginal population for health-based research.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dave; Anderson, Denise; Francis, Richard W; Syn, Genevieve; Jamieson, Sarra E; Lassmann, Timo; Blackwell, Jenefer M

    2016-01-01

    Genetic analyses, including genome-wide association studies and whole exome sequencing (WES), provide powerful tools for the analysis of complex and rare genetic diseases. To date there are no reference data for Aboriginal Australians to underpin the translation of health-based genomic research. Here we provide a catalogue of variants called after sequencing the exomes of 72 Aboriginal individuals to a depth of 20X coverage in ∼80% of the sequenced nucleotides. We determined 320,976 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and 47,313 insertions/deletions using the Genome Analysis Toolkit. We had previously genotyped a subset of the Aboriginal individuals (70/72) using the Illumina Omni2.5 BeadChip platform and found ~99% concordance at overlapping sites, which suggests high quality genotyping. Finally, we compared our SNVs to six publicly available variant databases, such as dbSNP and the Exome Sequencing Project, and 70,115 of our SNVs did not overlap any of the single nucleotide polymorphic sites in all the databases. Our data set provides a useful reference point for genomic studies on Aboriginal Australians. PMID:27070114

  12. Mental Health Issues

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peggy A.

    2004-01-01

    The following overview discusses and compares the findings and implications of the articles in this issue of the Health Care Financing Review that deal with mental health topics—particularly children's mental health— in the Medicaid context. It also briefly describes articles concerning prospective payments for psychiatric patients under Medicare. PMID:25372025

  13. Prevalence of overweight and obesity and its associated factors in aboriginal Taiwanese: findings from the 2001 National Health Interview Survey in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ching-Sung; Tsai, Alan C

    2007-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of obesity in Taiwanese aborigines and to identify the associated factors. Data for this study were from the "2001 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)" that conducted in-home, face-to-face, interviews on 6,592 households (26,658 persons) of a national probability sample in Taiwan. Aborigine-dense mountainous areas are over-sampled. BMI values were used to indicate obesity status. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the significance of the association of the variables with the obesity status. Results showed that approximately 10.5% of aboriginal men and 14.5% of women compared to 4.1% and 3.5% of their non-aboriginal counterparts were obese (BMI > 30). An additional 45.1% of aboriginal men and 33.3% of women compared to 27.6% and 17.7% of their non-aboriginal counterparts were overweight (BMI 25-30). Regression analyses revealed few associations with increased risk of obesity in the aborigines. However, the aborigines and non-aborigines were distinctly different from each other in socio-economic status, lifestyle, environmental factors and attitude toward obesity. Results indicate that obesity is more prevalent among the aborigines but the causal reasons are not apparent. The public health authorities should develop more culturally appropriate community-based intervention strategies to promote the health of the aborigines. PMID:17704040

  14. Determinants of diet for urban aboriginal youth: implications for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Kerpan, Serene T; Humbert, M Louise; Henry, Carol J

    2015-05-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with several life-threating comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Obesity is a growing health concern in North America, with some groups experiencing higher levels of obesity than others. One group of particular interest is urban Aboriginal youth because they are a quickly growing population who experience high rates of obesity. Obesity is a complex condition with many contributing factors, diet being one of the primary contributors. In this article, we discuss the findings from an ethnographic study that examined determinants of diet for urban Aboriginal youth. Results revealed two themes: (a) Traditions and Sharing, and (b) The Struggle. The findings with Traditions and Sharing showed that food-sharing networks are often used to acquire traditional food. Traditional foods were believed to be healthy and desired by the participants. The theme The Struggle provides insight into the daily challenges the participants faced with food insecurity. Health promotion professionals need to consider the multiplicity of determinants of diet for urban Aboriginal youth in order to plan and implement culturally appropriate health promotion programs. PMID:25384578

  15. Issues in the North, Volume I. Occasional Publication No. 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Jill, Ed.; Riewe, Rick, Ed.

    This book includes 26 papers from a lecture series exploring issues in the lives of northern and Aboriginal Canadian peoples. The seven sections address health and healing issues from Aboriginal and Western perspectives, the need to incorporate traditional Aboriginal ways of learning into the dominant educational system, evolving northern research…

  16. Successful Transition to School for Australian Aboriginal Children: The 2005 International Focus Issue of Childhood Education Focused on the Education of Aboriginal and Indigenous Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockett, Sue; Mason, Terry; Perry, Bob

    2006-01-01

    Aboriginal people have been described as the most educationally disadvantaged group of people within Australia. Their participation rates at all levels of education are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. In an effort to enhance the learning and teaching of Aboriginal students, education systems are seeking appropriate strategies and…

  17. Nutrition and health (1948) of Aborigines in settlements in Arnhem Land, northern Australia.

    PubMed

    McArthur, M; Billington, B P; Hodges, K T; Specht, R L

    2000-09-01

    During the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land in 1948, a nutritionist (Margaret McArthur), a medical officer (Brian Billington), a biochemist (Kelvin Hodges) and also the 'flying dentist' (John Moody) observed the nutrition and health of Aborigines in the settlements on Groote Eylandt, at Yirrkala and at Oenpelli, Northern Territory. The results of their research were published in the Records of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land Volume 2 Anthropology and Nutrition. (Melbourne University Press, 1960). Although seasonal and regional variations in food supply were a constant problem for nomadic Aborigines living on 'bush tucker' gathered from marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, the variety of food provided a well-balanced diet according to the international recommendations of 1948. In contrast, improvements in the 1948 diet of Aborigines in the settlements were strongly recommended. 1 An increase in the quantity of food given to older children and adolescents. 2 Regular distribution of fresh fruit and vegetables throughout the year from settlement gardens. 3 Regular supplies of fish, meat and other animal products, particularly for children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating mothers. 4 Increased production of milk and greater care in its handling. 5 Greater use of whole grain cereals in preference to refined products. PMID:24394450

  18. A mental health first aid training program for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: description and initial evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kanowski, Len G; Jorm, Anthony F; Hart, Laura M

    2009-01-01

    Background Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training was developed in Australia to teach members of the public how to give initial help to someone developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis situation. However, this type of training requires adaptation for specific cultural groups in the community. This paper describes the adaptation of the program to create an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health First Aid (AMHFA) course and presents an initial evaluation of its uptake and acceptability. Methods To evaluate the program, two types of data were collected: (1) quantitative data on uptake of the course (number of Instructors trained and courses subsequently run by these Instructors); (2) qualitative data on strengths, weaknesses and recommendations for the future derived from interviews with program staff and focus groups with Instructors and community participants. Results 199 Aboriginal people were trained as Instructors in a five day Instructor Training Course. With sufficient time following training, the majority of these Instructors subsequently ran 14-hour AMHFA courses for Aboriginal people in their community. Instructors were more likely to run courses if they had prior teaching experience and if there was post-course contact with one of the Trainers of Instructors. Analysis of qualitative data indicated that the Instructor Training Course and the AMHFA course are culturally appropriate, empowering for Aboriginal people, and provided information that was seen as highly relevant and important in assisting Aboriginal people with a mental illness. There were a number of recommendations for improvements. Conclusion The AMHFA program is culturally appropriate and acceptable to Aboriginal people. Further work is needed to refine the course and to evaluate its impact on help provided to Aboriginal people with mental health problems. PMID:19490648

  19. Deadly Choices™ community health events: a health promotion initiative for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    PubMed

    Malseed, Claire; Nelson, Alison; Ware, Robert; Lacey, Ian; Lander, Keiron

    2014-01-01

    The present study was an evaluation of the effectiveness of Deadly Choices™ community events for improving participants' short-term knowledge of chronic disease and risk factors, and increasing community engagement with local health services. Surveys were completed directly before and after participating in health education activities (pre and post surveys, respectively) assessing knowledge of chronic diseases and risk factors at three Deadly Choices community events and four National Aboriginal and Islander Day Observance Committee (NAIDOC) events in south-east Queensland where Deadly Choices health education activities took place. An audit trail was conducted at two Deadly Choices community events in Brisbane to identify the proportion of participants who undertook a health screen at the event who then followed up for a Medicare-funded health check (MBS item 715) or other appointment at an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clinic in the local area within 2 months. Results were compared with a sample of participants who attended one Deadly Choices community event but did not complete a health screen. There were 472 community members who completed a pre and post survey. All knowledge scores significantly improved between baseline and follow up. Although based on a small sample, the audit trail results suggest individuals who participated in a health screen at the community day were approximately twice as likely to go back to a clinic to receive a full health check or have an alternative appointment compared with attendees who did not participate in a screen. Community events that include opportunities for health education and health screening are an effective strategy to improve chronic disease health literacy skills and appear to have the potential to increase community engagement with local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health services. PMID:25262748

  20. A Review of Programs That Targeted Environmental Determinants of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Leah; Doyle, Joyce; Morgan, Bec; Atkinson-Briggs, Sharon; Firebrace, Bradley; Marika, Mayatili; Reilly, Rachel; Cargo, Margaret; Riley, Therese; Rowley, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Effective interventions to improve population and individual health require environmental change as well as strategies that target individual behaviours and clinical factors. This is the basis of implementing an ecological approach to health programs and health promotion. For Aboriginal People and Torres Strait Islanders, colonisation has made the physical and social environment particularly detrimental for health. Methods and Results: We conducted a literature review to identify Aboriginal health interventions that targeted environmental determinants of health, identifying 21 different health programs. Program activities that targeted environmental determinants of health included: Caring for Country; changes to food supply and/or policy; infrastructure for physical activity; housing construction and maintenance; anti-smoking policies; increased workforce capacity; continuous quality improvement of clinical systems; petrol substitution; and income management. Targets were categorised according to Miller’s Living Systems Theory. Researchers using an Indigenous community based perspective more often identified interpersonal and community-level targets than were identified using a Western academic perspective. Conclusions: Although there are relatively few papers describing interventions that target environmental determinants of health, many of these addressed such determinants at multiple levels, consistent to some degree with an ecological approach. Interpretation of program targets sometimes differed between academic and community-based perspectives, and was limited by the type of data reported in the journal articles, highlighting the need for local Indigenous knowledge for accurate program evaluation. Implications: While an ecological approach to Indigenous health is increasingly evident in the health research literature, the design and evaluation of such programs requires a wide breadth of expertise, including local Indigenous knowledge. PMID

  1. Key Factors for the Development of a Culturally Appropriate Interactive Multimedia Informative Program for Aboriginal Health Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Sayed, Faeka; Soar, Jeffrey; Wang, Zoe

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to create and evaluate a model for a culturally appropriate, interactive, multimedia and informative health program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers that aims to improve the capacity to independently control their learning within an attractive learning environment. The research also aims to provide…

  2. Children with health issues.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Mark A; Chung, Paul J; Vestal, Katherine D

    2011-01-01

    All children, even the healthiest, have preventive and acute health care needs. Moreover, a growing number of children are chronically ill, with preventive, acute, and ongoing care needs that may be much more demanding than those for healthy children. Because children are unable to care for themselves, their parents are expected to provide a range of health care services without which the current health care system for children would not function. Under this "shadow health care system," parents or parent surrogates often need to be with the child, a requirement that can create difficulties for working parents, particularly for those whose children are chronically ill. How federal, state, and employer policies and practices mesh with the child health care needs of families is therefore a central issue in any discussion about work and family balance. In this article Mark Schuster, Paul Chung, and Katherine Vestal describe the health care needs of children; the essential health care responsibilities of parents; the perspective of employers; and the existing network of federal, state, and local family leave benefits that employed parents can access. They also identify current gaps in policies that leave unmet the needs of both parents and their employers. The authors suggest the outlines of a national family leave policy that would protect the interests of parents and employers. In essence, such a policy would build on the federal Family and Medical Leave Act, which gives some workers time off with no advance notice required and no loss of job or health insurance. But it would also include elements of California's Paid Family Leave Insurance, which expands coverage to more workers and provides partial pay during leave. Employers could be given some financial protections as well as protections against employee fraud and abuse. Such a policy, the authors conclude, would help to provide security to parents, minimize effects on employers, raise societal expectations for

  3. Factors associated with pretreatment and treatment dropouts: comparisons between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal clients admitted to medical withdrawal management

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Addiction treatment faces high pretreatment and treatment dropout rates, especially among Aboriginals. In this study we examined characteristic differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal clients accessing an inpatient medical withdrawal management program, and identified risk factors associated with the probabilities of pretreatment and treatment dropouts, respectively. Methods 2231 unique clients (Aboriginal = 451; 20%) referred to Vancouver Detox over a two-year period were assessed. For both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups, multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted with pretreatment dropout and treatment dropout as dependent variables, respectively. Results Aboriginal clients had higher pretreatment and treatment dropout rates compared to non-Aboriginal clients (41.0% vs. 32.7% and 25.9% vs. 20.0%, respectively). For Aboriginal people, no fixed address (NFA) was the only predictor of pretreatment dropout. For treatment dropout, significant predictors were: being female, having HCV infection, and being discharged on welfare check issue days or weekends. For non-Aboriginal clients, being male, NFA, alcohol as a preferred substance, and being on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) at referral were associated with pretreatment dropout. Significant risk factors for treatment dropout were: being younger, having a preferred substance other than alcohol, having opiates as a preferred substance, and being discharged on weekends. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of social factors for the Aboriginal population compared to substance-specific factors for the non-Aboriginal population. These findings should help clinicians and decision-makers to recognize the importance of social supports especially housing and initiate appropriate services to improve treatment intake and subsequent retention, physical and mental health outcomes and the cost-effectiveness of treatment. PMID:24325629

  4. Resistance through Re-Presenting Culture: Aboriginal Student Filmmakers and a Participatory Action Research Project on Health and Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riecken, Ted; Conibear, Frank; Michel, Corrine; Lyall, John; Scott, Tish; Tanaka, Michele; Stewart, Suzanne; Riecken, Janet; Strong-Wilson, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on a participatory research project designed to promote student use of digital video to explore conceptions of health and wellness. We have viewed aspects of student resistance through the cultural perspectives that guide the Aboriginal education programs involved with the study. In presenting this piece, we have experimented…

  5. Contextual determinants of health behaviours in an aboriginal community in Canada: pilot project

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapid change in food intake, physical activity, and tobacco use in recent decades have contributed to the soaring rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Aboriginal populations living in Canada. The nature and influence of contextual factors on Aboriginal health behaviours are not well characterized. Methods To describe the contextual determinants of health behaviours associated with cardiovascular risk factors on the Six Nations reserve, including the built environment, access and affordability of healthy foods, and the use of tobacco. In this cross-sectional study, 63 adults from the Six Nations Reserve completed the modified Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS), questionnaire assessing food access and availability, tobacco pricing and availability, and the Environmental Profile of Community Health (EPOCH) tool. Results The structured environment of Six Nations Reserve scored low for walkability, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety, and access to walking and cycling facilities. All participants purchased groceries off-reserve, although fresh fruits and vegetables were reported to be available and affordable both on and off-reserve. On average $151/week is spent on groceries per family. Ninety percent of individuals report tobacco use is a problem in the community. Tobacco is easily accessible for children and youth, and only three percent of community members would accept increased tobacco taxation as a strategy to reduce tobacco access. Conclusions The built environment, access and affordability of healthy food and tobacco on the Six Nations Reserve are not perceived favourably. Modification of these contextual factors described here may reduce adverse health behaviours in the community. PMID:23134669

  6. Implementing computerised Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health checks in primary care for clinical care and research: a process evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Paper-based Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health checks have promoted a preventive approach to primary care and provided data to support research at the Inala Indigenous Health Service, south-west Brisbane, Australia. Concerns about the limitations of paper-based health checks prompted us to change to a computerised system to realise potential benefits for clinical services and research capability. We describe the rationale, implementation and anticipated benefits of computerised Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health checks in one primary health care setting. Methods In May 2010, the Inala Indigenous Health Service commenced a project to computerise Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander child, adult, diabetic, and antenatal health checks. The computerised health checks were launched in September 2010 and then evaluated for staff satisfaction, research consent rate and uptake. Ethical approval for health check data to be used for research purposes was granted in December 2010. Results Three months after the September 2010 launch date, all but two health checks (378 out of 380, 99.5%) had been completed using the computerised system. Staff gave the system a median mark of 8 out of 10 (range 5-9), where 10 represented the highest level of overall satisfaction. By September 2011, 1099 child and adult health checks, 138 annual diabetic checks and 52 of the newly introduced antenatal checks had been completed. These numbers of computerised health checks are greater than for the previous year (2010) of paper-based health checks with a risk difference of 0.07 (95% confidence interval 0.05, 0.10). Additionally, two research projects based on computerised health check data were underway. Conclusions The Inala Indigenous Health Service has demonstrated that moving from paper-based Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health checks to a system using computerised health checks is feasible and can facilitate research. We expect computerised health

  7. Men's health issues in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Christopher C K; Tan, Hui Meng

    2013-09-01

    Men's health has gained prominence over the past few years but it is still not on par with the attention or funding that women and child health is getting. In Asia, this issue is even more conspicuous. With westernization of lifestyle, Asian men's problems emulate their Western counterparts but there are certain issues unique to Asian men due to cultural differences. This review will discuss the health issues affecting Asian men and suggest measures that can be taken to overcome them. PMID:23822757

  8. What are the factors associated with good mental health among Aboriginal children in urban New South Wales, Australia? Phase I findings from the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH)

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Anna; D'Este, Catherine; Clapham, Kathleen; Redman, Sally; Manton, Toni; Eades, Sandra; Schuster, Leanne; Raphael, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the factors associated with ‘good’ mental health among Aboriginal children living in urban communities in New South Wales, Australia. Design Cross-sectional survey (phase I of a longitudinal study). Setting 4 Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services that deliver primary care. All services were located in urban communities in New South Wales, Australia. Participants 1005 Aboriginal children aged 4–17 years who participated in phase I of the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH). Primary outcome measure Carer report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Scores <17 were considered to indicate ‘good’ mental health for the purposes of this article. Results The majority (72%) of SEARCH participants were not at high risk for emotional or behavioural problems. After adjusting for the relative contributions of significant demographic, child and carer health factors, the factors associated with good mental health among SEARCH children were having a carer who was not highly psychologically distressed (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.6 to 5.1); not suffering from frequent chest, gastrointestinal or skin infections (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.8 to 4.3); and eating two or more servings of vegetables per day (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.8). Being raised by a foster carer (OR=0.2, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.71) and having lived in 4 or more homes since birth (OR=0.62, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.0) were associated with significantly lower odds of good mental health. Slightly different patterns of results were noted for adolescents than younger children. Conclusions Most children who participated in SEARCH were not at high risk for emotional or behavioural problems. Promising targets for efforts to promote mental health among urban Aboriginal children may include the timely provision of medical care for children and provision of additional support for parents and carers experiencing mental or physical health problems, for adolescent boys

  9. 'Jumping around': exploring young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health in a remote Aboriginal Australian community.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Sarah; Narjic, Concepta Wulili; Belton, Suzanne; Saggers, Sherry; McGrath, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Sexual health indicators for young remote-living Aboriginal women are the worst of all of Australian women. This study aimed to describe and explore young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health, as well as to provide health professionals with cross-cultural insights to assist with health practice. A descriptive ethnographic study was conducted, which included: extended ethnographic field work in one remote community over a six-year period; community observation and participation; field notes; semi-structured interviews; group reproductive ethno-physiology drawing and language sessions; focus-group sessions; training and employment of Aboriginal research assistants; and consultation and advice from a local reference group and a Cultural Mentor. Findings reveal that young women in this remote community have a very poor biomedical understanding of sexually transmitted infections and contraception. This is further compounded by not speaking English as a first language, low literacy levels and different beliefs in relation to body functions. In their sexual relationships, young women often report experiences involving multiple casual partners, marijuana use and violence. Together, the findings contribute to a better understanding of the factors underlying sexual health inequity among young Aboriginal women in Australia. PMID:25115988

  10. Telling stories: nurses, politics and Aboriginal Australians, circa 1900-1980s.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Sue

    2007-02-01

    The focus of this paper is stories by, and about, (mainly non-Aboriginal) Registered Nurses working in hospitals and clinics in remote areas of Australia from the early 1900s to the 1980s as they came into contact with, or cared for, Aboriginal people. Government policies that controlled and regulated Aboriginal Australians provide the context for these stories. Memoirs and other contemporary sources reveal the ways in which government policies in different eras influenced nurse's attitudes and clinical practice in relation to Aboriginal people, and helped institutionalise racism in health care. Up until the 1970s, most nurses in this study unquestioningly accepted firstly segregation, then assimilation policies and their underlying paternalistic ideologies, and incorporated them into their practice. The quite marked politicisation of Aboriginal issues in the 1970s in Australia and the move towards self-determination for Aboriginal people politicised many - but not all - nurses. For the first time, many nurses engaged in a robust critique of government policies and what this meant for their practice and for Aboriginal health. Other nurses, however, continued as they had before - neither questioning prevailing policy nor its effects on their practice. It is argued that only by understanding and confronting the historical roots of institutional racism, and by speaking out against such practices, can discrimination and racism be abolished from nursing practice and health care. This is essential for nursing's current and future professional development and for better health for Aboriginal Australians. PMID:17348781

  11. Identifying multi-level culturally appropriate smoking cessation strategies for Aboriginal health staff: a concept mapping approach.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Anna P; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2013-02-01

    Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco control personnel. Smoking cessation strategies (n = 74) were brainstormed using 34 interviews, 3 focus groups and a stakeholder workshop. Stakeholders sorted strategies into meaningful groups and rated them on perceived importance and feasibility. A concept map was developed using multi-dimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analyses. Ten unique clusters of smoking cessation strategies were depicted that targeted individuals, family and peers, community, workplace and public policy. Smoking cessation resources and services were represented in addition to broader strategies addressing social and environmental stressors that perpetuate smoking and make quitting difficult. The perceived importance and feasibility of clusters were rated differently by participants working in health services that were government-coordinated compared with community-controlled. For health service workers within vulnerable populations, these findings clearly implicate a need for contextualized strategies that mitigate social and environmental stressors in addition to conventional strategies for tobacco control. The concept map is being applied in knowledge translation to guide development of smoking cessation programs for AHWs. PMID:23221591

  12. Migrant Health Issues. Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Farmworker Health, Inc., Austin, TX.

    This document contains 10 short monographs on priority issues relevant to the health and well-being of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their families. An introduction by Daniel Hawkins discusses the important role of migrant health centers in providing primary and preventive health care services to this disadvantaged and underserved…

  13. Commentary: Indigenous Health Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonmyr, Lil; Blackstock, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    This commentary highlights indigenous public health research from a special issue of the International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction dealing with child maltreatment, mental health, substance abuse and gambling. We focus on the emerging and growing research movement in Indigenous research through three important themes: 1) worldview and…

  14. Children with Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Mark A.; Chung, Paul J.; Vestal, Katherine D.

    2011-01-01

    All children, even the healthiest, have preventive and acute health care needs. Moreover, a growing number of children are chronically ill, with preventive, acute, and ongoing care needs that may be much more demanding than those for healthy children. Because children are unable to care for themselves, their parents are expected to provide a range…

  15. Complicated grief in Aboriginal populations

    PubMed Central

    Spiwak, Rae; Sareen, Jitender; Elias, Brenda; Martens, Patricia; Munro, Garry; Bolton, James

    2012-01-01

    To date there have been no studies examining complicated grief (CG) in Aboriginal populations. Although this research gap exists, it can be hypothesized that Aboriginal populations may be at increased risk for CG, given a variety of factors, including increased rates of all-cause mortality and death by suicide. Aboriginal people also have a past history of multiple stressors resulting from the effects of colonization and forced assimilation, a significant example being residential school placement. This loss of culture and high rates of traumatic events may place Aboriginal individuals at increased risk for suicide, as well as CG resulting from traumatic loss and suicide bereavement. Studies are needed to examine CG in Aboriginal populations. These studies must include cooperation with Aboriginal communities to help identify risk factors for CG, understand the role of culture among these communities, and identify interventions to reduce poor health outcomes such as suicidal behavior. PMID:22754293

  16. Complicated grief in Aboriginal populations.

    PubMed

    Spiwak, Rae; Sareen, Jitender; Elias, Brenda; Martens, Patricia; Munro, Garry; Bolton, James

    2012-06-01

    To date there have been no studies examining complicated grief (CG) in Aboriginal populations. Although this research gap exists, it can be hypothesized that Aboriginal populations may be at increased risk for CG, given a variety of factors, including increased rates of all-cause mortality and death by suicide. Aboriginal people also have a past history of multiple stressors resulting from the effects of colonization and forced assimilation, a significant example being residential school placement. This loss of culture and high rates of traumatic events may place Aboriginal individuals at increased risk for suicide, as well as CG resulting from traumatic loss and suicide bereavement. Studies are needed to examine CG in Aboriginal populations. These studies must include cooperation with Aboriginal communities to help identify risk factors for CG, understand the role of culture among these communities, and identify interventions to reduce poor health outcomes such as suicidal behavior. PMID:22754293

  17. "Whistleblowing": a health issue.

    PubMed Central

    Lennane, K J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the response of organizations to "whistleblowing" and the effects on individual whistleblowers. DESIGN--Questionnaire survey of whistleblowers who contacted Whistleblowers Australia after its publicity campaign. SETTING--Australia. SUBJECTS--25 men and 10 women from various occupations who had exposed corruption or danger to the public, or both, from a few months to over 20 years before. RESULTS--All subjects in this non-random sample had suffered adverse consequences. For 29 victimization had started immediately after their first, internal, complaint. Only 17 approached the media. Victimization at work was extensive: dismissal (eight subjects), demotion (10), and resignation or early retirement because of ill health related to victimization (10) were common. Only 10 had a full time job. Long term relationships broke up in seven cases, and 60 of the 77 children of 30 subjects were adversely affected. Twenty nine subjects had a mean of 5.3 stress related symptoms initially, with a mean of 3.6 still present. Fifteen were prescribed long term treatment with drugs which they had not been prescribed before. Seventeen had considered suicide. Income had been reduced by three quarters or more for 14 subjects. Total financial loss was estimated in hundreds of thousands of Australian dollars in 17. Whistleblowers received little or no help from statutory authorities and only a modest amount from workmates. In most cases the corruption and malpractice continued unchanged. CONCLUSION--Although whistleblowing is important in protecting society, the typical organisational response causes severe and longlasting health, financial, and personal problems for whistleblowers and their families. PMID:8401056

  18. Maternal mental health: pathways of care for women experiencing mental health issues during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Makregiorgos, Helen; Joubert, Lynette; Epstein, Irwin

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal mental health has become the focus for policymakers, government, research, the acute health sector, and health practitioners. The aim of this clinical data-mining study ( Epstein, 2010 ) was to undertake a retrospective exploration into the primary mental health and psychosocial issues experienced by women who were pregnant and accessing obstetric care at one of the largest maternity hospitals in Australia. The study also investigated service pathways and gaps. Aboriginal women were overrepresented, demonstrating their ongoing disadvantage, whereas other linguistically and culturally diverse women were underrepresented, suggesting the existence of barriers to service. Although psychosocial factors tend to be underreported ( Buist et al., 2002 ), the findings highlighted the integral rather than peripheral nature of these factors during pregnancy ( Vilder, 2006 ) and suggest the need for change to systems that work to support women's perinatal mental health. PMID:23521388

  19. Service providers’ perspectives, attitudes and beliefs on health services delivery for Aboriginal people receiving haemodialysis in rural Australia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Wilson, Shawn; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Objective Providing services to rural dwelling minority cultural groups with serious chronic disease is challenging due to access to care and cultural differences. This study aimed to describe service providers’ perspectives on health services delivery for Aboriginal people receiving haemodialysis for end-stage kidney disease in rural Australia. Design Semistructured interviews, thematic analysis Setting A health district in rural New South Wales, Australia Participants Using purposive sampling, 29 renal and allied service providers were recruited, including nephrologists, renal nurses, community nurses, Aboriginal health workers, social workers and managers. Six were Aboriginal and 23 non-Aboriginal. Results Improving cultural understanding within the healthcare system was central to five themes identified: rigidity of service design (outreach, inevitable home treatment failures, pressure of system overload, limited efficacy of cultural awareness training and conflicting priorities in acute care); responding to social complexities (respecting but challenged by family obligations, assumptions about socioeconomic status and individualised care); promoting empowerment, trust and rapport (bridging gaps in cultural understanding, acknowledging the relationship between land, people and environment, and being time poor); distress at late diagnosis (lost opportunities and prioritise prevention); and contending with discrimination and racism (inherent judgement of lifestyle choices, inadequate cultural awareness, pervasive multilevel institutionalised racism and managing patient distrust). Conclusions Service providers believe current services are not designed to address cultural needs and Aboriginality, and that caring for Aboriginal patients receiving haemodialysis should be family focused and culturally safer. An Aboriginal-specific predialysis pathway, building staff cultural awareness and enhancing cultural safety within hospitals are the measures recommended

  20. Health Occupations Trends and Issues: Issue Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covelli, Nicholas J.; And Others

    A study was conducted to identify the trends occurring within the health service industry and their impact on the providers of health care; determine shifts or emerging occupational areas within health services; and assess local health service providers' staffing patterns and anticipated needs. The study involved meetings with local hospital…

  1. Aboriginal Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Sherry

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project for high school students in which they create Aboriginal-style paintings using cotton swabs. Discusses the process of creating the works of art in detail. Includes learning objectives, art materials, and a bibliography. (CMK)

  2. Is there an Aboriginal bioethic?

    PubMed

    Garvey, G; Towney, P; McPhee, J R; Little, M; Kerridge, I H

    2004-12-01

    It is well recognised that medicine manifests social and cultural values and that the institution of healthcare cannot be structurally disengaged from the sociopolitical processes that create such values. As with many other indigenous peoples, Aboriginal Australians have a lower heath status than the rest of the community and frequently experience the effects of prejudice and racism in many aspects of their lives. In this paper the authors highlight values and ethical convictions that may be held by Aboriginal peoples in order to explore how health practitioners can engage Aboriginal patients in a manner that is more appropriate. In doing so the authors consider how the ethics, values, and beliefs of the dominant white Australian culture have framed the treatment and delivery of services that Aboriginal people receive, and whether sufficient effort has been made to understand or acknowledge the different ethical predispositions that form the traditions and identity of Aboriginal Australia(ns). PMID:15574447

  3. Good Health Is a Global Issue

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues Special Section Good Health Is a Global Issue Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... reasons, many of the research efforts related to global health must now deal with these non-communicable ...

  4. Building better systems of care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: findings from the Kanyini health systems assessment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Australian federal and jurisdictional governments are implementing ambitious policy initiatives intended to improve health care access and outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. In this qualitative study we explored Aboriginal Medical Service (AMS) staff views on factors needed to improve chronic care systems and assessed their relevance to the new policy environment. Methods Two theories informed the study: (1) ‘candidacy’, which explores “the ways in which people’s eligibility for care is jointly negotiated between individuals and health services”; and (2) kanyini or ‘holding’, a Central Australian philosophy which describes the principle and obligations of nurturing and protecting others. A structured health systems assessment, locally adapted from Chronic Care Model domains, was administered via group interviews with 37 health staff in six AMSs and one government Indigenous-led health service. Data were thematically analysed. Results Staff emphasised AMS health care was different to private general practices. Consistent with kanyini, community governance and leadership, community representation among staff, and commitment to community development were important organisational features to retain and nurture both staff and patients. This was undermined, however, by constant fear of government funding for AMSs being withheld. Staff resourcing, information systems and high-level leadership were perceived to be key drivers of health care quality. On-site specialist services, managed by AMS staff, were considered an enabling strategy to increase specialist access. Candidacy theory suggests the above factors influence whether a service is ‘tractable’ and ‘navigable’ to its users. Staff also described entrenched patient discrimination in hospitals and the need to expend considerable effort to reinstate care. This suggests that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are still constructed as ‘non-ideal users

  5. Development of mental health first aid guidelines for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people experiencing problems with substance use: a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Problems with substance use are common in some Aboriginal communities. Although problems with substance use are associated with significant mortality and morbidity, many people who experience them do not seek help. Training in mental health first aid has been shown to be effective in increasing knowledge of symptoms and behaviours associated with seeking help. The current study aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person who is experiencing problem drinking or problem drug use (e.g. abuse or dependence). Methods Twenty-eight Aboriginal health experts participated in two independent Delphi studies (n = 22 problem drinking study, n = 21 problem drug use; 15 participated in both). Panellists were presented with statements about possible first aid actions via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional actions not covered by the content. Statements were accepted for inclusion in the guidelines if they were endorsed by ≥ 90% of panellists as either 'Essential' or 'Important'. At the end of the two Delphi studies, participants were asked to give feedback on the value of the project and their participation experience. Results From a total of 735 statements presented over two studies, 429 were endorsed (223 problem drinking, 206 problem drug use). Statements were grouped into sections based on common themes (n = 7 problem drinking, n = 8 problem drug use), then written into guideline documents. Participants evaluated the Delphi method employed, and the guidelines developed, as useful and appropriate for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Conclusions Aboriginal health experts were able to reach consensus about culturally appropriate first aid for problems with substance use. Many first aid actions endorsed in the current studies were not endorsed in previous international Delphi studies, conducted on problem drinking and problem drug use

  6. Responding to racism: insights on how racism can damage health from an urban study of Australian Aboriginal people.

    PubMed

    Ziersch, Anna M; Gallaher, Gilbert; Baum, Fran; Bentley, Michael

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines responses to racism and the pathways through which racism can affect health and wellbeing for Aboriginal people living in an urban environment. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2006/07 with 153 Aboriginal people living in Adelaide, Australia. Participants were asked about their experience of, and responses to, racism, and the impact of these experiences on their health. Racism was regularly experienced by 93% of participants. Almost two thirds of people felt that racism affected their health. Using a thematic analysis with a particular focus on how agency and structure interacted, a number of key reactions and responses to racism were identified. These included: emotional and physiological reactions; and responses such as gaining support from social networks; confronting the person/situation; ignoring it; avoiding situations where they might experience racism; 'minimising' the significance or severity of racism or questioning whether incidents were racist; and consuming alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. A further theme was a conscious decision to not 'allow' racism to affect health. Our study found that most people used more than one of these coping strategies, and that strategies were selected with an awareness of positive and negative health impacts. While individuals demonstrated substantial agency in their responses, there were clear structural constraints on how they reacted and responded. We found that not only was racism potentially detrimental to health, but so too were some responses. However, while some strategies appeared 'healthier' than others, most strategies entailed costs and benefits, and these depended on the meanings of responses for individuals. This paper concludes that initiatives to promote health-protective responses to racism need to consider structural constraints and the overarching goal of reducing systemic racism. PMID:21835522

  7. Building better research partnerships by understanding how Aboriginal health communities perceive and use data: a semistructured interview study

    PubMed Central

    Young, Christian; Tong, Allison; Sherriff, Simone; Kalucy, Deanna; Fernando, Peter; Muthayya, Sumithra; Craig, Jonathan C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the attitudes and beliefs of health professionals working in Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHS) towards the access, usage and potential value of routinely obtained clinical and research data. Design, setting and participants Face-to-face, semistructured interviews were conducted with 35 health professionals from 2 urban and 1 regional ACCHS in New South Wales. The interviews were transcribed and themes were identified using an adapted grounded theory approach. Results Six major themes were identified: occupational engagement (day-to-day relevance, contingent on professional capacity, emphasising clinical relevance), trust and assurance (protecting ownership, confidence in narratives, valuing local sources), motivation and empowerment (engaging the community, influencing morale, reassuring and encouraging clients), building research capacity (using cultural knowledge, promoting research aptitude, prioritising specific data), optimising service provision (necessity for sustainable services, guiding and improving services, supporting best practice), and enhancing usability (ensuring ease of comprehension, improving efficiency of data management, valuing accuracy and accessibility). Conclusions Participants were willing to learn data handling procedures that could further enhance health service delivery and enable more ACCHS-led research, but busy workloads restrict these opportunities. Staff held concerns regarding the translation of research data into beneficial services, and believed that the outcome and purpose of data collection could be communicated more clearly. Promoting research partnerships, ensuring greater awareness of positive health data and the purposes of data collection, and communicating data in a user-friendly format are likely to encourage greater data use, build research capacity and improve health services within the Aboriginal community. PMID:27113239

  8. 'There's only one enabler; come up, help us': staff perspectives of barriers and enablers to continuous quality improvement in Aboriginal primary health-care settings in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Newham, Jo; Schierhout, Gill; Bailie, Ross; Ward, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a qualitative study, which sought to investigate the barriers and enablers to implementation of a continuous quality improvement (CQI) program by health-care professionals in Aboriginal primary health-care services in South Australia. Eighteen semi-structured interviews across 11 participating services were conducted alongside CQI implementation activities. Multiple barriers exist, from staff perspectives, which can be categorised according to different levels of the primary health-care system. At the macro level, barriers related to resource constraints (workforce issues) and access to project support (CQI coordinator). At the meso level, barriers related to senior level management and leadership for quality improvement and the level of organisational readiness. At the micro level, knowledge and attitudes of staff (such as resistance to change; lack of awareness of CQI) and lack of team tenure were cited as the main barriers to implementation. Staff identified that successful and sustained implementation of CQI requires both organisational systems and individual behaviour change. Improvements through continuing regional level collaborations and using a systems approach to develop an integrated regional level CQI framework, which includes building organisational and clinic team CQI capacity at the health centre level, are recommended. Ideally, this should be supported at the broader national level with dedicated funding. PMID:25719603

  9. Aboriginal Consumption of Estuarine Food Resources and Potential Implications for Health through Trace Metal Exposure; A Study in Gumbaynggirr Country, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Shaina; Sullivan, Caroline A.; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    tolerable weekly intake for cadmium. This suggests the need for further investigation of this issue to minimize any possible health risk. PMID:26098897

  10. Aboriginal Consumption of Estuarine Food Resources and Potential Implications for Health through Trace Metal Exposure; A Study in Gumbaynggirr Country, Australia.

    PubMed

    Russell, Shaina; Sullivan, Caroline A; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    tolerable weekly intake for cadmium. This suggests the need for further investigation of this issue to minimize any possible health risk. PMID:26098897

  11. Issues in public health entomology.

    PubMed

    Spielman, A; Pollack, R J; Kiszewski, A E; Telford, S R

    2001-01-01

    Public health entomology focuses on the population biology of vector-borne infections, seeking to understand how such pathogens perpetuate over time and attempting to devise methods for reducing the burden that they impose on human health. As public health entomology passes its centennial, a series of pervasive research themes and spirited debates characterize the discipline, many reflecting a tension between field and laboratory research. In particular, institutional support for population-based research and training programs has fallen behind that for those using modern lab-based approaches. Discussion of modes of intervention against vector-borne infections (such as deployment of genetically modified vectors, the role of DDT in malaria control, host-targeted acaricides for Lyme disease risk reduction, and truck-mounted aerosol spraying against West Nile virus transmission) illustrates the discipline's need for strengthening population-based research programs. Even with the advent of molecular methods for describing population structure, the basis for anophelism without malaria (or its eastern North American counterpart, ixodism without borreliosis) remains elusive. Such methods have not yet been extensively used to examine the phylogeography and geographical origins of zoonoses such as Lyme disease. Basic ecological questions remain poorly explored: What regulates vector populations? How may mixtures of pathogens be maintained by a single vector? What factors might limit the invasion of Asian mosquitoes into North American sites? Putative effects of "global warming" remain speculative given our relative inability to answer such questions. Finally, policy and administrative issues such as the "no-nits" dictum in American schools, the Roll Back Malaria program, and legal liability for risk due to vector-borne infections serve to demonstrate further the nature of the crossroads that the discipline of public health entomology faces at the start of the 21st Century

  12. ‘Doing the hard yards’: carer and provider focus group perspectives of accessing Aboriginal childhood disability services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite a high prevalence of disability, Aboriginal Australians access disability services in Australia less than non-Aboriginal Australians with a disability. The needs of Aboriginal children with disability are particularly poorly understood. They can endure long delays in treatment which can impact adversely on development. This study sought to ascertain the factors involved in accessing services and support for Aboriginal children with a disability. Methods Using the focus group method, two community forums, one for health and service providers and one for carers of Aboriginal children with a disability, were held at an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS) in the Sydney, metropolitan area of New South Wales, Australia. Framework analysis was applied to qualitative data to elucidate key issues relevant to the dimensions of access framework. Independent coding consistency checks were performed and consensus of analysis verified by the entire research team, several of whom represented the local Aboriginal community. Results Seventeen health and social service providers representing local area government and non-government-funded health and social service organisations and five carers participated in two separate forums between September and October 2011. Lack of awareness of services and inadequate availability were prominent concerns in both groups despite geographic proximity to a major metropolitan area with significant health infrastructure. Carers noted racism, insufficient or non-existent services, and the need for an enhanced role of ACCHSs and AHWs in disability support services. Providers highlighted logistical barriers and cultural and historical issues that impacted on the effectiveness of mainstream services for Aboriginal people. Conclusions Despite dedicated disability services in an urban community, geographic proximity does not mitigate lack of awareness and availability of support. This paper has enumerated a number of

  13. Major Health Issues for States: 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landes, David

    Health care will continue to occupy a prominent place in state legislative deliberations, as indicated by the National Conference of State Legislatures' 1987 State Issues Survey. The survey addressed state actions in these health issue areas: (1) health care for the medically indigent; (2) medical malpractice; (3) certificate of need and health…

  14. No Aboriginal Students left Behind in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sue-Jen; Hartzler-Miller, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    The project is motivated by Taiwan's huge gap of educational levels between the aborigines and the Hans. The low achievement of aboriginal students lies in factors related to problems in finance, health, and cultural difference, which contribute to their sense of self-deprecation. The purpose of the project is to provide early intervention and…

  15. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…

  16. Health issues of air travel.

    PubMed

    DeHart, Roy L

    2003-01-01

    at least one physician on 85% of all its flights. Both passenger and cargo aircraft have proven to be vectors of disease in that they transport humans, mosquitoes, and other insects and animals who, in turn, transmit disease. Transmission to other passengers has occurred with tuberculosis and influenza. Vectors for yellow fever, malaria, and dengue have been identified on aircraft. Although there are numerous health issues associated with air travel they pale in comparison to the enormous benefits to the traveler, to commerce, to international affairs, and to the public's health. PMID:12428033

  17. Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chee, Donna Ah; Maidment, Debra; Hayes-Hampton, Margie

    The Institute for Aboriginal Development (IAD) is an Aboriginal-controlled language resource center and adult education center serving the Aboriginal communities of central Australia. Its activities include education programs, which range from literacy and numeracy to vocational and tertiary-level courses; an Aboriginal language and culture center…

  18. Women's Safety and Health Issues at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Women's Safety and Health Issues at Work Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir America's work ... while also balancing the traditional parenting responsibilities. 1 Work-related health challenges facing women Women face different ...

  19. Cultural identification in aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander AIDS education.

    PubMed

    Hill, P S; Murphy, G J

    1992-06-01

    The emergence of the disease AIDS in the early 1980s has resulted in a unique response. Medical, sociocultural, political, sexual, moral and racial issues have all been raised. This paper examines the way in which participation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people has resulted in the culturally appropriate and distinctive approaches evident in health education materials produced in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. Specific cultural issues relevant to AIDS education are considered, including the use of visual and narrative communication for AIDS education; the significance of the specific concepts related to communication on sexual issues; perceptions of AIDS as alien and genocidal; the use of the Dreaming in AIDS educational resources; and implications for AIDS education. PMID:1391156

  20. Developing an exploratory framework linking Australian Aboriginal peoples' connection to country and concepts of wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, Jonathan; Townsend, Mardie; Henderson-Wilson, Claire; Bolam, Bruce

    2013-02-01

    Aboriginal people across Australia suffer significant health inequalities compared with the non-Indigenous population. Evidence indicates that inroads can be made to reduce these inequalities by better understanding social and cultural determinants of health, applying holistic notions of health and developing less rigid definitions of wellbeing. The following article draws on qualitative research on Victorian Aboriginal peoples' relationship to their traditional land (known as Country) and its link to wellbeing, in an attempt to tackle this. Concepts of wellbeing, Country and nature have also been reviewed to gain an understanding of this relationship. An exploratory framework has been developed to understand this phenomenon focusing on positive (e.g., ancestry and partnerships) and negative (e.g., destruction of Country and racism) factors contributing to Aboriginal peoples' health. The outcome is an explanation of how Country is a fundamental component of Aboriginal Victorian peoples' wellbeing and the framework articulates the forces that impact positively and negatively on this duality. This review is critical to improving not only Aboriginal peoples' health but also the capacity of all humanity to deal with environmental issues like disconnection from nature and urbanisation. PMID:23435590

  1. Developing an Exploratory Framework Linking Australian Aboriginal Peoples’ Connection to Country and Concepts of Wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Jonathan; Townsend, Mardie; Henderson-Wilson, Claire; Bolam, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal people across Australia suffer significant health inequalities compared with the non-Indigenous population. Evidence indicates that inroads can be made to reduce these inequalities by better understanding social and cultural determinants of health, applying holistic notions of health and developing less rigid definitions of wellbeing. The following article draws on qualitative research on Victorian Aboriginal peoples’ relationship to their traditional land (known as Country) and its link to wellbeing, in an attempt to tackle this. Concepts of wellbeing, Country and nature have also been reviewed to gain an understanding of this relationship. An exploratory framework has been developed to understand this phenomenon focusing on positive (e.g., ancestry and partnerships) and negative (e.g., destruction of Country and racism) factors contributing to Aboriginal peoples’ health. The outcome is an explanation of how Country is a fundamental component of Aboriginal Victorian peoples’ wellbeing and the framework articulates the forces that impact positively and negatively on this duality. This review is critical to improving not only Aboriginal peoples’ health but also the capacity of all humanity to deal with environmental issues like disconnection from nature and urbanisation. PMID:23435590

  2. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Public Health: Online and Integrated into Core Master of Public Health Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Lynnell; Ewen, Shaun; Coombe, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    The Master of Public Health (MPH) is an internationally recognised post-graduate qualification for building the public health workforce. In Australia, MPH graduate attributes include six Indigenous public health (IPH) competencies. The University of Melbourne MPH program includes five core subjects and ten specialisation streams, of which one is Indigenous health. Unless students complete this specialisation or electives in Indigenous health, it is possible for students to graduate without attaining the IPH competencies. To address this issue in a crowded and competitive curriculum an innovative approach to integrating the IPH competencies in core MPH subjects was developed. Five online modules that corresponded with the learning outcomes of the core public health subjects were developed, implemented and evaluated in 2015. This brief report outlines the conceptualisation, development, and description of the curriculum content; it also provides preliminary student evaluation and staff feedback on the integration project. Significance for public health This approach to a comprehensive, online, integrated Indigenous public health (IPH) curriculum is significant, as it ensures that all University of Melbourne Master of Public Health (MPH) graduates will have the competencies to positively contribute to Indigenous health status. A workforce that is attuned not only to the challenges of IPH, but also to the principles of self-determination, Indigenous agency and collaboration is better equipped to be comprised of ethical and judgment-safe practitioners. Additionally, the outlined approach of utilizing IPH content and examples into core MPH subjects ensures both the Australian relevance for an Australian-based health professional course and international appeal through the modules inclusion of International Indigenous case-studies and content. Furthermore, approaches learned in a challenging Indigenous Australian context are transferable and applicable to other IPH

  3. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Public Health: Online and Integrated into Core Master of Public Health Subjects.

    PubMed

    Angus, Lynnell; Ewen, Shaun; Coombe, Leanne

    2016-04-26

    The Master of Public Health (MPH) is an internationally recognised post-graduate qualification for building the public health workforce. In Australia, MPH graduate attributes include six Indigenous public health (IPH) competencies. The University of Melbourne MPH program includes five core subjects and ten specialisation streams, of which one is Indigenous health. Unless students complete this specialisation or electives in Indigenous health, it is possible for students to graduate without attaining the IPH competencies. To address this issue in a crowded and competitive curriculum an innovative approach to integrating the IPH competencies in core MPH subjects was developed. Five online modules that corresponded with the learning outcomes of the core public health subjects were developed, implemented and evaluated in 2015. This brief report outlines the conceptualisation, development, and description of the curriculum content; it also provides preliminary student evaluation and staff feedback on the integration project. Significance for public healthThis approach to a comprehensive, online, integrated Indigenous public health (IPH) curriculum is significant, as it ensures that all University of Melbourne Master of Public Health (MPH) graduates will have the competencies to positively contribute to Indigenous health status. A workforce that is attuned not only to the challenges of IPH, but also to the principles of self-determination, Indigenous agency and collaboration is better equipped to be comprised of ethical and judgment-safe practitioners. Additionally, the outlined approach of utilizing IPH content and examples into core MPH subjects ensures both the Australian relevance for an Australian-based health professional course and international appeal through the modules inclusion of International Indigenous case-studies and content. Furthermore, approaches learned in a challenging Indigenous Australian context are transferable and applicable to other IPH

  4. The characteristics, implementation and effects of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health promotion tools: a systematic literature search

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health promotion by and with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter Indigenous) Australians is critically important given a wide gap in health parity compared to other Australians. The development and implementation of step-by-step guides, instruments, packages, frameworks or resources has provided a feasible and low-resource strategy for strengthening evidence-informed health promotion practice. Yet there has been little assessment of where and how these tools are implemented or their effectiveness. This paper reviews the characteristics, implementation and effects of Indigenous health promotion tools. Methods Indigenous health promotion tools were identified through a systematic literature search including a prior scoping study, eight databases, references of other reviews and the authors’ knowledge (n = 1494). Documents in the peer reviewed and grey literature were included if they described or evaluated tools designed, recommended or used for strengthening Indigenous Australian health promotion. Eligible publications were entered into an Excel spreadsheet and documented tools classified according to their characteristics, implementation and effects. Quality was appraised using the Dictionary for Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) and Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) tools for quantitative and qualitative studies respectively. Results The review found that Indigenous health promotion tools were widely available. Of 74 publications that met inclusion criteria, sixty (81%) documented tools developed specifically for the Indigenous Australian population. All tools had been developed in reference to evidence; but only 22/74 (30%) publications specified intended or actual implementation, and only 11/74 (15%) publications evaluated impacts of the implemented tools. Impacts included health, environmental, community, organisational and health care improvements. The quality of impact evaluations was strong for only five (7

  5. Multicultural Issues in Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Raul I.; Cadoret, Cindy; Henshaw, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Demographic changes over the coming decades will heighten the challenges to the dental profession and to the nation. The expected growth in the numbers of racial and ethnic minorities, and the concomitant growth of immigrant populations are likely to lead to worsening of oral health disparities. Their consequences are becoming increasingly evident as the profession strives to improve the oral health of all Americans. The increasing diversity of the population, together with the importance of cultural beliefs and behaviors that affect health outcomes, will require ways to enhance provider-patient communications and oral health literacy. We discuss the nature and challenges presented by multicultural patient populations. One important means by which to promote oral health in diverse populations is to develop a dental workforce that is both culturally and linguistically competent, as well as one that is as culturally diverse as the American population. PMID:18329446

  6. Tobacco use among urban Aboriginal Australian young people: a qualitative study of reasons for smoking, barriers to cessation and motivators for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cosh, Suzanne; Hawkins, Kimberley; Skaczkowski, Gemma; Copley, David; Bowden, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Smoking prevalence among Aboriginal Australian young people greatly exceeds the prevalence in the broader population of Australian young people, yet limited research has explored the social context in which young Aboriginal Australians smoke. Four focus groups were conducted in 2009 with South Australian Aboriginal smokers aged 15-29 years residing in urban areas (n = 32) to examine attitudes and experiences surrounding smoking and quitting. The primary reasons for smoking initiation and maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people were identified as stress, social influence and boredom. Motivators for quitting were identified as pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons. The barriers to cessation were identified as social influence, the perception of quitting as a distant event and reluctance to access cessation support. However, it appears that social influences and stress were particularly salient contributors to smoking maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people. Smoking cessation interventions targeted at young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers should aim to build motivation to quit by utilising the motivators of pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons, while acknowledging the pertinent role of social influence and stress in the lives of young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers. PMID:24980459

  7. Health Issues and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, N.

    2009-04-01

    The possibility that solar activity and variations in the Earth's magnetic field may affect human health has been debated for many decades but is still a "scientific topic" in its infancy. By learning whether and, if so, how much the Earth's space weather can influence the daily health of people will be of practical importance. Knowing whether human genetics, include regulating factors that take into account fluctuations of the Earth's magnetic field and solar disturbances, indeed exist will also benefit future interplanetary space travelers. Because the atmospheres on other planets are different from ours, as well as their interaction with the space environment, one may ask whether we are equipped with the genetics necessary to take this variability into account. The goal of this presentation is to define what is meant by space weather as a health risk and identify the long-term socio-economic effects on society that such health risks would have. Identifying the physical links between space weather sources and different effects on human health, as well as the parameters (direct and indirect) to be monitored, the potential for such a cross-disciplinary study will be invaluable, for scientists and medical doctors, as well as for engineers.

  8. Ethnic Issues in Adolescent Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiffman, Arlene Rubin, Ed.; Davis, Larry E., Ed.

    The essays collected in this book examine the effects of ethnicity on the mental health of adolescents. A dual set of issues emerges throughout the volume: the importance of adolescent mental health in contributing to adult well-being, and the necessity of understanding ethnicity in studying and treating mental health problems. The book is divided…

  9. Marijuana. Health and treatment issues.

    PubMed

    Jones, R T

    1984-12-01

    Intermittent use of low-potency cannabis is not generally associated with obvious toxicity. In recent years, some cannabis users have been using high doses more frequently and seeking treatment. A large but incomplete literature indicates that cannabis can be harmful to health, and that virtually every system in the body is affected by cannabis. Cannabis pharmacology is complex; all recent scientific groups reviewing cannabis conclude it is clearly capable of causing adverse effects to health. Specific treatment procedures have not been developed for managing cannabis related problems. Strategies useful in treating other drug dependence problems are useful in treating dependence. PMID:6097886

  10. Health Issues Facing Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Inez Smith

    Black women in the United States experience a high incidence of serious health problems and, as a group, receive insufficient and inadequate medical care. The death rate for black women suffering from breast cancer has increased substantially since 1950. Also of great concern is the high incidence of cervical cancer in low income black women…

  11. Improving musculoskeletal health: global issues.

    PubMed

    Mody, Girish M; Brooks, Peter M

    2012-04-01

    Musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders are among the leading reasons why patients consult a family or primary health practitioner, take time off work and become disabled. Many of the MSK disorders are more common in the elderly. Thus, as the proportion of the elderly increases all over the world, MSK disorders will make a greater contribution to the global burden of disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that the spectrum of MSK disorders in developing countries is similar to that seen in industrialised countries, but the burden of disease tends to be higher due to a delay in diagnosis or lack of access to adequate health-care facilities for effective treatment. Musculoskeletal pain is very common in the community while fibromyalgia is being recognised as part of a continuum of chronic widespread pain rather than a narrowly defined entity. This will allow research to improve our understanding of pain in a variety of diffuse pain syndromes. The availability of newer more effective therapies has resulted in efforts to initiate therapy at an earlier stage of diseases. The new criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, and the diagnosis of axial and peripheral involvement in spondyloarthritis, permit an earlier diagnosis without having to wait for radiological changes. One of the major health challenges is the global shortage of health workers, and based on current training of health workers and traditional models of care for service delivery, the global situation is unlikely to change in the near future. Thus, new models of care and strategies to train community health-care workers and primary health-care practitioners to detect and initiate the management of patients with MSK disorders at an earlier stage are required. There is also a need for prevention strategies with campaigns to educate and raise awareness among the entire population. Lifestyle interventions such as maintaining an ideal body weight to prevent obesity, regular exercises, avoidance of smoking and alcohol

  12. Issue ads and the health reform debate.

    PubMed

    Bergan, Daniel; Risner, Genevieve

    2012-06-01

    The public debate over health care reform in 2009 was carried out partly through issue advertisements aired online and on television. Did these advertisements alter the course of the debate over health care reform? While millions of dollars are spent each year on issue ads, little is known about their effects. Results from a naturalistic online experiment on the effects of issue ads suggest that they can influence the perceived importance of an issue and perceptions of politicians associated with the featured policy while influencing policy support only among those low in political awareness. PMID:22323237

  13. Issues in national health insurance.

    PubMed Central

    Donabedian, A

    1976-01-01

    Health insurance, by reducing net price to the consumer and increasing the opportunities for revenue to the provider, has profound effects, among other things, on the volume, content and distribution of services, their prices, and the capacity of providers to produce them. The magnitude and nature of these effects depend, partly, on the design of insurance benefits and, partly, on the nature of the health care system, particularly its current and potential capacity and the methods it uses to pay providers. Those who believe that the unique aim of insurance is to protect against unpredictable expenses attempt to suppress these effects, mainly by imposing financial disincentives to utilization which, in turn, reduce protection for those who need it most. Those who wish to reform the system have a broader range of objectives which include protective efficacy, cost control, quantitative adequacy, qualitative adequacy, efficiency of production, efficiency of allocation, equity, and redistribution of capacity. An analysis of the effects of insurance in the light of these objectives reveals favorable as well as unfavorable consequences. The provision of comprehensive benefits generates the necessity for a fundamental change in the organization of health services, if the advantages are to be fully realized and the disadvantages minimized. PMID:817614

  14. "Too much moving...there's always a reason": Understanding urban Aboriginal peoples' experiences of mobility and its impact on holistic health.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Marcie; Wilson, Kathi

    2015-07-01

    Urban Indigenous peoples face a disproportionate burden of ill health compared to non-Indigenous populations, and experience more frequent geographic mobility. However, most of what is known about Indigenous health is limited to rural, northern, or in the case of Canada, reserve-based populations. Little is known about the complexities of urban Indigenous health, and the differential impacts of residential mobility and urban migration remain poorly understood. Drawing upon interviews with Aboriginal movers and service providers in Winnipeg, Canada, we apply a critical population health lens, informed by holistic health, to examine these impacts. The results demonstrate mobility is an intergenerational phenomenon, influenced by colonial practices. While migration can contribute to positive health experiences, residential mobility, which is largely involuntary, and linked to stressors such as neighborhood safety, results in negative health effects. PMID:26057895

  15. Adolescent Health Issues: State Actions 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendell, Nicole

    Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and drug abuse, and the consequences of these behaviors. This publication summarizes laws and resolutions on adolescent health issues passed in 1997 state and territory legislative sessions. No 1997 legislative session…

  16. Issues in Children's Mental Health. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmo, Margaret L.

    This Kids Count report examines issues related to children's mental health in Virginia. The report discusses the effects of children's mental illness, presents risk and protective factors, and describes the incidence of children's mental health problems. Information specific to Virginia is presented, including the prevalence of youth suicide,…

  17. Health Issues for Adults with Developmental Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Georgina; Couch, Murray A.; Iacono, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews recent literature on health issues for adults with developmental disabilities, reflecting on how it informs service provision, future research, and social and health policy. Results suggest future research should focus on interactions among biology, pathology, and behavioral and environmental determinants. More use of…

  18. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review.

    PubMed

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence gambling by Aboriginal groups, which are individually different, making it difficult to implement a cohesive strategy to address gambling-related harms. Because of this complexity, a thorough literature review is necessary to identify gaps in policy and research. This paper uses a public health framework to consider multi-dimensional influences (personal, environmental, economic, cultural and social) that affect gambling uptake. Such analysis is also important for identifying risk factors which facilitate the development and maintenance of problem gambling and potentially for underpinning protection, prevention and treatment programs. It is advised that strategies be developed in consultation with Aboriginal peoples to guide public health policy and research to minimise any gambling-related harms. PMID:24707239

  19. What factors contribute to positive early childhood health and development in Australian Aboriginal children? Protocol for a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data (The Seeding Success Study)

    PubMed Central

    Falster, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa; Eades, Sandra; Lynch, John; Banks, Emily; Brownell, Marni; Craven, Rhonda; Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Randall, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Australian Aboriginal children are more likely than non-Aboriginal children to have developmental vulnerability at school entry that tracks through to poorer literacy and numeracy outcomes and multiple social and health disadvantages in later life. Empirical evidence identifying the key drivers of positive early childhood development in Aboriginal children, and supportive features of local communities and early childhood service provision, are lacking. Methods and analysis The study population will be identified via linkage of Australian Early Development Census data to perinatal and birth registration data sets. It will include an almost complete population of children who started their first year of full-time school in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in 2009 and 2012. Early childhood health and development trajectories for these children will be constructed via linkage to a range of administrative data sets relating to birth outcomes, congenital conditions, hospital admissions, emergency department presentations, receipt of ambulatory mental healthcare services, use of general practitioner services, contact with child protection and out-of-home care services, receipt of income assistance and fact of death. Using multilevel modelling techniques, we will quantify the contributions of individual-level and area-level factors to variation in early childhood development outcomes in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Additionally, we will evaluate the impact of two government programmes that aim to address early childhood disadvantage, the NSW Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service and the Brighter Futures Program. These evaluations will use propensity score matching methods and multilevel modelling. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained for this study. Dissemination mechanisms include engagement of stakeholders (including representatives from Aboriginal community controlled organisations, policy agencies, service

  20. Ethical Issues in Pediatric Global Health.

    PubMed

    Adams, Lisa; Suresh, Gautham K; Lahey, Tim

    2016-02-01

    Children are vulnerable to the priorities and decision-making of adults. Usually, parents/caregivers make the difficult healthcare decisions for their children based on the recommendations from the child's healthcare providers. In global health work, healthcare team members from different countries and cultures may guide healthcare decisions by parents and children, and as a result ethical assumptions may not be shared. As a result, ethical issues in pediatric global health are numerous and complex. Here we discuss critical ethical issues in global health at an individual and organizational level in hopes this supports optimized decision-making on behalf of children worldwide. PMID:26613697

  1. Mental disabilities in an Aboriginal context.

    PubMed

    Mehl-Madrona, Lewis; Mainguy, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal (meaning original peoples) North American mental health is acknowledged to be in a more precarious state than that of the dominant cultures. Disability arises from the conditions of poverty, homelessness, and lack of resources that are compounded for North American aboriginal people by the historical trauma of conquest, being placed on reservations, residential schools, and continued discrimination. We present culturally sensitive and syntonic intervention programs that can reduce the impact of Aboriginal mental disabilities and discuss the commonality among these programs of celebrating culture, language, and tradition. PMID:26146771

  2. Couples Counseling for Aboriginal Clients Following Intimate Partner Violence: Service Providers' Perceptions of Risk.

    PubMed

    Riel, Elissa; Languedoc, Sue; Brown, Jason; Gerrits, Julie

    2016-02-01

    Interventions for family violence in Aboriginal communities should take a culture-based approach and focus on healing for the whole family. The purpose of this research was to identify risk issues from the perspective of service providers for couples counseling with Aboriginal clients following intimate partner violence. A total of 25 service providers participated in over the phone interviews concerning risk with Aboriginal men in couple counseling. Five concepts emerged including (a) collaterals, (b) commitment to change, (c) violence, (d) mind-set, and (e) mental health. It was concluded that culturally competent interventions should involve the entire community and have a restorative approach. The concepts were compared and contrasted with the available literature. PMID:25274747

  3. Absent otoacoustic emissions predict otitis media in young Aboriginal children: A birth cohort study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in an arid zone of Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Deborah; Weeks, Sharon; Jacoby, Peter; Elsbury, Dimity; Finucane, Janine; Stokes, Annette; Monck, Ruth; Coates, Harvey

    2008-01-01

    Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common paediatric illness for which antibiotics are prescribed. In Australian Aboriginal children OM is frequently asymptomatic and starts at a younger age, is more common and more likely to result in hearing loss than in non-Aboriginal children. Absent transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) may predict subsequent risk of OM. Methods 100 Aboriginal and 180 non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia were followed regularly from birth to age 2 years. Tympanometry was conducted at routine field follow-up from age 3 months. Routine clinical examination by an ENT specialist was to be done 3 times and hearing assessment by an audiologist twice. TEOAEs were measured at ages <1 and 1–2 months. Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the association between absent TEOAEs and subsequent risk of OM. Results At routine ENT specialist clinics, OM was detected in 55% of 184 examinations in Aboriginal children and 26% of 392 examinations in non-Aboriginal children; peak prevalence was 72% at age 5–9 months in Aboriginal children and 40% at 10–14 months in non-Aboriginal children. Moderate-severe hearing loss was present in 32% of 47 Aboriginal children and 7% of 120 non-Aboriginal children aged 12 months or more. TEOAE responses were present in 90% (46/51) of Aboriginal children and 99% (120/121) of non-Aboriginal children aged <1 month and in 62% (21/34) and 93% (108/116), respectively, in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children at age 1–2 months. Aboriginal children who failed TEOAE at age 1–2 months were 2.6 times more likely to develop OM subsequently than those who passed. Overall prevalence of type B tympanograms at field follow-up was 50% (n = 78) in Aboriginal children and 20% (n = 95) in non-Aboriginal children. Conclusion The burden of middle ear disease is high in all children, but particularly in Aboriginal children, one-third of whom suffer from moderate-severe hearing

  4. Ethical issues and the electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Layman, Elizabeth J

    2008-01-01

    Ethical issues related to electronic health records (EHRs) confront health personnel. Electronic health records create conflict among several ethical principals. Electronic health records may represent beneficence because they are alleged to increase access to health care, improve the quality of care and health, and decrease costs. Research, however, has not consistently demonstrated access for disadvantaged persons, the accuracy of EHRs, their positive effects on productivity, nor decreased costs. Should beneficence be universally acknowledged, conflicts exist with other ethical principles. Autonomy is jeopardized when patients' health data are shared or linked without the patients' knowledge. Fidelity is breached by the exposure of thousands of patients' health data through mistakes or theft. Lack of confidence in the security of health data may induce patients to conceal sensitive information. As a consequence, their treatment may be compromised. Justice is breached when persons, because of their socioeconomic class or age, do not have equal access to health information resources and public health services. Health personnel, leaders, and policy makers should discuss the ethical implications of EHRs before the occurrence of conflicts among the ethical principles. Recommendations to guide health personnel, leaders, and policy makers are provided. PMID:18475119

  5. The health of urban Aboriginal people: insufficient data to close the gap.

    PubMed

    Eades, Sandra J; Taylor, Bronwen; Bailey, Sandra; Williamson, Anna B; Craig, Jonathan C; Redman, Sally

    2010-11-01

    The Australian Government has committed to reducing Indigenous disadvantage, including closing the life-expectancy gap within a generation, and to halving the gap in mortality rates for children under 5 years of age within a decade. Sixty per cent of the health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians is attributable to the health of Indigenous people living in non-remote areas of Australia. We conducted a brief review of recent Australian original research publications on the health of the 53% of Indigenous people who live in urban areas, and found that data are sparse; there were only 63 studies in the past 5 years (11% of all articles about Indigenous health during this period). Although Indigenous Australians living in remote areas experience greater health disparity, the government will not achieve its aims without paying due attention to the non-remote-living population. More research is required, and particularly research that actually tests the impact of policies and programs. PMID:21034386

  6. Culture, history, and health in an Australian aboriginal community: the case of utopia.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Heather; Kowal, Emma

    2012-01-01

    The poor health of Indigenous Australians is well established. However, the health of residents of one remote community in the Northern Territory of Australia called Utopia has been found recently to be much better than expected. In this article, we draw on historical anthropological research to explain this finding. We trace how cultural and social structures were maintained through changing eras of government policy from the 1930s, and show how these structures strengthened psychosocial determinants of health. We argue that the mainstream psychosocial determinants of social cohesion and self-efficacy are usefully reconceptualized in an Indigenous context as connectedness to culture and land, and collective efficacy, respectively. Continuity of cultural and social structures into the 1940s was facilitated by a combination of factors including the relatively late colonial occupation, the intercultural practices typical of the pastoral industry, the absence of a mission or government settlement, and the individual personalities and histories of those connected to Utopia. PMID:22881383

  7. Prevalence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Maria B; Voaklander, Donald C; Stickland, Michael K; King, Malcolm; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Rowe, Brian H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have considerable potential for inequities in diagnosis and treatment, thereby affecting vulnerable groups. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in asthma and COPD prevalence between adult Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, specialized databases and the grey literature up to October 2011 were searched to identify epidemiological studies comparing asthma and COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adult populations. Prevalence ORs (PORs) and 95% CIs were calculated in a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Of 132 studies, eight contained relevant data. Aboriginal populations included Native Americans, Canadian Aboriginals, Australian Aboriginals and New Zealand Maori. Overall, Aboriginals were more likely to report having asthma than non-Aboriginals (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.23 to 1.60]), particularly among Canadian Aboriginals (POR 1.80 [95% CI 1.68 to 1.93]), Native Americans (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.13 to 1.76]) and Maori (POR 1.64 [95% CI 1.40 to 1.91]). Australian Aboriginals were less likely to report asthma (POR 0.49 [95% CI 0.28 to 0.86]). Sex differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginals and their non-Aboriginal counterparts were not identified. One study compared COPD prevalence between Native and non-Native Americans, with similar rates in both groups (POR 1.08 [95% CI 0.81 to 1.44]). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations exist in a variety of countries. Studies comparing COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations are scarce. Further investigation is needed to identify and account for factors associated with respiratory health inequalities among Aboriginal peoples. PMID:23248798

  8. Smoking among Aboriginal adults in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Punitha; Poder, Natasha; Welsh, Kerry; Bellear, LaVerne; Heathcote, Jeremy; Wright, Darryl; Millen, Elizabeth; Spinks, Mark; Williams, Mandy; Wen, Li Ming

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Tobacco consumption contributes to health disparities among Aboriginal Australians who experience a greater burden of smoking-related death and diseases. This paper reports findings from a baseline survey on factors associated with smoking, cessation behaviours and attitudes towards smoke-free homes among the Aboriginal population in inner and south-western Sydney. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in inner and south-western Sydney from October 2010 to July 2011. The survey applied both interviewer-administered and self-administered data collection methods. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with smoking. Results Six hundred and sixty-three participants completed the survey. The majority were female (67.5%), below the age of 50 (66.6%) and more than half were employed (54.7%). Almost half were current smokers (48.4%) with the majority intending to quit in the next 6 months (79.0%) and living in a smoke-free home (70.4%). Those aged 30-39 years (AOR 3.28; 95% CI: 2.06-5.23) and the unemployed (AOR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.11-2.51) had higher odds for current smoking. Participants who had a more positive attitude towards smoke-free homes were less likely to smoke (AOR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.74-.85). Conclusions A high proportion of participants were current smokers among whom intention to quit was high. Age, work status and attitudes towards smoke-free home were factors associated with smoking. So what? The findings address the scarcity of local evidence crucial for promoting cessation among Aboriginal tobacco smokers. Targeted promotions for socio-demographic subgroups and of attitudes towards smoke-free homes could be meaningful strategies for future smoking-cessation initiatives. PMID:26235612

  9. 'We know the aborigines are dying out': Aboriginal people and the quest to ensure their survival, Wave Hill Station, 1944.

    PubMed

    Gray, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    In 1939 an Australian anthropologist, W.E.H Stanner, believed that the nation needed to examine the question of biological and cultural preservation of the Aboriginal peoples. In an attempt to address the issue a range of proposals were suggested, most concentrating on the provision of adequate nutrition, proper medical supervision, good conditions of employment, appropriately trained field staff with sufficient financial resources, and the creation of inviolable reserves. This paper is a case study of a northwest Northern Territory cattle station, Wave Hill, where a survey conducted by two anthropologists aimed to reveal the causes of population decline on Vestey owned cattle stations. Could these anthropologists devise a way that would see an increase in station labour without having to seek new labour from marginal areas--'bush' people as they were called? Could they provide an answer to the wider challenge of stemming population decline through improving Aboriginal health? PMID:25095482

  10. "If you don't believe it, it won't help you": use of bush medicine in treating cancer among Aboriginal people in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the use of bush medicine and traditional healing among Aboriginal Australians for their treatment of cancer and the meanings attached to it. A qualitative study that explored Aboriginal Australians' perspectives and experiences of cancer and cancer services in Western Australia provided an opportunity to analyse the contemporary meanings attached and use of bush medicine by Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia Methods Data collection occurred in Perth, both rural and remote areas and included individual in-depth interviews, observations and field notes. Of the thirty-seven interviews with Aboriginal cancer patients, family members of people who died from cancer and some Aboriginal health care providers, 11 participants whose responses included substantial mention on the issue of bush medicine and traditional healing were selected for the analysis for this paper. Results The study findings have shown that as part of their healing some Aboriginal Australians use traditional medicine for treating their cancer. Such healing processes and medicines were preferred by some because it helped reconnect them with their heritage, land, culture and the spirits of their ancestors, bringing peace of mind during their illness. Spiritual beliefs and holistic health approaches and practices play an important role in the treatment choices for some patients. Conclusions Service providers need to acknowledge and understand the existence of Aboriginal knowledge (epistemology) and accept that traditional healing can be an important addition to an Aboriginal person's healing complementing Western medical treatment regimes. Allowing and supporting traditional approaches to treatment reflects a commitment by modern medical services to adopting an Aboriginal-friendly approach that is not only culturally appropriate but assists with the cultural security of the service. PMID:20569478

  11. Current health issues in Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    During the adolescent period, they experience rapid physical, emotional, cognitive developments while they establish their lifestyle and habitual routines that strongly influence adult health and life. Recent rapid economic growth in Korea, and the earlier onset of physical, sexual, and psychological maturation of adolescents, has resulted in changes in the health status of adolescents from many years ago. Risk-taking behaviors such as drinking alcohol, smoking, and sexual experiences are critical issues that affect the health of, adolescents. Therefore, it is important for pediatricians to note the that risk-taking behaviors of adolescents in Korea that are caused by individual psychosocial factors. This review article illustrates the current health status of Korean adolescents and provides an overview of risk-taking behaviors, to inform pediatricians about some of the key issues. PMID:22232620

  12. Rotorcraft Health Management Issues and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, James J.; Dempsey, Paula J.; Huff, Edward M.; Augustin, Michael; Safa-Bakhsh, Robab; Ephraim, Piet; Grabil, Paul; Decker, Harry J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of health management issues and challenges that are specific to rotorcraft. Rotorcraft form a unique subset of air vehicles in that their propulsion system is used not only for propulsion, but also serves as the primary source of lift and maneuvering of the vehicle. No other air vehicle relies on the propulsion system to provide these functions through a transmission system with single critical load paths without duplication or redundancy. As such, health management of the power train is a critical and unique part of any rotorcraft health management system. This paper focuses specifically on the issues and challenges related to the dynamic mechanical components in the main power train. This includes the transmission and main rotor mechanisms. This paper will review standard practices used for rotorcraft health management, lessons learned from fielded trials, and future challenges.

  13. Mental Health Issues and Special Care Patients.

    PubMed

    Clark, David B

    2016-07-01

    Mental illness is a major health issue in the world today, yet often remains misunderstood, unrecognized, and undertreated. Patients suffering from severe psychiatric disorders generally display poor oral health, often as a consequence of both lifestyle and avoidant-type behaviors that become exacerbated by their illness. Individuals with severe mental illness display a greater incidence of oral disease compared with a similar demographic not dealing with these particular disorders. Efforts to enhance the oral health of these vulnerable patients will play a significant role in the overall rebuilding of their self-esteem and contribute positively to their journey toward stability and recovery. PMID:27264850

  14. Health Related Legal Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen B.

    This monograph analyzes health and safety issues in education in terms of relevant constitutional and statutory provisions. Chapter 1, an introduction, summarizes Fourteenth Amendment equal protection and due process clauses and defines "handicapped" under the Rehabilitation Act. State assistance and student eligibility under the Education for All…

  15. Tough New Issues Refocus Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    From dating violence to sexting and social networking, districts are struggling to address a number of sensitive and relatively new health education issues that are aggravated by students' increasing access to computers, cell phones and other digital devices. Through new or revised curricula, administrators are attempting to deal with these and…

  16. Strategies in Aboriginal Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Alan T.

    1973-01-01

    Traditional Aboriginal practices render traditional adult education programs futile. Aboriginal adult education must be concerned with the growth and development of the total personality. Adopted strategies must motivate Aborigines as individuals and as members of the community. (AG)

  17. Five major NASA health and safety issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    2000-01-01

    The goal has been set to establish NASA as number one in safety in the nation. This includes Systems and Mission Safety as well as Occupational Safety for all NASA employees and contractors on and off the job. There are five major health and safety issues important in the pursuit of being number one and they are: (1) Radiation (2) Hearing (3) Habitability/Toxicology (4) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) (5) Stress. The issues have features of accumulated injury since NASA's future missions involve long time human presence in space i.e., International Space Station operations and Mars missions. The objective of this paper is to discuss these five issues in terms of controlling risks and enhancing health and safety. Safety metrics are discussed in terms of the overall goal of NASA to be number one in safety. .

  18. Women's Health. Report of the Public Health Service Task Force on Women's Health Issues. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report identifies a broad spectrum of issues affecting women's health and is divided into four sections: (1) social factors affecting women's health; (2) women's physical health and well-being; (3) health concerns of older women; and (4) issues related to alcohol, drug use and abuse, and the mental health of women. The Public Health Service…

  19. The Process of Coping with Changes: A Study of Learning Experiences for the Aboriginal Nursing Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ruo Lan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the increasing presence of aborigines in Taiwan higher education, especially in nursing institutes, the retention and adaptation of aboriginal students is a critical issue for research. Understanding the adjustment and transformation process of aboriginal nursing freshmen is very important for improving their learning, but very…

  20. Depression in Aboriginal men in central Australia: adaptation of the Patient Health Questionnaire 9

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While Indigenous Australians are believed to be at a high risk of psychological illness, few screening instruments have been designed to accurately measure this burden. Rather than simply transposing western labels of symptoms, this paper describes the process by which a screening tool for depression was specifically adapted for use across multiple Indigenous Australian communities. Method Potential depression screening instruments were identified and interrogated according to a set of pre-defined criteria. A structured process was then developed which relied on the expertise of five focus groups comprising of members from primary Indigenous language groups in central Australia. First, focus group participants were asked to review and select a screening measure for adaptation. Bi-lingual experts then translated and back translated the language within the selected measure. Focus group participants re-visited the difficult items, explored their meaning and identified potential ways to achieve equivalence of meaning. Results All five focus groups independently selected the Primary Health Questionnaire 9, several key conceptual differences were exposed, largely related to the construction of hopelessness. Together with translated versions of each instrument for each of the five languages, a single, simplified English version for use across heterogeneous settings was negotiated. Importantly, the ‘code’ and specific conceptually equivalent words that could be used for other Indigenous language groups were also developed. Conclusions The extensive process of adaptation used in this study has demonstrated that within the context of Indigenous Australian communities, across multiple language groups, where English is often a third or fourth language, conceptual and linguistic equivalence of psychological constructs can be negotiated. A validation study is now required to assess the adapted instrument’s potential for measuring the burden of disease across all

  1. Reconsidering Approaches to Aboriginal Science and Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterenberg, Gladys; Hogue, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In Canada, Aboriginal postsecondary enrollment and completion rates are significantly lower than those of non-Aboriginal students. This is most evident in studies involving science and mathematics. The investigation of this issue was informed by focus group discussions with eight participants representing a Blackfoot community. Themes emerging in…

  2. Creating Community: A Roundtable on Canadian Aboriginal Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eigenbrod, Renate, Ed.; Episkenew, Jo-Ann, Ed.

    This book contains 13 essays on Canadian Aboriginal literature. Topics include literary criticism, pedagogical issues, and the experiences of Native authors and of faculty teaching Aboriginal literature in mainstream institutions. Entries are: (1) "Natives on Native Literature: What Do We Rightly Write? Or: Shot Headfirst from the Canon" (Anna…

  3. Aboriginal English in the Classroom: An Asset or a Liability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharifian, Farzad

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses issues surrounding the use of Australian Aboriginal English in the classroom in the light of a recent survey. Aboriginal English is often correlated with low academic performance and poor school attendance. The paper argues that in any discussion of the school role of students' home talk, a range of factors need to be…

  4. Emerging issues in public health genomics

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J. Scott

    2014-01-01

    This review highlights emerging areas of interest in public health genomics. First, recent advances in newborn screening (NBS) are described, with a focus on practice and policy implications of current and future efforts to expand NBS programs (e.g., via next-generation sequencing). Next, research findings from the rapidly progressing field of epigenetics and epigenomics are detailed, highlighting ways in which our emerging understanding in these areas could guide future intervention and research efforts in public health. We close by considering various ethical, legal and social issues posed by recent developments in public health genomics; these include policies to regulate access to personal genomic information; the need to enhance genetic literacy in both health professionals and the public; and challenges in ensuring that the benefits (and burdens) from genomic discoveries and applications are equitably distributed. Needs for future genomics research that integrates across basic and social sciences are also noted. PMID:25184533

  5. Promoting the health of Aboriginal Australians through empowerment: eliciting the components of the family well-being empowerment and leadership programme.

    PubMed

    Laliberté, Arlene; Haswell, Melissa; Tsey, Komla

    2012-12-01

    Most policies addressing Aboriginal health in Australia promote initiatives that are based on empowerment principles. Articulated programme components are necessary to support personal and group empowerment and to assist individuals in gaining the sense of control and purposefulness needed to exert their political and personal power in the face of the severe stress and powerlessness faced by the Australian Aboriginal people. This paper aims to provide a detailed description of the mechanisms underpinning a 'bottom-up' empowerment initiative, the Family well-being empowerment and leadership programme (FWB), and to analyze how the programme supports empowerment. The five stages of FWB were described and the validity of this model was assessed through the combination of participatory observation, documentation analysis, literature review, semi-structured interviews and iterative feedback with different analytical perspectives. Our study results articulated four distinct programme components: the setting plus inter-relational, educational and experiential actions. FWB is an example of the promotion of both outcome and process pathways towards empowerment. Potential applications of the programme are discussed. PMID:24803441

  6. Knowledge of an Aboriginal Language and School Outcomes for Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevremont, Anne; Kohen, Dafna E.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses data from the child and adult components of the 2001 Canadian Aboriginal Peoples Survey to examine what factors are related to speaking an Aboriginal language and how speaking an Aboriginal language is related to school outcomes. Even after controlling for child and family factors (age, sex, health status, household income, number…

  7. Outage management and health physics issue, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2007-05-15

    The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles/reports in this issue include: India: a potential commercial opportunity, a U.S. Department of Commerce Report, by Joe Neuhoff and Justin Rathke; The changing climate for nuclear energy, by Skip Bowman, Nuclear Energy Insitute; Selecting protective clothing, by J. Mark Price, Southern California Edison; and Succssful refurbishment outage, by Sudesh K. Gambhir, Omaha Public Power District. Industry innovation articles in this issue are: Containment radiation monitoring spiking, by Michael W. Lantz and Robert Routolo, Arizona Public Service Company; Improved outage performance, by Michael Powell and Troy Wilfong, Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station; Stop repacking valves and achieve leak-free performance, by Kenneth Hart, PPL Susquehanna LLC; and Head assembly upgrade package, by Timothy Petit, Dominion Nuclear.

  8. Emerging health issues: the widening challenge for population health promotion.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J; Butler, Colin D

    2006-12-01

    The spectrum of tasks for health promotion has widened since the Ottawa Charter was signed. In 1986, infectious diseases still seemed in retreat, the potential extent of HIV/AIDS was unrecognized, the Green Revolution was at its height and global poverty appeared less intractable. Global climate change had not yet emerged as a major threat to development and health. Most economists forecast continuous improvement, and chronic diseases were broadly anticipated as the next major health issue. Today, although many broadly averaged measures of population health have improved, many of the determinants of global health have faltered. Many infectious diseases have emerged; others have unexpectedly reappeared. Reasons include urban crowding, environmental changes, altered sexual relations, intensified food production and increased mobility and trade. Foremost, however, is the persistence of poverty and the exacerbation of regional and global inequality. Life expectancy has unexpectedly declined in several countries. Rather than being a faint echo from an earlier time of hardship, these declines could signify the future. Relatedly, the demographic and epidemiological transitions have faltered. In some regions, declining fertility has overshot that needed for optimal age structure, whereas elsewhere mortality increases have reduced population growth rates, despite continuing high fertility. Few, if any, Millennium Development Goals (MDG), including those for health and sustainability, seem achievable. Policy-makers generally misunderstand the link between environmental sustainability (MDG #7) and health. Many health workers also fail to realize that social cohesion and sustainability--maintenance of the Earth's ecological and geophysical systems--is a necessary basis for health. In sum, these issues present an enormous challenge to health. Health promotion must address population health influences that transcend national boundaries and generations and engage with the

  9. Pacific issues of biodiversity, health and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Englberger, Lois; Lorens, Adelino; Guarino, Luigi; Taylor, Mary; Snowdon, Wendy; Maddison, Marie; Mieger, Judy; Thomson, Lex; Lippwe, Kipier; Rimon, Betarim; Fitzgerald, Maureen H; Tibon, Jorelik; Sohhrab, Sepehr; Ehmes, Okean; Rally, Jim; Shed, Patterson

    2007-09-01

    Neglect of traditional food systems has led to serious nutrition and health problems throughout the Pacific Islands. At the same time, there is concern about the loss of traditional knowledge, customs and culture related to local foods, and of biodiversity. However, there is still a great diversity of nutrient-rich local food crops in the Pacific, along with considerable knowledge about these foods, their methods of production, harvesting, storage, and preparation. An integrated approach is needed in order to make a meaningful impact on increased production, marketing/processing and use of local food crops and foods for better health and nutrition, requiring greater collaboration between the health sector and agencies in other sectors. Priorities for action include: documentation and assessment of traditional food systems, including analysis of local foods and crop varieties for their nutrient content; innovative means of increasing awareness of the values of local foods among the general public and policy makers; conservation of rare varieties of crops and food trees and protection of the environment; and an increased focus on small-scale processing and marketing of local foods. Overriding all of this is the urgent need to mainstream consideration of these important issues into relevant national and regional policies. The rubric "Biodiversity for Health and Nutrition" incorporates all of these issues and provides a framework within which all partner agencies can be involved. PMID:19588616

  10. Women's health is a community issue.

    PubMed

    Irvin, A

    1997-01-01

    When a member of the Community Life Project in Nigeria led a group of women in a discussion about HIV/AIDS, the women reported that they understood that condom use is the best means of protection but that they were unable to negotiate condom use with their husbands. Even if the women were economically independent, they would rather face the risk of HIV/AIDS than divorce. Thus, efforts to improve women's health have not generated much change on the local level. This can also be seen by the facts that current programs have failed to reduce the numbers of women dying from pregnancy-related causes each year, nearly 3000 women die from tuberculosis each day, women suffer occupational health risks, and domestic violence is an important determinant of health problems for women. Because women lack power in many societies, efforts to effect individual change may be blocked by a woman's particular circumstances. Thus, the involvement of entire communities is necessary to improve the conditions affecting women's health. Community-level discussions may open the door for couples to discuss sexuality and gender-based issues as well as safer sex behavior. Despite the important role they can play, women's community health groups face stiff challenges because of a lack of knowledge or training and because of the difficulty in overcoming gender-based discrimination. The Hesperian Foundation's publication, "Where Women Have No Doctor," is an excellent resource for understanding how poverty and gender issues affect women's health. The book contains practical information, promotes a model of community-based responses to problems with social origins, and shares experiences of grassroots groups world-wide. PMID:12292725

  11. Improving Aboriginal maternal and infant health services in the ‘Top End’ of Australia; synthesis of the findings of a health services research program aimed at engaging stakeholders, developing research capacity and embedding change

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health services research is a well-articulated research methodology and can be a powerful vehicle to implement sustainable health service reform. This paper presents a summary of a five-year collaborative program between stakeholders and researchers that led to sustainable improvements in the maternity services for remote-dwelling Aboriginal women and their infants in the Top End (TE) of Australia. Methods A mixed-methods health services research program of work was designed, using a participatory approach. The study area consisted of two large remote Aboriginal communities in the Top End of Australia and the hospital in the regional centre (RC) that provided birth and tertiary care for these communities. The stakeholders included consumers, midwives, doctors, nurses, Aboriginal Health Workers (AHW), managers, policy makers and support staff. Data were sourced from: hospital and health centre records; perinatal data sets and costing data sets; observations of maternal and infant health service delivery and parenting styles; formal and informal interviews with providers and women and focus groups. Studies examined: indicator sets that identify best care, the impact of quality of care and remoteness on health outcomes, discrepancies in the birth counts in a range of different data sets and ethnographic studies of ‘out of hospital’ or health centre birth and parenting. A new model of maternity care was introduced by the health service aiming to improve care following the findings of our research. Some of these improvements introduced during the five-year research program of research were evaluated. Results Cost effective improvements were made to the acceptability, quality and outcomes of maternity care. However, our synthesis identified system-wide problems that still account for poor quality of infant services, specifically, unacceptable standards of infant care and parent support, no apparent relationship between volume and acuity of presentations

  12. Aboriginal Education Program, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since the beginning of time, Aboriginal people have had a high regard for education. Euro-Canadian contact with Aboriginal peoples has and continues to have devastating effects. The encroachment on their traditional territory has affected the lands and resources forever. Generations of experience within the residential school system have greatly…

  13. Aboriginal English. PEN 93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eades, Diana

    This report focuses on the teaching of English to Aboriginal children in primary schools in Australia. A definition and analysis of dialectal differences between Aboriginal (Australian) English and Standard (Australian) English is offered that includes the phonological, morpho-syntactic, lexico-semantic, and pragmatic differences of the Aboriginal…

  14. Bullying in an Aboriginal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Juli; Larson, Ann; Cross, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Aboriginal children appear to be more likely to be involved in bullying than non-Aboriginal children. This paper describes part of the "Solid Kids Solid Schools" research process and discusses some of the results from this three year study involving over 260 Aboriginal children, youth, elders, teachers and Aboriginal Indigenous Education Officers…

  15. Scleroderma in Australian aborigines.

    PubMed

    Zurauskas, J; Beroukas, D; Walker, J G; Smith, M D; Ahern, M J; Roberts-Thomson, P J

    2005-01-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) has not been reported before in Australian Aborigines. We describe in detail a community middle-aged Aboriginal woman whose diffuse scleroderma terminated fatally with a renal crisis. Moreover, we have identified a further five Aboriginal patients on the South Australian Scleroderma Register (two with diffuse, two with limited and one with overlap scleroderma), a number consistent with that expected from the 2001 census data for our state. However, an analysis of all antinuclear antibody (ANA) requests from the Top End of Australia over a 6-year period revealed only two Aborigines with low titre anticentromere antibody (despite frequent occurrence of ANA with other specificities). Neither of these Aborigines had features of scleroderma. In conclusion, scleroderma does occur in indigenous Australians but further studies are needed to confirm the apparent infrequency of centromere-associated limited scleroderma (which is the commonest form of scleroderma in our Caucasian population). PMID:15667472

  16. Being, knowing, and doing: a phronetic approach to constructing grounded theory with Aboriginal Australian partners.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Roxanne; Whiteside, Mary; McCalman, Janya

    2013-02-01

    Researchers working with Aboriginal Australian partners are confronted with an array of historical, social, and political complexities which make it difficult to come to theoretical and methodological decisions. In this article, we describe a culturally safe and respectful framework that maintains the intellectual and theoretical rigor expected of academic research. As an Aboriginal woman and two non-Aboriginal women, we discuss the arguments and some of the challenges of using grounded theory methods in Aboriginal Australian contexts, giving examples from our studies of Aboriginal empowerment processes. We argue that the ethics of care and responsibility embedded in Aboriginal research methodologies fit well with grounded theory studies of Aboriginal social processes. We maintain that theory development grounded in data provides useful insights into the processes for raising the health, well-being, and prosperity of Aboriginal Australians. PMID:23208201

  17. Cardiovascular Health Issues in Inner City Populations.

    PubMed

    Nayyar, Dhruv; Hwang, Stephen W

    2015-09-01

    Inner city populations in high-income countries carry a disproportionately high burden of cardiovascular disease. Although low individual socioeconomic status has long been associated with higher morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, there is a growing body of evidence that area-level socioeconomic status may also have a major effect on cardiovascular outcomes. A lack of supermarkets, limited green space, and high rates of violent crime in inner city neighbourhoods result in poor dietary intake and low rates of physical activity among residents. The physical and social environments of inner city neighbourhoods may also contribute to high rates of comorbid mental illness in disadvantaged urban populations. Mental illness may lead to the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors through its impact on health behaviours, effects of psychiatric medications, and sequelae of substance abuse. Individuals residing in disadvantaged neighbourhoods experience reduced access to both primary preventive and acute in-hospital cardiovascular care. This may be driven by financial disincentives for caring for patients with low socioeconomic status, as well as system capacity issues in the inner city, and patient-level differences in health-seeking behaviours. Small-scale studies of interventions to improve individual-level health behaviours and access to care in the inner city have demonstrated some success in improving cardiovascular outcomes through the use of mobile clinics, health coaching, and case management approaches. There is a need for further research into community-wide interventions to improve the cardiovascular health of inner city populations. PMID:26321435

  18. Gender issues in reproductive health: a review.

    PubMed

    Adinma, Echendu D; Adinma, Brian-D J I

    2011-01-01

    Gender, for its impact on virtually every contemporary life issue, can rightly be regarded as a foremost component of reproductive health. Reproductive health basically emphasises on people and their rights to sexuality, reproduction, and family planning, and the information to actualize these right, which has been inextricably linked to development at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, in 1994. Women's sexual and reproductive rights became recognised as universal human right, violations of which occur in some reproductive health areas including gender concerns. Gender inequality and inequity encompass gender based violence as well as gender discrimination which cuts across the life cycle of the woman; attitudes, religious and cultural practices of various nations; and issues related to employment, economy, politics, and development. The redress of gender inequality is a collective responsibility of nations and supranational agencies. Nations should adopt a framework hinged on three pedestals--legal, institutional and policy, employing the three recommended approaches of equal treatment, positive action, and gender mainstreaming. PMID:21970255

  19. Outage management and health physics issue, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2006-05-15

    The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles/reports in this issue include: A design with experience for the U.S., by Michael J. Wallace, Constellation Generation Group; Hope to be among the first, by Randy Hutchinson, Entergy Nuclear; Plans to file COLs in 2008, by Garry Miller, Progress Energy; Evolution of ICRP's recommendations, by Lars-Erik Holm, ICRP; European network on education and training in radiological protection, by Michele Coeck, SCK-CEN, Belgium; Outage managment: an important tool for improving nuclear power plant performance, by Thomas Mazour and Jiri Mandula, IAEA, Austria; and Plant profile: Exploring new paths to excellence, by Anne Thomas, Exelon Nuclear.

  20. Economies through Application of Nonmedical Primary-Preventative Health: Lessons from the Healthy Country Healthy People Experience of Australia's Aboriginal People.

    PubMed

    Campbell, David

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization reports noncommunicable disease as a global pandemic. While national and international health research/policy bodies, such as the World Health Organization and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, emphasize the importance of preventative health, there is a continuing distortion in the allocation of resources to curative health as a result of government failure. Government failure is, in part, the result of a political response to individual preference for certainty in receiving treatment for specific health conditions, rather than the uncertainty of population-based preventative intervention. This has led to a failure to engage with those primary causative factors affecting chronic disease, namely the psychosocial stressors, in which the socioeconomic determinants are an important component. Such causal factors are open to manipulation through government policies and joint government-government, government-private cooperation through application of nonmedical primary-preventative health policies. The health benefits of Aboriginal people in traditional land management, or caring-for-country, in remote to very remote Australia, is used to exemplify the social benefits of nonmedical primary-preventative health intervention. Such practices form part of the "healthy country, health people" concept that is traditionally relied upon by Indigenous peoples. Possible health and wider private good and public good social benefits are shown to occur across multiple disciplines and jurisdictions with the possibility of substantial economies. General principles in the application of nonmedical primary-preventative health activities are developed through consideration of the experience of Afboriginal people participation in traditional caring-for-country. PMID:27534723

  1. Economies through Application of Nonmedical Primary-Preventative Health: Lessons from the Healthy Country Healthy People Experience of Australia’s Aboriginal People

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, David

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization reports noncommunicable disease as a global pandemic. While national and international health research/policy bodies, such as the World Health Organization and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, emphasize the importance of preventative health, there is a continuing distortion in the allocation of resources to curative health as a result of government failure. Government failure is, in part, the result of a political response to individual preference for certainty in receiving treatment for specific health conditions, rather than the uncertainty of population-based preventative intervention. This has led to a failure to engage with those primary causative factors affecting chronic disease, namely the psychosocial stressors, in which the socioeconomic determinants are an important component. Such causal factors are open to manipulation through government policies and joint government-government, government-private cooperation through application of nonmedical primary-preventative health policies. The health benefits of Aboriginal people in traditional land management, or caring-for-country, in remote to very remote Australia, is used to exemplify the social benefits of nonmedical primary-preventative health intervention. Such practices form part of the “healthy country, health people” concept that is traditionally relied upon by Indigenous peoples. Possible health and wider private good and public good social benefits are shown to occur across multiple disciplines and jurisdictions with the possibility of substantial economies. General principles in the application of nonmedical primary-preventative health activities are developed through consideration of the experience of Afboriginal people participation in traditional caring-for-country. PMID:27482574

  2. Issues of accountability in mental health administration.

    PubMed

    Sneed, R J; Lee, J R

    1984-01-01

    The issue of accountability in state hospitals and state schools-hospitals can be expected to remain paramount in the future. Almost all areas of mental health services are being scrutinized by consumers who are demanding more for their money. From the Perspective of the mental administrator consumers will have to become a more meaningful part of the decision making process to produce productive changes in these human service fields. Thus, to this end, human service institutions must have the ability to function as open systems and must develop a sense of responsiveness to their consumers' needs. PMID:10269100

  3. Rape: Legal issues in mental health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jiloha, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions. It is a crime against basic human right and a most common crime against women in India. In this article, rape is discussed from legal and mental health perspective. In India ‘rape laws’ began with enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments and the main issue of focus remained the definition of ‘rape and inclusion of ‘marital rape’ in the ambit of rape. Law Commission Reports related to rape and the psychological impacts of rape have been discussed. PMID:24082245

  4. Ethical Issues in Perinatal Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Anna R.; Shivakumar, Geetha; Lee, Simon Craddock; Inrig, Stephen J.; Sadler, John Z.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of Review To review the background of current ethical standards for the conduct of perinatal mental health research and describe the ethical challenges in this research domain. Recent Findings Current literature reflects a growing sentiment in the scientific community that having no information regarding the impact of psychiatric treatment on the mother and developing fetus/infant poses dangers that may exceed the risks involved in research. However, without sufficient consensus across the scientific community, both regulatory bodies and perinatal researchers find themselves without a framework for decision making that satisfactorily limits the risks and facilitates the benefits of participation of pregnant and lactating women in clinical research. Summary Psychiatric research in perinatal mental health is critically important as it enables clinicians and patients to participate in informed decision-making concerning treatment for psychiatric disorders. Specific areas of concern include fetal safety, maternal risk, the therapeutic misconception, commercial interests, forensic/legal issues, the informed consent process, and study design. Developing guidelines that address ethical challenges and include the views and concerns of multiple stakeholders could improve the access of perinatal women to the benefits of participation in mental health research in addition to providing evidence-based mental health care for this subpopulation. PMID:19734786

  5. Health Issues at Work: Opportunities for Industrial/Organizational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgen, Daniel R.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses why health issues should be addressed, and why industrial/organizational psychologists should address these issues in the workplace. Presents five models for addressing health at work. Explores health-related criteria as sources for studying and developing programs concerning health. Discusses responses to health at work on an individual…

  6. Exploration of the beliefs and experiences of Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia: a methodology to acknowledge cultural difference and build understanding

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes, and are 2.5 times more likely to die from cancer than non-Aboriginal people, even after adjustment for stage of diagnosis, cancer treatment and comorbidities. They are also less likely to present early as a result of symptoms and to access treatment. Psycho-social factors affect Aboriginal people's willingness and ability to participate in cancer-related screening and treatment services, but little exploration of this has occurred within Australia to date. The current research adopted a phenomenological qualitative approach to understand and explore the lived experiences of Aboriginal Australians with cancer and their beliefs and understanding around this disease in Western Australia (WA). This paper details considerations in the design and process of conducting the research. Methods/Design The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines for ethical conduct of Aboriginal research were followed. Researchers acknowledged the past negative experiences of Aboriginal people with research and were keen to build trust and relationships prior to conducting research with them. Thirty in-depth interviews with Aboriginal people affected by cancer and twenty with health service providers were carried out in urban, rural and remote areas of WA. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Participants' narratives were divided into broad categories to allow identification of key themes and discussed by the research team. Discussion and conclusion Key issues specific to Aboriginal research include the need for the research process to be relationship-based, respectful, culturally appropriate and inclusive of Aboriginal people. Researchers are accountable to both participants and the wider community for reporting their findings and for research translation so that the research outcomes

  7. Integrating Sexual Minority Health Issues into a Health Assessment Class.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Jordon D; Nesteby, J Aleah; Randall, Carla E

    2015-01-01

    The health needs of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population are traditionally overlooked by the health care community and are rendered invisible by most nursing school curricula. Initial contact with a nurse during a health history and assessment can have an impact on whether the person will feel comfortable disclosing his or her identity, returning for services, or following plans of care. Because the first interaction with a nurse can be critical, the health assessment course is an appropriate place in the curriculum to discuss the needs of the LGBT community. This article includes a discussion of unique health risks to the LGBT population, benefits, and challenges of incorporating these issues into the classroom and recommendations for including the care of this population into a health assessment nursing course. Specific communication techniques are provided that may be helpful during history taking and physical examination with a patient who is LGBT. Guidance regarding physical examination of the transgender patient is also included. These suggestions will be helpful to nurse faculty who teach health assessment, nursing students, educators who design and implement professional development and continuing education for established nurses, preceptors in the clinical setting, and any nurse who is unfamiliar with the needs and concerns specific to the LGBT population. PMID:26653044

  8. Governance and Aboriginal Claims in Northern Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozzetto, Don

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on problems of organization and governance that may follow settlement of Canadian aboriginal land claims. Compares financial problems, cultural issues such as subsistence lifestyles, and intergovernmental relations following the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, and Western Arctic (Inuvialuit)…

  9. Outage management and health physics issue, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2009-05-15

    The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles include the following: Planning and scheduling to minimize refueling outage, by Pat McKenna, AmerenUE; Prioritizing safety, quality and schedule, by Tom Sharkey, Dominion; Benchmarking to high standards, by Margie Jepson, Energy Nuclear; Benchmarking against U.S. standards, by Magnox North, United Kingdom; Enabling suppliers for new build activity, by Marcus Harrington, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Identifying, cultivating and qualifying suppliers, by Thomas E. Silva, AREVA NP; Creating new U.S. jobs, by Francois Martineau, Areva NP. Industry innovation articles include: MSL Acoustic source load reduction, by Amir Shahkarami, Exelon Nuclear; Dual Methodology NDE of CRDM nozzles, by Michael Stark, Dominion Nuclear; and Electronic circuit board testing, by James Amundsen, FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company. The plant profile article is titled The future is now, by Julia Milstead, Progress Energy Service Company, LLC.

  10. [Vulnerability in adolescent health: contemporary issues].

    PubMed

    Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi; Mello, Flávia Carvalho Malta de; Mello, Débora Falleiros de; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho; Sampaio, Julliane Messias Cordeiro; Oliveira, Wanderlei Abadio de

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this exploratory study with a qualitative approach was to analyze how adolescents perceive reality in terms of vulnerability in respect to health. A total of 17 semi-structured interviews were staged with adolescents from two elementary-middle (k-8) schools in a city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. Content analysis was used to interpret the data, from which three thematic nuclei emerged. The results revealed that the adolescents understand the complex interaction between individual predisposition and health vulnerability, as well as the issues related to social structure, which contributes to strengthening the concept of vulnerability based on individual, social and programmatic logic. It was established that public policies, prevention and care provided during adolescence should not be guided by a single reference point, but instead by the plurality of the adolescent individuals concerning vulnerability in their dimensions, which should be acknowledged in order to break with the idea of the universality of the process of becoming an adolescent. PMID:24863838

  11. Current Awareness in Health Education. Experimental Issue No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This annotated bibliography on health education contains citations of current journal articles, monographs, conference proceedings, reports, and nonpublished items. The following topics are covered: community health education; health education methodology; health education policy issues; health education training and development; health promotion/…

  12. HIV/AIDS: a minority health issue.

    PubMed

    Cargill, Victoria A; Stone, Valerie E

    2005-07-01

    bias in referring to clinical trials, (2) mistrust of clinical research, (3) past poor experience with the health care system, and (4) the conspiracy theories of HIV disease. The paucity of minority health care professionals and minority investigators in HIV research further affects minority participation in clinical research. To improve racial and ethnic minority participation in clinical trials a sustained effort is necessary at multiple levels. Increased recruitment and retention is an ongoing need, and one that will not be satisfactorily addressed until there are better community-academic and research partner-ships, and the research questions posed also address issues of concern and significance to the affected community. Reduction in barriers to participation in clinical trials, especially given the many competing needs of racial and ethnic minority patients, is also needed. Multidisciplinary HIV care teams and research staff with training in cultural competency and cultural sensitivity may also be helpful. Prevention of HIV infection remains essential, especially among those seeking care for HIV infection. Despite several published recommendations for the inclusion of HIV prevention in the clinical care setting, studies have documented how few providers actually achieve this goal, especially those who care for disadvantaged patients. Although there are many barriers to discussing HIV risk behaviors and prevention strategies in an office visit,including time constraints and potential provider discomfort in discussing these matters, clinical visits represent an important opportunity to reinforce HIV prevention and possibly decrease further HIV transmission. PMID:15925655

  13. Asthma Prevention and Management for Aboriginal People: Lessons From Mi’kmaq Communities, Unama’ki, Canada, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Robert; Bennett, Ella; Masuda, Jeffrey; King, Malcolm; Stewart, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Background Asthma affects at least 10% of Aboriginal children (aged 11 or younger) in Canada, making it the second most common chronic disease suffered by this demographic group; yet asthma support strategies specific to Aboriginal peoples have only begun to be identified. Community Context This research builds on earlier phases of a recent study focused on identifying the support needs and intervention preferences of Aboriginal children with asthma and their parents or caregivers. Here, we seek to identify the implications of our initial findings for asthma programs, policies, and practices in an Aboriginal context and to determine strategies for implementing prevention programs in Aboriginal communities. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with 22 recruited community health care professionals and school personnel in 5 Mi’kmaq communities in Unama’ki (Cape Breton), Nova Scotia, Canada, through a community-based participatory research design. Each focus group was first introduced to findings from a local “social support for asthma” intervention, and then the groups explored issues associated with implementing social support from their respective professional positions. Outcome Thematic analysis revealed 3 key areas of opportunity and challenges for implementing asthma prevention and management initiatives in Mi’kmaq communities in terms of 1) professional awareness, 2) local school issues, and 3) community health centers. Interpretation Culturally relevant support initiatives are feasible and effective community-driven ways of improving asthma support in Mi’kmaq communities; however, ongoing assistance from the local leadership (ie, chief and council), community health directors, and school administrators, in addition to partnerships with respiratory health service organizations, is needed. PMID:26766847

  14. Peer Educators Responding to Students with Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daddona, Mark F.

    2011-01-01

    As more college students face severe mental health issues, peer educators need effective communication skills and knowledge of campus counseling services to properly make referrals while continuing the peer relationship. This chapter presents an overview of current mental health issues in college students. These issues must be understood and…

  15. Informed-Consent Issues with Adolescent Health Behavior Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, R. Scott

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify the informed-consent issues when conducting adolescent health behavior research. Methods: A literature review was conducted across diverse academic fields about the informed-consent issues that were relevant to adolescent health behavior research. Results: Issues included defining consent, assent and permission, minimal…

  16. Aboriginal Education: Fulfilling the Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Marlene Brant, Ed.; Davis, Lynne, Ed.; Lahache, Louise, Ed.

    Education is at the heart of the struggle of Canada's Aboriginal peoples to regain control over their lives as communities and nations. Based on hearings and research generated by the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP), this collection of articles documents recent progress in transforming Aboriginal education to support…

  17. Aboriginal Report - Charting Our Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report outlines Aboriginal learner participation and achievement in British Columbia's public post-secondary institutions for the period 2003-04 to 2006-07. In developing the report, the Ministry worked with its Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education and Training Partners, which includes Aboriginal and First Nations leadership, public…

  18. How is health a security issue? Politics, responses and issues.

    PubMed

    Lo Yuk-ping, Catherine; Thomas, Nicholas

    2010-11-01

    In the closing decade of the 20th century the myriad challenges posed by infectious disease in a globalized environment began to be re-conceptualized as threats to national and human security. The most widely applied model for identifying and responding to such threats is securitization theory, as proposed by the Copenhagen School. Although its analytical framework is generally accepted, its utility remains contested; especially in non-European and non-state settings. The papers in this special edition have several aims: (1) to analyse ways by which Asian states and international organizations have identified health challenges as security threats, (2) to draw upon the securitization model as a way of understanding the full extent to which these states and international organizations have responded to the health threat, and (3) to identify areas where the theory might be strengthened so as to provide greater analytical clarity in areas of health security. This paper acts as a broad introduction to a set of papers on 'Unhealthy governance' and explores some of the key findings from the subsequent papers. PMID:20961945

  19. A service-level action research intervention to improve identification and treatment of cannabis and related mental health issues in young Indigenous Australians: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Bohanna, India; Bird, Katrina; Copeland, Jan; Roberts, Nicholas; Clough, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Regular cannabis use is associated with negative mental health impacts including psychosis, depression and anxiety. Rates of cannabis use have increased in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia within the last two decades, presenting a significant increased risk to young people's mental health in these regions. Improved screening, early detection and treatment for cannabis-related mental health issues are urgently required. This paper describes a service-level action research intervention and evaluation protocol for use in the few services where it is possible to engage young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Methods/Design The protocol is being developed in two services where youth mental health is core business: a primary healthcare centre and a youth service in the Cairns and hinterland region, far north Queensland. The protocol calls first for baseline data to be collected using staff and client surveys; network mapping; and analysis of screening, treatment and referral rates. The protocol's intervention phase is driven by service needs identified from baseline data. Intervention strategies focus on implementing/enhancing cannabis screening instruments and processes in line with current best practice; enhancing networks with external drug and mental health services; developing culturally acceptable training and resources; developing activities aiming to reduce cannabis use in young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients using the services. The protocol requires implementation of the multilevel intervention within each service for 1 year, with follow-up data then collected and compared to baseline. Process evaluation identifies the more effective intervention strategies and documents the challenges to be overcome for full implementation. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was provided by The James Cook University, Human Research Ethics Committee. Ethics Approval Number H5322. Peer

  20. The missing link in Aboriginal care: resource accounting.

    PubMed

    Ashton, C W; Duffie-Ashton, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Resource accounting principles provide more effective planning for Aboriginal healthcare delivery through driving best management practices, efficacious techniques for long-term resource allocation, transparency of information and performance measurement. Major improvements to Aboriginal health in New Zealand and Australia were facilitated in the context of this public finance paradigm, rather than cash accounting systems that remain the current method for public departments in Canada. Multiple funding sources and fragmented delivery of Aboriginal healthcare can be remedied through similar adoption of such principles. PMID:18536535

  1. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  2. What Health Issues or Conditions Are Specific to Women Only?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What health issues or conditions are specific to women only? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Women experience ...

  3. Good Health Is a Global Issue

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Dr. Roger Glass, Director of the Fogarty International Center discusses worldwide health and NIH research and ... Ph.D., was named Director of the Fogarty International Center and NIH Associate Director for International Research ...

  4. Health issues of migrant and seasonal farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Eric; Donohoe, Martin

    2003-05-01

    This paper describes the socioeconomic conditions under which the 3 to 5 million migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the United States live. Health consequences resulting from occupational hazards and from poverty, substandard living conditions, migrancy, language and cultural barriers, and impaired access to health care are described. Specific problems include infectious diseases, chemical- and pesticide-related illnesses, dermatitis, heat stress, respiratory conditions, musculoskeletal disorders and traumatic injuries, reproductive health problems, dental diseases, cancer, poor child health, inadequate preventive care, and social and mental health problems. By increasing awareness among health care professionals of the plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers, the authors hope to encourage development of a stronger public health infrastructure and to improve the health status of these individuals. PMID:12739296

  5. Health Issues in the Latino Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre-Molina, Marilyn, Ed.; Molina, Carlos W., Ed.; Zambrana, Ruth Enid, Ed.

    This collection of papers includes 6 parts. Part 1, "Latino Populations in the United States," includes: (1) "Latino Health Policy: Beyond Demographic Determinism" (Angelo Falcon, Marilyn Aguirre-Molina, and Carlos W. Molina); (2) "Latino Health Status" (Olivia Carter-Pokras and Ruth Enid Zambrana); and (3) "Latino Access To Health Care: The Role…

  6. Special Issue: The Family and Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William J., Ed.; McCubbin, Hamilton I., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses research and interventions related to family health care. Topics include health promotion; risk behaviors; vulnerability and illness onset; choosing health care systems; stress; caregiving and coping; family counseling; and family responses to Alzheimer's Disease, pediatric cancer, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, and obesity. (JAC)

  7. Ethical issues in health workforce development.

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Increasing the numbers of health workers and improving their skills requires that countries confront a number of ethical dilemmas. The ethical considerations in answering five important questions on enabling health workers to deal appropriately with the circumstances in which they must work are described. These include the problems of the standards of training and practice required in countries with differing levels of socioeconomic development and different priority diseases; how a society can be assured that health practitioners are properly trained; how a health system can support its workers; diversion of health workers and training institutions; and the teaching of ethical principles to student health workers. The ethics of setting standards for the skills and care provided by traditional health-care practitioners are also discussed. PMID:15868019

  8. Phonemic awareness and early spelling skills in urban Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children.

    PubMed

    Williams, Corinne J; Masterson, Julie J

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the phonological awareness and early spelling skills of 10 Australian Aboriginal and 10 non-Aboriginal children in their first year of schooling at urban schools. Phonological awareness was assessed using a standardized test (the Queensland University Inventory of Literacy), and children completed a standard spelling task that required them to generate spelling attempts in response to 12 line drawings of familiar animals. Spelling was analysed using the Spelling Scoring Sensitivity procedure. All children performed within the normal range for scores on the QUIL. However, as a group, Aboriginal children performed more poorly than their non-Aboriginal peers. Statistically significant differences were found on the subtests non-word spelling, non-word reading, and phoneme segmentation. Both formal scoring and informal observations were used to examine the spelling skills of participants. Possible explanations of the differences between groups are discussed in terms of health and cultural factors, and implications for the education of Aboriginal children are suggested. PMID:20626312

  9. Sharing the tracks to good tucker: identifying the benefits and challenges of implementing community food programs for Aboriginal communities in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Murray, Margaret; Bonnell, Emily; Thorpe, Sharon; Browne, Jennifer; Barbour, Liza; MacDonald, Catherine; Palermo, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity is a significant issue in the Victorian Aboriginal population, contributing to the health disparity and reduced life expectancy. Community food programs are a strategy used to minimise individual level food insecurity, with little evidence regarding their effectiveness for Aboriginal populations. The aim of this study was to explore the role of community food programs operating for Aboriginal people in Victoria and their perceived influence on food access and nutrition. Semistructured interviews were conducted with staff (n=23) from a purposive sample of 18 community food programs across Victoria. Interviews explored the programs' operation, key benefits to the community, challenges and recommendations for setting up a successful community food program. Results were analysed using a qualitative thematic approach and revealed three main themes regarding key factors for the success of community food programs: (1) community food programs for Aboriginal people should support access to safe, affordable, nutritious food in a socially and culturally acceptable environment; (2) a community development approach is essential for program sustainability; and (3) there is a need to build the capacity of community food programs as part of a strategy to ensure sustainability. Community food programs may be an effective initiative for reducing food insecurity in the Victorian Aboriginal population. PMID:25116591

  10. Occupational health and safety issues in military field hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bricknell, M C

    2001-10-01

    This paper considers the occupational health and safety issues that apply within a military field hospital. It considers NHS occupational health and safety activities and examines how these might be applied within an Army Medical Services unit. Areas that are unique to field hospitals are highlighted in comparison with a static NHS hospital. Some issues for future work are also considered. PMID:11766206

  11. Community Mental Health: Issues for Social Work Practice and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Arthur J., Ed.

    Articles by social work educators on some of the critical issues in community mental health are presented. Examined are some conceptual and program developments related to coordination, continuity of care, and the use of teams in planning and service delivery for community mental health (Lawrence K. Berg). The issue of civil commitment to and…

  12. Ethical Issues in Health Services: A Report and Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, James

    This publication identifies, discusses, and lists areas for further research for five ethical issues related to health services: 1) the right to health care; 2) death and euthanasia; 3) human experimentation; 4) genetic engineering; and, 5) abortion. Following a discussion of each issue is a selected annotated bibliography covering the years 1967…

  13. Innovation and Aboriginal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnochie, K. R.

    After defining educational and cultural terms and establishing a model representing cultural reproduction, case studies illustrate how three Aboriginal communities are educating and socializing their children. Strelley, a community in Western Australia, has a history of determined independence that has resulted in a unique level of economic and…

  14. Aboriginal Family Education Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, A.

    1970-01-01

    The Department of Adult Education of the University of Sydney (Australia) has been conducting an action-research project in family education for the Aborigines. The staff is to be available on request to visit communities, listen to expressed needs, and find ways of translating professional knowledge into media that can be understood. Gradually,…

  15. CRITICAL HEALTH ISSUES OF CRITERIA AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter summarizes the key health information on ubiquitous outdoor air pollutants that can cause adverse health effects at current or historical ambient levels in the United States. Of the thousands of air pollutants, very few meet this definition. The Clean Air Act (CA...

  16. Grounded in Country: Perspectives on Working within, alongside and for Aboriginal Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Barrett, Elizabeth; Price, Anne; Stomski, Norman; Walker, Bruce F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experiences of four researchers working within, alongside and for the Gumala Aboriginal Corporation in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. The focus of the research was a health and education needs analysis of Gumala Aboriginal Corporation members that would inform future education and health planning in the region.…

  17. Lifting the burden: a coordinated approach to action on Aboriginal tobacco resistance and control in NSW.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Jasmine; Hunt, Jennifer; Ivers, Rowena; Smyth, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Smoking prevalence continues to be significantly higher among Aboriginal people than non-Aboriginal people, resulting in a range of serious health consequences and inequities. The Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council of New South Wales (AHandMRC) and the New South Wales (NSW) Ministry of Health (the Ministry) have worked in partnership to develop The ATRAC Framework: A Strategic Framework for Aboriginal Tobacco Resistance and Control in NSW, in collaboration with Aboriginal communities and a range of stakeholders. The goal of the ATRAC Framework is to reduce smoking prevalence and the harmful impacts of tobacco use among Aboriginal people and communities in NSW. The framework includes reviews of relevant evidence and recommended actions, organised under six areas: leadership, partnerships and coordination; community action, awareness and engagement; workforce development; supportive environments; quitting support; and evidence, evaluation and research. The framework stresses that, to be successful, Aboriginal tobacco resistance and control programs and activities need to be evidence based, coordinated, integrated and involve Aboriginal people and Aboriginal community controlled health organisations in all aspects, from development through to implementation and evaluation. Consultations and evidence reviews highlight the importance of workforce support and development, including the ongoing need for more workers specialising in Aboriginal tobacco resistance and control, as well as ongoing training for all staff involved in delivering care to Aboriginal people. Other key strategies identified in the framework include improving access to nicotine replacement therapy and other medications to support quitting; supporting, strengthening and building on existing innovative community-based programs; and further developing the evidence base. The AHandMRC and the Ministry will continue to work in partnership to drive the use of the ATRAC Framework by all people

  18. The community network: an Aboriginal community football club bringing people together.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Alister; Anders, Wendy; Rowley, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    There are few empirical studies about the role of Aboriginal sporting organisations in promoting wellbeing. The aim of the present study was to understand the impact of an Aboriginal community sporting team and its environment on the social, emotional and physical wellbeing of young Aboriginal men, and to identify barriers and motivators for participation. A literature review of the impact of sport on the health and wellbeing of Aboriginal participants was conducted. This informed a qualitative study design with a grounded theory approach. Four semistructured interviews and three focus groups were completed with nine current players and five past players of the Fitzroy Stars Football Club to collect data about the social, emotional and physical wellbeing impact of an Aboriginal football team on its Aboriginal players. Results of the interviews were consistent with the literature, with common concepts emerging around community connection, cultural values and identity, health, values, racism and discrimination. However, the interviews provided further detail around the significance of cultural values and community connection for Aboriginal people. The complex nature of social connections and the strength of Aboriginal community networks in sports settings were also evident. Social reasons were just as important as individual health reasons for participation. Social and community connection is an important mechanism for maintaining and strengthening cultural values and identity. Barriers and motivators for participation in Aboriginal sports teams can be complex and interrelated. Aboriginal sports teams have the potential to have a profound impact on the health of Aboriginal people, especially its players, by fostering a safe and culturally strengthening environment and encompassing a significant positive social hub for the Aboriginal community. PMID:25103025

  19. Ethical and Social Issues in Health Research Involving Incarcerated People

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Lewis, Sharon R.; Smith, Selina A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of inmates in research in the U.S. was restricted by the recommendations of the National Commission and by federal regulations and guidelines that followed. By the 1980s, many health care officials became concerned about the exclusion of inmates from experimental treatments for human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV). These developments in ethics occurred in the context of racial/ethnic disparities in health. In this article, ethical considerations in clinical and public health research on HIV in prison and jail settings are considered. Ethical considerations in mental health research are summarized as well as issues pertaining to research involving female inmates. Issues related to oversight of research involving incarcerated people are considered along with the ethics of public health research. The ethics of research involving incarcerated people extends beyond traditional issues in human subjects ethics to include issues within the domains of bioethics and public health ethics. PMID:27133509

  20. Ethical and Social Issues in Health Research Involving Incarcerated People.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S; Lewis, Sharon R; Smith, Selina A

    2016-01-01

    The use of inmates in research in the U.S. was restricted by the recommendations of the National Commission and by federal regulations and guidelines that followed. By the 1980s, many health care officials became concerned about the exclusion of inmates from experimental treatments for human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV). These developments in ethics occurred in the context of racial/ethnic disparities in health. In this article, ethical considerations in clinical and public health research on HIV in prison and jail settings are considered. Ethical considerations in mental health research are summarized as well as issues pertaining to research involving female inmates. Issues related to oversight of research involving incarcerated people are considered along with the ethics of public health research. The ethics of research involving incarcerated people extends beyond traditional issues in human subjects ethics to include issues within the domains of bioethics and public health ethics. PMID:27133509

  1. Risk management issues in postmenopausal health care.

    PubMed

    Edozien, Leroy C

    2007-12-01

    As in other areas of clinical activity, unintended harm to patients may occur in the course of postmenopausal health care, and measures to ensure patient safety should be actively promoted. This paper discusses the application of some basic principles of risk management to postmenopausal health care. To facilitate communication and reduce errors in diagnosis and treatment, risk management should be incorporated in the development of a dedicated menopause service. PMID:18088524

  2. Gender issues in medical and public health education.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y L

    2000-01-01

    There is no doubt that gender bias has been inherent in medical and public health education, research, and clinical practice. This paper discusses the central question for medical and public health educators viz. whether women's health concerns and needs could be best addressed by the conventional biomedical approach to medical and public health education, research, and practice. Gender inequalities in health and gender bias in medical and public health education are revealed. It is found that in most public health and prevention issues related to women's health, the core issue is male-female power relations, and not merely the lack of public health services, medical technology, or information. There is, thus, an urgent need to gender-sensitize public health and medical education. The paper proposes a gender analysis of health to distinguish between biological causes and social explanations for the health differentials between men and women. It also assessed some of the gender approaches to public health and medical education currently adopted in the Asia-Pacific region. It poses the pressing question of how medical and public health educators integrate the gender perspective into medical and public health education. The paper exhorts all medical and public health practitioners to explore new directions and identify innovative strategies to formulate a gender-sensitive curriculum towards the best practices in medicine and public health that will meet the health needs of women and men in the 21st century. PMID:11338745

  3. Nuclear Issues: Strategies and Worksheets. Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantieri, Linda; And Others

    This document is designed to provide students with an opportunity to share feelings and clarify their own values given the facts about nuclear technology. Using this short curriculum, students should be able to: (1) explore their associations with nuclear issues; (2) analyze guidelines for conflict resolution in personal situations; (3) analyze…

  4. Urban issues in health promotion strategies.

    PubMed Central

    Leviton, L C; Snell, E; McGinnis, M

    2000-01-01

    The powerful influence of behavioral choices on health status is well established. The implications and challenges for urban populations are formidable. Understanding urban environments will better prepare health promotion professionals to deal effectively with the forces affecting health-related behaviors. In thinking about urban health promotion in the United States, researchers often distinguish between 2 frameworks; one contending with urbanization, which affects most of us, and another contending with inner-city environments, where many of the deepest needs are. Urbanization confers both benefits and liabilities, but the single greatest challenge for health promotion may lie in reestablishing positive social connections. In contrast, 2 key features of the inner-city environment may be the negative ecological forces within neighborhoods and the lack of control over one's fate. Too often, prescriptions for the inner city stereotype its problems and ignore its strengths. For the inner city, important foundation stones for the future include ways to build on these strengths through positive connections and increased community control through coalition building. PMID:10846502

  5. Mental Health Issues and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoach, Kendra P.; Dvorsky, Melissa; Miller, Elaine; Paget, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral challenges are significantly impacted by mental health issues. Teachers and other school staff need mental health knowledge to work more effectively with these students. Collaboration with mental health professionals and sharing of information is essential. [For complete volume, see ED539318.

  6. Comparing Mental Health Issues among Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy; Oswalt, Sara B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Stress and other mental health issues can negatively impact the health and academic performance of college students. Purpose: Examine relationships among stress, mental health, and academic classification in a national sample of college students. Methods: Analyses utilized secondary data from 27 387 college students responding to the…

  7. MTBE: THE CURRENT STATUS OF HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide an update on recent evaluations of the environmental and health issues surrounding the use of MTBE in gasoline in the United States and elsewhere. Several public health bodies around the world have recently evaluated aspects of the health risks of ...

  8. Ethical issues in government sponsored public health campaigns.

    PubMed

    Faden, R R

    1987-01-01

    Health communications campaigns are a major strategy used by governments to promote health. This article discusses key issues in the ethics of health communications campaigns, including the compatibility of health campaigns with the principle of respect for autonomy and how conflicts with this principle can be justified. Five potential justifications for state-sponsored health communications campaigns are reviewed: the public's health as an independent value; collective efficiency and majoritarian preferences; third party or state's interests; harm to the health of others; and countering the short-term contingencies of a market. PMID:3557982

  9. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  10. Current Issues in Mental Health Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Arlene S.

    The development of mental health law has been rapid. Courts have recognized new rights and have taken away others. For institutionalized individuals, the exact parameters of the right to treatment and community placement and to refuse medication have begun to be clarified. Yet lack of resources as well as prejudice continue to prevent people with…

  11. [Construction: critical issues and occupational health].

    PubMed

    Mosconi, G; Riva, M M; Santini, M

    2012-01-01

    Construction is strategic in Italy and worldwide, on top for employees number and turnover but also for occupational accidents and diseases. The building site is at high risk and it is difficult to maintain good levels of safety: in recent years they have had an improvement, but the economic crisis did not favour it. The knowledge in the field of prevention is not as widespread as it would be necessary and as requested (OSHA - UE). The Occupational Physician, engaged in risk assessment and management of medical services, must protect the health of workers at high risk for health, aging and performing tiring work, without adequate vocational training and culture, often in precarious conditions of health and lifestyle at risk. There are good experiences around the world and in Italy. Implementation of research in technology and ergonomics, materials and the tools, reduction of workload are needed, improvement of building site organization, of knowledge about health effects, the rehabilitation and reintegration to work. The procedures and processes should improve productivity and at the same time be safer and less dangerous and the lows should be more fitting with the specific characteristics of the construction industry. PMID:23213801

  12. Women and migration: a public health issue.

    PubMed

    Carballo, M; Grocutt, M; Hadzihasanovic, A

    1996-01-01

    The need to migrate is usually a function of the complex interaction of economic, social, familial and political factors. Among the most important, however, are the denial of access to education, employment, goods and services and the lack of respect for basic human rights. Because in many societies women are marginalized from these rights, migration to more economically and educationally open societies can often help improve their personal situation and their professional opportunities. On the other hand, because the status of women is usually linked to their role and status within the family and is defined in relationship to their male partners, migration can place women in situations where they experience stress and anxiety due to the loss of their traditional social entourage and environment. Their social integration in new settings may be equally limited by their initial lack of education and occupational experience. The higher vulnerability of women to sexual abuse and violence also places them at risk of STDs, including HIV, and a range of post-traumatic stress disorders associated with sexual violence. Their reproductive health needs often go unnoticed and unprotected even in well organized refugee and migrant situations, and the insensitivity of health staff to the needs of women is often more pronounced in refugee and migrant contexts than it is in general. Health monitoring of women in all migration-related situations has to be given greater priority. Similarly, much more attention at a health policy level is called for if the rights of women refugees and migrants are to be protected, and their contribution to health and social development is to be acknowledged and promoted. PMID:9050196

  13. Aboriginal Women Working in Vocational Training and Education: A Story from Central Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Kate

    2006-01-01

    This article outlines research undertaken by an Aboriginal women's non-government organization (NGO) into vocational training and education (VTE) needs and issues for remote Aboriginal communities in Central Australia. It describes the Central Australian context, and in particular the impact of remoteness, inequity and disadvantage upon Aboriginal…

  14. Australian First Nations University: A Discussion on the Establishment of an Aboriginal University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Errol

    1994-01-01

    A number of issues in the establishment of an Aboriginal university in Australia are examined, including support in the Aborigine population, academic standards, acceptance and recognition among mainstream institutions, racism, availability of qualified leadership, and site selection. A multicampus model is outlined. (MSE)

  15. Using participatory action research to prevent suicide in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.

    PubMed

    Cox, Adele; Dudgeon, Pat; Holland, Christopher; Kelly, Kerrie; Scrine, Clair; Walker, Roz

    2014-01-01

    The National Empowerment Project is an innovative Aboriginal-led community empowerment project that has worked with eight Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities across Australia over the period 2012-13. The aim of the Project was to develop, deliver and evaluate a program to: (1) promote positive social and emotional well-being to increase resilience and reduce the high reported rates of psychological distress and suicide among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; and (2) empower communities to take action to address the social determinants that contribute to psychological distress, suicide and self-harm. Using a participatory action research approach, the communities were supported to identify the risk factors challenging individuals, families and communities, as well as strategies to strengthen protective factors against these challenges. Data gathered during Stage 1 were used to develop a 12-month program to promote social and emotional well-being and build resilience within each community. A common framework, based on the social and emotional well-being concept, was used to support each community to target community-identified protective factors and strategies to strengthen individual, family and community social and emotional well-being. Strengthening the role of culture is critical to this approach and marks an important difference between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous mental health promotion and prevention activities, including suicide prevention. It has significant implications for policy makers and service providers and is showing positive impact through the translation of research into practice, for example through the development of a locally run empowerment program that aims to address the social determinants of health and their ongoing negative impact on individuals, families and communities. It also provides a framework in which to develop and strengthen culture, connectedness and foster self

  16. Growing up our way: the first year of life in remote Aboriginal Australia.

    PubMed

    Kruske, Sue; Belton, Suzanne; Wardaguga, Molly; Narjic, Concepta

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we attempted to explore the experiences and beliefs of Aboriginal families as they cared for their children in the first year of life. We collected family stories concerning child rearing, development, behavior, health, and well-being between each infant's birth and first birthday. We found significant differences in parenting behaviors and child-rearing practices between Aboriginal groups and mainstream Australians. Aboriginal parents perceived their children to be autonomous individuals with responsibilities toward a large family group. The children were active agents in determining their own needs, highly prized, and included in all aspects of community life. Concurrent with poverty, neocolonialism, and medical hegemony, child-led parenting styles hamper the effectiveness of health services. Hence, until the planners of Australia's health systems better understand Aboriginal knowledge systems and incorporate them into their planning, we can continue to expect the failure of government and health services among Aboriginal communities. PMID:22218266

  17. Improving palliative care outcomes for Aboriginal Australians: service providers’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians have a lower rate of utilisation of palliative care services than the general population. This study aimed to explore care providers’ experiences and concerns in providing palliative care for Aboriginal people, and to identify opportunities for overcoming gaps in understanding between them and their Aboriginal patients and families. Methods In-depth, qualitative interviews with urban, rural and remote palliative care providers were undertaken in inpatient and community settings in Western Australia. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers with QSR NVivo 10 software used to help manage data. Data analysis was informed by multiple theoretical standpoints, including the social ecological model, critical cultural theories and the ‘cultural security’ framework. Thematic analysis was carried out that identified patterns within data. Results Fifteen palliative care providers were interviewed. Overall they reported lack of understanding of Aboriginal culture and being uncertain of the needs and priorities of Aboriginal people during end-of-life care. According to several participants, very few Aboriginal people had an understanding of palliative care. Managing issues such as anger, denial, the need for non-medical support due to socioeconomic disadvantage, and dealing with crises and conflicts over funeral arrangements were reported as some of the tensions between Aboriginal patients and families and the service providers. Conclusion Early referral to palliative care is important in demonstrating and maintaining a caring therapeutic relationship. Paramount to meeting the needs for Aboriginal patients was access to appropriate information and logistical, psychological and emotional support. These were often seen as essential but additional to standard palliative care services. The broader context of Aboriginal history and historical distrust of mainstream services was seen to

  18. Health safety issues of synthetic food colorants.

    PubMed

    Amchova, Petra; Kotolova, Hana; Ruda-Kucerova, Jana

    2015-12-01

    Increasing attention has been recently paid to the toxicity of additives used in food. The European Parliament and the Council published the REGULATION (EC) No. 1333/2008 on food additives establishing that the toxicity of food additives evaluated before 20th January 2009 must be re-evaluated by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The aim of this review is to survey current knowledge specifically on the toxicity issues of synthetic food colorants using official reports published by the EFSA and other available studies published since the respective report. Synthetic colorants described are Tartrazine, Quinoline Yellow, Sunset Yellow, Azorubine, Ponceau 4R, Erythrosine, Allura Red, Patent Blue, Indigo Carmine, Brilliant Blue FCF, Green S, Brilliant Black and Brown HT. Moreover, a summary of evidence on possible detrimental effects of colorant mixes on children's behaviour is provided and future research directions are outlined. PMID:26404013

  19. Factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal people in Australia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Shaouli; Teng, Tiew-Hwa Katherine; Bessarab, Dawn; Aoun, Samar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives Delayed presentation of symptomatic cancer is associated with poorer survival. Aboriginal patients with cancer have higher rates of distant metastases at diagnosis compared with non-Aboriginal Australians. This paper examined factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal Australians from patient and service providers' perspectives. Methods In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted in two stages (2006–2007 and 2011). Inductive thematic analysis was assisted by use of NVivo looking around delays in presentation, diagnosis and referral for cancer. Participants Aboriginal patients with cancer/family members (n=30) and health service providers (n=62) were recruited from metropolitan Perth and six rural/remote regions of Western Australia. Results Three broad themes of factors were identified: (1) Contextual factors such as intergenerational impact of colonisation and racism and socioeconomic deprivation have negatively impacted on Aboriginal Australians' trust of the healthcare professionals; (2) health service-related factors included low accessibility to health services, long waiting periods, inadequate numbers of Aboriginal professionals and high staff turnover; (3) patient appraisal of symptoms and decision-making, fear of cancer and denial of symptoms were key reasons patients procrastinated in seeking help. Elements of shame, embarrassment, shyness of seeing the doctor, psychological ‘fear of the whole health system’, attachment to the land and ‘fear of leaving home’ for cancer treatment in metropolitan cities were other deterrents for Aboriginal people. Manifestation of masculinity and the belief that ‘health is women's domain’ emerged as a reason why Aboriginal men were reluctant to receive health checks. Conclusions Solutions to improved Aboriginal cancer outcomes include focusing on the primary care sector encouraging general practitioners to be proactive to suspicion of symptoms with appropriate

  20. Aborigines of the Imaginary: Applying Lacan to Aboriginal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper applies the work of Jacques Lacan, a French psychoanalyst, to decipher the desire of the teacher in Aboriginal education. It argues that the images of Aboriginal people represented in Australian classrooms are effects of the teacher's Imaginary, the Imaginary being one of the three psychoanalytic domains theorised by Lacan over a period…

  1. Examining Aboriginal Corrections in Canada. Aboriginal Peoples Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPrairie, Carol; And Others

    This report provides information about the state of Aboriginal corrections in Canada. It draws on survey results, analyses of quantitative data, and a review of the relevant literature and research and raises some complex questions about the meaning and future of Aboriginal corrections. There are nine parts that: (1) discuss the reliance on…

  2. Women's Health Issues in the Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Richard T.

    1999-01-01

    Women have been an integral part of US space crews since Sally Ride's mission in 1983, and a total of 40 women have been selected as US astronauts. The first Russian female cosmonaut flew in 1963. This presentation examines the health care and reproductive aspects of flying women in space. In addition, the reproductive implications of delaying one's childbearing for an astronaut career and the impact of new technology such as assisted reproductive techniques are examined. The reproductive outcomes of the US female astronauts who have become pregnant following space flight exposure are also presented. Since women have gained considerable operational experience on the Shuttle, Mir and during EVA, the unique operational considerations for preflight certification, menstruation control and hygiene, contraception, and urination are discussed. Medical and surgical implications for women on long-duration missions to remote locations are still evolving, and enabling technologies for health care delivery are being developed. There has been considerable progress in the development of microgravity surgical techniques, including laparoscopy, thoracoscopy, and laparotomy. The concepts of prevention of illness, conversion of surgical conditions to medically treatable conditions and surgical intervention for women on long duration space flights are considered.

  3. Aquaculture: Environmental, toxicological, and health issues.

    PubMed

    Cole, David W; Cole, Richard; Gaydos, Steven J; Gray, Jon; Hyland, Greg; Jacques, Mark L; Powell-Dunford, Nicole; Sawhney, Charu; Au, William W

    2009-07-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food-producing sectors, supplying approximately 40% of the world's fish food. Besides such benefit to the society, the industry does have its problems. There are occupational hazards and safety concerns in the aquaculture industry. Some practices have caused environmental degradation. Public perception to farmed fish is that they are "cleaner" than comparable wild fish. However, some farmed fish have much higher body burden of natural and man-made toxic substances, e.g. antibiotics, pesticides, and persistent organic pollutants, than wild fish. These contaminants in fish can pose health concerns to unsuspecting consumers, in particular pregnant or nursing women. Regulations and international oversight for the aquaculture industry are extremely complex, with several agencies regulating aquaculture practices, including site selection, pollution control, water quality, feed supply, and food safety. Since the toxicological, environmental, and health concerns of aquaculture have not been adequately reviewed recently, we are providing an updated review of the topic. Specifically, concerns and recommendations for improving the aquaculture industry, and for protection of the environment and the consumers will be concisely presented. PMID:18790671

  4. Embodied largeness: a significant women's health issue.

    PubMed

    Carryer, J

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes a three-year long research project in which nine large-bodied women have engaged in a prolonged dialogue with the researcher about the experience of being 'obese'. The study involved an extensive review of the multidisciplinary literature that informs our understandings of body size. The literature review was shared with participants in order to support their critical understanding of their experience. An examination of a wide range of literature pertinent to the area of study reveals widespread acceptance of the notion that to be thin is to be healthy and virtuous, and to be fat is to be unhealthy and morally deficient. The experience of participants raised questions as to how nursing could best provide health-care for large women. According to the literature review, nurses have perpetuated an unhelpful and reductionist approach to their care of large women, in direct contradiction to nursing's supposed allegiance to a holistic approach to health-care. This paper suggests strategies for an improved response to women who are concerned about their large body size. PMID:11882207

  5. A case study in the use of evidence in a changing political context: an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health service re-examines practice models, governance and financing.

    PubMed

    Gajjar, Deepa; Zwi, Anthony B; Hill, Peter S; Shannon, Cindy

    2014-09-01

    This paper examines the response of a regional body, the Institute for Urban Indigenous Health (IUIH), coordinating Aboriginal community controlled health organisations (ACCHOs) in south-east Queensland, to research evidence as they prioritise and plan services in response to internal economic and organisational factors, as well as external policy change. An event-based analysis of a quarterly management meeting of the IUIH allowed an exploration of how the IUIH uses a range of evidence to respond to the challenges faced within the Aboriginal community controlled health sector. The study identified three distinct but interconnected processes: (1) identifying evidence for change; (2) exploring and reframing this evidence; and (3) the application of this evidence at different levels of policy and practice. These processes were evident in each of the three major agendas addressed during the meeting, namely navigating current political change, reforming the ACCHO business model and reframing the available evidence for advocacy. The result has been the emergence of a new service delivery model, in which evidence supports accountability, change management, self-sufficiency and attempts to redefine community control. PMID:24976304

  6. Whole-Genome Genetic Diversity in a Sample of Australians with Deep Aboriginal Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Brian P.; Lind, Joanne M.; Wang, Eric T.; Moyzis, Robert K.; Visscher, Peter M.; van Holst Pellekaan, Sheila M.; Wilton, Alan N.

    2010-01-01

    Australia was probably settled soon after modern humans left Africa, but details of this ancient migration are not well understood. Debate centers on whether the Pleistocene Sahul continent (composed of New Guinea, Australia, and Tasmania) was first settled by a single wave followed by regional divergence into Aboriginal Australian and New Guinean populations (common origin) or whether different parts of the continent were initially populated independently. Australia has been the subject of relatively few DNA studies even though understanding regional variation in genomic structure and diversity will be important if disease-association mapping methods are to be successfully evaluated and applied across populations. We report on a genome-wide investigation of Australian Aboriginal SNP diversity in a sample of participants from the Riverine region. The phylogenetic relationship of these Aboriginal Australians to a range of other global populations demonstrates a deep common origin with Papuan New Guineans and Melanesians, with little evidence of substantial later migration until the very recent arrival of European colonists. The study provides valuable and robust insights into an early and important phase of human colonization of the globe. A broader survey of Australia, including diverse geographic sample populations, will be required to fully appreciate the continent's unique population history and consequent genetic heritage, as well as the importance of both to the understanding of health issues. PMID:20691402

  7. The impact of economic issues on Nigerian health sciences libraries.

    PubMed Central

    Belleh, G S; Akhigbe, O O

    1991-01-01

    Economic issues are among the most important factors affecting health sciences libraries in Nigeria. These issues are influenced by the political, cultural, geographic, and demographic characteristics of the country. Significant economic issues are the dependence of the national economy on a single commodity, large foreign debt and spiraling inflation, stringent foreign exchange control measures, and inadequate realization by authorities of the role and importance of health sciences libraries. With shrinking budgets, resources, and staff, health sciences libraries can neither grow nor afford library automation. Health sciences librarians must take initiatives for cooperative activities to increase and make the most of resources, pursue nontraditional methods of fund-raising, educate authorities about the role and importance of libraries, and develop and implement a plan for the development and growth of health sciences libraries in the country. PMID:1884083

  8. Assessment in health psychology: Introduction to the special issue.

    PubMed

    Butt, Zeeshan

    2016-09-01

    For the past 27 years, has been committed to publishing empirical research relevant to clinical assessment of basic and applied cognition, personality, interpersonal behavior, psychopathology, forensics, and biological psychology. There is growing interest in the use of patient-centered outcomes in medical/surgical care and for measuring health care performance. Patient-centered outcome measures complement traditional clinical outcomes of morbidity and mortality, capturing the patient's perspective regarding their health and its treatment. In this issue, we highlight 11 articles that address different aspects of such work. The articles in this special issue represent both the depth and breadth of the opportunities that exist for psychological assessment in the health setting. While there are countless patient-centered measures currently in use to measure health and health outcomes, the evidence base for their use can be quite variable (Butt, 2016). The hope is that future issues of will highlight more work in this area. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27536998

  9. Refugees and the State Mental Health Systems: Issues and Impacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neider, John R.; And Others

    This paper examines critical issues for states and advocacy groups in trying to develop short-term goals to address mental health needs of refugees and to plan long-term strategies for state and county service systems for this population. The paper begins with a discussion of the following issues: (1) centralized versus decentralized state mental…

  10. Gender issues on occupational safety and health.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Eugenio; Vona, Rosa; Monterosso, Davide; Giammarioli, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    The increasing proportion of women in the workforce raises a range of gender-related questions about the different effects of work-related risks on men and women. Few studies have characterized gender differences across occupations and industries, although at this time, the gender sensitive approach is starting to acquire relevance in the field of human preventive medicine. The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work has encouraged a policy of gender equality in all European member states. Italy has adopted European provisions with new specific legislation that integrates the previous laws and introduces the gender differences into the workplace. Despite the fact that gender equal legislation opportunities have been enacted in Italy, their application is delayed by some difficulties. This review examines some of these critical aspects. PMID:27364393

  11. Development and Evaluation of a Peer Mentorship Program for Aboriginal University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawana, Jennine S.; Sieukaran, Daniella D.; Nguyen, Hien T.; Pitawanakwat, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Although Aboriginal students encounter educational challenges, few post-secondary mentorship programs that facilitate positive educational and mental health outcomes within this population are described in the literature. This study describes the development and evaluation of a mentorship program for Aboriginal university students. Program…

  12. Blending Aboriginal and Western healing methods to treat intergenerational trauma with substance use disorder in Aboriginal peoples who live in northeastern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Teresa Naseba; Coholic, Diana; Cote-Meek, Sheila; Najavits, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    As with many Indigenous groups around the world, Aboriginal communities in Canada face significant challenges with trauma and substance use. The complexity of symptoms that accompany intergenerational trauma and substance use disorders represents major challenges in the treatment of both disorders. There appears to be an underutilization of substance use and mental health services, substantial client dropout rates, and an increase in HIV infections in Aboriginal communities in Canada. The aim of this paper is to explore and evaluate current literature on how traditional Aboriginal healing methods and the Western treatment model "Seeking Safety" could be blended to help Aboriginal peoples heal from intergenerational trauma and substance use disorders. A literature search was conducted using the keywords: intergenerational trauma, historical trauma, Seeking Safety, substance use, Two-Eyed Seeing, Aboriginal spirituality, and Aboriginal traditional healing. Through a literature review of Indigenous knowledge, most Indigenous scholars proposed that the wellness of an Aboriginal community can only be adequately measured from within an Indigenous knowledge framework that is holistic, inclusive, and respectful of the balance between the spiritual, emotional, physical, and social realms of life. Their findings indicate that treatment interventions must honour the historical context and history of Indigenous peoples. Furthermore, there appears to be strong evidence that strengthening cultural identity, community integration, and political empowerment can enhance and improve mental health and substance use disorders in Aboriginal populations. In addition, Seeking Safety was highlighted as a well-studied model with most populations, resulting in healing. The provided recommendations seek to improve the treatment and healing of Aboriginal peoples presenting with intergenerational trauma and addiction. Other recommendations include the input of qualitative and quantitative

  13. Mental health issues of muslim americans.

    PubMed

    Basit, Abdul; Hamid, Mohammad

    2010-11-01

    The underpinning of all research leading to various schools of thought in the field of psychiatry and psychology is without doubt a product of Western professionals who represent the religio-cultural traditions, historical symbols, and narratives of Western society. Also, the major schools of psychotherapy emerged during an era of individualism and logical positivism reflecting the religious, ethical, and cultural heritage that has shaped the modern Western society. Consequently, the methods and techniques developed in the West may not be always suitable and effective for Muslim Americans. To respond to the growing needs of psychiatric problems encountered by Muslim Americans, many community social service centers have been established in the United States during the past two decades. We now have a growing body of research data suggesting how to tailor our field to the specific needs of this population. We will discuss what kind of emotional and psychiatric problems are most prevalent in Muslim Americans and explain the therapeutic approaches mental health professionals have used and the treatment strategies which have been found effective in the psychosocial rehabilitation of Muslim Americans. PMID:23864761

  14. Behavioral health issue brief: outpatient civil commitment.

    PubMed

    Delaney, T

    1999-07-01

    Civil commitment is a term associated with involuntary treatment of individuals with mental illness. It can be an inpatient admission for treatment in a hospital or other health facility or it can be outpatient treatment that is court ordered. Either way the treatment is considered to be mandated or involuntary. But if a person, who suffers from mental illness, is not able to make appropriate decisions about his or her care and treatment, who will? How can society be assured that person takes the medication a physician says is needed to treat their illness? Opponents of civil commitment argue that it is a violation of a person's civil rights to order treatment. They fear that relaxing commitment standards may, again, lead to institutionalization of our mentally ill. Proponents contend that by not following recommended treatment plans these people can become a danger to themselves or others. Therefore, someone must take responsibility for them, otherwise they may violate the rights of, or fall victim to, others and are likely become incarcerated within the criminal justice system. PMID:11073371

  15. Mental health issues of peacekeeping workers.

    PubMed

    Shigemura, Jun; Nomura, Soichiro

    2002-10-01

    The end of the Cold War has brought a dramatic change to the international political situation and the role of the United Nations peacekeeping operations (PKO) has drawn increased attention. While many reports on PKO have focused on political or sociologic considerations, the mental health of the peacekeepers themselves has received little attention and psychiatric problems that can have a negative impact on mission success have been largely ignored. Participation in PKO creates a number of stressors and serious psychiatric and/or physical disorders may result. Yet, there is little research on this topic, either domestically or globally, and the methodology for clinical intervention remains in an early stage of development. We have reviewed previous reports to determine how various stressors before, during and after deployment affect the participants. Research in associated fields (e.g. crisis workers and military personnel) are also reviewed and their application to peacekeeping psychiatry is discussed. It must be admitted that the significance of PKO is arguable and each PKO is unique in terms of the nature of its mission and the local situation. Yet, the relationship between the psychiatric status of the personnel and the characteristics of an individual mission has never been studied. At present, no clear consensus regarding a framework for psychiatric intervention exists. Studies that enhance the recognition and significance of peacekeeping psychiatry are likely to improve the efficacy of PKO. PMID:12193236

  16. Mental Health Issues of Muslim Americans

    PubMed Central

    Basit, Abdul; Hamid, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    The underpinning of all research leading to various schools of thought in the field of psychiatry and psychology is without doubt a product of Western professionals who represent the religio-cultural traditions, historical symbols, and narratives of Western society. Also, the major schools of psychotherapy emerged during an era of individualism and logical positivism reflecting the religious, ethical, and cultural heritage that has shaped the modern Western society. Consequently, the methods and techniques developed in the West may not be always suitable and effective for Muslim Americans. To respond to the growing needs of psychiatric problems encountered by Muslim Americans, many community social service centers have been established in the United States during the past two decades. We now have a growing body of research data suggesting how to tailor our field to the specific needs of this population. We will discuss what kind of emotional and psychiatric problems are most prevalent in Muslim Americans and explain the therapeutic approaches mental health professionals have used and the treatment strategies which have been found effective in the psychosocial rehabilitation of Muslim Americans. PMID:23864761

  17. Employment Equity for Aboriginal Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a letter of understanding between British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF) and British Columbia Public School Employers' Association (BCPSEA) in response to Employment Equity for Aboriginal Teachers. The parties recognize that Aboriginal teachers are under-represented in the public education system. The parties are committed to…

  18. Maternal and Child Health Issues and Female Labor Force Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Dorothy C.; And Others

    Reviewing health related "costs" of female labor force participation, this paper examines four highly salient maternal and child health issues. Discussion of acute illness in day care settings begins with an overview of studies on day care and illness and focuses on hepatitis A, appropriate sanitation, and indications of research on respiratory…

  19. Ethnicity and Mental Health: Research and Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sue, Stanley

    1992-01-01

    Citing ethnic mental-health research, argues that the critical issue in the controversial relationship between social science research and public policy/program advocacy is the intertwining of research with policy recommendations, not whether one precedes or follows the other. Describes problems in delivering mental health services to ethnic…

  20. Ecological Issues Related to Children's Health and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jerry; Kohler, Maxie

    2009-01-01

    Issues concerning the health and safety of children and youth occur at multiple levels. Bronfenbrenner (1995) proposed an ecological systems approach in which multiple systems interact to enhance or diminish children's development. The same systems are at work in health promotion. The authors present and review articles that reflect the multiple…

  1. Child Health Issues in New Zealand: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Darlene R.

    2007-01-01

    International travel can provide the unique opportunity to experience other cultures. For nurses, it can also provide a window through which different health care structures and services can be viewed. Many similarities and differences can be found between the country visited and the United States in terms of health issues, nursing education,…

  2. Health Literacy in Schools: Prioritising Health and Well-Being Issues through the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgour, Lindsey; Matthews, Nic; Christian, Polly; Shire, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Health literacy (HL) is a relatively new concept in health promotion and is concerned with empowering people through enhancing their knowledge of health issues and improving their ability to make choices about their health and well-being. Schools are seen increasingly as key settings for the dissemination of health messages through curricula and…

  3. Western Institutional Impediments to Australian Aboriginal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTaggart, Robin

    1991-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of developing an Aboriginal form of education by Aboriginal teachers. Expresses concern that the western bureaucratic educational system will not permit a suitable Aboriginal system to develop. Describes the Deakin-Batchelor Teacher Education Program as an example of action research in Aboriginal teacher education.…

  4. International cooperation and health. Part I: issues and concepts

    PubMed Central

    McKee, M.; Gilmore, A.; Schwalbe, N.

    2005-01-01

    The world is increasingly shaped by powerful global forces, many of which have consequences for human health and the social, economic, and environmental factors that influence health are increasingly determined at a supranational level. As a result, local or national level efforts to influence health determinants can have only a limited impact and it is all too easy for the individual public health practitioner to feel powerless. Yet while public health practitioners, on their own, may indeed be comparatively powerless, together they can achieve a great deal. Part I of this glossary explores a range of issues that arise as they seek to make a difference. PMID:16020637

  5. International cooperation and health. Part I: Issues and concepts.

    PubMed

    McKee, Martin; Gilmore, Anna B; Schwalbe, Nina

    2005-08-01

    The world is increasingly shaped by powerful global forces, many of which have consequences for human health and the social, economic, and environmental factors that influence health are increasingly determined at a supranational level. As a result, local or national level efforts to influence health determinants can have only a limited impact and it is all too easy for the individual public health practitioner to feel powerless. Yet while public health practitioners, on their own, may indeed be comparatively powerless, together they can achieve a great deal. Part I of this glossary explores a range of issues that arise as they seek to make a difference. PMID:16020637

  6. Issues in Measuring and Improving Health Care Quality

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Maria A.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the Health Care Financing Review focuses on issues and advances in measuring and improving the quality of care, particularly for Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries. Discussions of quality-related topics are especially timely, given the growing and widespread interest in improving quality in the organization, financing, and delivery of health care services. This article has several purposes. The first is to provide a brief description of some of the causes underlying the growth of the health care quality movement; the second is to provide a contextual framework for discussion of some of the overarching themes that emerge in this issue. These themes include examining conceptual issues, developing quality measures for specific sites and populations, and creating or adapting data sets for quality-measurement purposes. PMID:10151882

  7. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-07-01

    We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.

  8. Public health nutrition services: issues today and tomorrow.

    PubMed

    Egan, M C

    1980-10-01

    The accomplishments of the past are reviewed in this paper to give public health nutritionists perspective in dealing with the problems of the present and of the future. Positive and negative observations on the current scene in nutrition services follow. Issues and concerns for the future that are discussed are: Defining and planning for public health nutrition services, paying for nutrition services, training for public health nutrition, and advocacy for nutrition services. PMID:6999067

  9. Kick the habit: a social marketing campaign by Aboriginal communities in NSW.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M A; Finlay, S; Lucas, K; Neal, N; Williams, R

    2014-01-01

    Tackling smoking is an integral component of efforts to improve health outcomes in Aboriginal communities. Social marketing is an effective strategy for promoting healthy attitudes and influencing behaviours; however, there is little evidence for its success in reducing smoking rates in Aboriginal communities. This paper outlines the development, implementation and evaluation of Kick the Habit Phase 2, an innovative tobacco control social marketing campaign in Aboriginal communities in New South Wales (NSW). The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council worked with three Aboriginal communities and a creative agency to develop locally tailored, culturally relevant social marketing campaigns. Each community determined the target audience and main messages, and identified appropriate local champions and marketing tools. Mixed methods were used to evaluate the campaign, including surveys and interviews with community members and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service staff. Community survey participants demonstrated high recall of smoking cessation messages, particularly for messages and images specific to the Kick the Habit campaign. Staff participating in interviews reported an increased level of interest from community members in smoking cessation programs, as well as increased confidence and skills in developing further social marketing campaigns. Aboriginal community-driven social marketing campaigns in tobacco control can build capacity, are culturally relevant and lead to high rates of recall in Aboriginal communities. PMID:25265360

  10. An Assessment of Intellectual Disability Among Aboriginal Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasson, E. J.; Sullivan, S. G.; Hussain, R.; Bittles, A. H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The health and well-being of Indigenous people is a significant global problem, and Aboriginal Australians suffer from a considerably higher burden of disease and lower life expectancy than the non-Indigenous population. Intellectual disability (ID) can further compromise health, but there is little information that documents the…

  11. Trauma and cultural safety: providing quality care to HIV-infected women of aboriginal descent.

    PubMed

    McCall, Jane; Lauridsen-Hoegh, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In Canada, the Aboriginal community is most at risk for HIV infection. Aboriginal peoples have disproportionately high rates of violence, drug use, and challenging socioeconomic circumstances. All of this is related to a history of colonization that has left Aboriginal people vulnerable to HIV infection through unsafe sex, needle sharing, and lack of access to health promotion and education. Aboriginal women are at particular risk for HIV infection. They experience a disproportionate degree of trauma, which is associated with colonization, high rates of childhood sexual abuse, and illicit drug use. A history of trauma impacts on access to health care, uptake of antiretroviral therapy, and mortality and morbidity in people with HIV. We describe the case of a 52-year-old, HIV-infected Aboriginal woman. We review the current evidence related to her case, including colonization, intersectionality, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, revictimization, and substance use. PMID:24012166

  12. Ethical Issues in Public Health Practice in Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Gollust, Sarah E.; Goold, Susan D.; Jacobson, Peter D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to ascertain the types of ethical challenges public health practitioners face in practice and to identify approaches used to resolve such challenges. Methods. We conducted 45 semistructured interviews with public health practitioners across a range of occupations (e.g., health officers, medical directors, sanitarians, nurses) at 13 health departments in Michigan. Results. Through qualitative analysis, we identified 5 broad categories of ethical issues common across occupations and locations: (1) determining appropriate use of public health authority, (2) making decisions related to resource allocation, (3) negotiating political interference in public health practice, (4) ensuring standards of quality of care, and (5) questioning the role or scope of public health. Participants cited a variety of values guiding their decision-making that did not coalesce around core values often associated with public health, such as social justice or utilitarianism. Public health practitioners relied on consultations with colleagues to resolve challenges, infrequently using frameworks for decision-making. Conclusions. Public health practitioners showed a nuanced understanding of ethical issues and navigated ethical challenges with minimal formal assistance. Decision-making guides that are empirically informed and tailored for practitioners might have some value. PMID:19059850

  13. The optometric educators' role in public health issues.

    PubMed

    Marshall, E C

    1993-08-01

    The optometric educator has a very important role in the development, analysis, interpretation, and promotion of public health issues. Because public health provides the framework for making rational decisions about the complexities of health care, the optometric educator has a high-order responsibility to educate students in the principles, concepts, and practice of public health. As both a creator and a deliverer of knowledge, the optometric educator also must ensure that the outcomes of his scientific inquiry are translated into relevant health policy and used effectively and efficiently for the benefit of all society. Advancement of the public health philosophy within the venue of optometric education should be the responsibility of all faculty, not just those members of the faculty who have direct responsibility for the public health curriculum. PMID:8414386

  14. Policy silences: why Canada needs a National First Nations, Inuit and Métis health policy

    PubMed Central

    Lavoie, Josée G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Despite attempts, policy silences continue to create barriers to addressing the healthcare needs of First Nations, Inuit and Métis. The purpose of this article is to answer the question, if what we have in Canada is an Aboriginal health policy patchwork that fails to address inequities, then what would a Healthy Aboriginal Health Policy framework look like? Methods The data collected included federal, provincial and territorial health policies and legislation that contain Aboriginal, First Nation, Inuit and/or Métis-specific provisions available on the internet. Key websites included the Parliamentary Library, federal, provincial and territorial health and Aboriginal websites, as well as the Department of Justice Canada, Statistics Canada and the Aboriginal Canada Portal. Results The Indian Act gives the Governor in Council the authority to make health regulations. The First Nations and Inuit Health Branch (FNIHB) of Health Canada historically provided health services to First Nations and Inuit, as a matter of policy. FNIHB's policies are few, and apply only to Status Indians and Inuit. Health legislation in 2 territories and 4 provinces contain no provision to clarify their responsibilities. In provinces where provisions exist, they broadly focus on jurisdiction. Few Aboriginal-specific policies and policy frameworks exist. Generally, these apply to some Aboriginal peoples and exclude others. Conclusion Although some Aboriginal-specific provisions exist in some legislation, and some policies are in place, significant gaps and jurisdictional ambiguities remain. This policy patchwork perpetuates confusion. A national First Nation, Inuit and Métis policy framework is needed to address this issue. PMID:24380077

  15. Black Health Issues in New York State: Condition, Prognosis, Prescription. Volume 1, Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Governor's Advisory Committee for Black Affairs, Albany.

    An examination of the health status of blacks in each phase of the life cycle in New York State indicates a significant discrepancy between the health status of black and white New Yorkers, and a clear link between poverty and poor health. The following life stages were examined and key health issues were identified: (1) prenatal/newborn; (2)…

  16. Towards guidelines for survey research in remote Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Donovan, R J; Spark, R

    1997-02-01

    Based on our experience in developing and evaluating community-based health promotion programs in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, we offer guidelines to assist nonindigenous health and public policy professionals whose information gathering in these communities includes the use of unstructured interviewing or survey questionnaires. The guidelines primarily apply to research among mainland remote Aboriginal communities, but are placed in a cultural context such that those dealing with Torres Strait Islanders and rural or urban community Aborigines also may benefit from the guidelines. The major aims of these guidelines are to facilitate communication between interviewers and indigenous interviewees and to ensure that interviewing is done with maximum sensitivity to cultural differences and with minimum discomfort to the respondents. PMID:9141736

  17. Disparity in cancer prevention and screening in aboriginal populations: recommendations for action

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, S.; Shahid, R.K.; Episkenew, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, cancer has occurred at a lower rate in aboriginal populations; however, it is now dramatically increasing. Unless preventive measures are taken, cancer rates among aboriginal peoples are expected to soon surpass those in non-aboriginal populations. Because a large proportion of malignant disorders are preventable, primary prevention through socioeconomic interventions, environmental changes, and lifestyle modification might provide the best option for reducing the increasing burden of cancers. Such efforts can be further amplified by making use of effective cancer screening programs for early detection of cancers at their most treatable stage. However, compared with non-aboriginal Canadians, many aboriginal Canadians lack equal access to cancer screening and prevention programs. In this paper, we discuss disparities in cancer prevention and screening in aboriginal populations in Canada. We begin with the relevant definitions and a theoretical perspective of disparity in health care in aboriginal populations. A framework of health determinants is proposed to explain the pathways associated with an increased risk of cancer that are potentially avoidable. Major challenges and knowledge gaps in relation to cancer care for aboriginal populations are addressed, and we make recommendations to eliminate disparities in cancer control and prevention. PMID:26715875

  18. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  19. Randomized Controlled Trials in Environmental Health Research: Ethical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are becoming increasingly common in environmental health research. Like all studies involving human subjects, environmental health RCTs raise many different ethical issues, ranging from obtaining informed consent, to minimizing risks, to protecting privacy and confidentiality. One of the most important issues raised by these studies is whether it is ethical to withhold effective environmental health interventions from research subjects in order to satisfy scientific objectives. Although environmental health investigators usually do not have professional obligations to provide medical care to research subjects, they have ethical obligations to avoid exploiting them. Withholding interventions from research subjects can be ethical, provided that it does not lead to exploitation of individuals or groups. To avoid exploiting individuals or groups, investigators should ensure that research subjects and study populations receive a fair share of the benefits of research. PMID:18236934

  20. Treatment of chronic hepatitis C in a Canadian Aboriginal population: Results from the PRAIRIE study

    PubMed Central

    Minuk, Gerald Yosel; O’Brien, Meaghan; Hawkins, Kim; Emokpare, Didi; McHattie, James; Harris, Paul; Worobetz, Lawrence; Doucette, Karen; Kaita, Kelly; Wong, Stephen; Pinette, Gilles; Uhanova, Julia

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Aboriginal population of Canada is at increased risk of exposure to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Previous data indicate that spontaneous clearance of HCV occurs more often in Aboriginals than Caucasians. Whether this enhanced response extends to antiviral therapy for chronic HCV remains to be determined. OBJECTIVES: To document and compare the biochemical and virological responses to antiviral therapy in HCV-infected Canadian Aboriginals and Caucasians. METHODS: A total of 101 treatment-naive adult patients (46 Aboriginal, 55 Caucasian) with chronic HCV genotype 1 infections were prospectively treated with pegylated-interferon and ribavirin and followed as per national guidelines. RESULTS: Aboriginals had higher HCV-RNA loads at baseline (6.42log10 versus 5.98log10; P<0.03). Although normalization of serum aminotransferase levels, decreases in viral loads, and rapid, early and end-of-treatment virological responses were similar in the two cohorts, sustained virological responses were significantly lower in Aboriginals (35% versus 55%; P=0.047). Premature discontinuation of treatment and/or loss of patients to follow-up was common (Aboriginals 37%, Caucasians 27%). Treatment-related side effects were similar in the two cohorts. CONCLUSION: Despite higher rates of spontaneous HCV clearance, the response to antiviral therapy was similar, if not lower, in Aboriginals compared with Caucasians with chronic HCV genotype 1 infections. Compliance with treatment is an issue that needs to be addressed in the management of these patients. PMID:24340315

  1. Incidence and Prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease among Aboriginal Peoples in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Maria B.; Voaklander, Don; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Stickland, Michael K.; King, Malcolm; Harris, Andrew W.; Rowe, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major respiratory disorder, largely caused by smoking that has been linked with large health inequalities worldwide. There are important gaps in our knowledge about how COPD affects Aboriginal peoples. This retrospective cohort study assessed the epidemiology of COPD in a cohort of Aboriginal peoples relative to a non-Aboriginal cohort. Methods We used linkage of administrative health databases in Alberta (Canada) from April 1, 2002 to March 31, 2010 to compare the annual prevalence, and the incidence rates of COPD between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal cohorts aged 35 years and older. Poisson regression models adjusted the analysis for important sociodemographic factors. Results Compared to a non-Aboriginal cohort, prevalence estimates of COPD from 2002 to 2010 were 2.3 to 2.4 times greater among Registered First Nations peoples, followed by the Inuit (1.86 to 2.10 times higher) and the Métis (1.59 to 1.67 times higher). All Aboriginal peoples had significantly higher COPD incidence rates than the non-Aboriginal group (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.97, 2.27). COPD incidence rates were higher in First Nation peoples (IRR: 2.37; 95% CI: 2.19, 2.56) followed by Inuit (IRR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.64, 2.25) and Métis (IRR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.32, 1.69) groups. Conclusions We found a high burden of COPD among Aboriginal peoples living in Alberta; a province with the third largest Aboriginal population in Canada. Altogether, the three Aboriginal peoples groups have higher prevalence and incidence of COPD compared to a non-Aboriginal cohort. The condition affects the three Aboriginal groups differently; Registered First Nations and Inuit have the highest burden of COPD. Reasons for these differences should be further explored within a framework of social determinants of health to help designing interventions that effectively influence modifiable COPD risk factors in each of the

  2. Making Research Count at Minimbah Aboriginal Preschool, Armidale NSW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dianne; Power, Kerith

    This interview with Dianne Roberts, director of the Minimbah Aboriginal Preschool in Armidale, New South Wales (Australia), explores research issues, leadership styles, and how decision making and responsibilities are handled at Minimbah. Incoming researchers must show how research will benefit the community under study, how they will work in…

  3. Researching Remote Aboriginal Children's Services: It's All about Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasoli, Lyn; James, Ranu

    2007-01-01

    This article identifies problems, issues and insights through critical reflection on the rules, written and unwritten, which encroach on the research process in the "Both Ways" project. The project investigates the development and sustainability of remote Aboriginal children's services in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. Children's…

  4. The Development of Aboriginal Language Programs: A Journey towards Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Attempts to build intercultural understanding inevitably uncover tensions and involve negotiating issues of identity, power, and resistance. Using a self-study approach, I describe the development and early implementation phase of Aboriginal language programs in one school district. I consider the collaborative process involving representatives…

  5. 50 CFR 230.5 - Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... whaling. 230.5 Section 230.5 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.5 Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) A license is hereby issued to whaling captains identified by the...

  6. 50 CFR 230.5 - Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... whaling. 230.5 Section 230.5 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.5 Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) A license is hereby issued to whaling captains identified by the...

  7. 50 CFR 230.5 - Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... whaling. 230.5 Section 230.5 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.5 Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) A license is hereby issued to whaling captains identified by the...

  8. 50 CFR 230.5 - Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... whaling. 230.5 Section 230.5 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE WHALING WHALING PROVISIONS § 230.5 Licenses for aboriginal subsistence whaling. (a) A license is hereby issued to whaling captains identified by the...

  9. To Cultivate the Positive...Introduction to the Special Issue on Schooling and Mental Health Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeser, Robert W.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces issue of collected articles that work towards providing an integration of and across-fertilization between education- and mental health-oriented theory, research, and school-based practice. The articles seek to show how academic and social-emotional assets and problems are interrelated and how schools have a role in their development…

  10. Mental Health Issues and Higher Education Psychology Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on widening participation and accessibility in relation to mental health issues and undergraduate psychology students. Sections 1 and 2 set the context and outline the scope and aims of this paper. Section 3 presents evidence of the student experience from the Improving Provisions for Disabled Psychology Students (IPDPS)…

  11. Tufts Health Sciences Database: Lessons, Issues, and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mary Y.; Albright, Susan A.; Alkasab, Tarik; Damassa, David A.; Wang, Paul J.; Eaton, Elizabeth K.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a seven-year experience with developing the Tufts Health Sciences Database, a database-driven information management system that combines the strengths of a digital library, content delivery tools, and curriculum management. Identifies major effects on teaching and learning. Also addresses issues of faculty development, copyright and…

  12. Infectious Diseases: Current Issues in School and Community Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Wilma; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A disease…

  13. Mental Health Issues on Campus: A Resource Kit for Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Jana; McLean, Patricia

    This resource kit provides information intended to assist Australian disability liaison officers (DLO) and others who work with college students with psychiatric disabilities to understand the effects of mental health issues on learning in the context of post-secondary education. The guide suggests a range of compensatory strategies that aim to…

  14. Cross-Cultural Issues in Mental Health: Minority Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siskind, Judith A.

    This paper discusses mental health service issues for minorities who confront racism and pressures toward conformity to middle-class standards and at the same time feel the need to explore their own history and values. The paper describes group identity as a source of adaptive mechanisms for coping with discrimination and then reviews themes in…

  15. Revisiting the Issues: Children and National Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Sara

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes principal features of 6 bills on health care reform introduced in the 103rd Congress as they relate to children. Proposals are compared on 11 major issues, highlighting the degree to which each bill would achieve universal coverage, access to care, equity of treatment, and quality of comprehensive care. (SLD)

  16. Controversial issues in home health care: a roundtable discussion.

    PubMed

    McAllister, J C; Black, B L; Griffin, R E; Smith, J E

    1986-04-01

    Controversial issues in home health care (HHC) were discussed by a panel of four individuals involved in or knowledgeable about HHC. The panel addressed the following issues: reluctance of health professionals to participate in home care, challenges in providing HHC services, assigning responsibility for HHC services, reimbursement considerations in joint-venture arrangements, assuming fiscal responsibility for unreimbursed care, selecting HHC providers, defining patient rights, selecting drug products for home-care patients, competing with community pharmacists, circumvention of pharmacist input in preparation of solutions for home infusion, and the future of HHC. Hospital pharmacists who plan to become involved or are already involved in providing HHC services should become familiar with these controversial issues. PMID:3706341

  17. Issues and special features of animal health research.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Christian; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Béringue, Vincent; Coulon, Jean-Baptiste; Fourichon, Christine; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Krebs, Stéphane; Rainard, Pascal; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Torny, Didier; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Zientara, Stephan; Zundel, Etienne; Pineau, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance), the environment, and animal welfare.Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context.Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents.The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes. PMID:21864344

  18. Introduction: the need to address older women's mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Malatesta, Victor J

    2007-01-01

    Women are the primary consumers of mental health services. Ironically, research addressing their unique needs lags behind that of men's issues. The aging process introduces an important variable that accentuates the relative lack of information and specific treatment guidelines for older women who are confronted by mental health problems. This volume offers a comprehensive overview for the health professional who is seeking a greater depth of understanding with respect to the study of mental health problems in general, and how these issues pertain specifically to women and the aging process. A second goal of this project is to provide the practicing therapist and counselor with a research update and a broad clinical perspective offered by seasoned clinicians. Using current psychiatric diagnosis as a framework, the contributions address the range of mental health problems, including dementia and cognitive impairment, schizophrenia, alcohol abuse, mood and anxiety disorders, traumatic and dissociative conditions, sexual and eating disorders, and personality disorders. It is hoped that this book will inform, inspire and encourage students and health professionals in their work with middle aged and older women who are facing mental health challenges. PMID:17588876

  19. Issues and special features of animal health research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance), the environment, and animal welfare. Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context. Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents. The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes. PMID:21864344

  20. Issues in Health Care of Middle Eastern Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lipson, Juliene G.; Meleis, Afaf I.

    1983-01-01

    Relationships between Middle Eastern patients and Western health care professionals are often troubled by mutual misunderstanding of culturally influenced values and communication styles. Although Middle Easterners vary ethnically, they do share a core of common values and behavior that include the importance of affiliation and family, time and space orientations, interactional style and attitudes toward health and illness. Problems in providing health care involve obtaining adequate information, “demanding behavior” by a patient's family, conflicting beliefs about planning ahead and differing patterns of communicating grave diagnoses or “bad news.” There are guidelines that will provide an understanding of the cultural characteristics of Middle Easterners and, therefore, will improve rather than impede their health care. A personal approach and continuity of care by the same health care professional help to bridge the gap between Middle Eastern cultures and Western medical culture. In addition, periodic use of cultural interpreters helps ameliorate the intensity of some cultural issues. PMID:6364575

  1. Ethical Issues for Public Health Approaches to Obesity.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Suzanna M; Vartanian, Lenny R

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern worldwide. Because individual-level interventions have been unsuccessful at curbing obesity rates, there is an emphasis on public health approaches. In addition to testing the effectiveness of any public health interventions, it is important to consider the ethical implications of these interventions in order to protect the public's rights and promote overall well-being. In this paper, we review public health approaches to obesity in three broad domains (changes to the socio-communicative environment, changes to the economic environment, and changes to the physical environment/access) and consider the potential ethical issues that arise in each of those domains. We suggest that interventions that target the physical environment/access (making it easier for people to engage in healthy behaviors), that target the entire population (rather than just individuals with obesity), and that focus on health behaviors (rather than on weight) have the least potential for ethical concerns. PMID:26627490

  2. Human Health Effects of Biphenyl: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Hogan, Karen A.; Cai, Christine; Rieth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the human health hazards of biphenyl exposure. Objectives: We review key findings and scientific issues regarding expected human health effects of biphenyl. Methods: Scientific literature from 1926 through September 2012 was critically evaluated to identify potential human health hazards associated with biphenyl exposure. Key issues related to the carcinogenicity and noncancer health hazards of biphenyl were examined based on evidence from experimental animal bioassays and mechanistic studies. Discussion: Systematic consideration of experimental animal studies of oral biphenyl exposure took into account the variety of study designs (e.g., study sizes, exposure levels, and exposure durations) to reconcile differing reported results. The available mechanistic and toxicokinetic evidence supports the hypothesis that male rat urinary bladder tumors arise through urinary bladder calculi formation but is insufficient to hypothesize a mode of action for liver tumors in female mice. Biphenyl and its metabolites may induce genetic damage, but a role for genotoxicity in biphenyl-induced carcinogenicity has not been established. Conclusions: The available health effects data for biphenyl provides suggestive evidence for carcinogenicity in humans, based on increased incidences of male rat urinary bladder tumors at high exposure levels and on female mouse liver tumors. Kidney toxicity is also a potential human health hazard of biphenyl exposure. Citation: Li Z, Hogan KA, Cai C, Rieth S. 2016. Human health effects of biphenyl: key findings and scientific issues. Environ Health Perspect 124:703–712; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509730 PMID:26529796

  3. Social Norms about a Health Issue in Work Group Networks

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to advance theorizing about how small groups understand health issues through the use of social network analysis. To achieve this goal, an adapted cognitive social structure examines group social norms around a specific health issue, H1N1 flu prevention. As predicted, individual’s attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived social norms were each positively associated with behavioral intentions for at least one of the H1N1 health behaviors studied. Moreover, collective norms of the whole group were also associated with behavioral intentions, even after controlling for how individual group members perceive those norms. For members of work groups in which pairs were perceived to agree in their support for H1N1 vaccination, the effect of individually perceived group norms on behavioral intentions was stronger than for groups with less agreement. PMID:26389934

  4. Sexual Health as a Survivorship Issue for Female Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Suzin, Daphne; McIlvenna, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    As more and more people are successfully treated for and live longer with cancer, greater attention is being directed toward the survivorship needs of this population. Women treated for cancer often experience issues related to sexual health and intimacy, which are frequently cited as areas of concern, even among long-term survivors. Unfortunately, data suggest that providers infrequently discuss these issues. We reviewed a contemporary understanding of sexual health of women and the impact of treatment on both sexual function and intimacy. We also provide a review of the diagnosis using the newest classification put forth by the American Psychiatric Association in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, and potential treatments, including both endocrine and nonendocrine treatments that the general oncologist may be asked about when discussing sexual health with his or her patients. PMID:24396051

  5. Hispanic Medical Organizations' Support for LGBT Health Issues.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, John Paul; Sola, Orlando; Ramallo, Jorge; Sánchez, Nelson Felix; Dominguez, Kenneth; Romero-Leggott, Valerie

    2014-09-01

    Hispanics represent the fastest growing ethnic segment of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in the United States and are disproportionately burdened by LGBT-related health issues and limited political support from Hispanic medical organizations. Recently, the Latino Medical Student Association, the National Hispanic Medical Association, and the Hispanic Serving Health Professions Schools, representing over 60,000 Hispanic students and providers and 35 institutions, collaborated to support a resolution opposing discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity and recognizing the obstacles encountered by LGBTQ Hispanics. The resolution provides an important framework for organizational members and leaders to address LGBT health issues and serve to support a more positive sociopolitical climate for the Hispanic LGBT community nationally and internationally. PMID:26789708

  6. Health policy and craniofacial care: issues in resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Strauss, R P

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of health care services, including craniofacial services in the United States, is examined. The U.S. has a unique health care financing and organizational system in which persons are most commonly covered by health insurance as a benefit of their employment. Current estimates are that nearly 40 million Americans have no health insurance (Himmelstein et al., 1992). Approximately half of the uninsured persons are in low-wage employment that does not provide health insurance benefits nor allow them to qualify for Medicaid (Pepper Commission, 1990). Personal health care costs now exceed 11% of the U.S. gross domestic product, a significantly higher percentage than that found in other industrialized nations (Consumer Reports, 1990b). Within the current system, is health care distributed in a fair or moral manner? What are the effects of the allocation scheme? Possible changes in health care financing and delivery are examined and basic ethical and social issues associated with a changing U.S. health care delivery system are explored. PMID:8130247

  7. Barriers to Equal Education for Aboriginal Learners: A Review of the Literature. A BC Human Rights Commission Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Linda; Caffrey, Lee

    Education is a fundamental right of all people but, for the Canadian Aboriginal community it is particularly critical for overcoming historical disadvantages. This document reports on a review of barriers to equal education for Aboriginal people. Key barriers to educational equity include issues of control, keepers of knowledge (teachers versus…

  8. Aboriginal birth cohort (ABC): a prospective cohort study of early life determinants of adiposity and associated risk factors among Aboriginal people in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal people living in Canada have a high prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). To better understand the pre and postnatal influences on the development of adiposity and related cardio-metabolic factors in adult Aboriginal people, we will recruit and follow prospectively Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their children – the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC) study. Methods/design We aim to recruit 300 Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their newborns from the Six Nations Reserve, and follow them prospectively to age 3 years. Key details of environment and health including maternal nutrition, glucose tolerance, physical activity, and weight gain will be collected. At birth, cord blood and placenta samples will be collected, as well as newborn anthropometric measurements. Mothers and offspring will be followed annually with serial measurements of diet and physical activity, growth trajectory, and adiposity. Discussion There is an urgent need to understand maternal and child factors that underlie the early development of adiposity and type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal people. The information generated from this cohort will assist the Six Nations community in developing interventions to prevent early adiposity in Aboriginal children. PMID:23800270

  9. [Health and social information systems in support of local health planning: issues and challenges].

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Louise; Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Casteigts, Arnaud; Chartier, Mariette; Trugeon, Alain; Warnke, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Health information is indispensable for monitoring the progress that has been made in improving and maintaining population health and health system functions. In the context of health reforms aiming to bring health systems closer to populations and with the objective of consistent health services planning at the community level, access to reliable social and health data has become a major issue. The need to develop specific treatment tools and the appropriation of results by the various actors involved (decision makers, planners, researchers and consumers) are central to the presentations and exchanges in this symposium. PMID:24737809

  10. Teacher Education, Aboriginal Studies and the New National Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Clair

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in Australian schools continue to have poor education and health outcomes, and the introduction of a new national curriculum may assist in redressing this situation. This curriculum emphasises recommendations which have been circulating in the sector over many years, to require teacher education…

  11. Risk indicators for depressed mood in youth: Limited association with Aboriginal cultural status

    PubMed Central

    Lemstra, Mark; Neudorf, Cory; Mackenbach, Johan; D’Arcy, Carl; Scott, Christina; Kershaw, Tanis; Nannapaneni, Ushasri

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION There have been too few studies on urban Aboriginal youth to permit inferences about depressed mood in this subgroup. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether Aboriginal cultural status is independently associated with moderate or severe depressed mood in youth after controlling for other covariates, including socioeconomic status. METHODS Every student between grades 5 and 8 in the city of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, was asked to complete a questionnaire in February of 2007. Depressed mood was measured with a 12-question depression scale derivative of the 20-question Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. RESULTS Four thousand ninety-three youth participated in the school health survey. For Aboriginal youth, the prevalence rate of moderate or severe depressed mood was 21.6% in comparison with 8.9% for Caucasian youth (rate ratio 2.43; 95% CI 1.92 to 3.08). Aboriginal cultural status was not associated with depressed mood after adjustment for other covariates in the final multivariate model (OR 1.132; 95% CI 0.682 to 1.881). Parental educational status and sex were confounders to the association between Aboriginal cultural status and depressed mood. CONCLUSIONS The recognition that Aboriginal cultural status is not independently associated with moderate or severe depressed mood in youth after full multivariate adjustment allows policy makers to acknowledge that mental health disparity prevention is possible because the determinants of health (ie, education) are modifiable (in comparison with Aboriginal cultural status). PMID:19337594

  12. Key Scientific Issues in the Health Risk Assessment of Trichloroethylene

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Caldwell, Jane C.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Scott, Cheryl Siegel

    2006-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common environmental contaminant at hazardous waste sites and in ambient and indoor air. Assessing the human health risks of TCE is challenging because of its inherently complex metabolism and toxicity and the widely varying perspectives on a number of critical scientific issues. Because of this complexity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drew upon scientific input and expertise from a wide range of groups and individuals in developing its 2001 draft health risk assessment of TCE. This scientific outreach, which was aimed at engaging a diversity of perspectives rather than developing consensus, culminated in 2000 with 16 state-of-the-science articles published together as an Environmental Health Perspectives supplement. Since that time, a substantial amount of new scientific research has been published that is relevant to assessing TCE health risks. Moreover, a number of difficult or controversial scientific issues remain unresolved and are the subject of a scientific consultation with the National Academy of Sciences coordinated by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and co-sponsored by a number of federal agencies, including the U.S. EPA. The articles included in this mini-monograph provide a scientific update on the most prominent of these issues: the pharmacokinetics of TCE and its metabolites, mode(s) of action and effects of TCE metabolites, the role of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor in TCE toxicity, and TCE cancer epidemiology. PMID:16966103

  13. Health issues in adolescents' Internet use - benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Hardoff, D

    2013-09-01

    The Internet has turned during the past decade into a major information resource in various domains of life and a communication venue among adolescents who seek health information via the net. The increasing availability of computers in homes, as well as wireless Internet access, means that adolescents today can go online anywhere, at any time. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem, but they do contribute significantly to a variety of adolescent health problems, including aggressive behavior, sexual activity, drug use, obesity, sleep disorders, eating disorders, depression, suicide and self harm. This paper focuses on 3 major health issues in adolescents' Internet use: Body image and eating behaviors; sexuality and reproductive health behaviors; and self harm and suicidal behavior. This paper also demonstrates Internet venues where reliable health information is provided to young people by health professionals. Health professionals need to recognize the hazards of adolescents Internet use, and to address potential Internet abuse when encountering adolescents in clinical settings. PMID:24099822

  14. Intellectual property and networked health information: issues and principles.

    PubMed Central

    Cate, F H

    1996-01-01

    Information networks offer enormous potential for improving the delivery of health care services, facilitating health-related decision-making, and contributing to better health. In addition, advanced information technologies offer important opportunities for new markets, targeted information products and services, greater accessibility, lower costs and prices, and more rapid and efficient distribution. Realizing the full potential of those information resources requires the resolution of significant intellectual property issues, some of which may be affected by special features of health information. For example, the government is a significant funder and originator of health-related information. In addition, much of that information is of great importance to the population and benefits not only individual users, but also employers, insurance companies, the government, and society as a whole. The government must therefore continue to provide particularly important health information to the public, and facilitate that information's accessibility and reliability, while avoiding unnecessary competition with private information providers. Congress and courts must modify or interpret current copyright law as necessary to guarantee that it does not interfere with innovation in tailored health information or exceed its constitutional boundaries and restrict access to information, as opposed to expression. Both producers and users of information must work with the government to educate the public about the availability of health information and the rights of and limitations upon users under copyright law. PMID:8826629

  15. Relating realist metatheory to issues of gender and mental health.

    PubMed

    Bergin, M; Wells, John S G; Owen, Sara

    2010-06-01

    This paper seeks to advance the debate that considers critical realism as an alternative approach for understanding gender and mental health and its relatedness to mental health research and practice. The knowledge base of how 'sex' and 'gender' affect mental health and illness is expanding. However, the way we conceptualize gender is significant and challenging as quite often our ability to think about 'gender' as independent of 'sex' is not common. The influences and interplay of how sex (biological) and gender (social) affect mental health and illness requires consideration. Critical realism suggests a shared ontology and epistemology for the natural and social sciences. While much of the debate surrounding gender is guided within a constructivist discourse, an exploration of the concept 'gender' is reflected on and some key realist propositions are considered for mental health research and practice. This is achieved through the works of some key realist theorists. Critical realism offers potential for research and practice in relation to gender and mental health because it facilitates changes in our understanding, while simultaneously, not discarding that which is already known. In so doing, it allows the biological (sex) and social (gender) domains of knowledge for mental health and illness to coexist, without either being reduced to or defined by the other. Arguably, greater depth and explanations for gender and mental health issues are presented within a realist metatheory. PMID:20584241

  16. Current issues in occupational health nursing. A Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Hunter, C

    1991-07-01

    The National Association of Occupational Health Nurses is still in its infancy and is striving to become an interest group under the umbrella of the Canadian Nurses Association. This will bring together the provincial associations in a common goal of promoting worker health and safety. The diversity of the country and the sheer magnitude of the various occupations of Canadians reflect the need for the occupational health nurse to be well educated and kept abreast of new developments. Changes in the worksite echo changes in health and safety legislation that will help to improve conditions in the workplace. Future challenges arise from changes in the work force and the nature of work and include: ergonomic issues, job stress, older workers, EAPs, and increased competition. PMID:2069607

  17. Human Health Effects of Tetrachloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Karen A.; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Cooper, Glinda S.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Kopylev, Leonid; Barone, Stanley; Makris, Susan L.; Glenn, Barbara; Subramaniam, Ravi P.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) in February 2012 in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Objectives: We reviewed key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of PCE described in the U.S. EPA’s Toxicological Review of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene). Methods: The updated assessment of PCE synthesized and characterized a substantial database of epidemiological, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies. Key scientific issues were addressed through modeling of PCE toxicokinetics, synthesis of evidence from neurological studies, and analyses of toxicokinetic, mechanistic, and other factors (tumor latency, severity, and background rate) in interpreting experimental animal cancer findings. Considerations in evaluating epidemiological studies included the quality (e.g., specificity) of the exposure assessment methods and other essential design features, and the potential for alternative explanations for observed associations (e.g., bias or confounding). Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites that contribute to PCE toxicity. The exposure assessment approach—a key evaluation factor for epidemiological studies of bladder cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma—provided suggestive evidence of carcinogenicity. Bioassay data provided conclusive evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Neurotoxicity was identified as a sensitive noncancer health effect, occurring at low exposures: a conclusion supported by multiple studies. Evidence was integrated from human, experimental animal, and mechanistic data sets in assessing adverse health effects of PCE. Conclusions: PCE is likely to be carcinogenic to humans. Neurotoxicity is a sensitive adverse health effect of PCE. Citation: Guyton KZ, Hogan KA, Scott CS, Cooper GS, Bale AS

  18. Issues in health care: interventional pain management at the crossroads.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2007-03-01

    Emerging strategies in health care are extremely important for interventional pain physicians, as well as with the payors in various categories. While most Americans, including the US Congress and Administration, are looking for ways to provide affordable health care, the process of transformation and emerging health care strategies are troubling for physicians in general, and interventional pain physicians in particular. With the new Congress, only new issues rather than absolute solutions seem to emerge. Interventional pain physicians will continue to face the very same issues in the coming years that they have faced in previous years including increasing national health care spending, physician payment reform, ambulatory surgery center reform, and pay for performance. The national health expenditure data continue to extend the spending pattern that has characterized the 21st century, with US health spending continuing to outpace inflation and accounting for a growing share of the national economy. Health care spending in 2005 was $2.0 trillion or $6,697 per person and represented 16% of the gross domestic product. In 2005, Medicare spending reached $342 billion, while Medicaid spending was $315 billion. Physician and clinical services occupied approximately 21% of all US health care spending in 2005, reaching $421.2 billion. Overall, health spending in the US is expected to double to $4.1 trillion by 2016, then consuming 20% of the nation's gross domestic product, up from the current 16%. It is predicted that by 2016 the government will be paying 48.7% of the nation's health care bill, up from 38% in 1970 and 40% in 1990. The Medicare Physician Payment system based on the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) formula continues to be a major issue for physicians. The Congressional Budget Office has projected budget implications of change in the SGR mechanism, with consideration for allowing payment rates to increase by the amount of medical inflation, costing Medicare an

  19. Chemical mutagenesis: an emerging issue for public health.

    PubMed Central

    Claxton, L D; Barry, P Z

    1977-01-01

    Chemical mutagens are recognized as prevalent in the environment and a potential threat to the health of future generations. This paper presents an overview of chemical mutagenesis as an issue for public health. Several problems in the determination of risk to human populations are discussed, including difficulties of extrapolating scientific data to humans, the latency period between exposure and recognizable genetic damage, and the large number of chemicals which must be tested. Test systems are described. Possibilities of control through federal regulation are discussed. PMID:911015

  20. Ethical issues in electronic health records: A general overview.

    PubMed

    Ozair, Fouzia F; Jamshed, Nayer; Sharma, Amit; Aggarwal, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) is increasingly being implemented in many developing countries. It is the need of the hour because it improves the quality of health care and is also cost-effective. Technologies can introduce some hazards hence safety of information in the system is a real challenge. Recent news of security breaches has put a question mark on this system. Despite its increased usefulness, and increasing enthusiasm in its adoption, not much attention is being paid to the ethical issues that might arise. Securing EHR with an encrypted password is a probable option. The purpose of this article is to discuss the various ethical issues arising in the use of the EHRs and their possible solutions. PMID:25878950

  1. Ethical issues in electronic health records: A general overview

    PubMed Central

    Ozair, Fouzia F.; Jamshed, Nayer; Sharma, Amit; Aggarwal, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) is increasingly being implemented in many developing countries. It is the need of the hour because it improves the quality of health care and is also cost-effective. Technologies can introduce some hazards hence safety of information in the system is a real challenge. Recent news of security breaches has put a question mark on this system. Despite its increased usefulness, and increasing enthusiasm in its adoption, not much attention is being paid to the ethical issues that might arise. Securing EHR with an encrypted password is a probable option. The purpose of this article is to discuss the various ethical issues arising in the use of the EHRs and their possible solutions. PMID:25878950

  2. Training Australian General Practitioners in Rural Public Health: Impact, Desirability and Adaptability of Hybrid Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladman, Justin; Perkins, David

    2013-01-01

    Context and Objective: Australian rural general practitioners (GPs) require public health knowledge. This study explored the suitability of teaching complex public health issues related to Aboriginal health by way of a hybrid problem-based learning (PBL) model within an intensive training retreat for GP registrars, when numerous trainees have no…

  3. [Ethical issues in health care of gender violence].

    PubMed

    Bugarín-González, R; Bugarín-Diz, C

    2014-01-01

    Gender violence is a health problem that occasionally gives rise to ethical dilemmas for the family doctor. One of the most important conflict is probably when a patient admits to being abused by her partner, but appeals to keep the information confidential, and refuses to present an injury report. There also other problematic situations. This essay attempts to reflect on these issues and help professionals in making decisions. PMID:24815861

  4. Mental health issues affecting ethnic minorities in Japan.

    PubMed

    Noda, F

    1998-12-01

    Although Japan is becoming a multicultural society, the policy for ethnic minorities is not as mature as that in Western countries. Mental health issues among new ethnic minorities will be discussed. New minorities are mainly South-East Asian refugees, foreign brides from the Philippines, Korea and China, and returnees from China. Because their communities are very small, they tend to have great difficulties in coping with the Japanese society. Problems in their adjustment to the host country will be discussed. PMID:9895196

  5. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  6. Culturally Framing Aboriginal Literacy and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antone, Eileen

    2003-01-01

    More than just the development of reading and writing skills, Aboriginal literacy is a wholistic concept, with spiritual, physical, mental, and emotional aspects, involving relationships between self, community, nation, and creation. Models are presented for incorporating traditional Aboriginal knowledge and methodologies into Aboriginal learning…

  7. Diabetic Foot Care: Developing Culturally Appropriate Educational Tools for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jennifer; Obersteller, Elizabeth A.; Rennie, Linda; Whitbread, Cherie

    2001-01-01

    Participatory research in Australia's Northern Territory sought opinions from nurses, general practitioners, Aboriginal health workers, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders on the development of culturally relevant foot care education for Indigenous people with diabetes. They decided to use a visual approach (posters and flip charts) to…

  8. Assessing health care in Canada's North: what can we learn from national and regional surveys?

    PubMed Central

    Young, T. Kue; Ng, Carmina; Chatwood, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Health surveys are a rich source of information on a variety of health issues, including health care. Objectives This article compares various national and regional surveys in terms of their geographical coverage with respect to the Canadian North, especially their Aboriginal population, and the comparability of the survey contents relating to health care. Methods Three surveys were selected as providing some information on health care, with separate estimates for the North and its Aboriginal populations. They are the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) and the First Nations Regional Health Survey (RHS). Results Different surveys focus on different categories of Aboriginal people, and no single survey has covered all categories of Aboriginal people in the North consistently. RHS is targeted at the on-reserve First Nations population only. APS and CCHS sample the off-reserve First Nations population as well as Métis and Inuit. To achieve adequate sample size for North–South comparisons and comparisons among Aboriginal groups within the North, several cycles of the biennial/annual CCHS can be merged, producing a large data set with consistent coverage of topics using comparable questions. The content areas of the 3 surveys can be broadly categorized as health status, health determinants and health care. Substantial variation exists across surveys in the domains covered. There are also changes over time in terms of definitions, questions and even basic concepts. The available health care content of the 3 surveys focus on access to different types of health services, contact with different categories of health professionals, unmet health needs and the use of preventive services. Many important dimensions of health care are not covered. Not all these basic indicators are available for the North or its Aboriginal populations. Conclusions A comprehensive survey of health care in the North with sufficient sample size to

  9. [Issues on user participation in health care management in Africa].

    PubMed

    Kerouedan, D; Dauby, P

    2004-01-01

    The 1990s witnessed great progress in increasing community participation in the management of health care services as an objective for reform of healthcare systems especially in urban areas benefiting from funding from the international community. Community participation has taken various forms from one country to another in terms of sources of healthcare training (public, private, or both), organization of management committees (inclusion or not of healthcare personnel), and scope of public service assigned to district health care units (preventive and/or curative care, management of proceeds from provision of health care procedures and/or medication, etc.). These strategies have had variable results and, although some urban programs have been evaluated, no attempt has been made to use this experience as a basis for analyzing the political implications of issues involving citizenship and public health. This report presents some ideas on these issues from the point of view of both governments and citizens and restates the purpose of user participation in healthcare services in Africa. That intent involves the need not only to increase household contributions to the cost of healthcare especially within the uncertain economic environment of urban areas but also to improve access to as well as quality of healthcare services. PMID:15816139

  10. Community Health and Socioeconomic Issues Surrounding Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    PubMed Central

    Donham, Kelley J.; Wing, Steven; Osterberg, David; Flora, Jan L.; Hodne, Carol; Thu, Kendall M.; Thorne, Peter S.

    2007-01-01

    A consensus of the Workgroup on Community and Socioeconomic Issues was that improving and sustaining healthy rural communities depends on integrating socioeconomic development and environmental protection. The workgroup agreed that the World Health Organization’s definition of health, “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity,” applies to rural communities. These principles are embodied in the following main points agreed upon by this workgroup. Healthy rural communities ensure a) the physical and mental health of individuals, b) financial security for individuals and the greater community, c) social well-being, d ) social and environmental justice, and e) political equity and access. This workgroup evaluated impacts of the proliferation of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on sustaining the health of rural communities. Recommended policy changes include a more stringent process for issuing permits for CAFOs, considering bonding for manure storage basins, limiting animal density per watershed, enhancing local control, and mandating environmental impact statements. PMID:17384786

  11. Community health and socioeconomic issues surrounding concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Donham, Kelley J; Wing, Steven; Osterberg, David; Flora, Jan L; Hodne, Carol; Thu, Kendall M; Thorne, Peter S

    2007-02-01

    A consensus of the Workgroup on Community and Socioeconomic Issues was that improving and sustaining healthy rural communities depends on integrating socioeconomic development and environmental protection. The workgroup agreed that the World Health Organization's definition of health, "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity," applies to rural communities. These principles are embodied in the following main points agreed upon by this workgroup. Healthy rural communities ensure a) the physical and mental health of individuals, b) financial security for individuals and the greater community, c) social well-being, d ) social and environmental justice, and e) political equity and access. This workgroup evaluated impacts of the proliferation of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on sustaining the health of rural communities. Recommended policy changes include a more stringent process for issuing permits for CAFOs, considering bonding for manure storage basins, limiting animal density per watershed, enhancing local control, and mandating environmental impact statements. PMID:17384786

  12. A review of the mental health issues of diabetes conference.

    PubMed

    Ducat, Lee; Rubenstein, Arthur; Philipson, Louis H; Anderson, Barbara J

    2015-02-01

    Individuals with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk for depression, anxiety disorder, and eating disorder diagnoses. People with type 1 diabetes are also at risk for subclinical levels of diabetes distress and anxiety. These mental/behavioral health comorbidities of diabetes are associated with poor adherence to treatment and poor glycemic control, thus increasing the risk for serious short- and long-term physical complications, which can result in blindness, amputations, stroke, cognitive decline, decreased quality of life, as well as premature death. When mental health comorbidities of diabetes are not diagnosed and treated, the financial cost to society and health care systems is catastrophic, and the human suffering that results is profound. This review summarizes state-of-the-art presentations and working group scholarly reports from the Mental Health Issues of Diabetes Conference (7-8 October 2013, Philadelphia, PA), which included stakeholders from the National Institutes of Health, people living with type 1 diabetes and their families, diabetes consumer advocacy groups, the insurance industry, as well as psychologists, psychiatrists, endocrinologists, and nurse practitioners who are all nationally and internationally recognized experts in type 1 diabetes research and care. At this landmark conference current evidence for the incidence and the consequences of mental health problems in type 1 diabetes was presented, supporting the integration of mental health screening and mental health care into routine diabetes medical care. Future research directions were recommended to establish the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of paradigms of diabetes care in which physical and mental health care are both priorities. PMID:25614689

  13. Special issue: Behavioral Economics and Health Annual Symposium.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    The application of behavioral economics to health and health care has captured the imagination of policymakers across the political spectrum. The idea is that many people are irrational in predictable ways, and that this both contributes to unhealthy behaviors like smoking and holds one of the keys to changing those behaviors. Because health care costs continue to increase, and a substantial portion of costs are incurred because of unhealthy behaviors, employers and insurers have great interest in using financial incentives to change behaviors. However, it is in the details that complexity and controversies emerge. Who should the targets be, and what outcomes should be rewarded? How should incentives be structured, to maximize their effectiveness and minimize unintended consequences? In what situations should we be intervening to affect decisions by people who may prefer to be obese or to smoke, and in what situations should we accept their preferences? To begin to answer these questions, the Penn-CMU Roybal P30 Center on Behavioral Economics and Health held its first annual Behavioral Economics and Health Symposium on March 24-25, 2011 with support from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The symposium drew more than 50 researchers, scholars, and health professionals from a variety of disciplines, including medicine, public health, economics, law, management, marketing, and psychology. They heard perspectives on behavioral economics from public and private funders, the CEO of the University of Pennsylvania Health System, and the CEO of stickK.com, a start-up company that uses online, voluntary commitment contracts to help people achieve their goals. Participants formed eight working groups to review the current state-of-the-art in a variety of clinical contexts and to consider how behavioral economics could inform a research agenda to improve health. This Issue Brief summarizes the findings of these working groups and the symposium. PMID:21949955

  14. Occupational health and safety issues among nurses in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    de Castro, A B; Cabrera, Suzanne L; Gee, Gilbert C; Fujishiro, Kaori; Tagalog, Eularito A

    2009-04-01

    Nursing is a hazardous occupation in the United States, but little is known about workplace health and safety issues facing the nursing work force in the Philippines. In this article, work-related problems among a sample of nurses in the Philippines are described. Cross-sectional data were collected through a self-administered survey during the Philippine Nurses Association 2007 convention. Measures included four categories: work-related demographics, occupational injury/illness, reporting behavior, and safety concerns. Approximately 40% of nurses had experienced at least one injury or illness in the past year, and 80% had experienced back pain. Most who had an injury did not report it. The top ranking concerns were stress and overwork. Filipino nurses encounter considerable health and safety concerns that are similar to those encountered by nurses in other countries. Future research should examine the work organization factors that contribute to these concerns and strengthen policies to promote health and safety. PMID:19438081

  15. Occupational Health and Safety Issues Among Nurses in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, A. B.; Cabrera, Suzanne L.; Gee, Gilbert C.; Fujishiro, Kaori; Tagalog, Eularito A.

    2009-01-01

    Nursing is a hazardous occupation in the United States, but little is known about workplace health and safety issues facing the nursing work force in the Philippines. In this article, work-related problems among a sample of nurses in the Philippines are described. Cross-sectional data were collected through a self-administered survey during the Philippine Nurses Association 2007 convention. Measures included four categories: work-related demographics, occupational injury/illness, reporting behavior, and safety concerns. Approximately 40% of nurses had experienced at least one injury or illness in the past year, and 80% had experienced back pain. Most who had an injury did not report it. The top ranking concerns were stress and overwork. Filipino nurses encounter considerable health and safety concerns that are similar to those encountered by nurses in other countries. Future research should examine the work organization factors that contribute to these concerns and strengthen policies to promote health and safety. PMID:19438081

  16. African American College Students' Health Behaviors and Perceptions of Related Health Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Denyce S.; Goode, Carolyn R.

    1994-01-01

    A study of African American college students compared students' health-related behaviors with their perceptions of corresponding health issues. Students had low smoking rates but higher alcohol consumption. Most students did not practice good nutrition or daily physical activity. Over half managed stress well, and three-quarters were sexually…

  17. Framing the issues: moral distress in health care.

    PubMed

    Pauly, Bernadette M; Varcoe, Colleen; Storch, Jan

    2012-03-01

    Moral distress in health care has been identified as a growing concern and a focus of research in nursing and health care for almost three decades. Researchers and theorists have argued that moral distress has both short and long-term consequences. Moral distress has implications for satisfaction, recruitment and retention of health care providers and implications for the delivery of safe and competent quality patient care. In over a decade of research on ethical practice, registered nurses and other health care practitioners have repeatedly identified moral distress as a concern and called for action. However, research and action on moral distress has been constrained by lack of conceptual clarity and theoretical confusion as to the meaning and underpinnings of moral distress. To further examine these issues and foster action on moral distress, three members of the University of Victoria/University of British Columbia (UVIC/UVIC) nursing ethics research team initiated the development and delivery of a multi-faceted and interdisciplinary symposium on Moral Distress with international experts, researchers, and practitioners. The goal of the symposium was to develop an agenda for action on moral distress in health care. We sought to develop a plan of action that would encompass recommendations for education, practice, research and policy. The papers in this special issue of HEC Forum arose from that symposium. In this first paper, we provide an introduction to moral distress; make explicit some of the challenges associated with theoretical and conceptual constructions of moral distress; and discuss the barriers to the development of research, education, and policy that could, if addressed, foster action on moral distress in health care practice. The following three papers were written by key international experts on moral distress, who explore in-depth the issues in three arenas: education, practice, research. In the fifth and last paper in the series, we highlight

  18. The Astronomy of Aboriginal Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-06-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, which is usually reported in terms of songs or stories associated with stars and constellations. Here we argue that the astronomical components extend further, and include a search for meaning in the sky, beyond simply mirroring the earth-bound understanding. In particular, we have found that traditional Aboriginal cultures include a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and that this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. We also present evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, and paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts.

  19. Refractive status of mountain aborigine schoolchildren in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shiuh-Liang; Chang, Cheng-Hsien; Lai, Yu-Hung; Wen, Mei-Hong; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2008-03-01

    Myopia is an epidemic health problem in Taiwan's schoolchildren. The prevalence of myopia has been increasing yearly, and the average age at which myopia develops has also become younger. Due to insufficient eye care in remote areas, the refractive status of aboriginal schoolchildren has not been well established. In 2005 and 2006, under the sponsorship of the Bureau of Health Promotion, we surveyed the ocular refraction of aboriginal schoolchildren in southern Taiwan mountain townships. From five primary schools in two townships, 371 children aged from 7 to 13 years of age were enrolled in our study. Refractive status under cycloplegia and subjective visual acuity were obtained. The crude prevalence of myopia (< -0.25 diopter [D]) was 25.6%. Although the prevalence increased with age, the annual change in mean refractive status was slower in the schoolchildren of mountain aborigines. The spherical equivalents of 93% of children were within +/- 1 D. The highest myopia was only -2.50 D. Seven children (1.82%) were refractive amblyopic, for which high hyperopia, astigmatism or anisometropia were the main causes. As aboriginal children were noted to be more myopic in this study than in the past, better eye care should be implemented in these remote areas. PMID:18364272

  20. Legal issues affecting confidentiality and informed consent in reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Rockett, L R

    2000-01-01

    The law governing confidentiality and informed consent has acquired unique characteristics in the area of reproductive health, as a consequence of both the establishment of a constitutional right to privacy in reproductive health matters and the reaction of those politically and morally opposed to the exercise of that right. The primary issues have involved: 1) the right of minors to receive reproductive health services without parental consent, which remains a political battleground; 2) laws requiring physicians to provide information to pregnant patients that is intended, not to inform them of the risks and benefits of the procedure, but to discourage them from obtaining abortions; 3) coerced and prohibited sterilizations; 4) court-ordered contraception and procedures to protect the fetus; and 5) restrictions on counseling about abortion, contraception, sterilization, and other reproductive health services authorized by state conscience or noncompliance clauses that shield such restrictions from the usual ethical, medical, and legal rules governing informed consent. The last area is of profound significance to the ability of women to make informed decisions about their reproductive health options. In the current economic environment, which fuels mergers and acquisitions involving sectarian and nonsectarian institutions, women are increasingly being put at risk as a result of such restrictions. PMID:11070641

  1. Comparative quantification of health risks: Conceptual framework and methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Christopher JL; Ezzati, Majid; Lopez, Alan D; Rodgers, Anthony; Vander Hoorn, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Reliable and comparable analysis of risks to health is key for preventing disease and injury. Causal attribution of morbidity and mortality to risk factors has traditionally been conducted in the context of methodological traditions of individual risk factors, often in a limited number of settings, restricting comparability. In this paper, we discuss the conceptual and methodological issues for quantifying the population health effects of individual or groups of risk factors in various levels of causality using knowledge from different scientific disciplines. The issues include: comparing the burden of disease due to the observed exposure distribution in a population with the burden from a hypothetical distribution or series of distributions, rather than a single reference level such as non-exposed; considering the multiple stages in the causal network of interactions among risk factor(s) and disease outcome to allow making inferences about some combinations of risk factors for which epidemiological studies have not been conducted, including the joint effects of multiple risk factors; calculating the health loss due to risk factor(s) as a time-indexed "stream" of disease burden due to a time-indexed "stream" of exposure, including consideration of discounting; and the sources of uncertainty. PMID:12780936

  2. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.

  3. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy - An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  4. ‘Beats the alternative but it messes up your life’: Aboriginal people's experience of haemodialysis in rural Australia

    PubMed Central

    Rix, Elizabeth F; Barclay, Lesley; Stirling, Janelle; Tong, Allison; Wilson, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Australian Aboriginal people have at least eight times the incidence of end-stage kidney disease, requiring dialysis, as the non-Aboriginal population. Provision of health services to rural Aboriginal people with renal disease is challenging due to barriers to access and cultural differences. We aimed to describe the experiences of Aboriginal people receiving haemodialysis in rural Australia, to inform strategies for improving renal services. Design A qualitative design incorporating: Indigenist research methodology and Community Based Participatory Research principles. In-depth interviews used a ‘yarning’ and storytelling approach. Thematic analysis was undertaken and verified by an Aboriginal Community Reference Group. Setting A health district in rural New South Wales, Australia. Participants Snowball sampling recruited 18 Aboriginal haemodialysis recipients. Results Six themes emerged which described the patient journey: ‘The biggest shock of me life,’ expressed the shock of diagnosis and starting the dialysis; ‘Beats the alternative but it messes up your life,’ explained how positive attitudes to treatment develop; ‘Family is everything’, described the motivation and support to continue dialysis; ‘If I had one of them nurses at home to help me’, depicted acute hospital settings as culturally unsafe; ‘Don't use them big jawbreakers’, urged service providers to use simple language and cultural awareness; ‘Stop ‘em following us onto the machine’, emphasised the desire for education for the younger generations about preventing kidney disease. An Aboriginal interpretation of this experience, linked to the analysis, was depicted in the form of an Aboriginal painting. Conclusions Family enables Aboriginal people to endure haemodialysis. Patients believe that priorities for improving services include family-centred and culturally accommodating healthcare systems; and improving access to early screening of kidney disease

  5. Adaptation of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire for Remote Aboriginal Australia.

    PubMed

    D'Aprano, Anita; Silburn, Sven; Johnston, Vanessa; Robinson, Gary; Oberklaid, Frank; Squires, Jane

    2016-04-01

    A key challenge to providing quality developmental care in remote Aboriginal primary health care (PHC) centers has been the absence of culturally appropriate developmental screening instruments. This study focused on the cross-cultural adaptation of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires, 3rd edition (ASQ-3), with careful attention to language and culture. We aimed to adapt the ASQ-3 for use with remote dwelling Australian Aboriginal children, and to investigate the cultural appropriateness and feasibility of the adapted ASQ-3 for use in this context. We undertook a qualitative study in two remote Australian Aboriginal communities, using a six-step collaborative adaptation process. Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) were trained to use the adapted ASQ-3, and follow-up interviews examined participants' views of the cultural acceptability and usefulness of the adapted instrument. The adapted ASQ-3 was found to have high face validity and to be culturally acceptable and relevant to parents, AHWs, and early childhood development experts. PMID:25488936

  6. [Ethics and reproductive health: the issue of HPV vaccination].

    PubMed

    Matejić, Bojana; Kesić, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the

  7. Aboriginal Representation: Conflict or Dialogue in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leane, Jeanine

    2010-01-01

    This research begins with the premise that non-Aboriginal students are challenged by much Aboriginal writing and also challenge its representations as they struggle to re-position themselves in relation to possible meanings within Aboriginal writing. Many non-Aboriginal students come to read an Aboriginal narrative against their understanding of…

  8. Australian Aboriginal Deaf People and Aboriginal Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Des

    2013-01-01

    Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf Aboriginal…

  9. Mental health issues and discrimination among older LGBTI people.

    PubMed

    Tinney, Jean; Dow, Briony; Maude, Phillip; Purchase, Rachel; Whyte, Carolyn; Barrett, Catherine

    2015-09-01

    LGBT is an acronym used to describe people from diverse sexual orientation or gender identity, people that are gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender. LGBT people do not constitute a single group nor does each individual "group" constitute a homogeneous unity. However, as higher rates of depression and/or anxiety have been observed in older LGBT people, compared to their heterosexual counterparts (Guasp, 2011) there is a need to raise the profile of mental health issues amongst these groups. The additional letter I is also often included in the acronym LGBTI as intersex people are often included as another gender diverse group. However, there is very little research that includes intersex people and none on older intersex people's mental health so this editorial is restricted to consideration of older LGBT people. PMID:26223452

  10. Ethical issues relating to reproduction control and women's health.

    PubMed

    Schenker, J G; Eisenberg, V H

    1997-07-01

    There are many ethical aspects which derive from the application of reproduction control in women's health. Women's health can be enhanced if women are given the opportunity to make their own reproduction choices about sex, contraception, abortion and application of reproductive technologies. The main issues that raise ethical dilemmas following the development of assisted reproduction techniques are: the right to procreate or reproduce; the process of in vitro fertilization itself-is it morally acceptable to interfere in the reproduction process?; the moral status of the embryo; the involvement of a third party in the reproductive process by genetic material donation; the practice of surrogacy, cryopreservation of pre-embryos; genetic manipulation; experiments on pre-embryos, etc. Induced abortion raises ethical issues related to the rights of the woman versus the rights of the fetus. For those who consider life to begin at conception abortion always equals murder and is therefore forbidden. Those who believe in the absolute autonomy of the woman over her body take the other extreme approach. The discussion surrounding abortion usually centers on whether it should be legal or illegal. Access to safe abortion is critical to the health of women and to their autonomy. The development of new effective contraceptive methods has a profound impact on women's lives. By the use of contraception it is possible to lessen maternal, infant and child mortality and to reduce the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. Research and development of new effective reversible contraceptives for women and men is needed. Dissemination of information about the safety and effectiveness of contraceptive methods is of great importance. Female genital mutilation is still practiced worldwide due to customs and tradition among various ethnic groups. The procedure is considered to be medically detrimental to the physical and mental health of women and girls, and is considered by many as

  11. Screening for rheumatic heart disease in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

    PubMed

    Rémond, Marc Gerard Wootton; Wark, Emma Kathleen; Maguire, Graeme Paul

    2013-07-01

    Rheumatic heart disease is preventable but causes significant morbidity and mortality in Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander populations. Screening echocardiography has the potential to detect early rheumatic heart disease thereby enabling timely commencement of treatment (secondary prophylaxis) to halt disease progression. However, a number of issues prevent echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease satisfying the Australian criteria for acceptable screening programs. Primarily, it is unclear what criteria should be used to define a positive screening result as questions remain regarding the significance, natural history and potential treatment of early and subclinical rheumatic heart disease. Furthermore, at present the delivery of secondary prophylaxis in Australia remains suboptimal such that the potential benefits of screening would be limited. Finally, the impact of echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease on local health services and the psychosocial health of patients and families are yet to be ascertained. PMID:23638751

  12. Editorial: 2nd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Stephen T

    2015-11-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 2nd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries that are trying to more effectively manage chronic health conditions. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behavior patterns such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. As such behavior change needs to be a key component of improving population health. There is also broad agreement that while these problems extend across socioeconomic strata, they are overrepresented among more economically disadvantaged populations and contribute directly to the growing problem of health disparities. Hence, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing that unsettling problem as well. In this 2nd Special Issue, we devote considerable space to the current U.S. prescription opioid addiction epidemic, a crisis that was not addressed in the prior Special Issue. We also continue to devote attention to the two largest contributors to preventable disease and premature death, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity as well as risks of co-occurrence of these unhealthy behavior patterns. Across each of these topics we included contributions from highly accomplished policy makers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges to effectively managing these important chronic health problems. PMID:26257372

  13. Editorial: 2nd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 2nd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries that are trying to more effectively manage chronic health conditions. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behavior patterns such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. As such behavior change needs to be a key component of improving population health. There is also broad agreement that while these problems extend across socioeconomic strata, they are overrepresented among more economically disadvantaged populations and contribute directly to the growing problem of health disparities. Hence, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing that unsettling problem as well. In this 2nd Special Issue, we devote considerable space to the current U.S. prescription opioid addiction epidemic, a crisis that was not addressed in the prior Special Issue. We also continue to devote attention to the two largest contributors to preventable disease and premature death, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity as well as risks of co-occurrence of these unhealthy behavior patterns. Across each of these topics we included contributions from highly accomplished policymakers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges to effectively managing these important chronic health problems. PMID:26257372

  14. Animal Health and Welfare Issues Facing Organic Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Mhairi A.; Webster, Jim; Sutherland, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The demand for organically grown, animal derived produce is increasing due to a growing desire for consumer products that have minimal chemical inputs and high animal welfare standards. Evaluation of the scientific literature suggests that a major challenge facing organic animal production systems is the management and treatment of health-related issues. However, implementation of effective management practices can help organic animal producers achieve and maintain high standards of health and welfare, which is necessary to assure consumers that organic animal-based food and fibre has not only been produced with minimal or no chemical input, but under high standards of animal welfare. Abstract The demand for organically-grown produce is increasing worldwide, with one of the drivers being an expectation among consumers that animals have been farmed to a high standard of animal welfare. This review evaluates whether this expectation is in fact being met, by describing the current level of science-based knowledge of animal health and welfare in organic systems. The primary welfare risk in organic production systems appears to be related to animal health. Organic farms use a combination of management practices, alternative and complementary remedies and convenional medicines to manage the health of their animals and in many cases these are at least as effective as management practices employed by non-organic producers. However, in contrast to non-organic systems, there is still a lack of scientifically evaluated, organically acceptable therapeutic treatments that organic animal producers can use when current management practices are not sufficient to maintain the health of their animals. The development of such treatments are necessary to assure consumers that organic animal-based food and fibre has not only been produced with minimal or no chemical input, but under high standards of animal welfare. PMID:26479750

  15. The potential influence of KIR cluster profiles on disease patterns of Canadian Aboriginals and other indigenous peoples of the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, Julia D; Hawkins, Kim; Lande, Erin; Nickerson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Genetic differences in immune regulators influence disease resistance and susceptibility patterns. There are major health discrepancies in immune-mediated diseases between Caucasians and Canadian Aboriginal people, as well as with other indigenous people of the Americas. Environmental factors offer a limited explanation as Aboriginal people also demonstrate a rare resistance to chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are known modulators of viral responses and autoimmune diseases. The possibility that variation in KIR cluster profiles contribute to the health outcomes of Aboriginal people was evaluated with Canadian Caucasian (n=93, population controls) and Aboriginal (n=86) individuals. Relative to Caucasians, the Aboriginal KIR cluster displayed a greater immune activating phenotype associated with genes of the B haplotype situated within the telomeric region. In conjunction, there was a decrease in the genes of the B haplotype from the centromeric region. Caucasian and Aboriginal cohorts further demonstrated distinct genotype and haplotype relationships enforcing the disconnect between the B haplotype centromeric and telomeric regions within the Aboriginal population. Moreover, Caucasian KIR cluster patterns reflected studies of Caucasians globally, as well as Asians. In contrast, the unique pattern of the Canadian Aboriginal cohort mirrored the phenotype of other indigenous peoples of the Americas, but not that of Caucasians or Asians. Taken together, these data suggest that historically indigenous peoples of the Americas were subject to immune selection processes that could be influencing the current disease resistance and susceptibility patterns of their descendents. PMID:21731058

  16. A Brief Strengths Scale for individuals with mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Ho, Samuel M Y; Li, Wing Ling; Duan, Wenjie; Siu, Bowie P Y; Yau, Sania; Yeung, Gladys; Wong, Keith

    2016-02-01

    Using their strengths and virtues enables individuals to build resilience and alleviate mental health issues. However, most existing instruments for measuring strengths are too lengthy to provide effective assessment for clinical screening. A brief instrument with good factorial and ecological validity is needed to measure strengths, especially among individuals with mental health issues. In this study, the authors developed a brief inventory, the Brief Strengths Scale-12 (BSS-12), to assess 3 strengths: Temperance Strength, Intellectual Strength, and Interpersonal Strength. Two studies were conducted. Study 1 was conducted in Hong Kong. Service recipients (n = 149) from a psychiatric rehabilitation organization were recruited to establish the factor structure and construct validity of the BSS-12. In Study 2, 203 university undergraduates from mainland China were recruited to examine the factorial invariance of the BSS-12 in a different culture and population. Each factor demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency, content validity, and discriminant validity. The BSS-12 may be a useful tool for assessing strengths in clinical and nonclinical settings for service planning and the evaluation of intervention effectiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26029942

  17. Some practical issues in remote structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, L.; Newhook, J. P.; Mufti, A. A.

    2005-05-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) activities in civil engineering grow at a rapid pace and mature in both research and field applications. Internet technology was successfully incorporated into structural health monitoring, which makes it possible to manage real-time sensing data and centralize the remote structural monitoring systems. With the increase in size and complexity of the monitored structures, more sensors and data acquisition equipment is involved. This paper addresses some specific issues related to long distance small signal transmission and Ethernet IP sharing between different devices. The issue of data volume versus storage space and communication bandwidth is discussed especially in the application of web camera image transfer and recording. The approaches are illustrated through reference to two current case studies, which include a bridge and a statue. It can be seen that these practical solutions employed by ISIS Canada are easy to implement and reduce the cost for the maintenance of SHM systems. The paper also discusses future activities and research needs related to the reliability and security of the SHM system.

  18. Stories of Aboriginal Transracial Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttgens, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significant number of transracial Aboriginal adoptions that have taken place in Canada, little research is available that addresses the psychological and psychosocial ramifications for the children involved. The scant literature that does exist raises concerns about the psychological impact of this type of adoption. The present…

  19. Aboriginal Literacy: Reading the Tracks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Myra

    2001-01-01

    Describes cultural, political, and linguistic factors that have affected the literacy development of Aboriginal children in Australia. Discusses how oral and literate cultures manage knowledge differently, the social context of language development, literacy and power, cultural differences, and story reading. Suggests ways schools and teachers of…

  20. Dark Sparklers: Yidumduma's Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, Hugh; Harney, Bill Yidumduma

    2004-06-01

    Dark Sparklers is a book with over 100 photographs, many of which focus on prehistoric Aboriginal paintings and engravings. It is also, with 30 sky maps, the first properly presented, detailed indigenous astronomy published anywhere in the world. Over 150 extended passages of verbatim quotations from the Senior Elder provide an understanding of indigenous culture seldom given to the outside reader.

  1. Terminology Planning in Aboriginal Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troy, Jakelin; Walsh, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Australia, as far as Aboriginal languages are concerned, is not yet engaged in systematic language planning exercises. This is in contrast to other parts of the world where language planning is institutionalised and enforced. In this paper we chronicle some of the language planning exercises we have observed, been involved in, or have studied of…

  2. Sudden infant death syndrome in Australian aboriginal and non-aboriginal infants: an analytical comparison.

    PubMed

    Alessandri, L M; Read, A W; Burton, P R; Stanley, F J

    1996-07-01

    Our previous research has shown that the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) rate for Aboriginal infants in Western Australia (WA) is markedly higher than that for non-Aboriginal infants. The aim of this study was to identify factors that may be important in explaining this disparity. A case-control study was conducted based on routinely collected data for the population of WA singleton births from 1980 to 1990 inclusive. Cases were infants born and classified as dying from SIDS in WA (Aboriginal n = 88, non-Aboriginal n = 409). Controls were infants born in WA and not classified as dying from SIDS; 2% samples of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants were included. The risk of dying from SIDS in Aboriginal infants was 3.86 times [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.98 to 5.02] that in non-Aboriginal infants. Statistically significant univariable risk factors for SIDS in Aboriginal infants were preterm birth, low birthweight and small-for-gestational-age; for non-Aboriginal infants they included these factors as well as single marital status, young maternal age, parity of one or greater and male sex. Comparing Aboriginal with non-Aboriginal controls, most of the risk factors were more common in the Aboriginal population. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that Aboriginal infants were 1.43 times [95% CI = 1.04 to 1.95] more likely to die from SIDS than non-Aboriginal infants. Differences in the risk factor profile for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants were sought using interaction terms. The only important differences were that the risk of SIDS in Aboriginal infants, unlike that in non-Aboriginal infants, appeared not to be strongly related to male sex or to single marital status. Thus, the results show that the disparity between the incidence of SIDS in the Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations can be explained largely, although not totally, by the high prevalence of routinely recorded risk factors in the Aboriginal population. A limitation of

  3. In Practice: Weaving the Campus Safety Net by Integrating Student Health Issues into the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Todd A.; Riley, Joan B.

    2009-01-01

    Georgetown University has developed an innovative approach to addressing student health and wellness issues through curriculum infusion--a collaborative pedagogy that introduces real-life health issues faced by college students into their academic courses.

  4. Sexual issues of the disabled: implications for public health education.

    PubMed

    Low, W Y; Zubir, T N

    2000-01-01

    Sexuality of persons with spinal cord injury has received increased attention especially in the Western countries. However, in the local context, studies pertaining to the sexuality of the disabled are almost nil. This paper utilized a qualitative approach in assessing sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices of persons with spinal cord injury. Eight focus group discussions consisting of 28 adult spinal cord injured persons were carried out. The results showed that the frequency of sexual activity decreased following injury. The disabled themselves have a negative self-concept and a low self-esteem and this affects their attitudes towards sexuality and their sexual behaviour. Health care professionals tend to neglect this issue perhaps due to their insensitivity to the sexual needs for the disabled or a lack of understanding and expertise in this area. A need for sexual information related to their disability is warranted in the areas of reproduction, contraception and their ability/disability in achieving an erection or ejaculation. This study indicated a need for more comprehensive research in this neglected area of sexual issues of persons with disabilities. Public health education and counseling is deemed necessary for the disabled themselves so as to accommodate their sexual lives to their physical capabilities and desires. Attitudes and misconceptions of the public need to be corrected. Above all, there is a need for education and training for health care professionals in the area of sexual rehabilitation, which is currently non-existent in the country. Perhaps, it is timely to incorporate sexual rehabilitation as part of a holistic medical rehabilitation of the disabled. PMID:11338746

  5. Trauma, stress, health, and mental health issues among ethnically diverse older adult prisoners.

    PubMed

    Haugebrook, Sabrina; Zgoba, Kristen M; Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Brown, Derek

    2010-07-01

    The United States' older adult prison population is growing rapidly. This study identifies and describes important psychosocial characteristics, particularly trauma, life-event stressors, health, mental health, and substance abuse, among older adults in prison. Data were collected using case record reviews of 114 prisoners aged 55 or older in the New Jersey Department of Corrections. Findings revealed that the study participants are a diverse group with varied psychosocial issues and needs, including trauma and stress histories, substance use, and health and mental health issues. Most had childhood or adult trauma, such as physical or sexual abuse. Family problems were common in childhood and adulthood. Understanding the problems and needs of older adult prisoners may help improve practice, promote advocacy, and prompt research that can enhance the quality of life of this population. PMID:20472867

  6. Dental prescribing in Wales and associated public health issues.

    PubMed

    Karki, A J; Holyfield, G; Thomas, D

    2011-01-01

    Dental prescribing data in Wales have not been studied in detail previously. The analysis of national data available from Health Solutions Wales showed that dental prescribing in Wales accounted for 9% of total antibacterial prescribing in primary care in 2008. Penicillin and metronidazole constituted the bulk of antibiotics prescribed by dentists. Since the publication of National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance (March 2008) on prophylaxis against infective endocarditis, dental prescriptions for amoxicillin 3g sachets and clindamycin capsules have decreased. Dental prescriptions for fluoride preparations increased in number from 2007 to 2008. Dental prescribing of controlled drugs raises no concern. The figure for antibiotic prescribing in Wales is similar to that of England. Nevertheless, the figure seems a little high, indicating potential inappropriate prescribing behaviour among dentists. Antibiotic resistance is a major public health issue and many patients each year die from infections from bacterial strains that are resistant to one or more antibiotics. Inappropriate use of antibiotics is a major cause of antibiotic resistance and every effort should be made to reduce the number of inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions in dental practice. PMID:21164522

  7. [The mental health issues among gay and lesbian elders].

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Julie; Chamberland, Line

    2015-01-01

    Most gay and lesbian elders have experienced discrimination and stigmatization related to their sexual orientation in their life trajectory. These negative experiences may have had an impact on their life course and on their mental health. Even if the majority of gay and lesbian older adults actually have and maintain good mental health, studies show that non-heterosexual people are at a greater risk of developing certain difficulties, such as anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts and excessive consumption of alcohol and other substances. This article presents the factors that may weaken the mental health of older gay and lesbian people, such as victimization and the exposure to various forms of prejudice in their life course, the continuous management of the disclosure or dissimulation of their sexual orientation, the degree of internalized homophobia, as well as loneliness; and also presents the potential protective factors, such as building resilience, social networks and social support. This article concludes by illustrating the implications concerning the specific needs of the gay and lesbian elders. Some recommendations are also formulated with regards to recognizing the issues affecting gay and lesbian older adults as well as improving the services that are offered to them. PMID:26966854

  8. Family food work: lessons learned from urban Aboriginal women about nutrition promotion.

    PubMed

    Foley, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on ethnographic study of urban Aboriginal family food and implications for nutrition promotion. Data were collected over 2 years through in-depth interviews and participant observation in groups conducted through Indigenous organisations in a suburb of Brisbane. Issues when organising family food include affordability, keeping family members satisfied and being able to share food, a lack of cooking ideas, the accessibility of nutrition information, additional work involved in ensuring healthy eating, and a desire for convenience. Many different health professionals provide nutrition advice, often directing it towards individuals and not providing adequate guidance to facilitate implementation. The easiest advice to implement worked from existing household food practices, skills and budget. Cooking workshops helped to provide opportunities to experiment with recommended foods so that women could confidently introduce them at home. Aboriginal women are concerned about healthy eating for their families. Disadvantage can limit dietary change and the complexity of family food work is often underestimated in nutrition promotion. Household, rather than individual, framing of nutrition promotion can lead to more sustainable healthy eating changes. PMID:20815998

  9. A Systematic Review of Community Interventions to Improve Aboriginal Child Passenger Safety

    PubMed Central

    Oudie, Eugenia; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Turcotte, Kate; Pike, Ian

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated evidence of community interventions to improve Aboriginal child passenger safety (CPS) in terms of its scientific merit and cultural relevance. We included studies if they reported interventions to improve CPS in Aboriginal communities, compared at least pre- and postintervention conditions, and evaluated rates and severity of child passenger injuries, child restraint use, or knowledge of CPS. We also appraised quality and cultural relevance of studies. Study quality was associated with community participation and cultural relevance. Strong evidence showed that multicomponent interventions tailored to each community improves CPS. Interventions in Aboriginal communities should incorporate Aboriginal views of health, involve the community, and be multicomponent and tailored to the community’s circumstances and culture. PMID:24754652

  10. Review of Social and Organizational Issues in Health Information Technology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper reviews organizational and social issues (OSIs) in health information technology (HIT). Methods A review and synthesis of the literature on OSIs in HIT was conducted. Results Five overarching themes with respect to OSIs in HIT were identified and discussed: scope and frameworks for defining OSIs in HIT, context matters, process immaturity and complexity, trade-offs will happen and need to be discussed openly, and means of studying OSIs in HIT. Conclusions There is a wide body of literature that provides insight into OSIs in HIT, even if many of the studies are not explicitly labelled as such. The two biggest research needs are more explicit and theoretical studies of OSI in HITs and more research on integrating micro and macro perspectives of HIT use in organizations. PMID:26279951

  11. Health-Promoting Schools and Mental Health Issues: A Survey of New Zealand Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Penni; Clelland, Tracy; Hornby, Garry

    2011-01-01

    In New Zealand, schools are implementing a variety of strategies in an attempt to address factors that adversely influence students' learning. The purpose of this article is to present the findings of a study that sought to determine the extent to which schools were able not only to identify health issues influencing learning, but also to use a…

  12. Abortion in modern health care: Considering the issues for health-care professionals.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Dawn; Lane, Paula

    2016-04-01

    This paper explores the challenging and contentious issue of abortion and its ethical, legal and political significance regarding public health. It is intended as an educational guide for health-care professionals. A comprehensive search strategy of international health, law and political source materials was undertaken in order to benchmark from international approaches to abortion. Test cases illustrate the application of legislation, ethical, political and cultural issues surrounding abortion. Abortion is a complex contemporary issue where balancing the well-being of both the mother and the unborn has prompted considerable international discourse. The right to life of the woman and the unborn continues to lie in tension. Ambiguity surrounds the concept of personhood, and the inception of human life prevails across many International jurisdictions. Health-care professionals must be well informed in order to respond safely and appropriately to a diverse range of clinical scenarios in which decisions regarding abortion are required. Research and evidence of test cases will better inform how abortion issues evolve and are managed. Ultimately, the abortion debate requires a balance between legislation and clinical governance. PMID:26818437

  13. Human Health Effects of Trichloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    PubMed Central

    Jinot, Jennifer; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Makris, Susan L.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Evans, Marina V.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Lipscomb, John C.; Barone, Stanley; Fox, John F.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Schaum, John; Caldwell, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of trichloroethylene (TCE) in September 2011, which was the result of an effort spanning > 20 years. Objectives: We summarized the key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of TCE in the U.S. EPA’s toxicological review. Methods: In this assessment we synthesized and characterized thousands of epidemiologic, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies, and addressed several key scientific issues through modeling of TCE toxicokinetics, meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies, and analyses of mechanistic data. Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the toxicological role of the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites of TCE. Meta-analyses of the epidemiologic data strongly supported the conclusions that TCE causes kidney cancer in humans and that TCE may also cause liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Mechanistic analyses support a key role for mutagenicity in TCE-induced kidney carcinogenicity. Recent evidence from studies in both humans and experimental animals point to the involvement of TCE exposure in autoimmune disease and hypersensitivity. Recent avian and in vitro mechanistic studies provided biological plausibility that TCE plays a role in developmental cardiac toxicity, the subject of substantial debate due to mixed results from epidemiologic and rodent studies. Conclusions: TCE is carcinogenic to humans by all routes of exposure and poses a potential human health hazard for noncancer toxicity to the central nervous system, kidney, liver, immune system, male reproductive system, and the developing embryo/fetus. PMID:23249866

  14. Dietary copper and human health: Current evidence and unresolved issues.

    PubMed

    Bost, Muriel; Houdart, Sabine; Oberli, Marion; Kalonji, Esther; Huneau, Jean-François; Margaritis, Irène

    2016-05-01

    Although copper (Cu) is recognized as an essential trace element, uncertainties remain regarding Cu reference values for humans, as illustrated by discrepancies between recommendations issued by different national authorities. This review examines human studies published since 1990 on relationships between Cu intake, Cu balance, biomarkers of Cu status, and health. It points out several gaps and unresolved issues which make it difficult to assess Cu requirements. Results from balance studies suggest that daily intakes below 0.8mg/day lead to net Cu losses, while net gains are consistently observed above 2.4mg/day. However, because of an incomplete collection of losses in all studies, a precise estimation of Cu requirements cannot be derived from available data. Data regarding the relationship between Cu intake and potential biomarkers are either too preliminary or inconclusive because of low specificity or low sensitivity to change in dietary Cu over a wide range of intakes. Results from observation and intervention studies do not support a link between Cu and a risk of cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline, arthritis or cancer for intakes ranging from 0.6 to 3mg/day, and limited evidence exists for impaired immune function in healthy subjects with a very low (0.38mg/day) Cu intake. However, data from observation studies should be regarded with caution because of uncertainties regarding Cu concentration in various foods and water. Further studies that accurately evaluate Cu exposure based on reliable biomarkers of Cu status are needed. PMID:27049134

  15. Health maintenance organizations: structure, performance, and current issues for employee health benefits design.

    PubMed

    Gold, M

    1991-03-01

    After summarizing the origins and key principles of HMOs, including the current characteristics of the HMO industry, this article reviews the evidence of HMO performance in the areas of benefits design, utilization and cost effectiveness, quality of care and consumer satisfaction, and selection and overall employer satisfaction. Outstanding issues and concerns, from the perspective of employee health benefits design, include issues such as assuring a fair price for HMO benefits, employer contribution methods, HMO diversification, and cost escalation and the search for value. Results of research studies have been generally positive about HMO performance on benefits, cost effectiveness, quality, and consumer satisfaction, and more mixed on employer satisfaction. As employers address concerns, some changes are likely in the methods used to integrate HMOs into a health benefits strategy. Because the issues involved in these changes are numerous and complex, careful consideration and design are desirable to assure that the net impact of any change is positive and consistent with overall goals. PMID:1903152

  16. Investigating the Relationship of Resilience to Academic Persistence in College Students with Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the relationships between measures of inter- and intrapersonal resilience and mental health were examined with respect to academic persistence in college students with mental health issues. A sample of 121 undergraduate students with mental health issues was recruited from campus mental health offices offering college counseling,…

  17. Games for health conference 2004: issues, trends, and needs unique to games for health.

    PubMed

    Howell, Kay

    2005-04-01

    The first-ever Games for Health Conference (Madison, WI, September 16-17, 2004) identified issues, trends, and needs unique to games for healthcare. More than 130 doctors, educators, therapists, and game makers gathered to share experiences particular to the health industry, health practitioners, and patient treatment. Co-sponsored by Games for Health, Project of the Serious Games Initiative, the Academic ADL Co-Lab, and the Federation of American Scientists, the conference highlighted applications for direct patient care and therapy, as well as health education, policy, and management ideas. This paper presents key concepts from the conference's panel discussions and summarizes successful projects demonstrated at the conference that can serve as models for the field. PMID:15938648

  18. Personal health records: key adoption issues and implications for management.

    PubMed

    Raisinghani, Mahesh S; Young, Erika

    2008-01-01

    Electronic Personal Health Records (PHRs) has been perceived as the tool to empower consumers to become active decision-makers of their healthcare instead of leaving the decision to providers. However, there has been the lack of enthusiasm and adoption of PHRs. This paper examines the current healthcare climate and attempts to understand the major challenges associated with PHRs adoption. The paper-based and fragmented healthcare system is no longer appropriate for the digital economy of the 21st century. The integrated health information technology system is the solution to transform clinical practice to consumer centric and information driven. Tools such as PHRs are means to an end that provide better, safer and more affordable healthcare for consumers. However, there has been little research conducted to demonstrate PHR's tangible value, despite the widespread perceived value of these technologies. Although survey data reveals that there is a lack of awareness among the public, consumers are receptive to this concept, especially when a physician recommends it. Key issues in adopting PHRs and strategies for successful implementation of PHRs are discussed. PMID:18583296

  19. Health issues in men: Part II. Common psychosocial disorders.

    PubMed

    Epperly, T D; Moore, K E

    2000-07-01

    During screening examinations and, when appropriate, other health-related visits, family physicians should be alert for signs and symptoms of common psychosocial disorders in men. Health issues of concern include alcohol and substance abuse, domestic violence, midlife crisis and depression. Alcohol remains the most abused drug in America. The highest rates of alcohol abuse are in men 25 to 39 years of age, although alcoholism is also a considerable problem after 65 years of age. Disulfiram and the opioid antagonist naltrexone are the two medications currently labeled by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic alcohol dependence. Like alcohol abuse, domestic violence is a sign of psychosocial distress in men. Domestic violence may be a problem in up to 16 percent of marriages. Most men move through the midlife period without difficulty. Major depressive illness occurs in about 1 percent of elderly men, whereas minor depression or subsyndromal depression affects 13 to 27 percent of older men. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have become first-line therapy for depression. PMID:10905783

  20. Emerging photovoltaic technologies: Environmental and health issues update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fthenakis, Vasilis M.; Moskowitz, Paul D.

    1997-02-01

    New photovoltaic (PV) technologies promise low-cost, reliable PV modules and have the potential for significant PV penetration into the energy market. These prospects for commercialization have attracted renewed interest in the advantageous environmental impact of using PV and also in the potential environmental, health and safety (EHS) burdens in PV manufacturing and decommissioning. In this paper, we highlight recent studies on EHS issues: a) An integrated energy-environmental-economic analysis which shows that large-scale use of PV can significantly contribute to alleviating the greenhouse effect; in the United States alone, it could displace 450 million tons of carbon emissions by the year 2030, b) Recycling of the spent modules and scarp is economically feasible; current research centers on improving the efficiency and economics of recycling CdTe and CIS modules, c) Toxicological studies conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) compared the acute toxicity of CdTe, CIS, and CGS; CdTe was the most toxic, and CGS the least toxic of the three. Additional studies are now comparing the systemic toxicity of these compounds with the toxicity of their precursors.

  1. No Link Between Anti-Smoking Drugs, Mental Health Issues: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... html No Link Between Anti-Smoking Drugs, Mental Health Issues: Study Meds like Chantix and Wellbutrin may ... Disorders Quitting Smoking Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Medicines Mental Disorders Quitting Smoking About MedlinePlus ...

  2. Health care policy issues in the drug abuser treatment field.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, W E

    1990-01-01

    As we enter the 1990s drug abuse has once again become a major health concern, and for the first time the drug treatment field has had to address many of the policy, regulation, and planning issues resulting from cost inflation that have become commonplace in other parts of the health care field. To avoid serious errors and confusion, drug abuse health policies must recognize the very different needs of the public and private sectors. The public sector, where poor addicts receive drug treatment provided or purchased by the government, has long suffered from chronically inadequate funding. Although responses to several epidemics (heroin, crack, and AIDS) have produced periods of increased allocations for drug abuse treatment, more often than not long waiting lists at programs have rationed treatment to lower-income addicts seeking care. Low salary levels have limited the quality of public treatment services, and the absence of resources has hindered the development of programs that respond to new technical developments and drug abuse problems, such as the crack epidemic. Despite severe resource shortages, the public drug treatment system has sometimes used resources inefficiently, with little attention to appropriateness of admissions, lengths of stay, ambulatory treatment modalities, or varying levels of care. Public sector goals for the 1990s should include filling current shortages in drug treatment services, developing adequate long-term funding for treating addicts who lack third-party coverage, modernizing the treatment system, developing new patterns of practice that use existing resources more efficiently, and developing a plan for treating intravenous drug users infected with the AIDS virus. In the private sector, the advent of working- and middle-class demand for drug treatment in the 1970s and 1980s has produced a new drug treatment system that suffers from many of the policy problems common to the rest of health care. Drug abuse in the workplace has

  3. A life cycle model of public policy issues in health care: the importance of strategic issues management.

    PubMed

    Rakich, J S; Feit, M D

    2001-01-01

    Public policy affects health and social services organizations. Senior management has a responsibility to prevent inappropriate demands of stakeholders from predominating and to influence the outcome of public policy to the benefit of their organization through the strategic issues management process. This article presents a public policy issue life cycle model, life-cycle stages and suggested strategies, paths issues can take in the life cycle, and factors that affect issue paths. An understanding of these dynamics can aid senior managers in shaping and changing public policy issues and lessening external environment threats to their organization. PMID:11263098

  4. Voting with their feet - predictors of discharge against medical advice in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal ischaemic heart disease inpatients in Western Australia: an analytic study using data linkage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Discharge Against Medical Advice (DAMA) from hospital is associated with adverse outcomes and is considered an indicator of the responsiveness of hospitals to the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, the indigenous people of Australia. We investigated demographic and clinical factors that predict DAMA in patients experiencing their first-ever inpatient admission for ischaemic heart disease (IHD). The study focuses particularly on the differences in the risk of DAMA in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients while also investigating other factors in their own right. Methods A cross-sectional analytical study was undertaken using linked hospital and mortality data with complete coverage of Western Australia. Participants included all first-ever IHD inpatients (aged 25–79 years) admitted between 2005 and 2009, selected after a 15-year clearance period and who were discharged alive. The main outcome measure was DAMA as reflected in the hospital record. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine disparities in DAMA between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients, adjusting for a range of demographic and clinical factors, including comorbidity based on 5-year hospitalization history. A series of additional models were run on subgroups of the cohort to refine the analysis. Ethics approval was granted by the WA Human Research and the WA Aboriginal Health Ethics Committees. Results Aboriginal patients comprised 4.3% of the cohort of 37,304 IHD patients and 23% of the 224 DAMAs. Emergency admission (OR=5.9, 95% CI 2.9-12.2), alcohol admission history (alcohol-related OR=2.9, 95% CI 2.0-4.2) and Aboriginality (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.5) were the strongest predictors of DAMA in the multivariate model. Patients living in rural areas while attending non-metropolitan hospitals had a 50% higher risk of DAMA than those living and hospitalised in metropolitan areas. There was consistency in the ORs for Aboriginality in the different

  5. Environmental agreements, EIA follow-up and aboriginal participation in environmental management: The Canadian experience

    SciTech Connect

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran . E-mail: Ciaran.Ofaircheallaigh@griffith.edu.au

    2007-05-15

    During the last decade a number of environmental agreements (EAs) have been negotiated in Canada involving industry, government and Aboriginal peoples. This article draws on the Canadian experience to consider the potential of such negotiated agreements to address two issues widely recognised in academic and policy debates on environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental management. The first relates to the need to secure indigenous participation in environmental management of major projects that affect indigenous peoples. The second and broader issue involves the necessity for specific initiatives to ensure effective follow-up of EIA. The Canadian experience indicates that negotiated environmental agreements have considerable potential to address both issues. However, if this potential is to be realized, greater effort must be made to develop structures and processes specifically designed to encourage Aboriginal participation; and EAs must themselves provide the financial and other resource required to support EIA follow-up and Aboriginal participation.

  6. Immune dysfunction in Australian Aborigines.

    PubMed

    Roberts-Thomson, P J; Roberts-Thomson, R A; Nikoloutsopoulos, T; Gillis, D

    2005-12-01

    An examination of the prevalence and phenotype of immune disorders in different ethnic groups may provide important clues to the etiopathogenesis of these disorders. Whilst still conjectural the restricted and somewhat unique polymorphisms of the MHC (and other genetic loci involving host defences) of the Australian Aborigines may provide an explanation for their apparent heightened susceptibility to newly encountered infections and their resistance to many (auto) immune and allergic disorders. In comparison with non-Aboriginal Australians, Australian Aborigines have heightened frequencies of rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, various infections and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. In contrast various autoimmune disorders (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, CREST, biliary cirrhosis, coeliac disease, pernicious anaemia, vitiligo), B27 related arthropathies, psoriasis, lymphoproliferative disorders and atopic disorders appear infrequent or absent. Similarly various autoantibodies occur with increased or diminished frequency. With continuing racial admixture, social deprivation and deleterious lifestyles of these people it is likely that further changes in both the frequencies and phenotype of these immune disorders will occur. It is only with a full understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in these immune disorders that meaningful and clinical relevant interventions will be possible. PMID:16572744

  7. Exploring Australian Aboriginal Women’s experiences of menopause: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women’s understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. Methods The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. Results A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term “change of life” was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. Conclusion There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current

  8. Healthy Weights Interventions in Aboriginal Children and Youth: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Towns, Claire; Cooke, Martin; Rysdale, Lee; Wilk, Piotr

    2014-09-01

    There is evidence that Aboriginal children and youth in Canada and elsewhere are at higher risk of obesity and overweight than other children. However, there has been no review of healthy weights interventions specifically aimed at Aboriginal children. A structured search for peer-reviewed articles presenting and evaluating healthy weights interventions for Aboriginal children and youth was conducted. Seventeen articles, representing seven interventions, were reviewed to identify their main characteristics, evaluation design, and evaluation outcomes. Interventions included several large community-based programs as well as several more focused programs that all targeted First Nations or American Indians, rather than Métis or Inuit. Only 1 program served an urban Aboriginal population. None of the published evaluations reported significant reductions in obesity or overweight or sustained increases in physical activity, although some evaluations presented evidence of positive effects on children's diets or on nutrition knowledge or intentions. We conclude that broader structural factors affecting the health of Aboriginal children may limit the effectiveness of these interventions, and that more evidence is required regarding interventions for Aboriginal children in various geographic and cultural contexts in Canada including Inuit and Métis communities. PMID:26066816

  9. Women's health issues cause controversy in European Union.

    PubMed

    Rogers, A

    1998-08-22

    Women's health issues will be raised in the European Parliament in September, when members return from vacation. Nel van Dijk, Dutch Green party deputy, produced a report to the plenary for the assembly's Committee on Women's Rights; in the report, committee members urge action by the European Union (EU) and list recommendations for member-state governments. The report is in response to a publication by the European Commission, in May 1997, of a statistical survey developed from national data. The resolution by van Dijk urges EU-wide legalization of abortion in certain circumstances based on the final decision of the woman involved. In a motion for resolution by the Parliament, the committee was concerned that the Commission had dealt only summarily with the different situations regarding abortion in the member states and that it had not dealt with backstreet abortions. Originally, the report was slated for a session when attendance was poor, the closing Friday session before the July plenary's closing. Sufficient support was mustered from the floor of the assembly to move the report to an earlier point on the agenda; however, those opposed to the report managed to send it back to committee. Currently, the EU is acting on limited powers conferred by the 1992 Maastricht Treaty with regard to coordination of health policy in EU states. The van Dijk report details demands regarding EU research, information programs, and other initiatives concerning tampon-related toxic shock syndrome, osteoporosis, breast and cervical cancer, depression, hormonal treatments, female genital mutilation, and eating disorders. Sexual harassment and violence against women are also included; these are not covered by the Treaty. The report may be stalled indefinitely due to legislative business ahead of the June 1999 Euro-elections. PMID:9746038

  10. Mycotoxins and human disease: a largely ignored global health issue

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Christopher P.; Gong, Yun Yun

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins and fumonisins (FB) are mycotoxins contaminating a large fraction of the world's food, including maize, cereals, groundnuts and tree nuts. The toxins frequently co-occur in maize. Where these commodities are dietary staples, for example, in parts of Africa, Asia and Latin America, the contamination translates to high-level chronic exposure. This is particularly true in subsistence farming communities where regulations to control exposure are either non-existent or practically unenforceable. Aflatoxins are hepatocarcinogenic in humans, particularly in conjunction with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, and cause aflatoxicosis in episodic poisoning outbreaks. In animals, these toxins also impair growth and are immunosuppressive; the latter effects are of increasing interest in human populations. FB have been reported to induce liver and kidney tumours in rodents and are classified as Group 2B ‘possibly carcinogenic to humans’, with ecological studies implying a possible link to increased oesophageal cancer. Recent studies also suggest that the FB may cause neural tube defects in some maize-consuming populations. There is a plausible mechanism for this effect via a disruption of ceramide synthase and sphingolipid biosynthesis. Notwithstanding the need for a better evidence-base on mycotoxins and human health, supported by better biomarkers of exposure and effect in epidemiological studies, the existing data are sufficient to prioritize exposure reduction in vulnerable populations. For both toxins, there are a number of practical primary and secondary prevention strategies which could be beneficial if the political will and financial investment can be applied to what remains a largely and rather shamefully ignored global health issue. PMID:19875698

  11. HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT, DELIBERATIVE PROCESS, AND ETHICALLY CONTESTED ISSUES.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Norman; van der Wilt, Gert Jan

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare technology assessment (HTA) aims to support decisions as to which technologies should be used in which situations to optimize value. Because such decisions will create winners and losers, they are bound to be controversial. HTA, then, faces a dilemma: should it stay away from such controversies, remaining a source of incomplete advice and risking an important kind of marginalization, or should it enter the controversy? The question is a challenging one, because we lack agreement on principles that are fine grained enough to tell us what choices we should make. In this study, we will argue that HTA should take a stand on ethical issues raised by the technology that is being investigated. To do so, we propose adding a form of procedural justice to HTA to arrive at decisions that the public can regard as legitimate and fair. A fair process involves deliberation about the reasons, evidence, and rationales that are considered relevant to meeting population-health needs fairly. One important way to make sure that there is real deliberation about relevant reasons is to include a range of stakeholders in the deliberative process. To illustrate how such deliberation might work, we use the case of cochlear implants for deaf children. PMID:27472157

  12. Health Care Issues in Southern Rural Black America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Henrie M.

    1986-01-01

    High infant and maternal mortality, poverty, isolation, a shortage of health professionals, inadequate health care facilities, and difficult geographic access to care are some of the health-related problems that plague Black rural southerners. (GC)

  13. Aboriginal Healing Foundation Annual Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboriginal Healing Foundation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Aboriginal Healing Foundation (AHF) is a nonprofit organization established in 1998 with funding from the Canadian Government. Its mission is to support Aboriginal people in building sustainable healing processes that address the legacy of physical and sexual abuse in the residential school system, including intergenerational impacts. AHF…

  14. Aboriginal Student Enclaves as Discourse Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    A study investigated the role of the Aboriginal Student Enclave, one of five campuses of Edith Cowan University (Australia) as a discourse community. The relatively small but cohesive university subcommunity is designed to provide additional support for Aboriginal students enrolled in standard programs and an environment in which the students are…

  15. As We See...Aboriginal Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiffarm, Lenore A., Ed.

    For many years, Aboriginal knowledge was invalidated by Western ways of knowing. This collection of papers discusses ways of teaching, ways of knowing, and ways of being that have sustained Aboriginal people for over 500 years. The papers are: "Spirit Writing: Writing Circles as Healing Pedagogy" (Lenore A. Stiffarm); "Pedagogy from the Ethos: An…

  16. Aboriginal Literacy: Raising Standards, Blazing Trails.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaikezehongai, Sally

    2003-01-01

    Prophecies say that Aboriginal peoples of the Americas will educate and illuminate the world by sharing their Sacred Fire, the spiritual strength that has enabled their survival. Such a vision sustains Aboriginal literacy practitioners, who are developing a unique holistic foundation for the healing and nurturing of minds, bodies, and spirits.…

  17. Aboriginal Language Knowledge and Youth Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Darcy; Chandler, Michael J.; Lalonde, Christopher E.

    2007-01-01

    This brief report details a preliminary investigation into how community-level variability in knowledge of Aboriginal languages relate to "band"-level measures of youth suicide. In Canada, and, more specifically, in the province of British Columbia (BC), Aboriginal youth suicide rates vary substantially from one community to another. The results…

  18. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  19. Fitzgerald factor deficiency in an Australian aborigine.

    PubMed

    Exner, T; Barber, S; Naujalis, J

    1987-05-18

    This case reports the first description of Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) deficiency in Australia. Since this homozygous abnormality was found in an Aborigine it is suggested that the defective gene may be prevalent in some tribes and that abnormal results of clotting tests in Aborigines should be investigated carefully. PMID:3574180

  20. Early Childhood Services for Aboriginal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnochie, K. R.; Russell, A.

    The report is the result of a 1981 research project commissioned by Australia's Commonwealth Department of Education to investigate early childhood education for Aborigines. The study encompassed the care and education of Aboriginal children from age 0 to age 5 in government and non-government school systems. The report is divided into three major…

  1. ADHD Characteristics in Canadian Aboriginal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baydala, Lola; Sherman, Jody; Rasmussen, Carmen; Wikman, Erik; Janzen, Henry

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine how many Aboriginal children attending two reservation-based elementary schools in Northern Alberta, Canada, would demonstrate symptoms associated with ADHD using standardized parent and teacher questionnaires. Method: Seventy-five Aboriginal children in Grades 1 through 4 are tested. Seventeen of the 75 (22.7%)…

  2. Knowledge Building in an Aboriginal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The report on the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1996), the Kelowna Accord announced in 2005 (five-billion dollars) followed by its demise in 2006, and the settlement in 2006 for Aboriginal survivors of residential schools (1.9 billion dollars), are but some of the recent high-profile indicators of the challenges to Canada in dealing with…

  3. Solid Foundations: Health and Education Partnership for Indigenous Children Aged 0 to 8 Years. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).

    An Australian national task force examined a number of areas related to achieving educational equality for Australia's Indigenous peoples. This paper looks at health issues, particularly during ages 0-8, that may affect the educational outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Chapter 1 discusses the importance of the early years…

  4. Health care providers and facilities issue brief: health facilities: year end report-2004.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Andrew

    2004-12-31

    American health facilities are said to provide the best health care in the world. But hospitals are continually challenged by staff shortages, patient safety and medical errors, uninsured patients, and the growth of specialty hospitals. This issue brief provides an analysis of the issues that challenge hospitals' ability to provide quality care for patients. Moreover, the issue brief defines each issue, including staffing mandates, patient safety and medical errors, emergency hospitals, billing practices, and niche and specialty hospitals, outlines the arguments for and against each issue, and finally details and characterizes state legislative activity in regard to each issue. As of 2002, the most recent data available from the American Hospital Association (AHA), there were 5,794 registered hospitals in the United States. The AHA also states that there are 4,927 community hospitals, which includes non-governmental non-profit hospitals, investor-owned (for-profit) hospitals, and hospitals owned by state and local governments. The AHA defines community hospitals as all non-federal, short-term general, and other specialty hospitals. Specialty hospitals include obstetrics and gynecology, rehabilitation, orthopedic, and other individually described specialty services. Statistics provided by the AHA indicate that the number of rural and urban community hospitals is approximately equal--2,178 rural hospitals compared to 2,749 urban hospitals. However, this statistic alone does not address the quality of care in urban and rural settings. It does not address the total expenditures in rural and urban hospitals, nor does it address staffing levels. PMID:15768467

  5. Review of National Aboriginal Languages Program. Occasional Paper Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley-Mundine, Lynette; Roberts, Bryn

    This review of Australia's National Aboriginal Languages Program, undertaken in September-November 1989, involved consultation with individuals in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal organizations and communities in several areas. It was found that 56% of 1988-89 funding went to Aboriginal communities and regional language centers, 20% to state schools,…

  6. Teacher Awareness and Understandings about Aboriginal English in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Vanderford, Samantha; Grote, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Repeated assessments of literacy skills have shown that Aboriginal students do not achieve at the same level as their non-Aboriginal peers. Many Aboriginal students speak Aboriginal English, a dialect different from the Standard Australian English used in schools. Research shows that it is crucial for educators in bidialectal contexts to be aware…

  7. Legal issues concerning electronic health information: privacy, quality, and liability.

    PubMed

    Hodge, J G; Gostin, L O; Jacobson, P D

    1999-10-20

    Personally identifiable health information about individuals and general medical information is increasingly available in electronic form in health databases and through online networks. The proliferation of electronic data within the modern health information infrastructure presents significant benefits for medical providers and patients, including enhanced patient autonomy, improved clinical treatment, advances in health research and public health surveillance, and modern security techniques. However, it also presents new legal challenges in 3 interconnected areas: privacy of identifiable health information, reliability and quality of health data, and tortbased liability. Protecting health information privacy (by giving individuals control over health data without severely restricting warranted communal uses) directly improves the quality and reliability of health data (by encouraging individual uses of health services and communal uses of data), which diminishes tort-based liabilities (by reducing instances of medical malpractice or privacy invasions through improvements in the delivery of health care services resulting in part from better quality and reliability of clinical and research data). Following an analysis of the interconnectivity of these 3 areas and discussing existing and proposed health information privacy laws, recommendations for legal reform concerning health information privacy are presented. These include (1) recognizing identifiable health information as highly sensitive, (2) providing privacy safeguards based on fair information practices, (3) empowering patients with information and rights to consent to disclosure (4) limiting disclosures of health data absent consent, (5) incorporating industry-wide security protections, (6) establishing a national data protection authority, and (7) providing a national minimal level of privacy protections. PMID:10535438

  8. Four perspectives of women's health. Workshop participants talk about women's health issues in four countries. [Malaysia].

    PubMed

    Kaur, P

    1994-01-01

    The program officer of the SIEC Project of the Federation of Family Planning Associations, Malaysia (FFPA,M) granted an interview to JOICFP News during JOICFP's IEC Workshop for the Production of Video Script for Women's Health in Tokyo, Japan. FFPA,M provides comprehensive reproductive health services, including family planning services, pap smear screenings, breast examination, annual medical checkups, and premarital and marital counseling for women. Around 50% of married women use family planning. More than 90% of contraceptive users are familiar with at least one family planning method. FFPA,M is focusing on marginalized women. As Malaysia industrializes, rural-urban migration occurs. Young women comprise many of the new factory workers. FFPA,M provides family life education for these women and strives to help them achieve reproductive health and rights. The enthusiasm for women's issues exhibited at the workshop by both male and female participants pleased FFPA,M's program officer. PMID:12318571

  9. Adapting online learning for Canada's Northern public health workforce

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Marnie; MacDougall, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background Canada's North is a diverse, sparsely populated land, where inequalities and public health issues are evident, particularly for Aboriginal people. The Northern public health workforce is a unique mix of professional and paraprofessional workers. Few have formal public health education. From 2009 to 2012, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) collaborated with a Northern Advisory Group to develop and implement a strategy to strengthen public health capacity in Canada's 3 northern territories. Access to relevant, effective continuing education was identified as a key issue. Challenges include diverse educational and cultural backgrounds of public health workers, geographical isolation and variable technological infrastructure across the north. Methods PHAC's Skills Online program offers Internet-based continuing education modules for public health professionals. In partnership with the Northern Advisory Group, PHAC conducted 3 pilots between 2008 and 2012 to assess the appropriateness of the Skills Online program for Northern/Aboriginal public health workers. Module content and delivery modalities were adapted for the pilots. Adaptations included adding Inuit and Northern public health examples and using video and teleconference discussions to augment the online self-study component. Results Findings from the pilots were informative and similar to those from previous Skills Online pilots with learners in developing countries. Online learning is effective in bridging the geographical barriers in remote locations. Incorporating content on Northern and Aboriginal health issues facilitates engagement in learning. Employer support facilitates the recruitment and retention of learners in an online program. Facilitator assets included experience as a public health professional from the north, and flexibility to use modified approaches to support and measure knowledge acquisition and application, especially for First Nations, Inuit and Metis learners

  10. Astronomical Heritage and Aboriginal People: Conflicts and Possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín López, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    In this presentation we will address the issues relating to the astronomical heritage of contemporary aboriginal groups and othe minorities. We will deal specially with the intangible astronomical heritage and their particularities. We will study (from the ethnographic experience with Aboriginal groups, Creoles and Europeans in the Argentine Chaco) the conflicts referring to the different ways, in which the native's knowledge and practice are categorized by the natives themselves, by the scientists, the state politicians, the professional artists and NGOs. We will address several cases to illustrate this kind of conflicts. We will analyze the complexities of patrimonial policies when it are applied to practices and representations of contemporary communities involved in power relations with national states and the global system. The essentialization of identities, the folklorization of representations and practices, the fossilization of aboriginal peoples are some of the risks of give the label of "cultural heritage" without a careful consideration of each specific case.In particular we will suggest possible forms by which he international scientific community could collaborate to improve the agenda of national states instead of reproducing colonial prejudices. In this way we will contribute to promote the respect for ethnic and religious minorities.

  11. "Friendly Racism" and White Guilt: Midwifery Students' Engagement with Aboriginal Content in Their Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thackrah, Rosalie D.; Thompson, Sandra C.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2011, all first year students in a health sciences faculty at a university in Western Australia complete a compulsory (half) Unit titled Indigenous Cultures and Health. The Unit introduces students to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander history, diversity, cultural protocols, social structures, patterns of communication, contemporary…

  12. Ethical issues in using social media for health and health care research.

    PubMed

    McKee, Rebecca

    2013-05-01

    The dramatic growth of social media in recent years has not gone unnoticed in the health sector. Media such as Facebook and Twitter are increasingly being used to disseminate information among health professionals and patients but, more recently, are being seen as a source of data for surveillance and research, for example by tracking public concerns or capturing discourses taking place outside traditional media outlets. This raises ethical issues, in particular the extent to which postings are considered public or private and the right to anonymity of those posting on social media. These issues are not clear cut as social media, by their nature, blur the boundary between public and private. There is a need for further research on the beliefs and expectations of those using social media in relation to how their material might be used in research. In contrast, there are areas where the ethical issues are more clear cut, such as when individuals are active participants in research, where traditional considerations apply. PMID:23477806

  13. Disparities and Trends in Birth Outcomes, Perinatal and Infant Mortality in Aboriginal vs. Non-Aboriginal Populations: A Population-Based Study in Quebec, Canada 1996–2010

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Xiao, Lin; Auger, Nathalie; Torrie, Jill; McHugh, Nancy Gros-Louis; Zoungrana, Hamado; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    mortality (6.01 and 2.28 times, respectively) in Inuit and First Nations infants (all p<0.001). Conclusions Aboriginal vs. non-Aboriginal disparities in adverse birth outcomes, perinatal and infant mortality are persistent or worsening over the recent decade in Quebec, strongly suggesting the needs for interventions to improve perinatal and infant health in Aboriginal populations, and for monitoring the trends in other regions in Canada. PMID:26397838

  14. NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health ... NIH Why is it important to have a research focus on older adults? One reason is that ...

  15. No Link Between Anti-Smoking Drugs, Mental Health Issues: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_158456.html No Link Between Anti-Smoking Drugs, Mental Health Issues: Study Meds like Chantix ... FRIDAY, April 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The anti-smoking drugs Chantix (varenicline) and Wellbutrin (bupropion) don't ...

  16. African American college students' health behaviors and perceptions of related health issues.

    PubMed

    Ford, D S; Goode, C R

    1994-03-01

    The authors identify specific health-related behaviors of African American college students and compare them with the students' perceptions of corresponding health issues. Among students surveyed, the rate of cigarette smoking (4%) was very low compared with smoking rates found in a national survey (14%); but alcohol consumption was relatively high (63%), although lower than the national average of 91%. More men than women smoked, but more women than men reported they drank alcoholic beverages. Most students (90.2%) said they did not usually eat breakfast, 73.6% reported that their diets were not nutritionally balanced, and the majority (55.4%) were not involved in daily physical activity. More than half (63%) of the students reported satisfactorily handling stress, and 74.1% indicated that they were sexually active. Respondents perceived the most important health issues facing college students as HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), birth control, date rape, stress management, suicide, and alcohol and other drugs. PMID:8201133

  17. Preventive Health Care in the HMO: Cost Benefit Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Daniel S.; Bisbee, Gerald E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Using a sample of graduate students at the Yale Health Plan, this paper reports on the costs and the medical findings of providing annual physical examinations in university health delivery systems. The role of alternative forms of health education are discussed, as well as recommendations for the continued efficacy of the annual physical…

  18. Developing Social Marketing Capacity to Address Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, S.; Smart, E.; Kopela, J.; Gibson, T.; King, V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Social marketing is increasingly being seen as a potentially effective means of pursuing health education practice generally and within various specific areas such as mental health and wellbeing and more broadly in tackling health inequalities. This paper aims to report and reflect on the authors' experiences of undertaking a health…

  19. Health Services Research: Work Force and Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Marilyn J., Ed.; And Others

    Health services research is a multidisciplinary field that investigates the structure, processes, and effects of health care services. This report focuses on one part of the field of health services research--its work force and its programs for educating and training that work force. This study undertook the following information collection…

  20. The Soaring Cost of Health Care. 1984 National Issues Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Keith, Ed.

    Appropriate for secondary school social studies, this booklet covers the causes, problems, and possible solutions for the high cost of American health care. The topic is discussed in five sections. The first section, "The $350 Billion Health Care Bill," discusses how the nation's priority on health care has led to the emergence of medicine as…

  1. Developing Interdisciplinary Education in Allied Health Programs. Issues and Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly, Tom, Jr.; Clark, Dan

    By definition allied health education operates in a dynamic environment influenced by the diciplines it represents, the educational system in which it resides, and the complexities of the health care delivery system which it serves. Well-designed and implemented interdisciplinary programs would assist allied health administrators in answering the…

  2. Mental Health Issues of Women After Release From Jail and Prison: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Ann E; Kako, Peninnah; Sawin, Kathleen J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review article is to gain an understanding of the mental health issues of women released from jail or prison. Thirty-six studies were synthesized using the biopsychosocial model. Results indicate that released women's mental health issues include psychiatric diagnoses, psychological trauma, substance use disorders; access to psychological medications and services; and motherhood challenges, support, access to basic needs, and criminalized behaviors. Nurses can promote released women's mental health through pre-release assessment and treatment of mental health issues and ensuring access to post-release resources.  Future research should examine released women's mental health experiences. PMID:27100407

  3. Suicide Rates in Aboriginal Communities in Labrador, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Nathaniel J.; Mulay, Shree; Valcour, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To compare suicide rates in Aboriginal communities in Labrador, including Innu, Inuit, and Southern Inuit, with the general population of Newfoundland, Canada. Methods. In partnership with Aboriginal governments, we conducted a population-based study to understand patterns of suicide mortality in Labrador. We analyzed suicide mortality data from 1993 to 2009 from the Vital Statistics Death Database. We combined this with community-based methods, including consultations with Elders, youths, mental health and community workers, primary care clinicians, and government decision-makers. Results. The suicide rate was higher in Labrador than in Newfoundland. This trend persisted across all age groups; however, the disparity was greatest among those aged 10 to 19 years. Males accounted for the majority of deaths, although suicide rates were elevated among females in the Inuit communities. When comparing Aboriginal subregions, the Innu and Inuit communities had the highest age-standardized mortality rates of, respectively, 165.6 and 114.0 suicides per 100 000 person-years. Conclusions. Suicide disproportionately affects Innu and Inuit populations in Labrador. Suicide rates were high among male youths and Inuit females. PMID:27196659

  4. Sleep Disorders in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People and Residents of Regional and Remote Australia

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Cindy E.; McPherson, Karen; Tikoft, Erik; Usher, Kim; Hosseini, Fariborz; Ferns, Janine; Jersmann, Hubertus; Antic, Ral; Maguire, Graeme Paul

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare the use of sleep diagnostic tests, the risks, and cofactors, and outcomes of the care of Indigenous and non-indigenous Australian adults in regional and remote Australia in whom sleep related breathing disorders have been diagnosed. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 200 adults; 100 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and 100 non-indigenous adults with a confirmed sleep related breathing disorder diagnosed prior to September 2011 at Alice Springs Hospital and Cairns Hospital, Australia. Results: Results showed overall Indigenous Australians were 1.8 times more likely to have a positive diagnostic sleep study performed compared with non-indigenous patients, 1.6 times less likely in central Australia and 3.4 times more likely in far north Queensland. All regional and remote residents accessed diagnostic sleep studies at a rate less than Australia overall (31/100,000/y (95% confidence interval, 21–44) compared with 575/100,000/y). Conclusion: The barriers to diagnosis and ongoing care are likely to relate to remote residence, lower health self-efficacy, the complex nature of the treatment tool, and environmental factors such as electricity and sleeping area. Indigeneity, remote residence, environmental factors, and low awareness of sleep health are likely to affect service accessibility and rate of use and capacity to enhance patient and family education and support following a diagnosis. A greater understanding of enablers and barriers to care and evaluation of interventions to address these are required. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1255. Citation: Woods CE, McPherson K, Tikoft E, Usher K, Hosseini F, Ferns J, Jersmann H, Antic R, Maguire GP. Sleep disorders in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and residents of regional and remote Australia. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(11):1263–1271. PMID:26094934

  5. [MODERN ISSUES OF PUBLIC HEALTH:THE REVIEW].

    PubMed

    Mamyrbaev, A; Umarova, G

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this review is the study of literature for the development of effective public health programs. The overall health of the population depends on complex of social and biological factors of the environment, which is measured by demographic indices, physical development, morbidity, disability and socioeconomic characteristics. Key health data, socioeconomic and demographic statistics of the region are presented. The complex tools necessary to answer the public health requirements of residents in a certain area are recommended. Monitoring of health and demographic situation is urgent, because it makes it possible to adjust the basis of social, ecological and economic processes in the given area. PMID:27348170

  6. Constructing public oral health policies in Brazil: issues for reflection.

    PubMed

    Soares, Catharina Leite Matos

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the construction of public oral health policies in Brazil by reviewing the available literature. It includes a discussion of the social responses given by the Brazilian State to oral health policies and the relationship of these responses with the ideological oral health movements that have developed globally, and that have specifically influenced oral health policies in Brazil. The influence of these movements has affected a series of hegemonic practices originating from both Market Dentistry and Preventive and Social Dentistry in Brazil. Among the state activities that have been set into motion, the following stand out: the drafting of a law to regulate the fluoridation of the public water supply, and the fluoridation of commercial toothpaste in Brazil; epidemiological surveys to analyze the status of the Brazilian population's oral health; the inclusion of oral health in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia de Saúde da Família - ESF); the drawing up of the National Oral Health Policy, Smiling Brazil (Brasil Sorridente). From the literature consulted, the progressive expansion of state intervention in oral health policies is observed. However, there remains a preponderance of hegemonic "dental" practices reproduced in the Unified Public Health Service (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS) and the Family Health Strategy. PMID:23318750

  7. Bibliography of Health Issues Affecting North American Indians, Eskimos, and Aleuts: 1950-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Mitchell V., Comp.; And Others

    This bibliography of 2,414 journal articles provides health professionals and others with quick references on health and related issues of American Indians and Alaska Natives. The citations cover articles published in U.S. and Canadian medical and health-related journals between 1950 and 1988. Five sections deal with major health categories and…

  8. Aborigines, colonizers and newcomers: the landscape of transcultural psychiatry research in Australia.

    PubMed

    Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; de Moore, Gregory

    2013-12-01

    The authors present an analysis of transcultural psychiatry research in relation to three main population groups in Australia: Aboriginal Australians, documented immigrants, and refugees. The pioneering reports produced by Western psychiatrists in Aboriginal communities are examined in this article. Additional quantitative and qualitative studies developed with Aboriginal people in the context of a traumatic acculturation process are also reviewed. Subsequently, the authors examine the challenges faced by immigrants with mental disorders in a health care system still unequipped to treat a new array of clinical presentations unfamiliar to the clinical staff. The authors also highlight the development of policies aimed at providing quality mental health care to a mosaic of cultures in an evolving multicultural society. Lastly, the psychiatric manifestations of refugees and asylum seekers are analysed in the context of a series of vulnerabilities and deprivations they have experienced, including basic human rights. PMID:24002948

  9. Health on the road: issues faced by female truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Reed, Deborah B; Cronin, Jennifer Skeeters

    2003-03-01

    Nearly 3 million long haul truck drivers transport goods across America. Truck driving is rated as the nation's third largest growth occupation. Between 174,000 and 290,000 drivers are women and the percentage of women in trucking is growing. A descriptive study was conducted to identify health conditions, health care access, and driving environments of female drivers. Analyses of the 284 surveys showed only 77.8% had a usual place of health care. One of five had no insurance coverage and only 35 respondents had paid sick leave. Drivers reported substantial prevalence of sinus problems, back pain, migraine headaches, and hypertension. Drivers ignored symptoms or self medicated when working. More than 40% expressed dissatisfaction with health care while "on the road." Occupational health nurses may be in positions to address the special needs of drivers through websites, trucker health clinics, or special programs delivered where truckers congregate. PMID:12670099

  10. Ethnocentric approach to address South Asian health issues.

    PubMed

    Sharif, A

    2012-09-01

    South Asian populations have distinct healthcare requirements to other ethnic demographics. Epidemiologically they constitute a high-risk group for many public health diseases such as cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus. Despite individuals of South Asian backgrounds encompassing many individual countries, cultures, religions and backgrounds they share many common health concerns that are poorly tackled in established models of healthcare delivery. To successfully address this burgeoning public health burden, it is important for healthcare professionals and providers to appreciate the need for an ethnocentric approach to South Asian health requirements. Key stakeholders need to understand the need for an integrated ethnocentric approach to challenge the poor health status of this population. Appreciation of the socio-cultural dimension to South Asian healthcare requirements should help guide targeted and focused strategies to improve the outlook for this unique population at high public health risk. PMID:22753671

  11. Modern Environmental Health Hazards: A Public Health Issue of Increasing Significance in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nweke, Onyemaechi C.; Sanders III, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Traditional hazards such as poor sanitation currently account for most of Africa’s environmentally related disease burden. However, with rapid development absent appropriate safeguards for environment and health, modern environmental health hazards (MEHHs) may emerge as critical contributors to the continent’s disease burden. We review recent evidence of human exposure to and health effects from MEHHs, and their occurrence in environmental media and consumer products. Our purpose is to highlight the growing significance of these hazards as African countries experience urbanization, industrial growth, and development. Data sources We reviewed published epidemiologic, exposure, and environmental studies of chemical agents such as heavy metals and pesticides. Data synthesis The body of evidence demonstrates ongoing environmental releases of MEHHs and human exposures sometimes at toxicologically relevant levels. Several sources of MEHHs in environmental media have been identified, including natural resource mining and processing and automobile exhaust. Biomonitoring studies provided direct evidence of human exposure to metals such as mercury and lead and pesticides such as p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and organophosphates. Land and water resource pollution and industrial air toxics are areas of significant data gaps, notwithstanding the presence of several emitting sources. Conclusion Unmitigated MEHH releases and human exposure have implications for Africa’s disease burden. For Africans encumbered by conditions such as malnutrition that impair resilience to toxicologic challenges, the burden may be higher. A shift in public health policy toward accommodating the emerging diversity in Africa’s environmental health issues is necessary to successfully alleviate the burden of avoidable ill health and premature death for all its communities now and in the future. PMID:19590675

  12. Skirting the issue: women and international health in historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Birn, A E

    1999-03-01

    Over the last decades women have become central to international health efforts, but most international health agencies continue to focus narrowly on the maternal and reproductive aspects of women's health. This article explores the origins of this paradigm as demonstrated in the emergence of women's health in the Rockefeller Foundation's public health programs in Mexico in the 1920s and 1930s. These efforts bore a significant reproductive imprint; women dispensed and received services oriented to maternal and childbearing roles. Women's health and social advocacy movements in Mexico and the United States partially shaped this interest. Even more important, the emphasis on women in the Rockefeller programs proved an expedient approach to the Foundation's underlying goals: promoting bacteriologically based public health to the government, medical personnel, business interests, and peasants; helping legitimize the Mexican state; and transforming Mexico into a good political and commercial neighbor. The article concludes by showing the limits to the maternal and reproductive health model currently advocated by most donor agencies, which continue to skirt--or sidestep--major concerns that are integral to the health of women. PMID:10076494

  13. Skirting the issue: women and international health in historical perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Birn, A E

    1999-01-01

    Over the last decades women have become central to international health efforts, but most international health agencies continue to focus narrowly on the maternal and reproductive aspects of women's health. This article explores the origins of this paradigm as demonstrated in the emergence of women's health in the Rockefeller Foundation's public health programs in Mexico in the 1920s and 1930s. These efforts bore a significant reproductive imprint; women dispensed and received services oriented to maternal and childbearing roles. Women's health and social advocacy movements in Mexico and the United States partially shaped this interest. Even more important, the emphasis on women in the Rockefeller programs proved an expedient approach to the Foundation's underlying goals: promoting bacteriologically based public health to the government, medical personnel, business interests, and peasants; helping legitimize the Mexican state; and transforming Mexico into a good political and commercial neighbor. The article concludes by showing the limits to the maternal and reproductive health model currently advocated by most donor agencies, which continue to skirt--or sidestep--major concerns that are integral to the health of women. Images p400-a p401-a p402-a p403-a PMID:10076494

  14. Managed care in mental health: the ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Boyle, P J; Callahan, D

    1995-01-01

    Praise and blame of managed mental health care are on the rise on many fronts, including allegations that it could adversely affect quality of care, access to care, the physician/patient relationship, and informed patient choice. Given the heterogeneity among managed mental health care organizations--each with differing practices--it is difficult to sift the ethically defensible concerns from the indefensible ones. In this paper we identify and examine the different moral concerns about managed mental health care and mark which problems have been addressed or are in need of resolution. We also identify which problems are unique to managed mental health care. PMID:7498905

  15. Teacher Time Spent on Student Health Issues and School Nurse Presence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Nina Jean; Hollis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Elementary school teacher time spent on student health issues and the relationship to school nurse services was the focus of this 2-year study. A cross-sectional design was used to survey traditional and exceptional (special needs) classroom teachers about the time they spent on health issues and their perception of school nurse presence. The…

  16. Conceptualising global health: theoretical issues and their relevance for teaching

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There has long been debate around the definition of the field of education, research and practice known as global health. In this article we step back from attempts at definition and instead ask what current definitions tell us about the evolution of the field, identifying gaps and points of debate and using these to inform discussions of how global health might be taught. Discussion What we now know as global health has its roots in the late 19th century, in the largely colonial, biomedical pursuit of ‘international health’. The twentieth century saw a change in emphasis of the field towards a much broader conceptualisation of global health, encompassing broader social determinants of health and a truly global focus. The disciplinary focus has broadened greatly to include economics, anthropology and political science, among others. There have been a number of attempts to define the new field of global health. We suggest there are three central areas of contention: what the object of knowledge of global health is, the types of knowledge to be used and around the purpose of knowledge in the field of global health. We draw a number of conclusions from this discussion. First, that definitions should pay attention to differences as well as commonalities in different parts of the world, and that the definitions of global health themselves depend to some extent on the position of the definer. Second, global health’s core strength lies in its interdisciplinary character, in particular the incorporation of approaches from outside biomedicine. This approach recognises that political, social and economic factors are central causes of ill health. Last, we argue that definition should avoid inclusion of values. In particular we argue that equity, a key element of many definitions of global health, is a value-laden concept and carries with it significant ideological baggage. As such, its widespread inclusion in the definitions of global health is inappropriate

  17. Health Education Research and Practice Literature on Hispanic Health Issues: Have We Lost Sight of the Largest Minority Population?

    PubMed

    Price, James H; Khubchandani, Jagdish

    2016-03-01

    Hispanics constitute the largest racial/ethnic minority population in the United States and are the fastest growing segment of the population. Knowledge about health needs and practices, effective health promotion programs, and health policy making for Hispanics has the potential to improve population health outcomes for this group. Continued research and practice literature will aid in accomplishing these objectives. However, little is known about the extent of health education-related literature available on Hispanic health issues. In this review, we analyzed research and practice publications in all health education-related journals to assess the volume of articles published on Hispanic health issues. We found that the portion of journal articles devoted to Hispanic health issues varied widely among the journals and that there was a very limited emphasis on Hispanic health-related issues. Journal editors and editorial board members may need to be more proactive in soliciting manuscripts on Hispanic health, and our practitioners may have to improve their professional skills and cultural competence in order to work with Hispanic populations to produce research and practice literature that is of adequate quantity and quality to help improve Hispanics' health. PMID:26802445

  18. Mental Health Issues Facing a Diverse Sample of College Students: Results from the College Student Mental Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soet, Johanna; Sevig, Todd

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 5 years there has been increased attention given to mental health issues on college and university campuses across the country. However, few research efforts have been conducted to systematically investigate the mental health of college students. The College Student Mental Health Survey was undertaken as a first step towards gaining…

  19. HEALTH RISK ISSUES RELATED TO MTBE IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite the attention given to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as a contaminant in ground water and surface water, the implications of such contamination for human health have not been clearly established to date. Limitations in the databases for both exposure and health effe...

  20. Perspectives on Rural Health Workforce Issues: Illinois-Arkansas Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDowell, Martin; Glasser, Michael; Fitts, Michael; Fratzke, Mel; Peters, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Context: Past research has documented rural physician and health care professional shortages. Purpose: Rural hospital chief executive officers' (CEOs') reported shortages of health professionals and perceptions about recruiting and retention are compared in Illinois and Arkansas. Methods: A survey, previously developed and sent to 28 CEOs in…

  1. Adolescents' Nutrition Health Issues: Opinions of Finnish Seventh-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Enkenberg, Jorma; Halonen, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine Finnish seventh-graders' (13 to 14 years old) nutrition health attitudes, perceptions of skills, reported behaviour and perceptions of families' and friends' nutrition health-related behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: The research data were collected in a baseline situation through a…

  2. Review of the Literature on Asian American Mental Health Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Trang Ngoc

    Within the mental health treatment field there is an underutilization of services by Asian Americans. Researchers have questioned how to lessen the gap between the number of Asian Americans who need mental health services and the significantly lower number who successfully use these services. A review of current research points out that matching…

  3. What Health Issues or Conditions Affect Women Differently Than Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... than women are throughout their lifetime, the health effects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism (when someone shows signs of ... alcohol) are more serious in women. These health effects include an ... disease, and fetal alcohol syndrome, in which infants born to mothers who ...

  4. Mental health issues affecting homeless women: implications for intervention.

    PubMed

    Buckner, J C; Bassuk, E L; Zima, B T

    1993-07-01

    A review of the relevant literature is followed by an exploration of the complex relationship, especially for women, between homelessness and mental health. Various mental health and gender-related concerns that have implications for the design of interventions for homeless women are explored. PMID:8372905

  5. Application of lean thinking to health care: issues and observations

    PubMed Central

    Joosten, Tom; Bongers, Inge; Janssen, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background Incidents and quality problems are a prime cause why health care leaders are calling to redesign health care delivery. One of the concepts used is lean thinking. Yet, lean often leads to resistance. Also, there is a lack of high quality evidence supporting lean premises. In this paper, we present an overview of lean thinking and its application to health care. Development, theory and application of lean thinking to health care Lean thinking evolved from a tool designed to improve operational shop-floor performance at an automotive manufacturer to a management approach with both operational and sociotechnical aspects. Sociotechnical dynamics have until recently not received much attention. At the same time a balanced approach might lead to a situation where operational and sociotechnial improvements are mutually reinforcing. Application to health care has been limited and focussed mainly on operational aspects using original lean tools. A more integrative approach would be to pay more attention to sociotechnical dynamics of lean implementation efforts. Also, the need to use the original lean tools may be limited, because health care may have different instruments and tools already in use that are in line with lean thinking principles. Discussion We believe lean thinking has the potential to improve health care delivery. At the same time, there are methodological and practical considerations that need to be taken into account. Otherwise, lean implementation will be superficial and fail, adding to existing resistance and making it more difficult to improve health care in the long term. PMID:19696048

  6. Health care issues in Croatian elections 2005-2009: series of public opinion surveys

    PubMed Central

    Radin, Dagmar; Džakula, Aleksandar; Benković, Vanesa

    2011-01-01

    Aim To compare the results of a series of public opinion surveys on experiences with the health care sector in Croatia conducted in the time of elections and to analyze whether political party affiliation had any influence on issues of priority ranking. Methods The surveys were conducted during 2005, 2007, and 2009. They were administered through a Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing method to representative samples of Croatian population and were statistically weighted according to sex, age, level of education, and political party affiliation. The random sampling of the person within the household was done using the table of random numbers. Results Health and health care system was the most important issue (58%) during the 2007 parliamentary election and the second most important issue during the 2005 and 2009 elections (46% and 28%). In the 2007 election, health care was viewed as most important by women, respondents with lower education levels, and respondents with lower income. In 2005, the most important health care issues were corruption and lack of funding (45% and 43%, respectively), in 2007 poor organization and lack of funding (43% and 42%, respectively), and in 2009 lack of funding and corruption (51% and 45%, respectively). Conclusion Health and health care system were consistently among the top two issues in all elections from 2005 to 2009. The top three most important health care sector issues were corruption, poor organization, and lack of funding. This indicates that political parties should include solutions to these issues in their health care policymaking. PMID:21990075

  7. Health concepts, issues, and experience in the Abakaliki area, Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    Chukwuma, C

    1994-01-01

    Environmental health problems are increasingly receiving global attention. The health of entire nations may not only be affected by adverse environmental conditions, but by nutritional deficiencies that lead to morbidity and mortality. The type and extent of adverse health effects in a population depend on the potential for exposure to some environmental factors and pathogens as well as other environmental variables like industrialization, sanitation conditions, and urbanization. National and international comparisons between health status indicators can reveal the extent of any differences that exist, including dynamic changes in prevailing environmental conditions which may be helpful in characterizing the role of specific risk factors. Improvements in collection of environmental data related to health can help to identify, control, and eliminate many of the factors that are associated with environmental risk in the Abakaliki area of eastern Nigeria. PMID:9644193

  8. Professional Pathways of Aboriginal Early Childhood Teachers: Intersections of Community, Indigeneity, and Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleet, Alma; Wechmann, Kerrie; Whitworth, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Little information is available about the employment trajectories of Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander peoples pursuing university professional qualifications. This article describes a context in which cultural space, issues of identity, pragmatics of employment, family and community and a bureaucratic regulatory environment intersect to…

  9. If Reindeer Could Fly: Dreams and Real Solutions for Aboriginal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackstock, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the real solutions to the problems of Aboriginal children in Canada that seem so numerous--impacts of residential school, poverty, poor housing, racism, and over-representation in child welfare care. These are complex issues, but the author has come to believe that the most promising responses, at least in…

  10. American Indian and Taiwan Aboriginal Education: Indigenous Identity and Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Sheng Yao; Jacob, W. James

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the interactions between identity and career aspirations among Taiwanese Aborigines and American Indians. While many similarities exist between the two indigenous groups, several differences remain as well. In comparing the identity issue between these two groups, this study shows that American Indians generally live in a…

  11. Constructions and deconstructions of risk, resilience and wellbeing: a model for understanding the development of Aboriginal adolescents.

    PubMed

    Burack, Jacob; Blidner, Aron; Flores, Heidi; Fitch, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    A developmental framework for understanding issues of risk, resilience, and wellness among Aboriginal adolescents in Canada and elsewhere is presented. As these constructs are not monolithic, simplistic linear risk models of a specific predictor to a specific outcome are inadequate to conceptually capture the complexities of real-life patterns. Accordingly, the conceptual focus is on ideal constructions of competence within the context of continually ongoing transactions in which the adolescents effect and are effected by the various layers and components of the environment. However, the pragmatics of empirical research necessitate simpler approaches in which outcomes are predicted from specific factors. Nonetheless, in keeping with the notion of the complexity of all individuals, competence and wellness are viewed within the framework of the 'whole child' across domains of academic success, behavioural competence and appropriateness, social adaptation, and emotional health within the context of the specific community. Although Aboriginal communities within Quebec, across Canada, the United States and elsewhere, differ considerably with regard to history, culture, language, and priorities for its youth, this approach allows for the universal application of a framework, for which specifics can be modified in relation to the unique and changing aspects of societies, communities, and the individuals within. PMID:18027130

  12. Oral health policy issues for women and children.

    PubMed

    Allukian, M

    1990-01-01

    A meaningful national oral health policy is essential to have an impact on the oral health of women and children in our country. The federal government must exert strong leadership to promote oral health as an integral component of total health. The public and private sectors of the dental and health professions must work together in developing, promoting, and supporting this policy on the local, state, and national level to make an impact on the oral health of the people of our nation. This policy must include incentives, resources, evaluation, and community participation, to assure that the purpose of the policy is achieved. Mark Twain once said: "Even if you are on the right track, you will get run over if you just sit still." A national policy by itself is not enough. This policy must also include an implementation strategy with constituency support and advocacy so that the policy is implemented in an effective manner through organized community efforts to improve the oral health of women, children, and our nation. PMID:2286949

  13. Health issues of incarcerated women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mignon, Sylvia

    2016-06-01

    Health care within jails and prisons in the United States is typically insufficient to meet the medical and psychological needs of female inmates. Health services are often of low quality, especially in the areas of reproductive medicine. Mental illness, substance abuse, a trauma history, and sexual victimization while incarcerated can predict a more difficult adjustment to a correctional environment. Incarcerated women who are able to maintain contact with family members, especially children, can have a better prison adjustment. Recommendations are made to improve the types and quality of health care delivered to women in jails and prisons in countries around the world. PMID:27383339

  14. A review of occupational safety and health issues relevant to the environmental restoration program: Selected case histories and associated issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.; Siegel, M.R.; McKinney, M.D.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine the impact of occupational safety and health (OSH) issues on the environmental restoration process at US Department of Energy sites. PNL selected three remediation projects to study: (1) the 618-9 Burial Ground Expedited Removal Action at the Hanford Site, (2) the Chemical Consolidation Interim Response Action at the Weldon Spring Site, (3) and the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Removal Action and VOC-Arid Integration Demonstration at the Hanford Site. The first two case studies involve sites where a remediation activity has been complete. The third case study involves a remediation activity in its early stages of development. This study identifies OSH issues related to actual cleanup, time, documentation, training, and technology development. These issues need to be considered by DOE before making long-term planning efforts. Section 4.0 of this report describes recommendations for addressing these issues.

  15. Commentary: Medicaid reform issues affecting the Indian health care system.

    PubMed

    Wellever, A; Hill, G; Casey, M

    1998-02-01

    Substantial numbers of Indian people rely on Medicaid for their primary health insurance coverage. When state Medicaid programs enroll Indians in managed care programs, several unintended consequences may ensue. This paper identifies some of the perverse consequences of Medicaid reform for Indians and the Indian health care system and suggests strategies for overcoming them. It discusses the desire of Indian people to receive culturally appropriate services, the need to maintain or improve Indian health care system funding, and the duty of state governments to respect tribal sovereignty. Because of their relatively small numbers, Indians may be treated differently under Medicaid managed care systems without significantly endangering anticipated program savings. Failure of Medicaid programs to recognize the uniqueness of Indian people, however, may severely weaken the Indian health care system. PMID:9491006

  16. Health care for the indigent: overview of critical issues.

    PubMed Central

    Bazzoli, G J

    1986-01-01

    Health care for the indigent is a major problem in the United States. This review of the literature on health care for the indigent was undertaken to determine which major questions remain unresolved. Overall, this article finds that a very large pool of individuals under age 65 are at risk of being medically indigent. A myriad of health programs for some economically disadvantaged individuals do exist, but their level of funding has fluctuated over time--and many poor individuals must rely entirely on the generosity of a relatively small number of hospitals and other providers for their care. Economic pressures on these providers as well as structural changes in the health care sector can only adversely affect the amount of charity care that they offer. It is clear that a well-planned solution to indigent care in the United States, rather than a piecemeal approach, is needed. PMID:3531094

  17. Diffuse panbronchiolitis in an Australian aborigine

    PubMed Central

    Brown, James; Simpson, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a chronic sino-bronchial disease. It has remained restricted to the Japanese and cases in the West are unusual. We present a patient of Australian aboriginal origin with DPB. The known efficacy of low-dose erythromycin in DPB is again described. Chronic respiratory disease is common in the Australian aboriginal population and DPB should be considered in the differential. PMID:25473569

  18. Diffuse panbronchiolitis in an Australian aborigine.

    PubMed

    Brown, James; Simpson, Graham

    2014-06-01

    Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a chronic sino-bronchial disease. It has remained restricted to the Japanese and cases in the West are unusual. We present a patient of Australian aboriginal origin with DPB. The known efficacy of low-dose erythromycin in DPB is again described. Chronic respiratory disease is common in the Australian aboriginal population and DPB should be considered in the differential. PMID:25473569

  19. Beyond the Curriculum: Preparing Teachers for Student Health Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Charles; Merseth, Katherine

    This paper includes four cases that may be incorporated into a variety of preservice teacher education classes such as foundations of education, current issues in education, curriculum methods, administration and supervision, or classroom management. Each case includes discussion questions, a fact sheet, and references. The four cases are: (1)…

  20. The protective role of optimism and self-esteem on depressive symptom pathways among Canadian Aboriginal youth.

    PubMed

    Ames, Megan E; Rawana, Jennine S; Gentile, Petrice; Morgan, Ashley S

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal youth are at disproportionate risk for depression and substance use problems. Increasingly, developmental theories have shifted from focusing on vulnerabilities to protective factors for adolescent depression. In particular, theories emphasizing protective factors are relevant when understanding the mental health of Aboriginal youth. However, it is unclear which factors protect against depressive symptomatology among Aboriginal adolescents to promote optimal development. Using multilevel growth curve modeling, the present study had three main objectives. First, we aimed to model the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms using a sample of off-reserve Aboriginal youth from a national Canadian dataset (ages 12-23). Second, we sought to examine the relationship between alcohol use behaviors, self-esteem, optimism, and the trajectories of depressive symptoms. Lastly, we investigated whether self-esteem and optimism mediated the relationship between alcohol use and depressive symptoms. Gender differences were also examined within each of the study objectives. A sample of off-reserve Aboriginal youth (N = 283; 48.3% male) was selected from cycles 4-7 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Heavy drinking was a risk factor for depressive symptoms, while self-esteem and optimism were key protective factors for depressive symptoms among early adolescent Aboriginal youth. Further, the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms among Canadian Aboriginal youth differed for boys and girls once accounting for risk and protective factors. Thus, it is valuable to integrate the protective role of self-esteem and optimism into developmental theories of depression and mental health intervention programs for early adolescent Aboriginal youth. PMID:24045879

  1. [QOL research in child health. Present state and issues].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Tomohiro; Noguchi, Makiko; Umeno, Yuko; Kato, Noriko

    2006-11-01

    The evaluation of QOL (Quality of Life) in the medical field has revolved around the development of self-measurement scales comprising two or more questions based on psychometric theory. QOL research in the field of child health progressed in the latter half of the 80s in the United States, and aspects of ambiguity and adaptation to the environment of children were recognized. Objective health and subjective health differ significantly among children and are strongly influenced by environmental factors. In addition, QOL in early life anticipates the later health status in adolescence and youth. For these reasons, QOL research in the field of child health is very important. More than 20 scales, exemplified by CHQ, PedsQL, TACQOL/TAPQOL, and COOP charts, exist as standard generic QOL indices for children. Disease-specific scales cover epilepsy, asthma, and allergic disease, as discussed in a number of early studies. Diabetes, skin disease, and cancer are also major research subjects. Self-evaluation is one of the principles of QOL research; it is stated that children in the age group of 5-6 years are already capable of expressing pain and their physical condition and that the competency to describe abstract concepts such as pride and happiness matures around the age of 9-10 years. Sources of information such as the computer have developed and spread remarkably in recent years. The use of such technology facilitates the evaluation of young children with a high level of accuracy. The problems currently faced are the low reliability of responses of children, difficulties in cross-cultural comparison, and transformation of the sense of values according to growth. In conclusion, the development of QOL research in the field of child health should allow realization of an improved health situation in which children's points of view are included in the decision-making process for required treatments and health care policy. Further, health administration can be expected to

  2. Health issues and the Pala Indian Reservation, 1903-20.

    PubMed

    Hyer, J R

    2001-01-01

    Joel R. Hyer investigates health conditions on one Indian reservation in Southern California during the first two decades of the twentieth century. Hyer contends that unsanitary conditions on the Pala Reservation actually facilitated the spread of diseases among local Cupeño, Luiseño, and Kumeyaay Indians. He also describes how the United States federal government employed doctors, field matrons, and others to promote good health and combat disease among Indians at Pala. The author asserts that, despite their altruistic intentions, some of these government workers attempted to discourage local indigenous peoples from consulting their shamans for medical attention - Native healers whose extensive knowledge of roots and herbs had cured many forms of illness for years. In addition, the teacher at the reservation's day school sought to prevent the spread of disease among her Indian pupils by exposing them to American modes of health care. Furthermore, Hyer maintains that one national health program, the "Save the Babies" campaign, was successful on the Pala Reservation because Indian mothers believed in it and followed specific guidelines to lower mortality rates among their own children. Throughout his essay, the author addresses the pressures of assimilation and acculturation that were so accute at this time in the United States. Hyer concludes by suggesting that many of his findings reflect broader health trends on Indian reservations throughout the United States during this period. PMID:14515872

  3. Screening Mental Health Problems in Schools. A Center Policy Issues Analysis Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Long-standing policy controversies have heated up as a result of increasing proposals for using schools to screen for mental health problems (e.g., depression screening). This brief highlights the following issues: (1) How appropriate is large-scale screening for mental health problems? (2) Will the costs of large-scale mental health screening…

  4. Health Needs of Transition-Aged Youth: Feature Issue of IMPACT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tommet, Pat, Ed.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This feature issue explores health needs of youth with disabilities as they make the transition from child to adult roles. "School Health Services: Supporting Students with Special Health Needs" (Dee K. Bauer) describes the role of the special needs nurse on multidisciplinary teams in Multnomah County (Oregon) schools. Two articles deal with…

  5. Children's Mental Health Problems and Early School: Research, Service, and Policy Issues Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    Four brief papers in this symposium examine clinical research, community mental health services, and policy issues of young children's mental health problems. First, "Risk Factors for Poor Mental Health Outcomes in Young Children Entering School" (Lynne C. Huffman, Sarah L. Mehlinger, and Amy S. Kerivan Marks) reviews the research and identifies…

  6. Does the EDI Equivalently Measure Facets of School Readiness for Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhajarine, Nazeem; Puchala, Chassidy; Janus, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current paper was to examine the equivalence of the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher rating measure of school readiness, for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. The current study used an approach, which analyzes the structure and properties of the EDI at the subdomain level. Similar subdomain score distributions…

  7. How Aboriginal Peer Interactions in Upper Primary School Sport Support Aboriginal Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kickett-Tucker, Cheryl S.

    2008-01-01

    This ethnographic study tested the hypothesis that positive social interactions in sport will contribute positively to the Aboriginal identity of urban, Australian Aboriginal children. Nine male and female children aged 11-12 years were observed and interviewed. Significant responses were extracted and meanings were identified and grouped into…

  8. Aboriginal Education as Cultural Brokerage: New Aboriginal Teachers Reflect on Language and Culture in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Julian; Cherubini, Lorenzo; Trudeau, Lyn; Hodson, Janie M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a Talking Circle of six beginning Aboriginal teachers who discussed their roles as teachers. Participants criticized teacher education programs for not preparing them to teach in ways that are respectful of Aboriginal languages and culture. They discussed the importance of coming to know themselves and their culture. The…

  9. Miscommunication Between Aboriginal Students and Their Non-Aboriginal Teachers in a Bilingual School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowell, Anne; Devlin, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that while various models of bilingual education have been implemented in Aboriginal communities in Australia's Northern Territory, the degree to which these programs operate successfully is quite another matter. One example from a particular program outlines the ongoing miscommunication that occurs between Aboriginal students and their…

  10. Child Marriage: A Silent Health and Human Rights Issue

    PubMed Central

    Nour, Nawal M

    2009-01-01

    Marriages in which a child under the age of 18 years is involved occur worldwide, but are mainly seen in South Asia, Africa, and Latin America. A human rights violation, child marriage directly impacts girls’ education, health, psychologic well-being, and the health of their offspring. It increases the risk for depression, sexually transmitted infection, cervical cancer, malaria, obstetric fistulas, and maternal mortality. Their offspring are at an increased risk for premature birth and, subsequently, neonatal or infant death. The tradition, driven by poverty, is perpetuated to ensure girls’ financial futures and to reinforce social ties. One of the most effective methods of reducing child marriage and its health consequences is mandating that girls stay in school. PMID:19399295

  11. Mental health and the workplace: issues for developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Prem

    2009-01-01

    The capacity to work productively is a key component of health and emotional well-being. Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) are associated with reduced workplace productivity. It is anticipated that this impact is greatest in developing countries. Furthermore, workplace stress is associated with a significant adverse impact on emotional wellbeing and is linked with an increased risk of CMDs. This review will elaborate on the relationship between workplace environment and psychiatric morbidity. The evidence for mental health promotion and intervention studies will be discussed. A case will be developed to advocate for workplace reform and research to improve mental health in workplaces in developing countries in order to improve the wellbeing of employees and workplace productivity. PMID:19232117

  12. Violence against women as a public health issue.

    PubMed

    Chrisler, Joan C; Ferguson, Sheila

    2006-11-01

    Violence can be considered "infectious" in rape-prone cultures that celebrate violence and domination. The number of annual injuries and deaths due to violence against women and girls is high enough to demand the type of active interventions and public policies that have been targeted at infectious diseases by public health agencies. In this article, we review data on the physical and mental health effects that violence has on victims of domestic violence, rape, stalking, and sexual harassment. We also focus on the economic costs to the health care system, business and industry, families, and the broader society that accrue as a result of the widespread violence against women and girls. Victims' suffering can never be accounted for by economic data, but those data may be helpful in pushing governments to allocate funds and agencies to take preventive actions. PMID:17189508

  13. Psychosocial, HIV, and health care management issues impacting transgender individuals.

    PubMed

    Redfern, Jan S; Barnes, Arti; Chang, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the varied process of transitioning and the psychosocial and quality-of-life benefits and outcomes of gender-affirmation therapeutic interventions, examines the barriers that transgender (TG) persons face in accessing health care, and describes the authors' experiences in improving access to medical services by launching a TG health care clinic and a service provider collaborative. It concludes with a summary of the burgeoning prevalence of HIV among TG people and the associated psychosocial effects. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27380150

  14. Ethical issues when using social media for health outside professional relationships.

    PubMed

    DeCamp, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Social media have the potential to revolutionize health and healthcare, but fulfilling this potential requires attention to the ethical issues social media may raise. This article reviews the major ethical issues arising when social media are used for research, public health, mobile health applications, and global health. It focuses on social media use outside fiduciary relationships between healthcare professionals and patients. Emphasis is given to the potential of social media in these contexts, the ethical issues relatively unique to each, and where possible how existing ethical principles and frameworks could help navigate these issues. In some cases social media create the circumstance for particular ethical issues but also facilitate managing them, such as in informed consent for research. In other cases, disagreement exists about whether social media - despite their potential - should be used for certain purposes, such as in public health surveillance (where confidentiality represents a significant ethical concern). In still others, ethical uncertainty exists about how social media will affect ethical issues, such as inequality in global health. As social media technologies continue to develop, identifying and managing the ethical issues they raise will be critical to their success in improving health while preserving fundamental ethical values. PMID:25738215

  15. Generic medicines: issues and relevance for global health.

    PubMed

    Rana, Proteesh; Roy, Vandana

    2015-12-01

    Generic medicine is a pharmaceutical product which is bioequivalent to the innovator product in terms of dosage form, strength, route of administration, quality, safety, performance characteristics, and intended use. Generic medicines are a cornerstone for providing affordable medicines to patients. The major generic markets in the world include United States of America followed by European Union, Canada, Japan, and Australia. The major suppliers of generic medicines China and India are showing tremendous growth in the generic medicine sector. There are many legal and regulatory issues along with quality concerns associated with the use of the generic products. Lately, bilateral international agreements called free trade agreements, delaying tactics by originator companies like strategic patenting and litigations on generic manufacturers, have been a major setback for the generic medicine industry. These issues need to be addressed to optimize the use of generic medicines. The sustainability of generic medicine sector is crucial for improving access to essential medicines for the worldwide. PMID:26405851

  16. School Engagement among Aboriginal Students in Northern Canada: Perspectives From Activity Settings Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Colleen M.; Hawe, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    Background: Educational disengagement is a public health concern among Aboriginal populations in many countries. It has been investigated previously in a variety of ways, with the conventional focus being on the children themselves. Activity settings are events and places, theorized in terms of their symbols, roles, time frame, funds, people, and…

  17. Supporting Australian Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal Nursing Students Using Mentoring Circles: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jane; Felton-Busch, Catrina; Park, Tanya; Maza, Karen; Mills, Frances; Ghee, McCauley; Hitchins, Marnie; Chamberlain-Salaun, Jennifer; Neuendorf, Nalisa

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to recruit Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students into nursing degrees have made minimal impact on the number of registered nurses working in Australia's healthcare sector. Yet increasing the number of Indigenous nurses remains one of the most important objectives in strategies to close the health gap between Indigenous and…

  18. Enhancing Educational Performance for Remote Aboriginal Australians: What Is the Impact of Attendance on Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The educational performance of Aboriginal Australians lags behind non-Indigenous Australians with the gap increasing the longer students remain at school. The Australian government has released its Closing the Gap policy with the specific intent to redress gaps in health, education and housing, as these are seen as key indicators to life success.…

  19. Adult Learning in Health and Safety: Some Issues and Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Fathaigh, Mairtin

    This document, which was developed for presentation at a seminar on adult learning and safety, examines approaches to occupational safety and health (OSH) learning/training in the workplace. Section 1 examines selected factors affecting adults' learning in workplace OSH programs. The principal dimensions along which individual adult learners will…

  20. Issues in Worksite Health Promotion: A Personal Viewpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to change employees' personal behavior to promote a healthy workplace raise ethical and professional questions. Needs for successful wellness programs must be balanced against individual rights to remain unhealthy. The paper discusses potential fiscal benefits of wellness programs, ethics of motivation, personal responsibility for health,…

  1. The Educator's Guide to Mental Health Issues in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Frank M., Ed.; Silver, Larry B., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    An estimated 20 percent of students have an emotional, behavioral, or mental disorder. Teachers are often the first to notice these problems--and this guide, provides the information they need to help create effective learning environments for children and adolescents and collaborate effectively with mental health providers. Along with a detailed…

  2. Methodological issues in studies of air pollution and reproductive health

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (S...

  3. Teachers' Views of Issues Involving Students' Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeser, Robert W.; Midgley, Carol

    1997-01-01

    Examined elementary teachers' views regarding students' mental health needs. Found that almost all believed that addressing these needs was part of their role but also felt somewhat burdened by this responsibility. Sense of efficacy and reported use of task-focused instruction were negatively associated with feelings of burden. Teachers were good…

  4. Ethical Issues of Scientific Inquiry in Health Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigg, R. Morgan, Jr., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This monograph contains 13 papers on the ethics of planning, conducting, and reporting research in health sciences education. It includes four background papers and nine perspective papers. The titles are: (1) "The Imperative for Ethical Conduct in Scientific Inquiry" (Steve M. Dorman); (2) "Fundamental Principles of Ethical Research in Health…

  5. Assessing Rural Coalitions That Address Safety and Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgus, Shari; Schwab, Charles; Shelley, Mack

    2012-01-01

    Community coalitions can help national organizations meet their objectives. Farm Safety 4 Just Kids depends on coalitions of local people to deliver farm safety and health educational programs to children and their families. These coalitions are called chapters. An evaluation was developed to identify individual coalition's strengths and…

  6. Investigating Environmental Concerns and Health Issues in Clarksville, Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Shirley A.; Jones, Robert Emmet

    2005-01-01

    Environmental degradation is a serious problem for millions of people who are unjustly exposed to environmental conditions that threaten their everyday survival. A growing body of research shows race and class as significant predictors to exposure to environmental hazards and associated health problems. Presented are perceptions of environmental…

  7. Special issue on eHealth and mHealth: Challenges and future directions for assessment, treatment, and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Belinda; Ritterband, Lee M

    2015-12-01

    This special issue is intended to promote a discussion of eHealth and mHealth and its connection with health psychology. "eHealth" generally refers to the use of information technology, including the Internet, digital gaming, virtual reality, and robotics, in the promotion, prevention, treatment, and maintenance of health. "mHealth" refers to mobile and wireless applications, including text messaging, apps, wearable devices, remote sensing, and the use of social media such as Facebook and Twitter, in the delivery of health related services. This special issue includes 11 articles that begin to address the need for more rigorous methodology, valid assessment, innovative interventions, and increased access to evidence-based programs and interventions. PMID:26651461

  8. Neighbourhood social capital: measurement issues and associations with health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, J D; Lakerveld, J; van Lenthe, F J; Kawachi, I; McKee, M; Rutter, H; Glonti, K; Compernolle, S; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Feuillet, T; Oppert, J-M; Nijpels, G; Brug, J

    2016-01-01

    We compared ecometric neighbourhood scores of social capital (contextual variation) to mean neighbourhood scores (individual and contextual variation), using several health-related outcomes (i.e. self-rated health, weight status and obesity-related behaviours). Data were analysed from 5,900 participants in the European SPOTLIGHT survey. Factor analysis of the 13-item social capital scale revealed two social capital constructs: social networks and social cohesion. The associations of ecometric and mean neighbourhood-level scores of these constructs with self-rated health, weight status and obesity-related behaviours were analysed using multilevel regression analyses, adjusted for key covariates. Analyses using ecometric and mean neighbourhood scores, but not mean neighbourhood scores adjusted for individual scores, yielded similar regression coefficients. Higher levels of social network and social cohesion were not only associated with better self-rated health, lower odds of obesity and higher fruit consumption, but also with prolonged sitting and less transport-related physical activity. Only associations with transport-related physical activity and sedentary behaviours were associated with mean neighbourhood scores adjusted for individual scores. As analyses using ecometric scores generated the same results as using mean neighbourhood scores, but different results when using mean neighbourhood scores adjusted for individual scores, this suggests that the theoretical advantage of the ecometric approach (i.e. teasing out individual and contextual variation) may not be achieved in practice. The different operationalisations of social network and social cohesion were associated with several health outcomes, but the constructs that appeared to represent the contextual variation best were only associated with two of the outcomes. PMID:26879117

  9. Evaluating a health video on diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joos; Johnson, Karim; Bowyer, Joshua; Muir, Josephine; Turner, Angus

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Indigenous Australians are 14 times more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to develop diabetic retinopathy (DR). Blindness can be prevented in 98% of cases if DR is identified and treated early. While the National Health and Medical Research Council recommend annual screening for Indigenous Australians, screening attendance rates remain low. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a targeted health promotion intervention improved patient compliance and screening rates. Methods Bad Sugars, Bad Eyes - a culturally appropriate video targeting DR awareness and the importance of screening among Indigenous Australians - was developed at the Lions Eye Institute, Western Australia. The study used a patient questionnaire pre and post viewing of the video, as well as semi-structured interviews with Aboriginal Health Workers, to explore the influence the resource had on patient knowledge and attitudes. Eighty-four participants, currently involved in DR screening programs, were recruited from Aboriginal Medical Services (AMS) and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHS). Results The video was found to increase patient knowledge about key DR issues as well as alter patient attitudes identified as potential barriers to screening. The areas most affected by the video resource were knowledge of recommended screening intervals, the severity of potential visual complications if DR is left undiagnosed and untreated and that screening is needed even when asymptomatic. Aboriginal Health Workers positively evaluated the video, all rating it as 'very' culturally appropriate, understandable and relatable. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that Indigenous DR screening attendance rates could be increased through the expanded use of this video. So what? Indigenous DR screening attendance rates remain low, despite annual recommendations by the National Health and Medical Research Council. This gap needs to be addressed. PMID:26855009

  10. Four issues in undernutrition-related health impact modeling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Undernutrition modeling makes it possible to evaluate the potential impact of such events as a food-price shock or harvest failure on the prevalence and severity of undernutrition. There are, however, uncertainties in such modeling. In this paper we discuss four methodological issues pertinent to impact estimation: (1) the conventional emphasis on energy intake rather than dietary quality; (2) the importance of the distribution of nutrient intakes; (3) the timing of both the ‘food shock’ and when the response is assessed; and (4) catch-up growth and risk accumulation. PMID:24073617

  11. Aboriginal Learning Styles and Adult Education: Is a Synthesis Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Jill

    1993-01-01

    Review of both aboriginal and nonaboriginal literature elicited principles for aborigine adult education: enabling learner control; supporting and reflecting culture, values, and experience; conducting learning in places familiar to learners; and using culturally appropriate content and teaching strategies. (SK)

  12. Forced migration: health and human rights issues among refugee populations.

    PubMed

    Lori, Jody R; Boyle, Joyceen S

    2015-01-01

    Undocumented migration is a global phenomenon that is manifest in diverse contexts. In this article, we examine the situations that precipitate the movement of large numbers of people across several African countries, producing a unique type of undocumented migrant--the refugee. These refugee movements impact already fragile African health care systems and often involve human rights violations that are of particular concern, such as gender-based violence and child soldiers. We use examples from several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mozambique. Drawing on key documents from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, current research, and our personal international experiences, we provide an overview of forced migration and discuss implications and opportunities for nurses to impact research, practice, and policy related to refugee health. PMID:25645484

  13. Sorrell v. IMS Health: issues and opportunities for informaticians

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Carolyn; DeMuro, Paul; Goodman, Kenneth W; Kaplan, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the US Supreme Court decided Sorrell v. IMS Health, Inc., a case that addressed the mining of large aggregated databases and the sale of prescriber data for marketing prescription drugs. The court struck down a Vermont law that required data mining companies to obtain permission from individual providers before selling prescription records that included identifiable physician prescription information to pharmaceutical companies for drug marketing. The decision was based on constitutional free speech protections rather than data sharing considerations. Sorrell illustrates challenges at the intersection of biomedical informatics, public health, constitutional liberties, and ethics. As states, courts, regulatory agencies, and federal bodies respond to Sorrell, informaticians’ expertise can contribute to more informed, ethical, and appropriate policies. PMID:23104048

  14. Social factors and health: the causation-selection issue revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, N

    1994-01-01

    Since social scientists rarely have access to experimental data, they rely heavily upon observational studies. As a consequence, their attempts to make causal inferences about the effects of social factors--such as occupation or marital status--on health are plagued by potential selection problems. Some researchers have addressed this selection-causation problem on the basis of the presence or absence of a particular aggregate pattern of health status. The rationale underlying this approach derives from the investigators' hypotheses that the presence of selection would lead to a particular type of pattern that is distinct from the pattern that would result in the absence of selection. Although intuitively appealing, this strategy appears to be seriously flawed. The essential weakness is that the range of patterns that can result from selection is often much broader than researchers have speculated. PMID:8108396

  15. [Equity issues in health care reform in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Belmartino, Susana

    2002-01-01

    This article analyzes the historical and contemporary development of the Argentine health care system from the viewpoint of equity, a principle which is not explicitly mentioned in the system's founding documents. However, other values can be identified such as universal care, accessibility, and solidarity, which are closely related to equity. Nevertheless, the political dynamics characterizing the development of the country's health care system led to the suppression of more universalistic approaches, with group solidarity the only remaining principle providing structure to the system. The 1980s financial crisis highlighted the relative value of this principle as the basis for an equitable system. The authors illustrate the current situation with data on coverage under the medical social security system. PMID:12118311

  16. Sorrell v. IMS Health: issues and opportunities for informaticians.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Carolyn; Demuro, Paul; Goodman, Kenneth W; Kaplan, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the US Supreme Court decided Sorrell v. IMS Health, Inc., a case that addressed the mining of large aggregated databases and the sale of prescriber data for marketing prescription drugs. The court struck down a Vermont law that required data mining companies to obtain permission from individual providers before selling prescription records that included identifiable physician prescription information to pharmaceutical companies for drug marketing. The decision was based on constitutional free speech protections rather than data sharing considerations. Sorrell illustrates challenges at the intersection of biomedical informatics, public health, constitutional liberties, and ethics. As states, courts, regulatory agencies, and federal bodies respond to Sorrell, informaticians' expertise can contribute to more informed, ethical, and appropriate policies. PMID:23104048

  17. Sleep Health Issues for Children with FASD: Clinical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Jan, James E; Asante, Kwadwo O; Conry, Julianne L; Fast, Diane K; Bax, Martin C O; Ipsiroglu, Osman S; Bredberg, Elizabeth; Loock, Christine A; Wasdell, Michael B

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the combined clinical experience of a multidisciplinary group of professionals on the sleep disturbances of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) focusing on sleep hygiene interventions. Such practical and comprehensive information is not available in the literature. Severe, persistent sleep difficulties are frequently associated with this condition but few health professionals are familiar with both FASD and sleep disorders. The sleep promotion techniques used for typical children are less suitable for children with FASD who need individually designed interventions. The types, causes, and adverse effects of sleep disorders, the modification of environment, scheduling and preparation for sleep, and sleep health for their caregivers are discussed. It is our hope that parents and also researchers, who are interested in the sleep disorders of children with FASD, will benefit from this presentation and that this discussion will stimulate much needed evidence-based research. PMID:20706655

  18. Sleep Health Issues for Children with FASD: Clinical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Jan, James E.; Asante, Kwadwo O.; Conry, Julianne L.; Fast, Diane K.; Bax, Martin C. O.; Ipsiroglu, Osman S.; Bredberg, Elizabeth; Loock, Christine A.; Wasdell, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the combined clinical experience of a multidisciplinary group of professionals on the sleep disturbances of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) focusing on sleep hygiene interventions. Such practical and comprehensive information is not available in the literature. Severe, persistent sleep difficulties are frequently associated with this condition but few health professionals are familiar with both FASD and sleep disorders. The sleep promotion techniques used for typical children are less suitable for children with FASD who need individually designed interventions. The types, causes, and adverse effects of sleep disorders, the modification of environment, scheduling and preparation for sleep, and sleep health for their caregivers are discussed. It is our hope that parents and also researchers, who are interested in the sleep disorders of children with FASD, will benefit from this presentation and that this discussion will stimulate much needed evidence-based research. PMID:20706655

  19. Nanosilver and global public health: international regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas; Watal, Aparna

    2010-06-01

    Silver in nanoparticle form is used extensively worldwide in hospital and general practice settings, in dressings as a treatment for external wounds, burns and ulcers. Nanosilver is also an increasingly important coating over embedded medical devices, inhibiting the development of biofilm. Nanosilver disinfectant sprays and polymer coatings are being widely promoted as protective against viral infections. In addition, nanosilver is widely used for its antibacterial properties in food processing and packaging, as well as in consumer products used for domestic cleaning and clothing. This article argues that medical devices, therapeutic products, and domestic food and goods containing nanosilver, although offering therapeutic benefits, must be subject to precautionary regulation owing to associated public health and environmental risks, particularly from large volumes of nanosilver in waste water. The article first examines the use of nanosilver in a variety of contemporary medical and domestic products, the utilization of which may assist in resolving global public health problems, such as restricted access to safe food, water and medical care. It then discusses the mechanisms of toxicity for nanosilver, whether it should be classified as a new chemical entity for regulatory purposes and whether its increased usage poses significant environmental and public health risks. The article next critically analyses representative international regulatory regimes (the USA, EU, UK and Australia) for medical and domestic use of nanosilver. The conclusion includes a set of recommendations for improving international regulation of nanosilver. PMID:20528456

  20. National Association of School Nurses ISSUE BRIEF: School Health Nurse's Role in Education: Privacy Standards for Student Health Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Katherine; Schwab, Nadine

    2003-01-01

    This article is a reprint of the National Association of School Nurses' "Issue Brief" on Privacy Standards for Student Health Records. It distinguishes between the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HI-PAA), clarifies which of these laws governs the privacy of student health…