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Sample records for aboriginal medical services

  1. Health assessments for Indigenous Australians at Orange Aboriginal Medical Service: health problems identified and subsequent follow up.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Tegan; Stevens, Wendy; Newman, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to document the types, management and follow up of health issues identified by all Aboriginal Health Assessments (AHA) performed at Orange Aboriginal Medical Service from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2012. This was done with a retrospective audit of clinical records. In total, 1169 AHAs were performed: 41% child, 53% adult and 6% older person AHAs. Newly identified health issues were documented in 85% (984). Being overweight (41%; 476) and smoking (26%; 301) were the common risk factors identified. As a result of the AHA, most children who were not up-to-date with their vaccinations received catch-up immunisations; 11% (36) of adult women (n=314) received a Pap smear, although Pap smear status was unknown or not up-to-date for 61% (192); 27% (311) of cases were prescribed new medication; and 1239 referrals were made but only 40% were attended. At 6 months following the AHA, 26% (240) of cases with newly identified health issues were completely managed and followed up, whereas 25% (226) received no follow up. The AHAs are useful for identifying new health issues; however, follow up of the identified health issues should be improved. If AHAs are to improve health outcomes, appropriate management and follow up of the identified health issues are essential.

  2. Improving palliative care outcomes for Aboriginal Australians: service providers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Shaouli; Bessarab, Dawn; van Schaik, Katherine D; Aoun, Samar M; Thompson, Sandra C

    2013-07-23

    Aboriginal Australians have a lower rate of utilisation of palliative care services than the general population. This study aimed to explore care providers' experiences and concerns in providing palliative care for Aboriginal people, and to identify opportunities for overcoming gaps in understanding between them and their Aboriginal patients and families. In-depth, qualitative interviews with urban, rural and remote palliative care providers were undertaken in inpatient and community settings in Western Australia. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers with QSR NVivo 10 software used to help manage data. Data analysis was informed by multiple theoretical standpoints, including the social ecological model, critical cultural theories and the 'cultural security' framework. Thematic analysis was carried out that identified patterns within data. Fifteen palliative care providers were interviewed. Overall they reported lack of understanding of Aboriginal culture and being uncertain of the needs and priorities of Aboriginal people during end-of-life care. According to several participants, very few Aboriginal people had an understanding of palliative care. Managing issues such as anger, denial, the need for non-medical support due to socioeconomic disadvantage, and dealing with crises and conflicts over funeral arrangements were reported as some of the tensions between Aboriginal patients and families and the service providers. Early referral to palliative care is important in demonstrating and maintaining a caring therapeutic relationship. Paramount to meeting the needs for Aboriginal patients was access to appropriate information and logistical, psychological and emotional support. These were often seen as essential but additional to standard palliative care services. The broader context of Aboriginal history and historical distrust of mainstream services was seen to impinge on Aboriginal people's willingness and

  3. The Analytical Quality of Point-of-Care Testing in the ‘QAAMS’ Model for Diabetes Management in Australian Aboriginal Medical Services

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Mark DS; Gill, Janice P

    2006-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus and its major complication, renal disease, represent one of the most significant contemporary health problems facing Australia’s Indigenous Aboriginal People. The Australian Government-funded Quality Assurance for Aboriginal Medical Services Program (QAAMS) provides a framework by which on-site point-of-care testing (POCT) for haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and now urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) can be performed to facilitate better diabetes management in Aboriginal medical services. This paper provides updated evidence for the analytical quality of POCT in the QAAMS Program. The median imprecision for point-of-care (POC) HbA1c and urine ACR quality assurance (QA) testing has continually improved over the past six and half years, stabilising at approximately 3% for both analytes and proving analytically sound in Aboriginal hands. For HbA1c, there was no statistical difference between the imprecision achieved by QAAMS and laboratory users of the Bayer DCA 2000 since the QAAMS program commenced (QAAMS CV 3.6% ± 0.52, laboratory CV 3.4% ± 0.42; p = 0.21, paired t-test). The Western Pacific Island of Tonga recently joined the QAAMS HbA1c Program indicating that the QAAMS model can also be applied internationally in other settings where the prevalence of diabetes is high. PMID:17581642

  4. Improving palliative care outcomes for Aboriginal Australians: service providers’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians have a lower rate of utilisation of palliative care services than the general population. This study aimed to explore care providers’ experiences and concerns in providing palliative care for Aboriginal people, and to identify opportunities for overcoming gaps in understanding between them and their Aboriginal patients and families. Methods In-depth, qualitative interviews with urban, rural and remote palliative care providers were undertaken in inpatient and community settings in Western Australia. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers with QSR NVivo 10 software used to help manage data. Data analysis was informed by multiple theoretical standpoints, including the social ecological model, critical cultural theories and the ‘cultural security’ framework. Thematic analysis was carried out that identified patterns within data. Results Fifteen palliative care providers were interviewed. Overall they reported lack of understanding of Aboriginal culture and being uncertain of the needs and priorities of Aboriginal people during end-of-life care. According to several participants, very few Aboriginal people had an understanding of palliative care. Managing issues such as anger, denial, the need for non-medical support due to socioeconomic disadvantage, and dealing with crises and conflicts over funeral arrangements were reported as some of the tensions between Aboriginal patients and families and the service providers. Conclusion Early referral to palliative care is important in demonstrating and maintaining a caring therapeutic relationship. Paramount to meeting the needs for Aboriginal patients was access to appropriate information and logistical, psychological and emotional support. These were often seen as essential but additional to standard palliative care services. The broader context of Aboriginal history and historical distrust of mainstream services was seen to

  5. Factors associated with pretreatment and treatment dropouts: comparisons between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal clients admitted to medical withdrawal management

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Addiction treatment faces high pretreatment and treatment dropout rates, especially among Aboriginals. In this study we examined characteristic differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal clients accessing an inpatient medical withdrawal management program, and identified risk factors associated with the probabilities of pretreatment and treatment dropouts, respectively. Methods 2231 unique clients (Aboriginal = 451; 20%) referred to Vancouver Detox over a two-year period were assessed. For both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups, multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted with pretreatment dropout and treatment dropout as dependent variables, respectively. Results Aboriginal clients had higher pretreatment and treatment dropout rates compared to non-Aboriginal clients (41.0% vs. 32.7% and 25.9% vs. 20.0%, respectively). For Aboriginal people, no fixed address (NFA) was the only predictor of pretreatment dropout. For treatment dropout, significant predictors were: being female, having HCV infection, and being discharged on welfare check issue days or weekends. For non-Aboriginal clients, being male, NFA, alcohol as a preferred substance, and being on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) at referral were associated with pretreatment dropout. Significant risk factors for treatment dropout were: being younger, having a preferred substance other than alcohol, having opiates as a preferred substance, and being discharged on weekends. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of social factors for the Aboriginal population compared to substance-specific factors for the non-Aboriginal population. These findings should help clinicians and decision-makers to recognize the importance of social supports especially housing and initiate appropriate services to improve treatment intake and subsequent retention, physical and mental health outcomes and the cost-effectiveness of treatment. PMID:24325629

  6. Identifying barriers and improving communication between cancer service providers and Aboriginal patients and their families: the perspective of service providers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared to the non-Aboriginal population. Some progress has been made in understanding Aboriginal Australians’ perspectives about cancer and their experiences with cancer services. However, little is known of cancer service providers’ (CSPs) thoughts and perceptions regarding Aboriginal patients and their experiences providing optimal cancer care to Aboriginal people. Communication between Aboriginal patients and non-Aboriginal health service providers has been identified as an impediment to good Aboriginal health outcomes. This paper reports on CSPs’ views about the factors impairing communication and offers practical strategies for promoting effective communication with Aboriginal patients in Western Australia (WA). Methods A qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 62 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal CSPs from across WA was conducted between March 2006 - September 2007 and April-October 2011. CSPs were asked to share their experiences with Aboriginal patients and families experiencing cancer. Thematic analysis was carried out. Our analysis was primarily underpinned by the socio-ecological model, but concepts of Whiteness and privilege, and cultural security also guided our analysis. Results CSPs’ lack of knowledge about the needs of Aboriginal people with cancer and Aboriginal patients’ limited understanding of the Western medical system were identified as the two major impediments to communication. For effective patient–provider communication, attention is needed to language, communication style, knowledge and use of medical terminology and cross-cultural differences in the concept of time. Aboriginal marginalization within mainstream society and Aboriginal people’s distrust of the health system were also key issues impacting on communication. Potential solutions to effective Aboriginal patient-provider communication included recruiting more Aboriginal staff

  7. Improving the efficacy of healthcare services for Aboriginal Australians.

    PubMed

    Gwynne, Kylie; Jeffries, Thomas; Lincoln, Michelle

    2018-01-16

    Objective The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the enablers for effective health service delivery for Aboriginal Australians. Methods This systematic review was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Papers were included if they had data related to health services for Australian Aboriginal people and were published between 2000 and 2015. The 21 papers that met the inclusion criteria were assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Seven papers were subsequently excluded due to weak methodological approaches. Results There were two findings in the present study: (1) that Aboriginal people fare worse than non-Aboriginal people when accessing usual healthcare services; and (2) there are five enablers for effective health care services for Australian Aboriginal people: cultural competence, participation rates, organisational, clinical governance and compliance, and availability of services. Conclusions Health services for Australian Aboriginal people must be tailored and implementation of the five enablers is likely to affect the effectiveness of health services for Aboriginal people. The findings of the present study have significant implications in directing the future design, funding, delivery and evaluation of health care services for Aboriginal Australians. What is known about the topic? There is significant evidence about poor health outcomes and the 10-year gap in life expectancy between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and limited evidence about improving health service efficacy. What does this paper add? This systematic review found that with usual health care delivery, Aboriginal people experience worse health outcomes. This paper identifies five strategies in the literature that improve the effectiveness of health care services intended for Aboriginal people. What are the implications for

  8. 'Stereotypes are reality': addressing stereotyping in Canadian Aboriginal medical education.

    PubMed

    Ly, Anh; Crowshoe, Lynden

    2015-06-01

    Efforts are underway in many parts of the world to develop medical education curricula that address the health care issues of indigenous populations. The topic of stereotypes and their impact on such peoples' health, however, has received little attention. An examination of stereotypes will shed light on dominant cultural attitudes toward Aboriginal people that can affect quality of care and health outcomes in Aboriginal patients. This study examines the views of undergraduate medical students regarding Canadian Aboriginal stereotypes and how they potentially affect Aboriginal people's health. The goal of this study was to gain insight into how medical learners perceive issues related to racism, discrimination and social stereotypes and to draw attention to gaps in Aboriginal health curricula. This study involved a convenience sample of medical learners drawn from one undergraduate medical programme in western Canada. Using a semi-structured interview guide, we conducted a total of seven focus group interviews with 38 first- and second-year undergraduate medical students. Data were analysed using a thematic content analysis approach. Medical students recognise that stereotypes are closely related to processes of racism and discrimination. However, they generally feel that stereotypes of Aboriginal people are rooted in reality. Students also identified medical school as one of the environments in which they are commonly exposed to negative views of Aboriginal people. Student responses suggest they see the cultural gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people as being both a cause and a consequence of discrimination against Aboriginal people. The results of this study suggest that teaching medical students about the realities and impacts of stereotypes on Aboriginal peoples is a good starting point from which to address issues of racism and health inequities affecting the health of Aboriginal people. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Antenatal services for Aboriginal women: the relevance of cultural competence.

    PubMed

    Reibel, Tracy; Walker, Roz

    2010-01-01

    Due to persistent significantly poorer Aboriginal perinatal outcomes, the Women's and Newborns' Health Network, Western Australian Department of Health, required a comprehensive appraisal of antenatal services available to Aboriginal women as a starting point for future service delivery modelling. A services audit was conducted to ascertain the usage frequency and characteristics of antenatal services used by Aboriginal women in Western Australia (WA). Telephone interviews were undertaken with eligible antenatal services utilising a purpose specific service audit tool comprising questions in five categories: 1) general characteristics; 2) risk assessment; 3) treatment, risk reduction and education; 4) access; and 5) quality of care. Data were analysed according to routine antenatal care (e.g. risk assessment, treatment and risk reduction), service status (Aboriginal specific or non-specific) and application of cultural responsiveness. Significant gaps in appropriate antenatal services for Aboriginal women in metropolitan, rural and remote regions in WA were evident. Approximately 75% of antenatal services used by Aboriginal women have not achieved a model of service delivery consistent with the principles of culturally responsive care, with few services incorporating Aboriginal specific antenatal protocols/programme, maintaining access or employing Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs). Of 42 audited services, 18 Aboriginal specific and 24 general antenatal services reported utilisation by Aboriginal women. Of these, nine were identified as providing culturally responsive service delivery, incorporating key indicators of cultural security combined with highly consistent delivery of routine antenatal care. One service was located in the metropolitan area and eight in rural or remote locations. The audit of antenatal services in WA represents a significant step towards a detailed understanding of which services are most highly utilised and their defining characteristics

  10. Antenatal emotional wellbeing screening in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care services in Australia.

    PubMed

    Gausia, Kaniz; Thompson, Sandra; Nagel, Tricia; Rumbold, Alice; Connors, Christine; Matthews, Veronica; Boyle, Jacqueline; Schierhout, Gill; Bailie, Ross

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which antenatal emotional wellbeing (EW) assessments are undertaken in primary health care (PHC) centres and factors associated with completion of EW screening. Medical records of 797 pregnant women from 36 PHC centres in five states (NSW, QLD, SA, WA and NT) were audited. Overall, 85% of the women were Aboriginal. The proportion of women with documented screening for EW varied from 5 to 38% between states (mean 17%). Aboriginal women were four times more likely (adjusted Odds Ratio (OR = 4.13, 95% CI = 2.46-6.92) to not be screened for antenatal EW than non-Aboriginal women. Aboriginality, <4 antenatal visits, absence of an antenatal and birth care plan, and lack of counselling on financial support were independently linked with no screening of EW. Provision of training for health service providers and further research on appropriate screening tools for Aboriginal women are needed to help redress this gap.

  11. Knowing, Being, and Doing: Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Collaboration in Cancer Services

    PubMed Central

    Zubrzycki, Joanna; Shipp, Rick; Jones, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative inquiry explored the processes and practices of collaboration as experienced by a group of Australian multidisciplinary Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal health workers. Each worker had participated, for a period of 2 to 5 years, in an Australian Government–funded project in which a range of health initiatives led to improved access to cancer services by Aboriginal communities in a rural region of South Eastern Australia. Initiatives which addressed high rates of mortality from cancer, poor access to cancer screening, and engagement with cancer treatment were developed through the formation of close working relationships between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal health workers. These relationships were regarded as personally and professionally transformative. Through the sharing of knowledge, skills, and experiences, new ways of knowing, being, and doing emerged. Developing a deeper understanding of cross-cultural collaboration is one way of addressing complex health problems and building the capacity of the health workforce. PMID:28682709

  12. "Unwell while Aboriginal": iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management.

    PubMed

    Ewen, Shaun C; Hollinsworth, David

    2016-01-01

    Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in both decision making and reporting of morbidity and mortality. This focus is applauded in light of the gross inequalities in health outcomes between indigenous people and other Australians. A purposive survey of relevant Australian and international literature was conducted to map the current state of play and identify concerns with efforts to teach cultural competence with Aboriginal people in medical schools and to provide "culturally appropriate" clinical care. The authors critically analyzed this literature in light of their experiences in teaching Aboriginal studies over six decades in many universities to generate examples of iatrogenic effects and possible responses. Understanding how to most effectively embed Aboriginal content and perspectives in curriculum and how to best teach and assess these remains contested. This review canvasses these debates, arguing that well-intentioned efforts in medical education and clinical management can have iatrogenic impacts. Given the long history of racialization of Aboriginal people in Australian medicine and the relatively low levels of routine contact with Aboriginal people among students and clinicians, the review urges caution in compounding these iatrogenic effects and proposes strategies to combat or reduce them. Long overdue efforts to recognize gaps and inadequacies in medical education about Aboriginal people and their health and to provide equitable health services and improved health outcomes are needed and welcome. Such efforts need to be critically examined and rigorously evaluated to avoid the reproduction of pathologizing stereotypes and reductionist explanations for persistent poor outcomes for Aboriginal people.

  13. Understanding practitioner professionalism in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health: lessons from student and registrar placements at an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary healthcare service.

    PubMed

    Askew, Deborah A; Lyall, Vivian J; Ewen, Shaun C; Paul, David; Wheeler, Melissa

    2017-10-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples continue to be pathologised in medical curriculum, leaving graduates feeling unequipped to effectively work cross-culturally. These factors create barriers to culturally safe health care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. In this pilot pre-post study, the learning experiences of seven medical students and four medical registrars undertaking clinical placements at an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary healthcare service in 2014 were followed. Through analysis and comparison of pre- and post-placement responses to a paper-based case study of a fictitious Aboriginal patient, four learning principles for medical professionalism were identified: student exposure to nuanced, complex and positive representations of Aboriginal peoples; positive practitioner role modelling; interpersonal skills that build trust and minimise patient-practitioner relational power imbalances; and knowledge, understanding and skills for providing patient-centred, holistic care. Though not exhaustive, these principles can increase the capacity of practitioners to foster culturally safe and optimal health care for Aboriginal peoples. Furthermore, competence and effectiveness in Aboriginal health care is an essential component of medical professionalism.

  14. Long-term medical outcomes among Aboriginal living kidney donors.

    PubMed

    Storsley, Leroy J; Young, Ann; Rush, David N; Nickerson, Peter W; Ho, Julie; Suon, Vuthana; Karpinski, Martin

    2010-08-27

    It is unknown whether favorable long-term data on the safety of living kidney donation can be extrapolated to populations at higher risk of chronic kidney disease. Indigenous people (i.e., Aboriginals) have a high prevalence of risk factors for chronic kidney disease and Aboriginal living donor outcomes need to be defined. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all 38 Aboriginal donors donating at our center since 1970 and 76 randomly selected white donor controls to determine the long-term rates of hypertension, diabetes, and renal function postdonation. Follow-up was obtained for 91% of both Aboriginal and white donors (mean follow-up approximately 14 years). Hypertension has been diagnosed more frequently among Aboriginal donors (Ab 42% vs. white 19%, P=0.02). Notably, all 11 Aboriginal donors more than 20 years postdonation have developed hypertension. Diabetes has also been diagnosed more frequently among Aboriginal donors (Ab 19% vs. white 2%, P=0.005), including 5 of 11 (45%) more than 20 years postdonation. Follow-up estimated glomerular filtration rate was higher in Aboriginal donors (Ab 77+/-17 vs. white 67+/-13 mL/min/1.73 m, P=0.002) but not significantly different in adjusted analyses. One Aboriginal donor developed end-stage renal disease 14 years postdonation. Aboriginal living kidney donors at our center have high rates of hypertension and diabetes on long-term follow-up, although renal function is preserved to date. This profile is similar to that of the general unselected Aboriginal population despite detailed medical evaluation before donation. These findings have important implications for donor counseling and may have implications for other high-risk donor populations.

  15. Aboriginal community controlled health services: leading the way in primary care.

    PubMed

    Panaretto, Kathryn S; Wenitong, Mark; Button, Selwyn; Ring, Ian T

    2014-06-16

    The national Closing the Gap framework commits to reducing persisting disadvantage in the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia, with cross-government-sector initiatives and investment. Central to efforts to build healthier communities is the Aboriginal community controlled health service (ACCHS) sector; its focus on prevention, early intervention and comprehensive care has reduced barriers to access and unintentional racism, progressively improving individual health outcomes for Aboriginal people. There is now a broad range of primary health care data that provides a sound evidence base for comparing the health outcomes for Indigenous people in ACCHSs with the outcomes achieved through mainstream services, and these data show: models of comprehensive primary health care consistent with the patient-centred medical home model; coverage of the Aboriginal population higher than 60% outside major metropolitan centres; consistently improving performance in key performance on best-practice care indicators; and superior performance to mainstream general practice. ACCHSs play a significant role in training the medical workforce and employing Aboriginal people. ACCHSs have risen to the challenge of delivering best-practice care and there is a case for expanding ACCHSs into new areas. To achieve the best returns, the current mainstream Closing the Gap investment should be shifted to the community controlled health sector.

  16. Accuracy of national key performance indicator reporting from two Aboriginal medical services: potential to underestimate the performance of primary health care.

    PubMed

    2017-05-09

    Objective The aim of the present study was to assess the accuracy of extracting national key performance indicator (nKPI) data for the Online Community Health Reporting Environment for Health Services (OCHREStreams) program using the Pen Computer Systems (Leichhardt, NSW, Australia) Clinical Audit Tool (CAT) from Communicare (Telstra Health Communicare Systems, Perth, WA, Australia), a commonly used patient information management system (PIMS) in Aboriginal primary care. Methods Two Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) were recruited to the present study. A sample of regular clients aged ≥55 years from each ACCHS was selected and a subset of 13 nKPIs was examined. A manual case note audit of the nKPI subset within Communicare was undertaken by a clinician at each participating ACCHS and acted as a 'gold standard' comparator for three query methods: (1) internal Communicare nKPI reports; (2) PenCS CAT nKPI manual filtering (a third-party data-extraction tool); and (3) nKPI data submitted to the Improvement Foundation qiConnect portal. Results No errors were found in nKPI data extraction from Communicare using the CAT and subsequent submission to the qiConnect portal. However, the Communicare internal nKPI report included deceased clients and past patients, and we can be very confident that deceased clients and past patients are also included in the qiConnect portal data. This resulted in inflation of client denominators and an underestimation of health service performance, particularly for nKPIs recording activity in the past 6 months. Several minor errors were also detected in Communicare internal nKPI reports. Conclusions CAT accurately extracts a subset of nKPI data from Communicare. However, given the widespread use of Communicare in ACCHSs, the inclusion of deceased clients and past patients in the OCHREStreams nKPI data program is likely to have resulted in systematic under-reporting of health service performance nationally. What is known

  17. Fall prevention services for older Aboriginal people: investigating availability and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Lukaszyk, Caroline; Coombes, Julieann; Keay, Lisa; Sherrington, Catherine; Tiedemann, Anne; Broe, Tony; Lovitt, Lorraine; Ivers, Rebecca

    2016-12-14

    Falls and fall-related injury are emerging issues for older Aboriginal people. Despite this, it is unknown whether older Aboriginal people access available fall prevention programs, or whether these programs are effective or acceptable to this population. To investigate the use of available fall prevention services by older Aboriginal people and identify features that are likely to contribute to program acceptability for Aboriginal communities in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A questionnaire was distributed to Aboriginal and mainstream health and community services across NSW to identify the fall prevention and healthy ageing programs currently used by older Aboriginal people. Services with experience in providing fall prevention interventions for Aboriginal communities, and key Aboriginal health services that delivered programs specifically for older Aboriginal people, were followed up and staff members were nominated from within each service to be interviewed. Service providers offered their suggestions as to how a fall prevention program could be designed and delivered to meet the health and social needs of their older Aboriginal clients. Of the 131 services that completed the questionnaire, four services (3%) had past experience in providing a mainstream fall prevention program to Aboriginal people; however, there were no programs being offered at the time of data collection. From these four services, and from a further five key Aboriginal health services, 10 staff members experienced in working with older Aboriginal people were interviewed. Barriers preventing services from offering appropriate fall prevention programs to their older Aboriginal clients were identified, including limited funding, a lack of available Aboriginal staff, and communication difficulties between health services and sectors. According to the service providers, an effective and acceptable fall prevention intervention would be evidence based, flexible, community-oriented and social

  18. Closing the (service) gap: exploring partnerships between Aboriginal and mainstream health services.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kate P; Thompson, Sandra C

    2011-08-01

    Although effective partnerships between Aboriginal and mainstream health services are critical to improve Aboriginal health outcomes, many factors can cause these partnerships to be tenuous and unproductive. Understanding the elements of best practice for successful partnerships is essential. A literature review was conducted in 2009 using keyword searches of electronic databases. Sourced literature was assessed for relevance regarding the benefits, challenges, lessons learnt and factors contributing to successful Aboriginal and mainstream partnerships. Key themes were collated. Although there is much literature regarding general partnerships generally, few specifically examine Aboriginal and mainstream health service partnerships. Twenty-four sources were reviewed in detail. Benefits include broadening service capacity and improving the cultural security of healthcare. Challenges include the legacy of Australia's colonial history, different approaches to servicing clients and resource limitations. Recommendations for success include workshopping tensions early, building trust and leadership. Although successful partnerships are crucial to optimise Aboriginal health outcomes, failed collaborations risk inflaming sensitive Aboriginal-non-Aboriginal relationships. Factors supporting successful partnerships remind us to develop genuine, trusting relationships that are tangibly linked to the Aboriginal community. Failure to invest in this relational process and push forward with 'business as usual' can ultimately have negative ramifications on client outcomes.

  19. Improving healthcare for Aboriginal Australians through effective engagement between community and health services.

    PubMed

    Durey, Angela; McEvoy, Suzanne; Swift-Otero, Val; Taylor, Kate; Katzenellenbogen, Judith; Bessarab, Dawn

    2016-07-07

    Effectively addressing health disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians is long overdue. Health services engaging Aboriginal communities in designing and delivering healthcare is one way to tackle the issue. This paper presents findings from evaluating a unique strategy of community engagement between local Aboriginal people and health providers across five districts in Perth, Western Australia. Local Aboriginal community members formed District Aboriginal Health Action Groups (DAHAGs) to collaborate with health providers in designing culturally-responsive healthcare. The purpose of the strategy was to improve local health service delivery for Aboriginal Australians. The evaluation aimed to identify whether the Aboriginal community considered the community engagement strategy effective in identifying their health service needs, translating them to action by local health services and increasing their trust in these health services. Participants were recruited using purposive sampling. Qualitative data was collected from Aboriginal participants and health service providers using semi-structured interviews or yarning circles that were recorded, transcribed and independently analysed by two senior non-Aboriginal researchers. Responses were coded for key themes, further analysed for similarities and differences between districts and cross-checked by the senior lead Aboriginal researcher to avoid bias and establish reliability in interpreting the data. Three ethics committees approved conducting the evaluation. Findings from 60 participants suggested the engagement process was effective: it was driven and owned by the Aboriginal community, captured a broad range of views and increased Aboriginal community participation in decisions about their healthcare. It built community capacity through regular community forums and established DAHAGs comprising local Aboriginal community members and health service representatives who met quarterly and were

  20. An Exploration of Underrepresentation of Aboriginal Cancer Patients Attending a Regional Radiotherapy Service in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Baxi, Siddhartha; Cheetham, Shelley; Shahid, Shaouli

    2018-01-01

    Travel logistics impede Aboriginal patients’ uptake of cancer treatments and is one reason for the poorer outcomes of Aboriginal people with cancer. This research examined benefits of a newly established rurally based radiotherapy unit in southwest Western Australia (WA), and included exploring the experience of Aboriginal patients and possible reasons for Aboriginal people’s underrepresentation in treatment. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with 21 service providers involved in the treatment and care of people with cancer, and 3 Aboriginal patients with cancer who undertook radiotherapy at the Service were undertaken. Data were subject to thematic analysis involving immersion in the data for familiarization, inductive coding, investigator discussion and refining of emerging themes and triangulation of patient and provider interviews. Aboriginal cancer patients were positive about the treatment and support they had received, highlighting the often complex challenges faced by rural Aboriginal cancer patients in accessing and maintaining treatment. Service providers offered suggestions for small numbers presenting to the Service, including late presentation, potential perceptions of cultural insensitivity on the part of service providers, out-of-pocket costs and under-ascertainment of Aboriginal status. The Service has put in place practices and initiatives to support patient health and wellbeing, including making the facility more welcoming towards Aboriginal people and ensuring culturally appropriate care. PMID:29443892

  1. Visible Minority, Aboriginal, and Caucasian Children Investigated by Canadian Protective Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavergne, Chantal; Dufour, Sarah; Trocme, Nico; Larrivee, Marie-Claude

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this descriptive study was to compare the report profiles of Caucasian, Aboriginal, and other visible minority children whose cases were assessed by child protective services in Canada. The results show that children of Aboriginal ancestry and from visible minority groups are selected for investigation by child protective services 1.77…

  2. Workforce insights on how health promotion is practised in an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Kathryn; Devine, Sue; Judd, Jenni; Nichols, Nina; Watt, Kerrianne

    2017-07-01

    Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services deliver holistic and culturally appropriate primary health care to over 150 communities in Australia. Health promotion is a core function of comprehensive primary health care; however, little has been published on what enables or challenges health promotion practice in an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service. Apunipima Cape York Health Council (Apunipima) delivers primary health care to 11 remote north Queensland communities. The workforce includes medical, allied health, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers and health practitioners and corporate support staff. This study aimed to identify current health promotion practices at Apunipima, and the enablers and challenges identified by the workforce, which support or hinder health promotion practice. Sixty-three staff from across this workforce completed an online survey in February 2015 (42% response rate). Key findings were: (1) health promotion is delivered across a continuum of one-on-one approaches through to population advocacy and policy change efforts; (2) the attitude towards health promotion was very positive; and (3) health promotion capacity can be enhanced at both individual and organisational levels. Workforce insights have identified areas for continued support and areas that, now identified, can be targeted to strengthen the health promotion capacity of Apunipima.

  3. Transformative effects of Aboriginal health placements for medical, nursing, and allied health students: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Helena; Browne, Jennifer; Perruzza, Julia; Svarc, Ruby; Davis, Corinne; Adams, Karen; Palermo, Claire

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to investigate whether placements in Aboriginal health affect the self-perceived skill in working in Aboriginal health settings and career aspirations of health students, and in particular, aspects of the placement that had the greatest impact. The Embase, Cinahl, ProQuest, Scopus, Informit, Ovid MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and PubMed databases were searched in April/May 2016. Placements of at least 1 week duration in an Aboriginal health setting involving Australian students of medical, nursing, dentistry, or allied health disciplines, with outcomes relating to changes in students' knowledge, attitudes, and/or career aspirations, were included. The search retrieved 1351 papers. Fourteen studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. Narrative synthesis found that work placements in Aboriginal health increased understanding and awareness of Aboriginal culture, promoted deeper understanding of Aboriginal health determinant complexity, increased awareness of everyday racism toward Aboriginal Australians, and enhanced desire to work in Aboriginal health. There is a need for improved teaching and learning scholarship to understand whether placements improve students' skill working with Aboriginal people in health care or increase the likelihood of future employment in these settings. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Lip service: Public mental health services and the care of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Luke; Lakeman, Richard; Walker, Kim; Lees, David

    2018-06-01

    The failure of public mental services in Australia to provide care deemed culturally safe for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people has persisted despite several national reports and policies that have attempted to promote positive service change. Nurses represent the largest professional group practising within these services. This article reports on a multisited ethnography of mental health nursing practice as it relates to this group of mental health service users. It explores the beliefs and ideas that nurses identified about public mental health services and the services they provided to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. During the fieldwork, mental health nurses described the constricting effect of the biomedical paradigm of mental illness on their abilities to provide authentic holistic care focused on social and emotional well-being. Despite being the most numerous professional group in mental health services, the speciality of mental health nursing appears unable to change this situation and in many cases maintain this status quo to the potential detriment of their Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander service users. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  5. Not just bricks and mortar: planning hospital cancer services for Aboriginal people

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aboriginal people in Australia experience higher mortality from cancer compared with non-Aboriginal Australians, despite an overall lower incidence. A notable contributor to this disparity is that many Aboriginal people do not take up or continue with cancer treatment which almost always occurs within major hospitals. Thirty in-depth interviews with urban, rural and remote Aboriginal people affected by cancer were conducted between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews explored participants' beliefs about cancer and experiences of cancer care and were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Information from interviews relevant to hospital services including and building design was extracted. Findings Relationships and respect emerged as crucial considerations of participants although many aspects of the hospital environment were seen as influencing the delivery of care. Five themes describing concerns about the hospital environment emerged: (i) being alone and lost in a big, alien and inflexible system; (ii) failure of open communication, delays and inefficiency in the system; (iii) practicalities: costs, transportation, community and family responsibilities; (iv) the need for Aboriginal support persons; and (v) connection to the community. Conclusions Design considerations and were identified but more important than the building itself was the critical need to build trust in health services. Promotion of cultural safety, support for Aboriginal family structures and respecting the importance of place and community to Aboriginal patients are crucial in improving cancer outcomes. PMID:21401923

  6. Improving participation by Aboriginal children in blood lead screening services in Broken Hill, NSW.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Susan L; Boreland, Frances; Lyle, David M

    2013-03-01

    Lead poses a health risk to young children with detrimental effects on their intellectual development. Attendance rates for Aboriginal children at routine blood lead screening and at follow-up appointments in Broken Hill, NSW, have declined in recent years. This study sought to identify strategies to improve the participation of Aboriginal children aged 1-4 years in blood lead screening services in Broken Hill. Attendance rates during the period 2000-2010 were determined using the Broken Hill Lead Management database. From June to August 2011, Aboriginal community members, service providers and public health staff were invited to interviews and focus groups to explore barriers, enablers and suggestions for improving participation. In 2009, 27% of Aboriginal children aged 1-4 years attended blood lead screening and 29% of these children with blood lead levels over 15 µg/dL attended follow-up appointments. Barriers to participation in lead screening services included community perceptions, reduced service capacity, socio-economic and interorganisational factors. Enablers included using a culturally acceptable model, linking lead screening with routine health checks and using the finger-prick method of testing. The final report for the study included recommendations to improve participation rates of Aboriginal children including using social marketing, formalising collaboration between health services, supporting disadvantaged families and employing an Aboriginal Health Worker.

  7. Case Study of an Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Service in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Fran; Lawless, Angela; Labonté, Ronald; Sanders, David; Boffa, John; Edwards, Tahnia; Javanparast, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Universal health coverage provides a framework to achieve health services coverage but does not articulate the model of care desired. Comprehensive primary health care includes promotive, preventive, curative, and rehabilitative interventions and health equity and health as a human right as central goals. In Australia, Aboriginal community-controlled health services have pioneered comprehensive primary health care since their inception in the early 1970s. Our five-year project on comprehensive primary health care in Australia partnered with six services, including one Aboriginal community-controlled health service, the Central Australian Aboriginal Congress. Our findings revealed more impressive outcomes in several areas—multidisciplinary work, community participation, cultural respect and accessibility strategies, preventive and promotive work, and advocacy and intersectoral collaboration on social determinants of health—at the Aboriginal community-controlled health service compared to the other participating South Australian services (state-managed and nongovernmental ones). Because of these strengths, the Central Australian Aboriginal Congress’s community-controlled model of comprehensive primary health care deserves attention as a promising form of implementation of universal health coverage by articulating a model of care based on health as a human right that pursues the goal of health equity. PMID:28559679

  8. Emergency department presentations by Aboriginal children: issues for consideration for appropriate health services.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Catriona; Williams, Katrina; Nathanson, Dania; Thomas, Susan; Cottier, Carolyn; O'Meara, Matthew; Zwi, Karen

    2013-09-01

    This study describes the presentations made to the Sydney Children's Hospital (SCH) Emergency Department (ED) by local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Aboriginal) children with particular reference to children who present frequently or whose presentation was preventable. Data from the SCH ED Information System were extracted for all presentations made by children who identified as Aboriginal, aged between 0-15 years, who presented between 2005-2008. Presentations were coded according to the presenting problem, diagnosis, outcome, and whether the presentations were potentially preventable. Preventable presentations include those presentations considered to be avoidable and those that could have been managed by a local primary care or community service. There were 1252 presentations to the SCH ED by 453 Aboriginal children aged 0-15 years. More than 50% of children presented more than once. Seventy-nine children presented more than five times. Nearly 45% of presentations were coded as potentially preventable. A significant proportion of ED presentations were potentially preventable with the use of culturally appropriate and accessible local community and primary health care services and better referral pathways back to these services. Community engagement is required to raise awareness of common presentations and to look at strategies to prevent common problems both occurring and presenting to the ED. This will enhance the health of urban Aboriginal children. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  9. 'Gotta be sit down and worked out together': views of Aboriginal caregivers and service providers on ways to improve dementia care for Aboriginal Australians.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kate; Flicker, Leon; Shadforth, Geraldine; Carroll, Emily; Ralph, Naomi; Atkinson, David; Lindeman, Melissa; Schaper, Frank; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; LoGiudice, Dina

    2011-01-01

    Dementia is five-fold more prevalent among Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal Australians. Despite this, the quality of care available to people living with dementia in remote Aboriginal communities is poor. The objective of this study was to determine ways to overcome factors affecting the successful delivery of services to Aboriginal people with dementia living in remote communities, and to their families and communities. This qualitative research took place in the Kimberley Region of Western Australia. Data collection occurred in three stages: (1) interviews with service providers to identify the services available; (2) interviews with the caregivers of Aboriginal people living with dementia and community-based care workers; and (3) focus groups with community representatives and community care staff. Each stage was concluded when no new themes emerged. At each stage the transcribed information was analysed and joint interpretation identified common themes. In total, 42 service providers, 31 caregivers and community-based care workers were interviewed and 3 focus groups were conducted. Obstacles to accessing quality care were mentioned and recommendations on ways to improve care were made. The key themes that emerged were caregiver role, perspectives of dementia, community and culturally-appropriate care, workforce, education and training, issues affecting remote communities and service issues. Detailed information on how each theme affects the successful delivery of dementia care is provided. These research findings indicate that people living with dementia and their caregivers in remote Aboriginal communities are struggling to cope. They are requesting and require better community care. Implementing a culturally safe model of dementia care for remote Aboriginal communities that encompasses the recommendations made and builds on the strengths of the communities could potentially deliver the required improvements to dementia care for this population.

  10. A decade of experience evolving visiting dental services in partnership with rural remote Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Dyson, K; Kruger, E; Tennant, M

    2014-06-01

    Embedding research capabilities and workforce development activities with clinical service entities promotes the development of sustainable, innovative, quality-focused oral health care services. Clinical and strategic governance is an important area of consideration for rural and remote dental services, posing particular challenges for smaller service structures. Sustaining remote area dental services has some significant complexities beyond those involved in urban service models. This study describes the sustaining structure of a remote area dental service with a decade of history. In the current climate, chief among these challenges may be those associated with dental workforce shortages as these impact most heavily in the public sector, and most particularly, in remote areas. As sustained workforce solutions come from developing a future workforce, an essential element of the workforce governance framework for remote dental service provision should be the inclusion of a student participation programme. Collaborative partnership approaches with Aboriginal health services promote the development and maintenance of effective, culturally sensitive dental services within rural and remote Aboriginal communities. Having sustained care for 10 years, this collaborative model of integrated research, education and service has demonstrated its effectiveness as a service model for Aboriginal communities in Western Australia. This descriptive study finds the core values for this success have been communication, clinical leadership, mentorship within effective governance systems all linked to an integrated education and research agenda. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  11. ‘Doing the hard yards’: carer and provider focus group perspectives of accessing Aboriginal childhood disability services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite a high prevalence of disability, Aboriginal Australians access disability services in Australia less than non-Aboriginal Australians with a disability. The needs of Aboriginal children with disability are particularly poorly understood. They can endure long delays in treatment which can impact adversely on development. This study sought to ascertain the factors involved in accessing services and support for Aboriginal children with a disability. Methods Using the focus group method, two community forums, one for health and service providers and one for carers of Aboriginal children with a disability, were held at an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS) in the Sydney, metropolitan area of New South Wales, Australia. Framework analysis was applied to qualitative data to elucidate key issues relevant to the dimensions of access framework. Independent coding consistency checks were performed and consensus of analysis verified by the entire research team, several of whom represented the local Aboriginal community. Results Seventeen health and social service providers representing local area government and non-government-funded health and social service organisations and five carers participated in two separate forums between September and October 2011. Lack of awareness of services and inadequate availability were prominent concerns in both groups despite geographic proximity to a major metropolitan area with significant health infrastructure. Carers noted racism, insufficient or non-existent services, and the need for an enhanced role of ACCHSs and AHWs in disability support services. Providers highlighted logistical barriers and cultural and historical issues that impacted on the effectiveness of mainstream services for Aboriginal people. Conclusions Despite dedicated disability services in an urban community, geographic proximity does not mitigate lack of awareness and availability of support. This paper has enumerated a number of

  12. Emergency Medical Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people and ... emergencies, you need help where you are. Emergency medical technicians, or EMTs, do specific rescue jobs. They ...

  13. Practical problems for Aboriginal palliative care service provision in rural and remote areas: equipment, power and travel issues.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Pam; Holewa, Hamish; McGrath, Zoe

    2007-07-01

    With regards to end-of-life care, there is scant published research that looks specifically at the provision of palliative care services for Indigenous people. In addition, for Indigenous people in the rural and remote areas there is only limited literature that focuses on the problems associated with geography. To address the hiatus in the literature on Aboriginal, rural and remote palliative care, the following article provides findings from a two-year research project, funded by Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council (NH&MRC), which developed an innovative model for Indigenous palliative care. The data was collected through a qualitative methodology (descriptive phenomenology) which involved open-ended in-depth interviews, audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. The sub-set of findings from the study presented in this paper examine issues in relation to the many practical obstacles in relation to palliative care service provision to Indigenous people in the rural and remote areas. The findings are a testament to the ingenuity and dedication of those who provide end-of-life care for Aboriginal peoples in rural and remote locations. The information about the many obstacles associated with equipment, power, transport, distance and telephone access provide important insights to inform the development of health policy planning and funding. The topic is specifically relevant to nurses as further findings from the study indicate that clinic and community nurses are key health professionals providing care to Indigenous people in the rural and remote areas.

  14. Implementing a working together model for Aboriginal patients with acute coronary syndrome: an Aboriginal Hospital Liaison Officer and a specialist cardiac nurse working together to improve hospital care.

    PubMed

    Daws, Karen; Punch, Amanda; Winters, Michelle; Posenelli, Sonia; Willis, John; MacIsaac, Andrew; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Worrall-Carter, Linda

    2014-11-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) contributes to the disparity in life expectancy between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Improving hospital care for Aboriginal patients has been identified as a means of addressing this disparity. This project developed and implemented a working together model of care, comprising an Aboriginal Hospital Liaison Officer and a specialist cardiac nurse, providing care coordination specifically directed at improving attendance at cardiac rehabilitation services for Aboriginal Australians in a large metropolitan hospital in Melbourne. A quality improvement framework using a retrospective case notes audit evaluated Aboriginal patients' admissions to hospital and identified low attendance rates at cardiac rehabilitation services. A working together model of care coordination by an Aboriginal Hospital Liaison Officer and a specialist cardiac nurse was implemented to improve cardiac rehabilitation attendance in Aboriginal patients admitted with ACS to the cardiac wards of the hospital. A retrospective medical records audit showed that there were 68 Aboriginal patients admitted to the cardiac wards with ACS from 1 July 2008 to 30 June 2011. A referral to cardiac rehabilitation was recorded for 42% of these. During the implementation of the model of care, 13 of 15 patients (86%) received a referral to cardiac rehabilitation and eight of the 13 (62%) attended. Implementation of the working together model demonstrated improved referral to and attendance at cardiac rehabilitation services, thereby, has potential to prevent complications and mortality. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: Aboriginal Australians experience disparities in access to recommended care for acute coronary syndrome. This may contribute to the life expectancy gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD?: This paper describes a model of care involving an Aboriginal Hospital Liaisons Officer and a specialist cardiac nurse working

  15. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews and Cultural Safety Transforming Sexual Assault Service Provision for Children and Young People

    PubMed Central

    Funston, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services. PMID:23975109

  16. Sexual health among female Aboriginal university students in the Maritime Provinces of Canada: risk behaviours and health services use.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kevin; Steenbeek, Audrey; Asbridge, Mark; Cragg, Amber; Langille, Donald B

    2016-02-01

    Background Young Aboriginal Canadian people are at increased risk of negative sexual health outcomes, including sexually transmissible infections (STIs) and unplanned pregnancy. Associations between Aboriginal ethnicity and sexual risk behaviours and related health services use among sexually active female university students in eastern Canada were examined. A secondary analysis of online survey data collected from sexually active female university students under age 30 years from eight post-secondary institutions in the Maritime Provinces of Canada was carried out (N=5010). Students were asked about their ethnic backgrounds, health services use and sexual health behaviours. Logistic regressions were used to compare Aboriginal students to Caucasian students regarding their sexual health behaviours and services use. In adjusted analyses, Aboriginal students were seen to be more likely to not have used a condom (OR 2.37; 95% CI 1.34-4.18) or any form of effective contraception (OR 3.05; 95% CI 1.75-5.31) at last intercourse. They also were more likely to report any lifetime testing for pregnancy (OR 5.81; 95% CI 3.07-10.99) and STIs (OR 2.95; 95% CI 1.11-7.82). Aboriginal students accessed university health services as often as their Caucasian counterparts. Aboriginal women attending university in the Maritime Provinces of Canada engage in greater sexual risk taking than Caucasian women and report more related testing. Health services providers working with university students should be aware of these lower rates of barrier protection and use of contraception among Aboriginal women, and use healthcare visits as opportunities to engage these women in reducing their sexual risk taking.

  17. Medical Services Assistant Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, Phyllis A.

    Designed to develop 12th-grade multiple competencies courses, this curriculum prepares the student to assist a physician, dentist, or other health professional with the management of a medical office and to perform basic health services procedures. Course descriptions are provided for the two courses in the curriculum: medical services assistant…

  18. Community participation in health service reform: the development of an innovative remote Aboriginal primary health-care service.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Carole; Humphreys, John; Wakerman, John; Carroll, Vicki; Carter, Maureen; O'Brien, Tim; Erlank, Carol; Mansour, Rafik; Smith, Bec

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the reorientation of a remote primary health-care service, in the Kimberley region of Australia, its impact on access to services and the factors instrumental in bringing about change. A unique community-initiated health service partnership was developed between a community-controlled Aboriginal health organisation, a government hospital and a population health unit, in order to overcome the challenges of delivering primary health care to a dispersed, highly disadvantaged Aboriginal population in a very remote area. The shared goals and clear delineation of responsibilities achieved through the partnership reoriented an essentially acute hospital-based service to a prevention-focussed comprehensive primary health-care service, with a focus on systematic screening for chronic disease, interdisciplinary follow up, health promotion, community advocacy and primary prevention. This formal partnership enabled the primary health-care service to meet the major challenges of providing a sustainable, prevention-focussed service in a very remote and socially disadvantaged area.

  19. Diversity in eMental Health Practice: An Exploratory Qualitative Study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Service Providers

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Jennifer; Rotumah, Darlene; Singer, Judy

    2017-01-01

    Background In Australia, mental health services are undergoing major systemic reform with eMental Health (eMH) embedded in proposed service models for all but those with severe mental illness. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander service providers have been targeted as a national priority for training and implementation of eMH into service delivery. Implementation studies on technology uptake in health workforces identify complex and interconnected variables that influence how individual practitioners integrate new technologies into their practice. To date there are only two implementation studies that focus on eMH and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander service providers. They suggest that the implementation of eMH in the context of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations may be different from the implementation of eMH with allied health professionals and mainstream health services. Objective The objective of this study is to investigate how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander service providers in one regional area of Australia used eMH resources in their practice following an eMH training program and to determine what types of eMH resources they used. Methods Individual semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 16 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander service providers. Interviews were co-conducted by one indigenous and one non-indigenous interviewer. A sample of transcripts were coded and thematically analyzed by each interviewer and then peer reviewed. Consensus codes were then applied to all transcripts and themes identified. Results It was found that 9 of the 16 service providers were implementing eMH resources into their routine practice. The findings demonstrate that participants used eMH resources for supporting social inclusion, informing and educating, assessment, case planning and management, referral, responding to crises, and self and family care. They chose a variety of types of eMH resources to

  20. Results of an Innovative Education, Training and Quality Assurance Program for Point-of-Care HbA1c Testing using the Bayer DCA 2000 in Australian Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Mark D; Gill, Janice P

    2003-01-01

    This study describes the development, implementation and management of a multi-faceted quality assurance program called Quality Assurance for Aboriginal Medical Services (QAAMS) to support point-of-care HbA1c testing on the Bayer DCA 2000 in Aboriginal people with diabetes from 45 Australian Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services. The quality assurance program comprised four elements: production of culturally appropriate education resources, formal training for Aboriginal Health Workers conducting HbA1c testing, an external quality assurance program and on-going quality management support services including a help hotline and an annual workshop. Aboriginal Health Workers were required to test two quality assurance (QAAMS) samples in a blind sense every month since July 1999. Samples were linearly related and comprised six paired levels of HbA1c. The short and long term performance of each service’s DCA 2000 was reviewed monthly and at the end of each six month testing cycle. The average participation rate over 7 six-monthly QAAMS testing cycles was 88%. 84% of 3100 quality assurance tests performed were within preset limits of acceptability. The median precision (CV%) for HbA1c testing has averaged 3.8% across the past 5 cycles (range 3.4 to 4.0%) and is continuing to improve. The introduction of a medical rebate for HbA1c testing has ensured the program’s sustainability. Through continuing education and training, Aboriginal Health Workers have achieved consistent analytical performance for HbA1c testing on the DCA 2000, equivalent to that of laboratory scientists using the same instrument. This unique quality assurance model can be readily adapted to other Indigenous health settings and other point-of-care tests and instruments. PMID:18568052

  1. Lifelong Learning Theory and Pre-Service Teachers' Development of Knowledge and Dispositions to Work with Australian Aboriginal Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennet, Maria; Moriarty, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on previous research by the authors and others as well as lifelong learning theory to argue the case for providing pre-service teachers with deep and meaningful experiences over time that help them to build their personal capacity for developing knowledge and dispositions to work with Australian Aboriginal students, their…

  2. Acceptability of participatory social network analysis for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service partnerships

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While participatory social network analysis can help health service partnerships to solve problems, little is known about its acceptability in cross-cultural settings. We conducted two case studies of chronic illness service partnerships in 2007 and 2008 to determine whether participatory research incorporating social network analysis is acceptable for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service delivery. Methods Local research groups comprising 13–19 partnership staff, policy officers and community members were established at each of two sites to guide the research and to reflect and act on the findings. Network and work practice surveys were conducted with 42 staff, and the results were fed back to the research groups. At the end of the project, 19 informants at the two sites were interviewed, and the researchers conducted critical reflection. The effectiveness and acceptability of the participatory social network method were determined quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Participants in both local research groups considered that the network survey had accurately described the links between workers related to the exchange of clinical and cultural information, team care relationships, involvement in service management and planning and involvement in policy development. This revealed the function of the teams and the roles of workers in each partnership. Aboriginal workers had a high number of direct links in the exchange of cultural information, illustrating their role as the cultural resource, whereas they had fewer direct links with other network members on clinical information exchange and team care. The problem of their current and future roles was discussed inside and outside the local research groups. According to the interview informants the participatory network analysis had opened the way for problem-solving by “putting issues on the table”. While there were confronting and ethically challenging aspects, these informants

  3. Investigating the feasibility, acceptability and appropriateness of outreach case management in an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care service: a mixed methods exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Askew, Deborah A; Togni, Samantha J; Schluter, Philip J; Rogers, Lynne; Egert, Sonya; Potter, Nichola; Hayman, Noel E; Cass, Alan; Brown, Alex D H

    2016-05-13

    The disparities in health and life expectancy of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples compared to non-Indigenous Australians are well documented. Chronic diseases are a leading contributor to these disparities. We aimed to determine the feasibility, acceptability and appropriateness of a case management approach to chronic disease care integrated within an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care service. The Home-based, Outreach case Management of chronic disease Exploratory (HOME) Study provided holistic, patient centred multidisciplinary care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic disease. A developmental evaluation approach supported the implementation and ongoing adaptations in the delivery of the model of care, and ensured its alignment with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' understandings of, and approaches to, health and wellbeing. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine patient participants (one interview also included a participant's spouse) and 15 health service staff and key themes were identified through an iterative reflective process. Quantitative data were collected directly from patient participants and from their medical records at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Patient participants' baseline characteristics were described using frequencies and percentages. Attrition and patterns of missing values over time were evaluated using binomial generalized estimating equation (GEE) models and mean differences in key clinical outcomes were determined using normal GEE models. Forty-one patients were recruited and nine withdrew over the 6 month period. There was no evidence of differential attrition. All participants (patients and health service staff) were very positive about the model of care. Patient participants became more involved in their health care, depression rates significantly decreased (p = 0.03), and significant improvements in systolic blood pressure (p

  4. Emergency Medical Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Lewis Research Center helped design the complex EMS Communication System, originating from space operated telemetry, including the telemetry link between ambulances and hospitals for advanced life support services. In emergency medical use telemetry links ambulances and hospitals for advanced life support services and allows transmission of physiological data -- an electrocardiogram from an ambulance to a hospital emergency room where a physician reads the telemetered message and prescribes emergency procedures to ambulance attendants.

  5. Understanding, beliefs and perspectives of Aboriginal people in Western Australia about cancer and its impact on access to cancer services.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Shaouli; Finn, Lizzie; Bessarab, Dawn; Thompson, Sandra C

    2009-07-31

    Despite a lower overall incidence, Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared with the non-Aboriginal population as manifested by higher mortality and lower 5-year survival rates. Lower participation in screening, later diagnosis of cancer, poor continuity of care, and poorer compliance with treatment are known factors contributing to this poor outcome. Nevertheless, many deficits remain in understanding the underlying reasons, with the recommendation of further exploration of Aboriginal beliefs and perceptions of cancer to help understand their care-seeking behavior. This could assist with planning and delivery of more effective interventions and better services for the Aboriginal population. This research explored Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal peoples' perceptions, beliefs and understanding of cancer. A total of 37 Aboriginal people from various geographical areas within WA with a direct or indirect experience of cancer were interviewed between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. A social constructionist framework provided a theoretical basis for analysis. Interpretation occurred within the research team with member checking and the involvement of an Aboriginal Reference Group assisting with ensuring validity and reliability. Outcomes indicated that misunderstanding, fear of death, fatalism, shame, preference for traditional healing, beliefs such as cancer is contagious and other spiritual issues affected their decisions around accessing services. These findings provide important information for health providers who are involved in cancer-related service delivery. These underlying beliefs must be specifically addressed to develop appropriate educational, screening and treatment approaches including models of care and support that facilitate better engagement of Indigenous

  6. Health information system linkage and coordination are critical for increasing access to secondary prevention in Aboriginal health: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Digiacomo, Michelle; Davidson, Patricia M; Taylor, Kate P; Smith, Julie S; Dimer, Lyn; Ali, Mohammed; Wood, Marianne M; Leahy, Timothy G; Thompson, Sandra C

    2010-01-01

    Aboriginal Australians have low rates of participation in cardiac rehabilitation (CR), despite having high rates of cardiovascular disease. Barriers to CR participation reflect multiple patient-related issues. However, an examination of the broader context of health service delivery design and implementation is needed. To identify health professionals' perspectives of systems related barriers to implementation of the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines Strengthening Cardiac Rehabilitation and Secondary Prevention for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with health professionals involved in CR within mainstream and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services in Western Australia (WA). Thirty-eight health professionals from 17 services (ten rural, seven metropolitan) listed in the WA Directory of CR services and seven Aboriginal Medical Services in WA were interviewed. Respondents reported barriers encountered in health information management and the impact of access to CR services for Aboriginal people. Crucial issues identified by participants were: poor communication across the health care sector and between providers, inconsistent and insufficient data collection processes (particularly relating to Aboriginal ethnicity identification), and challenges resulting from multiple clinical information systems and incompatible technologies. This study has demonstrated that inadequate information systems and communication strategies, particularly those representing the interface between primary and secondary care, contribute to the low participation rates of Aboriginal Australians in CR. Although these challenges are shared by non-Aboriginal Australians, the needs are greater for Aboriginal Australians and innovative solutions are required.

  7. Increasing Pap smear rates at an urban Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service through translational research and continuous quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Dorrington, Melanie S; Herceg, Ana; Douglas, Kirsty; Tongs, Julie; Bookallil, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This article describes translational research (TR) and continuous quality improvement (CQI) processes used to identify and address barriers and facilitators to Pap smear screening within an urban Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS). Rapid Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles were conducted, informed by client surveys, a data collection tool, focus groups and internal research. There was a statistically significant increase in Pap smear numbers during PDSA cycles, continuing at 10 months follow up. The use of TR with CQI appears to be an effective and acceptable way to affect Pap smear screening. Community and service collaboration should be at the core of research in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health settings. This model is transferrable to other settings and other health issues.

  8. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality.

    PubMed

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-02-01

    A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality.

  9. Emergency medical services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Chandler, Michael

    1994-01-01

    When NASA was established in 1958, it was known that space flight would require efforts beyond those of NASA to ensure the health and safety of our astronauts. On 10 Aug. 1958, a Secretary of Defense memorandum was signed that assigned the first Department of Defense (DOD) Manager to provide support to NASA for Project Mercury. This established a chain of command through the Joint Chiefs of Staff to the Secretary of Defense. The current charter is dated 19 Mar. 1986 and assigns the DOD Manager responsibilities to the Commander and Chief, US Space Command. The DOD Managers charter has many support areas and among them are recovery of astronauts and medical support. Today these efforts support the Space Shuttle and Space Station Programs. Briefly, the program works with each organization tasking the other through a requirements document. Level of care, communications, and recovery requirements are established; NASA and the DOD provide the capability to meet them. NASA is also responsible for the specialized training and equipment needed to meet these requirements. A Shuttle launch a KSC requires an Emergency Medical Services (EMS) coordinator on console to facilitate communications, ensure proper coverage, and coordinate with area hospitals. A contingent of NASA medical personnel are assembled to provide triage and medical support capabilities. The DOD provides medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) helicopters with surgeons and pararescue specialists (PJ's) or emergency medical technicians (EMT's). Each helicopter is equipped with at least one doctor and one PJ/EMT per astronaut crew member. Transoceanic abort landing (TAL) sites and end of mission (EOM) sites have similar structures, with TAL sites utilizing fixed wingg aircraft for MEDEVAC. The DOD also supports contingency planning for the support and return of crew members from the Space Station Freedom. Much of this support has been directed at the recovery of crew members following the landing of an Assured Crew Return

  10. Emergency Medical Services Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard emergency medical services curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level workers in the emergency medical services field, and includes job skills in six emergency medical services divisions outlined in the national curriculum:…

  11. Medical service provider networks.

    PubMed

    Mougeot, Michel; Naegelen, Florence

    2018-05-17

    In many countries, health insurers or health plans choose to contract either with any willing providers or with preferred providers. We compare these mechanisms when two medical services are imperfect substitutes in demand and are supplied by two different firms. In both cases, the reimbursement is higher when patients select the in-network provider(s). We show that these mechanisms yield lower prices, lower providers' and insurer's profits, and lower expense than in the uniform-reimbursement case. Whatever the degree of product differentiation, a not-for-profit insurer should prefer selective contracting and select a reimbursement such that the out-of-pocket expense is null. Although all providers join the network under any-willing-provider contracting in the absence of third-party payment, an asymmetric equilibrium may exist when this billing arrangement is implemented. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. A comparison of socioeconomic status and mental health among inner-city Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women.

    PubMed

    Hamdullahpur, Kevin; Jacobs, Kahá Wi J; Gill, Kathryn J

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal women in urban areas have been reported to experience high rates of poverty, homelessness, interpersonal violence, and health problems. However, there are few prior ethnocultural comparisons of urban women from similar socioeconomic backgrounds. The current study explored the mental and physical health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women accessing social services agencies and shelters. Half of the sample (n=172) was Aboriginal (48.3%). The lifetime rate of physical abuse was significantly higher in Aboriginal women, and they were more likely to have been victims of violence or crime in the past year (A=50.6%, NA=35.6%, p<0.05). Rates of teenage pregnancy (<18 years of age) were significantly higher among Aboriginals (A=51.3%, NA=30.6%, p<0.05) and they reported more parental drug/alcohol problems (A=79.2%, NA=56.5%, p<0.05). Aboriginal women were also more likely to have previously received treatment for a drug or alcohol problem. There were no differences in self-reported physical health, medication use, hospitalisations, and current substance misuse. Irrespective of ethnicity, lifetime rates of anxiety, depression and suicide attempts were extremely high. Future research should explore the effects of individual resources (e.g. social support, family relations) and cultural beliefs on women's ability to cope with the stress of living with adverse events, particularly among low SES women with children.

  13. Growing up our way: the first year of life in remote Aboriginal Australia.

    PubMed

    Kruske, Sue; Belton, Suzanne; Wardaguga, Molly; Narjic, Concepta

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we attempted to explore the experiences and beliefs of Aboriginal families as they cared for their children in the first year of life. We collected family stories concerning child rearing, development, behavior, health, and well-being between each infant's birth and first birthday. We found significant differences in parenting behaviors and child-rearing practices between Aboriginal groups and mainstream Australians. Aboriginal parents perceived their children to be autonomous individuals with responsibilities toward a large family group. The children were active agents in determining their own needs, highly prized, and included in all aspects of community life. Concurrent with poverty, neocolonialism, and medical hegemony, child-led parenting styles hamper the effectiveness of health services. Hence, until the planners of Australia's health systems better understand Aboriginal knowledge systems and incorporate them into their planning, we can continue to expect the failure of government and health services among Aboriginal communities.

  14. The role of primary health care services to better meet the needs of Aboriginal Australians transitioning from prison to the community.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Jane E; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Abbott, Penny; Baldry, Eileen; McEntyre, Elizabeth; Reath, Jennifer; Indig, Devon; Sherwood, Juanita; Harris, Mark F

    2015-07-22

    Aboriginal Australians are more likely than other Australians to cycle in and out of prison on remand or by serving multiple short sentences-a form of serial incarceration and institutionalisation. This cycle contributes to the over-representation of Aboriginal Australians in prison and higher rates of recidivism. Our research examined how primary health care can better meet the health care and social support needs of Aboriginal Australians transitioning from prison to the community. Purposive sampling was used to identify 30 interviewees. Twelve interviews were with Aboriginal people who had been in prison; ten were with family members and eight with community service providers who worked with former inmates. Thematic analysis was conducted on the interviewees' description of their experience of services provided to prisoners both during incarceration and on transition to the community. Interviewees believed that effective access to primary health care on release and during transition was positively influenced by providing appropriate healthcare to inmates in custody and by properly planning for their release. Further, interviewees felt that poor communication between health care providers in custody and in the community prior to an inmate's release, contributed to a lack of comprehensive management of chronic conditions. System level barriers to timely communication between in-custody and community providers included inmates being placed on remand which contributed to uncertainty regarding release dates and therefore difficulties planning for release, cycling in and out of prison on short sentences and being released to freedom without access to support services. For Aboriginal former inmates and family members, release from prison was a period of significant emotional stress and commonly involved managing complex needs. To support their transition into the community, Aboriginal former inmates would benefit from immediate access to culturally- responsive

  15. Emergency medical services outcomes evaluation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-07-01

    The provision of prehospital (Emergency Medical Services (EMS)) care has come under increased scrutiny in recent years. Many have questioned the value of the range of EMS services currently provided. There is a persistent concern about the lack of pr...

  16. Using cultural immersion as the platform for teaching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health in an undergraduate medical curriculum.

    PubMed

    Smith, Janie D; Wolfe, Christina; Springer, Shannon; Martin, Mary; Togno, John; Bramstedt, Katrina A; Sargeant, Sally; Murphy, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    In 2011 Bond University was looking for innovative ways to meet the professional standards and guidelines in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health in its Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) curriculum. In 2012 Bond piloted a compulsory cultural immersion program for all first year students, which is now a usual part of the MBBS program. Three phases were included - establishing an Indigenous health group, determining the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander educational content based on the professional standards and developing nine educational sessions and resources - as well as significant administrative processes. The cultural immersion was piloted in 2012 with 92 first year medical students. Following refinements it was repeated in 2013 with 95 students and in 2014 with 94 students. A comprehensive evaluation process was undertaken that included a paper-based evaluation form using a five-point Likert scale, as well as a confidential talking circle evaluation. The response rate was 95.4% (n=271, pooled cohort). Data were entered separately into SPSS and annual reports were written to the Faculty. Descriptive statistics are reported alongside themed qualitative data. The three combined student evaluation results were extremely positive. Students (n=271) strongly agreed that the workshop was well organised (M=4.3), that the facilitators contributed very positively to their experience (M=4.3), and that they were very satisfied overall with the activity (M=4.2). They agreed that the eight overall objectives had been well met (M=3.9-4.3). The nine sessions were highly evaluated with mean ratings of between 3.9 and 4.8. The 'best thing' about the immersion identified by more than half of the students was overwhelmingly (n=140) the Storytelling session, followed by bonding with the cohort, the Torres Strait Islander session and learning more about culture. The item identified as needing most improvement was the food (n=87), followed by the

  17. Implementing evidence-based continuous quality improvement strategies in an urban Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service in South East Queensland: a best practice implementation pilot.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Sandra; Roe, Yvette; Mills, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Institute for Urban Indigenous Health believes that continuous quality improvement (CQI) contributes to the delivery of high-quality care, thereby improving health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The opening of a new health service in 2015 provided an opportunity to implement best practice CQI strategies and apply them to a regional influenza vaccination campaign. The aim of this project was to implement an evidence-based CQI process within one Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service in South East Queensland and use staff engagement as a measure of success. A CQI tool was selected from the Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System (PACES) to be implemented in the study site. The study site was a newly established Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Community Controlled Health Service located in the northern suburbs of Brisbane. This project used the evidence-based information collected in PACES to develop a set of questions related to known variables resulting in proven CQI uptake. A pre implementation clinical audit, education and self-directed learning, using the Plan Do Study Act framework, included a total of seven staff and was conducted in April 2015. A post implementation audit was conducted in July 2015. There were a total of 11 pre- and post-survey respondents which included representation from most of the clinical team and medical administration. The results of the pre implementation audit identified a number of possible areas to improve engagement with the CQI process including staff training and support, understanding CQI and its impacts on individual work areas, understanding clinical data extraction, clinical indicator benchmarking, strong internal leadership and having an external data extractor. There were improvements to all audit criteria in the post-survey, for example, knowledge regarding the importance of CQI activity, attendance at education and training sessions on CQI

  18. Medical service plans in academic medical centers.

    PubMed

    Siegel, B

    1978-10-01

    Medical service plans are of major importance to academic medical centers and are becoming increasingly so each year as evidenced by growing dependence of medical schools on resulting funds. How these funds are generated and used varies among schools. The procedures may affect the governance of the institution, modifying the authority of the central administration or the clinical departments. Recent developments in federal legislation, such as health maintenance organizations and amendments (Section 227) to the Social Security Act, and the future development of national health insurance will certainly have an effect on how academic medical centers organize their clinical activities. How successfully various medical schools deal with the dynamic problem may well determine their future survival.

  19. Medical Student Mental Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Medical school is a stressful and challenging time in the academic career of physicians. Because of the psychological pressure inherent to this process, all medical schools should have easily accessible medical student mental health services. Some schools of medicine provide these services through departments of psychiatry or other associated training programs. Since this stressful lifestyle often continues through residency training and life as a physician, this is a critical period in which to develop and utilize functional and effective coping strategies. When psychiatrists provide the mental health treatment to medical students, it is important to consider transference and countertransference issues, over intellectualization, and instances of strong idealization and identification. PMID:19724734

  20. Kick the habit: a social marketing campaign by Aboriginal communities in NSW.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M A; Finlay, S; Lucas, K; Neal, N; Williams, R

    2014-01-01

    Tackling smoking is an integral component of efforts to improve health outcomes in Aboriginal communities. Social marketing is an effective strategy for promoting healthy attitudes and influencing behaviours; however, there is little evidence for its success in reducing smoking rates in Aboriginal communities. This paper outlines the development, implementation and evaluation of Kick the Habit Phase 2, an innovative tobacco control social marketing campaign in Aboriginal communities in New South Wales (NSW). The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council worked with three Aboriginal communities and a creative agency to develop locally tailored, culturally relevant social marketing campaigns. Each community determined the target audience and main messages, and identified appropriate local champions and marketing tools. Mixed methods were used to evaluate the campaign, including surveys and interviews with community members and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service staff. Community survey participants demonstrated high recall of smoking cessation messages, particularly for messages and images specific to the Kick the Habit campaign. Staff participating in interviews reported an increased level of interest from community members in smoking cessation programs, as well as increased confidence and skills in developing further social marketing campaigns. Aboriginal community-driven social marketing campaigns in tobacco control can build capacity, are culturally relevant and lead to high rates of recall in Aboriginal communities.

  1. Oral health comparisons between children attending an Aboriginal health service and a Government school dental service in a regional location.

    PubMed

    Parker, Eleanor J; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2007-01-01

    levels of dental caries experience, untreated disease and social disadvantage of children attending Pika Wiya provides further evidence for the need to address the health inequalities for Aboriginal children living in South Australia's mid-north region. While the Pika Wiya Oral Health Program is attempting to address some of these needs, a much broader focus to address the social and health inequalities will be required to improve the oral health characteristics of this population. It is hoped that through the Pika Wiya Dental Service's dedication to increasing Aboriginal child dental service participation rates, the proportion of untreated decay will diminish.

  2. "Ethical Positioning" a Strategy in Overcoming Student Resistance and Fostering Engagement in Teaching Aboriginal History as a Compulsory Subject to Pre-Service Primary Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dowd, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes and analyses the issues that impacted on pre service Primary Education students' engagement with the subject "Aboriginal culture and history" at a rural university. The paper identifies how issues including pioneer identity and local "conversations" about race related strongly to this particular rural…

  3. The Centrality of Aboriginal Cultural Workshops and Experiential Learning in a Pre-Service Teacher Education Course: A Regional Victorian University Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weuffen, Sara L.; Cahir, Fred; Pickford, Aunty Marjorie

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses a cross-cultural pedagogical approach, couched in a theory-practice nexus, used at a Victorian regional university to guide non-Indigenous pre-service teachers' (PSTs) engagement with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives and cultures. We have drawn on qualitative and statistical data, and current issues in…

  4. Low uptake of Aboriginal interpreters in healthcare: exploration of current use in Australia's Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Anna P; Lowell, Anne; Murphy, Jean; Dias, Tara; Butler, Deborah; Spain, Brian; Hughes, Jaquelyne T; Campbell, Lauren; Bauert, Barbara; Salter, Claire; Tune, Kylie; Cass, Alan

    2017-11-15

    In Australia's Northern Territory, most Aboriginal people primarily speak an Aboriginal language. Poor communication between healthcare providers and Aboriginal people results in adverse outcomes including death. This study aimed to identify remediable barriers to utilisation of Aboriginal Interpreter services at the Northern Territory's tertiary hospital, which currently manages over 25,000 Aboriginal inpatients annually. This is a multi-method study using key stakeholder discussions, medical file audit, bookings data from the Aboriginal Interpreter Service 2000-2015 and an online cross-sectional staff survey. The Donabedian framework was used to categorise findings into structure, process and outcome. Six key stakeholder meetings each with approximately 15 participants were conducted. A key structural barrier identified was lack of onsite interpreters. Interpreter bookings data revealed that only 7603 requests were made during the 15-year period, with completion of requests decreasing from 337/362 (93.1%) in 2003-4 to 649/831 (78.1%) in 2014-15 (p < 0.001). Non-completion was more common for minority languages (p < 0.001). Medical files of 103 Aboriginal inpatients were audited. Language was documented for 13/103 (12.6%). Up to 60/103 (58.3%) spoke an Aboriginal language primarily. Of 422 staff who participated in the survey, 18.0% had not received 'cultural competency' training; of those who did, 58/222 (26.2%) indicated it was insufficient. The Aboriginal Interpreter Service effectiveness was reported to be good by 209/368 (56.8%), but only 101/367 (27.5%) found it timely. Key process barriers identified by staff included booking complexities, time constraints, inadequate delivery of tools and training, and greater convenience of unofficial interpreters. We identified multiple structural and process barriers resulting in the outcomes of poor language documentation and low rates of interpreter bookings. Findings are now informing interventions to improve

  5. The role of Aboriginal family workers in delivering a child safety focused home visiting program for Aboriginal families in an urban region of NSW.

    PubMed

    Clapham, Kathleen; Bennett-Brook, Keziah; Hunter, Kate

    2018-05-09

    Aboriginal Australian children experience higher rates of injury than other Australian children. However few culturally acceptable programs have been developed or evaluated. The Illawarra Aboriginal Medical Service (IAMS) developed the Safe Homes Safe Kids program as an injury prevention program targeting disadvantaged Aboriginal families with children aged 0-5 in an urban region of NSW. Delivered by Aboriginal Family Workers the program aims to reduce childhood injury by raising awareness of safety in the home. A program evaluation was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the home visiting model as an injury prevention program. This paper reports on the qualitative interviews which explored the ways in which clients, IAMS staff, and external service providers experienced the program and assessed its delivery by the Aboriginal Family Workers. A qualitative program evaluation was conducted between January 2014 and June 2015. We report here on the semi-structured interviews undertaken with 34 individuals. The results show increased client engagement in the program; improved child safety knowledge and skills; increased access to services; improved attitudes to home and community safety; and changes in the home safety environment. Safe Homes Safe Kids provides a culturally appropriate child safety program delivered by Aboriginal Family Workers to vulnerable families. Clients, IAMS staff, and external service were satisfied with the family workers' delivery of the program and the holistic model of service provision. SO WHAT?: This promising program could be replicated in other Aboriginal health services to address unintentional injury to vulnerable Aboriginal children. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Medical Services: Preventive Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-15

    and comfort.Barracks are ventilated to dilute unpleasant odors , tobacco smoke, airborne microorganisms and dusts, and to reduce tempera- ture and...injury in cold climates by wearing proper cold-weather clothing and frequently changing socks to keep feet dry, by careful handling of gasoline-type...that refugee enclaves and prisoner compounds do not become foci of epidemic disease. (4) Environmental engineering service, LC teams. The LC teams will

  7. Exploring undergraduate midwifery students' readiness to deliver culturally secure care for pregnant and birthing Aboriginal women.

    PubMed

    Thackrah, Rosalie D; Thompson, Sandra C; Durey, Angela

    2015-04-16

    Culturally secure health care settings enhance accessibility by Aboriginal Australians and improve their satisfaction with service delivery. A culturally secure health service recognises and responds to the legitimate cultural rights of the recipients of care. Focus is upon the health care system as well as the practice and behaviours of the individuals within it. In an attempt to produce culturally secure practitioners, the inclusion of Aboriginal content in health professional programs at Australian universities is now widespread. Studies of medical students have identified the positive impact of this content on knowledge and attitudes towards Aboriginal people but relatively little is known about the responses of students in other health professional education programs. This study explored undergraduate midwifery students' knowledge and attitudes towards Aboriginal people, and the impact of Aboriginal content in their program. The study surveyed 44 students who were in their first, second and third years of a direct entry, undergraduate midwifery program at a Western Australian (WA) university. The first year students were surveyed before and after completion of a compulsory Aboriginal health unit. Second and third year students who had already completed the unit were surveyed at the end of their academic year. Pre- and post-unit responses revealed a positive shift in first year students' knowledge and attitudes towards Aboriginal people and evidence that teaching in the unit was largely responsible for this shift. A comparison of post-unit responses with those from students in subsequent years of their program revealed a significant decline in knowledge about Aboriginal issues, attitudes towards Aboriginal people and the influence of the unit on their views. Despite this, all students indicated a strong interest in more clinical exposure to Aboriginal settings. The inclusion of a unit on Aboriginal health in an undergraduate midwifery program has been shown to

  8. A Guide for Health Professionals Working with Aboriginal Peoples: Executive Summary

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    . This may require interpreters or Aboriginal health advocates. Health professionals are encouraged to recognize the importance of family and community roles, and to respect traditional medicines and healers. Health professionals can develop their sensitivities towards Aboriginal peoples by participating in workshops, making use of educational resources, and by spending time with Aboriginal peoples in their communities. Aboriginal communities and health professionals are encouraged to support community-based, community-directed health services and health research for Aboriginal peoples. In addition, the education of more Aboriginal health professionals is essential. The need for a preventative approach to health programming in Aboriginal communities is stressed. Validation recommendations were reviewed and revised by the SOGC Aboriginal Health Issues Committee, a panel of expert reviewers, and the SOGC Council. In addition, this document was also reviewed and supported by the Assembly of First Nations, Canadian Institute of Child Health, Canadian Paediatric Society, College of Family Physicians of Canada, Congress of Aboriginal Peoples, Federation of Medical Women of Canada, Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, Metis National Council, National Indian and Inuit Community Health Representatives Organization, and Pauktuutit Inuit Women’s Association. Sponsor Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. PMID:23682204

  9. "I just feel comfortable out here, there's something about the place": staff and client perceptions of a remote Australian Aboriginal drug and alcohol rehabilitation service.

    PubMed

    Munro, Alice; Allan, Julaine; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Breen, Courtney

    2017-12-06

    The need for effective, culturally safe residential rehabilitation services for Aboriginal people is widely acknowledged, however the combination of treatment components that is optimally effective, is not well defined. Most existing Aboriginal residential rehabilitation research has focused on describing client characteristics, and largely ignored the impact of treatment and service factors, such as the nature and quality of therapeutic components and relationships with staff. This qualitative study was undertaken as part of a three-year mixed methods community-based participatory research (CBPR) project that aimed to empirically describe a remote Aboriginal drug and alcohol rehabilitation service. Researchers utilised purposive sampling to conduct 21 in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interviews used a 'research yarning' approach, a form of culturally appropriate conversation that is relaxed and narrative-based. The interview transcripts were thematically coded using iterative categorization. The emerging themes were then analysed from an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, focusing on how participants' lived experiences before and during their admission to the service shaped their perceptions of the program. A total of 12 clients (mean age 35 years, SD 9.07, 91% Aboriginal) and 9 staff (2 female, 7 male, mean age 48 years, SD 8.54, 67% Aboriginal) were interviewed. Five themes about specific program components were identified in the interview data: healing through culture and country; emotional safety and relationships; strengthening life skills; improved wellbeing; and perceived areas for improvement. This research found that Aboriginal drug and alcohol residential rehabilitation is not just about length of time in treatment, but also about the culture, activities and relationships that are part of the treatment process. This study highlights that cultural elements were highly valued by both clients and staff of a remote Aboriginal residential

  10. Aboriginal Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Sherry

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project for high school students in which they create Aboriginal-style paintings using cotton swabs. Discusses the process of creating the works of art in detail. Includes learning objectives, art materials, and a bibliography. (CMK)

  11. Measuring organisational-level Aboriginal cultural climate to tailor cultural safety strategies.

    PubMed

    Gladman, Justin; Ryder, Courtney; Walters, Lucie K

    2015-01-01

    Australian medical schools have taken on a social accountability mandate to provide culturally safe contexts in order to encourage Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to engage in medical education and to ensure that present and future clinicians provide health services that contribute to improving the health outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Many programs have sought to improve cultural safety through training at an individual level; however, it is well recognised that learners tend to internalise the patterns of behaviour to which they are commonly exposed. This project aimed to measure and reflect on the cultural climate of an Australian rural clinical school (RCS) as a whole and the collective attitudes of three different professional groups: clinicians, clinical academics and professional staff. The project then drew on Mezirow's Transformative Learning theory to design strategies to build on the cultural safety of the organisation. Clinicians, academic and professional staff at an Australian RCS were invited to participate in an online survey expressing their views on Aboriginal health using part of a previously validated tool. Survey response rate was 63%. All three groups saw Aboriginal health as a social priority. All groups recognised the fundamental role of community control in Aboriginal health; however, clinical academics were considerably more likely to disagree that the Western medical model suited the health needs of Aboriginal people. Clinicians were more likely to perceive that they treated Aboriginal patients the same as other patients. There was only weak evidence of future commitments to Aboriginal health. Importantly, clinicians, academics and professional staff demonstrated differences in their cultural safety profile which indicated the need for a tailored approach to cultural safety learning in the future. Through tailored approaches to cross-cultural training opportunities we are likely to ensure

  12. Skills, systems and supports: An Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (Apunipima) approach to building health promotion evaluation capacity of staff.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Nina; McFarlane, Kathryn; Gibson, Priscilla; Millard, Fiona; Packer, Andrew; McDonald, Malcolm

    2018-04-01

    Building the health promotion evaluation capacity of a workforce requires more than a focus on individual skills and confidence. We must also consider the organisational systems and supports that enable staff to embed learnings into practice. This paper describes the processes used to build health promotion evaluation capacity of staff in an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS). To build health promotion evaluation capacity three approaches were used: (i) workshops and mentoring; (ii) strengthening systems to support program reporting; and (iii) recruitment of staff with skills and experience. Pre- and post-questionnaires determined levels of individual skills and confidence, updated systems were assessed for adequacy to support new health promotion practices and surveys captured the usefulness of workshops and mentoring. There was increased participant skills and confidence. Participants completed program impact evaluation reports and results were successfully presented at national conferences. The health promotion team was then able to update in-house systems to support new health promotion practices. Ongoing collaboration with experienced in-house researchers provided basic research training and professional mentoring. Building health promotion evaluation capacity of staff in an ACCHS can be achieved by providing individual skill development, strengthening organisational systems and utilising professional support. SO WHAT?: Health promotion practitioners have an ongoing professional obligation to improve the quality of routine practice and embrace new initiatives. This report outlines a process of building evaluation capacity that promotes quality reporting of program impacts and outcomes, reflects on ways to enhance program strengths, and communicates these findings internally and to outside professional bodies. This is particularly significant for ACCHSs responsible for addressing the high burden of preventable disease in Aboriginal and

  13. Consumer Perception of Inpatient Medical Services.

    PubMed

    Izugami, Satoko; Takase, Kozo

    2016-01-01

    Although it is currently popular to reflect consumers' perspectives to medical service management, insufficient attempts have been made to understand detailed perception of the consumer side of medical services to promote medical services' evaluation from the consumer viewpoint. The aim of this study was to descriptively reveal how consumers perceive medical services that they receive, focusing on inpatient medical services. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 adults who experienced hospitalization of five or more days. Constant comparative analysis was performed on the obtained descriptive data. We identified 1) medical procedures, 2) explanations from medical professionals, 3) behavior of medical service providers, 4) somatic sensations, and 5) self-perceived physical conditions as target factors that medical service consumers perceived during hospitalization. The response to the perceived target factors, "compared with the expectation that the consumer had before the hospitalization," suggests that it is an important medical service consumer reaction to check if the service met their expectations for perceived factors. The response to the medical services perception targets suggested that medical service consumers are involved in medical services and interested in various perception targets. The expectations that medical service consumers have prior to hospitalization can largely influence inpatient medical services evaluation.

  14. Consumer Perception of Inpatient Medical Services

    PubMed Central

    Takase, Kozo

    2016-01-01

    Although it is currently popular to reflect consumers’ perspectives to medical service management, insufficient attempts have been made to understand detailed perception of the consumer side of medical services to promote medical services’ evaluation from the consumer viewpoint. The aim of this study was to descriptively reveal how consumers perceive medical services that they receive, focusing on inpatient medical services. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 adults who experienced hospitalization of five or more days. Constant comparative analysis was performed on the obtained descriptive data. We identified 1) medical procedures, 2) explanations from medical professionals, 3) behavior of medical service providers, 4) somatic sensations, and 5) self-perceived physical conditions as target factors that medical service consumers perceived during hospitalization. The response to the perceived target factors, “compared with the expectation that the consumer had before the hospitalization,” suggests that it is an important medical service consumer reaction to check if the service met their expectations for perceived factors. The response to the medical services perception targets suggested that medical service consumers are involved in medical services and interested in various perception targets. The expectations that medical service consumers have prior to hospitalization can largely influence inpatient medical services evaluation. PMID:27832165

  15. Planning and implementing the first stage of an oral health program for the Pika Wiya Health Service Incorporated Aboriginal community in Port Augusta, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Parker, Eleanor J; Misan, Gary; Richards, Lindsay C; Russell, Angela

    2005-01-01

    The oral health of the Indigenous community in South Australia's mid-north has been a concern for some years. There has been a history of under-utilisation of available dental services by the local community. This is in part due to the services not meeting their cultural and holistic health care needs. The Indigenous community resolved to establish a culturally sensitive dental service within the Aboriginal Health Service already operating in Port Augusta in South Australia's mid-north. To achieve this, a partnership between Pika Wiya Health Service Incorporated, the South Australian Dental Service, the University of Adelaide Dental School and the South Australian Centre for Rural and Remote Health was formed. The aim of the project partners was to establish a culturally sensitive, quality dental service that caters to the needs of the Indigenous community serviced by Pika Wiya Health Service Inc. This article describes the process of planning and implementing the first stage of this project.

  16. Factors Influencing the Health and Wellness of Urban Aboriginal Youths in Canada: Insights of In-Service Professionals, Care Providers, and Stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Kyoung June; Landais, Edwige; Kolahdooz, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    We addressed the positive and negative factors that influence the health and wellness of urban Aboriginal youths in Canada and ways of restoring, promoting, and maintaining the health and wellness of this population. Fifty-three in-service professionals, care providers, and stakeholders participated in this study in which we employed the Glaserian grounded theory approach. We identified perceived positive and negative factors. Participants suggested 5 approaches—(1) youth based and youth driven, (2) community based and community driven, (3) culturally appropriate, (4) enabling and empowering, and (5) sustainable—as well as some practical strategies for the development and implementation of programs. We have provided empirical knowledge about barriers to and opportunities for improving health and wellness among urban Aboriginal youths in Canada. PMID:25790390

  17. Barriers and enhancers to dietary behaviour change for Aboriginal people attending a diabetes cooking course.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Penelope; Davison, Joyce; Moore, Louise; Rubinstein, Raechelle

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal people access diabetes and nutrition education less than non-Aboriginal people. Culturally appropriate, effective and accessible diabetes and nutrition education for Aboriginal people is urgently needed. A qualitative approach was used to explore the experiences of Aboriginal people who had attended cooking courses run at the Aboriginal Medical Service Western Sydney between 2002 and 2007. Data from 23 semi-structured interviews were analysed thematically. Despite reported improvements in nutrition knowledge and cooking skills, the ability of participants to implement desired dietary changes varied. A new health diagnosis, such as diabetes, pre-diabetes, heart disease or cancer and the desire of participants to influence their families to lead healthier, diabetes-free lives were strong motivators for dietary change. In contrast, lack of family support for dietary change and a sense of social isolation caused by dietary change strongly impeded some participants' attempts to improve their diets. Other significant barriers were poor oral health and depression, the higher cost of healthier food and generational food preferences. Aboriginal cooking course participants faced multiple barriers to dietary change - social, financial, medical and historical. The family was the most crucial determinant of participant ability to achieve sustained dietary change.

  18. Health service utilisation amongst urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged younger than 5 years registered with a primary health-care service in South-East Queensland.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kerry K; Chang, Anne B; Anderson, Jennie; Arnold, Daniel; Otim, Michael; O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F

    2018-06-01

    The majority of Australia's Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander children live in urban areas; however, little is known about their health service use. We aimed to describe health service utilisation amongst a cohort of urban Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander children aged <5 years. We analysed health service utilisation data collected in an ongoing prospective cohort study of children aged <5 years registered with an Aboriginal-owned and operated primary health-care service. Enrolled children were followed monthly for 12 months, with data on health service utilisation collected at baseline and at each monthly follow-up. Health service utilisation rates, overall and by service provider and reason for presentation, were calculated and reported as incidence rates per 100 child-months with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Between February 2013 and November 2015, 180 children were enrolled, and 1541 child-months of observation were available for analysis. The overall incidence of health service utilisation was 52.5 per 100 child-months (95% CI 48.7-56.5); 81% of encounters were with general practitioners. Presentation rates were the highest for acute respiratory illnesses (30.7/100 child-months, 95% CI 27.8-33.9). In this community, acute respiratory illnesses are predominant causes of health service utilisation in young children. The health-care utilisation profile of these children presents important opportunities for health promotion and intervention. © 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  19. The impact of fatal pediatric trauma on aboriginal children.

    PubMed

    Bratu, Ioana; Lowe, Danielle; Phillips, Leah

    2013-05-01

    Injuries are the leading cause of death in young people. Our aim is to examine the differences between aboriginal and non-aboriginal pediatric trauma mortality as a means to focus on prevention strategies. The records for all traumatic pediatric (0-18 years) deaths between 1996 and 2010 were reviewed from the regional Medical Examiner's office. The majority of the total 932 pediatric deaths were the result of non-intentional injuries (640) followed by suicide (195), homicide (65), child abuse (15), and undetermined (17). Despite being only 3.3% of the provincial population, Aboriginals represented 30.9% of pediatric trauma fatalities. Aboriginal fatalities occurred most commonly in the home, with males and females equally affected. Road related events were the main causes of injury overall. Up to three-quarters of Aboriginal children who died in a non-pedestrian road related event did not wear an indicated protective device. Pedestrian deaths were over-represented in Aboriginal children. The second most common cause of death was suicide for both non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal children. Almost half of all of the suicides were Aboriginal. Homicide and child abuse had similar proportions for both non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal children. Pediatric Aboriginal injury prevention should be a priority and tailored for Aboriginal communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Disparities in acute in-hospital cardiovascular care for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians.

    PubMed

    Tavella, Rosanna; McBride, Katharine; Keech, Wendy; Kelly, Janet; Rischbieth, Amanda; Zeitz, Christopher; Beltrame, John F; Tideman, Philip A; Brown, Alex

    2016-09-05

    To assess differences in the rates of angiography and subsequent revascularisation for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians who presented with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS); to explore the reasons for any observed differences. Analysis of administrative data with logistic regression modelling to assess the relationship between Aboriginal status and the decision to undertake diagnostic angiography. A detailed medical record review of Aboriginal admissions was subsequently undertaken. Emergency ACS admissions to SA cardiac catheterisation hospitals, 2007-2012. 13 701 admissions of patients with an ACS, including 274 Aboriginal patients (2.1%). Rates of coronary angiography and revascularisation; documentation of justification for non-invasive management. After adjustment for age, comorbidities and remoteness, Aboriginal patients presenting with an ACS were significantly less likely than non-Aboriginal patients to undergo angiography (odds ratio [OR], 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3-0.5; P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the rates of revascularisation for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients who had undergone angiography. Reasons for Aboriginal patients not undergoing angiography included symptoms being deemed non-cardiac (16%), non-invasive test performed (8%), and discharge against medical advice (11%); the reasons were unclear for 36% of Aboriginal patients. After controlling for age and other factors, the rate of coronary angiography was lower among Aboriginal patients with an ACS in SA. The reasons for this disparity are complex, including patient-related factors and their preferences, as well as the appropriateness of the intervention. Improved consideration of the hospital experience of Aboriginal patients must be a priority for reducing health care disparities.

  1. Designated Medical Directors for Emergency Medical Services: Recruitment and Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slifkin, Rebecca T.; Freeman, Victoria A.; Patterson, P. Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Context: Emergency medical services (EMS) agencies rely on medical oversight to support Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) in the provision of prehospital care. Most states require EMS agencies to have a designated medical director (DMD), who typically is responsible for the many activities of medical oversight. Purpose: To assess rural-urban…

  2. A sexual health quality improvement program (SHIMMER) triples chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing rates among young people attending Aboriginal primary health care services in Australia.

    PubMed

    Graham, Simon; Guy, Rebecca J; Wand, Handan C; Kaldor, John M; Donovan, Basil; Knox, Janet; McCowen, Debbie; Bullen, Patricia; Booker, Julie; O'Brien, Chris; Garrett, Kristine; Ward, James S

    2015-09-02

    In Australia, chlamydia is the most commonly notifiable infection and over the past ten years chlamydia and gonorrhoea notification rates have increased. Aboriginal compared with non-Aboriginal Australians have the highest notifications rates of chlamydia and gonorrhoea. Regular testing of young people for chlamydia and gonorrhoea is a key prevention strategy to identify asymptomatic infections early, provide treatment and safe sex education. This study evaluated if a sexual health quality improvement program (QIP) known as SHIMMER could increase chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing among young people attending four Aboriginal primary health care services in regional areas of New South Wales, Australia. We calculated the proportion of 15-29 year olds tested and tested positivity for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in a 12-month before period (March 2010-February 2011) compared with a 12-month QIP period (March 2012-February 2013). Logistic regression was used to assess the difference in the proportion tested for chlamydia and gonorrhoea between study periods by gender, age group, Aboriginal status and Aboriginal primary health service. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with significance at p < 0.05. In the before period, 9 % of the 1881 individuals were tested for chlamydia, compared to 22 % of the 2259 individuals in the QIP period (OR): 1.43, 95 % CI: 1.22-1.67). From the before period to the QIP period, increases were observed in females (13 % to 25 %, OR: 1.32, 95 % CI: 1.10-1.59) and males (3 % to 17 %, OR: 1.85, 95 % CI: 1.36-2.52). The highest testing rate in the QIP period was in 15-19 year old females (16 % to 29 %, OR: 1.02, 95 % CI: 0.75-1.37), yet the greatest increase was in 20-24 year olds males (3 % to 19 %, OR: 1.65, 95 % CI: 1.01-2.69). Similar increases were seen in gonorrhoea testing. Overall, there were 70 (11 %) chlamydia diagnoses, increasing from 24 in the before to 46 in the QIP period. Overall, 4 (0

  3. An overview of Aboriginal health research in the social sciences: current trends and future directions.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kathi; Young, T Kue

    2008-06-01

    To examine if Aboriginal health research conducted within the field of social sciences reflects the population and geographic diversity of the Aboriginal population. Review. We searched the Web of Science Social Science Citation Index, the Arts and Humanities Citation Index and Scholars Portal for the time period 1995-2005 using search terms to reflect different names used to refer to Canada's Aboriginal peoples. Citations that did not focus on health or Canada were eliminated. Each paper was coded according to 7 broad categories: Aboriginal identity group; geography; age; health status; health determinants; health services; and methods. Based on the 96 papers reviewed, the results show an under-representation of Métis and urban Aboriginal peoples. Most of the papers are on health status and non-medical determinants of health, with a particular focus on chronic conditions and life-style behaviours. Only 6 papers examined traditional approaches to healing and/or access to traditional healers/medicines. A small number involved the use of community-based research methods. Further research is required to address gaps in the current body of literature. Community-based research studies are necessary to address gaps that are most relevant to Aboriginal peoples.

  4. Air Force Medical Service > Resources > Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov Websites

    Air Force Medical Service Air Force Medical Service Join the Air Force Home Your Healthcare Healthy Videos MHS Genesis AFMS Priorities Trusted Care Vision Air Force Medical Home Full Spectrum Medical ) Air Force EFMP Who is an EFM? Who must enroll? EFMP-Medical EFMP-M Objectives Family Criteria EFMP-M

  5. Medical services at a music festival.

    PubMed

    Streat, S; McCallum, J A; Boswell, R; Hunton, R

    1975-08-13

    A three-day open air musical festival attended by approximately 20 000 people was held at Ngaruawahia in January 1973. A medical service was provided and staffed mainly by medical students, nurses and young medical graduates. There were 1998 patient visits to the medical area, the five most common complaints being sunburn, headaches, minor foot trauma, gastroenteritis and lacerations which collectively accounted for 75 percent of the diagnoses. The medical services provided are discussed and recommendations for future festivals made.

  6. Standardised alcohol screening in primary health care services targeting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Mofizul; Oni, Helen T; Lee, K S Kylie; Hayman, Noel; Wilson, Scott; Harrison, Kristie; Hummerston, Beth; Ivers, Rowena; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2018-03-29

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) around Australia have been asked to standardise screening for unhealthy drinking. Accordingly, screening with the 3-item AUDIT-C (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption) tool has become a national key performance indicator. Here we provide an overview of suitability of AUDIT-C and other brief alcohol screening tools for use in ACCHSs. All peer-reviewed literature providing original data on validity, acceptability or feasibility of alcohol screening tools among Indigenous Australians was reviewed. Narrative synthesis was used to identify themes and integrate results. Three screening tools-full AUDIT, AUDIT-3 (third question of AUDIT) and CAGE (Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilty and Eye-opener) have been validated against other consumption measures, and found to correspond well. Short forms of AUDIT have also been found to compare well with full AUDIT, and were preferred by primary care staff. Help was often required with converting consumption into standard drinks. Researchers commented that AUDIT and its short forms prompted reflection on drinking. Another tool, the Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS), jointly screens for alcohol, drug and mental health risk, but is relatively long (13 items). IRIS has been validated against dependence scales. AUDIT, IRIS and CAGE have a greater focus on dependence than on hazardous or harmful consumption. Detection of unhealthy drinking before harms occur is a goal of screening, so AUDIT-C offers advantages over tools like IRIS or CAGE which focus on dependence. AUDIT-C's brevity suits integration with general health screening. Further research is needed on facilitating implementation of systematic alcohol screening into Indigenous primary healthcare.

  7. Emergency Medical Service (EMS): Rotorcraft Technology Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauchspies, J. S.; Adams, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A lead organization on the national level should be designated to establish concepts, locations, and the number of shock trauma air medical services. Medical specialists desire a vehicle which incorporates advances in medical technology trends in health care. Key technology needs for the emergency medical services helicopter of the future include the riding quality of fixed wing aircraft (reduced noise and vibration), no tail rotor, small rotor, small rotor diameter, improved visibility, crashworthy vehicle, IFR capability, more affordability high reliability, fuel efficient, and specialized cabins to hold medical/diagnostic and communications equipment. Approaches to a national emergency medical service are discussed.

  8. Exploration of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives of Home Medicines Review.

    PubMed

    Swain, Lindy S; Barclay, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    In Australia, Home Medicines Review (HMR) has been found to be an important tool to raise awareness of medication safety, reduce adverse events and improve medication adherence. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are 'underserviced' by the HMR program and are the most likely of all Australians to miss out on HMRs despite their high burden of chronic disease and high rates of hospitalisation due to medication misadventure. The goal of this study was to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives of the Home Medicines Review program and their suggestions for an 'improved' or more readily accessible model of service. Eighteen semi-structured focus groups were conducted with 102 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients at 11 Aboriginal Health Services (AHSs). Participants who were multiple medication users and understood English were recruited to the study by AHS staff. Seven focus groups were conducted for people who had already used the HMR program (User, n=23) and 11 focus groups were conducted for people who had not had an HMR (Non User, n=79). Focus groups were recorded, de-identified and transcribed. Transcripts were coded and analysed for themes. Focus groups continued and concepts were explored until no new findings were being generated and thus saturation of data occurred. Focus group participants who had not had an HMR had little or no awareness of the HMR program. All the participants felt that lack of awareness and promotion of the HMR program were contributing factors to the low uptake of the HMR program by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Most participants felt that an HMR would assist them to better understand their medicines, would empower them to seek information about medicines, would improve relationships with health professionals and would increase the likelihood of medication adherence. Most of the User participants reported that the HMR interview had been very useful for learning more about their

  9. Medical Services: Standards of Medical Fitness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-28

    Malfunction of the acoustic nerve. (Evaluate functional impairment of hearing under para 3–10.) c. Mastoiditis, chronic, with constant drainage from the...mastoid cavity, requiring frequent and prolonged medical care. d. Mastoiditis, chronic, following mastoidectomy, with constant drainage from the...d. Nephrectomy, when after treatment, there is infection or pathology in the remaining kidney. e. Nephrostomy, if drainage persists. f. Oophorectomy

  10. Successful partnerships are the key to improving Aboriginal health.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Sandra; Hunt, Jennifer

    2012-06-01

    Partnership is a process that must be recognised as a fundamental part of any strategy for improving health outcomes for Aboriginal people. Addressing the inequities in health outcomes between Aboriginal people and other Australians will require a sustained, coordinated and well-informed approach that works to a set of goals and targets developed with input from the Aboriginal community. Partnerships provide the most effective mechanism for obtaining this essential input from Aboriginal communities and their representative organisations, enabling Aboriginal people to have an influence at all stages of the health-care process. Within the health sector, effective partnerships harness the efforts of governments and the expertise of Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services, which offer the most effective means of delivering comprehensive primary health care to Aboriginal people.

  11. Strategic management of Public Hospitals' medical services.

    PubMed

    Hao, Aimin; Yi, Tao; Li, Xia; Wei, Lei; Huang, Pei; Xu, Xinzhou; Yi, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The quality of medical services provided by competing public hospitals is the primary consideration of the public in determining the selection of a specific hospital for treatment. The main objective of strategic planning is to improve the quality of public hospital medical services. This paper provides an introduction to the history, significance, principles and practices of public hospital medical service strategy, as well as advancing the opinion that public hospital service strategy must not merely aim to produce but actually result in the highest possible level of quality, convenience, efficiency and patient satisfaction.

  12. Collaborative Social and Medical Service System

    PubMed Central

    Petermann, Cynthia A.; Bobroff, Risa B.; Moore, Dwight M.; Gilson, Hillary S.; Li, Yizhen; Dargahi, Ross; Classen, David W.; Fowler, Jerry; Moreau, Dennis R.; Beck, J. Robert; Buffone, Gregory J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the Collaborative Social and Medical Services System, a robust information infrastructure for integrated social and medical care. The Collaborative Social and Medical Services System design and architecture address the primary goals of creating a readily extensible social and ambulatory care system. Our initial step toward reaching this goal is the delivery of an application supporting the operations of the Baylor Teen Health Clinics. This paper discusses our protoype experiences, system architecture, components, and the standards we are addressing. PMID:7950001

  13. Challenges to uptake of cancer education resources by rural Aboriginal Health Workers: the Cancer Healing Messages flipchart experience.

    PubMed

    Bierbaum, Mia; Plueckhahn, Tania; Roth, Firona; McNamara, Carmel; Ramsey, Imogen; Corsini, Nadia

    2017-12-01

    The Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Aboriginal) population has a higher age-standardised cancer mortality rate and a significantly lower 5-year survival rate for all cancers than the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal people from regional and remote South Australia and the Northern Territory, are often required to travel to Adelaide to access specialist cancer care services. The burden and expenses associated with transport and accommodation and cultural and linguistic factors have been identified as barriers to accessing medical treatment and health services. In collaboration with community and stakeholders, Cancer Council South Australia led the development of the Cancer Healing Messages flipchart and patient flyer to assist health professionals in explaining cancer and the cancer journey to Aboriginal cancer patients and their families. This study examined the usage, acceptability and perceived usefulness of the resources, barriers to uptake, and strategies to improve their utilisation and sustainability. An evaluation survey was conducted among Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) and other health professionals working with Aboriginal clients in South Australia (n=18). Participants indicated whether they agreed that the resources are valuable, culturally appropriate, helpful for explaining aspects of cancer to Aboriginal cancer patients, and useful with regard patient outcomes, how frequently they used or would use the resources for information, and how they use the flipchart in practice. Participants were also asked to report any usage barriers. The resources were considered useful, valuable and culturally appropriate by almost all participants; however, there was a discrepancy between intentions to use the resources and actual uptake, which was low. The most commonly reported barriers related to appropriateness for certain patients and lack of availability of resources in some contexts. The Cancer Healing Messages flipchart and patient flyer

  14. Improving Aboriginal maternal and infant health services in the 'Top End' of Australia; synthesis of the findings of a health services research program aimed at engaging stakeholders, developing research capacity and embedding change.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Lesley; Kruske, Sue; Bar-Zeev, Sarah; Steenkamp, Malinda; Josif, Cathryn; Narjic, Concepta Wulili; Wardaguga, Molly; Belton, Suzanne; Gao, Yu; Dunbar, Terry; Kildea, Sue

    2014-06-02

    Health services research is a well-articulated research methodology and can be a powerful vehicle to implement sustainable health service reform. This paper presents a summary of a five-year collaborative program between stakeholders and researchers that led to sustainable improvements in the maternity services for remote-dwelling Aboriginal women and their infants in the Top End (TE) of Australia. A mixed-methods health services research program of work was designed, using a participatory approach. The study area consisted of two large remote Aboriginal communities in the Top End of Australia and the hospital in the regional centre (RC) that provided birth and tertiary care for these communities. The stakeholders included consumers, midwives, doctors, nurses, Aboriginal Health Workers (AHW), managers, policy makers and support staff. Data were sourced from: hospital and health centre records; perinatal data sets and costing data sets; observations of maternal and infant health service delivery and parenting styles; formal and informal interviews with providers and women and focus groups. Studies examined: indicator sets that identify best care, the impact of quality of care and remoteness on health outcomes, discrepancies in the birth counts in a range of different data sets and ethnographic studies of 'out of hospital' or health centre birth and parenting. A new model of maternity care was introduced by the health service aiming to improve care following the findings of our research. Some of these improvements introduced during the five-year research program of research were evaluated. Cost effective improvements were made to the acceptability, quality and outcomes of maternity care. However, our synthesis identified system-wide problems that still account for poor quality of infant services, specifically, unacceptable standards of infant care and parent support, no apparent relationship between volume and acuity of presentations and staff numbers with the

  15. Improving Aboriginal maternal and infant health services in the ‘Top End’ of Australia; synthesis of the findings of a health services research program aimed at engaging stakeholders, developing research capacity and embedding change

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health services research is a well-articulated research methodology and can be a powerful vehicle to implement sustainable health service reform. This paper presents a summary of a five-year collaborative program between stakeholders and researchers that led to sustainable improvements in the maternity services for remote-dwelling Aboriginal women and their infants in the Top End (TE) of Australia. Methods A mixed-methods health services research program of work was designed, using a participatory approach. The study area consisted of two large remote Aboriginal communities in the Top End of Australia and the hospital in the regional centre (RC) that provided birth and tertiary care for these communities. The stakeholders included consumers, midwives, doctors, nurses, Aboriginal Health Workers (AHW), managers, policy makers and support staff. Data were sourced from: hospital and health centre records; perinatal data sets and costing data sets; observations of maternal and infant health service delivery and parenting styles; formal and informal interviews with providers and women and focus groups. Studies examined: indicator sets that identify best care, the impact of quality of care and remoteness on health outcomes, discrepancies in the birth counts in a range of different data sets and ethnographic studies of ‘out of hospital’ or health centre birth and parenting. A new model of maternity care was introduced by the health service aiming to improve care following the findings of our research. Some of these improvements introduced during the five-year research program of research were evaluated. Results Cost effective improvements were made to the acceptability, quality and outcomes of maternity care. However, our synthesis identified system-wide problems that still account for poor quality of infant services, specifically, unacceptable standards of infant care and parent support, no apparent relationship between volume and acuity of presentations

  16. A strategy for translating evidence into policy and practice to close the gap - developing essential service standards for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cardiovascular care.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alex; O'Shea, Rebekah L; Mott, Kathy; McBride, Katharine F; Lawson, Tony; Jennings, Garry L R

    2015-02-01

    The development and application of essential standards for cardiovascular care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people creates a strategic platform on which to systematically close the gap in the health outcomes and life expectancy between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous people in Australia. We outline six developmental stages that can be used to enhance the effective translation of evidence into practice that reduces life expectancy differentials. Focussing efforts where the biggest gain can be made; considering how to make a policy-relevant difference with an emphasis on translation into policy and practice; establishing a foundation for action by engaging with stakeholders throughout the process; developing a framework to guide action; drafting policy-relevant and framework-appropriate essential service standards; and defining standards that help policy decision makers achieve current priority policy targets. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Strategic information for hospital service planning: a linked data study to inform an urban Aboriginal Health Liaison Officer program in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Miller, Laura J; Somerford, Peter; McEvoy, Suzanne; Bessarab, Dawn

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide descriptive planning data for a hospital-based Aboriginal Health Liaison Officer (AHLO) program, specifically quantifying episodes of care and outcomes within 28 days after discharge. A follow-up study of Aboriginal in-patient hospital episodes was undertaken using person-based linked administrative data from four South Metropolitan hospitals in Perth, Western Australia (2006-11). Outcomes included 28-day deaths, emergency department (ED) presentations and in-patient re-admissions. There were 8041 eligible index admissions among 5113 individuals, with episode volumes increasing by 31% over the study period. Among patients 25 years and older, the highest ranking comorbidities included injury (47%), drug and alcohol disorders (41%), heart disease (40%), infection (40%), mental illness (31%) and diabetes (31%). Most events (96%) ended in a regular discharge. Within 28 days, 24% of events resulted in ED presentations and 20% resulted in hospital readmissions. Emergency readmissions (13%) were twice as likely as booked re-admissions (7%). Stratified analyses showed poorer outcomes for older people, and for emergency and tertiary hospital admissions. Future planning must address the greater service volumes anticipated. The high prevalence of comorbidities requires intensive case management to address case complexity. These data will inform the refinement of the AHLO program to improve in-patient experiences and outcomes.

  18. Confronting uncomfortable truths: receptivity and resistance to Aboriginal content in midwifery education.

    PubMed

    Thackrah, Rosalie D; Thompson, Sandra C

    2013-12-01

    The emotional responses of students undertaking a new, compulsory unit on Indigenous cultures and health were investigated as part of a broader study looking at culturally secure practice in midwifery education and service provision for Aboriginal women. Classroom observations were conducted on a first year midwifery cohort from July to October 2012 and students completed 'before and after' questionnaires. A spectrum of emotional responses was identified and found to be consistent with studies of medical student exposure to Aboriginal content. While stereotypes were challenged and perceptions altered as a result of the content, issues surrounding racism remained unresolved, with some students expressing dismay at the attitudes of their peers. This study confirmed the need for content on Aboriginal health and cultures to extend beyond one unit in a course. Learning and knowledge must be carefully integrated and developed to maximise understanding and ensure that unresolved issues are addressed.

  19. [Medical service marketing at the time of medical insurance].

    PubMed

    Polyakov, I V; Uvarov, S A; Mikhaylova, L S; Lankin, K A

    1997-01-01

    Presents the approaches to applying the fundamentals of marketing to public health. Medical insurance organization may effectively work as arbitrators and marketing agents; the basic assumption in the theory of marketing underlies their activity. The concept of marketing implies investigation of the requirements of the users of medical services and the development of measures aimed at meeting the requirements of man in terms of health service and health maintenance.

  20. Medical Services: Veterinary/Medical Food Inspection and Laboratory Service

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-11-06

    cosmetics. (2) Laboratory diagnosis of communicable and zoonotic diseases and conditions of military interest. (3) Management of laboratory animal...veterinary food inspection service. (b) Prevention and control of communicable diseases of animals and zoonotic diseases and conditions. (c...Development of command zoonotic disease control programs. (2) Advise the MACOM of sanitary defects or epizootics that may be detected through the laboratory

  1. Baseline investigations of folate status in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal West Australians prior to the introduction of mandatory fortification.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Susannah J; Brameld, Kate J; Bower, Caroline; D'Antoine, Heather; Hickling, Siobhan; Marley, Julia; O'Leary, Peter

    2013-02-01

    In September 2009, Australia implemented mandatory folic acid fortification of wheat flour for bread-making to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects. Our study aimed to establish baseline folate status data in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. Patients who presented at a health service or collection centre for blood tests were invited to participate. One hundred and ninety-one Aboriginals and 159 non-Aboriginals were recruited between April 2008 and September 2009. Participants completed a five-minute questionnaire and had blood taken for red blood cell (RBC) folate and serum vitamin B12. Data were analysed using SPSS (version 17.0.2, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Ten per cent (95% confidence intervals (CI): 5, 19) of the Aboriginal women participants and 26% (95% CI: 16, 40) of men had RBC folate concentrations below 250 ng/mL, the cut-off associated with folate deficiency. None of the non-Aboriginal women (95% CI: 0, 4) and 4% of the non-Aboriginal men (95% CI: 2, 12) had RBC folate concentrations below 250 ng/mL. All participants were vitamin B12 replete. None of the 96 Aboriginal and 8% of non-Aboriginal women aged 16-44 reported consumption of supplements with a daily intake of >400 μg folic acid during the previous week. This study established a baseline of RBC folate, folate consumption and supplement use in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups. We identified 10% of Aboriginal women and none of non-Aboriginal women participants with low folate concentrations. The higher prevalence of folate deficiency in Aboriginal participants suggests they are more likely to benefit from a universal program of folate fortification. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. Rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toolkits Economic Impact Analysis Tool Community Health Gateway Sustainability Planning Tools Testing New Approaches Rural Health IT ... to the 2015 WWAMI Rural Health Research Center report, Prehospital Emergency Medical Services Personnel in Rural Areas: ...

  3. Marketing medical services to an aging America.

    PubMed

    Mast, L J

    1993-01-01

    Consumers over age 50 currently comprise 40 percent of consumer demand. Medical services provided in the group practice setting must be structured to accommodate the unique needs of their increasing number of elderly patients According to this professional paper, the development of a marketing plan will provide a strategy that will keep the medical group competitive among older consumers.

  4. Furthering the quality agenda in Aboriginal community controlled health services: understanding the relationship between accreditation, continuous quality improvement and national key performance indicator reporting.

    PubMed

    Sibthorpe, Beverly; Gardner, Karen; McAullay, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A rapidly expanding interest in quality in the Aboriginal-community-controlled health sector has led to widespread uptake of accreditation using more than one set of standards, a proliferation of continuous quality improvement programs and the introduction of key performance indicators. As yet, there has been no overarching logic that shows how they relate to each other, with consequent confusion within and outside the sector. We map the three approaches to the Framework for Performance Assessment in Primary Health Care, demonstrating their key differences and complementarity. There needs to be greater attention in both policy and practice to the purposes and alignment of the three approaches if they are to embed a system-wide focus that supports quality improvement at the service level.

  5. Creative pricing strategies for medical services.

    PubMed

    Tellis, G J

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategic role of the pricing of medical services. Strategic pricing is a creative process that can be a vital means of defining marketing segments, differentiating services, and gaining a competitive advantage. The central issue in strategic pricing is creatively using the principle of cross-subsidies or shared economies over consumer groups, service sets, or competitors. This principle yields a rich set of pricing strategies that can be used in response to various environments.

  6. Aboriginal parent support: A partnership approach.

    PubMed

    Munns, Ailsa; Toye, Christine; Hegney, Desley; Kickett, Marion; Marriott, Rhonda; Walker, Roz

    2018-02-01

    This study was positioned within a larger action research study relating to a peer-led Aboriginal home visiting parent support program in an urban Western Australian setting. The aims for this study component were to identify program elements, exploring participants' perceptions of the program's suitability, feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness to inform program model recommendations and add to the body of knowledge on effective Aboriginal peer-led program models. The ability of Aboriginal parents to develop positive family environments is crucial, with parent support needing to be reflexive to local needs and sociocultural influences. Culturally appropriate service provision needs meaningful and acceptable strategies. This study was situated within a critical paradigm supporting Participatory Action Research methodology, using Action Learning Sets as the participant engagement and data collection setting. Within ten Action Learning Sets, focus group interviews were carried out with Aboriginal peer support workers, a non-Aboriginal parent support worker, an Aboriginal program coordinator, an Aboriginal education support officer and non-Aboriginal program managers (n = 8), and individual interviews with parents (n = 2) and community agencies (n = 4). Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Five themes were derived from peer support worker and community agency cohorts: peer support worker home visiting skills; responding to impacts of social determinants of health; client support and engagement; interagency collaboration; and issues addressing program sustainability. Parent responses augmented these themes. Participants identified five key elements relating to peer-led home visiting support for Aboriginal parents. These are uniquely placed to inform ongoing program development as there is little additional evidence in wider national and international contexts. Engagement with communities and peer support workers to develop culturally relevant

  7. 31 CFR 594.507 - Authorization of emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS... medical services. The provision of nonscheduled emergency medical services in the United States to persons...

  8. 48 CFR 871.201-3 - Medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medical services. 871.201... Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.201-3 Medical services. The medical services provided trainees under... any other medical service under the jurisdiction of the Veterans Health Administration to which the...

  9. 48 CFR 871.201-3 - Medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medical services. 871.201... Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.201-3 Medical services. The medical services provided trainees under... any other medical service under the jurisdiction of the Veterans Health Administration to which the...

  10. 48 CFR 871.201-3 - Medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medical services. 871.201... Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.201-3 Medical services. The medical services provided trainees under... any other medical service under the jurisdiction of the Veterans Health Administration to which the...

  11. 48 CFR 871.201-3 - Medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medical services. 871.201... Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.201-3 Medical services. The medical services provided trainees under... any other medical service under the jurisdiction of the Veterans Health Administration to which the...

  12. 48 CFR 871.201-3 - Medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical services. 871.201... Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.201-3 Medical services. The medical services provided trainees under... any other medical service under the jurisdiction of the Veterans Health Administration to which the...

  13. Non-Standard Assessment Practices in the Evaluation of Communication in Australian Aboriginal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal children typically receive communication assessment services from Standard Australian English (SAE) speaking non-Aboriginal speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Educational assessments, including intelligence testing, are also primarily conducted by non-Aboriginal educational professionals. While the current paper will show…

  14. Ethics in the marketing of medical services.

    PubMed

    Latham, Stephen R

    2004-09-01

    This paper deals with the ethics of marketing medical services by physicians, medical groups, hospitals and other mainstream medical caregivers in the United States. It does not deal with pharmaceutical marketing, since that raises a number of special issues, some of them legal and some having to do with the unique culture of pharmaceutical marketing, which really ought to be dealt with separately. Nor does it touch on the little-explored field of marketing alternative and complementary medicine. It begins with a general description of what is included in "the marketing process." It then briefly tours some of the difficulties faced by those who would market medical services ethically, and ends with some comments on the relevance of professionalism to ethical marketing.

  15. The physician assistant role in Aboriginal healthcare in Australia.

    PubMed

    Laufik, Nanette

    2014-01-01

    Australia has a shortage of doctors in general and more so in Aboriginal communities. The 2011-2012 report by Health Workforce Australia endorses the relevance of physician assistants (PAs) in rural Australia, and this article describes the experience of a PA employed in rural Aboriginal Health Services in North Queensland. The author also shares recommendations and insights for expanded implementation of PAs.

  16. Owning solutions: a collaborative model to improve quality in hospital care for Aboriginal Australians.

    PubMed

    Durey, Angela; Wynaden, Dianne; Thompson, Sandra C; Davidson, Patricia M; Bessarab, Dawn; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M

    2012-06-01

    Well-documented health disparities between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter referred to as Aboriginal) and non-Aboriginal Australians are underpinned by complex historical and social factors. The effects of colonisation including racism continue to impact negatively on Aboriginal health outcomes, despite being under-recognised and under-reported. Many Aboriginal people find hospitals unwelcoming and are reluctant to attend for diagnosis and treatment, particularly with few Aboriginal health professionals employed on these facilities. In this paper, scientific literature and reports on Aboriginal health-care, methodology and cross-cultural education are reviewed to inform a collaborative model of hospital-based organisational change. The paper proposes a collaborative model of care to improve health service delivery by building capacity in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal personnel by recruiting more Aboriginal health professionals, increasing knowledge and skills to establish good relationships between non-Aboriginal care providers and Aboriginal patients and their families, delivering quality care that is respectful of culture and improving Aboriginal health outcomes. A key element of model design, implementation and evaluation is critical reflection on barriers and facilitators to providing respectful and culturally safe quality care at systemic, interpersonal and patient/family-centred levels. Nurses are central to addressing the current state of inequity and are pivotal change agents within the proposed model. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. 10 CFR 35.80 - Provision of mobile medical service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provision of mobile medical service. 35.80 Section 35.80... § 35.80 Provision of mobile medical service. (a) A licensee providing mobile medical service shall— (1... to ensure compliance with the requirements in Part 20 of this chapter. (b) A mobile medical service...

  18. Aboriginal Education Program, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since the beginning of time, Aboriginal people have had a high regard for education. Euro-Canadian contact with Aboriginal peoples has and continues to have devastating effects. The encroachment on their traditional territory has affected the lands and resources forever. Generations of experience within the residential school system have greatly…

  19. Connecting with Aboriginal Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher-Hayashi, Diane

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author stresses that teacher-librarians must make themselves aware of a variety of aspects of the local aboriginal culture as well as the differences in interpersonal interaction. Artwork, both student and professional, can make a library more beautiful. Posters or aboriginal role models should be mixed with non-aboriginal…

  20. Bullying in an Aboriginal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Juli; Larson, Ann; Cross, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Aboriginal children appear to be more likely to be involved in bullying than non-Aboriginal children. This paper describes part of the "Solid Kids Solid Schools" research process and discusses some of the results from this three year study involving over 260 Aboriginal children, youth, elders, teachers and Aboriginal Indigenous Education…

  1. The Royal Naval Medical Services: delivering medical operational capability. the 'black art' of Medical Operational Planning.

    PubMed

    Faye, M

    2013-01-01

    This article looks to dispel the mysteries of the 'black art' of Medical Operational Planning whilst giving an overview of activity within the Medical Operational Capability area of Medical Division (Med Div) within Navy Command Headquarters (NCHQ) during a period when the Royal Naval Medical Services (RNMS) have been preparing and reconfiguring medical capability for the future contingent battle spaces. The rolling exercise program has been used to illustrate the ongoing preparations taken by the Medical Operational Capability (Med Op Cap) and the Medical Force Elements to deliver medical capability in the littoral and maritime environments.

  2. “They treated me like crap and I know it was because I was Native”: The healthcare experiences of Aboriginal Peoples living in Vancouver’s inner city

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Ashley; Fleming, Kim; Markwick, Nicole; Morrison, Tracey; Lagimodiere, Louise; Kerr, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence that Aboriginal peoples often experience healthcare inequalities due to racism. However, research exploring the healthcare experiences of Aboriginal peoples who use illicit substances is limited, and research rarely accounts for how multiple accounts of stigma intersect and contribute to the experiences of marginalized populations. Our research aimed to explore the healthcare experiences of Aboriginal peoples who use illicit drugs and or illicit alcohol (APWUID/A) living in Vancouver’s inner city. Using Indigenous methodologies, a community research team comprised of APWUID/A led the study design, data collection and analysis. Peer-facilitated talking circles explored community members’ experiences accessing healthcare services and patient-provider encounters. Using an intersectionality framework, our research demonstrated how healthcare inequalities among Aboriginal peoples are perpetuated by systemic racism and discrimination. Stigmatizing racial stereotypes were perceived to negatively influence individual attitudes and clinical practice. Participants’ experiences of medical dismissal often resulted in disengagement from care or delay in care. The findings suggest healthcare providers must understand the structural and historical forces that influence racial disparities in healthcare and personal attitudes in clinical practice. Adequate clinical protocols for pain management within the context of illicit substance use are urgently needed. The valuation of Aboriginal peoples and cultures within healthcare is paramount to addressing the health gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians. PMID:28214449

  3. Evaluating alternative service contracts for medical equipment.

    PubMed

    De Vivo, L; Derrico, P; Tomaiuolo, D; Capussotto, C; Reali, A

    2004-01-01

    Managing medical equipments is a formidable task that has to be pursued maximizing the benefits within a highly regulated and cost-constrained environment. Clinical engineers are uniquely equipped to determine which policies are the most efficacious and cost effective for a health care institution to ensure that medical devices meet appropriate standards of safety, quality and performance. Part of this support is a strategy for preventive and corrective maintenance. This paper describes an alternative scheme of OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) service contract for medical equipment that combines manufacturers' technical support and in-house maintenance. An efficient and efficacious organization can reduce the high cost of medical equipment maintenance while raising reliability and quality. Methodology and results are discussed.

  4. Communication disorders after stroke in Aboriginal Australians.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Hersh, Deborah; Hayward, Colleen; Fraser, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Limited research exists on acquired communication disorders (ACD) in Aboriginal Australians despite their high rates of stroke. Their uptake of rehabilitation services is low, and little information is available on functional consequences for this population. This pilot study explored consequences of ACD for Aboriginal Australians after stroke, including their experiences of services received. Semi-structured interviews were collected with 13 Aboriginal people with ACD, and family members, in Perth. Ages ranged from 30 to 78 years and time post stroke from 0.5 to 29 years. A qualitative, thematic analysis of interview transcripts was undertaken. The key themes which emerged were "getting on with life", coping with change, independence/interdependence, the importance of communication for maintaining family and community connection, role and identity issues and viewing the stroke consequences within the broader context of co-morbidities. While similar life disruptions were found to those previously reported in the general stroke population, this study highlighted differences, which reflect the particular context of ACD for Aboriginal people and which need to be considered when planning future services. While implications are limited due to small numbers, the findings emphasise the importance of a holistic approach, and integration of communication treatments into community-led social activities. Implications for Rehabilitation Aboriginal Australians frequently experience a range of concurrent and complex co-morbidities and demanding social or family circumstances at the same time as coping with communication disorders post-stroke. A holistic approach to post stroke rehabilitation may be appropriate with services that accommodate communication disorders, delivered in collaboration with Aboriginal organisations, emphasising positive attitudes and reintegration into community as fully as possible. Communication and yarning are important for maintaining family and

  5. 38 CFR 21.6240 - Medical treatment, care and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and services. 21.6240 Section 21.6240 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Certain New Pension Recipients Medical and Related Services § 21.6240 Medical treatment, care and services... be furnished medical treatment, care and services which VA determines are necessary to develop, carry...

  6. Using policy and workforce development to address Aboriginal mental health and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Jones, Carmel; Brideson, Tom

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the New South Wales (NSW) Aboriginal Mental Health and Well Being Policy and its key workforce initiative, the NSW Aboriginal Mental Health Workforce Training Program. The Policy provides a strong framework guiding the development of Aboriginal mental health and wellbeing programs throughout NSW Mental Health Services. However, the effectiveness of the Policy will be determined by the success of its implementation. The NSW Aboriginal Mental Health Workforce Training Program will support implementation of the Policy by growing an Aboriginal mental health workforce in NSW.

  7. Patient expectations from an emergency medical service.

    PubMed

    Qidwai, Waris; Ali, Syed Sohail; Baqir, Muhammad; Ayub, Semi

    2005-01-01

    Patient expectation survey at the Emergency Medical Services can improve patient satisfaction. A need was established to conduct such a survey in order to recommend its use as a quality improvement tool. The study was conducted on patients visiting the Emergency Medical Services, Aga Khan University, Karachi. A questionnaire was used to collect information on the demographic profile, and expectations of patients. The ethical requirements for conducting the study were met. A hundred patients were surveyed. The majority was relatively young, married men and women, well educated and better socio-economically placed. The majority of the patients expected a waiting time and a consultation time of less than 30 minutes and 20 minutes, respectively. The majority of respondents expected and agreed to be examined by a trainee but there were reluctant to be examined by the students. There was an expectation that the consultant will examine patients and not advice the attending team over the phone. The majority of the patients expected intravenous fluid therapy. There was a desire to have patient attendant present during the consultation process. The majority of the patients expected to pay less than three thousand rupees for the visit. An expectation exists for investigations and hospitalization. Involvement of patients in decisions concerning their treatment and written feedback on their visit was expected. We have documented the need and value of patient expectation survey at the Emergency Medical Services department. The use of such a tool is recommended in order to improve the satisfaction levels of patients visiting such facilities.

  8. Attitudes and characteristics of health professionals working in Aboriginal health.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Annabelle M; Magarey, Anthea M; Jones, Michelle; O'Donnell, Kim; Kelly, Janet

    2015-01-01

    There is an unacceptable gap in health status between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in Australia. Linked to social inequalities in health and political and historical marginalisation, this health gap must be urgently addressed. It is important that health professionals, the majority of whom in Australia are non-Aboriginal, are confident and equipped to work in Aboriginal health in order to contribute towards closing the health gap. The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes and characteristics of non-Aboriginal health professionals working in Aboriginal health. The research was guided and informed by a social constructionist epistemology and a critical theoretical approach. It was set within a larger healthy eating and physical activity program delivered in one rural and one metropolitan community in South Australia from 2005 to 2010. Non-Aboriginal staff working in the health services where the program was delivered and who had some experience or an interest working in Aboriginal health were invited to participate in a semi-structured interview. Dietitians working across South Australia (rural and metropolitan locations) were also invited to participate in an interview. Data were coded into themes that recurred throughout the interview and this process was guided by critical social research. Thirty-five non-Aboriginal health professionals participated in a semi-structured interview about their experiences working in Aboriginal health. The general attitudes and characteristics of non-Aboriginal health professionals were classified using four main groupings, ranging from a lack of practical knowledge ('don't know how'), a fear of practice ('too scared'), the area of Aboriginal health perceived as too difficult ('too hard') and learning to practice regardless ('barrier breaker'). Workers in each group had different characteristics including various levels of willingness to work in the area; various understandings of Australia's historical

  9. Racial discrimination experienced by aboriginal university students in Canada.

    PubMed

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul

    2012-10-01

    Racial discrimination is an established life course social determinant of health associated with adverse psychological outcomes among minority populations. However, little is known about the extent to which Aboriginal people in Canada may experience racial discrimination and consequent adverse psychological effects. This study sought to measure the extent to which Aboriginal university students living in an urban area of Canada experienced racism, to triangulate this evidence with US data and qualitative findings, and to examine the impact of these experiences on mental health. Data for this mixed method study were collected via in-person surveys with a volunteer sample of Aboriginal university students (n = 60) living in a mid-sized city in central Canada in 2008-2009. Results indicate Aboriginal university students experienced more frequent racism across a greater number of life situations than African- and Latino-American adults in the United States. Student reactions to these experiences were symptomatic of what has been termed racial battle fatigue in the United States. Students who considered themselves traditional or cultural Aboriginal persons were significantly more likely to experience discrimination. Results underline the need for policies aimed at reducing racism directed at Aboriginal people in urban areas and the growth of services to help Aboriginal people cope with these experiences. Results highlight the need for further research to determine the potential pathogenic consequences of racial discrimination for Aboriginal people in Canada.

  10. Efficient funding: a path to improving Aboriginal healthcare in Australia?

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Jane E; Wise, Marilyn J

    2010-11-01

    To identify the factors that contribute to the under-resourcing of Aboriginal health and to explore the impact that funding arrangements have on the implementation of Aboriginal health policy. Qualitative study based on 35 in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of frontline health professionals involved in health policy and service provision in the Northern Territory. Participants described three factors that contributed to the under-resourcing of Aboriginal health: inefficient funding arrangements, mainstream programs being inappropriate for Aboriginal Australians, and competing interests determining the allocation of resources. Insufficient capacity within the healthcare system undermines the multilevel implementation process whereby organisations need to have the capacity to recognise new policy ideas, assess their relevance to their existing work and strategic plan and to be able to incorporate the relevant new ideas into day-to-day practice. Insufficient resources for Aboriginal health were found to be a barrier to implementing Aboriginal health policy. Inadequate resources result from the cumbersome allocation of funding rather than simply the amount of funding provided to Aboriginal healthcare. Monitoring government performance and ensuring the efficient allocation of funds would allow us to develop the delivery system for Aboriginal healthcare and therefore provide greater opportunities to capitalise on current interventions and future efforts.

  11. 38 CFR 21.6240 - Medical treatment, care and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Temporary Program of Vocational Training for... services which may be furnished include the medical treatment, care and dental services described in part...

  12. Aboriginal population prospects.

    PubMed

    Gray, A; Tesfaghiorghis, H

    1993-11-01

    The authors examine data from the 1986 and 1991 Australian censuses to assess discrepancies between the census data and past projections of the size and structure of the Aboriginal population. They also "comment on ways in which determinants of Aboriginal population change are diverging from the parameters used for previous projections. We pay particular attention to mortality prospects.... We note the evidence for under-enumeration of the Aboriginal population in particular age groups in the 1991 Census as in previous censuses, and estimate the size of adjustments necessary to correct for some, but not all, of these deficiencies. The analysis shows that Aboriginal fertility increased in the second half of the 1980s." excerpt

  13. 2009-2010 Influenza A(H1N1)-related critical illness among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians.

    PubMed

    Jung, James J; Pinto, Ruxandra; Zarychanski, Ryan; Cook, Deborah J; Jouvet, Philippe; Marshall, John C; Kumar, Anand; Long, Jennifer; Rodin, Rachel; Fowler, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary studies suggested that Aboriginal Canadians had disproportionately higher rates of infection, hospitalization, and critical illness due to pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. We used a prospective cohort study of critically ill patients with laboratory confirmed or probable H1N1 infection in Canada between April 16 2009 and April 12 2010. Baseline characteristics, medical interventions, clinical course and outcomes were compared between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. Of 647 critically ill adult patients with known ethnicity, 81 (12.5%) were Aboriginal, 566 (87.5%) were non-Aboriginal. Aboriginal patients were younger (mean [SD] age 40.7[13.7] v. 49.0[14.9] years, p < 0.001) and more frequently female (64.2% v. 51.1%, p = 0.027). Rates of any co-morbid illnesses (Aboriginal v. non-Aboriginal, 92.6% v. 91.0%, p = 0.63), time from symptom onset to hospital admission (median [interquartile range] 4 [2-7] v. 4 [2-7] days, p = 0.84), time to ICU admission (5 [3-8] v.5 [3-8] days, p = 0.91), and severity of illness (mean APACHE II score (19.9 [9.6] v. 21.1 [9.9], p = 0.33) were similar. A similar proportion of Aboriginal patients received antiviral medication before ICU admission than non-Aboriginal patients (91.4% v. 93.8%, p = 0.40). Among Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal patients, the need for mechanical ventilation (93.8% v. 88.6%, p = 0.15), ventilator-free days (14 [3-23] v. 17 [0-24], p = 0.62), durations of stay in ICU (13[7-19.5] v. 11 [5-8] days, p = 0.05), hospital (19 [12.5-33.5] v. 18 [11-35] days, p = 0.63), and hospital mortality were similar (19.8% v. 22.6%, p = 0.56). In multiple logistic regression analyses, higher APACHE II score (1.06; 1.04-1.09, p<0.001) was independently associated with an increased risk of death; antiviral treatment with a lower risk of death (0.34; 0.15 - 0.78, p = 0.01). Ethnicity was not associated with mortality. During the 2009-2010 Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic

  14. Improving immunisation timeliness in Aboriginal children through personalised calendars

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Delayed immunisation and vaccine preventable communicable disease remains a significant health issue in Aboriginal children. Strategies to increase immunisation coverage and timeliness can be resource intensive. In a low cost initiative at the Aboriginal Medical Service Western Sydney (AMSWS) in 2008–2009, a trial of personalised calendars to prompt timely childhood immunisation was undertaken. Methods Calendars were generated during attendances for early childhood immunisations. They were designed for display in the home and included the due date of the next immunisation, a photo of the child and Aboriginal artwork. In a retrospective cohort design, Australian Childhood Immunisation Register data from AMSWS and non-AMSWS providers were used to determine the delay in immunisation and percentage of immunisations on time in those who received a calendar compared to those who did not. Interviews were undertaken with carers and staff. Results Data on 2142 immunisation doses given to 505 children were analysed, utilising pre-intervention (2005–2007) and intervention (2008–2009) periods and a 2 year post-intervention observation period. 113 calendars were distributed (30% of eligible immunisation attendances). Improvements in timeliness were seen at each schedule point for those children who received a calendar. The average delay in those who received a calendar at their previous visit was 0.6 months (95% CI -0.8 to 2.6) after the due date, compared to 3.3 months (95% CI −0.6 to 7.5) in those who did not. 80% of doses were on time in the group who received a calendar at the preceding immunisation, 66% were on time for those who received a calendar at an earlier point and 57% of doses were on time for those who did not receive a calendar (P<0.0001, Cochran-Armitage trend test). Interview data further supported the value and effectiveness of the calendars as both a prompt to timely immunisations and a community health education project without undue

  15. AFRICAN ABORIGINAL THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Philip A. E.

    1920-01-01

    No other man in America has so complete a knowledge of the aborigines of South Africa as Dr. Sheppard. For twenty-one years he spent his vacations in their kraals. He is a blood-brother in two tribes, and a chief, and sits on his own mat at tribal councils. His picture of their aboriginal therapy is unique. Imagesp228-ap228-bp229-ap229-bp231-ap232-ap232-bp233-ap235-ap235-b PMID:18010265

  16. Identifying Multi-Level Culturally Appropriate Smoking Cessation Strategies for Aboriginal Health Staff: A Concept Mapping Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Anna P.; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco…

  17. The Emergency Medical Services Safety Champions

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, P. Daniel; Anderson, Michelle S.; Zionts, Nancy D.; Paris, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    The overarching mission of prehospital Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is to deliver life-saving care for people when their needs are greatest. Fulfilling this mission is challenged by threats to patient and provider safety. The EMS setting is high-risk because care is delivered rapidly in the out-of-hospital setting where patient-benefiting resources are limited. There is growing evidence that safety culture varies widely across EMS agencies. A poor safety culture may manifest as error in medication, back injuries, and other poor outcomes for patient and provider. Recently, federal and national leaders of EMS (i.e., the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) have made improving EMS safety culture a national priority. Unfortunately, there are few initiatives that can help local EMS leaders achieve that priority. We describe the successful EMS Champs Fellowship program supported by the Jewish Healthcare Foundation (JHF) designed to train EMS leaders to improve safety for patients and providers. PMID:23150883

  18. 42 CFR 409.24 - Medical social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medical social services. 409.24 Section 409.24... PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Posthospital SNF Care § 409.24 Medical social services. Medicare pays for medical social services as posthospital SNF care, including— (a) Assessment of the social and...

  19. 28 CFR 115.182 - Access to emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... medical services. (a) Detainee victims of sexual abuse in lockups shall receive timely, unimpeded access to emergency medical treatment. (b) Treatment services shall be provided to the victim without... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Access to emergency medical services. 115...

  20. 28 CFR 115.182 - Access to emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... medical services. (a) Detainee victims of sexual abuse in lockups shall receive timely, unimpeded access to emergency medical treatment. (b) Treatment services shall be provided to the victim without... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Access to emergency medical services. 115...

  1. 28 CFR 115.182 - Access to emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... medical services. (a) Detainee victims of sexual abuse in lockups shall receive timely, unimpeded access to emergency medical treatment. (b) Treatment services shall be provided to the victim without... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Access to emergency medical services. 115...

  2. 42 CFR 409.24 - Medical social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medical social services. 409.24 Section 409.24... PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Posthospital SNF Care § 409.24 Medical social services. Medicare pays for medical social services as posthospital SNF care, including— (a) Assessment of the social and...

  3. 42 CFR 409.24 - Medical social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medical social services. 409.24 Section 409.24... PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Posthospital SNF Care § 409.24 Medical social services. Medicare pays for medical social services as posthospital SNF care, including— (a) Assessment of the social and...

  4. 42 CFR 409.24 - Medical social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medical social services. 409.24 Section 409.24... PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Posthospital SNF Care § 409.24 Medical social services. Medicare pays for medical social services as posthospital SNF care, including— (a) Assessment of the social and...

  5. 42 CFR 409.24 - Medical social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical social services. 409.24 Section 409.24... PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Posthospital SNF Care § 409.24 Medical social services. Medicare pays for medical social services as posthospital SNF care, including— (a) Assessment of the social and...

  6. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 11: Emergency Medical Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 11 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on emergency medical services. The purpose of the program, Federal authority in the area of medical services, and policies related to an emergency medical services (EMS) program are…

  7. 75 FR 27917 - Emergency Medical Services Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... Part III The President Proclamation 8519--Emergency Medical Services Week, 2010 Executive Order... Medical Services Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Every day of... enhancing our country's preparedness and resilience. During Emergency Medical Services Week, we recommit to...

  8. 76 FR 37201 - Reimbursement Offsets for Medical Care or Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Reimbursement Offsets for Medical Care or Services; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 122... Part 17 RIN 2900-AN55 Reimbursement Offsets for Medical Care or Services AGENCY: Department of Veterans... Affairs (VA) concerning the reimbursement of medical care and services delivered to veterans for...

  9. Information infrastructure for emergency medical services.

    PubMed

    Orthner, Helmuth; Mishra, Ninad; Terndrup, Thomas; Acker, Joseph; Grimes, Gary; Gemmill, Jill; Battles, Marcie

    2005-01-01

    The pre-hospital emergency medical and public safety information environment is nearing a threshold of significant change. The change is driven in part by several emerging technologies such as secure, high-speed wireless communication in the local and wide area networks (wLAN, 3G), Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning Systems (GPS), and powerful handheld computing and communication services, that are of sufficient utility to be more widely adopted. We propose a conceptual model to enable improved clinical decision making in the pre-hospital environment using these change agents.

  10. Indian hospitals and Aboriginal nurses: Canada and Alaska.

    PubMed

    Drees, Laurie Meijer

    2010-01-01

    Between 1945 and the early 1970s, both Indian Health Services in Canada (IHS), and the Alaska Native Health Service (ANS) initiated programs and activities aimed at recruiting and training nurses/nurses aides from Canadian and Alaskan Native communities. In Alaska, the Mt. Edgecumbe Hospital in Sitka acted as a training facility for Alaska Native nurses' aides, while in Canada, the Charles Camsell Hospital served a similar function. These initiatives occurred prior to the devolution of health care to Aboriginal communities. The histories of these two hospitals provide a comparative opportunity to reveal themes related to the history of Aboriginal nurse training and Aboriginal health policies in the north. The paper outlines the structure and function of two main hospitals within the Indian Health and Alaska Native Health Services, discusses the historic training, and role of Aboriginal nurses and caregivers within those systems using both archival and oral history sources.

  11. 38 CFR 21.240 - Medical treatment, care and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ambulation, and one-hand typewriting; (ii) Orientation, adjustment, mobility and related services; (iii... and services. 21.240 Section 21.240 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Medical and Related Services § 21.240 Medical treatment, care and services. (a...

  12. Experienced and potential medical tourists' service quality expectations.

    PubMed

    Guiry, Michael; Scott, Jeannie J; Vequist, David G

    2013-01-01

    The paper's aim is to compare experienced and potential US medical tourists' foreign health service-quality expectations. Data were collected via an online survey involving 1,588 US consumers engaging or expressing an interest in medical tourism. The sample included 219 experienced and 1,369 potential medical tourists. Respondents completed a SERVQUAL questionnaire. Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to determine significant differences between experienced and potential US medical tourists' service-quality expectations. For all five service-quality dimensions (tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy) experienced medical tourists had significantly lower expectations than potential medical tourists. Experienced medical tourists also had significantly lower service-quality expectations than potential medical tourists for 11 individual SERVQUAL items. Results suggest using experience level to segment medical tourists. The study also has implications for managing medical tourist service-quality expectations at service delivery point and via external marketing communications. Managing medical tourists' service quality expectations is important since expectations can significantly influence choice processes, their experience and post-consumption behavior. This study is the first to compare experienced and potential US medical tourist service-quality expectations. The study establishes a foundation for future service-quality expectations research in the rapidly growing medical tourism industry.

  13. Improvement in delivery of type 2 diabetes services differs by mode of care: a retrospective longitudinal analysis in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Primary Health Care setting.

    PubMed

    Schierhout, Gill; Matthews, Veronica; Connors, Christine; Thompson, Sandra; Kwedza, Ru; Kennedy, Catherine; Bailie, Ross

    2016-10-07

    Addressing evidence-practice gaps in primary care remains a significant public health challenge and is likely to require action at different levels of the health system. Whilst Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) is associated with improvements in overall delivery, little is known about delivery of different types of care processes, and their relative improvement during CQI. We used data from over 15,000 clinical audit records of clients with Type 2 diabetes collected as part of a wide-scale CQI program implemented between 2005 and 2014 in 162 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health centres. We abstracted data from clinical records on 15 service items recommended in clinical guidelines and categorised these items into five modes of care on the basis of the mechanism through which care is delivered: laboratory tests; generalist-delivered physical checks; specialist-delivered checks; education/counselling for nutrition and physical activity and education/counselling for high risk substance use. We calculated delivery for each patient for each of mode of care by determining the proportion of recommended services delivered for that mode. We used multilevel regression models to quantify variation attributable to health centre or client level factors and to identify factors associated with greater adherence to clinical guidelines for each mode of care. Clients on average received 43 to 60 % of recommended care in 2005/6. Different modes of care showed different patterns of improvement. Generalist-delivered physical checks (delivered by a non-specialist) showed a steady year on year increase, delivery of laboratory tests showed improvement only in the later years of the study, and delivery of counselling/education interventions showed early improvement which then plateaued. Health centres participating in CQI had increased odds of top quartile service delivery for all modes compared to baseline, but effects differed by mode. Health centre factors explained 20-52

  14. Insurance and the utilization of medical services.

    PubMed

    Meer, Jonathan; Rosen, Harvey S

    2004-05-01

    Most data sets indicate a positive correlation between having health insurance and utilizing health care services. Yet the direction of causality is not at all clear. If we observe a positive correlation between the utilization of health care services and insurance status, we do not know if this is because people who anticipate poor health buy more insurance (or take jobs with generous medical coverage), or because insurance lowers the cost of health care, increasing the quantity demanded. While a few attempts have been made to implement an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to deal with endogeneity, the instruments chosen have not been entirely convincing. In this paper we revisit the IV estimation of the reduced form relationships between insurance and health care utilization taking advantage of what we argue is a good instrument-the individual's self-employment status. Our main finding is that a positive and statistically significant effect of insurance continues to obtain even after instrumenting. Indeed, instrumental variables estimates of the impact of insurance on utilization of a variety of health care services are larger than their non-instrumented counterparts. The validity of this exercise depends on the extent to which self-employment status is a suitable instrument. To argue this case, we analyze panel data on transitions from wage-earning into self-employment and show that individuals who select into self-employment do not differ systematically from those who remain wage-earners with respect to either the utilization of health care or health status. While this finding does not prove that self-employment status is an appropriate instrument, it is encouraging that there appear to be no underlying differences that might lead to self-employment per se affecting health services utilization.

  15. Experience of menopause in aboriginal women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chadha, N; Chadha, V; Ross, S; Sydora, B C

    2016-01-01

    Every woman experiences the menopause transition period in a very individual way. Menopause symptoms and management are greatly influenced by socioeconomic status in addition to genetic background and medical history. Because of their very unique cultural heritage and often holistic view of health and well-being, menopause symptoms and management might differ greatly in aboriginals compared to non-aboriginals. Our aim was to investigate the extent and scope of the current literature in describing the menopause experience of aboriginal women. Our systematic literature review included nine health-related databases using the keywords 'menopause' and 'climacteric symptoms' in combination with various keywords describing aboriginal populations. Data were collected from selected articles and descriptive analysis was applied. Twenty-eight relevant articles were included in our analysis. These articles represent data from 12 countries and aboriginal groups from at least eight distinctive geographical regions. Knowledge of menopause and symptom experience vary greatly among study groups. The average age of menopause onset appears earlier in most aboriginal groups, often attributed to malnutrition and a harsher lifestyle. This literature review highlights a need for further research of the menopause transition period among aboriginal women to fully explore understanding and treatment of menopause symptoms and ultimately advance an important dialogue about women's health care.

  16. Working at the interface in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health: focussing on the individual health professional and their organisation as a means to address health equity.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Annabelle M; Kelly, Janet; Magarey, Anthea; Jones, Michelle; Mackean, Tamara

    2016-11-17

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people experience inequity in health outcomes in Australia. Health care interactions are an important starting place to seek to address this inequity. The majority of health professionals in Australia do not identify as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people and the health care interaction therefore becomes an example of working in an intercultural space (or interface). It is therefore critical to consider how health professionals may maximise the positive impact within the health care interaction by skilfully working at the interface. Thirty-five health professionals working in South Australia were interviewed about their experiences working with Aboriginal people. Recruitment was through purposive sampling. The research was guided by the National Health and Medical Research Council Values and Ethics for undertaking research with Aboriginal communities. Critical social research was used to analyse data. Interviews revealed two main types of factors influencing the experience of non-Aboriginal health professionals working with Aboriginal people at the interface: the organisation and the individual. Within these two factors, a number of sub-factors were found to be important including organisational culture, organisational support, accessibility of health services and responding to expectations of the wider health system (organisation) and personal ideology and awareness of colonisation (individual). A health professional's practice at the interface cannot be considered in isolation from individual and organisational contexts. It is critical to consider how the organisational and individual factors identified in this research will be addressed in health professional training and practice, in order to maximise the ability of health professionals to work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and therefore contribute to addressing health equity.

  17. 42 CFR 440.50 - Physicians' services and medical and surgical services of a dentist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... services of a dentist. 440.50 Section 440.50 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Definitions § 440.50 Physicians' services and medical and surgical services of a dentist. (a) “Physicians... dentist” means medical and surgical services furnished, on or after January 1, 1988, by a doctor of dental...

  18. 42 CFR 440.50 - Physicians' services and medical and surgical services of a dentist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... services of a dentist. 440.50 Section 440.50 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Definitions § 440.50 Physicians' services and medical and surgical services of a dentist. (a) “Physicians... dentist” means medical and surgical services furnished, on or after January 1, 1988, by a doctor of dental...

  19. 42 CFR 440.50 - Physicians' services and medical and surgical services of a dentist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... services of a dentist. 440.50 Section 440.50 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Definitions § 440.50 Physicians' services and medical and surgical services of a dentist. (a) “Physicians... dentist” means medical and surgical services furnished, on or after January 1, 1988, by a doctor of dental...

  20. 42 CFR 440.50 - Physicians' services and medical and surgical services of a dentist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... services of a dentist. 440.50 Section 440.50 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Definitions § 440.50 Physicians' services and medical and surgical services of a dentist. (a) “Physicians... dentist” means medical and surgical services furnished, on or after January 1, 1988, by a doctor of dental...

  1. 42 CFR 440.50 - Physicians' services and medical and surgical services of a dentist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... services of a dentist. 440.50 Section 440.50 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Definitions § 440.50 Physicians' services and medical and surgical services of a dentist. (a) “Physicians... dentist” means medical and surgical services furnished, on or after January 1, 1988, by a doctor of dental...

  2. Hazard perception in emergency medical service responders.

    PubMed

    Johnston, K A; Scialfa, C T

    2016-10-01

    The perception of on-road hazards is critically important to emergency medical services (EMS) professionals, the patients they transport and the general public. This study compared hazard perception in EMS and civilian drivers of similar age and personal driving experience. Twenty-nine EMS professionals and 24 non-professional drivers were given a dynamic hazard perception test (HPT). The EMS group demonstrated an advantage in HPT that was independent of simple reaction time, another indication of the validity of the test. These results are also consistent with the view that professional driving experience results in changes in the ability to identify and respond to on-road hazards. Directions for future research include the development of a profession-specific hazard perception tool for both assessment and training purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  4. Assessing and Validating an Educational Resource Package for Health Professionals to Improve Smoking Cessation Care in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Bar-Zeev, Yael; Bovill, Michelle; Bonevski, Billie; Gruppetta, Maree; Reath, Jennifer; Gould, Gillian S

    2017-09-29

    Australian Aboriginal pregnant women have a high smoking prevalence (45%). Health professionals lack adequate educational resources to manage smoking. Resources need to be tailored to ensure saliency, cultural-sensitivity and account for diversity of Indigenous populations. As part of an intervention to improve health professionals' smoking cessation care in Aboriginal pregnant women, a resource package was developed collaboratively with two Aboriginal Medical Services. The purpose of this study was to assess and validate this resource package. A multi-centred community-based participatory 4-step process (with three Aboriginal Medical Services from three Australian states), included: (1) Scientific review by an expert panel (2) 'Suitability of Materials' scoring by two Aboriginal Health Workers (3) Readability scores (4) Focus groups with health professionals. Content was analysed using six pre-determined themes (attraction, comprehension, self-efficacy, graphics and layout, cultural acceptability, and persuasion), with further inductive analysis for emerging themes. Suitability of Material scoring was adequate or superior. Average readability was grade 6.4 for patient resources (range 5.1-7.2), and 9.8 for health provider resources (range 8.5-10.6). Emergent themes included 'Getting the message right'; 'Engaging with family'; 'Needing visual aids'; and 'Requiring practicality under a tight timeframe'. Results were presented back to a Stakeholder and Consumer Aboriginal Advisory Panel and resources were adjusted accordingly. This process ensured materials used for the intervention were culturally responsive, evidence-based and useful. This novel formative evaluation protocol could be adapted for other Indigenous and culturally diverse interventions. The added value of this time-consuming and costly process is yet to be justified in research, and might impact the potential adaption by other projects.

  5. Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth Need Additional Management Oversight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-04

    H 4 , 2 0 1 5 Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth Need Additional Management Oversight Report No. DODIG-2015...04 MAR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Naval...i Results in Brief Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth Need Additional Management Oversight Visit us at

  6. Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Brooke Army Medical Center Need Additional Management Oversight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-13

    No. DODIG-2014-101 A U G U S T 1 3 , 2 0 1 4 Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Brooke Army Medical Center Need Additional Management...13 AUG 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Brooke Army...Results in Brief Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Brooke Army Medical Center Need Additional Management Oversight Visit us at www.dodig.mil

  7. [About economic aspects of provision of medical services].

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, P A

    2014-01-01

    The contradiction between economic and social components of medical services is present in any state. Initially, the state undertakes the commitment no provide citizen with equal access to medical services. However, this means to provide social equity between all members of society which not always is effective from economic point of view. The article analyzes the problems originated in public system of provision of medical services. These problems are determined by service specificity itself model of provision of medical services and public priorities in social sector.

  8. 48 CFR 752.228-70 - Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medical Evacuation... Clauses 752.228-70 Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services. As prescribed in 728.307-70, for use in all contracts requiring performance overseas: Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services (JUL 2007) (a) Contractor...

  9. 48 CFR 752.228-70 - Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medical Evacuation... Clauses 752.228-70 Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services. As prescribed in 728.307-70, for use in all contracts requiring performance overseas: Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services (JUL 2007) (a) Contractor...

  10. 77 FR 70967 - Authorization for Non-VA Medical Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... expand the delivery of healthcare to veterans, VA is, like the rest of the healthcare industry...(a)(2)(B) to expand VA's authority to provide non-VA medical services under the non- VA care... furnished hospital care, nursing home care, domiciliary care, or medical services and who requires medical...

  11. 48 CFR 752.228-70 - Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical Evacuation... Clauses 752.228-70 Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services. As prescribed in 728.307-70, for use in all contracts requiring performance overseas: Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services (JUL 2007) (a) Contractor...

  12. 10 CFR 35.2080 - Records of mobile medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of mobile medical services. 35.2080 Section 35.2080 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2080 Records of mobile medical services. (a) A licensee shall retain a copy of each letter that permits the use of...

  13. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine... Licensing Policy § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a... medicine, medical devices, and medical services to the Palestinian Authority Ministry of Health, provided...

  14. Customer satisfaction measurement in emergency medical services.

    PubMed

    Kuisma, Markku; Määttä, Teuvo; Hakala, Taisto; Sivula, Tommi; Nousila-Wiik, Maria

    2003-07-01

    The annual patient volume in emergency medical services (EMS) systems is high worldwide. However, there are no comprehensive studies on customer satisfaction for EMS. The authors report how a customer satisfaction survey on EMS patients was conducted, the results, and the possible causes for dissatisfaction. Two prospective customer satisfactions surveys were conducted in an urban EMS system. Consecutive patients treated by EMS received a postal questionnaire approximately two weeks after service. Satisfaction was measured in a scale from 1 (very poor) to 5 (excellent). Neither EMS personnel nor patients were made aware prospectively that patient satisfaction would be measured. Response rates to the surveys were 36.8% (432/1,175) in 2000 and 40.0% (464/1,150) in 2002. The mean general grades for the service were 4.6 and 4.5, respectively. Patients reported the highest degree of dissatisfaction when they were not taken to their hospital of choice, when they perceived that the paramedics were not able to meet their needs, and when paramedics did not introduce themselves or communicate directly with the patient's relatives. In high-volume calls (i.e., frequent chief complaints), the general satisfaction was highest in patients with arrhythmias, breathing difficulties, and hypoglycemia. Patients with drug overdose included the highest proportion of unsatisfied patients. None of the background variables (e.g., gender, transport decision, working shift) was statistically related to general patient satisfaction. This study shows that customer satisfaction surveys can be successfully conducted for EMS. EMS systems should consider routinely using customer satisfaction surveys as a tool for quality measurement and improvement.

  15. Service Learning in Medical Education: Project Description and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Nicole J.; Hartung, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    Although medical education has long recognized the importance of community service, most medical schools have not formally nor fully incorporated service learning into their curricula. To address this problem, we describe the initial design, development, implementation, and evaluation of a service-learning project within a first-year medical…

  16. Chat reference service in medical libraries: part 2--Trends in medical school libraries.

    PubMed

    Dee, Cheryl R

    2003-01-01

    An increasing number of medical school libraries offer chat service to provide immediate, high quality information at the time and point of need to students, faculty, staff, and health care professionals. Part 2 of Chat Reference Service in Medical Libraries presents a snapshot of the current trends in chat reference service in medical school libraries. In late 2002, 25 (21%) medical school libraries provided chat reference. Trends in chat reference services in medical school libraries were compiled from an exploration of medical school library Web sites and informal correspondence from medical school library personnel. Many medical libraries are actively investigating and planning new chat reference services, while others have decided not to pursue chat reference at this time. Anecdotal comments from medical school library staff provide insights into chat reference service.

  17. Aboriginal Self-Government in Canada: Current Trends and Issues. Purich's Aboriginal Issues Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton, John H., Ed.

    This book contains 13 chapters analyzing important practical issues that must be addressed as Aboriginal self-government becomes fully operational in Canada. These issues are related to social problems and policies, criminal justice, community services, education, employment and job training, finance, the land base of government, women's rights…

  18. The pattern of psychiatric morbidity in a Victorian urban aboriginal general practice population.

    PubMed

    McKendrick, J; Cutter, T; Mackenzie, A; Chiu, E

    1992-03-01

    Victorian Aboriginal people, most of whom live an urban lifestyle, form a distinct cultural group within the wider Victorian community. This paper describes a unique psychosocial study of urban Aboriginal adults attending a general practitioner at the Victorian Aboriginal Health Service in Fitzroy. The frequency and nature of psychiatric disorders among survey respondents is reported, together with a discussion of the association between this morbidity and certain sociodemographic variables.

  19. The Koorie Men's Health Day: an innovative model for early detection of mental illness among rural Aboriginal men.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Anton; Lampitt, Berwyn

    2014-02-01

    To describe the design, implementation and outcomes of an innovative model for the early detection of mental illness among rural Aboriginal men. Through a collaborative effort between a University' Department of Rural and Indigenous Health, an Aboriginal organisation and a regional mental health service, an all-male team was set up which consisted of a doctor, a mental health nurse and four key individuals from the local Aboriginal community. Invitations to attend a Koorie Men's Health Day were distributed via flyers and posters. Using an assembly line technique and avoiding any reference to the term 'mental', all participants underwent a complete medical examination, a blood test for diabetes and a psychological assessment using the Kessler-10 schedule. The event was attended by 20 men. Of the 17 participants whose data were available, seven scored significantly (25 or higher) on the psychological assessment and were offered follow-up. When conducted on a regular basis, the Koorie Men's Health Day could be a useful method for the early detection of mental illness among rural Aboriginal men in Australia. Further research is needed to study the feasibility and sustainability of the model in different settings.

  20. A case study in the use of evidence in a changing political context: an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health service re-examines practice models, governance and financing.

    PubMed

    Gajjar, Deepa; Zwi, Anthony B; Hill, Peter S; Shannon, Cindy

    2014-09-01

    This paper examines the response of a regional body, the Institute for Urban Indigenous Health (IUIH), coordinating Aboriginal community controlled health organisations (ACCHOs) in south-east Queensland, to research evidence as they prioritise and plan services in response to internal economic and organisational factors, as well as external policy change. An event-based analysis of a quarterly management meeting of the IUIH allowed an exploration of how the IUIH uses a range of evidence to respond to the challenges faced within the Aboriginal community controlled health sector. The study identified three distinct but interconnected processes: (1) identifying evidence for change; (2) exploring and reframing this evidence; and (3) the application of this evidence at different levels of policy and practice. These processes were evident in each of the three major agendas addressed during the meeting, namely navigating current political change, reforming the ACCHO business model and reframing the available evidence for advocacy. The result has been the emergence of a new service delivery model, in which evidence supports accountability, change management, self-sufficiency and attempts to redefine community control.

  1. Biomedical equipment and medical services in India.

    PubMed

    Sahay, K B; Saxena, R K

    Varieties of Biomedical Equipment (BME) are now used for quick diagnosis, flawless surgery and therapeutics etc. Use of a malfunctioning BME could result in faulty diagnosis and wrong treatment and can lead to damaging or even devastating aftermath. Modern Biomedical Equipments inevitably employ highly sophisticated technology and use complex systems and instrumentation for best results. To the best of our knowledge the medical education in India does not impart any knowledge on the theory and design of BME and it is perhaps not possible also. Hence there is need for a permanent mechanism which can maintain and repair the biomedical equipments routinely before use and this can be done only with the help of qualified Clinical Engineers. Thus there is a genuine need for well organized cadre of Clinical Engineers who would be persons with engineering background with specialization in medical instrumentation. These Clinical engineers should be made responsible for the maintenance and proper functioning of BME. Every hospital or group of hospitals in the advanced countries has a clinical engineering unit that takes care of the biomedical equipments and systems in the hospital by undertaking routine and preventive maintenance, regular calibration of equipments and their timely repairs. Clinical engineers should be thus made an essential part of modern health care system and services. Unfortunately such facilities and mechanism do not exist in India. To make BME maintenance efficient and flawless in India, study suggests following measures and remedies: (i) design and development of comprehensive computerized database for BME (ii) cadre of Clinical engineers (iii) online maintenance facility and (iv) farsighted managerial skill to maximize accuracy, functioning and cost effectiveness.

  2. Communication between hospitals and isolated aboriginal community health clinics.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, G; Currie, B J

    1999-04-01

    This study described the communication dynamics, identified problems and recommended changes to improve patient follow-up and communication between Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH) and isolated Aboriginal community health clinics (CHC) in the Northern Territory (NT). In 1995, staff interviews were conducted and an audit of isolated Aboriginal patients' RDH discharge summaries (DS). Eighteen per cent of RDH DSs never arrived in CHCs. DSs were often prepared late and more likely to be in CHC records if written on time and if the referral source was specified. Interviews revealed discontent between CHCs and RDH regarding: communication, DS documentation, the supply of discharge medication, as well as different hospital and community perceptions of Aboriginies' reliability to carry a DS and CHC desire for patients to be given DSs at discharge. Aboriginal patients should be given a DS at discharge and resident medical officers should be educated as to the function and importance of the DS. In 18 months following this study, RDH appointed unit-based Aboriginal health workers and a policy was produced for written communication between hospital and CHCs, as well as a discharge planning manual for Aboriginal communities. Projects investigating communication between hospitals and isolated Aboriginal clinics and patient follow-up may result in significant policy changes concerning these processes.

  3. “Unwell while Aboriginal”: iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

    PubMed Central

    Ewen, Shaun C; Hollinsworth, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in both decision making and reporting of morbidity and mortality. This focus is applauded in light of the gross inequalities in health outcomes between indigenous people and other Australians. Methods A purposive survey of relevant Australian and international literature was conducted to map the current state of play and identify concerns with efforts to teach cultural competence with Aboriginal people in medical schools and to provide “culturally appropriate” clinical care. The authors critically analyzed this literature in light of their experiences in teaching Aboriginal studies over six decades in many universities to generate examples of iatrogenic effects and possible responses. Results and discussion Understanding how to most effectively embed Aboriginal content and perspectives in curriculum and how to best teach and assess these remains contested. This review canvasses these debates, arguing that well-intentioned efforts in medical education and clinical management can have iatrogenic impacts. Given the long history of racialization of Aboriginal people in Australian medicine and the relatively low levels of routine contact with Aboriginal people among students and clinicians, the review urges caution in compounding these iatrogenic effects and proposes strategies to combat or reduce them. Conclusion Long overdue efforts to recognize gaps and inadequacies in medical education about Aboriginal people and their health and to provide equitable health services and improved health outcomes are needed and welcome. Such efforts need to be critically examined and rigorously evaluated to avoid the reproduction of pathologizing stereotypes and reductionist explanations for persistent poor outcomes for Aboriginal people. PMID:27313485

  4. Addressing HIV/AIDS among Aboriginal People using a Health Status, Health Determinants and Health Care Framework: A Literature Review and Conceptual Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nowgesic, Earl

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To describe the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among Aboriginal populations using a mixed methods approach (i.e. quantitative and qualitative methods); (2) to examine the individual-level and community-level relationships between HIV/AIDS, health determinants, and health care (e.g. diagnosis, access to treatment and health services planning); and (3) to explore innovative solutions to address HIV/AIDS among Aboriginal populations based upon research and infrastructure (e.g. partnerships, data sources and management, health indicators and culture) and policy (i.e. self-determination of Aboriginal Peoples). Methods Literature review and conceptual analysis using a health status, health determinants and health care framework. Results In comparison to non-Aboriginal persons, HIV infection is higher among Aboriginal persons, is more directly attributable to unique risk factors and socio-demographic characteristics, and yields more adverse health outcomes. Culture, poverty and self-determination are determinants of health for Aboriginal populations. Aboriginal people have inadequate primary care and, in particular, specialist care. It is necessary to include traditional Aboriginal approaches and culture when addressing Aboriginal health while understanding competing paradigms between modern medicine and Aboriginal traditions. Conclusion There is a need for self-determination of Aboriginal Peoples in order to improve the health of Aboriginal communities and those living with HIV/AIDS. Research and policy affecting Aboriginal people should be of the highest quality and based upon Aboriginal community relevance and involvement. PMID:27398110

  5. Predictive Accuracy of Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender Version Risk and Change Scores in Treated Canadian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Sowden, Justina N; Kingston, Drew A; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gordon, Audrey; Beggs Christofferson, Sarah M; Wong, Stephen C P

    2018-04-01

    The present study examined the predictive properties of Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender version (VRS-SO) risk and change scores among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal sexual offenders in a combined sample of 1,063 Canadian federally incarcerated men. All men participated in sexual offender treatment programming through the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) at sites across its five regions. The Static-99R was also examined for comparison purposes. In total, 393 of the men were identified as Aboriginal (i.e., First Nations, Métis, Circumpolar) while 670 were non-Aboriginal and primarily White. Aboriginal men scored significantly higher on the Static-99R and VRS-SO and had higher rates of sexual and violent recidivism; however, there were no significant differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups on treatment change with both groups demonstrating close to a half-standard deviation of change pre and post treatment. VRS-SO risk and change scores significantly predicted sexual and violent recidivism over fixed 5- and 10-year follow-ups for both racial/ancestral groups. Cox regression survival analyses also demonstrated positive treatment changes to be significantly associated with reductions in sexual and violent recidivism among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men after controlling baseline risk. A series of follow-up Cox regression analyses demonstrated that risk and change score information accounted for much of the observed differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in rates of sexual recidivism; however, marked group differences persisted in rates of general violent recidivism even after controlling for these covariates. The results support the predictive properties of VRS-SO risk and change scores with treated Canadian Aboriginal sexual offenders.

  6. Supporting Aboriginal Women to Quit Smoking: Antenatal and Postnatal Care Providers' Confidence, Attitudes, and Practices.

    PubMed

    Tzelepis, Flora; Daly, Justine; Dowe, Sarah; Bourke, Alex; Gillham, Karen; Freund, Megan

    2017-05-01

    Tobacco use during pregnancy is substantially higher among Aboriginal women compared to non-Aboriginal women in Australia. However, no studies have investigated the amount or type of smoking cessation care that staff from Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal services provide to clients who smoke or staff confidence to do so. This study examined Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal staff confidence, perceived role and delivery of smoking cessation care to Aboriginal women and characteristics associated with provision of such care. Staff from 11 Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Services and eight Aboriginal Child and Family Health services in the Hunter New England Local Health District in Australia completed a cross-sectional self-reported survey (n = 67, response rate = 97.1%). Most staff reported they assessed clients' smoking status most or all of the time (92.2%). However, only a minority reported they offered a quitline referral (42.2%), provided follow-up support (28.6%) or provided nicotine replacement therapy (4.7%) to most or all clients who smoked. Few staff felt confident in motivating clients to quit smoking (19.7%) and advising clients about using nicotine replacement therapy (15.6%). Staff confident with talking to clients about how smoking affected their health had significantly higher odds of offering a quitline referral [OR = 4.9 (1.7-14.5)] and quitting assistance [OR = 3.9 (1.3-11.6)] to clients who smoke. Antenatal and postnatal staff delivery of smoking cessation care to pregnant Aboriginal women or mothers with young Aboriginal children could be improved. Programs that support Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal providers to deliver smoking cessation care to clients are needed. Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal service staff have multiple opportunities to assist Aboriginal women to quit smoking during pregnancy and postpartum. However, staff confidence and practices of offering various forms of smoking cessation support to pregnant Aboriginal

  7. Opportunistic screening to detect atrial fibrillation in Aboriginal adults in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Flaskas, Yvonne; O'Brien, Ciaran; Jeffries, Thomas Lee; McCowen, Debbie; Finlayson, Heather; Martin, Tanya; Neubeck, Lis; Freedman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a 10-year gap in life expectancy between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. The leading cause of death for Aboriginal Australians is cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction and stroke. Although atrial fibrillation (AF) is a known precursor to stroke there are no published studies about the prevalence of AF for Aboriginal people and limited evidence about AF in indigenous populations globally. Methods and analysis This mixed methods study will recruit and train Aboriginal health workers to use an iECG device attached to a smartphone to consecutively screen 1500 Aboriginal people aged 45 years and older. The study will quantify the proportion of people who presented for follow-up assessment and/or treatment following a non-normal screening and then estimate the prevalence and age distribution of AF of the Australian Aboriginal population. The study includes semistructured interviews with the Aboriginal health workers about the effectiveness of the iECG device in their practice as well as their perceptions of the acceptability of the device for their patients. Thematic analysis will be undertaken on the qualitative data collected in the study. If the device and approach are acceptable to the Aboriginal people and widely adopted, it may help prevent the effects of untreated AF including ischaemic stroke and early deaths or impairment in Aboriginal people. Ethics and dissemination This mixed methods study received ethics approval from the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council (1135/15) and the Australian Health Council of Western Australia (HREC706). Ethics approval is being sought in the Northern Territory. The findings of this study will be shared with Aboriginal communities, in peer reviewed publications and at conferences. There are Aboriginal investigators in each state/territory where the study is being conducted who have been actively involved in the study. They will also be involved in data analysis

  8. Service-Oriented Security Framework for Remote Medical Services in the Internet of Things Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Dong; Yoon, Tae Sik; Chung, Seung Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Remote medical services have been expanding globally, and this is expansion is steadily increasing. It has had many positive effects, including medical access convenience, timeliness of service, and cost reduction. The speed of research and development in remote medical technology has been gradually accelerating. Therefore, it is expected to expand to enable various high-tech information and communications technology (ICT)-based remote medical services. However, the current state lacks an appropriate security framework that can resolve security issues centered on the Internet of things (IoT) environment that will be utilized significantly in telemedicine. Methods This study developed a medical service-oriented frame work for secure remote medical services, possessing flexibility regarding new service and security elements through its service-oriented structure. First, the common architecture of remote medical services is defined. Next medical-oriented secu rity threats and requirements within the IoT environment are identified. Finally, we propose a "service-oriented security frame work for remote medical services" based on previous work and requirements for secure remote medical services in the IoT. Results The proposed framework is a secure framework based on service-oriented cases in the medical environment. A com parative analysis focusing on the security elements (confidentiality, integrity, availability, privacy) was conducted, and the analysis results demonstrate the security of the proposed framework for remote medical services with IoT. Conclusions The proposed framework is service-oriented structure. It can support dynamic security elements in accordance with demands related to new remote medical services which will be diversely generated in the IoT environment. We anticipate that it will enable secure services to be provided that can guarantee confidentiality, integrity, and availability for all, including patients, non-patients, and medical

  9. Service-Oriented Security Framework for Remote Medical Services in the Internet of Things Environment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Dong; Yoon, Tae Sik; Chung, Seung Hyun; Cha, Hyo Soung

    2015-10-01

    Remote medical services have been expanding globally, and this is expansion is steadily increasing. It has had many positive effects, including medical access convenience, timeliness of service, and cost reduction. The speed of research and development in remote medical technology has been gradually accelerating. Therefore, it is expected to expand to enable various high-tech information and communications technology (ICT)-based remote medical services. However, the current state lacks an appropriate security framework that can resolve security issues centered on the Internet of things (IoT) environment that will be utilized significantly in telemedicine. This study developed a medical service-oriented frame work for secure remote medical services, possessing flexibility regarding new service and security elements through its service-oriented structure. First, the common architecture of remote medical services is defined. Next medical-oriented secu rity threats and requirements within the IoT environment are identified. Finally, we propose a "service-oriented security frame work for remote medical services" based on previous work and requirements for secure remote medical services in the IoT. The proposed framework is a secure framework based on service-oriented cases in the medical environment. A com parative analysis focusing on the security elements (confidentiality, integrity, availability, privacy) was conducted, and the analysis results demonstrate the security of the proposed framework for remote medical services with IoT. The proposed framework is service-oriented structure. It can support dynamic security elements in accordance with demands related to new remote medical services which will be diversely generated in the IoT environment. We anticipate that it will enable secure services to be provided that can guarantee confidentiality, integrity, and availability for all, including patients, non-patients, and medical staff.

  10. Outpatient alcohol withdrawal management for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

    PubMed

    Brett, Jonathan; Lawrence, Leanne; Ivers, Rowena; Conigrave, Kate

    2014-08-01

    There is concern from within Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities about the lack of access to alcohol withdrawal management ('detox') services. Outpatient detox is described within national Australian guidelines as a safe option for selected drinkers. However, uncertainly exists as to how suited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are to this approach. 
 Consultations were conducted with stakeholders of four health services providing outpatient detox for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in NSW. Thematic analysis was performed to determine elements perceived as important for success. Key themes that emerged were individual engagement, flexibility, assessment of suitability, Aboriginal staff and community engagement, practical support, counselling, staff education and support, coping with relapse and contingency planning. 
 There is a need to improve access to alcohol detox services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The outpatient setting seems to be a feasible and safe environment to provide this kind of service for selected drinkers.

  11. Complicated grief in Aboriginal populations

    PubMed Central

    Spiwak, Rae; Sareen, Jitender; Elias, Brenda; Martens, Patricia; Munro, Garry; Bolton, James

    2012-01-01

    To date there have been no studies examining complicated grief (CG) in Aboriginal populations. Although this research gap exists, it can be hypothesized that Aboriginal populations may be at increased risk for CG, given a variety of factors, including increased rates of all-cause mortality and death by suicide. Aboriginal people also have a past history of multiple stressors resulting from the effects of colonization and forced assimilation, a significant example being residential school placement. This loss of culture and high rates of traumatic events may place Aboriginal individuals at increased risk for suicide, as well as CG resulting from traumatic loss and suicide bereavement. Studies are needed to examine CG in Aboriginal populations. These studies must include cooperation with Aboriginal communities to help identify risk factors for CG, understand the role of culture among these communities, and identify interventions to reduce poor health outcomes such as suicidal behavior. PMID:22754293

  12. Shuttle abort landing site emergency medical services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenas, David K.; Jennings, Richard T.

    1991-01-01

    NASA and DOD studies of medical-planning and logistical problems are reviewed as applicable to providing emergency medical care at remote transoceanic abort landing (TAL) sites. Two options are analyzed including a modified surgical response team and a combination physician/medical technician team. The two concepts are examined in terms of cost-effectiveness, specific types of medical support such as blood procurement, and search-and-rescue requirements. It is found that the physician/technician team is more economically efficient, and the description of the concept permits the development of an effective TAL-site astronaut medical-support system. A balance is struck between the competing problems of cost and medical capability by planning for on-scene medical stabilization and air evacuation to DOD tertiary medical centers.

  13. Stressful life events and resilience among carers of Aboriginal children in urban New South Wales: cross-sectional findings from the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH).

    PubMed

    Young, Christian; Craig, Jonathan C; Clapham, Kathleen; Williams, Sandra; Williamson, Anna

    2018-06-06

    In caregivers of urban Aboriginal children, to determine the frequency of major stressful life events, the proportion who meet criteria for resilience, and factors that are associated with resilience. Cross-sectional survey. Four Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services located in urban or regional areas in New South Wales, Australia. 574 caregivers of Aboriginal children participating in the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health. Resilience, defined as having experienced three or more stressful life events in the last 12 months, and having scores of ≤21 on the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress scale. Over half (315, 55%) of the caregivers reported three or more stressful life events-the most common being a close family member who was hospitalised with a serious medical problem (259, 45%). Of the participants who experienced three or more stressful life events, almost three-quarters (227, 72%) met the criteria for resilience. Using multivariable analysis, two factors were independently associated with resilience: not having a physical health problem that limited normal activities (adjusted OR (aOR) 4.3; 95% CI 2.0 to 9.0), and not having problems caused by alcohol within the home (aOR 5.3; 95% CI 2.2 to 12.8). Having a child whose behaviour placed a great deal of burden on the family was associated with less resilience (aOR 0.25; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.68). Caregivers of urban Aboriginal children experienced a large number of stressful events, the most common being the poor health of close family members, but most exhibited resilience. Resilience was associated with stable family environments and good physical health. The high number of stressful life events that caregivers experience is reflective of broader inequalities that Aboriginal communities face. The availability of easily accessible and long-term health and support services may go some way to reducing this inequality and improving social and emotional well-being for

  14. 'Partnerships are crucial': an evaluation of the Aboriginal Family Birthing Program in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Philippa; Bubner, Tanya; Glover, Karen; Rumbold, Alice; Weetra, Donna; Scheil, Wendy; Brown, Stephanie

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate implementation and outcomes of the Aboriginal Family Birthing Program (AFBP), which provides culturally competent antenatal, intrapartum and early postnatal care for Aboriginal families across South Australia (SA). Analysis of births to Aboriginal women in SA 2010-2012; interviews with health professionals and AFBP clients. Around a third of all Aboriginal women giving birth in SA 2010-2012 (n=486) attended AFBP services. AFBP women were more likely to be more socially disadvantaged, have poorer pregnancy health and to have inadequate numbers of antenatal visits than Aboriginal women attending other services. Even with greater social disadvantage and higher clinical complexity, pregnancy outcomes were similar for AFBP and other Aboriginal women. Interviews with 107 health professionals (including 20 Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Care (AMIC) workers) indicated differing levels of commitment to the model, with some lack of clarity about AMIC workers and midwives roles. Interviews with 20 AFBP clients showed they highly valued care from another Aboriginal woman. Despite challenges, the AFBP reaches out to women with the greatest need, providing culturally appropriate, effective care through partnerships. Implications for Public Health: Programs like the AFBP need to be expanded and supported to improve maternal and child health outcomes for Aboriginal families. © 2016 The Authors.

  15. Planning, implementing, and evaluating a program to address the oral health needs of aboriginal children in port augusta, australia.

    PubMed

    Parker, E J; Misan, G; Shearer, M; Richards, L; Russell, A; Mills, H; Jamieson, L M

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1) quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2) identifying factors influencing participation, and (3) planning and establishing a program for delivery of Aboriginal children's dental services that would increase participation and adapt to community needs. In planning the program, levels of participation were quantified and key issues identified through semistructured interviews. After 3.5 years, the participation rate for dental care among the target population increased from 53 to 70 percent. Key areas were identified to encourage further improvements and ensure sustainability in Aboriginal child oral health in this regional location.

  16. Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating a Program to Address the Oral Health Needs of Aboriginal Children in Port Augusta, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Parker, E. J.; Misan, G.; Shearer, M.; Richards, L.; Russell, A.; Mills, H.; Jamieson, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1) quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2) identifying factors influencing participation, and (3) planning and establishing a program for delivery of Aboriginal children's dental services that would increase participation and adapt to community needs. In planning the program, levels of participation were quantified and key issues identified through semistructured interviews. After 3.5 years, the participation rate for dental care among the target population increased from 53 to 70 percent. Key areas were identified to encourage further improvements and ensure sustainability in Aboriginal child oral health in this regional location. PMID:22577401

  17. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  18. Educational technology infrastructure and services in North American medical schools.

    PubMed

    Kamin, Carol; Souza, Kevin H; Heestand, Diane; Moses, Anna; O'Sullivan, Patricia

    2006-07-01

    To describe the current educational technology infrastructure and services provided by North American allopathic medical schools that are members of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), to present information needed for institutional benchmarking. A Web-based survey instrument was developed and administered in the fall of 2004 by the authors, sent to representatives of 137 medical schools and completed by representatives of 88, a response rate of 64%. Schools were given scores for infrastructure and services provided. Data were analyzed with one-way analyses of variance, chi-square, and correlation coefficients. There was no difference in the number of infrastructure features or services offered based on region of the country, public versus private schools, or size of graduating class. Schools implemented 3.0 (SD = 1.5) of 6 infrastructure items and offered 11.6 (SD = 4.1) of 22 services. Over 90% of schools had wireless access (97%), used online course materials for undergraduate medical education (97%), course management system for graduate medical education (95%) and online teaching evaluations (90%). Use of services differed across the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing medical education continuum. Outside of e-portfolios for undergraduates, the least-offered services were for services to graduate and continuing medical education. The results of this survey provide a benchmark for the level of services and infrastructure currently supporting educational technology by AAMC-member allopathic medical schools.

  19. 78 FR 30727 - Emergency Medical Services Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Medical Services Week, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In every.... During Emergency Medical Services Week, we pause to offer our gratitude to these remarkable men and women, whose dedication is fundamental to our society's well-being. In recent weeks, we have again seen the...

  20. Community as Teacher Model: Health Profession Students Learn Cultural Safety from an Aboriginal Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Cathy C.; Godolphin, William J.; Chhina, Gagun S.; Towle, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Communication between health care professionals and Aboriginal patients is complicated by cultural differences and the enduring effects of colonization. Health care providers need better training to meet the needs of Aboriginal patients and communities. We describe the development and outcomes of a community-driven service-learning program in…

  1. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6... provision by nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons of in-kind donations of medicine, medical...

  2. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6... provision by nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons of in-kind donations of medicine, medical...

  3. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006, nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons are authorized to provide in-kind donations of medicine, medical devices...

  4. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006, nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons are authorized to provide in-kind donations of medicine, medical devices...

  5. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006, nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons are authorized to provide in-kind donations of medicine, medical devices...

  6. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006, nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons are authorized to provide in-kind donations of medicine, medical devices...

  7. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6... provision by nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons of in-kind donations of medicine, medical...

  8. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6... provision by nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons of in-kind donations of medicine, medical...

  9. Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at David Grant Air Force Medical Center Need Additional Management Oversight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-24

    No. DODIG-2015-179 S E P T E M B E R 2 4 , 2 0 1 5 Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at David Grant Air Force Medical Center Need Additional...us at www.dodig.mil Results in Brief Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at David Grant Air Force...Force Medical Center (DGMC) properly managed delinquent accounts over 180 days by effectively transferring the debt to the appropriate debt collection

  10. Aborigines of the Imaginary: Applying Lacan to Aboriginal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper applies the work of Jacques Lacan, a French psychoanalyst, to decipher the desire of the teacher in Aboriginal education. It argues that the images of Aboriginal people represented in Australian classrooms are effects of the teacher's Imaginary, the Imaginary being one of the three psychoanalytic domains theorised by Lacan over a period…

  11. [Medical services at Paris-Charles-de-Gaulle airport].

    PubMed

    Bargain, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Charles-de-Gaulle airport in Roissy, a 3 400 hectare citadel, contains a multitude of airlines, service companies, businesses, retailers and public services, including firefighters, police officers, customs officers, ministers and medical teams. This article presents its missions, notably with regard to health services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Aboriginal experiences of cancer and care coordination: Lessons from the Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD) narratives.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Rachel; Micklem, Jasmine; Yerrell, Paul; Banham, David; Morey, Kim; Stajic, Janet; Eckert, Marion; Lawrence, Monica; Stewart, Harold B; Brown, Alex

    2018-04-24

    Aboriginal people with cancer experience worse outcomes than other Australians for a range of complex and interrelated reasons. A younger age at diagnosis, higher likelihood of more advanced cancer or cancer type with poorer prognosis, geographic isolation and cultural and language diversity mean that patient pathways are potentially more complex for Aboriginal people with cancer. In addition, variation in the quality and acceptability of care may influence cancer outcomes. This study sought to understand how care coordination influences Aboriginal people's experiences of cancer treatment. Interviews with 29 Aboriginal patients or cancer survivors, 11 carers and 22 service providers were carried out. Interviews were semi-structured and sought to elicit experiences of cancer and the health-care system. The manifest content of the cancer narratives was entered onto a cancer pathway mapping tool and underlying themes were identified inductively. The practice of cancer care coordination was found to address the needs of Aboriginal patients and their families/carers in 4 main areas: "navigating the health system"; "information and communication"; "things to manage at home"; and "cultural safety". The CanDAD findings indicate that, when the need for cancer care coordination is met, it facilitated continuity of care in a range of ways that may potentially improve cancer outcomes. However, the need remains unmet for many. Findings support the importance of dedicated care coordination to enable Aboriginal people to receive adequate and appropriate patient-centred care, so that the unacceptable disparity in cancer outcomes between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people can be addressed. © 2018 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Substance misuse in Aboriginal Australians.

    PubMed

    Gracey, M

    1998-01-01

    Australia's Aborigines lived in isolation from the rest of humanity as successful hunter-gatherers for tens of thousands of years. That isolation ended abruptly with British colonization in the late 18th century and was followed by a traumatic 200 years for Aborigines who are now seriously disadvantaged, socio-economically and in terms of their health standards. It has often been assumed that the Aborigines had no access to psychotropic substances before permanent European contact but several pieces of evidence dispute this view. The history of Aboriginal contact with and usage of intoxicating substances, including alcohol, is extremely complex and affected by a maze of restrictive government policies. These interact with a wide range of other Federal and State policies which have changed rapidly since the late 1960s when Aborigines were first granted the franchise; access to unrestricted drinking followed soon afterwards. Today Aborigines suffer disproportionately to other Australians from the physical and social consequences of excess alcohol consumption, tobacco usage, petrol and other solvent sniffing, usage of marijuana, amphetamines, cocaine and heroin, as well as other drugs. The Aboriginal population is dispersed in cities, towns, fringe settlements, rural and remote areas over this vast continent and there are different patterns of drug usage from place to place. This review attempts to synthesize some of this information in order to give an overview to the history, background, current status of substance misuse by Aborigines as well as some strategies being used to try to overcome this serious problem.

  14. Improving delivery of health care to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Lucy; Rodrigues, Sarah; Winsor, Josephine; Warren, Shirley; Biviano, Lyn; Gunasekera, Hasantha

    2015-05-01

    To identify opportunities to improve health-care delivery for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children requiring hospital admission and to determine their characteristics. We analysed all documentation of admissions of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander children to a tertiary paediatric hospital in 2010. We reviewed the medical records to determine whether the Aboriginal status of patients was known, whether Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander children and their families were reviewed by Aboriginal staff during admission and whether basic health-care quality indicators were met, including documentation of anthropometry, ear examination findings, immunisation status and catch-up immunisation delivery. In 2010, 543 (2%) patients admitted to the institution were identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander: 140/538 (26.0%) were from the first decile (most disadvantaged) on Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas index. Of all admitted children, 148/543 (27.3%) were referred to Aboriginal health professionals during admission, more when length of stay was greater than 7 days (61% vs. 23%, P < 0.001). There was documentation of weight in 533/543 (98.2%), ear examinations in 64/543 (11.8%), immunisations being not up to date in 126/543 (23%), catch-up immunisation given in 7/126 (5.6%), Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander status in 8/543 (1.5%) medical and 1/543 (0.2%) nursing discharge summaries. We have identified several opportunities to improve culturally appropriate health-care delivery for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children admitted to hospital, including improved recognition of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander status of patients, improved access to Aboriginal health professionals and increased performance and documentation of basic anthropometry, ear examination and immunisation catch-up. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian

  15. Factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal people in Australia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Shaouli; Teng, Tiew-Hwa Katherine; Bessarab, Dawn; Aoun, Samar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives Delayed presentation of symptomatic cancer is associated with poorer survival. Aboriginal patients with cancer have higher rates of distant metastases at diagnosis compared with non-Aboriginal Australians. This paper examined factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal Australians from patient and service providers' perspectives. Methods In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted in two stages (2006–2007 and 2011). Inductive thematic analysis was assisted by use of NVivo looking around delays in presentation, diagnosis and referral for cancer. Participants Aboriginal patients with cancer/family members (n=30) and health service providers (n=62) were recruited from metropolitan Perth and six rural/remote regions of Western Australia. Results Three broad themes of factors were identified: (1) Contextual factors such as intergenerational impact of colonisation and racism and socioeconomic deprivation have negatively impacted on Aboriginal Australians' trust of the healthcare professionals; (2) health service-related factors included low accessibility to health services, long waiting periods, inadequate numbers of Aboriginal professionals and high staff turnover; (3) patient appraisal of symptoms and decision-making, fear of cancer and denial of symptoms were key reasons patients procrastinated in seeking help. Elements of shame, embarrassment, shyness of seeing the doctor, psychological ‘fear of the whole health system’, attachment to the land and ‘fear of leaving home’ for cancer treatment in metropolitan cities were other deterrents for Aboriginal people. Manifestation of masculinity and the belief that ‘health is women's domain’ emerged as a reason why Aboriginal men were reluctant to receive health checks. Conclusions Solutions to improved Aboriginal cancer outcomes include focusing on the primary care sector encouraging general practitioners to be proactive to suspicion of symptoms with appropriate

  16. Literacy in Aboriginal Education: An Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doige, Lynda A. Curwen

    2001-01-01

    A historical overview of Aboriginal education in the Maritime Provinces of Canada reveals that an Aboriginal form of literacy that existed before European contact met all the requirements of a valid literacy and is worthy of respect. Teachers' understanding and valuing of Aboriginal literacy would transform Aboriginal education. (Contains 26…

  17. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-07-01

    We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.

  18. Aboriginal Health Workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. Methods We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff) and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants) with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Results Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy level barriers. The

  19. Aboriginal health workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Anna P; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2012-05-23

    Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff) and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants) with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy level barriers. The normalisation of smoking in Aboriginal

  20. Intelligent Medical Systems for Aerospace Emergency Medical Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epler, John; Zimmer, Gary

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a portable, hands free device for emergency medical decision support to be used in remote or confined settings by non-physician providers. Phase I of the project will entail the development of a voice-activated device that will utilize an intelligent algorithm to provide guidance in establishing an airway in an emergency situation. The interactive, hands free software will process requests for assistance based on verbal prompts and algorithmic decision-making. The device will allow the CMO to attend to the patient while receiving verbal instruction. The software will also feature graphic representations where it is felt helpful in aiding in procedures. We will also develop a training program to orient users to the algorithmic approach, the use of the hardware and specific procedural considerations. We will validate the efficacy of this mode of technology application by testing in the Johns Hopkins Department of Emergency Medicine. Phase I of the project will focus on the validation of the proposed algorithm, testing and validation of the decision making tool and modifications of medical equipment. In Phase 11, we will produce the first generation software for hands-free, interactive medical decision making for use in acute care environments.

  1. Exploring Factors Affecting Emergency Medical Services Staffs' Decision about Transporting Medical Patients to Medical Facilities.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimian, Abbasali; Seyedin, Hesam; Jamshidi-Orak, Roohangiz; Masoumi, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Transfer of patients in medical emergency situations is one of the most important missions of emergency medical service (EMS) staffs. So this study was performed to explore affecting factors in EMS staffs' decision during transporting of patients in medical situations to medical facilities. The participants in this qualitative study consisted of 18 EMS staffs working in prehospital care facilities in Tehran, Iran. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews. The data were analyzed using a content analysis approach. The data analysis revealed the following theme: "degree of perceived risk in EMS staffs and their patients." This theme consisted of two main categories: (1) patient's condition' and (2) the context of the EMS mission'. The patent's condition category emerged from "physical health statuses," "socioeconomic statuses," and "cultural background" subcategories. The context of the EMS mission also emerged from two subcategories of "characteristics of the mission" and EMS staffs characteristics'. EMS system managers can consider adequate technical, informational, financial, educational, and emotional supports to facilitate the decision making of their staffs. Also, development of an effective and user-friendly checklist and scoring system was recommended for quick and easy recognition of patients' needs for transportation in a prehospital situation.

  2. Factors associated with dementia in Aboriginal Australians.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kate; Flicker, Leon; Dwyer, Anna; Atkinson, David; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; LoGiudice, Dina

    2010-10-01

    Although the prevalence of dementia in remote living Aboriginal Australians is one of the highest in the world, the factors associated with dementia in this population are yet to be examined. This study was designed to determine the demographic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with dementia in Aboriginal Australians living in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. A total of 363 Aboriginal Australians aged over 45 years from the Kimberley region were selected by semi-purposeful sampling. The factors analysed for association with dementia were age, sex, education, smoking, chewing tobacco, alcohol, head injury, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous stroke, epilepsy, falls, mobility, incontinence, urinary problems, vision and hearing. This exposure data was collected from participants' and informants' reports using the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment and specialist review, and medical records. Factors associated with dementia included older age, male gender (OR 3.1, 95%CI 1.4, 6.8) and no formal education (OR 2.7, 95%CI 1.1, 6.7) and after adjusting for age, sex and education, dementia was associated with current smoking (OR 4.5, 95%CI 1.1, 18.6), previous stroke (OR 17.9, 95%CI 5.9, 49.7), epilepsy (OR 33.5, 95%CI 4.8, 232.3), head injury (OR 4.0, 95%CI 1.7, 9.4), and poor mobility, incontinence and falls. Interventions aimed at better management or prevention of the modifiable factors identified could reduce dementia risk in Aboriginal populations.

  3. Improving rural emergency medical services (EMS) through transportation system enhancements.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-05-01

    Improved emergency medical services (EMS) will impact traffic safety and public health in rural : communities. Better planned, designed, and operated roadway networks that connect hospitals with : communities in need will enhance EMS performance. To ...

  4. Successful chronic disease care for Aboriginal Australians requires cultural competence.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Siaw Teng; Lau, Phyllis; Pyett, Priscilla; Furler, John; Burchill, Marlene; Rowley, Kevin; Kelaher, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    To review the literature to determine the attributes of culturally appropriate healthcare to inform the design of chronic disease management (CDM) models for Aboriginal patients in urban general practice. A comprehensive conceptual framework, drawing on the Access to Care, Pathway to Care, Chronic Care, Level of Connectedness, and Cultural Security, Cultural Competency and Cultural Respect models, was developed to define the search strategy, inclusion criteria and appraisal methods for the literature review. Selected papers were reviewed in detail if they examined a chronic disease intervention for an Aboriginal population and reported on its evaluation, impacts or outcomes. In the 173 papers examined, only 11 programs met the inclusion criteria. All were programs conducted in rural and remote Aboriginal community-controlled health services. Successful chronic disease care and interventions require adequate Aboriginal community engagement, utilising local knowledge, strong leadership, shared responsibilities, sustainable resources and integrated data and systems. These success factors fitted within the conceptual framework developed. Research and development of culturally appropriate CDM models concurrently in both urban and rural settings will enable more rigorous evaluation, leading to stronger evidence for best practice. A partnership of mainstream and Aboriginal-controlled health services is essential to successfully 'close the gap'. Findings will inform and guide the development, implementation and evaluation of culturally appropriate CDM in mainstream general practice and primary care. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  5. International Conference on Remote Emergency Medical Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An emergency medical system is characterized. Applications of NASA technology in biomedical telecommunication and bioinstrumentation are explored. The training and effectiveness of paramedics, technicians, nurses, and physicians are evaluated as applied to emergency situations and the operations of trauma centers. Civilian and military aeromedical evacuation is discussed.

  6. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006, nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons are authorized to provide in-kind donations of medicine...

  7. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006, nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons are authorized to provide in-kind donations of medicine...

  8. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006, nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons are authorized to provide in-kind donations of medicine...

  9. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006, nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons are authorized to provide in-kind donations of medicine...

  10. Cost associated with stroke: outpatient rehabilitative services and medication.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Kyler M; Wasserman, Joan; Ostwald, Sharon K

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to capture direct costs of outpatient rehabilitative stroke care and medications for a 1-year period after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Outpatient rehabilitative services and medication costs for 1 year, during the time period of 2001 to 2005, were calculated for 54 first-time stroke survivors. Costs for services were based on Medicare reimbursement rates. Medicaid reimbursement rates and average wholesale price were used to estimate medication costs. Of the 54 stroke survivors, 40 (74.1%) were categorized as independent, 12 (22.2%) had modified dependence, and 2 (3.7%) were dependent at the time of discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Average cost for outpatient stroke rehabilitation services and medications the first year post inpatient rehabilitation discharge was $17,081. The corresponding average yearly cost of medication was $5,392, while the average cost of yearly rehabilitation service utilization was $11,689. Cost attributed to medication remained relatively constant throughout the groups. Outpatient rehabilitation service utilization constituted a large portion of cost within each group: 69.7% (dependent), 72.5% (modified dependence), and 66.7% (independent). Stroke survivors continue to incur significant costs associated with their stroke for the first 12 months following discharge from an inpatient rehabilitation setting. Changing public policies affect the cost and availability of care. This study provides a snapshot of outpatient medication and therapy costs prior to the enactment of major changes in federal legislation and serves as a baseline for future studies.

  11. Disparities experienced by Aboriginal compared to non-Aboriginal metropolitan Western Australians in receiving coronary angiography following acute ischaemic heart disease: the impact of age and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Derrick; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Woods, John A; Hobbs, Michael S T; Knuiman, Matthew W; Briffa, Tom G; Thompson, Peter L; Thompson, Sandra C

    2014-10-21

    Aboriginal Australians have a substantially higher frequency of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) events than their non-Aboriginal counterparts, together with a higher prevalence of comorbidities. The pattern of health service provision for IHD suggests inequitable delivery of important diagnostic procedures. Published data on disparities in IHD management among Aboriginal Australians are conflicting, and the role of comorbidities has not been adequately delineated. We compared the profiles of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients in the metropolitan area undergoing emergency IHD admissions at Western Australian metropolitan hospitals, and investigated the determinants of receiving coronary angiography. Person-linked administrative hospital and mortality records were used to identify 28-day survivors of IHD emergency admission events (n =20,816) commencing at metropolitan hospitals in 2005-09. The outcome measure was receipt of angiography. The Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal risk ratio (RR) was estimated from a multivariable Poisson log-linear regression model with allowance for multiple IHD events in individuals. The subgroup of myocardial infarction (MI) events was modelled separately. Compared with their non-Aboriginal counterparts, Aboriginal IHD patients were younger and more likely to have comorbidities. In the age- and sex-adjusted model, Aboriginal patients were less likely than others to receive angiography (RRIHD 0.77, 95% CI 0.72-0.83; RRMI 0.81, 95% CI 0.75-0.87) but in the full multivariable model this disparity was accounted for by comorbidities as well as IHD category and MI subtype, and private health insurance (RRIHD 0.95, 95% CI 0.89-1.01; RRMI 0.94, 95% CI 0.88-1.01). When stratified by age groups, this disparity was not significant in the 25-54 year age group (RRMI 0.95, 95% CI 0.88-1.02) but was significant in the 55-84 year age group (RRMI 0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.99). The disproportionate under-management of older Aboriginal IHD patients is of

  12. 2009–2010 Influenza A(H1N1)-related critical illness among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians

    PubMed Central

    Jung, James J.; Pinto, Ruxandra; Zarychanski, Ryan; Cook, Deborah J.; Jouvet, Philippe; Marshall, John C.; Kumar, Anand; Long, Jennifer; Rodin, Rachel; Fowler, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Preliminary studies suggested that Aboriginal Canadians had disproportionately higher rates of infection, hospitalization, and critical illness due to pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Methods We used a prospective cohort study of critically ill patients with laboratory confirmed or probable H1N1 infection in Canada between April 16 2009 and April 12 2010. Baseline characteristics, medical interventions, clinical course and outcomes were compared between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. Results Of 647 critically ill adult patients with known ethnicity, 81 (12.5%) were Aboriginal, 566 (87.5%) were non-Aboriginal. Aboriginal patients were younger (mean [SD] age 40.7[13.7] v. 49.0[14.9] years, p < 0.001) and more frequently female (64.2% v. 51.1%, p = 0.027). Rates of any co-morbid illnesses (Aboriginal v. non-Aboriginal, 92.6% v. 91.0%, p = 0.63), time from symptom onset to hospital admission (median [interquartile range] 4 [2–7] v. 4 [2–7] days, p = 0.84), time to ICU admission (5 [3–8] v.5 [3–8] days, p = 0.91), and severity of illness (mean APACHE II score (19.9 [9.6] v. 21.1 [9.9], p = 0.33) were similar. A similar proportion of Aboriginal patients received antiviral medication before ICU admission than non-Aboriginal patients (91.4% v. 93.8%, p = 0.40). Among Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal patients, the need for mechanical ventilation (93.8% v. 88.6%, p = 0.15), ventilator-free days (14 [3–23] v. 17 [0–24], p = 0.62), durations of stay in ICU (13[7-19.5] v. 11 [5–8] days, p = 0.05), hospital (19 [12.5-33.5] v. 18 [11-35] days, p = 0.63), and hospital mortality were similar (19.8% v. 22.6%, p = 0.56). In multiple logistic regression analyses, higher APACHE II score (1.06; 1.04-1.09, p<0.001) was independently associated with an increased risk of death; antiviral treatment with a lower risk of death (0.34; 0.15 – 0.78, p = 0.01). Ethnicity was not associated with mortality

  13. [Design of medical equipment service management system].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Youhao; PengWen; Jiang, Ningfeng; Ma, Li; Kong, Lingwei; Yin, PeiHao; Sun, Cheng

    2012-09-01

    To develop a maintenance management system for medical equipment based on HIS. The system contains some special functions( including preventive maintenance, automatic job dispatch, performance assessment, etc.) which are very useful for confirming the medical equipment in proper conditions and promoting the working efficiency of the staff. The system provides technical support for the improvement of the maintenance management level. The system, completed the software design using C/S, B/S combination mode. The system realized clients of various sections of zero maintenance, and make the data manipulation, statistical features of equipment management department more convenient. the system connects the subsystems closer and interacts information from time to time, forming a tight network structure. This provides a basis for future hospital-wide information integration.

  14. [Ways of improving medical services for schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Korenev, N M; Novikova, V N; Gaĭdaĭ, V Ia; Bulaga, L P; Komlik, P V

    1990-01-01

    The protection and promotion of schoolchildren's health might be ensured by means of differential approach to the use of different forms of organization of medical provision and its further improvement with due regard for regional conditions. The development of All-union programme "Schoolchildren" is needed which would provide for a scientific base for improving organizational and health-promoting activities at general education schools and boarding schools.

  15. Blending Aboriginal and Western healing methods to treat intergenerational trauma with substance use disorder in Aboriginal peoples who live in northeastern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Teresa Naseba; Coholic, Diana; Cote-Meek, Sheila; Najavits, Lisa M

    2015-05-20

    As with many Indigenous groups around the world, Aboriginal communities in Canada face significant challenges with trauma and substance use. The complexity of symptoms that accompany intergenerational trauma and substance use disorders represents major challenges in the treatment of both disorders. There appears to be an underutilization of substance use and mental health services, substantial client dropout rates, and an increase in HIV infections in Aboriginal communities in Canada. The aim of this paper is to explore and evaluate current literature on how traditional Aboriginal healing methods and the Western treatment model "Seeking Safety" could be blended to help Aboriginal peoples heal from intergenerational trauma and substance use disorders. A literature search was conducted using the keywords: intergenerational trauma, historical trauma, Seeking Safety, substance use, Two-Eyed Seeing, Aboriginal spirituality, and Aboriginal traditional healing. Through a literature review of Indigenous knowledge, most Indigenous scholars proposed that the wellness of an Aboriginal community can only be adequately measured from within an Indigenous knowledge framework that is holistic, inclusive, and respectful of the balance between the spiritual, emotional, physical, and social realms of life. Their findings indicate that treatment interventions must honour the historical context and history of Indigenous peoples. Furthermore, there appears to be strong evidence that strengthening cultural identity, community integration, and political empowerment can enhance and improve mental health and substance use disorders in Aboriginal populations. In addition, Seeking Safety was highlighted as a well-studied model with most populations, resulting in healing. The provided recommendations seek to improve the treatment and healing of Aboriginal peoples presenting with intergenerational trauma and addiction. Other recommendations include the input of qualitative and quantitative

  16. Medication reconciliation service in Tan Tock Seng Hospital.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sia Beng; Shan, Janice Chan Pei; Hong, Goh Lay

    2013-01-01

    Medication reconciliation is integral to every hospital. Approximately 60 percent of all hospital medication errors occur at admission, intra-hospital transfer or discharge. Effectively and consistently performing medication reconciliation at care-interfaces continues to be a challenge. Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH) averages 4,700 admissions monthly. Many patients are elderly (> 65 years old) at risk from poly-pharmacy. As part of a medication safety initiative, pharmacy staff started a medication reconciliation service in 2007, which expanded to include all patients in October 2009. This article aims to describe the TTSH medication reconciliation system and to highlight common medication errors occurring following incomplete medication reconciliation. Where possible, patients admitted into TTSH are seen by pharmacy staff within 24 hours of admission. A form was created to document their medications, which is filed into the case sheets for referencing purposes. Any discrepancies in medicines are brought to doctors' attention. Patients are also counseled about changes to their medications. Errors picked up were captured in an Excel database. The most common medication error was prescribers missing out medications. The second commonest was recording different doses and regimens. The reason was mainly due to doctors transcribing medications inaccurately. This is a descriptive study and no statistical tests were carried out. Data entry was done by different pharmacy staff, and not a dedicated person; hence, data might be under-reported. The findings demonstrate the importance of medication reconciliation on admission. Accurate medication reconciliation can help to reduce transcription errors and improve service quality. The article highlights medication reconciliation's importance and has implications for healthcare professionals in all countries.

  17. Validation of risk assessment scales and predictors of intentions to quit smoking in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: a cross-sectional survey protocol

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; McEwen, Andy; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco smoking is a very significant behavioural risk factor for the health of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, and is embedded as a social norm. With a focus on women of childbearing age, and men of similar age, this project aims to determine how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers assess smoking risks and how these assessments contribute to their intentions to quit. The findings from this pragmatic study should contribute to developing culturally targeted interventions. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional study using quantitative and qualitative data. A total of 120 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members aged 18–45 years will be recruited at community events and through an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS). Participants will be interviewed using a tablet computer or paper survey. The survey instrument uses modified risk behaviour scales, that is, the Risk Behaviour Diagnosis (RBD) scale and the Smoking Risk Assessment Target (SRAT) (adapted from the Risk Acceptance Ladder) to determine whether attitudes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers to health risk messages are predictors of intentions to quit smoking. The questionnaire will be assessed for face and content validity with a panel of Indigenous community members. The internal consistency of the RBD subscales and their patterns of correlation will be explored. Multivariate analyses will examine predictors of intentions to quit. This will include demographics such as age, gender, nicotine dependence, household smoking rules and perceived threat from smoking and efficacy for quitting. The two risk-assessment scales will be examined to see whether participant responses are correlated. Ethics and dissemination The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council Ethics Committee and university ethics committees approved the study. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and a community report will be

  18. Validation of risk assessment scales and predictors of intentions to quit smoking in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: a cross-sectional survey protocol.

    PubMed

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; McEwen, Andy; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2014-06-05

    Tobacco smoking is a very significant behavioural risk factor for the health of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, and is embedded as a social norm. With a focus on women of childbearing age, and men of similar age, this project aims to determine how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers assess smoking risks and how these assessments contribute to their intentions to quit. The findings from this pragmatic study should contribute to developing culturally targeted interventions. A cross-sectional study using quantitative and qualitative data. A total of 120 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members aged 18-45 years will be recruited at community events and through an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS). Participants will be interviewed using a tablet computer or paper survey. The survey instrument uses modified risk behaviour scales, that is, the Risk Behaviour Diagnosis (RBD) scale and the Smoking Risk Assessment Target (SRAT) (adapted from the Risk Acceptance Ladder) to determine whether attitudes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers to health risk messages are predictors of intentions to quit smoking. The questionnaire will be assessed for face and content validity with a panel of Indigenous community members. The internal consistency of the RBD subscales and their patterns of correlation will be explored. Multivariate analyses will examine predictors of intentions to quit. This will include demographics such as age, gender, nicotine dependence, household smoking rules and perceived threat from smoking and efficacy for quitting. The two risk-assessment scales will be examined to see whether participant responses are correlated. The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council Ethics Committee and university ethics committees approved the study. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and a community report will be disseminated by the ACCHS, and at community forums. We use the

  19. Web-Based Medical Service: Technology Attractiveness, Medical Creditability, Information Source, and Behavior Intention.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan Huei

    2017-08-02

    Web-based medical service (WBMS), a cooperative relationship between medical service and Internet technology, has been called one of the most innovative services of the 21st century. However, its business promotion and implementation in the medical industry have neither been expected nor executed. Few studies have explored this phenomenon from the viewpoint of inexperienced patients. The primary goal of this study was to explore whether technology attractiveness, medical creditability, and diversified medical information sources could increase users' behavior intention. This study explored the effectiveness of web-based medical service by using three situations to manipulate sources of medical information. A total of 150 questionnaires were collected from people who had never used WBMS before. Hierarchical regression was used to examine the mediation and moderated-mediation effects. Perceived ease of use (P=.002) and perceived usefulness (P=.001) significantly enhance behavior intentions. Medical credibility is a mediator (P=.03), but the relationship does not significantly differ under diverse manipulative information channels (P=.39). Medical credibility could explain the extra variation between technology attractiveness and behavior intention, but not significant under different moderating effect of medical information sources. ©Shan Huei Wang. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 02.08.2017.

  20. Utilization of counseling services at one medical school.

    PubMed

    Chang, Elaine; Eddins-Folensbee, Florence; Porter, Ben; Coverdale, John

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usage of mental health counseling services by medical students. Medical students experience high rates of burnout, depression, and suicidal ideation. Our medical school (Baylor) provides free professional counseling services. The authors administered a survey that included a burnout scale; a depression screen; and questions about demographics, usage of counseling services, and helpful coping mechanisms for 526 first-through third-year students (336 respondents) at one school. Approximately 24% of students with high rates of burnout and 24% of students with depressive symptoms took advantage of counseling services at least once. Of the students who had not used counseling services, approximately 49% were found to have high rates of burnout in the domain of emotional exhaustion. Similarly, of the students who had not accessed counseling services, 56% had depressive symptoms. A large percentage of medical students across three classes did not use mental health counseling services provided by the school. Students should be clearly informed about the availability of counseling services and their potential utility. In addition, specific barriers to attendance should be identified and reduced.

  1. Evidence for Overuse of Medical Services Around the World

    PubMed Central

    Brownlee, Shannon; Chalkidou, Kalipso; Doust, Jenny; Elshaug, Adam G.; Glasziou, Paul; Heath, Iona; Nagpal, Somil; Saini, Vikas; Srivastava, Divya; Chalmers, Kelsey; Korenstein, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Summary Overuse, which is defined as the provision of medical services that are more likely to cause harm than good, is a global problem that afflicts rich and poor countries alike. This article reviews the definition of overuse, methods for measuring overuse, harms from overuse, and the evidence for worldwide overuse of many types of services. PMID:28077234

  2. Fees for Service in Medical Library Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cheshier, Robert G.

    1972-01-01

    In 1969 the Cleveland Health Sciences Library began an Institutional Membership. This was to be a fee-for-service arrangement to provide for library service, consultation on library and related matters, and development of educational programs for a wide range of institutional staff. Over fifty institutions now belong. Experience suggests that serious questions are raised by such a relationship between a resource library and libraries in a number of institutions. The membership involves a per capita cost for Cleveland hospitals with house staff, and a cost-plus-fixed-fee for others. Total access has been provided in hopes that experience in use can lead to the development of costs and policies. PMID:16017608

  3. [The digital information platform after-sale service of medical equipment].

    PubMed

    Cao, Shaoping; Li, Bin

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the after-sale service of medical equipment information management platform, with large data sharing resources to further enhance customer service in the whole management process of medical service, to strengthen quality management, to control medical risk.

  4. 77 FR 46802 - National Emergency Medical Services Advisory Council (NEMSAC); Notice of Federal Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ...-0100] National Emergency Medical Services Advisory Council (NEMSAC); Notice of Federal Advisory... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice--National Emergency Medical Services Advisory Council. SUMMARY: The... NEMSAC is to provide a nationally recognized council of emergency medical services representatives and...

  5. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  6. The mouth as a site of structural inequalities; the experience of Aboriginal Australians.

    PubMed

    Durey, A; Bessarab, D; Slack-Smith, L

    2016-06-01

    To address the mouth as a site of structural inequalities looking through the lens of Aboriginal Australian experience. This is a critical review of published literature relevant to our objective. Criteria for selection included articles on: the social context of oral and general health inequalities for Aboriginal Australians; Aboriginal perceptions and meanings of the mouth and experiences of oral health care and the role of the current political-economic climate in promoting or compromising oral health for Aboriginal Australians. Evidence suggests oral health is important for Aboriginal Australians yet constrained by challenges beyond their control as individuals, including accessing dental services. Competing demands on limited budgets often led to oral health dropping off the radar unless there was an emergency. Structural (social, political and economic) factors often inhibited Aboriginal people making optimum health choices to prevent oral disease and access services for treatment. Factors included cost of services, limited education about oral health, intense advertising of sugary drinks and discrimination from service providers. Yet the literature indicates individuals, rather than structural factors, are held responsible and blamed for the poor state of their oral health. The current neoliberal climate focuses on individual responsibility for health and wellbeing often ignoring the social context. To avoid the mouth becoming an ongoing site for structural inequality, critically reviewing oral health policies and practices for whether they promote or compromise Aboriginal Australians' oral health is a step towards accountability-related oral health outcomes.

  7. [Medical aid service by Pierre Deniker].

    PubMed

    Goursolas, François

    2005-01-01

    In 1943 one hundred of young medical students of Paris made up a centre of First Aid Workers for the French Resistance directed by Professor Pasteur Vallery-Radot and Pierre Deniker. In 1944 they were enrolled in the French Army of the Resistance (F.F.I.). In military uniform, they were used to take care of the civilian population after bombing of towns. In Alsace and Lorraine they replaced some dead or deportee practitioners and took part in treating the returning persons from Germany particularly the deportees and the prisoners of war. They started again their studies at the end of the war.

  8. Abortion Services and Military Medical Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-08

    long -lasting physical health damage to the mother would result if the pregnancy were carried to term when so determined by two physicians. Nor are...with regard to the “severe and long -lasting physical health damage to the mother that would result if the pregnancy were carried to term when so...in uniform by as much as 50%.42 Under the Administration’s long - term defense spending plans, 5,600 civilian medical personnel will be cut from the

  9. [Investigation of cost and medical service fee for pharmaceutical management in home medical care].

    PubMed

    Honma, Katsuaki; Sakai, Ritsuko; Takeshima, Akiko; Shimamori, Yoshimitsu; Hayase, Yukitoshi

    2004-10-01

    Due to the evolvement of the aged society and the steep rise in medical costs, the environment encircling the medical care industry has been changing remarkably. For this reason, it has become both necessary and fundamental for a community pharmacist to participate in home medical care through the pharmaceutical management service. We have studied the associated costs and medical service fees for pharmaceutical management in home medical care. The costs and medical service fees were calculated based on the pharmaceutical management service data collected during the three years from November 1998 to October 2001. As a result, the medical service fees were calculated using the old system which lasted until March 2002. Calculations using this system took into account 550 points per visit, up to two visits per month. Under the new system which started in April 2002, the number of visits taken into account is four times a month, 500 points for the first visit, 300 points from the second through to the forth visit. Then, we simulated a break-even point (BEP). It is clear that it is difficult for any community pharmacy to be specialized in home medical care. In order for the pharmacist to actively participate in home medical care in the future, it is necessary to further improve the system.

  10. Missed opportunities in educating Aboriginal Australians about bowel cancer screening: whose job is it anyway?

    PubMed

    Christou, Aliki; Thompson, Sandra C

    2013-12-01

    A culturally relevant educational flipchart targeting Aboriginal people was distributed across Western Australia to support education on bowel cancer screening and encourage participation in the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program. Respondents sampled from the flipchart distribution list were surveyed on the appropriateness, usefulness, and the extent to and manner in which they used the flipchart for educating Aboriginal clients. Despite praising the resource, few respondents used the flipchart as intended for various reasons, including the view that Aboriginal health education was the responsibility of Aboriginal health workers. Greater recognition by all health service providers is needed of their potential role in Aboriginal health education. Promoting a national health program of under-appreciated importance for a marginalised population is challenging. Effective utilisation of an educational tool is predicated on factors beyond its production quality and wide dissemination. Intended users require awareness of the underlying problem, and adequate time for and specific training in implementation of the tool.

  11. The Koori Growing Old Well Study: investigating aging and dementia in urban Aboriginal Australians.

    PubMed

    Radford, Kylie; Mack, Holly A; Robertson, Hamish; Draper, Brian; Chalkley, Simon; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert; Bennett, Hayley; Jackson Pulver, Lisa; Broe, Gerald A

    2014-06-01

    Dementia is an emerging health priority in Australian Aboriginal communities, but substantial gaps remain in our understanding of this issue, particularly for the large urban section of the population. In remote Aboriginal communities, high prevalence rates of dementia at relatively young ages have been reported. The current study is investigating aging, cognitive decline, and dementia in older urban/regional Aboriginal Australians. We partnered with five Aboriginal communities across the eastern Australian state of New South Wales, to undertake a census of all Aboriginal men and women aged 60 years and over residing in these communities. This was followed by a survey of the health, well-being, and life history of all consenting participants. Participants were also screened using three cognitive instruments. Those scoring below designated cut-offs, and a 20% random sample of those scoring above (i.e. "normal" range), completed a contact person interview (with a nominated family member) and medical assessment (blind to initial screening results), which formed the basis of "gold standard" clinical consensus determinations of cognitive impairment and dementia. This paper details our protocol for a population-based study in collaboration with local Aboriginal community organizations. The study will provide the first available prevalence rates for dementia and cognitive impairment in a representative sample of urban Aboriginal people, across city and rural communities, where the majority of Aboriginal Australians live. It will also contribute to improved assessment of dementia and cognitive impairment and to the understanding of social determinants of successful aging, of international significance.

  12. The Sharing Circle of Wisdom: A Group for Elderly Aboriginals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson-Hoggan, Donovan; And Others

    Personal interviews with clients of the Calgary Indian Friendship Center and two other similar centers established a need for a program to enhance the social functioning of elderly aboriginals in Calgary. The needs focused on lack of transportation, inaccessible or inadequate medical care, isolation, elder abuse, and inadequate housing. The…

  13. [Medical audits contribute to good and comparable health services].

    PubMed

    Arntzen, Elisabeth; Mikkelsen, Bente

    2007-01-04

    In 2004, the board of Eastern Norwegian Regional Health Authority (HelseØst RHF) decided that medical audits should be carried out in the treatment of cerebral stroke and breast cancer and in the mental health services. The objective was to establish to what extent the best practice is followed, to learn from each other, and to obtain help and advice. The medical audits were based on guidelines in ISO and were carried out under the leadership of external medical audit leaders, medical experts and medical auditors from the region. The results show that, on the whole, the patients are offered satisfactory treatment, but improvement is needed. The number of breast-preserving operations could be increased, treatment should be offered in a cerebral stroke unit to all those with acute cerebral stroke and suicide assessments should be improved. Most improvement measures were started quickly and were followed up by directors and local boards. HelseØst RHF followed up the general improvement suggestions. The medical audits were well received by health enterprises. In order to carry out medical audits the following is needed; national medical standards or summarized information on the best practice where standards are not defined. The regional health enterprises can use medical audits to assess the standard of treatment in risk zones, thus ensuring that uniform services are available for the population. Medical audits provide a good tool for preserving quality.

  14. Web-Based Medical Service: Technology Attractiveness, Medical Creditability, Information Source, and Behavior Intention

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Web-based medical service (WBMS), a cooperative relationship between medical service and Internet technology, has been called one of the most innovative services of the 21st century. However, its business promotion and implementation in the medical industry have neither been expected nor executed. Few studies have explored this phenomenon from the viewpoint of inexperienced patients. Objective The primary goal of this study was to explore whether technology attractiveness, medical creditability, and diversified medical information sources could increase users’ behavior intention. Methods This study explored the effectiveness of web-based medical service by using three situations to manipulate sources of medical information. A total of 150 questionnaires were collected from people who had never used WBMS before. Hierarchical regression was used to examine the mediation and moderated-mediation effects. Results Perceived ease of use (P=.002) and perceived usefulness (P=.001) significantly enhance behavior intentions. Medical credibility is a mediator (P=.03), but the relationship does not significantly differ under diverse manipulative information channels (P=.39). Conclusions Medical credibility could explain the extra variation between technology attractiveness and behavior intention, but not significant under different moderating effect of medical information sources. PMID:28768608

  15. An overview of infusing service-learning in medical education.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Trae; Wubbena, Zane

    2014-08-04

    To identify and review existing empirical research about service-learning and medical education and then to develop a framework for infusing service-learning in Doctor of Medicine or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine curricula. We selected literature on service-learning and medical education. Articles were screened with a protocol for inclusion or exclusion at two separate stages. At stage one, articles were screened according to their titles, abstracts, and keywords. The second stage involved a full-text review. Finally, a thematic analysis using focused and selective coding was conducted. Eighteen studies were analyzed spanning the years 1998 to 2012. The results from our analysis informed the development of a four-stage service-learning framework: 1) planning and preparation, 2) action, 3) reflection and demonstration, and 4) assessment and celebration. The presented service-learning framework can be used to develop curricula for the infusion of service-learning in medical school. Service-learning curricula in medical education have the potential to provide myriad benefits to faculty, students, community members, and university-community partnerships.

  16. An overview of infusing service-learning in medical education

    PubMed Central

    Wubbena, Zane

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify and review existing empirical research about service-learning and medical education and then to develop a framework for infusing service-learning in Doctor of Medicine or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine curricula. Methods We selected literature on service-learning and medical education. Articles were screened with a protocol for inclusion or exclusion at two separate stages. At stage one, articles were screened according to their titles, abstracts, and keywords. The second stage involved a full-text review. Finally, a thematic analysis using focused and selective coding was conducted. Results Eighteen studies were analyzed spanning the years 1998 to 2012. The results from our analysis informed the development of a four-stage service-learning framework: 1) planning and preparation, 2) action, 3) reflection and demonstration, and 4) assessment and celebration. Conclusions The presented service-learning framework can be used to develop curricula for the infusion of service-learning in medical school. Service-learning curricula in medical education have the potential to provide myriad benefits to faculty, students, community members, and university-community partnerships. PMID:25341224

  17. [Influence of contractual medical association on inpatient service performance].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-jun; Jian, Wei-yan

    2015-06-18

    To study the influence of contractual medical association on inpatient service performance. The data came from "Database of Inpatient Record" administered by Department of Medical Insurance. Using diagnosis related groups (DRG) as the tool of risk-adjustment, the third-tier general hospitals and second-tier general hospitals in medical alliance as the intervention group, and the average level of the same grade local hospitals as the control group, the influence of medical alliance on inpatient service performance was evaluated. The difference in difference (DID) method was used for the data analysis. The assessing indicators included the number of DRG group, case mix index (CMI), the total weight, cost efficiency index and time efficiency index. After the establishment of medical association, compared with the average level of the same grade local hospitals, in the third-tier general hospitals of medical alliance, the growth rate of the total weight had declined, and cost efficiency index had increased, while in the second-tier general hospitals of medical alliance, the CMI value had declined, and the cost efficiency index had increased. Contractual medical association played a role of triage patients, and improved the service levels and management efficiency of the second-tier general hospitals.

  18. Content-based management service for medical videos.

    PubMed

    Mendi, Engin; Bayrak, Coskun; Cecen, Songul; Ermisoglu, Emre

    2013-01-01

    Development of health information technology has had a dramatic impact to improve the efficiency and quality of medical care. Developing interoperable health information systems for healthcare providers has the potential to improve the quality and equitability of patient-centered healthcare. In this article, we describe an automated content-based medical video analysis and management service that provides convenience and ease in accessing the relevant medical video content without sequential scanning. The system facilitates effective temporal video segmentation and content-based visual information retrieval that enable a more reliable understanding of medical video content. The system is implemented as a Web- and mobile-based service and has the potential to offer a knowledge-sharing platform for the purpose of efficient medical video content access.

  19. Power and privileges in medical care: an analysis of medical services in post-colonial Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogoh Alubo, S

    1987-01-01

    Subsequent Nigerian Governments since independence have been committed to a policy of health-for-all. The right to medical care is now constitutionally guaranteed. But it takes more than the constitution to translate medical, and indeed all rights, to reality. In practice, as this study reveals, status, power and privileges determine whether or not one gets Western medical services and of what type in contemporary Nigeria. Further, medical services for the generality of the people have remained a second rate priority of post-colonial governments, very much like the situation in colonial days. The care for state employees and other elites continues to take precedence.

  20. Physician responsibility for the cost of unnecessary medical services.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, J M; Rosoff, A J

    1978-07-13

    Most diagnostic and therapeutic services are ordered by physicians, but physicians practicing under fee-for-service conditions have few incentives to contain the costs of medical care. Without such incentives, effective cost control through mechanisms such as Professional Standards Review Organizations have been disappointing. Several legal approaches might be used to increase physicians' responsibility for the cost of unnecessary services--expansion of tort law, implied contact, redesign of insurance mechanisms, equitable estoppel and informed consent. However, increasing physician responsibility will require uniform but flexible definitions of medical necessity, reliable means for predeterming the need for services and effective penalties or incentives. We propose a peer-review system that would incorporate the sharing of financial risk among physician, hospital, insurer and patient in the fee-for-service sector.

  1. Analyzing the costs to deliver medication therapy management services.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    To provide pharmacy managers and consultant pharmacists with a step-by-step approach for analyzing of the costs of delivering medication therapy management (MTM) services and to describe use of a free online software application for determining costs of delivering MTM. The process described is applicable to community pharmacies and consultant pharmacists who provide MTM services from nonpharmacy settings. The PharmAccount Service Cost Calculator is an Internet- based software application that uses a guided online interview to collect information needed to conduct a comprehensive cost analysis of any specialized pharmacy service. In addition to direct variable and fixed costs, the software automatically allocates indirect and overhead costs to the service and generates an itemized report that details the components of service delivery costs. The service cost calculator is sufficiently flexible to support the analysis of virtually any specialized pharmacy service, irrespective of whether the service is being delivered from a physical pharmacy. The software application allows users to perform sensitivity analysis to quickly determine the potential impact that alternate scenarios would have on service delivery cost. It is therefore particularly well suited to assist in the design and planning of a new pharmacy service. Good management requires that the cost implications of service delivery decisions are known and considered. Analyzing the cost of an MTM service is an important step in developing a sustainable business model.

  2. Canadian Aboriginal people's experiences with HIV/AIDS as portrayed in selected English language Aboriginal media (1996-2000).

    PubMed

    Clarke, Juanne N; Friedman, Daniela B; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the portrayal of HIV/AIDS in 14 mass print newspapers directed towards the Canadian Aboriginal population and published between 1996 and 2000. Based on qualitative content analysis the research examines both manifest and latent meanings. Manifest results of this study indicate that women and youth are under represented as persons with HIV/AIDS. The latent results note the frequent references to Aboriginal culture, and the political and economic position of Aboriginal Canadians when discussing the disease, the person with the disease, the fear of the disease and the reaction of the community to the person with the disease. Unlike mainstream media where the medical frame is dominant, HIV/AIDS are here contextualized by culture, identity, spirituality and political-economic issues.

  3. 3D medical volume reconstruction using web services.

    PubMed

    Kooper, Rob; Shirk, Andrew; Lee, Sang-Chul; Lin, Amy; Folberg, Robert; Bajcsy, Peter

    2008-04-01

    We address the problem of 3D medical volume reconstruction using web services. The use of proposed web services is motivated by the fact that the problem of 3D medical volume reconstruction requires significant computer resources and human expertise in medical and computer science areas. Web services are implemented as an additional layer to a dataflow framework called data to knowledge. In the collaboration between UIC and NCSA, pre-processed input images at NCSA are made accessible to medical collaborators for registration. Every time UIC medical collaborators inspected images and selected corresponding features for registration, the web service at NCSA is contacted and the registration processing query is executed using the image to knowledge library of registration methods. Co-registered frames are returned for verification by medical collaborators in a new window. In this paper, we present 3D volume reconstruction problem requirements and the architecture of the developed prototype system at http://isda.ncsa.uiuc.edu/MedVolume. We also explain the tradeoffs of our system design and provide experimental data to support our system implementation. The prototype system has been used for multiple 3D volume reconstructions of blood vessels and vasculogenic mimicry patterns in histological sections of uveal melanoma studied by fluorescent confocal laser scanning microscope.

  4. Twenty-first-century medical microbiology services in the UK.

    PubMed

    Duerden, Brian

    2005-12-01

    With infection once again a high priority for the UK National Health Service (NHS), the medical microbiology and infection-control services require increased technology resources and more multidisciplinary staff. Clinical care and health protection need a coordinated network of microbiology services working to consistent standards, provided locally by NHS Trusts and supported by the regional expertise and national reference laboratories of the new Health Protection Agency. Here, I outline my thoughts on the need for these new resources and the ways in which clinical microbiology services in the UK can best meet the demands of the twenty-first century.

  5. Medical home services for children with behavioral health conditions.

    PubMed

    Sheldrick, Radley C; Perrin, Ellen C

    2010-01-01

    Whether medical services received by children and youth with behavioral health conditions are consistent with a Medical Home has not been systematically studied. The objectives of this study were to examine the variation among four behavioral health conditions in regard to services related to the Medical Home. Cross-sectional analyses of the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health were conducted. Multiple logistic regression analyses tested the impact of behavioral health conditions on medical needs, on Medical Home components, and on likelihood of having a Medical Home overall. Autism, Depression/Anxiety, and Behavior/Conduct problems were associated with reduced likelihood of having a Medical Home, whereas Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was associated with increased likelihood. All health conditions predicted increased access to a primary care physician (PCP) and a preventive visit in the past year. However, all were also associated with higher needs for specialty care and all behavioral health conditions except Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder were associated with difficulties accessing this care. A detailed examination of the receipt of services among children and youth with behavioral health conditions reveals two primary reasons why such care is less likely to be consistent with a Medical Home model: (1) parents are more likely to report needing specialty care; and (2) these needs are less likely to be met. These data suggest that the reason why services received by children and youth with behavioral health conditions are not consistent with the Medical Home has more to do with difficulty accessing specialty care than with problems accessing quality primary care.

  6. Learning through an Aboriginal Language: The Impact on Students' English and Aboriginal Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usborne, Esther; Peck, Josephine; Smith, Donna-Lee; Taylor, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal communities across Canada are implementing Aboriginal language programs in their schools. In the present research, we explore the impact of learning through an Aboriginal language on students' English and Aboriginal language skills by contrasting a Mi'kmaq language immersion program with a Mi'kmaq as a second language program. The…

  7. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine....515 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006, nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons are authorized to provide in-kind donations of medicine...

  8. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006, nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons are authorized to provide in-kind donations of medicine...

  9. Paralympic medical services for the 2010 paralympic winter games.

    PubMed

    Taunton, Jack; Wilkinson, Michael; Celebrini, Rick; Stewart, Robert; Stasyniuk, Treny; Van de Vliet, Peter; Willick, Stuart; Ferrer, Josep Martinez

    2012-01-01

    To present the planning and medical encounters for the 2010 Paralympic Winter Games. Prospective medical encounter study. 2010 Paralympic Winter Games. Athletes, coaches, officials, workforce, volunteers, and media. Sport type: alpine, Nordic, and sledge hockey and curling. Participant type: athlete, workforce, and spectators. Terrain and speed. Medical encounters entered in database at competitive (alpine skiing, biathlon, cross-country skiing, sledge hockey, and curling) and noncompetitive (Whistler and Vancouver Polyclinics, presentation centers, opening and closing ceremonies, media center, Paralympic Family Hotel) venues. Forty-two nations participated with 1350 Paralympic athletes, coaches, and officials. There were 2590 accredited medical encounters (657 athletes, 25.4%; 682 International Federation/National Paralympic Committee officials, 26.3%; 57 IPC, 2.2%; 8 media, 0.3%; 1075 workforce, 41.5%; 111 others, 4.3%) and 127 spectator encounters for a total of 2717 encounters. During the preopening period medical services saw 201 accredited personnel. The busiest venues during the Paralympic Games were the Whistler (1633 encounters) and Vancouver (748 encounters) Polyclinics. Alpine, sledge hockey, and curling were the busiest competitive venues. The majority of medical encounters were musculoskeletal (44.6%, n = 1156). Medical services recorded 1657 therapy treatments, 977 pharmaceutical prescriptions dispensed, 204 dental treatments, 353 imaging examinations (more than 50% from alpine skiing), and 390 laboratory tests. There were 24 ambulance transfers with 7 inpatient hospitalizations for a total of 24 inpatient days and 4 outpatient visits. The mandate to have minimal impact on the health services of Vancouver and the Olympic Corridor while offering excellent medical services to the Games was accomplished. This data will be valuable to future organizing committees.

  10. GEMSS: grid-infrastructure for medical service provision.

    PubMed

    Benkner, S; Berti, G; Engelbrecht, G; Fingberg, J; Kohring, G; Middleton, S E; Schmidt, R

    2005-01-01

    The European GEMSS Project is concerned with the creation of medical Grid service prototypes and their evaluation in a secure service-oriented infrastructure for distributed on demand/supercomputing. Key aspects of the GEMSS Grid middleware include negotiable QoS support for time-critical service provision, flexible support for business models, and security at all levels in order to ensure privacy of patient data as well as compliance to EU law. The GEMSS Grid infrastructure is based on a service-oriented architecture and is being built on top of existing standard Grid and Web technologies. The GEMSS infrastructure offers a generic Grid service provision framework that hides the complexity of transforming existing applications into Grid services. For the development of client-side applications or portals, a pluggable component framework has been developed, providing developers with full control over business processes, service discovery, QoS negotiation, and workflow, while keeping their underlying implementation hidden from view. A first version of the GEMSS Grid infrastructure is operational and has been used for the set-up of a Grid test-bed deploying six medical Grid service prototypes including maxillo-facial surgery simulation, neuro-surgery support, radio-surgery planning, inhaled drug-delivery simulation, cardiovascular simulation and advanced image reconstruction. The GEMSS Grid infrastructure is based on standard Web Services technology with an anticipated future transition path towards the OGSA standard proposed by the Global Grid Forum. GEMSS demonstrates that the Grid can be used to provide medical practitioners and researchers with access to advanced simulation and image processing services for improved preoperative planning and near real-time surgical support.

  11. Contextual Factors That Support Developmental Transitions: An International Perspective with Examples from Aboriginal/First Nations Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Judith A.

    This study examined the role of contextual factors in providing quality early care and education services, focusing on program models from Aboriginal/First Nation settings in four countries. Methods included a search of published literature from mainstream and Aboriginal sources, an electronic search of unique Royal Commission on Aboriginal…

  12. [Monitoring medication errors in an internal medicine service].

    PubMed

    Smith, Ann-Loren M; Ruiz, Inés A; Jirón, Marcela A

    2014-01-01

    Patients admitted to internal medicine services receive multiple drugs and thus are at risk of medication errors. To determine the frequency of medication errors (ME) among patients admitted to an internal medicine service of a high complexity hospital. A prospective observational study conducted in 225 patients admitted to an internal medicine service. Each stage of drug utilization system (prescription, transcription, dispensing, preparation and administration) was directly observed by trained pharmacists not related to hospital staff during three months. ME were described and categorized according to the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention. In each stage of medication use, the frequency of ME and their characteristics were determined. A total of 454 drugs were prescribed to the studied patients. In 138 (30,4%) indications, at least one ME occurred, involving 67 (29,8%) patients. Twenty four percent of detected ME occurred during administration, mainly due to wrong time schedules. Anticoagulants were the therapeutic group with the highest occurrence of ME. At least one ME occurred in approximately one third of patients studied, especially during the administration stage. These errors could affect the medication safety and avoid achieving therapeutic goals. Strategies to improve the quality and safe use of medications can be implemented using this information.

  13. Medical Emergency Workload of a Regional UK HEMS Service.

    PubMed

    McQueen, Carl; Crombie, Nick; Cormack, Stef; Wheaton, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Regionalized trauma networks have been established in England to centralize specialist care at dedicated centers of excellence throughout the country. Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in the West Midlands region have been redesigned to form an integrated component of such systems. The continued use of such valuable and scarce resources for medical emergencies requires evaluation. A retrospective review of mission data for a regional Air Ambulance Service in England over a two year period. Medical emergencies continue to contribute a large proportion of the overall workload of the service. Requirement for advanced interventions at the scene was rare, with less than 10% of patients attended by HEMS teams having care needs that fall beyond the scope of standard paramedic practice. Dynamic solutions are needed to ensure that HEMS support for cases of medical emergency are appropriately targeted to incidents in which clinical benefit is conferred to the patient. Intelligent tasking of appropriate resources has the potential to improve the HEMS response to medical emergencies while optimizing the availability of resources to respond to other incidents, most notably cases of major trauma. Copyright © 2015 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Health Care: Franchise Business Activity Contracts for Medical Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-30

    Health Care Department of Defense Office of the Inspector General June 30, 2003 AccountabilityIntegrityQuality Franchise Business Activity Contracts...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 30 JUN 2003 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Health Care: Franchise Business...services should be interested in the issue of acquiring medical services through the Department of the Treasury, Franchise Business Activity contracts. 15

  15. "It's almost expected": rural Australian Aboriginal women's reflections on smoking initiation and maintenance: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite declining smoking rates among the general Australian population, rates among Indigenous Australians remain high, with 47% of the Indigenous population reporting daily smoking - twice that of other Australians. Among women, smoking rates are highest in younger age groups, with more than half of Aboriginal women smoking during pregnancy. A lack of research focused on understanding the social context of smoking by Aboriginal women in rural Australia limits our ability to reduce these rates. This study aimed to explore the factors contributing to smoking initiation among rural Aboriginal women and girls and the social context within which smoking behaviour occurs. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 14 Aboriginal women and service providers and 22 individual interviews with Aboriginal women from four rural communities to explore their perceptions of the factors contributing to smoking initiation among Aboriginal girls. Results Four inter-related factors were considered important to understanding the social context in which girls start smoking: colonisation and the introduction of tobacco; normalization of smoking within separate Aboriginal social networks; disadvantage and stressful lives; and the importance of maintaining relationships within extended family and community networks. Within this context, young girls use smoking to attain status and as a way of asserting Aboriginal identity and group membership, a way of belonging, not of rebelling. Family and social structures were seen as providing strong support, but limited the capacity of parents to influence children not to smoke. Marginalization was perceived to contribute to limited aspirations and opportunities, leading to pleasure-seeking in the present rather than having goals for the future. Conclusions The results support the importance of addressing contextual factors in any strategies aimed at preventing smoking initiation or supporting cessation among Aboriginal girls and women

  16. "It's almost expected": rural Australian Aboriginal women's reflections on smoking initiation and maintenance: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Passey, Megan E; Gale, Jennifer T; Sanson-Fisher, Robert W

    2011-12-09

    Despite declining smoking rates among the general Australian population, rates among Indigenous Australians remain high, with 47% of the Indigenous population reporting daily smoking - twice that of other Australians. Among women, smoking rates are highest in younger age groups, with more than half of Aboriginal women smoking during pregnancy. A lack of research focused on understanding the social context of smoking by Aboriginal women in rural Australia limits our ability to reduce these rates. This study aimed to explore the factors contributing to smoking initiation among rural Aboriginal women and girls and the social context within which smoking behaviour occurs. We conducted three focus groups with 14 Aboriginal women and service providers and 22 individual interviews with Aboriginal women from four rural communities to explore their perceptions of the factors contributing to smoking initiation among Aboriginal girls. Four inter-related factors were considered important to understanding the social context in which girls start smoking: colonisation and the introduction of tobacco; normalization of smoking within separate Aboriginal social networks; disadvantage and stressful lives; and the importance of maintaining relationships within extended family and community networks. Within this context, young girls use smoking to attain status and as a way of asserting Aboriginal identity and group membership, a way of belonging, not of rebelling. Family and social structures were seen as providing strong support, but limited the capacity of parents to influence children not to smoke. Marginalization was perceived to contribute to limited aspirations and opportunities, leading to pleasure-seeking in the present rather than having goals for the future. The results support the importance of addressing contextual factors in any strategies aimed at preventing smoking initiation or supporting cessation among Aboriginal girls and women. It is critical to acknowledge

  17. [Independent medical processing enterprises as innovative organizational model for market of medical services].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, Iu L; Matveev, S A; Makhnev, D A; Korsun, K Iu

    2006-01-01

    In Russia, current stage of health care development is characterized by occurrence of various problems. Most of them are related to cooperation between participators of market of medical services. Different options are proposed to resolve cooperation problems embedded into medical services market with emphasis on development of ultimately different medical processing enterprise with brand-new organizational and functional structure. Its functioning is based on process management logistics. The company broad professional experience allows to implement above-mentioned managerial structure and make it function as well as claims positive perspectives of described option.

  18. The Defence Medical Library Service and military medicine.

    PubMed

    Walker, S B

    2005-01-01

    The Defence Medical Library Service (DMLS) supports the clinical practice and career development of military health professionals across the world. Clinical governance and the need for medical knowledge to be evidence-based means the DMLS has a central role to play in support of defence medicine. The DMLS is important for enabling health professionals to make sense of the evidence-based pyramid and the hierarchy of medical knowledge. The Royal Centre for Defence Medicine (RCDM) in Birmingham is recognised as an international centre of excellence. The information, knowledge and research requirements of the RCDM will provide opportunities for the DMLS to support and engage with the academic community.

  19. Service quality, trust, and patient satisfaction in interpersonal-based medical service encounters.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Sheng; Chen, Su-Yueh; Lan, Yi-Ting

    2013-01-16

    Interaction between service provider and customer is the primary core of service businesses of different natures, and the influence of trust on service quality and customer satisfaction could not be ignored in interpersonal-based service encounters. However, lack of existing literature on the correlation between service quality, patient trust, and satisfaction from the prospect of interpersonal-based medical service encounters has created a research gap in previous studies. Therefore, this study attempts to bridge such a gap with an evidence-based practice study. We adopted a cross-sectional design using a questionnaire survey of outpatients in seven medical centers of Taiwan. Three hundred and fifty copies of questionnaire were distributed, and 285 valid copies were retrieved, with a valid response rate of 81.43%. The SPSS 14.0 and AMOS 14.0 (structural equation modeling) statistical software packages were used for analysis. Structural equation modeling clarifies the extent of relationships between variables as well as the chain of cause and effect. Restated, SEM results do not merely show empirical relationships between variables when defining the practical situation. For this reason, SEM was used to test the hypotheses. Perception of interpersonal-based medical service encounters positively influences service quality and patient satisfaction. Perception of service quality among patients positively influences their trust. Perception of trust among patients positively influences their satisfaction. According to the findings, as interpersonal-based medical service encounters will positively influence service quality and patient satisfaction, and the differences for patients' perceptions of the professional skill and communication attitude of personnel in interpersonal-based medical service encounters will influence patients' overall satisfaction in two ways: (A) interpersonal-based medical service encounter directly affects patient satisfaction, which represents a

  20. Service quality, trust, and patient satisfaction in interpersonal-based medical service encounters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interaction between service provider and customer is the primary core of service businesses of different natures, and the influence of trust on service quality and customer satisfaction could not be ignored in interpersonal-based service encounters. However, lack of existing literature on the correlation between service quality, patient trust, and satisfaction from the prospect of interpersonal-based medical service encounters has created a research gap in previous studies. Therefore, this study attempts to bridge such a gap with an evidence-based practice study. Methods We adopted a cross-sectional design using a questionnaire survey of outpatients in seven medical centers of Taiwan. Three hundred and fifty copies of questionnaire were distributed, and 285 valid copies were retrieved, with a valid response rate of 81.43%. The SPSS 14.0 and AMOS 14.0 (structural equation modeling) statistical software packages were used for analysis. Structural equation modeling clarifies the extent of relationships between variables as well as the chain of cause and effect. Restated, SEM results do not merely show empirical relationships between variables when defining the practical situation. For this reason, SEM was used to test the hypotheses. Results Perception of interpersonal-based medical service encounters positively influences service quality and patient satisfaction. Perception of service quality among patients positively influences their trust. Perception of trust among patients positively influences their satisfaction. Conclusions According to the findings, as interpersonal-based medical service encounters will positively influence service quality and patient satisfaction, and the differences for patients’ perceptions of the professional skill and communication attitude of personnel in interpersonal-based medical service encounters will influence patients’ overall satisfaction in two ways: (A) interpersonal-based medical service encounter directly

  1. Facilitating engagement through strong relationships between primary healthcare and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

    PubMed

    Davy, Carol; Cass, Alan; Brady, John; DeVries, Joanne; Fewquandie, Barry; Ingram, Suzzane; Mentha, Ricky; Simon, Pamela; Rickards, Bernadette; Togni, Samantha; Liu, Hueming; Peiris, David; Askew, Deborah; Kite, Elaine; Sivak, Leda; Hackett, Maree; Lavoie, Josée; Brown, Alex

    2016-12-01

    Given the high prevalence of chronic disease, it is of concern that access to and sustained engagement with primary healthcare services by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians is often far lower than would be expected. This study sought to explore ways in which relationships can support sustained engagement with healthcare services. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 126 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participants with and without chronic disease and 97 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous healthcare providers, healthcare service managers or administrative staff. Our findings indicate that when faced with acute health issues, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participants did prioritise care, provided that the service was both physically and emotionally welcoming. Trustworthiness of healthcare providers and strong relationships with patients were the most important factors for encouraging sustained engagement overtime. Responsibility for sustaining relationships does not rest solely with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients. Rather, healthcare providers need to commit to the process of building and maintaining relationships. First and foremost healthcare providers should take time to establish and then maintain relationships. Healthcare services can also contribute by ensuring facilities are welcoming for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Principles for the development of Aboriginal health interventions: culturally appropriate methods through systemic empathy.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Elizabeth; Barnett, Leda

    2015-01-01

    To increase Aboriginal participation in mainstream health services, it is necessary to understand the factors that influence health service usage. This knowledge can contribute to the development of culturally appropriate health services that respect Aboriginal ways of being. We used a community-based participatory approach to examine the reasons for underutilization of health services by Aboriginal Australians. Based on three focus groups and 18 interviews with Aboriginal health professionals, leaders, and community members in rural, regional, and urban settings, we identified five factors that influenced usage, including (1) negative historical experiences, (2) cultural incompetence, (3) inappropriate communication, (4) a collective approach to health, and (5) a more holistic approach to health. Given that these factors have shaped negative Aboriginal responses to health interventions, they are likely to be principles by which more appropriate solutions are generated. Although intuitively sensible and well known, these principles remain poorly understood by non-Aboriginal health systems and even less well implemented. We have conceptualized these principles as the foundation of an empathic health system. Without empathy, health systems in Australia, and internationally, will continue to face the challenge of building effective services to improve the state of health for all minority populations.

  3. [Improvement of medical equipment setting for the hospital link of the medical service during wartime].

    PubMed

    Miroshnichenko, Yu V; Goryachev, A B; Popov, A A; Rodionov, E O

    2016-04-01

    One of the priorities of the military health care is to improve the system of rationing medical equipment for the hospital unit of the medical service of the Armed Forces in wartime. This is determined the fact that the effectiveness of measures to provide military field hospitals with medical supplies depends on the quality of medical care for the wounded and sick, as well as the level of their return to duty. The article presents the characteristics of modern standards medical supplies procurement of military field hospitals included in the new regulatory legal act of the Russian Federation Ministry of Defence--"Standards of supplies medical supplies medical and pharmaceutical organizations (units) of the Russian Federation on the wartime armed forces", approved and put into effect in 2015 by order of the Minister of Defence of the Russian Federation.

  4. Illicit and prescription drug problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada: the role of traditional culture in protection and resilience.

    PubMed

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Illicit and prescription drug use disorders are two to four times more prevalent among Aboriginal peoples in North America than the general population. Research suggests Aboriginal cultural participation may be protective against substance use problems in rural and remote Aboriginal communities. As Aboriginal peoples continue to urbanize rapidly around the globe, the role traditional Aboriginal beliefs and practices may play in reducing or even preventing substance use problems in cities is becoming increasingly relevant, and is the focus of the present study. Mainstream acculturation was also examined. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Associations were analysed using two sets of bootstrapped linear regression models adjusted for confounders with continuous illicit and prescription drug problem scores as outcomes. Psychological mechanisms that may explain why traditional culture is protective for Aboriginal peoples were examined using the cross-products of coefficients mediation method. The extent to which culture served as a resilience factor was examined via interaction testing. Results indicate Aboriginal enculturation was a protective factor associated with reduced 12-month illicit drug problems and 12-month prescription drug problems among Aboriginal adults in an urban setting. Increased self-esteem partially explained why cultural participation was protective. Cultural participation also promoted resilience by reducing the effects of high school incompletion on drug problems. In contrast, mainstream acculturation was not associated with illicit drug problems and served as a risk factor for prescription drug problems in this urban sample. Findings encourage the growth of programs and services that support Aboriginal peoples who strive to maintain their cultural traditions within cities, and further studies that examine how Aboriginal

  5. What are the factors associated with good mental health among Aboriginal children in urban New South Wales, Australia? Phase I findings from the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH).

    PubMed

    Williamson, Anna; D'Este, Catherine; Clapham, Kathleen; Redman, Sally; Manton, Toni; Eades, Sandra; Schuster, Leanne; Raphael, Beverley

    2016-07-05

    To identify the factors associated with 'good' mental health among Aboriginal children living in urban communities in New South Wales, Australia. Cross-sectional survey (phase I of a longitudinal study). 4 Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services that deliver primary care. All services were located in urban communities in New South Wales, Australia. 1005 Aboriginal children aged 4-17 years who participated in phase I of the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH). Carer report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Scores <17 were considered to indicate 'good' mental health for the purposes of this article. The majority (72%) of SEARCH participants were not at high risk for emotional or behavioural problems. After adjusting for the relative contributions of significant demographic, child and carer health factors, the factors associated with good mental health among SEARCH children were having a carer who was not highly psychologically distressed (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.6 to 5.1); not suffering from frequent chest, gastrointestinal or skin infections (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.8 to 4.3); and eating two or more servings of vegetables per day (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.8). Being raised by a foster carer (OR=0.2, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.71) and having lived in 4 or more homes since birth (OR=0.62, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.0) were associated with significantly lower odds of good mental health. Slightly different patterns of results were noted for adolescents than younger children. Most children who participated in SEARCH were not at high risk for emotional or behavioural problems. Promising targets for efforts to promote mental health among urban Aboriginal children may include the timely provision of medical care for children and provision of additional support for parents and carers experiencing mental or physical health problems, for adolescent boys and for young people in the foster care system. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  6. Email medication counseling services provided by Finnish community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä, Marika K; Kulovaara, Heidi; Bell, J Simon; Enäkoski, Marianne; Airaksinen, Marja S

    2008-12-01

    The importance of email as a mode of communication between medication users and pharmacists is likely to increase. However, little is known about the email medication counseling practices of community pharmacies. To determine the prevalence of email medication counseling services in Finland and to assess the accuracy and comprehensiveness of responses by pharmacies providing the opportunity for email medication counseling to inquiries related to use of antidepressants. An inventory was made of all Finnish community pharmacies that provided the opportunity for email medication counseling. Data related to the accuracy and comprehensiveness of responses were collected, using a virtual pseudo-customer method with 3 scenarios related to common concerns of patients on antidepressants. Two inquiries were emailed to each pharmacy that provided the opportunity for email medication counseling in January and February 2005. The responses were content analyzed by 2 researchers, using a prestructured scoring system. Almost one-third (30%, n = 182) of Finnish community pharmacies maintained a working Web site, and 94% of those provided the opportunity for email medication counseling. An online "ask-the-pharmacist" service was offered by 13% (n = 23) of the pharmacies with a Web site. Pharmacies responded to 54% of the email inquiries sent by the virtual pseudo-customers. The response rate and the content score ratio between mean and maximum scores varied among the scenarios. The content score ratio was highest for the scenarios concerning the adverse effects of fluoxetine (0.53, n = 55) and interactions with mirtazapine (0.52, n = 63) and lowest for the scenario related to sexual dysfunction and weight gain associated with citalopram (0.38, n = 52). Community pharmacies are potential providers of email medication counseling services. However, more attention should be directed to responding to consumer inquiries and to the content of these responses.

  7. Culturally Framing Aboriginal Literacy and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antone, Eileen

    2003-01-01

    More than just the development of reading and writing skills, Aboriginal literacy is a wholistic concept, with spiritual, physical, mental, and emotional aspects, involving relationships between self, community, nation, and creation. Models are presented for incorporating traditional Aboriginal knowledge and methodologies into Aboriginal learning…

  8. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  9. 31 CFR 546.508 - Authorization of emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorization of emergency medical services. 546.508 Section 546.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  10. 31 CFR 594.507 - Authorization of emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authorization of emergency medical services. 594.507 Section 594.507 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS...

  11. 31 CFR 594.507 - Authorization of emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authorization of emergency medical services. 594.507 Section 594.507 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS...

  12. 31 CFR 510.507 - Authorization of emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authorization of emergency medical services. 510.507 Section 510.507 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  13. Three Types of Memory in Emergency Medical Services Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angeli, Elizabeth L.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines memory and distributed cognition involved in the writing practices of emergency medical services (EMS) professionals. Results from a 16-month study indicate that EMS professionals rely on distributed cognition and three kinds of memory: individual, collaborative, and professional. Distributed cognition and the three types of…

  14. [The first and foremost tasks of the medical service].

    PubMed

    Chizh, I M

    1997-07-01

    Now in connection with common situation in Russian Federation the problem of reinforcements of army and fleet by healthy personnel, scare of a call-up quota and its poor quality are the main problems of the Armed Forces at the state level. The uniform complex program of medico-social maintenance of the citizens during preparation for military service is necessary. The modern situation is difficult due to many infectious diseases, so the role and the place of military-medical service grows. In last years structure of quota, served by the military doctors, and number of other parameters have greatly changed, that require revision of some priorities. A problem of reinforcements of the Armed Forces by medical service officers remains actual, for decision of which a full-bodied admission on military medical faculty is required, as well as admission of the officers under contract and calling-up of reserve officers. In article the main lessons, received by the medical service during combat actions in Republic of Chechnya are also formulated.

  15. 31 CFR 510.507 - Authorization of emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... services. 510.507 Section 510.507 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 510.507 Authorization of emergency medical... property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 510.201(b) is authorized, provided that all...

  16. 31 CFR 510.507 - Authorization of emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... services. 510.507 Section 510.507 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 510.507 Authorization of emergency medical... property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 510.201(b) is authorized, provided that all...

  17. 31 CFR 510.507 - Authorization of emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... services. 510.507 Section 510.507 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 510.507 Authorization of emergency medical... property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 510.201(b) is authorized, provided that all...

  18. The Economics of Air Force Medical Service Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    52 Keesler AFB Hospital and Hurricane Katrina...Washington, D.C. Roma Collinsworth (and staff) Jane Cunningham Veterans Health Administration, Washington, D.C. BG Michael Kussman , M.D. (USA Ret), Under...Medical Service Readiness AFB hospital due to Hurricane Katrina. Finally, we examine how well AFMS has been able to find substitutes for deployed providers

  19. 31 CFR 593.508 - Authorization of emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authorization of emergency medical services. 593.508 Section 593.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES...

  20. 31 CFR 593.508 - Authorization of emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authorization of emergency medical services. 593.508 Section 593.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES...

  1. 31 CFR 593.508 - Authorization of emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authorization of emergency medical services. 593.508 Section 593.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES...

  2. 31 CFR 593.508 - Authorization of emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorization of emergency medical services. 593.508 Section 593.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES...

  3. 31 CFR 593.508 - Authorization of emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authorization of emergency medical services. 593.508 Section 593.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES...

  4. Support for Interdisciplinary Approaches in Emergency Medical Services Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggio, William J., Jr.; D'Alessandro, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the need for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) educational programs and academicians to develop interdisciplinary educational and training opportunities with other healthcare disciplines. A literature review was conducted on EMS education and interdisciplinary approaches in healthcare education. In general, support for both…

  5. 31 CFR 545.517 - Authorization of emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorization of emergency medical services. 545.517 Section 545.517 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS...

  6. 77 FR 70893 - Authorization for Non-VA Medical Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... professions, Health records, Homeless, Mental health programs, Nursing homes, Reporting and recordkeeping... restrictive modes of healthcare delivery. Although VA has made great strides to expand the delivery of... expand VA's authority to provide non-VA medical services under the non- VA care authority. As amended...

  7. Emergency Medical Services Program Administration Prototype Curriculum: Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    The curriculum guide was developed for training administrators (new entrants and incumbents), at the college level, in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) program administration. It is designed to be comprehensive and to include all knowledge and skills needed to perform the functions and tasks involved in EMS administration and management. The brief…

  8. 20 CFR 725.706 - Authorization to provide medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hospitalization or surgery, or before ordering an apparatus for treatment where the purchase price exceeds $300. A request for approval of non-emergency hospitalization or surgery shall be acted upon expeditiously, and... surgery by telephone. (c) Payment for medical services, treatment, or an apparatus shall be made at no...

  9. 31 CFR 547.508 - Authorization of emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authorization of emergency medical services. 547.508 Section 547.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO...

  10. 31 CFR 547.508 - Authorization of emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authorization of emergency medical services. 547.508 Section 547.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO...

  11. 31 CFR 547.508 - Authorization of emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authorization of emergency medical services. 547.508 Section 547.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO...

  12. 31 CFR 547.508 - Authorization of emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authorization of emergency medical services. 547.508 Section 547.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO...

  13. 31 CFR 547.508 - Authorization of emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorization of emergency medical services. 547.508 Section 547.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO...

  14. 31 CFR 551.507 - Authorization of emergency medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorization of emergency medical services. 551.507 Section 551.507 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. Structured inspection of medications carried and stored by emergency medical services agencies identifies practices that may lead to medication errors.

    PubMed

    Kupas, Douglas F; Shayhorn, Meghan A; Green, Paul; Payton, Thomas F

    2012-01-01

    Medications are essential to emergency medical services (EMS) agencies when providing lifesaving care, but the EMS environment has challenges related to safe medication storage when compared with a hospital setting. We developed a structured process, based on common pharmacy practices, to review medications carried by EMS agencies to identify situations that may lead to medication error and to determine some best practices that may reduce potential errors and the risk of patient harm. To provide a descriptive account of EMS practices related to carrying and storing medications that have the potential for causing a medication administration error or patient harm. Using a structured process for inspection, an emergency medicine pharmacist and emergency physician(s) reviewed the medication carrying and storage practices of all nine advanced life support ambulance agencies within a five-county EMS region. Each medication carried and stored by the EMS agency was inspected for predetermined and spontaneously observed issues that could lead to medication error. These issues were documented and photographed. Two EMS medical directors reviewed each potential error for the risk of producing patient harm and assigned each to a category of high, moderate, or low risk. Because issues of temperature on EMS medications have been addressed elsewhere, this study concentrated on potential for EMS medication administration errors exclusive of storage temperatures. When reviewing medications carried by the nine EMS agencies, 38 medication safety issues were identified (range 1 to 8 per EMS agency). Of these, 16 were considered to be high risk, 14 moderate risk, and eight low risk for patient harm. Examples of potential issues included carrying expired medications, container-labeling issues, different medications stored in look-alike vials or prefilled syringes in the same compartment, and carrying crystalloid solutions next to solutions premixed with a medication. When reviewing

  16. Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center Need Additional Management Oversight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-28

    L 2 8 , 2 0 1 6 Report No. DODIG-2016-079 Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center Need Additional Management...Department of Defense F r a u d , W a s t e & A b u s e DODIG-2016-079 (Project No. D2015-D000CL-0214.000) │ i Results in Brief Delinquent Medical...objective was to determine whether Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC) effectively managed accounts delinquent over 120 days by properly

  17. Compression-based aggregation model for medical web services.

    PubMed

    Al-Shammary, Dhiah; Khalil, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Many organizations such as hospitals have adopted Cloud Web services in applying their network services to avoid investing heavily computing infrastructure. SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is the basic communication protocol of Cloud Web services that is XML based protocol. Generally,Web services often suffer congestions and bottlenecks as a result of the high network traffic that is caused by the large XML overhead size. At the same time, the massive load on Cloud Web services in terms of the large demand of client requests has resulted in the same problem. In this paper, two XML-aware aggregation techniques that are based on exploiting the compression concepts are proposed in order to aggregate the medical Web messages and achieve higher message size reduction.

  18. Flexible medical image management using service-oriented architecture.

    PubMed

    Shaham, Oded; Melament, Alex; Barak-Corren, Yuval; Kostirev, Igor; Shmueli, Noam; Peres, Yardena

    2012-01-01

    Management of medical images increasingly involves the need for integration with a variety of information systems. To address this need, we developed Content Management Offering (CMO), a platform for medical image management supporting interoperability through compliance with standards. CMO is based on the principles of service-oriented architecture, implemented with emphasis on three areas: clarity of business process definition, consolidation of service configuration management, and system scalability. Owing to the flexibility of this platform, a small team is able to accommodate requirements of customers varying in scale and in business needs. We describe two deployments of CMO, highlighting the platform's value to customers. CMO represents a flexible approach to medical image management, which can be applied to a variety of information technology challenges in healthcare and life sciences organizations.

  19. Battered wives--measures by the social and medical services.

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, B.; Brismar, B.

    1990-01-01

    The social files and medical records of 98 acutely battered wives who attended a surgical emergency department were studied. Although all women had been hospitalized during the decade preceding the present incident, wife battering was documented in the records in only 18%. The majority of the women (73%) were also known to the social services, but battering was documented in less than half of the cases in the social service files. The measures taken by the social services to help the battered women consisted mainly of economic support and psychotherapy. The cooperation between the medical and social services and the police in cases of wife battering was very limited or non-existent. It is concluded that support given to battered women by the formal sources of aid is insufficient. The documentation of the cases is poor, there is a lack of practical measures and the cooperation between the authorities is limited. This study indicates that the social and medical services underestimate the importance of informal help sources like women's groups or shelters which often are the most valued resources by the battered women themselves. With improved cooperation between authorities and between formal and informal sources of aid the battered wives could be helped more effectively. PMID:2349163

  20. Paperbark and pinard: A historical account of maternity care in one remote Australian Aboriginal town.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Sarah; Belton, Suzanne; McGrath, Ann; Saggers, Sherry; Narjic, Concepta Wulili

    2015-12-01

    Maternity care in remote areas of the Australian Northern Territory is restricted to antenatal and postnatal care only, with women routinely evacuated to give birth in hospital. Using one remote Aboriginal community as a case study, our aim with this research was to document and explore the major changes to the provision of remote maternity care over the period spanning pre-European colonisation to 1996. Our research methods included historical ethnographic fieldwork (2007-2013); interviews with Aboriginal women, Aboriginal health workers, religious and non-religious non-Aboriginal health workers and past residents; and archival review of historical documents. We identified four distinct eras of maternity care. Maternity care staffed by nuns who were trained in nursing and midwifery serviced childbirth in the local community. Support for community childbirth was incrementally withdrawn over a period, until the government eventually assumed responsibility for all health care. The introduction of Western maternity care colonised Aboriginal birth practices and midwifery practice. Historical population statistics suggest that access to local Western maternity care may have contributed to a significant population increase. Despite population growth and higher demand for maternity services, local maternity services declined significantly. The rationale for removing childbirth services from the community was never explicitly addressed in any known written policy directive. Declining maternity services led to the de-skilling of many Aboriginal health workers and the significant community loss of future career pathways for Aboriginal midwives. This has contributed to the current status quo, with very few female Aboriginal health workers actively providing remote maternity care. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Offshoring of healthcare services: the case of US-India trade in medical transcription services.

    PubMed

    Kshetri, Nir; Dholakia, Nikhilesh

    2011-01-01

    - The issue of offshore outsourcing of healthcare services is a critical but little-examined problem in healthcare research. The purpose of this study is to contribute to filling this void. A library-based study was carried out of the development of the Indian medical transcription offshoring industry. Findings- Cost-saving potential and the degree of outsourceability are higher for medical transcription compared with most services. Offshoring experience, typically in a low-value BPO, helps to enhance productivity and international linkages required for the success of medical transcription. Research limitations/implications - An important area of future research concerns comparing India's factor endowments in medical transcription outsourcing with other services. Further research is also needed to examine how India differs from its regional competitors in terms of factors endowments associated with these services. Another extension would be to investigate the drivers of offshoring of higher value services such as radiological readings. Practical implications - ICT infrastructures needed for outsourcing require much less investment compared with leading capital-intensive industries. The development patterns of the Indian medical and offshoring industries indicate that India may attract higher skilled medical functions in the future. The Indian offshoring industry is shifting its focus from BPO to knowledge process outsourcing (KPO). Developing countries need to shift to greater automation and greater levels of skill training to retain and reinforce their comparative advantages. This paper's greatest value stems from the fact that it examines the drivers of a new but rapidly growing healthcare industry.

  2. [Design and piloting of a structured service medication dispensing process].

    PubMed

    Abaurre, Raquel; García-Delgado, Pilar; Maurandi, M Dolores; Arrebola, Cristóbal; Gastelurrutia, Miguel Ángel; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to design and pilot a protocol for the dispensing of medications service. Using the requirements proposed in the Ministry of Health Pharmaceutical Care Consensus, a literature search was made applying qualitative consensus techniques. An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted from March to June 2009. A total of 53 community pharmacies from 24 Spanish counties. Patients who requested one or more particular medications with or without medical prescription for their own use or for someone in their care. The personalised medication information (IPM), the problems associated with the medications (PRM), and the negative results associated with the medication (RNM), detected by the pharmacist each time medication was dispensed, as well as the perception of the pharmacist on the operability of the protocol were recorded. A total of 870 medications were dispensed, with 423 (48.6%) cases of lack of personalised medication information (IPM) being detected. PRM were detected in 10.11% of the dispensed medications, as well as 68 (7.81%) suspected RNM: safety (n = 35; 51.5%), effectiveness (n = 29; 42.6%) and necessity (n = 4; 5.8%). Almost two-thirds (65.21%) of the pharmacists said that the protocol is in operation. The designed protocol helped to detect deficiencies in the information to the patients about their medications, as well as the PRM and RNM, and is shown to be tool that is easy to use and apply. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Guarding against an HIV epidemic within an Aboriginal community and cultural framework; lessons from NSW.

    PubMed

    Ward, James; Akre, Snehal P; Kaldor, John M

    2010-01-01

    The rate of HIV diagnosis in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population in Australia has been stable over the past 5 years. It is similar to the rate in non-Indigenous people overall, but there are major differences in the demographical and behaviour patterns associated with infection, with a history of injecting drug use and heterosexual contact much more prominent in Aboriginal people with HIV infection. Moreover there are a range of factors, such as social disadvantage, a higher incidence of sexually transmitted infections and poor access to health services that place Aboriginal people at special risk of HIV infection. Mainstream and Aboriginal community-controlled health services have an important role in preventing this epidemic. Partnerships developed within NSW have supported a range of services for Aboriginal people. There is a continuing need to support these services in their response to HIV, with a particular focus on Aboriginal Sexual Health Workers, to ensure that the prevention of HIV remains a high priority.

  4. The influences of patient's trust in medical service and attitude towards health policy on patient's overall satisfaction with medical service and sub satisfaction in China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is widely accepted that patient generates overall satisfaction with medical service and sub satisfaction on the basis of response to patient's trust in medical service and response to patient's attitude towards health policy in China. This study aimed to investigate the correlations between patient's trust in medical service/patient's attitude towards health policy and patient's overall satisfaction with medical service/sub satisfaction in current medical experience and find inspiration for future reform of China's health delivery system on improving patient's overall satisfaction with medical service and sub satisfaction in considering patient's trust in medical service and patient's attitude towards health policy. Methods This study collaborated with the National Bureau of Statistics to collect a sample of 3,424 residents from 17 provinces and municipalities in a 2008 China household survey on patient's trust in medical service, patient's attitude towards health policy, patient's overall satisfaction and sub satisfaction in current medical experience. Results Patient's overall satisfaction with medical service and most kinds of sub satisfaction in current medical experience were significantly influenced by both patient's trust in medical service and patient's attitude towards health policy; among all kinds of sub satisfaction in current medical experience, patient's trust in medical service/patient's attitude towards health policy had the largest influence on patient's satisfaction with medical costs, the influences of patient's trust in medical service/patient's attitude towards health policy on patient's satisfaction with doctor-patient interaction and satisfaction with treatment process were at medium-level, patient's trust in medical service/patient's attitude towards health policy had the smallest influence on patient's satisfaction with medical facilities and hospital environment, while patient's satisfaction with waiting time in hospital was

  5. The influences of patient's trust in medical service and attitude towards health policy on patient's overall satisfaction with medical service and sub satisfaction in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liyang

    2011-06-15

    It is widely accepted that patient generates overall satisfaction with medical service and sub satisfaction on the basis of response to patient's trust in medical service and response to patient's attitude towards health policy in China. This study aimed to investigate the correlations between patient's trust in medical service/patient's attitude towards health policy and patient's overall satisfaction with medical service/sub satisfaction in current medical experience and find inspiration for future reform of China's health delivery system on improving patient's overall satisfaction with medical service and sub satisfaction in considering patient's trust in medical service and patient's attitude towards health policy. This study collaborated with the National Bureau of Statistics to collect a sample of 3,424 residents from 17 provinces and municipalities in a 2008 China household survey on patient's trust in medical service, patient's attitude towards health policy, patient's overall satisfaction and sub satisfaction in current medical experience. Patient's overall satisfaction with medical service and most kinds of sub satisfaction in current medical experience were significantly influenced by both patient's trust in medical service and patient's attitude towards health policy; among all kinds of sub satisfaction in current medical experience, patient's trust in medical service/patient's attitude towards health policy had the largest influence on patient's satisfaction with medical costs, the influences of patient's trust in medical service/patient's attitude towards health policy on patient's satisfaction with doctor-patient interaction and satisfaction with treatment process were at medium-level, patient's trust in medical service/patient's attitude towards health policy had the smallest influence on patient's satisfaction with medical facilities and hospital environment, while patient's satisfaction with waiting time in hospital was not influenced by patient

  6. An Introduction to Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Pre-Hospital Phase. Emergency Medical Services Orientation, Lesson Plan No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Derrick P.

    Designed for use with interested students at high schools, community colleges, and four-year colleges, this lesson plan was developed to provide an introduction to the pre-hospital phase of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and to serve as a recruitment tool for the EMS Program at Kapiolani Community College (KCC) in Hawaii. The objectives of the…

  7. A National Medical Information System for Senegal: Architecture and Services.

    PubMed

    Camara, Gaoussou; Diallo, Al Hassim; Lo, Moussa; Tendeng, Jacques-Noël; Lo, Seynabou

    2016-01-01

    In Senegal, great amounts of data are daily generated by medical activities such as consultation, hospitalization, blood test, x-ray, birth, death, etc. These data are still recorded in register, printed images, audios and movies which are manually processed. However, some medical organizations have their own software for non-standardized patient record management, appointment, wages, etc. without any possibility of sharing these data or communicating with other medical structures. This leads to lots of limitations in reusing or sharing these data because of their possible structural and semantic heterogeneity. To overcome these problems we have proposed a National Medical Information System for Senegal (SIMENS). As an integrated platform, SIMENS provides an EHR system that supports healthcare activities, a mobile version and a web portal. The SIMENS architecture proposes also a data and application integration services for supporting interoperability and decision making.

  8. The medical libraries of Vietnam--a service in transition.

    PubMed Central

    Brennen, P W

    1992-01-01

    The medical libraries of Vietnam maintain high profiles within their institutions and are recognized by health care professionals and administrators as an important part of the health care system. Despite the multitude of problems in providing even a minimal level of medical library services, librarians, clinicians, and researchers nevertheless are determined that enhanced services be made available. Currently, services can be described as basic and unsophisticated, yet viable and surprisingly well organized. The lack of hard western currency required to buy materials and the lack of library technology will be major obstacles to improving information services. Vietnam, like many developing nations, is about to enter a period of technological upheaval, which ultimately will result in a transition from the traditional library limited by walls to a national resource that will rely increasingly on electronic access to international knowledge networks. Technology such as CD-ROM, Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), and satellite telecommunication networks such as Internet can provide the technical backbone to provide access to remote and widely distributed electronic databases to support the information needs of the health care community. Over the long term, access to such databases likely will be cost-effective, in contrast to the assuredly astronomical cost of building a comparable domestic print collection. The advent of new, low-cost electronic technologies probably will revolutionize health care information services in developing nations. However, for the immediate future, the medical libraries of Vietnam will require ongoing sustained support from the international community, so that minimal levels of resources will be available to support the information needs of the health care community. It is remarkable, and a credit to the determination of Vietnam's librarians that, in a country with a legacy of war, economic deprivation, and international isolation

  9. The medical libraries of Vietnam--a service in transition.

    PubMed

    Brennen, P W

    1992-07-01

    The medical libraries of Vietnam maintain high profiles within their institutions and are recognized by health care professionals and administrators as an important part of the health care system. Despite the multitude of problems in providing even a minimal level of medical library services, librarians, clinicians, and researchers nevertheless are determined that enhanced services be made available. Currently, services can be described as basic and unsophisticated, yet viable and surprisingly well organized. The lack of hard western currency required to buy materials and the lack of library technology will be major obstacles to improving information services. Vietnam, like many developing nations, is about to enter a period of technological upheaval, which ultimately will result in a transition from the traditional library limited by walls to a national resource that will rely increasingly on electronic access to international knowledge networks. Technology such as CD-ROM, Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), and satellite telecommunication networks such as Internet can provide the technical backbone to provide access to remote and widely distributed electronic databases to support the information needs of the health care community. Over the long term, access to such databases likely will be cost-effective, in contrast to the assuredly astronomical cost of building a comparable domestic print collection. The advent of new, low-cost electronic technologies probably will revolutionize health care information services in developing nations. However, for the immediate future, the medical libraries of Vietnam will require ongoing sustained support from the international community, so that minimal levels of resources will be available to support the information needs of the health care community. It is remarkable, and a credit to the determination of Vietnam's librarians that, in a country with a legacy of war, economic deprivation, and international isolation

  10. Treatment Issues for Aboriginal Mothers with Substance Use Problems and Their Children

    PubMed Central

    Niccols, Allison; Dell, Colleen Anne; Clarke, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    In many cultures, approximately one third of people with drug dependence are women of child-bearing age. Substance use among pregnant and parenting women is a major public health concern. Aboriginal people have some of the highest rates of substance abuse in Canada, increasing concern for detrimental health impacts, including those for women and their children. For many women, substance abuse offers a means of coping with trauma, such as childhood abuse, partner violence, and, for Aboriginal women, the intergenerational effects of colonization. In this paper, we review treatment issues for Aboriginal mothers with substance use problems and their children. We discuss gender-specific issues in substance abuse, the need for women-specific treatment, the impact of substance abuse on children and parenting, the additional risks for Aboriginal women and children, and the need for integrated programs (those that integrate pregnancy-, parenting-, and child-related services with women-specific addiction treatment). We describe New Choices as an example of an integrated program, review research on existing treatment for Aboriginal mothers with substance use issues, and describe Sheway as a promising integrated program for Aboriginal women with substance abuse issues and their young children. There are few treatment programs specifically for Aboriginal mothers with substance use issues and their children and very little research on their effectiveness. Based on our review of existing evidence, we offer recommendations for future research and practice. PMID:24976814

  11. The Astronomy of Aboriginal Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-06-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, which is usually reported in terms of songs or stories associated with stars and constellations. Here we argue that the astronomical components extend further, and include a search for meaning in the sky, beyond simply mirroring the earth-bound understanding. In particular, we have found that traditional Aboriginal cultures include a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and that this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. We also present evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, and paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts.

  12. Impact of interventions for patients refusing emergency medical services transport.

    PubMed

    Alicandro, J; Hollander, J E; Henry, M C; Sciammarella, J; Stapleton, E; Gentile, D

    1995-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a documentation checklist and on-line medical control contact on ambulance transport of out-of-hospital patients refusing medical assistance. Consecutive patients served by four suburban ambulance services who initially refused emergency medical services (EMS) transport to the hospital were prospectively enrolled. In phase 1 (control phase), all patients who initially refused medical attention or transport had an identifying data card completed. In phase 2 (documentation phase), out-of-hospital providers completed a similar data card that contained a checklist of high-risk criteria for a poor outcome if not transported. In phase 3 (intervention phase), a data card similar to that used in phase 2 was completed, and on-line medical control was contacted for all patients with high-risk criteria who refused transport. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients transported to the hospital. A total of 361 patients were enrolled. Transport rate varied by phase: control, 17 of 144 (12%); documentation, 11 of 150 (7%); and intervention, 12 of 67 (18%) (chi-square, p = 0.023). Transport of high-risk patients improved with each intervention: control, two of 60 (3%); documentation, seven of 70 (10%); and intervention, 12 of 34 (35%) (chi-square, p = 0.00003). Transport of patients without high-risk criteria decreased with each intervention: control, 15 of 84 (18%); documentation, four of 80 (5%); and intervention, 0 of 33 (0%) (p = 0.0025). Of the 28 patients for whom medical control was contacted, 12 (43%) were transported to the hospital, and only three of these 12 patients (25%) were released from the ED. Contact with on-line medical control increased the likelihood of transport of high-risk patients who initially refused medical assistance. The appropriateness of the decreased transport rate of patients not meeting high-risk criteria needs further evaluation.

  13. The Economics of Air Force Medical Service Readiness

    PubMed Central

    Graser, John C.; Blum, Daniel; Brancato, Kevin; Burks, James J.; Chan, Edward W.; Nicosia, Nancy; Neumann, Michael J.; Ritschard, Hans V.; Mundell, Benjamin F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The prime mission of the Air Force Medical Service (AFMS), like those of the medical departments of its sister services, is to provide medical care during wartime. AFMS currently runs three successful in-theater hospitals that treat severely injured or wounded U.S. personnel from all four services. But this wartime mission depends on capabilities built at home, as critical-care specialists maintain their technical proficiency, as much as peacetime opportunities allow, by meeting health-care needs of Department of Defense beneficiaries at home. These patients have ranged from young, healthy active-duty personnel to aging retirees, historically presenting a broad range of injuries and illnesses for treatment. However, between the demands of deployments creating gaps in staff at home and changes in care plans, some beneficiaries now seek care in the civilian sector. In addition, several AFMS hospitals stateside have been closed, converted to clinics, or combined with those of other services for various reasons. All is problematic for two reasons: First, inpatient workloads in particular represent the best opportunities for critical care providers to prepare for their wartime missions. AFMS will need to increase these opportunities, perhaps working with other services, the Department of Veterans Affairs, or civilian hospitals. Second, AFMS's funding depends, in part, on the workload performed, but current measurement methods do not necessarily do a good job of accounting for the work AFMS practitioners accomplish outside their home stations. Some imminent changes may help resolve this situation, but AFMS should pursue opportunities to create additional workload for its medical personnel and to increase its budgets. PMID:28083242

  14. The Economics of Air Force Medical Service Readiness.

    PubMed

    Graser, John C; Blum, Daniel; Brancato, Kevin; Burks, James J; Chan, Edward W; Nicosia, Nancy; Neumann, Michael J; Ritschard, Hans V; Mundell, Benjamin F

    2012-01-01

    The prime mission of the Air Force Medical Service (AFMS), like those of the medical departments of its sister services, is to provide medical care during wartime. AFMS currently runs three successful in-theater hospitals that treat severely injured or wounded U.S. personnel from all four services. But this wartime mission depends on capabilities built at home, as critical-care specialists maintain their technical proficiency, as much as peacetime opportunities allow, by meeting health-care needs of Department of Defense beneficiaries at home. These patients have ranged from young, healthy active-duty personnel to aging retirees, historically presenting a broad range of injuries and illnesses for treatment. However, between the demands of deployments creating gaps in staff at home and changes in care plans, some beneficiaries now seek care in the civilian sector. In addition, several AFMS hospitals stateside have been closed, converted to clinics, or combined with those of other services for various reasons. All is problematic for two reasons: First, inpatient workloads in particular represent the best opportunities for critical care providers to prepare for their wartime missions. AFMS will need to increase these opportunities, perhaps working with other services, the Department of Veterans Affairs, or civilian hospitals. Second, AFMS's funding depends, in part, on the workload performed, but current measurement methods do not necessarily do a good job of accounting for the work AFMS practitioners accomplish outside their home stations. Some imminent changes may help resolve this situation, but AFMS should pursue opportunities to create additional workload for its medical personnel and to increase its budgets.

  15. [Medical services on an inspection ship in the north Atlantic].

    PubMed

    Kjaer, A

    1990-10-29

    The Danish Naval Inspection Ships sail in the North Atlantic waters with a doctor on board. The object of this investigation was to illustrate the medical services on board and to elucidate the significance of various factors to predict seeking medical advice. During a period of three months, all of the medical services and certain basic factors were registered. The crew was interviewed about consumption of alcohol and tobacco, previous life at sea and family background. A total of 305 consultations were used by the crew of 72 men. This figure is five times the anticipated figure in general practice. Low rank and low age were predictors for frequent medical consultations. The diagnosis groups of traumata/injuries, dermatological conditions and disease in the nervous system or organs of sense were relatively overrepresented. A series of factors may possibly have influenced the pattern of seeking medical help so that this differs from general practice. It is concluded that the dangerous working environment and poor possibilities for good hygiene are important factors whereas the mental stress is of lesser significance.

  16. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy - An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  17. Aboriginal Families Study: a population-based study keeping community and policy goals in mind right from the start

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women are between two to five times more likely to die in childbirth than non-Aboriginal women, and two to three times more likely to have a low birthweight infant. Babies with a low birthweight are more likely to have chronic health problems in adult life. Currently, there is limited research evidence regarding effective interventions to inform new initiatives to strengthen antenatal care for Aboriginal families. Method/Design The Aboriginal Families Study is a cross sectional population-based study investigating the views and experiences of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women having an Aboriginal baby in the state of South Australia over a 2-year period. The primary aims are to compare the experiences and views of women attending standard models of antenatal care with those accessing care via Aboriginal Family Birthing Program services which include Aboriginal Maternal Infant Care (AMIC) Workers as members of the clinical team; to assess factors associated with early and continuing engagement with antenatal care; and to use the information to inform strengthening of services for Aboriginal families. Women living in urban, regional and remote areas of South Australia have been invited to take part in the study by completing a structured interview or, if preferred, a self-administered questionnaire, when their baby is between 4–12 months old. Discussion Having a baby is an important life event in all families and in all cultures. How supported women feel during pregnancy, how women and families are welcomed by services, how safe they feel coming in to hospitals to give birth, and what happens to families during a hospital stay and in the early months after the birth of a new baby are important social determinants of maternal, newborn and child health outcomes. The Aboriginal Families Study builds on consultation with Aboriginal communities across South Australia. The project has been implemented with

  18. [New possibilities in emergency medical transportation and emergency services of Polish Medical Air Rescue].

    PubMed

    Gałazkowski, Robert

    2010-01-01

    In Poland, two types of medical services are accomplished by the Medical Air Rescue (MAR) operating all over the country: emergency transport from the incident scene to hospital and inter-hospital transport. Helicopters or planes are used for this purpose. In 2009, helicopters performed 4359 flights to incidents and 1537 inter-hospital transports whereas planes performed 589 inter-hospital ambulance and 196 rescue flights. MAR operates from 17 bases of the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) and one airbase. Helicopters are mainly used when medical transport is emergent, within the operational region of a given base whereas planes when the distance between the present and target airports exceeds 250 km. In 2008, new modern aircraft were introduced to HEMS-helicopters EC 135. They fulfil all requirements of air transport regulations and are adjusted to visual (VFR) and instrumental (IFR) flights rules, at day and night. The medical cabin of EC 135 is ergonomic and functional considering the majority of rescue activities under life-saving circumstances. It is equipped with ventilator, defibrillator, infusion pumps etc. Defibrillators have 12-lead ECG, E(T)CO2, SpO2, NIBP, and IBP modules. Transport ventilators can work in a variety of ventilation modes including CMV, SIMV, SVV, BILEVEL, PCV, ASB, PPV and CPAP. The purchase of helicopters with modern avionic and medical configuration ensures high quality services of MAR for many years to come.

  19. Aboriginal Representation: Conflict or Dialogue in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leane, Jeanine

    2010-01-01

    This research begins with the premise that non-Aboriginal students are challenged by much Aboriginal writing and also challenge its representations as they struggle to re-position themselves in relation to possible meanings within Aboriginal writing. Many non-Aboriginal students come to read an Aboriginal narrative against their understanding of…

  20. Theory that explains an Aboriginal perspective of learning to understand and manage diabetes.

    PubMed

    Webster, Emma; Johnson, Craig; Kemp, Bernie; Smith, Valerie; Johnson, Monica; Townsend, Billie

    2017-02-01

    To use grounded theory and participatory research methodology to explain how Aboriginal people learn to understand and manage type 2 diabetes. Aboriginal people with diabetes were invited to participate in one of five focus groups (n=25, male=12, female=13). Focus groups and education sessions were conducted by Aboriginal members of the research team. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed, with coding and first level analysis undertaken by all members of the research team. Participants described colonisation and dislocation from Country and family members' experiences with diabetes as significant historical influences which, in conjunction with the model of care experienced and the type of interaction with health services, shaped how they came to understand and manage their diabetes. Patient experience of a model of care alone is not what influences understanding and management of diabetes in Aboriginal people. Implications for Public Health: Health service improvements should focus on understanding past experiences of Aboriginal patients, improving interactions with health services and supporting holistic family centred models of care. Focusing on just the model of care in absence of other improvements is unlikely to deliver health benefits to Aboriginal people. © 2016 The Authors.

  1. Australian Aboriginal Deaf People and Aboriginal Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Des

    2013-01-01

    Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf…

  2. Cultivating Aboriginal Cultures and Educating Aboriginal Children in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Karen; Kuo, Li Tsung Wen

    2007-01-01

    Many Americans believe that diversity issues are limited to the United States. The truth is, however, that many cultures struggle to recognize and foster cultural diversity. In this article, the authors have two aims: (1) to recognize various ethnic groups in Taiwan, in particular aboriginal groups; and (2) to inform educators about what they can…

  3. Confronting the Growing Crisis of Cardiovascular Disease and Heart Health Among Aboriginal Peoples in Canada.

    PubMed

    Reading, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Although the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been decreasing worldwide, Aboriginal populations of Canada (including First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Peoples) continue to experience a rapidly growing burden of CVD morbidity and mortality. This article provides a succinct summary of the current crisis of CVD among Canadian Aboriginal peoples, including how and why it originated, elucidates the underlying population health risks driving higher rates of aboriginal CVD, and articulates the urgent need for community-engagement solutions and innovations in the areas of prevention, treatment and care, rehabilitation services, aboriginal-specific CVD surveillance, and advanced knowledge. In the past, particularly in rural and remote communities, Aboriginal Peoples' survival depended (and often still does) on hunting, fishing, and other forms of traditional food-gathering. However, the traditional life is being changed for many Aboriginal communities, resulting in significantly impaired dietary options and the undermining of a long-established way of life that was healthy and physically active. Reclaiming CVD health and well-being requires replacement of the calorie-dense and nutritionally inadequate diets of highly processed store-bought foods with fresh and nutritionally balanced diets and addressing the physically inactive lifestyles that together have contributed to an increase in CVD prevalence. Furthermore, disparities exist for hospital-based treatment experiences for patients from areas with high proportions of Aboriginal Peoples vs those with low proportions of Aboriginal Peoples. It is crucial to investigate and develop concrete plans to reduce the burden of CVDs among Aboriginal Peoples by improved prevention and treatment in a community-centred way. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The unmet needs of Aboriginal Australians with musculoskeletal pain: A mixed method systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ivan B; Bunzli, Samantha; Mak, Donna B; Green, Charmaine; Goucke, Roger; Coffin, Juli; O'Sullivan, Peter B

    2017-12-15

    Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) conditions are the biggest cause of disability and internationally, Indigenous peoples experience a higher burden. There are conflicting reports about Aboriginal Australians and MSP. We conducted a systematic review to describe the prevalence, associated factors, impacts, care access, health care experiences, and factors associated with MSP among Aboriginal Australians. A systematic search of quantitative and qualitative scientific and grey literature (PROSPERO number: CRD42016038342). Articles were appraised using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Due to study heterogeneity a narrative synthesis was conducted. Of 536 articles identified, 18 were included (14 quantitative, 4 qualitative), of high (n=11), medium (n=2) and low (n=5) quality. Prevalences of MSP in Aboriginal populations were similar to or slightly higher than the non-Aboriginal population (prevalence rate ratio 1.1 for back pain, 1.2-1.5 for osteoarthritis (OA), 1.0-2.0 for rheumatoid arthritis). Aboriginal people accessed primary care for knee or hip OA at around half the rate of non-Aboriginal people, and were less than half as likely to have knee or hip replacement surgery. Communication difficulties with health practitioners were the main reason why Aboriginal people with MSP choose not to access care. No articles reported interventions. Findings provide preliminary evidence of an increased MSP burden amongst Aboriginal Australians and, particularly for OA, a mismatch between the disease burden and access to health care. To increase accessibility, health services should initially focus on improving Aboriginal patients' experiences of care, in particular by improving patient-practitioner communication. Implications for care and research are outlined. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. 42 CFR 484.34 - Condition of participation: Medical social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Medical social services....34 Condition of participation: Medical social services. If the agency furnishes medical social services, those services are given by a qualified social worker or by a qualified social work assistant...

  6. 42 CFR 484.34 - Condition of participation: Medical social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition of participation: Medical social services....34 Condition of participation: Medical social services. If the agency furnishes medical social services, those services are given by a qualified social worker or by a qualified social work assistant...

  7. 42 CFR 484.34 - Condition of participation: Medical social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: Medical social services....34 Condition of participation: Medical social services. If the agency furnishes medical social services, those services are given by a qualified social worker or by a qualified social work assistant...

  8. 42 CFR 484.34 - Condition of participation: Medical social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition of participation: Medical social services....34 Condition of participation: Medical social services. If the agency furnishes medical social services, those services are given by a qualified social worker or by a qualified social work assistant...

  9. 42 CFR 484.34 - Condition of participation: Medical social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Medical social services....34 Condition of participation: Medical social services. If the agency furnishes medical social services, those services are given by a qualified social worker or by a qualified social work assistant...

  10. Impact of medical travel on imports and exports of medical services.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tricia J; Garman, Andrew N

    2010-12-01

    Medical travel is travel outside of an individual's home region or country in pursuit of medical care that is more accessible, of higher quality and/or of lower cost. This paper estimates the inflows of foreign residents seeking medical care in the U.S. and outflows of U.S. residents seeking care abroad. Using data from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. International Trade Administration and a survey of domestic health care providers, we estimate the lower and upper bounds for the number of medical travelers into and out of the U.S. and the value of these services. We estimate that between 43,000 and 103,000 foreigners came into the U.S. for medical care, and between 50,000 and 121,000 U.S. residents traveled abroad for care in 2007. Despite a net loss in the number of medical travelers flowing out of the U.S. for care, the trade surplus for medical travel could be as high as $1 billion. While a slight net outflow of patients leaving the U.S. for medical care may exist, the resulting impact on exports is still positive for the U.S., due to a higher average spending per patient coming to the U.S. New mechanisms are needed to track the balance of mobility and trade for medical care on a regular basis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Years of life lost to incarceration: inequities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Bempah, Akwasi; Kanters, Steve; Druyts, Eric; Toor, Kabirraaj; Muldoon, Katherine A; Farquhar, John W; Mills, Edward J

    2014-06-11

    Aboriginal representation in Canadian correctional institutions has increased rapidly over the past decade. We calculated "years of life lost to incarceration" for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians. Incarceration data from provincial databases were used conjointly with demographic data to estimate rates of incarceration and years of life lost to provincial incarceration in (BC) and federal incarceration, by Aboriginal status. We used the Sullivan method to estimate the years of life lost to incarceration. Aboriginal males can expect to spend approximately 3.6 months in federal prison and within BC spend an average of 3.2 months in custody in the provincial penal system. Aboriginal Canadians on average spend more time in custody than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. The ratio of the Aboriginal incarceration rate to the non-Aboriginal incarceration rate ranged from a low of 4.28 in Newfoundland and Labrador to a high of 25.93 in Saskatchewan. Rates of incarceration at the provincial level were highest among Aboriginals in Manitoba with an estimated rate of 1377.6 individuals in prison per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1311.8-1443.4). The results indicate substantial differences in life years lost to incarceration for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal Canadians. In light of on-going prison expansion in Canada, future research and policy attention should be paid to the public health consequences of incarceration, particularly among Aboriginal Canadians.

  12. Improving mental health service users' with medical co-morbidity transition between tertiary medical hospital and primary care services: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Cranwell, Kate; Polacsek, Meg; McCann, Terence V

    2016-07-26

    Mental health service users have high rates of medical co-morbidity but frequently experience problems accessing and transitioning between tertiary medical and primary care services. The aim of this study was to identify ways to improve service users' with medical co-morbidity care and experience during their transition between tertiary medical hospitals and primary care services. Experience-based co-design (EBCD) qualitative study incorporating a focus group discussion. The study took place in a large tertiary medical service, incorporating three medical hospitals, and primary care services, in Melbourne, Australia. A purposive sample of service users and their caregivers and tertiary medical and primary care clinicians participated in the focus group discussion, in August 2014. A semi-structured interview guide was used to inform data collection. A thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. Thirteen participants took part in the focus group interview, comprising 5 service users, 2 caregivers and 6 clinicians. Five themes were abstracted from the data, illustrating participants' perspectives about factors that facilitated (clinicians' expertise, engagement and accessibility enhancing transition) and presented as barriers (improving access pathways; enhancing communication and continuity of care; improving clinicians' attitudes; and increasing caregiver participation) to service users' progress through tertiary medical and primary care services. A sixth theme, enhancing service users' transition, incorporated three strategies to enhance their transition through tertiary medical and primary care services. EBCD is a useful approach to collaboratively develop strategies to improve service users' with medical co-morbidity and their caregivers' transition between tertiary medical and primary care services. A whole-of-service approach, incorporating policy development and implementation, change of practice philosophy, professional development education and support for

  13. Doctor-patient communications in the Aboriginal community: towards the development of educational programs.

    PubMed

    Towle, Angela; Godolphin, William; Alexander, Ted

    2006-09-01

    Aboriginal people in Canada have poorer health than the rest of the population. Reasons for health disparities are many and include problems in communication between doctor and patient. The objective of this study was to understand doctor-patient communication in Aboriginal communities in order to design educational interventions for medical students based on the needs and experiences of patients. Experiences of good and poor communication were studied by semi-structured interviews or focus groups with 22 Aboriginal community members, 2 community health representatives and 2 Aboriginal trainee physicians. Transcribed data were coded and subjected to thematic analysis. Positive and negative experiences of communicating with physicians fell into three broad and interrelated themes: their histories as First Nations citizens; the extent to which the physician was trusted; time in the medical interview. Aboriginal peoples' history affects their communication with physicians; barriers may be overcome when patients feel they have a voice and the time for it to be heard. Physicians can improve communication with Aboriginal patients by learning about their history, building trust and giving time.

  14. HIV medication therapy management services in community pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Kauffman, Yardlee; Nair, Vidya; Herist, Keith; Thomas, Vasavi; Weidle, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To present a rationale and a proposed structure to support pharmacist-delivered medication therapy management (MTM) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease and to outline challenges to implementing and sustaining the service. Data sources Professional literature. Summary Historically, the effect of pharmacy services for HIV-infected persons has been demonstrated in inpatient and clinic-based settings. Developing similar programs adapted for community pharmacists could be a model of care to improve patient adherence to antiretroviral therapy and retention in care. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy and regular monitoring of CD4+ cell count, HIV RNA viral load, adverse drug events, and adherence form the backbone of successful medical management of HIV infection. Support for these services can be provided to HIV-infected patients through pharmacist-managed HIV MTM programs in community pharmacy settings in collaboration with primary providers and other health care professionals. Conclusion Community pharmacists can help meet the growing need for HIV care through provision of MTM services. Although resources have been developed, including the general MTM framework, challenges of adequate training, education, and support of community pharmacists need to be addressed in order for HIV MTM to be a successful model. PMID:23229993

  15. Time to bring down the twin towers in poor Aboriginal hospital care: addressing institutional racism and misunderstandings in communication.

    PubMed

    Durey, A; Thompson, S C; Wood, M

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in Aboriginal health have been slow. Research demonstrates ongoing discrimination towards Aboriginal Australians based on race, including in health services, leads to poor health outcomes. Using an eclectic methodology based on observations and discussions with health practitioners experienced in working with Aboriginal patients, this paper identifies how cross-cultural misunderstandings undermine the quality of care to Aboriginal patients in hospital and offers suggestions for improving practice. It also explores the concept of institutional racism and challenges doctors to reflect on their role in perpetuating power imbalances. We argue that physicians and healthcare providers need to do more than just deliver evidence-based interventions, by critically reflecting on their own attitudes to and practices with Aboriginal Australians and work collectively to effect systemic change which creates a more inclusive and safe environment for all people accessing healthcare. © 2011 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  16. Bioethics for clinicians: 18. Aboriginal cultures

    PubMed Central

    Ellerby, Jonathan H.; McKenzie, John; McKay, Stanley; Gariépy, Gilbert J.; Kaufert, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    Although philosophies and practices analogous to bioethics exist in Aboriginal cultures, the terms and categorical distinctions of "ethics" and "bioethics" do not generally exist. In this article we address ethical values appropriate to Aboriginal patients, rather than a preconceived "Aboriginal bioethic." Aboriginal beliefs are rooted in the context of oral history and culture. For Aboriginal people, decision-making is best understood as a process and not as the correct interpretation of a unified code. Aboriginal cultures differ from religious and cultural groups that draw on Scripture and textual foundations for their ethical beliefs and practices. Aboriginal ethical values generally emphasize holism, pluralism, autonomy, community- or family-based decision-making, and the maintenance of quality of life rather than the exclusive pursuit of a cure. Most Aboriginal belief systems also emphasize achieving balance and wellness within the domains of human life (mental, physical, emotional and spiritual). Although these bioethical tenets are important to understand and apply, examining specific applications in detail is not as useful as developing a more generalized understanding of how to approach ethical decision-making with Aboriginal people. Aboriginal ethical decisions are often situational and highly dependent on the values of the individual within the context of his or her family and community. PMID:11033715

  17. Bioethics for clinicians: 18. Aboriginal cultures.

    PubMed

    Ellerby, J H; McKenzie, J; McKay, S; Gariépy, G J; Kaufert, J M

    2000-10-03

    Although philosophies and practices analogous to bioethics exist in Aboriginal cultures, the terms and categorical distinctions of "ethics" and "bioethics" do not generally exist. In this article we address ethical values appropriate to Aboriginal patients, rather than a preconceived "Aboriginal bioethic." Aboriginal beliefs are rooted in the context of oral history and culture. For Aboriginal people, decision-making is best understood as a process and not as the correct interpretation of a unified code. Aboriginal cultures differ from religious and cultural groups that draw on Scripture and textual foundations for their ethical beliefs and practices. Aboriginal ethical values generally emphasize holism, pluralism, autonomy, community- or family-based decision-making, and the maintenance of quality of life rather than the exclusive pursuit of a cure. Most Aboriginal belief systems also emphasize achieving balance and wellness within the domains of human life (mental, physical, emotional and spiritual). Although these bioethical tenets are important to understand and apply, examining specific applications in detail is not as useful as developing a more generalized understanding of how to approach ethical decision-making with Aboriginal people. Aboriginal ethical decisions are often situational and highly dependent on the values of the individual within the context of his or her family and community.

  18. Developing research in partnership with Aboriginal communities - strategies for improving recruitment and retention.

    PubMed

    Rae, K; Weatherall, L; Hollebone, K; Apen, K; McLean, M; Blackwell, C; Eades, S; Boulton, J; Lumbers, E; Smith, R

    2013-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal communities in urban, rural and remote areas are continuing to suffer high rates of perinatal mortality and morbidity that will impact on the future health of the community. It has been well documented that Aboriginal women have extreme distrust of mainstream pregnancy-related health care and suggested that late entry into antenatal care is as high as 50% in the Aboriginal population. Although medical and midwifery staff have long discussed strategies to improve uptake of antenatal health care for Aboriginal women, researchers in many areas have found the recruitment of Aboriginal people into scientific studies almost impossible. This article seeks to share the strategies that have been developed over a period of time by the authors that have proved useful for recruitment and retention into research. It is anticipated that these strategies would also apply for health practitioners in maintaining their patients for clinical care management. Although each research location (regional, rural and remote) has had to spend time determining what approach is best for meeting the research outcomes, many of these suggestions become applicable to clinicians seeking to develop better connections with Aboriginal patients in their clinics. With the management of ongoing chronic health conditions for Aboriginal people a priority in 'Closing the Gap', a number of these suggestions could easily be implemented by clinicians. Remembering that each community has specific needs that must be addressed, priorities for assistance for that community will be easily identifiable after community consultation (eg transport, or ability to access medical testing). Opportunities for the use of new social media (eg Facebook) as communication tools for researchers and clinicians will have increasing applicability as further software updates are created. With open and trusting dialogues between researchers, clinicians and Aboriginal communities, we can go a long way towards

  19. 42 CFR 440.220 - Required services for the medically needy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Required services for the medically needy. 440.220 Section 440.220 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Requirements and Limits Applicable to All Services § 440.220 Require...

  20. 42 CFR 440.220 - Required services for the medically needy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Required services for the medically needy. 440.220 Section 440.220 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Requirements and Limits Applicable to All Services § 440.220 Require...

  1. 42 CFR 440.220 - Required services for the medically needy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Required services for the medically needy. 440.220 Section 440.220 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Requirements and Limits Applicable to All Services § 440.220 Require...

  2. 42 CFR 440.220 - Required services for the medically needy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required services for the medically needy. 440.220 Section 440.220 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Requirements and Limits Applicable to All Services § 440.220 Require...

  3. 42 CFR 440.220 - Required services for the medically needy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Required services for the medically needy. 440.220 Section 440.220 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Requirements and Limits Applicable to All Services § 440.220 Require...

  4. 42 CFR 415.110 - Conditions for payment: Medically directed anesthesia services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... anesthesia services. 415.110 Section 415.110 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... payment: Medically directed anesthesia services. (a) General payment rule. Medicare pays for the physician's medical direction of anesthesia services for one service or two through four concurrent anesthesia...

  5. 42 CFR 415.110 - Conditions for payment: Medically directed anesthesia services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... anesthesia services. 415.110 Section 415.110 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... payment: Medically directed anesthesia services. (a) General payment rule. Medicare pays for the physician's medical direction of anesthesia services for one service or two through four concurrent anesthesia...

  6. 42 CFR 415.110 - Conditions for payment: Medically directed anesthesia services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... anesthesia services. 415.110 Section 415.110 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... payment: Medically directed anesthesia services. (a) General payment rule. Medicare pays for the physician's medical direction of anesthesia services for one service or two through four concurrent anesthesia...

  7. Aboriginal child and adolescent mental health: a rural worker training model.

    PubMed

    Bartik, Warren; Dixon, Angela; Dart, Katrina

    2007-04-01

    The Third National Mental Health Plan places a strong emphasis on the development of an Aboriginal mental health workforce. This paper documents the establishment, implementation and initial evaluation of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Child and Adolescent Mental Health Traineeship Program, a partnership initiative involving Hunter New England Area Health Service (HNEAHS), Hunter New England Aboriginal Mental Health (HNEAMH) and the Department of Psychological Medicine at the Children's Hospital at Westmead (CHW), with guidance and input from additional collaborators. The program includes: (i) employment as a child and adolescent mental health worker and professional support and supervision through HNEAHS; (ii) a mentoring program provided through HNEAMH; (iii) formal academic studies in Aboriginal Mental Health; and (iv) a clinical education and supervision program conducted through the Department of Psychological Medicine, CHW. Initial feedback suggests that this is a promising program to train Aboriginal child and adolescent mental health workers. Further evaluation will provide information about its viability and effectiveness in providing an integrated, collaborative child and adolescent mental health service for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and their families.

  8. Oral health interventions in Australian Aboriginal communities: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patel, J; Durey, A; Hearn, L; Slack-Smith, L M

    2017-09-01

    Aboriginal Australians experience significant disparities in oral health with even poorer outcomes reported in rural and remote areas. The high rates of preventable dental disease in Aboriginal communities are a serious concern from a social standpoint and in terms of service provision and health care expenditure. In this review, primary research literature was comprehensively reviewed. Papers were selected if they reported designing or implementing an intervention or oral health programme specific to the needs of Aboriginal communities. Twenty-one publications fulfilled the inclusion criteria with 19 different interventions being described. Interventions were categorized using a classification adapted from the work of Whitehead (2002). The review identified interventions that aimed to reduce early childhood caries, increase services to remote communities, develop the role of Aboriginal health workers, improve oral health literacy, establish water fluoridation and provide periodontal therapy. Implementing successful oral health interventions in Aboriginal communities is a challenge that is compounded by the complex interplay between psychosocial and cultural determinants. Even interventions that follow a rigorous and consultative design have a high failure rate in Aboriginal communities if upstream determinants of health are not adequately understood and addressed. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  9. Global Budgets and Technology-Intensive Medical Services.

    PubMed

    Song, Zirui; Fendrick, A Mark; Safran, Dana Gelb; Landon, Bruce; Chernew, Michael E

    2013-06-01

    In 2009-2010, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts entered into global payment contracts (the Alternative Quality contract, AQC) with 11 provider organizations. We evaluated the impact of the AQC on spending and utilization of several categories of medical technologies, including one considered high value (colonoscopies) and three that include services that may be overused in some situations (cardiovascular, imaging, and orthopedic services). Approximately 420,000 unique enrollees in 2009 and 180,000 in 2010 were linked to primary care physicians whose organizations joined the AQC. Using three years of pre-intervention data and a large control group, we analyzed changes in utilization and spending associated with the AQC with a propensity-weighted difference-in-differences approach adjusting for enrollee demographics, health status, secular trends, and cost-sharing. In the 2009 AQC cohort, total volume of colonoscopies increased 5.2 percent (p=0.04) in the first two years of the contract relative to control. The contract was associated with varied changes in volume for cardiovascular and imaging services, but total spending on cardiovascular services in the first two years decreased by 7.4% (p=0.02) while total spending on imaging services decreased by 6.1% (p<0.001) relative to control. In addition to lower utilization of higher-priced services, these decreases were also attributable to shifting care to lower-priced providers. No effect was found in orthopedics. As one example of a large-scale global payment initiative, the AQC was associated with higher use of colonoscopies. Among several categories of services whose value may be controversial, the contract generally shifted volume to lower-priced facilities or services.

  10. "People like numbers": a descriptive study of cognitive assessment methods in clinical practice for Aboriginal Australians in the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Dingwall, Kylie M; Pinkerton, Jennifer; Lindeman, Melissa A

    2013-01-31

    Achieving culturally fair assessments of cognitive functioning for Aboriginal people is difficult due to a scarcity of appropriately validated tools for use with this group. As a result, some Aboriginal people with cognitive impairments may lack fair and equitable access to services. The objective of this study was to examine current clinical practice in the Northern Territory regarding cognitive assessment for Aboriginal people thereby providing some guidance for clinicians new to this practice setting. Qualitative enquiry was used to describe practice context, reasons for assessment, and current practices in assessing cognition for Aboriginal Australians. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 clinicians working with Aboriginal clients in central and northern Australia. Results pertaining to assessment methods are reported. A range of standardised tests were utilised with little consistency across clinical practice. Nevertheless, it was recognised that such tests bear severe limitations, requiring some modification and significant caution in their interpretation. Clinicians relied heavily on informal assessment or observations, contextual information and clinical judgement. Cognitive tests developed specifically for Aboriginal people are urgently needed. In the absence of appropriate, validated tests, clinicians have relied on and modified a range of standardised and informal assessments, whilst recognising the severe limitations of these. Past clinical training has not prepared clinicians adequately for assessing Aboriginal clients, and experience and clinical judgment were considered crucial for fair interpretation of test scores. Interpretation guidelines may assist inexperienced clinicians to consider whether they are achieving fair assessments of cognition for Aboriginal clients.

  11. Disparities in cancer stage at diagnosis and survival of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians.

    PubMed

    Banham, David; Roder, David; Keefe, Dorothy; Farshid, Gelareh; Eckert, Marion; Cargo, Margaret; Brown, Alex

    2017-06-01

    This study tested the utility of retrospectively staging cancer registry data for comparing stage and stage-specific survivals of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. Differences by area level factors were also explored. This test dataset comprised 950 Aboriginal cases and all other cases recorded on the South Australian cancer registry with a 1977-2010 diagnosis. A sub-set of 777 Aboriginal cases diagnosed in 1990-2010 were matched with randomly selected non-Aboriginal cases by year of birth, diagnostic year, sex, and primary site of cancer. Competing risk regression summarised associations of Aboriginal status, stage, and geographic attributes with risk of cancer death. Aboriginal cases were 10 years younger at diagnosis, more likely to present in recent diagnostic years, to be resident of remote areas, and have primary cancer sites of head & neck, lung, liver and cervix. Risk of cancer death was associated in the matched analysis with more advanced stage at diagnosis. More Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal cases had distant metastases at diagnosis (31.3% vs 22.0, p<0.001). After adjusting for stage, remote-living Aboriginal residents had higher risks of cancer death than Aboriginal residents of metropolitan areas. Non-Aboriginal cases had the lowest risk of cancer death. Retrospective staging proved to be feasible using registry data. Results indicated more advanced stages for Aboriginal than matched non-Aboriginal cases. Aboriginal people had higher risks of cancer death, which persisted after adjusting for stage, and applied irrespective of remoteness of residence, with highest risk of death occurring among Aboriginal people from remote areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [The use of the new loads of expendable medical supplies by the medical service of the Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Miroshnichenko, Iu V; Bunin, S A; Grebeniuk, A N; Kononov, V N; Sidorov, D A

    2014-09-01

    The new loads of expendable medical supplies adopted by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and included into regulating documents are the most important elements of the authorized equipment system. Nine loads of expendable medical supplies, combined into two classification groups, are provided for the medical service. The use of these loads improves the effectiveness of medical supply for all stages of medical evacuation, medical continuity during medical and evacuation procedures and allows to deliver medical aid to patients on the basis of modern and innovative medical technologies.

  13. Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD)-developing an Advanced Cancer Data System for Aboriginal people in South Australia: a mixed methods research protocol.

    PubMed

    Yerrell, Paul Henry; Roder, David; Cargo, Margaret; Reilly, Rachel; Banham, David; Micklem, Jasmine May; Morey, Kim; Stewart, Harold Bundamurra; Stajic, Janet; Norris, Michael; Brown, Alex

    2016-12-23

    In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People carry a greater burden of cancer-related mortality than non-Aboriginal Australians. The Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities Project aims to develop and test an integrated, comprehensive cancer monitoring and surveillance system capable of incorporating epidemiological and narrative data to address disparities and advocate for clinical system change. The Advanced Cancer Data System will integrate routinely collected unit record data from the South Australian Population Cancer Registry and a range of other data sources for a retrospective cohort of indigenous people with cancers diagnosed from 1990 to 2010. A randomly drawn non-Aboriginal cohort will be matched by primary cancer site, sex, age and year at diagnosis. Cross-tabulations and regression analyses will examine the extent to which demographic attributes, cancer stage and survival vary between the cohorts. Narratives from Aboriginal people with cancer, their families, carers and service providers will be collected and analysed using patient pathway mapping and thematic analysis. Statements from the narratives will structure both a concept mapping process of rating, sorting and prioritising issues, focusing on issues of importance and feasibility, and the development of a real-time Aboriginal Cancer Measure of Experience for ongoing linkage with epidemiological data in the Advanced Cancer Data System. Aboriginal Community engagement underpins this Project. The research has been approved by relevant local and national ethics committees. Findings will be disseminated in local and international peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. In addition, the research will provide data for knowledge translation activities across the partner organisations and feed directly into the Statewide Cancer Control Plan. It will provide a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the recommendations in these documents. Published by the

  14. First-trimester medical abortion service in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lo, Sue S T; Ho, P C

    2015-10-01

    Research on medical abortion has been conducted in Hong Kong since the 1990s. It was not until 2011 that the first-trimester medical abortion service was launched. Mifepristone was registered in Hong Kong in April 2014 and all institutions that are listed in the Gazette as a provider for legal abortion can purchase mifepristone from the local provider. This article aimed to share our 3-year experience of this service with the local medical community. Our current protocol is safe and effective, and advocates 200-mg mifepristone and 400-µg sublingual misoprostol 24 to 48 hours later, followed by a second dose of 400-µg sublingual misoprostol 4 hours later if the patient does not respond. The complete abortion rate is 97.0% and ongoing pregnancy rate is 0.4%. Some minor side-effects have been reported and include diarrhoea, fever, abdominal pain, and allergy. There have been no serious adverse events such as heavy bleeding requiring transfusion, anaphylactic reaction, septicaemia, or death.

  15. 76 FR 65216 - Beacon Medical Services, LLC, Aurora, CO; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... application received July 25, 2011, a worker requested administrative reconsideration of the negative determination regarding workers' eligibility to apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of Beacon Medical Services, LLC, Aurora, Colorado (Beacon Medical Services...

  16. Emergency Medical Services Instructor Training Program of the National Standard Curriculum Revised

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-05-01

    In 1986, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) developed the first edition of the "Emergency Medical Services Instructor Training Program" to teach instructor skills to Emergency Medical Services (EMS) experts. In 1990, NHTSA rev...

  17. A seamless ubiquitous emergency medical service for crisis situations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bor-Shing

    2016-04-01

    In crisis situations, a seamless ubiquitous communication is necessary to provide emergency medical service to save people's lives. An excellent prehospital emergency medicine provides immediate medical care to increase the survival rate of patients. On their way to the hospital, ambulance personnel must transmit real-time and uninterrupted patient information to the hospital to apprise the physician of the situation and provide options to the ambulance personnel. In emergency and crisis situations, many communication channels can be unserviceable because of damage to equipment or loss of power. Thus, data transmission over wireless communication to achieve uninterrupted network services is a major obstacle. This study proposes a mobile middleware for cognitive radio (CR) for improving the wireless communication link. CRs can sense their operating environment and optimize the spectrum usage so that the mobile middleware can integrate the existing wireless communication systems with a seamless communication service in heterogeneous network environments. Eventually, the proposed seamless mobile communication middleware was ported into an embedded system, which is compatible with the actual network environment without the need for changing the original system architecture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Personal Story of Teaching Aboriginal Art as a Non-Aboriginal Person

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritzlan, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    This is an autoethnographic reflection of teaching Aboriginal art as a non-Aboriginal person. Over a period of ten months, a class of grade seven students was led through an inquiry into Aboriginal art including research and the creation of individual and group art pieces. The evolving curriculum was shaped by considerations of respect for…

  19. The influences of patient's satisfaction with medical service delivery, assessment of medical service, and trust in health delivery system on patient's life satisfaction in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liyang

    2012-09-14

    Patient's satisfaction with medical service delivery/assessment of medical service/trust in health delivery system may have significant influence on patient's life satisfaction in China's health delivery system/in various kinds of hospitals.The aim of this study was to test whether and to what extent patient's satisfaction with medical service delivery/patient's assessments of various major aspects of medical service/various major aspects of patient's trust in health delivery system influenced patient's life satisfaction in China's health delivery system/in various kinds of hospitals. This study collaborated with National Bureau of Statistics of China to carry out a 2008 national urban resident household survey in 17 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government (N = 3,386), and specified ordered probit models were established to analyze dataset from this household survey. The key considerations in generating patient's life satisfaction involved patient's overall satisfaction with medical service delivery, assessment of doctor-patient communication, assessment of medical cost, assessment of medical treatment process, assessment of medical facility and hospital environment, assessment of waiting time for medical service, trust in prescription, trust in doctor, and trust in recommended medical examination. But the major considerations in generating patient's life satisfaction were different among low level public hospital, high level public hospital, and private hospital. The promotion of patient's overall satisfaction with medical service delivery, the improvement of doctor-patient communication, the reduction of medical cost, the improvement of medical treatment process, the promotion of medical facility and hospital environment, the reduction of waiting time for medical service, the promotion of patient's trust in prescription, the promotion of patient's trust in doctor, and the promotion of patient's trust in

  20. Gender roles, illness orientation and use of medical services.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, J H; Pope, C R

    1983-01-01

    The study investigates illness orientation as a factor which may account for sex differences in the utilization of medical care. First, sex differences in the way symptoms are perceived, evaluated and acted upon (illness orientation) are analyzed. Then gender role factors which may account for sex differences in illness orientation are examined. Finally, the degree to which gender role factors and illness orientation account for sex differences in medical care utilization are assessed. The study population includes 1648 adults between the ages of 18 and 59. Medical record data covering 7 years of outpatient services are linked with survey data on the respondents. The findings show that while females are more likely to perceive symptoms than males, there is no apparent sex difference in a tendency to adopt the sick role when ill. In addition, results indicate that gender role factors such as level and type of role responsibility and concern with health are related to female though not male symptom reports. Illness orientation variables are related to rates of medical utilization for both sexes. However, it is primarily the perception of symptoms and an interest and concern with health which contributes to sex differences in utilization rates. When examining respondents who report either a very low or very high number of symptoms, sex differences in utilization rates fall below statistical significance.

  1. [Osteoporosis Liaison Service and multi medical staff cooperation.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Satoshi

    A place of the activity of Osteoporosis Liaison Service (OLS) is classified into the in-hospital and the out-hospital. "Kotsu-Kotsu approach" is performed in our hospital for fracture inpatients as OLS. "Kotsu-Kotsu approach" can be able to performed the various and comprehensive assessment for the patients by multi medical staff, especially Osteoporosis managers. The construction of the cooperation with other facilities is propelled for activity of out-hospital. Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare impel to establish community-based integrated care systems. Importance adds to OLS under the multi medical staff cooperation that I included the care in the community in more and more from now on. To that end, the leadership of the doctor is required.

  2. Ethical challenges in Emergency Medical Services: controversies and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Becker, Torben K; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Aswegan, Andrew L; Baker, Eileen F; Bookman, Kelly J; Bradley, Richard N; De Lorenzo, Robert A; Schoenwetter, David J

    2013-10-01

    Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers face many ethical issues while providing prehospital care to children and adults. Although provider judgment plays a large role in the resolution of conflicts at the scene, it is important to establish protocols and policies, when possible, to address these high-risk and complex situations. This article describes some of the common situations with ethical underpinnings encountered by EMS personnel and managers including denying or delaying transport of patients with non-emergency conditions, use of lights and sirens for patient transport, determination of medical futility in the field, termination of resuscitation, restriction of EMS provider duty hours to prevent fatigue, substance abuse by EMS providers, disaster triage and difficulty in switching from individual care to mass-casualty care, and the challenges of child maltreatment recognition and reporting. A series of ethical questions are proposed, followed by a review of the literature and, when possible, recommendations for management.

  3. Preparedness of Finnish Emergency Medical Services for Chemical Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Jama, Timo J; Kuisma, Markku J

    2016-08-01

    Introduction The preparedness level of Finnish Emergency Medical Services (EMS) for treating chemical emergencies is unknown. The aim of this study was to survey the preparedness level of EMS systems for managing and handling mass-casualty chemical incidents in the prehospital phase in Finland. Hypothesis The study hypothesis was that university hospital districts would have better clinical capability to treat patients than would central hospital districts in terms of the number of patients treated in the field within one hour after dispatching as well as patients transported to hospital within one hour or two hours after dispatching. This cross-sectional study was conducted as a Webropol (Wuppertal, Germany) survey. All hospital districts (n=20) in continental Finland were asked about their EMS preparedness level in terms of capability of treating and transporting chemically affected patients in the field. Their capability for decontamination of affected patients in the field was also inquired. University hospital district-based EMS systems had at least 20% better absolute clinical capacity than central hospital-based EMS systems for treating chemically affected patients concerning all treatments inquired about, except the capacity for non-invasive ventilation (NIV)/continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in the field. Overall, there was a good level of preparedness for treating chemical accident patients with supplemental oxygen, bronchodilators, and inhaled corticosteroids. Preparedness for providing antidote therapy in cases of cyanide gas exposure was, in general, low. The variation among the hospital districts was remarkable. Only nine of 15 central hospital district EMS had a mobile decontamination unit available, whereas four of five university hospital districts had one. Emergency Medical Services capacity in Finland for treating chemically affected patients in the field needs to be improved, especially in terms of antidote therapy. Mobile

  4. Physician medical direction and clinical performance at an established emergency medical services system.

    PubMed

    Munk, Marc-David; White, Shaun D; Perry, Malcolm L; Platt, Thomas E; Hardan, Mohammed S; Stoy, Walt A

    2009-01-01

    Few developed emergency medical services (EMS) systems operate without dedicated medical direction. We describe the experience of Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC) EMS, which in 2007 first engaged an EMS medical director to develop and implement medical direction and quality assurance programs. We report subsequent changes to system performance over time. Over one year, changes to the service's clinical infrastructure were made: Policies were revised, paramedic scopes of practice were adjusted, evidence-based clinical protocols were developed, and skills maintenance and education programs were implemented. Credentialing, physician chart auditing, clinical remediation, and online medical command/hospital notification systems were introduced. Following these interventions, we report associated improvements to key indicators: Chart reviews revealed significant improvements in clinical quality. A comparison of pre- and post-intervention audited charts reveals a decrease in cases requiring remediation (11% to 5%, odds ratio [OR] 0.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20-0.85], p = 0.01). The proportion of charts rated as clinically acceptable rose from 48% to 84% (OR 6 [95% CI 3.9-9.1], p < 0.001). The proportion of misplaced endotracheal tubes fell (3.8% baseline to 0.6%, OR 0.16 [95% CI 0.004-1.06], (exact) p = 0.05), corresponding to improved adherence to an airway placement policy mandating use of airway confirmation devices and securing devices (0.7% compliance to 98%, OR 714 [95% CI 64-29,334], (exact) p < 0.001). Intravenous catheter insertion in unstable cases increased from 67% of cases to 92% (OR 1.31 [95% CI 1.09-1.71], p = 0.004). EMS administration of aspirin to patients with suspected ischemic chest pain improved from 2% to 77% (OR 178 [95% CI 35-1,604], p < 0.001). We suggest that implementation of a physician medical direction is associated with improved clinical indicators and overall quality of care at an established EMS system.

  5. 48 CFR 831.7001-4 - Medical services and hospital care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Procedures 831.7001-4 Medical services and hospital care. (a) VA may pay the customary student... Government. (b) When the customary student's health fee does not cover medical services or hospital care, but... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical services and...

  6. 78 FR 49332 - National Emergency Medical Services Advisory Council (NEMSAC); Notice of Federal Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...-0091] National Emergency Medical Services Advisory Council (NEMSAC); Notice of Federal Advisory... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice--National Emergency Medical Services Advisory Council. SUMMARY: The... emergency medical services representatives and consumers, is to advise and consult with DOT and the Federal...

  7. Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    lenses, or other optical devices. 4-31c a. Exception to general exclusion. 4-31c b. Limitations. 4-32 7. Transsexualism or hermaphroditism. 4-32 8...psychological reasons. 4-48 26. Electrolysis. 4-49 27. Dental care. 4-49 28. Obesity, weight red iction. 4-49 29. Transsexualism or hermaphroditism. 4-4’ 30...subject to specific medical review. 7. Transsexualism or such other conditions as eýner dyssphoria. All services and supplies directly or indirectly

  8. A priority dispatch system for emergency medical services.

    PubMed

    Slovis, C M; Carruth, T B; Seitz, W J; Thomas, C M; Elsea, W R

    1985-11-01

    A decision tree priority dispatch system for emergency medical services (EMS) was developed and implemented in Atlanta and Fulton County, Georgia. The dispatch system shortened the average response time from 14.2 minutes to 10.4 minutes for the 30% of patients deemed most urgent (P less than or equal to .05); resulted in a significant increase in the use of advanced life support units for this group (P less than or equal to .02); decreased the number of calls that required a backup ambulance service; and significantly increased conformity to national EMS response time standards for critically ill and injured patients (P less than or equal to .0009). Due to dispatch error, 0.3% of calls were dispatched as least severe but subsequently were found to be most urgent.

  9. Developing the rural health workforce to improve Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health outcomes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gwynne, Kylie; Lincoln, Michelle

    2017-05-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to identify evidence-based strategies in the literature for developing and maintaining a skilled and qualified rural and remote health workforce in Australia to better meet the health care needs of Australian Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander (hereafter Aboriginal) people. Methods A systematic search strategy was implemented using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and checklist. Exclusion and inclusion criteria were applied, and 26 papers were included in the study. These 26 papers were critically evaluated and analysed for common findings about the rural health workforce providing services for Aboriginal people. Results There were four key findings of the study: (1) the experience of Aboriginal people in the health workforce affects their engagement with education, training and employment; (2) particular factors affect the effectiveness and longevity of the non-Aboriginal workforce working in Aboriginal health; (3) attitudes and behaviours of the workforce have a direct effect on service delivery design and models in Aboriginal health; and (4) student placements affect the likelihood of applying for rural and remote health jobs in Aboriginal communities after graduation. Each finding has associated evidence-based strategies including those to promote the engagement and retention of Aboriginal staff; training and support for non-Aboriginal health workers; effective service design; and support strategies for effective student placement. Conclusions Strategies are evidenced in the peer-reviewed literature to improve the rural and remote workforce for health delivery for Australian Aboriginal people and should be considered by policy makers, funders and program managers. What is known about the topic? There is a significant amount of peer-reviewed literature about the recruitment and retention of the rural and remote health workforce. What does this paper add

  10. [The characteristics of medical manpower of dermatologic venereal service at the territorial level].

    PubMed

    Jyltsova, Ye Ye; Konovalov, O Ye

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the medical social characteristics of medical manpower af dermatologic venereal services of Ryazan, Tula and Lipetsk oblasts from the position of quality of specialized medical care of population.

  11. Association between blood lead level and blood pressure in aborigines and others in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsien-Wen; Lai, Li-Hsing; Chou, Sze-Yuan; Wu, Fang-Yang

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the blood lead level (BLL) and blood pressure among aborigines and non-aborigines in central Taiwan, a community-based survey that included demographic data, medical history, and blood chemistry analyses was conducted among 2,565 adults during an annual health examination. BLLs were analyzed using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). There was a dose response among the non-aborigines (high BLL odds ratio = 2.97, compared with low BLL) but not among aborigines. Based on multiple linear regression models, BLLs were positively correlated with both systolic (an increase of 0.85 mm Hg/microg/dL) and diastolic (an increase of 0.48 mm Hg/microg/dL) blood pressures after adjusting for age, gender, ethnic group, alcohol consumption, and body mass index. BLLs were higher among aborigines than non-aborigines and were significantly correlated with blood pressure, particularly systolic pressure. The association should be considered causal.

  12. A toolkit for incorporating genetics into mainstream medical services: Learning from service development pilots in England

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background As advances in genetics are becoming increasingly relevant to mainstream healthcare, a major challenge is to ensure that these are integrated appropriately into mainstream medical services. In 2003, the Department of Health for England announced the availability of start-up funding for ten 'Mainstreaming Genetics' pilot services to develop models to achieve this. Methods Multiple methods were used to explore the pilots' experiences of incorporating genetics which might inform the development of new services in the future. A workshop with project staff, an email questionnaire, interviews and a thematic analysis of pilot final reports were carried out. Results Seven themes relating to the integration of genetics into mainstream medical services were identified: planning services to incorporate genetics; the involvement of genetics departments; the establishment of roles incorporating genetic activities; identifying and involving stakeholders; the challenges of working across specialty boundaries; working with multiple healthcare organisations; and the importance of cultural awareness of genetic conditions. Pilots found that the planning phase often included the need to raise awareness of genetic conditions and services and that early consideration of organisational issues such as clinic location was essential. The formal involvement of genetics departments was crucial to success; benefits included provision of clinical and educational support for staff in new roles. Recruitment and retention for new roles outside usual career pathways sometimes proved difficult. Differences in specialties' working practices and working with multiple healthcare organisations also brought challenges such as the 'genetic approach' of working with families, incompatible record systems and different approaches to health professionals' autonomous practice. 'Practice points' have been collated into a Toolkit which includes resources from the pilots, including job descriptions and

  13. A toolkit for incorporating genetics into mainstream medical services: Learning from service development pilots in England.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Catherine L; Burke, Sarah E; Burton, Hilary; Farndon, Peter A

    2010-05-14

    As advances in genetics are becoming increasingly relevant to mainstream healthcare, a major challenge is to ensure that these are integrated appropriately into mainstream medical services. In 2003, the Department of Health for England announced the availability of start-up funding for ten 'Mainstreaming Genetics' pilot services to develop models to achieve this. Multiple methods were used to explore the pilots' experiences of incorporating genetics which might inform the development of new services in the future. A workshop with project staff, an email questionnaire, interviews and a thematic analysis of pilot final reports were carried out. Seven themes relating to the integration of genetics into mainstream medical services were identified: planning services to incorporate genetics; the involvement of genetics departments; the establishment of roles incorporating genetic activities; identifying and involving stakeholders; the challenges of working across specialty boundaries; working with multiple healthcare organisations; and the importance of cultural awareness of genetic conditions. Pilots found that the planning phase often included the need to raise awareness of genetic conditions and services and that early consideration of organisational issues such as clinic location was essential. The formal involvement of genetics departments was crucial to success; benefits included provision of clinical and educational support for staff in new roles. Recruitment and retention for new roles outside usual career pathways sometimes proved difficult. Differences in specialties' working practices and working with multiple healthcare organisations also brought challenges such as the 'genetic approach' of working with families, incompatible record systems and different approaches to health professionals' autonomous practice. 'Practice points' have been collated into a Toolkit which includes resources from the pilots, including job descriptions and clinical tools. These can

  14. Evidence for overuse of medical services around the world.

    PubMed

    Brownlee, Shannon; Chalkidou, Kalipso; Doust, Jenny; Elshaug, Adam G; Glasziou, Paul; Heath, Iona; Nagpal, Somil; Saini, Vikas; Srivastava, Divya; Chalmers, Kelsey; Korenstein, Deborah

    2017-07-08

    Overuse, which is defined as the provision of medical services that are more likely to cause harm than good, is a pervasive problem. Direct measurement of overuse through documentation of delivery of inappropriate services is challenging given the difficulty of defining appropriate care for patients with individual preferences and needs; overuse can also be measured indirectly through examination of unwarranted geographical variations in prevalence of procedures and care intensity. Despite the challenges, the high prevalence of overuse is well documented in high-income countries across a wide range of services and is increasingly recognised in low-income countries. Overuse of unneeded services can harm patients physically and psychologically, and can harm health systems by wasting resources and deflecting investments in both public health and social spending, which is known to contribute to health. Although harms from overuse have not been well quantified and trends have not been well described, overuse is likely to be increasing worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 38 CFR 17.52 - Hospital care and medical services in non-VA facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the life or health of a veteran receiving hospital care or medical services in a facility over which... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hospital care and medical... VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Use of Public Or Private Hospitals § 17.52 Hospital care and medical services in...

  16. 38 CFR 17.52 - Hospital care and medical services in non-VA facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the life or health of a veteran receiving hospital care or medical services in a facility over which... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hospital care and medical... VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Use of Public Or Private Hospitals § 17.52 Hospital care and medical services in...

  17. The Aboriginal Practical Experience and Its Impact on Pre-Service Teacher's Decisions about Living and Working in Remote in Indigenous Communities in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, Jenny; Moss, Lynette; Cherednichenko, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    In June 2008, 10 pre-service teachers and 2 teacher educators from Edith Cowan University (ECU) participated in an existing community education program in rural and remote Indigenous communities in central Australia. From an intrepid start with a mountain of overloaded baggage and camping cutlery setting off the scanning machine at the airport,…

  18. E-Mental Health Innovations for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study of Implementation Needs in Health Services.

    PubMed

    Puszka, Stefanie; Dingwall, Kylie M; Sweet, Michelle; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-09-19

    Electronic mental health (e-mental health) interventions offer effective, easily accessible, and cost effective treatment and support for mental illness and well-being concerns. However, e-mental health approaches have not been well utilized by health services to date and little is known about their implementation in practice, particularly in diverse contexts and communities. This study aims to understand stakeholder perspectives on the requirements for implementing e-mental health approaches in regional and remote health services for Indigenous Australians. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 managers, directors, chief executive officers (CEOs), and senior practitioners of mental health, well-being, alcohol and other drug and chronic disease services. The implementation of e-mental health approaches in this context is likely to be influenced by characteristics related to the adopter (practitioner skill and knowledge, client characteristics, communication barriers), the innovation (engaging and supportive approach, culturally appropriate design, evidence base, data capture, professional development opportunities), and organizational systems (innovation-systems fit, implementation planning, investment). There is potential for e-mental health approaches to address mental illness and poor social and emotional well-being amongst Indigenous people and to advance their quality of care. Health service stakeholders reported that e-mental health interventions are likely to be most effective when used to support or extend existing health services, including elements of client-driven and practitioner-supported use. Potential solutions to obstacles for integration of e-mental health approaches into practice were proposed including practitioner training, appropriate tool design using a consultative approach, internal organizational directives and support structures, adaptations to existing systems and policies, implementation planning and organizational and government

  19. Using fuzzy gap analysis to measure service quality of medical tourism in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ho, Li-Hsing; Feng, Shu-Yun; Yen, Tieh-Min

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is intended to create a model to measure quality of service, using fuzzy linguistics to analyze the quality of service of medical tourism in Taiwan so as to find the direction for improvement of service quality in medical tourism. The study developed fuzzy questionnaires based on the characteristics of medical tourism quality of service in Taiwan. Questionnaires were delivered and recovered from February to April 2014, using random sampling according to the proportion of medical tourism companies in each region, and 150 effective samples were obtained. The critical quality of service level is found through the fuzzy gap analysis using questionnaires examining expectations and perceptions of customers, as the direction for continuous improvement. From the study, the primary five critical service items that improve the quality of service for medical tourism in Taiwan include, in order: the capability of the service provider to provide committed medical tourism services reliably and accurately, facility service providers in conjunction with the services provided, the cordial and polite attitude of the service provider eliciting a sense of trust from the customer, professional ability of medical (nursing) personnel in hospital and reliability of service provider. The contribution of this study is to create a fuzzy gap analysis to assess the performance of medical tourism service quality, identify key quality characteristics and provide a direction for improvement and development for medical tourism service quality in Taiwan.

  20. Fatherhood in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: An Examination of Barriers and Opportunities to Strengthen the Male Parenting Role.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Lyndon; Rees, Susan

    2018-03-01

    Traditional Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander societies value men's role as parents; however, the importance of promoting fatherhood as a key social determinant of men's well-being has not been fully appreciated in Western medicine. To strengthen the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander male parenting role, it is vital to examine current barriers and opportunities. The first author (a male Aboriginal health project officer) conducted yarning sessions in three remote Australian communities, two being Aboriginal, the other having a high Aboriginal population. An expert sample of 25 Aboriginal and 6 non-Aboriginal stakeholders, including maternal and child health workers and men's group facilitators, considered barriers and opportunities to improve men's parenting knowledge and role, with an aim to inform services and practices intended to support men's parenting. A specific aim was to shape an existing men's group program known as Strong Fathers, Strong Families. A thematic analysis of data from the project identified barriers and opportunities to support men's role as parents. Challenges included the transition from traditional to contemporary parenting practices and low level of cultural and male gender sensitivity in maternal and child health services. Services need to better understand and focus on men's psychological empowerment and to address shame and lack of confidence around parenting. Poor literacy and numeracy are viewed as contributing to disempowerment. Communities need to champion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander male father role models. Biases and barriers should be addressed to improve service delivery and better enable men to become empowered and confident fathers.

  1. Peer-led Aboriginal parent support: Program development for vulnerable populations with participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Munns, Ailsa; Toye, Christine; Hegney, Desley; Kickett, Marion; Marriott, Rhonda; Walker, Roz

    2017-10-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) is a credible, culturally appropriate methodology that can be used to effect collaborative change within vulnerable populations. This PAR study was undertaken in a Western Australian metropolitan setting to develop and evaluate the suitability, feasibility and effectiveness of an Aboriginal peer-led home visiting programme. A secondary aim, addressed in this paper, was to explore and describe research methodology used for the study and provide recommendations for its implementation in other similar situations. PAR using action learning sets was employed to develop the parent support programme and data addressing the secondary, methodological aim were collected through focus groups using semi-structured and unstructured interview schedules. Findings were addressed throughout the action research process to enhance the research process. The themes that emerged from the data and addressed the methodological aim were the need for safe communication processes; supportive engagement processes and supportive organisational processes. Aboriginal peer support workers (PSWs) and community support agencies identified three important elements central to their capacity to engage and work within the PAR methodology. This research has provided innovative data, highlighting processes and recommendations for child health nurses to engage with the PSWs, parents and community agencies to explore culturally acceptable elements for an empowering methodology for peer-led home visiting support. There is potential for this nursing research to credibly inform policy development for Aboriginal child and family health service delivery, in addition to other vulnerable population groups. Child health nurses/researchers can use these new understandings to work in partnership with Aboriginal communities and families to develop empowering and culturally acceptable strategies for developing Aboriginal parent support for the early years. Impact Statement Child

  2. Racial discrimination, post traumatic stress, and gambling problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada.

    PubMed

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul; Parlee, Brenda

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about risk factors for problem gambling (PG) within the rapidly growing urban Aboriginal population in North America. Racial discrimination may be an important risk factor for PG given documented associations between racism and other forms of addictive behaviour. This study examined associations between racial discrimination and problem gambling among urban Aboriginal adults, and the extent to which this link was mediated by post traumatic stress. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Results indicate more than 80 % of respondents experienced discrimination due to Aboriginal race in the past year, with the majority reporting high levels of racism in that time period. Past year racial discrimination was a risk factor for 12-month problem gambling, gambling to escape, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in bootstrapped regression models adjusted for confounders and other forms of social trauma. Elevated PTSD symptoms among those experiencing high levels of racism partially explained the association between racism and the use of gambling to escape in statistical models. These findings are the first to suggest racial discrimination may be an important social determinant of problem gambling for Aboriginal peoples. Gambling may be a coping response that some Aboriginal adults use to escape the negative emotions associated with racist experiences. Results support the development of policies to reduce racism directed at Aboriginal peoples in urban areas, and enhanced services to help Aboriginal peoples cope with racist events.

  3. Improving cardiovascular outcomes among Aboriginal Australians: Lessons from research for primary care

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Sandra C; Haynes, Emma; Woods, John A; Bessarab, Dawn C; Dimer, Lynette A; Wood, Marianne M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Hamilton, Sandra J; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Aboriginal people of Australia have much poorer health and social indicators and a substantial life expectancy gap compared to other Australians, with premature cardiovascular disease a major contributor to poorer health. This article draws on research undertaken to examine cardiovascular disparities and focuses on ways in which primary care practitioners can contribute to reducing cardiovascular disparities and improving Aboriginal health. Methods: The overall research utilised mixed methods and included data analysis, interviews and group processes which included Aboriginal people, service providers and policymakers. Workshop discussions to identify barriers and what works were recorded by notes and on whiteboards, then distilled and circulated to participants and other stakeholders to refine and validate information. Additional engagement occurred through circulation of draft material and further discussions. This report distils the lessons for primary care practitioners to improve outcomes through management that is attentive to the needs of Aboriginal people. Results: Aspects of primordial, primary and secondary prevention are identified, with practical strategies for intervention summarised. The premature onset and high incidence of Aboriginal cardiovascular disease make prevention imperative and require that primary care practitioners understand and work to address the social underpinnings of poor health. Doctors are well placed to reinforce the importance of healthy lifestyle at all visits to involve the family and to reduce barriers which impede early care seeking. Ensuring better information for Aboriginal patients and better integrated care for patients who frequently have complex needs and multi-morbidities will also improve care outcomes. Conclusion: Primary care practitioners have an important role in improving Aboriginal cardiovascular care outcomes. It is essential that they recognise the special needs of their Aboriginal patients

  4. Improving cardiovascular outcomes among Aboriginal Australians: Lessons from research for primary care.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sandra C; Haynes, Emma; Woods, John A; Bessarab, Dawn C; Dimer, Lynette A; Wood, Marianne M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Hamilton, Sandra J; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M

    2016-01-01

    The Aboriginal people of Australia have much poorer health and social indicators and a substantial life expectancy gap compared to other Australians, with premature cardiovascular disease a major contributor to poorer health. This article draws on research undertaken to examine cardiovascular disparities and focuses on ways in which primary care practitioners can contribute to reducing cardiovascular disparities and improving Aboriginal health. The overall research utilised mixed methods and included data analysis, interviews and group processes which included Aboriginal people, service providers and policymakers. Workshop discussions to identify barriers and what works were recorded by notes and on whiteboards, then distilled and circulated to participants and other stakeholders to refine and validate information. Additional engagement occurred through circulation of draft material and further discussions. This report distils the lessons for primary care practitioners to improve outcomes through management that is attentive to the needs of Aboriginal people. Aspects of primordial, primary and secondary prevention are identified, with practical strategies for intervention summarised. The premature onset and high incidence of Aboriginal cardiovascular disease make prevention imperative and require that primary care practitioners understand and work to address the social underpinnings of poor health. Doctors are well placed to reinforce the importance of healthy lifestyle at all visits to involve the family and to reduce barriers which impede early care seeking. Ensuring better information for Aboriginal patients and better integrated care for patients who frequently have complex needs and multi-morbidities will also improve care outcomes. Primary care practitioners have an important role in improving Aboriginal cardiovascular care outcomes. It is essential that they recognise the special needs of their Aboriginal patients and work at multiple levels both outside and

  5. Exploring Australian Aboriginal Women’s experiences of menopause: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    services. While this study is with a select population of Aboriginal Australian women, it reveals the importance of acknowledging differences, particularly in use of language to convey ideas and support Aboriginal women experiencing menopause. PMID:24646300

  6. Public Use of Mobile Medical Applications: A Case Study on Cloud-Based Medical Service of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chen-Luan; Yan, Yu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The use of smart mobile devices has been getting increasingly popular. The focus of this study is an attempt to explore the development of mobile medical App by medical centers and regional hospitals of Taiwan and the function of the App for comparison. The results show indicated that many hospitals developed Apps for the public for mobile medical service, of which 26 medical centers (100%) and 72 regional hospitals (84.7%) availed appointment making service via Apps. The result indicated variance at significant level (p < 0.01). There are 23 medical centers (88.5%) and 74 regional hospitals (87.1%) availed Apps for checking service progress. The result indicated insignificant variance level (p > 0.01). We can see that mobile medical service is gradually emerging as a vital issue. Yet, this is a new domain in medical service. With the mushrooming of medical applications in smart mobile devices, the medical service system is expected to be installed in these devices to enhance interactive mode of operation and inquiry services, such as medication and inquiries into physical examination results. By then, people can learn the status of their health with this system.

  7. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Kathryn J; Bond, Kathy S; Jorm, Anthony F; Kelly, Claire M; Kitchener, Betty A; Williams-Tchen, Aj

    2014-01-28

    It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37-41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members' satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who are developing mental illnesses or are in a

  8. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37–41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members’ satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. Results From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Conclusion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who

  9. 42 CFR 415.110 - Conditions for payment: Medically directed anesthesia services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... anesthesia services. 415.110 Section 415.110 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... directed anesthesia services. (a) General payment rule. Medicare pays for the physician's medical direction of anesthesia services for one service or two through four concurrent anesthesia services furnished...

  10. 42 CFR 415.110 - Conditions for payment: Medically directed anesthesia services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... anesthesia services. 415.110 Section 415.110 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... directed anesthesia services. (a) General payment rule. Medicare pays for the physician's medical direction of anesthesia services for one service or two through four concurrent anesthesia services furnished...

  11. [Patient-centered medicine for tuberculosis medical services].

    PubMed

    Fujita, Akira; Narita, Tomoyo

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 edition of Specific Guiding Principles for Tuberculosis Prevention calls for a streamlined medical services system capable of providing medical care that is customized to the patient's needs. The new 21st Century Japanese version of the Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) expands the indication of DOTS to all tuberculosis (TB) patients in need of treatment. Hospital DOTS consists of comprehensive, patient-centered support provided by a DOTS care team. For DOTS in the field, health care providers should select optimal administration support based on patient profiles and local circumstances. In accordance with medical fee revisions for 2012, basic inpatient fees have been raised and new standards for TB hospitals have been established, the result of efforts made by the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis and other associated groups. It is important that the medical care system be improved so that patients can actively engage themselves as a member of the team, for the ultimate goal of practicing patient-centered medicine. We have organized this symposium to explore the best ways for practicing patient-centered medicine in treating TB. It is our sincere hope that this symposium will lead to improved medical treatment for TB patients. 1. Providing patient-centered TB service via utilization of collaborative care pathway: Akiko MATSUOKA (Hiroshima Prefectural Tobu Public Health Center) We have been using two types of collaborative care pathway as one of the means of providing patient-centered TB services since 2008. The first is the clinical pathway, which is mainly used by TB specialist doctors to communicate with local practitioners on future treatment plan (e.g. medication and treatment duration) of patients. The clinical pathway was first piloted in Onomichi district and its use was later expanded to the whole of Hiroshima prefecture. The second is the regional care pathway, which is used to share treatment progress, test results and other

  12. Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD)—developing an Advanced Cancer Data System for Aboriginal people in South Australia: a mixed methods research protocol

    PubMed Central

    Yerrell, Paul Henry; Roder, David; Cargo, Margaret; Reilly, Rachel; Banham, David; Micklem, Jasmine May; Morey, Kim; Stewart, Harold Bundamurra; Stajic, Janet; Norris, Michael; Brown, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People carry a greater burden of cancer-related mortality than non-Aboriginal Australians. The Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities Project aims to develop and test an integrated, comprehensive cancer monitoring and surveillance system capable of incorporating epidemiological and narrative data to address disparities and advocate for clinical system change. Methods and analysis The Advanced Cancer Data System will integrate routinely collected unit record data from the South Australian Population Cancer Registry and a range of other data sources for a retrospective cohort of indigenous people with cancers diagnosed from 1990 to 2010. A randomly drawn non-Aboriginal cohort will be matched by primary cancer site, sex, age and year at diagnosis. Cross-tabulations and regression analyses will examine the extent to which demographic attributes, cancer stage and survival vary between the cohorts. Narratives from Aboriginal people with cancer, their families, carers and service providers will be collected and analysed using patient pathway mapping and thematic analysis. Statements from the narratives will structure both a concept mapping process of rating, sorting and prioritising issues, focusing on issues of importance and feasibility, and the development of a real-time Aboriginal Cancer Measure of Experience for ongoing linkage with epidemiological data in the Advanced Cancer Data System. Aboriginal Community engagement underpins this Project. Ethics and dissemination The research has been approved by relevant local and national ethics committees. Findings will be disseminated in local and international peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. In addition, the research will provide data for knowledge translation activities across the partner organisations and feed directly into the Statewide Cancer Control Plan. It will provide a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of

  13. 42 CFR 409.12 - Nursing and related services, medical social services; use of hospital or CAH facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nursing and related services, medical social... Inpatient Hospital Services and Inpatient Critical Access Hospital Services § 409.12 Nursing and related... (b) of this section, Medicare pays for nursing and related services, use of hospital or CAH...

  14. 42 CFR 409.12 - Nursing and related services, medical social services; use of hospital or CAH facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nursing and related services, medical social... Inpatient Hospital Services and Inpatient Critical Access Hospital Services § 409.12 Nursing and related... (b) of this section, Medicare pays for nursing and related services, use of hospital or CAH...

  15. 42 CFR 409.12 - Nursing and related services, medical social services; use of hospital or CAH facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nursing and related services, medical social... Inpatient Hospital Services and Inpatient Critical Access Hospital Services § 409.12 Nursing and related... (b) of this section, Medicare pays for nursing and related services, use of hospital or CAH...

  16. 42 CFR 409.12 - Nursing and related services, medical social services; use of hospital or CAH facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nursing and related services, medical social... Inpatient Hospital Services and Inpatient Critical Access Hospital Services § 409.12 Nursing and related... (b) of this section, Medicare pays for nursing and related services, use of hospital or CAH...

  17. 42 CFR 409.12 - Nursing and related services, medical social services; use of hospital or CAH facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nursing and related services, medical social... Inpatient Hospital Services and Inpatient Critical Access Hospital Services § 409.12 Nursing and related... (b) of this section, Medicare pays for nursing and related services, use of hospital or CAH...

  18. Emergency medical service in the stroke chain of survival.

    PubMed

    Chenaitia, Hichem; Lefevre, Oriane; Ho, Vanessa; Squarcioni, Christian; Pradel, Vincent; Fournier, Marc; Toesca, Richard; Michelet, Pierre; Auffray, Jean Pierre

    2013-02-01

    The Emergency Medical Services (EMS) play a primordial role in the early management of adults with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role and effectiveness of the EMS in the stroke chain of survival in Marseille. A retrospective observational study was conducted in patients treated for AIS or transient ischaemic attack in three emergency departments and at the Marseille stroke centre over a period of 12 months. In 2009, of 1034 patients ultimately presenting a diagnosis of AIS or transient ischaemic attack, 74% benefited from EMS activation. Dispatchers correctly diagnosed 57% of stroke patients. The symptoms most frequently reported included limb weakness, speech problems and facial paresis. Elements resulting in misdiagnosis by dispatchers were general discomfort, chest pain, dyspnoea, fall or vertigo. Stroke patients not diagnosed by emergency medical dispatchers but calling within 3 h of symptom onset accounted for 20% of cases. Our study demonstrates that public intervention programmes must stress the urgency of recognizing stroke symptoms and the importance of calling EMS through free telephone numbers. Further efforts are necessary to disseminate guidelines for healthcare providers concerning stroke recognition and the new therapeutic possibilities in order to increase the likelihood of acute stroke patients presenting to a stroke team early enough to be eligible for acute treatment. In addition, EMS dispatchers should receive further training about atypical stroke symptoms, and 'Face Arm Speech Test' tests must be included in the routine questionnaires used in emergency medical calls concerning elderly persons.

  19. Customers' satisfaction about prehospital emergency medical services in Lorestan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Heshmatolah; Kamran, Aziz; Zali, Morad Esmaiel; Novinmehr, Nasser; Safari, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    Patient's satisfaction with health care in ambulance services is an important quality indicator and a helpful tool for managers of prehospital emergency services. This study aimed to measure patient satisfaction with health provided by prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) in Lorestan, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients (n=450) transferred by EMS to hospitals of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences in a two-year period (2013-2014). Data collection was performed by patient questionnaire, which is a standard LKFR tool. Validity and reliability of the instrument was confirmed by scientific method. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS Version 19. Descriptive and inferential statistics such as Chi-square, paired-samples t-test, independent-samples t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient, and Fisher's exact test were used. One hundred ninety-two (42.8%) and 257 (57.2%) patients were female and male, respectively (mean: 41 years, r: 37-83). Patient satisfaction of the dispatcher was good, and satisfaction level in regards to the technicians' performance, physical situation, and facilities inside the ambulance was moderate. The Wilcoxon test did not show any significant difference between pain severity before and after arriving EMS in the cardiac and respiratory patients (p=0.691), but severity of pain in orthopedic patients after arriving EMS was decreased (p=0.001). Cardiac and respiratory patients had low satisfaction of EMS, and the Chi-square test was significant (p=0.001). Orthopedic patients had the most satisfaction of EMS. Generally, patients' satisfaction of EMS was low. Satisfaction with pain relief in orthopedic patients was better than pain relief in cardiac and respiratory patients. It is recommended to take necessary actions to improve the level of patient satisfaction of EMS.

  20. Changing shape: workforce and the implementation of Aboriginal health policy.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Jane E; Wise, Marilyn J; Weeramanthri, Tarun

    2008-02-01

    Thirty-five interviews were conducted in a case study on the implementation of the Northern Territory Preventable Chronic Disease Strategy (PCDS) to explore the role of the health workforce in the implementation of Aboriginal health policy. There was a tendency for the workforce to implement those aspects of the policy that drew on existing skills in treatment and management and to avoid or delay implementation that required the acquisition of new skills in primary prevention. Factors that facilitated the implementation of the PCDS included the addition of new resources, employment of additional staff, training, increased commitment from managers, and the creation of dedicated chronic disease positions. Factors impeding implementation included insufficient numbers of service providers, too little support for current Aboriginal Health Workers, and high staff turnover.

  1. Closing the gap in Australian Aboriginal infant immunisation rates -- the development and review of a pre-call strategy.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Patrick M; Allan, Natalie A; Clark, Katrina K; Butler, Michelle T; Massey, Peter D; Durrheim, David N

    2016-06-16

    Improving timely immunisation is key to closing the inequitable gap in immunisation rates between Aboriginal children and non-Indigenous children. Aboriginal Immunisation Officers were employed in Hunter New England Local Health District (HNELHD), New South Wales (NSW), Australia, to telephone the families of all Aboriginal infants prior to the due date for their first scheduled vaccination. Aboriginal Immunisation Officers contacted the families of Aboriginal children born in the Hunter New England Local Health District (HNELHD) by telephone before their due immunisation date (pre-call) to provide the rationale for timely immunisation, and to facilitate contact with culturally safe local immunisation services if this was required. The impact of this strategy on immunisation coverage rates is reviewed. For the period March 2010 to September 2014 there was a significant increase in immunisation coverage rate for Aboriginal children at 12 months of age in HNELHD (p < 0.0001). The coverage in the rest of NSW Aboriginal children also increased but not significantly (p = 0.218). Over the full study period there was a significant decrease in the immunisation coverage gap between Aboriginal children and non-Indigenous children in HNELHD (p < 0.0001) and the rest of NSW (p = 0.004). The immunisation coverage gap between Aboriginal and non-Indigenous infants decreased at a significantly faster rate in HNELHD than the rest of NSW (p = 0.0001). By the end of the study period in 2014, immunisation coverage in HNELHD Aboriginal infants had surpassed that of non-Indigenous infants by 0.8 %. The employment of Aboriginal immunisation officers may be associated with closing of the gap between Aboriginal and non-Indigenous infants' immunisation coverage in HNELHD and NSW. The pre-call telephone strategy provided accelerated benefit in closing this gap in HNELHD.

  2. The effects of competition on medical service provision.

    PubMed

    Brosig-Koch, Jeannette; Hehenkamp, Burkhard; Kokot, Johanna

    2017-12-01

    We explore how competition between physicians affects medical service provision. Previous research has shown that, without competition, physicians deviate from patient-optimal treatment under payment systems like capitation and fee-for-service. Although competition might reduce these distortions, physicians usually interact with each other repeatedly over time and only a fraction of patients switches providers at all. Both patterns might prevent competition to work in the desired direction. To analyze the behavioral effects of competition, we develop a theoretical benchmark that is then tested in a controlled laboratory experiment. Experimental conditions vary physician payment and patient characteristics. Real patients benefit from provision decisions made in the experiment. Our results reveal that, in line with the theoretical prediction, introducing competition can reduce overprovision and underprovision, respectively. The observed effects depend on patient characteristics and the payment system, though. Tacit collusion is observed and particularly pronounced with fee-for-service payment, but it appears to be less frequent than in related experimental research on price competition. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Emergency medical services key performance measurement in Asian cities.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin; Tanaka, Hideharu; Shin, Sang Do; Ng, Yih Yng; Piyasuwankul, Thammapad; Lin, Chih-Hao; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock

    2015-01-01

    One of the key principles in the recommended standards is that emergency medical service (EMS) providers should continuously monitor the quality and safety of their services. This requires service providers to implement performance monitoring using appropriate and relevant measures including key performance indicators. In Asia, EMS systems are at different developmental phases and maturity. This will create difficultly in benchmarking or assessing the quality of EMS performance across the region. An attempt was made to compare the EMS performance index based on the structure, process, and outcome analysis. The data was collected from the Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcome Study (PAROS) data among few Asian cities, namely, Tokyo, Osaka, Singapore, Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, Taipei, and Seoul. The parameters of inclusions were broadly divided into structure, process, and outcome measurements. The data was collected by the site investigators from each city and keyed into the electronic web-based data form which is secured strictly by username and passwords. Generally, there seems to be a more uniformity for EMS performance parameters among the more developed EMS systems. The major problem with the EMS agencies in the cities of developing countries like Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur is inadequate or unavailable data pertaining to EMS performance. There is non-uniformity in the EMS performance measurement across the Asian cities. This creates difficulty for EMS performance index comparison and benchmarking. Hopefully, in the future, collaborative efforts such as the PAROS networking group will further enhance the standardization in EMS performance reporting across the region.

  4. Preventive medical care in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory: a follow-up study of the impact of clinical guidelines, computerised recall and reminder systems, and audit and feedback.

    PubMed

    Bailie, Ross S; Togni, Samantha J; Si, Damin; Robinson, Gary; d'Abbs, Peter H N

    2003-07-30

    Interventions to improve delivery of preventive medical services have been shown to be effective in North America and the UK. However, there are few studies of the extent to which the impact of such interventions has been sustained, or of the impact of such interventions in disadvantaged populations or remote settings. This paper describes the trends in delivery of preventive medical services following a multifaceted intervention in remote community health centres in the Northern Territory of Australia. The intervention comprised the development and dissemination of best practice guidelines supported by an electronic client register, recall and reminder systems and associated staff training, and audit and feedback. Clinical records in seven community health centres were audited at regular intervals against best practice guidelines over a period of three years, with feedback of audit findings to health centre staff and management. Levels of service delivery varied between services and between communities. There was an initial improvement in service levels for most services following the intervention, but improvements were in general not fully sustained over the three year period. Improvements in service delivery are consistent with the international experience, although baseline and follow-up levels are in many cases higher than reported for comparable studies in North America and the UK. Sustainability of improvements may be achieved by institutionalisation of relevant work practices and enhanced health centre capacity.

  5. Oral health care in remote Kimberley Aboriginal communities: the characteristics and perceptions of dental volunteers.

    PubMed

    Patel, J; Hearn, L; Slack-Smith, L M

    2015-09-01

    Aboriginal Australians face significant disparities in oral health and this is particularly the case in remote communities where access to dental services can be difficult. Using volunteers to provide dental care in the remote Kimberley region of Western Australia is a novel approach. This study comprised an anonymous online survey of volunteers working with the Kimberley Dental Team (KDT). The survey had a response fraction of 66% and explored volunteer demographic characteristics, factors that motivated their involvement, perceptions of oral health among Aboriginal communities, and barriers and enablers to oral health in remote Aboriginal communities. Volunteers were more likely to be female, middle-aged and engaged in full-time employment. The two most common reasons reported for volunteering were to assist the community and visit the Kimberley region. Education and access to reliable, culturally appropriate care were perceived as enablers to good oral health for Aboriginal people in the Kimberley while limited access to services, poor nutrition and lack of government support were cited as barriers. Volunteers providing dental services to remote areas in Western Australia had a diverse demographic profile. However, they share similar motivating factors and views on the current barriers and enablers to good oral health in remote Aboriginal communities. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  6. Knowledge Building in an Aboriginal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The report on the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1996), the Kelowna Accord announced in 2005 (five-billion dollars) followed by its demise in 2006, and the settlement in 2006 for Aboriginal survivors of residential schools (1.9 billion dollars), are but some of the recent high-profile indicators of the challenges to Canada in dealing with…

  7. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  8. Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence…

  9. Aboriginal Language Knowledge and Youth Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Darcy; Chandler, Michael J.; Lalonde, Christopher E.

    2007-01-01

    This brief report details a preliminary investigation into how community-level variability in knowledge of Aboriginal languages relate to "band"-level measures of youth suicide. In Canada, and, more specifically, in the province of British Columbia (BC), Aboriginal youth suicide rates vary substantially from one community to another. The…

  10. As We See...Aboriginal Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiffarm, Lenore A., Ed.

    For many years, Aboriginal knowledge was invalidated by Western ways of knowing. This collection of papers discusses ways of teaching, ways of knowing, and ways of being that have sustained Aboriginal people for over 500 years. The papers are: "Spirit Writing: Writing Circles as Healing Pedagogy" (Lenore A. Stiffarm); "Pedagogy from…

  11. Aboriginal Healing Foundation Annual Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboriginal Healing Foundation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Aboriginal Healing Foundation (AHF) is a nonprofit organization established in 1998 with funding from the Canadian Government. Its mission is to support Aboriginal people in building sustainable healing processes that address the legacy of physical and sexual abuse in the residential school system, including intergenerational impacts. AHF…

  12. No Aboriginal Students left Behind in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sue-Jen; Hartzler-Miller, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    The project is motivated by Taiwan's huge gap of educational levels between the aborigines and the Hans. The low achievement of aboriginal students lies in factors related to problems in finance, health, and cultural difference, which contribute to their sense of self-deprecation. The purpose of the project is to provide early intervention and…

  13. Supporting Success: Aboriginal Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallop, Cynthia J.; Bastien, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    For most Aboriginal students in Canada, the term "success" in postsecondary education is more complicated than the mainstream notions of higher socioeconomic status and career advancement. Historically, "success" for Aboriginal peoples in postsecondary education was linked to issues of assimilation, since to be successful meant…

  14. Beyond policy and planning to practice: getting sexual health on the agenda in Aboriginal communities in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sandra C; Greville, Heath S; Param, Rani

    2008-05-19

    Indigenous Australians have significantly poorer status on a large range of health, educational and socioeconomic measures and successive Australian governments at state and federal level have committed to redressing these disparities. Despite this, improvements in Aboriginal health status have been modest, and Australia has much greater disparities in the health of its Indigenous people compared to countries that share a history characterised by colonisation and the dispossession of indigenous populations such as New Zealand, Canada and the United States of America. Efforts at policy and planning must ultimately be translated into practical strategies. This article outlines an approach that was effective in Western Australia in increasing the engagement and concern of Aboriginal people about high rates of sexually transmissible infections and sexual health issues. Many aspects of the approach are relevant for other health issues. The complexity of Indigenous sexual health necessitates inter-agency and cross-governmental collaboration, in addition to Aboriginal leadership, accurate data, and community support. A recent approach covering all these areas is described. This has resulted in Aboriginal sexual health being more actively discussed within Aboriginal health settings than it once was and additional resources for Indigenous sexual health being available, with better communication and partnership across different health service providers and sectors. The valuable lessons in capacity building, collaboration and community engagement are readily transferable to other health issues, and may be useful for other health professionals working in the challenging area of Aboriginal health. Health service planners and providers grapple with achieving Aboriginal ownership and leadership regarding their particular health issue, despite sincere concern and commitment to addressing Aboriginal health issues. This highlights the need to secure genuine Aboriginal engagement

  15. Aboriginal Education in Winnipeg Inner City High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Jim; Mallett, Kathy

    This study investigated the educational circumstances of Aboriginal students in inner city high schools in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It is based on a literature review and interviews with Aboriginal high school students, Aboriginal school dropouts, adult members of the Aboriginal community, and teachers. Results indicate that there is a…

  16. Reconstructing the star knowledge of Aboriginal Tasmanians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantevoort, Michelle; Hamacher, Duane W.; Lischick, Savannah

    2016-12-01

    The canopy of stars is a central presence in the daily and spiritual lives of Aboriginal Tasmanians. With the arrival of European colonists, Tasmanian astronomical knowledge and traditions were interrupted and dispersed. Fragments can be found scattered in the ethnographic and historical record throughout the nineteenth century. We draw from these ethnohistorical documents to analyse and reconstruct Aboriginal astronomical knowledge in Tasmania. This analysis demonstrates that stars, the Milky Way, constellations, dark nebula, the Sun, Moon, meteors and aurorae held cultural, spiritual and subsistence significance for the Aboriginal cultures of Tasmania. We move beyond a monolithic view of Aboriginal astronomical knowledge in Tasmania, commonly portrayed in previous research, to lay the groundwork for future ethnographic and archaeological fieldwork with Aboriginal elders and communities.

  17. Medical students, clinical preventive services, and shared decision-making.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Carole W; Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Margaret

    2002-11-01

    Improving access to preventive care requires addressing patient, provider, and systems barriers. Patients often lack knowledge or are skeptical about the importance of prevention. Physicians feel that they have too little time, are not trained to deliver preventive services, and are concerned about the effectiveness of prevention. We have implemented an educational module in the required family practice clerkship (1) to enhance medical student learning about common clinical preventive services and (2) to teach students how to inform and involve patients in shared decision making about those services. Students are asked to examine available evidence-based information for preventive screening services. They are encouraged to look at the recommendations of various organizations and use such resources as reports from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force to determine recommendations they want to be knowledgeable about in talking with their patients. For learning shared decision making, students are trained to use a model adapted from Braddock and colleagues(1) to discuss specific screening services and to engage patients in the process of making informed decisions about what is best for their own health. The shared decision making is presented and modeled by faculty, discussed in small groups, and students practice using Web-based cases and simulations. The students are evaluated using formative and summative performance-based assessments as they interact with simulated patients about (1) screening for high blood cholesterol and other lipid abnormalities, (2) screening for colorectal cancer, (3) screening for prostate cancer, and (4) screening for breast cancer. The final student evaluation is a ten-minute, videotaped discussion with a simulated patient about screening for colorectal cancer that is graded against a checklist that focuses primarily on the elements of shared decision making. Our medical students appear quite willing to accept shared decision making as

  18. Identification of adverse events in ground transport emergency medical services.

    PubMed

    Patterson, P Daniel; Weaver, Matthew D; Abebe, Kaleab; Martin-Gill, Chris; Roth, Ronald N; Suyama, Joseph; Guyette, Francis X; Rittenberger, Jon C; Krackhardt, David; Arnold, Robert; Yealy, Donald M; Lave, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method to define and rate the severity of adverse events (AEs) in emergency medical services (EMS) safety research. They used a modified Delphi technique to develop a consensus definition of an AE. The consensus definition was as follows: "An adverse event in EMS is a harmful or potentially harmful event occurring during the continuum of EMS care that is potentially preventable and thus independent of the progression of the patient's condition." Physicians reviewed 250 charts from 3 EMS agencies for AEs. The authors examined physician agreement using κ, Fleiss's κ, and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall physician agreement on presence of an AE per chart was fair (κ = 0.24; 95% CI = 0.19, 0.29). These findings should serve as a basis for refining and implementing an AE evaluation instrument.

  19. An Opportunity for Healing and Holistic Care: Exploring the Roles of Health Care Providers Working Within Northern Canadian Aboriginal Communities.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Zaida; Holmes, Dave; Chartrand, Larry

    2016-05-22

    The purpose of this qualitative study was exploring what the roles and challenges of health care providers working within Northern Canadian Aboriginal communities are and what resources can help support or impede their efforts in working toward addressing health inequities within these communities. The qualitative research conducted was influenced by a postcolonial epistemology. The works of theorists Fanon on colonization and racial construction, Kristeva on semiotics and abjection, and Foucault on power/knowledge, governmentality, and biopower were used in providing a theoretical framework. Critical discourse analysis of 25 semistructured interviews with health care providers was used to gain a better understanding of their roles and challenges while working within Northern Canadian Aboriginal communities. Within this research study, three significant findings emerged from the data. First, the Aboriginal person's identity was constructed in relation to the health care provider's role of delivering essential health services. Second, health care providers were not treating the "ill" patient, but rather treating the patient for being "ill." Third, health care providers were treating the Aboriginal person for being "Aboriginal" by separating the patient from his or her identity. The treatment involved reforming the Aboriginal patient from the condition of being "Aboriginal." © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Background, offence characteristics, and criminal outcomes of Aboriginal youth who sexually offend: a closer look at Aboriginal youth intervention needs.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Erika Y; Gretton, Heather M

    2007-09-01

    Canada's Aboriginal peoples face a number of social and health issues. Research shows that Aboriginal youths are over-represented in the criminal justice system and youth forensic psychiatric programmes. Within the literature on sex offending youth, there appears to be no published data available to inform clinicians working with adjudicated Aboriginal youth. Therefore, the present study examines the background, offence characteristics, and criminal outcomes of Aboriginal (n = 102) and non-Aboriginal (n = 257) youths who engaged in sexual offending behaviour and were ordered to attend a sexual offender treatment programme in British Columbia between 1985 and 2004. Overall, Aboriginal youths were more likely than non-Aboriginal youths to have background histories of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), substance abuse, childhood victimization, academic difficulties, and instability in the living environment. Both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal youths had a tendency to target children under 12-years-old, females, and non-strangers. Aboriginal youths were more likely than non-Aboriginal youths to use substances at the time of their sexual index offence. Outcome data revealed that Aboriginal youths were more likely than their non-Aboriginal counterparts to recidivate sexually, violently, and non-violently during the 10-year follow-up period. Furthermore, the time between discharge and commission of all types of re-offences was significantly shorter for Aboriginal youths than for non-Aboriginal youths. Implications of these findings are discussed with regards to the needs of Aboriginal youth and intervention.

  1. The use of medication compliance devices by district nursing services.

    PubMed

    McGraw, C; Drennan, V

    2000-07-01

    This article presents a critical review of the literature relating to medication compliance devices and the findings of a survey that examined the use of such devices by district nursing services. The UKCC (1992) does not regard the loading of compliance devices by nurses as safe practice; however, compliance devices continue to be used by district nurses. The evidence base concerning the value and use of medication compliance devices is examined and significant gaps in the literature relating to the use of such devices are identified. There is an absence of studies that focus on the effect of compliance devices on adherence among older patients and the nature and frequency of drug administration errors involving these devices. The survey findings show that nurse-loaded compliance devices are used in over one-third of the sample. Further research is necessary to assess the clinical effectiveness of, and clinical risk attached to, compliance devices for older patients in the community. It is suggested that this is an issue of serious concern for primary care groups considering the principles of clinical governance.

  2. A Longitudinal Emergency Medical Services Track in Emergency Medicine Residency.

    PubMed

    Adams, Daniel; Bischof, Jason; Larrimore, Ashley; Krebs, William; King, Andrew

    2017-03-30

    Emergency medicine residency programs offer Emergency Medical Services (EMS) curricula to address Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones. While some programs offer advanced clinical tracks in EMS, no standard curriculum exists. We sought to establish a well-defined EMS curriculum to allow interested residents to develop advanced clinical skills and scholarship within this subspecialty. Core EMS fellowship trained faculty were recruited to help develop the curriculum. Building on ACGME graduation requirements and milestones, important elements of EMS fellowship training were incorporated into the curriculum to develop the final document. The final curriculum focuses on scholarly activities relating to the four core areas of EMS identified by The American Board of Emergency Medicine and serves as an intermediary between ACGME graduation requirements for education in EMS and fellowship level training. Standardization of the EMS scholarly track can provide residents with the potential to obtain competency beyond ACGME requirements and prepare them for success in fellowship training and/or leadership within EMS on graduation.

  3. A Longitudinal Emergency Medical Services Track in Emergency Medicine Residency

    PubMed Central

    Bischof, Jason; Larrimore, Ashley; Krebs, William; King, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Emergency medicine residency programs offer Emergency Medical Services (EMS) curricula to address Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones. While some programs offer advanced clinical tracks in EMS, no standard curriculum exists. We sought to establish a well-defined EMS curriculum to allow interested residents to develop advanced clinical skills and scholarship within this subspecialty. Core EMS fellowship trained faculty were recruited to help develop the curriculum. Building on ACGME graduation requirements and milestones, important elements of EMS fellowship training were incorporated into the curriculum to develop the final document. The final curriculum focuses on scholarly activities relating to the four core areas of EMS identified by The American Board of Emergency Medicine and serves as an intermediary between ACGME graduation requirements for education in EMS and fellowship level training. Standardization of the EMS scholarly track can provide residents with the potential to obtain competency beyond ACGME requirements and prepare them for success in fellowship training and/or leadership within EMS on graduation. PMID:28465874

  4. Evidence for underuse of effective medical services around the world.

    PubMed

    Glasziou, Paul; Straus, Sharon; Brownlee, Shannon; Trevena, Lyndal; Dans, Leonila; Guyatt, Gordon; Elshaug, Adam G; Janett, Robert; Saini, Vikas

    2017-07-08

    Underuse-the failure to use effective and affordable medical interventions-is common and responsible for substantial suffering, disability, and loss of life worldwide. Underuse occurs at every point along the treatment continuum, from populations lacking access to health care to inadequate supply of medical resources and labour, slow or partial uptake of innovations, and patients not accessing or declining them. The extent of underuse for different interventions varies by country, and is documented in countries of high, middle, and low-income, and across different types of health-care systems, payment models, and health services. Most research into underuse has focused on measuring solutions to the problem, with considerably less attention paid to its global prevalence or its consequences for patients and populations. Although focused effort and resources can overcome specific underuse problems, comparatively little is spent on work to better understand and overcome the barriers to improved uptake of effective interventions, and methods to make them affordable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Medical doctor in mountain rescue service - a profession's perspective].

    PubMed

    Putzke, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Helicopter emergency services (HEMS) carrying doctors trained in emergency medicine represent a well established system for primary care with increasing professionalism since their implementation in the seventies until now. However, considerable differences persist in Europe concerning the structure as well as integration of the system in the entire organisation of area-wide demands. Based on the particular geographic conditions in the alps which are highly associated with challenges for man and material a dense network of helicopter airbases has been established. Hence, this system accounts for the social, economical and touristic requirements of this region in terms of providing sufficient emergency medical treatment. In addition to statutory and professional provisions qualification requirements for emergency doctors comprehend extensive alpine training. Primarily this provides personal safety as well as security for the entire team and the patient which particularly applies for technical rope rescue. Advanced all-season training is compulsory due to seasonal differences in casualties. Well harmonized training with cross-border validity is not available to-date. Hence, the development of obligatory standard operating procedures should be the major goal of medical associations and societies.

  6. Petitioning for Involuntary Commitment for Chemical Dependency by Medical Services.

    PubMed

    Lamoureux, Ian C; Schutt, Paul E; Rasmussen, Keith G

    2017-09-01

    Patients who have chemical dependency (CD) are commonly encountered on medical and surgical wards, often for illnesses and injuries sustained as a direct result of their substance abuse. When these patients are repeatedly admitted to the hospital in certain states that provide a legal framework to commit chemically dependent persons to a treatment facility, clinicians often wonder whether they should initiate that process. Should consulting psychiatrists choose to initiate the commitment process, they put into motion a resource-intensive, time-consuming mechanism, with uncertain outcomes, both in the courtroom and at the bedside. Petitioning for involuntary commitment to chemical dependency treatment of a patient from medical and surgical services is poorly understood. In this study, we examined a series of patients for whom petitions for judicial commitment in the state of Minnesota were entered over a 12-month period, and evaluated the likelihood of commitment to treatment, the demographics of patients involved, and the outcomes for this series of patients. Three vignettes are presented to illustrate the severity of these patients' illnesses and potential outcomes of the process. We further describe potential limitations of the commitment system and alternatives to CD commitment that could be explored further. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  7. Variation in Emergency Medical Services Workplace Safety Culture

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, P. Daniel; Huang, David T.; Fairbanks, Rollin J.; Simeone, Scott; Weaver, Matthew; Wang, Henry E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Workplace attitude, beliefs and culture may impact the safety of patient care. This study characterized perceptions of safety culture in a nationwide sample of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agencies. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey involving 61 Advanced Life Support EMS agencies in North America. We administered a modified version of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ), a survey instrument measuring dimensions of workplace safety culture (Safety Climate, Teamwork Climate, Perceptions of Management, Job Satisfaction, Working Conditions, and Stress Recognition). We included full-time and part-time paramedics and Emergency Medical Technicians. We determined the variation in safety culture scores across EMS agencies. Using Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM), we determined associations between safety culture scores and individual and EMS agency characteristics. Results We received 1,715 completed surveys from 61 EMS agencies (mean agency response rate 47%; 95% CI 10%, 83%). There was wide variation in safety culture scores across EMS agencies [mean (min, max)]: Safety Climate 74.5 (Min 49.9, Max 89.7), Teamwork Climate 71.2 (Min 45.1, Max 90.1), Perceptions of Management 67.2 (Min 31.1, Max 92.2), Job Satisfaction 75.4 (Min 47.5, Max 93.8), Working Conditions 66.9 (Min 36.6, Max 91.4), Stress Recognition 55.1 (Min 31.3, Max 70.6). Air medical EMS agencies tended to score higher across all safety culture domains. Lower safety culture scores were associated with increased annual patient contacts. Safety climate domain scores were not associated with other individual or EMS agency characteristics. Conclusion In this sample, workplace safety culture varies between EMS agencies. PMID:20809688

  8. Prevalence of dementia in urban and regional Aboriginal Australians.

    PubMed

    Radford, Kylie; Mack, Holly A; Draper, Brian; Chalkley, Simon; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert; Bennett, Hayley; Delbaere, Kim; Broe, Gerald A

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dementia in collaboration with urban/regional Aboriginal communities. A census of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men and women aged 60 years and above in the target communities identified 546 potential participants, with 336 (61.5%) participating in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed a structured interview and cognitive screening tests. One hundred fifty-three participants also completed a detailed medical assessment. Assessment data were reviewed by a panel of clinicians who determined a diagnosis of dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) according to standard criteria. Crude prevalence of dementia was 13.4%, and age-standardized prevalence was 21.0%. The most common types of dementia were Alzheimer's dementia (44%) and mixed dementia diagnoses (29%). Estimated prevalence of MCI was 17.7%. Consistent with previous findings in a remote population, urban and regional Aboriginal Australians face high rates of dementia at younger ages, most commonly Alzheimer's dementia. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mind the gap: What is the difference between alcohol treatment need and access for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians?

    PubMed

    Brett, Jonathan; Lee, K S Kylie; Gray, Dennis; Wilson, Scott; Freeburn, Bradley; Harrison, Kristie; Conigrave, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol-related harms cause great concern to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) communities in Australia as well as challenges to policy makers. Treatment of alcohol use disorders forms one component of an effective public health response. While alcohol dependence typically behaves as a chronic relapsing condition, treatment has been shown to be both effective and cost-effective in improving outcomes. Provision of alcohol treatment services should be based on accurate assessment of treatment need. In this paper, we examine the likely extent of the gap between voluntary alcohol treatment need and accessibility. We also suggest potential approaches to improve the ability to assess unmet need. Existing methods of assessing the treatment needs of Indigenous Australians are limited by incomplete and inaccurate survey data and an over-reliance on existing service use data. In addition to a shortage of services, cultural and logistical barriers may hamper access to alcohol treatment for Indigenous Australians. There is also a lack of services funded to a level that allows them to cope with clients with complex medical and physical comorbidity, and a lack of services for women, families and young people. A lack of voluntary treatment services also raises serious ethical concerns, given the expansion of mandatory treatment programmes and incarceration of Indigenous Australians for continued drinking. The use of modelling approaches, linkage of administrative data sets and strategies to improve data collection are discussed as possible methods to better assess treatment need. [Brett J, Lee K, Gray D, Wilson S, Freeburn B, Harrison K, Conigrave K. Mind the gap: what is the difference between alcohol treatment need and access for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians? Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:456-460]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Reducing medical service utilization by encouraging vaccines: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Berg, Gregory D; Thomas, Eileen; Silverstein, Steven; Neel, Cheryl L; Mireles, Matthew

    2004-11-01

    Vaccination against influenza is associated with reductions in hospitalizations for heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, pneumonia, or influenza, and the risk of death from all causes during the influenza season. Randomized controlled trial. All members enrolled in the Blue Cross Blue Shield Association's Government Wide Service Benefit Program in the states of Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Kentucky, California, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado in October 2002. The sample size was 339,220 members. Two identical influenza/pneumonia direct mail marketing pieces that encouraged members to receive influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. The study period was October 15, 2002 through March 15, 2003 when most influenza cases occur. Data were collected in July 2003 and analyzed during August 2003. Administrative claims based on influenza/pneumonia inpatient admissions and emergency department (ED) visits. The intervention group experienced a 2.62% (p=0.010) higher rate of influenza vaccinations; 4.61% (p=0.080) higher rate of pneumonia vaccinations; 9.67% (p=0.136) lower rate of influenza/pneumonia inpatient admissions; and 22.64% (p=0.002) lower rate of influenza/pneumonia ED visits compared to the control group. The benefit-cost ratio (return on investment) from this intervention was estimated to be US dollar 2.21 per dollar spent. Administrative claims data suggest that members respond to health plan mailings with an increase in influenza vaccination rates. Health plans can cost-effectively impact medical service utilization and vaccination rates by mailing information to their members.

  11. 20 CFR 702.413 - Fees for medical services; prevailing community charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fees for medical services; prevailing... AND PROCEDURE Medical Care and Supervision § 702.413 Fees for medical services; prevailing community... such charges for the same or similar care (including supplies) as prevails in the community in which...

  12. 48 CFR 801.670-3 - Medical, dental, and ancillary service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medical, dental, and..., Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 801.670-3 Medical, dental, and ancillary service. (a) When medical, dental, and ancillary services under $10,000 per authorization are not available from an existing...

  13. 48 CFR 801.670-3 - Medical, dental, and ancillary service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical, dental, and..., Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 801.670-3 Medical, dental, and ancillary service. (a) When medical, dental, and ancillary services under $10,000 per authorization are not available from an existing...

  14. 48 CFR 801.670-3 - Medical, dental, and ancillary service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medical, dental, and..., Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 801.670-3 Medical, dental, and ancillary service. (a) When medical, dental, and ancillary services under $10,000 per authorization are not available from an existing...

  15. 48 CFR 801.670-3 - Medical, dental, and ancillary service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medical, dental, and..., Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 801.670-3 Medical, dental, and ancillary service. (a) When medical, dental, and ancillary services under $10,000 per authorization are not available from an existing...

  16. 48 CFR 801.670-3 - Medical, dental, and ancillary service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medical, dental, and..., Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 801.670-3 Medical, dental, and ancillary service. (a) When medical, dental, and ancillary services under $10,000 per authorization are not available from an existing...

  17. 38 CFR 17.35 - Hospital care and medical services in foreign countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hospital care and medical services in foreign countries. 17.35 Section 17.35 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Hospital Or Nursing Home Care and Medical Services in Foreign Countries § 17.35...

  18. 38 CFR 17.35 - Hospital care and medical services in foreign countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hospital care and medical services in foreign countries. 17.35 Section 17.35 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Hospital Or Nursing Home Care and Medical Services in Foreign Countries § 17.35...

  19. 38 CFR 17.35 - Hospital care and medical services in foreign countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hospital care and medical services in foreign countries. 17.35 Section 17.35 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Hospital Or Nursing Home Care and Medical Services in Foreign Countries § 17.35...

  20. 38 CFR 17.35 - Hospital care and medical services in foreign countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hospital care and medical services in foreign countries. 17.35 Section 17.35 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Hospital Or Nursing Home Care and Medical Services in Foreign Countries § 17.35...

  1. 38 CFR 17.35 - Hospital care and medical services in foreign countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hospital care and medical services in foreign countries. 17.35 Section 17.35 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Hospital Or Nursing Home Care and Medical Services in Foreign Countries § 17.35...

  2. 28 CFR 115.282 - Access to emergency medical and mental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mental Care § 115.282 Access to emergency medical and mental health services. (a) Resident victims of... intervention services, the nature and scope of which are determined by medical and mental health practitioners according to their professional judgment. (b) If no qualified medical or mental health practitioners are on...

  3. 28 CFR 115.282 - Access to emergency medical and mental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mental Care § 115.282 Access to emergency medical and mental health services. (a) Resident victims of... intervention services, the nature and scope of which are determined by medical and mental health practitioners according to their professional judgment. (b) If no qualified medical or mental health practitioners are on...

  4. 28 CFR 115.282 - Access to emergency medical and mental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mental Care § 115.282 Access to emergency medical and mental health services. (a) Resident victims of... intervention services, the nature and scope of which are determined by medical and mental health practitioners according to their professional judgment. (b) If no qualified medical or mental health practitioners are on...

  5. Job Analysis of the Medical Service Career Field. Interim Report. August 1, 1972-June 1, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Barry P.

    The purpose of this study was to complete a job analysis of the Air Force's Medical Service Career Field. This is the first in a series of reports designed to compare and make recommendations concerning the role of the Nurse and Medical Corpsman in the Air Force's health care delivery system. A sample of 1,996 airmen in the Medical Service Career…

  6. Advancing the Field of Elder Mistreatment: A New Model for Integration of Social and Medical Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosqueda, Laura; Burnight, Kerry; Liao, Solomon; Kemp, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to describe the development and operation of a new model for integration of medical and social services. The Vulnerable Adult Specialist Team (VAST) provides Adult Protective Services (APS) and criminal justice agencies with access to medical experts who examine medical and psychological injuries of victims of…

  7. Highly Developed Information-oriented Society and Humanity ; Medical Information Services and Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakimoto, Atsuko

    Change in social circumstances caused by arrival of highly developed information-oriented society has altered what information services in medical libraries should be dramatically. Keeping with complication and diversification of needs by users such as medical doctors, researchers, medical technicians and so on medical librarians have been playing important role in the information activities, and are required to master more specialized knowledge. This paper outlines changes in circumstances surrounding medical libraries, discusses role of medical librarians in online information retrieval services, and introduces various curriculum for library education. The author proposes that humanity of librarian him or herself is still a key factor for library services regardless of advancement of computerization.

  8. Unit Cost of Medical Services at Different Hospitals in India

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Susmita; Levin, Carol; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2013-01-01

    Institutional care is a growing component of health care costs in low- and middle-income countries, but local health planners in these countries have inadequate knowledge of the costs of different medical services. In India, greater utilisation of hospital services is driven both by rising incomes and by government insurance programmes that cover the cost of inpatient services; however, there is still a paucity of unit cost information from Indian hospitals. In this study, we estimated operating costs and cost per outpatient visit, cost per inpatient stay, cost per emergency room visit, and cost per surgery for five hospitals of different types across India: a 57-bed charitable hospital, a 200-bed private hospital, a 400-bed government district hospital, a 655-bed private teaching hospital, and a 778-bed government tertiary care hospital for the financial year 2010–11. The major cost component varied among human resources, capital costs, and material costs, by hospital type. The outpatient visit cost ranged from Rs. 94 (district hospital) to Rs. 2,213 (private hospital) (USD 1 = INR 52). The inpatient stay cost was Rs. 345 in the private teaching hospital, Rs. 394 in the district hospital, Rs. 614 in the tertiary care hospital, Rs. 1,959 in the charitable hospital, and Rs. 6,996 in the private hospital. Our study results can help hospital administrators understand their cost structures and run their facilities more efficiently, and we identify areas where improvements in efficiency might significantly lower unit costs. The study also demonstrates that detailed costing of Indian hospital operations is both feasible and essential, given the significant variation in the country’s hospital types. Because of the size and diversity of the country and variations across hospitals, a large-scale study should be undertaken to refine hospital costing for different types of hospitals so that the results can be used for policy purposes, such as revising payment rates

  9. Preventive Services by Medical and Dental Providers and Treatment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kranz, A M; Rozier, R G; Preisser, J S; Stearns, S C; Weinberger, M; Lee, J Y

    2014-07-01

    Nearly all state Medicaid programs reimburse nondental primary care providers (PCPs) for providing preventive oral health services to young children; yet, little is known about how treatment outcomes compare with children visiting dentists. This study compared the association between the provider of preventive services (PCP, dentist, or both) with Medicaid-enrolled children before their third birthday and subsequent dental caries-related treatment (CRT) and CRT payment. We conducted a retrospective study of young children enrolled in North Carolina Medicaid during 2000 to 2006. The annual number of CRT and CRT payments per child between the ages of 3 and 5 yr were estimated with a zero-inflated negative binomial regression and a hurdle model, respectively. Models were adjusted for relevant child- and county-level characteristics and used propensity score weighting to address observed confounding. We examined 41,453 children with > 1 preventive oral health visit from a PCP, dentist, or both before their third birthday. Unadjusted annual mean CRT and payments were lowest among children who had only PCP visits (CRT = 0.87, payment = $172) and higher among children with only dentist visits (CRT = 1.48, payment = $234) and both PCP and dentist visits (CRT = 1.52, payment = $273). Adjusted results indicated that children who had dentist visits (with or without PCP visits) had significantly more CRT and higher CRT payments per year during the ages of 3 and 4 yr than children who had only PCP visits. However, these differences attenuated each year after age 3 yr. Because of children's increased opportunity to receive multiple visits in medical offices during well-child visits, preventive oral health services provided by PCPs may lead to a greater reduction in CRT than dentist visits alone. This study supports guidelines and reimbursement policies that allow preventive dental visits based on individual needs. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  10. The experience of linking Victorian emergency medical service trauma data

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Malcolm J

    2008-01-01

    Background The linking of a large Emergency Medical Service (EMS) dataset with the Victorian Department of Human Services (DHS) hospital datasets and Victorian State Trauma Outcome Registry and Monitoring (VSTORM) dataset to determine patient outcomes has not previously been undertaken in Victoria. The objective of this study was to identify the linkage rate of a large EMS trauma dataset with the Department of Human Services hospital datasets and VSTORM dataset. Methods The linking of an EMS trauma dataset to the hospital datasets utilised deterministic and probabilistic matching. The linking of three EMS trauma datasets to the VSTORM dataset utilised deterministic, probabilistic and manual matching. Results There were 66.7% of patients from the EMS dataset located in the VEMD. There were 96% of patients located in the VAED who were defined in the VEMD as being admitted to hospital. 3.7% of patients located in the VAED could not be found in the VEMD due to hospitals not reporting to the VEMD. For the EMS datasets, there was a 146% increase in successful links with the trauma profile dataset, a 221% increase in successful links with the mechanism of injury only dataset, and a 46% increase with sudden deterioration dataset, to VSTORM when using manual compared to deterministic matching. Conclusion This study has demonstrated that EMS data can be successfully linked to other health related datasets using deterministic and probabilistic matching with varying levels of success. The quality of EMS data needs to be improved to ensure better linkage success rates with other health related datasets. PMID:19014622

  11. 42 CFR 410.12 - Medical and other health services: Basic conditions and limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical and other health services: Basic conditions and limitations. 410.12 Section 410.12 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS...

  12. 42 CFR 482.24 - Condition of participation: Medical record services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... anesthesia services. The medical history and physical examination must be placed in the patient's medical... anesthesia services. (B) An updated examination of the patient, including any changes in the patient's... anesthesia services. (ii) Admitting diagnosis. (iii) Results of all consultative evaluations of the patient...

  13. 42 CFR 482.24 - Condition of participation: Medical record services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... anesthesia services. The medical history and physical examination must be placed in the patient's medical... anesthesia services. (B) An updated examination of the patient, including any changes in the patient's... anesthesia services. (ii) Admitting diagnosis. (iii) Results of all consultative evaluations of the patient...

  14. 20 CFR 10.810 - How are payments for inpatient medical services determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... services determined? 10.810 Section 10.810 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS... for inpatient medical services determined? (a) OWCP will pay for inpatient medical services according... the form of the DRG Grouper software program. On this list, each DRG represents the average resources...

  15. 78 FR 31563 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Core Medical Services Waiver; Application Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... HIV/AIDS Program Core Medical Services Waiver; Application Requirements AGENCY: Health Resources and... Public Health Service Act, as amended by the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Treatment Extension Act of 2009 (Ryan... medical services, including antiretroviral drugs, for individuals with HIV/AIDS identified and eligible...

  16. Racism and health among urban Aboriginal young people

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Racism has been identified as an important determinant of health but few studies have explored associations between racism and health outcomes for Australian Aboriginal young people in urban areas. Methods Cross sectional data from participants aged 12-26 years in Wave 1 of the Victorian Aboriginal Health Service's Young People's Project were included in hierarchical logistic regression models. Overall mental health, depression and general health were all considered as outcomes with self-reported racism as the exposure, adjusting for a range of relevant confounders. Results Racism was reported by a high proportion (52.3%) of participants in this study. Self-reported racism was significantly associated with poor overall mental health (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.25-5.70, p = 0.01) and poor general health (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.03-4.57, p = 0.04), and marginally associated with increased depression (OR 2.0; 95% CI 0.97-4.09, p = 0.06) in the multivariate models. Number of worries and number of friends were both found to be effect modifiers for the association between self-reported racism and overall mental health. Getting angry at racist remarks was found to mediate the relationship between self-reported racism and general health. Conclusions This study highlights the need to acknowledge and address racism as an important determinant of health and wellbeing for Aboriginal young people in urban areas of Australia. PMID:21756369

  17. 38 CFR 17.241 - Sharing medical information services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sharing medical... AFFAIRS MEDICAL Sharing of Medical Facilities, Equipment, and Information § 17.241 Sharing medical... Under Secretary for Health shall prescribe, Directors of Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers...

  18. [Implementation of telemedicine services in the earthquake disaster relief: the best medical experts provide direct medical service to the affected people].

    PubMed

    Li, Tan-shi; Chai, Jia-ke

    2013-05-01

    To sum up the experience and significance of the remote medical consultation system used by the PLA General Hospital in 4/20 Sichuan Lushan earthquake medical rescue in 2013. After the Lushan earthquake in April 20, 2013, the expert medical rescue team of the PLA General Hospital immediately took the wireless portable telemedicine system to the converge hospital which had received many wounds in earthquake and had been connected with other hospitals, medical rescue teams and rescue ambulances to open the remote medical consultation system for disaster services including intensive care, emergency treatment, orthopedics, cerebral surgery, hepatobiliary surgery, obstetrics, gynecology and other related professional remote assistance services. The experts put forward the diagnosis and treatment for victims and had a benign interaction between the experts in disaster site and rear experts, as a result improved the ability of treatment of the disaster expert medical team. The PLA General Hospital treated more than 110 patients by remote medical consultation system in the Lushan earthquake and achieved real-time HD consultation and on-site operation guide. The using of remote medical consultation system achieved the connection between multimedia communication system and medical information system of the hospital and the interconnection of video, audio, data and medical services among each united hospitals, which can provide the significant experience of using remote medical consultation system in our disaster medical rescue activities.

  19. 42 CFR 410.170 - Payment for home health services, for medical and other health services furnished by a provider...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for home health services, for medical and other health services furnished by a provider or an approved ESRD facility, and for comprehensive outpatient rehabilitation facility (CORF) services: Conditions. 410.170 Section 410.170 Public Health CENTERS...

  20. Contextualising the social capital of Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in prison.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Lise; Treloar, Carla; Chambers, Georgina M; Butler, Tony; Guthrie, Jill

    2016-10-01

    Social capital is a valuable resource that has received little attention in the prison context. Differences in the construct and accessibility of bonding, bridging, and linking social capital exist for Aboriginal Australians in mainstream society, but were previously unexplored in prison. This study seeks to understand contextual differences of social capital for Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in prison. Thirty male inmates participated in qualitative interviews across three New South Wales (NSW) correctional centres. Interviews were completed between November 2014 and March 2015. Experiences of bonding and linking social capital varied among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants. Opportunities for bridging social capital were limited for all participants. There is greater scope for building bonding social capital among male inmates than either bridging or linking social capital. Bonding social capital, particularly among Aboriginal men in prison, should be utilised to promote health and other programs to inmates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Management of military medical service in Ukraine: origin, trends, and mechanism of development (1992-2004)].

    PubMed

    Radysh, Ia F

    2005-01-01

    Three periods of the development of military medical service management in Ukraine can be outlined according to the findings of the conducted study, they are the following: formation (1992-1994), consolidation and development (the end of 1994-2003), functional and structural transformation (2004). Leading tendencies of the formation of the management of medical military service in the period are shown in the article to be democratization and structural order of units of the system of the management of military service, integration of efforts and resources of medical military service in one medically covered area of the state, introduction and intensive expansion in army prophylactic and treatment institutions of wide spectrum of requiring payment medical service, rendering out-patient medical service to armed forces personnel and pensioner of Ministry of Defense by family physicians, orientation toward effective management.

  2. Developing research criteria to define medical necessity in emergency medical services.

    PubMed

    Cone, David C; Schmidt, Terri A; Mann, N Clay; Brown, Lawrence

    2004-01-01

    "The Neely Conference: Developing Research Criteria to Define Medical Necessity in EMS" convened emergency medical services (EMS) physicians, researchers, administrators, providers, and federal agency representatives to begin the development of a set of uniform triage criteria and outcome measures that could be used to study and evaluate medical necessity among EMS patients. These standardized criteria might be used in research studies examining EMS dispatch and response (e.g., dispatch triage protocols, alternative response configurations), and EMS treatment and transport (e.g., field triage protocols, alternative care destinations). The conference process included review and analysis of the literature, expert judgment, and consensus building. There was general agreement on the following: 1. Any dispatch triage or field triage system that is developed must be designed to offer patients alternatives to EMS, not to refuse care to patients. 2. It is theoretically possible to develop a set of clinical criteria for need. Some groups of patients will clearly need a traditional EMS response and other groups will not, but this has yet to be defined. 3. In addition to clinical criteria, certain social and other nonclinical criteria such as pain or potential abuse may be used to justify a response. 4. Communication barriers, patient age, special needs, and other conditions complicate patient assessment but should not exclude patients from consideration for alternate triage or transport. 5. These research questions are important, and standard sets of outcome measures are needed so that different studies and innovative programs can be compared.

  3. Antiservice Within the Medical Service Encounter: Lessons for Radiologists Beyond Service Recovery.

    PubMed

    Hill, Paul Armstrong; Hill, Ronald Paul

    2015-12-01

    Recent modifications in the metrics for reimbursement have reinforced the importance of radiology service-delivery experiences of patients. Evaluating current radiology practices calls for reflection on the various touch points with patients, as well as their overall satisfaction. If problems occur during encounters, service failure, or lack of satisfactory medical experiences can be transformed through service recovery, whereby patients-as-customers are given chances to voice their concerns, and health care providers across the spectrum can work together to resolve problematic issues. This paper takes a systemic view of the patient experience as embedded in the care continuum, recognizing that different beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of members of the health care team can negatively affect or sabotage patient satisfaction. Although radiologists are only one of many roles in the care continuum, recommendations are discussed for how they can integrate service satisfaction as a pervasive communal goal among all health care team members. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The influences of patient's satisfaction with medical service delivery, assessment of medical service, and trust in health delivery system on patient's life satisfaction in China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient’s satisfaction with medical service delivery/assessment of medical service/trust in health delivery system may have significant influence on patient’s life satisfaction in China’s health delivery system/in various kinds of hospitals. The aim of this study was to test whether and to what extent patient’s satisfaction with medical service delivery/patient’s assessments of various major aspects of medical service/various major aspects of patient’s trust in health delivery system influenced patient’s life satisfaction in China’s health delivery system/in various kinds of hospitals. Methods This study collaborated with National Bureau of Statistics of China to carry out a 2008 national urban resident household survey in 17 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government (N = 3,386), and specified ordered probit models were established to analyze dataset from this household survey. Results The key considerations in generating patient’s life satisfaction involved patient’s overall satisfaction with medical service delivery, assessment of doctor-patient communication, assessment of medical cost, assessment of medical treatment process, assessment of medical facility and hospital environment, assessment of waiting time for medical service, trust in prescription, trust in doctor, and trust in recommended medical examination. But the major considerations in generating patient’s life satisfaction were different among low level public hospital, high level public hospital, and private hospital. Conclusion The promotion of patient’s overall satisfaction with medical service delivery, the improvement of doctor-patient communication, the reduction of medical cost, the improvement of medical treatment process, the promotion of medical facility and hospital environment, the reduction of waiting time for medical service, the promotion of patient’s trust in prescription, the promotion of patient

  5. Dependence in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David P; Panaretto, Kathryn S; Stevens, Matthew; Borland, Ron

    2015-06-01

    To examine indicators of nicotine dependence in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander daily smokers and their association with sustaining a quit attempt for at least 1 month, and to make comparisons with a national sample of Australian daily smokers. The Talking About The Smokes project used a quota sampling design to recruit 1392 daily smokers from communities served by 34 Aboriginal community-controlled health services and one community in the Torres Strait from April 2012 to October 2013. These were compared with 1010 daily smokers from the general Australian population surveyed by the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project from September 2011 to February 2012. Cigarettes per day (CPD), time to first cigarette, Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI), other indicators of dependence, and whether smokers had ever sustained a quit attempt for at least 1 month. There was little difference in the mean HSI scores for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and other Australian daily smokers. A higher proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander daily smokers smoked ≤ 10 CPD (40% v 33.4%), but more also smoked their first cigarette within 30 minutes of waking (75% v 64.6%). Lower proportions of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers reported having strong urges to smoke at least several times a day (51% v 60.7%) or that it would be very hard to quit (39% v 47.9%). Most Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers reported experiencing difficulties during their most recent quit attempt. All indicators of dependence, except CPD and strong urges, were positively associated with not having made a sustained quit attempt. Reported difficulties during the most recent quit attempt were more strongly associated with being unable to sustain quit attempts than were traditional measures of dependence. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers' experiences of past attempts to quit may be more useful than conventional indicators of

  6. Food habits in Aborigines and persons of European descent of southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Guest, C S; O'Dea, K

    1993-12-01

    As part of a study of risk factors for glucose intolerance and heart disease in Australian Aborigines and persons of European descent, we elicited the prevalence of food habits that may be associated with high fat and high salt intakes. Interview data were gathered from population-based samples in country towns and visitors to an Aboriginal health service in a state capital city, all in southeastern Australia. Among persons aged 13 years and over, the frequency of eating takeaway food as a meal was categorised as monthly or less, weekly, more than once per week, and daily or more often. The prevalence of eating such meals was higher among city Aborigines than those living in the country town; the prevalence was lowest among the country-town Europeans (chi 2 = 184, 6 df, P < 0.001). The prevalence of adding salt during cooking and food consumption was higher among Aborigines compared with Europeans. Among country-town Aboriginal males aged 35 or under, 25 of 40 (63 per cent) added salt to cooked food 'most of the time', compared with 66 of 185 (36 per cent) Europeans (chi 2 = 9.8, P = 0.002). Among Aboriginal females, 47 of 64 (64 per cent) were in the highest category of salt use, compared with 35 of 190 (18 per cent) of Europeans (chi 2 = 66.3, P < 0.001). About one-third of country-town Aboriginal males used dripping to fry food, but in the other ethnicity, gender and location groups, vegetable oil was the most frequent choice. The main differences in food habits were associated with ethnicity, rather than location.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Improving Rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) through transportation system enhancements Phase II.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-12-01

    Providing acute medical care outside of the hospital, Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is crucial in rural environments where hospitals are not close by and are difficult to access. Establishing EMS performance measures is critical in improving a rur...

  8. Customer satisfaction in medical service encounters -- a comparison between obstetrics and gynecology patients and general medical patients.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Sheng; Weng, Hui-Ching; Chang, Hsin-Hsin; Hsu, Tsuen-Ho

    2006-03-01

    This study is concerned with the "service encounter", and seeks to describe, by use of the Service Encounter Evaluation Model, how the processes involved in the service encounter affect customer satisfaction. Its findings have implications for management practice and research directions, and recommendations are made. With the implementation of a national health insurance scheme, an ever-prospering economy and continually improving educational levels in Taiwan, demand among citizens for good health and medical care is ever increasing. Obstetrics and gynecology patients often differ greatly from general patients, in terms of their moods and emotions. This research involved an empirical study, whose subjects were 590 customers of general clinics and 339 customers of gynecology clinics, in various medical centers in southern Taiwan. By factor analysis, the study established four influencing factors, which were "Medical professionals", "Nursing professionals", "Service personnel" and "Space and facilities". Using the Linear Structural Relation Model (LISREL), it found that medical professionals, nursing professionals, service personnel and space and facilities were effective predictors of medical treatment satisfaction. We also found that the greatest positive impact on overall medical treatment satisfaction resulted from rises in satisfaction with medical professionals, but that the least impact was achieved in relation to service personnel in the general and gynecology clinics.

  9. Helicopter emergency medical services response to equestrian accidents.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard M; Macauley, Ben; Richardson, Sarah; de Coverly, Richard; Russell, Malcolm

    2015-04-01

    Horse riding is a common leisure activity associated with a significant rate of injury. Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) may be called to equestrian accidents. Accurate HEMS tasking is important to ensure appropriate use of this valuable medical resource. We sought to review HEMS response to equestrian accidents and identify factors associated with the need for HEMS intervention or transport of the patient to a major trauma centre. Retrospective case review of all missions flown by Kent, Surrey & Sussex Air Ambulance Trust over a 1-year period (1 July 2011 to 1 July 2012). All missions were screened for accidents involving a horse. Call details, patient demographics, suspected injuries, clinical interventions and patient disposition were all analysed. In the 12-month data collection period there were 47 equestrian accidents, representing ∼3% of the total annual missions. Of the 42 cases HEMS attended, one patient was pronounced life extinct at the scene. In 15 (36%) cases the patient was airlifted to hospital. In four (10%) cases, the patient underwent prehospital anaesthesia. There were no specific predictors of HEMS intervention. Admission to a major trauma centre was associated with the rider not wearing a helmet, a fall onto their head or the horse falling onto the rider. Equestrian accidents represent a significant proportion of HEMS missions. The majority of patients injured in equestrian accidents do not require HEMS intervention, however, a small proportion have life-threatening injuries, requiring immediate critical intervention. Further research is warranted, particularly regarding HEMS dispatch, to further improve accuracy of tasking to equestrian accidents.

  10. Predictors of influenza vaccination among emergency medical services personnel.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Michael W; Zontek, Tracy L; Richards, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    Because of their frequent patient interactions, particularly with patients in long-term care facilities, emergency medical services (EMS) professionals are at risk of contracting and spreading influenza. However, influenza vaccination rates among EMS professionals are poorly quantified. We sought to document vaccination rates of EMS professionals and identify predictors of vaccination uptake. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of North Carolina EMS professionals after the 2007-2008 influenza season. The survey assessed vaccination status as well as beliefs regarding influenza illness and vaccine effectiveness similar to the constructs of the Health Belief Model. Prediction of vaccine uptake was modeled using logistic regression. A total of 601 EMS professionals completed the survey. Among the respondents, 47.9% reported receiving the influenza vaccination; vaccination rates varied among rural, suburban, and urban respondents (p = 0.01). Significant differences were found between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups regarding employer vaccine recommendation (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6, p < 0.01), employer-offered influenza training (OR = 1.5, p < 0.01), employer-offered vaccination (OR = 3.3, p < 0.01), and belief in vaccine safety (OR = 27.5, p < 0.01) and effectiveness (OR = 9.5, p < 0.01). Most respondents believed they were at higher risk for influenza, the risk of adverse reactions was outweighed by prevention of disease, the vaccine was safe and effective, and vaccination protected themselves and their patients; however, only 9.1% supported mandatory vaccination. Those who were not vaccinated cited reasons such as belief in personal health as a protector against influenza, concerns about vaccine effectiveness, and the lack of an employer mandate. Predictors of vaccination included previous influenza diagnosis, perceived higher risk compared with that in the general population, belief in vaccine effectiveness, belief of favorable risk benefit ratio, employer

  11. 38 CFR 17.142 - Authority to approve sharing agreements, contracts for scarce medical specialist services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sharing agreements, contracts for scarce medical specialist services and contracts for other medical... medical specialist services and contracts for other medical services. The Under Secretary for Health is... specialist services at Department of Veterans Affairs health care facilities (including, but not limited to...

  12. Cases from the Osler Medical Service at Johns Hopkins University.

    PubMed

    Blank, Susan; Le, Dung; Hemnes, Anna

    2004-07-01

    PRESENTING FEATURES: An 18-year-old white man was admitted to the Osler Medical Service with the chief complaint of back pain. Two weeks prior to admission, the patient developed diffuse and aching upper back pain. Over the next couple of days, he also developed severe anterior chest pain that was somewhat pleuritic in nature but diffuse and extending bilaterally into the shoulders. One week prior to admission, he developed intermittent fevers and night sweats. The patient denied any lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, sick contacts, shortness of breath, rash, or bleeding. He was seen by a physician and told that he had thrombocytopenia. There was no history of recent or remote unusual bleeding episodes. His medical history was unremarkable except for a childhood diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. He was not taking any medications and had no history of tobacco, alcohol, or illicit drug use. He had no risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus infection. Physical examination showed that he was afebrile and had normal vital signs. He was a well-appearing man who was lying still because of pain. HEENT examination was unremarkable. There was no pharyngeal erythema or exudates. His lungs were clear. His neck was supple and without lymphadenopathy. Examination of his back and chest revealed no focal tenderness. There was no hepatosplenomegaly, and his skin was without petechiae or rashes. Examination of the patient's joints showed pain on passive and active movement of his shoulders bilaterally, but no frank arthritis. There was no rash, petechiae, or echymoses. Chest radiograph and electrocardiogram were unremarkable. On admission, the laboratory examination was notable for a hematocrit level of 32.5%, with a mean corpuscular volume of 79 fL, and white blood cell count of 2.8 x 10(3)/microL. Platelet count was 75 x 10(3)/microL. A white blood cell differential revealed 7% bands, 53% polys, 34% lymphs, 5% atypical lymphocytes, 2% nucleated red cells, and

  13. [Market of medical services provided to patients with sexually transmitted diseases].

    PubMed

    Martynenko, A V

    2001-01-01

    Data are presented from an investigation designed to study market of medical services delivered to patients with sexually transmitted diseases (STD). A model of the purchaser's behaviour of consumers of medical services is developed, decisive factors affecting the choice of a medical institution when applying for a profile medical advice are determined. Submitted in the paper is also an algorythm of analysis of expediency of segmentation of market of medical services delivered to STD patients. The most optimal principles of market segmentation include the following--economic (solvency), territorial (place of residence), social (belonging to one or another stratum of society).

  14. Emergency Medical Services Professionals' Attitudes About Community Paramedic Programs.

    PubMed

    Steeps, Robert J; Wilfong, Denise A; Hubble, Michael W; Bercher, Daniel L

    2017-06-01

    The number of community paramedic (CP) programs has expanded to mitigate the impact of increased patient usage on emergency services. However, it has not been determined to what extent emergency medical services (EMS) professionals would be willing to participate in this model of care. With this project, we sought to evaluate the perceptions of EMS professionals toward the concept of a CP program. We used a cross-sectional study method to evaluate the perceptions of participating EMS professionals with regard to their understanding of and willingness to participate in a CP program. Approximately 350 licensed EMS professionals currently working for an EMS service that provides coverage to four states (Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma) were invited to participate in an electronic survey regarding their perceptions toward a CP program. We analyzed interval data using the Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance, and Pearson correlation as appropriate. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to examine the impact of participant characteristics on their willingness to perform CP duties. Statistical significance was established at p ≤ 0.05. Of the 350 EMS professionals receiving an invitation, 283 (81%) participated. Of those participants, 165 (70%) indicated that they understood what a CP program entails. One hundred thirty-five (58%) stated they were likely to attend additional education in order to become a CP, 152 (66%) were willing to perform CP duties, and 175 (75%) felt that their respective communities would be in favor of a local CP program. Using logistic regression with regard to willingness to perform CP duties, we found that females were more willing than males (OR = 4.65; p = 0.03) and that those participants without any perceived time on shift to commit to CP duties were less willing than those who believed their work shifts could accommodate additional duties (OR = 0.20; p < 0.001). The majority of EMS

  15. Physiological scoring: an aid to emergency medical services transport decisions?

    PubMed

    Challen, Kirsty; Walter, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Attendance at UK emergency departments is rising steadily despite the proliferation of alternative unscheduled care providers. Evidence is mixed on the willingness of emergency medical services (EMS) providers to decline to transport patients and the safety of incorporating such an option into EMS provision. Physiologically based Early Warning Scores are in use in many hospitals and emergency departments, but not yet have been proven to be of benefit in the prehospital arena. The use of a physiological-social scoring system could safely identify patients calling EMS who might be diverted from the emergency department to an alternative, unscheduled, care provider. This was a retrospective, cohort study of patients with a presenting complaint of "shortness of breath" or "difficulty breathing" transported to the emergency department by EMS. Retrospective calculation of a physiological social score (PMEWS) based on first recorded data from EMS records was performed. Outcome measures of hospital admission and need for physiologically stabilizing treatment in the emergency department also were performed. A total of 215 records were analyzed. One hundred thirty-nine (65%) patients were admitted from the emergency department or received physiologically stabilizing treatment in the emergency department. Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUROC) for hospital admission was 0.697 and for admission or physiologically stabilizing treatment was 0.710. No patient scoring<2 was admitted or received stabilizing treatment. Despite significant over-triage, this system could have diverted 79 patients safely from the emergency department to alternative, unscheduled, care providers.

  16. The 2012 derecho: emergency medical services and hospital response.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Wigal, Mark S; Fernandez, Antonio; Tucker, March A; Zuidgeest, Ginger R; Mills, Michael R; Cairns, Bruce A; Cairns, Charles B

    2014-10-01

    During the early afternoon of June 29, 2012, a line of destructive thunderstorms producing straight line winds known as a derecho developed near Chicago (Illinois, USA). The storm moved southeast with wind speeds recorded from 100 to 160 kilometers per hour (kph, 60 to 100 miles per hour [mph]). The storm swept across much of West Virginia (USA) later that evening. Power outage was substantial as an estimated 1,300,000 West Virginians (more than half) were without power in the aftermath of the storm and approximately 600,000 citizens were still without power a week later. This was one of the worst storms to strike this area and occurred as residents were enduring a prolonged heat wave. The wind damage left much of the community without electricity and the crippling effect compromised or destroyed critical infrastructure including communications, air conditioning, refrigeration, and water and sewer pumps. This report describes utilization of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and hospital resources in West Virginia in response to the storm. Also reported is a review of the weather phenomena and the findings and discussion of the disaster and implications.

  17. Hand Washing Practices Among Emergency Medical Services Providers.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Joshua; Donovan, Colleen; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; McCoy, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    Hand hygiene is an important component of infection control efforts. Our primary and secondary goals were to determine the reported rates of hand washing and stethoscope cleaning in emergency medical services (EMS) workers, respectively. We designed a survey about hand hygiene practices. The survey was distributed to various national EMS organizations through e-mail. Descriptive statistics were calculated for survey items (responses on a Likert scale) and subpopulations of survey respondents to identify relationships between variables. We used analysis of variance to test differences in means between the subgroups. There were 1,494 responses. Overall, reported hand hygiene practices were poor among pre-hospital providers in all clinical situations. Women reported that they washed their hands more frequently than men overall, although the differences were unlikely to be clinically significant. Hygiene after invasive procedures was reported to be poor. The presence of available hand sanitizer in the ambulance did not improve reported hygiene rates but improved reported rates of cleaning the stethoscope (absolute difference 0.4, p=0.0003). Providers who brought their own sanitizer were more likely to clean their hands. Reported hand hygiene is poor amongst pre-hospital providers. There is a need for future intervention to improve reported performance in pre-hospital provider hand washing.

  18. Emergency Medical Service Information System:the ARES 118 experience.

    PubMed

    Ientile, D A; Cardinale, M A; Cataldi, S; Parafati, M; Pasquarella, A; Trani, N; Corradi, M P

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we describe ARES 118, the prehospital Emergency Medical Service of the Region Lazio, Italy, focusing on its data system used to populate a data warehouse and to create ad hoc reports. ARES 118 is a regional public mono-specialized health company, established in 2004, that manages the emergency care throughout the Region Lazio. Being a peculiar company in its kind, and being the first experience of this kind in Italy, ARES 118 has begun to equip itself, in an autonomous way, with a corporate information system, starting from what already existed as data collection from the individual provincial operating Centers and then by activating a unique information system at a regional and company level by deploying a data warehouse. All operations were carried out using open source software. Currently, ARES 118 is equipped with a business information system that enables data collection with its storage, management and processing of the same in fairly and easy way. The system allows the production of specific reports and measures modulated on the user requests in order to highlight the different aspects of the activity. The production of ad hoc reports, with the possibility of developing specific indicators, allows the identification and analysis of critical areas/processes in order to implement any corrective actions and monitor the effectiveness of the sam.

  19. Hand Washing Practices Among Emergency Medical Services Providers

    PubMed Central

    Bucher, Joshua; Donovan, Colleen; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; McCoy, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hand hygiene is an important component of infection control efforts. Our primary and secondary goals were to determine the reported rates of hand washing and stethoscope cleaning in emergency medical services (EMS) workers, respectively. Methods We designed a survey about hand hygiene practices. The survey was distributed to various national EMS organizations through e-mail. Descriptive statistics were calculated for survey items (responses on a Likert scale) and subpopulations of survey respondents to identify relationships between variables. We used analysis of variance to test differences in means between the subgroups. Results There were 1,494 responses. Overall, reported hand hygiene practices were poor among pre-hospital providers in all clinical situations. Women reported that they washed their hands more frequently than men overall, although the differences were unlikely to be clinically significant. Hygiene after invasive procedures was reported to be poor. The presence of available hand sanitizer in the ambulance did not improve reported hygiene rates but improved reported rates of cleaning the stethoscope (absolute difference 0.4, p=0.0003). Providers who brought their own sanitizer were more likely to clean their hands. Conclusion Reported hand hygiene is poor amongst pre-hospital providers. There is a need for future intervention to improve reported performance in pre-hospital provider hand washing. PMID:26587098

  20. 42 CFR 456.6 - Review by State medical agency of appropriateness and quality of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and quality of services. 456.6 Section 456.6 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Provisions § 456.6 Review by State medical agency of appropriateness and quality of services. (a) The... professional health personnel of the appropriateness and quality of Medicaid services. (b) The purpose of this...