Science.gov

Sample records for abort gap monitoring

  1. Development of an abort gap monitor for the large hadroncollider

    SciTech Connect

    Beche, J.-F.; Byrd, J.; De Santis, S.; Placidi, M.; Turner, W.; Zolotorev, M.

    2004-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), presently under construction at CERN, requires monitoring the parasitic charge in the 3.3ms long gap in the machine fill structure. This gap, referred to as the abort gap, corresponds to the raise time of the abort kickers magnets. Any circulating particle present in the abort gap at the time of the kickers firing is lost inside the ring, rather than in the beam dump, and can potentially damage a number of the LHC components. CERN specifications indicate a linear density of 6 x 106 protons over a 100 ns interval as the maximum charge safely allowed to accumulate in the abort gap at 7 TeV. We present a study of an abort gap monitor, based on a photomultiplier tube with a gated microchannel plate, which would allow for detecting such low charge densities by monitoring the synchrotron radiation emitted in the dedicated diagnostics port. We show results of beam test experiments at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) using a Hamamatsu 5961U MCP-PMT, which indicate that such an instrument has the required sensitivity to meet LHC specifications.

  2. First Operation of the Abort Gap Monitor for LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Lefevre, Thibaut; Bart Pedersen, Stephane; Boccardi, Andrea; Bravin, Enrico; Goldblatt, A.; Jeff, Adam; Roncarolo, Federico; Fisher, Alan; /SLAC

    2012-07-06

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) beam-dump system relies on extraction kickers that need 3 microseconds to rise to their nominal field. Since particles transiting the kickers during the rise will not be dumped properly, the proton population in this interval must always remain below quench and damage limits. A specific monitor to measure the particle population of this gap has been designed based on the detection of synchrotron radiation using a gated photomultiplier. Since the quench and damage limits change with the beam energy, the acceptable population in the abort gap and the settings of the monitor must adapt accordingly. This paper presents the design of the monitor, the calibration procedure and the detector performance with beam.

  3. Development of an Abort Gap Monitor for High-Energy Proton Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beche, J.-F.; Byrd, J.; De Santis, S.; Denes, P.; Placidi, M.; Turner, W.; Zolotorev, M.

    2004-11-01

    The fill pattern in proton synchrotrons usually features an empty gap, longer than the abort kicker raise time, for machine protection. This gap is referred to as the "abort gap," and any particles, which may accumulate in it due to injection errors and diffusion between RF buckets, would be lost inside the ring, rather than in the beam dump, during the kicker firing. In large proton rings, due to the high energies involved, it is vital to monitor the build up of charges in the abort gap with a high sensitivity. We present a study of an abort gap monitor based on a photomultiplier with a gated microchannel plate, which would allow for detecting low charge densities by monitoring the synchrotron radiation emitted. We show results of beam test experiments at the Advanced Light Source using a Hamamatsu 5916U MCP-PMT and compare them to the specifications for the Large Hadron Collider.

  4. Development of an abort gap monitor for high-energy proton rings

    SciTech Connect

    Beche, Jean-Francois; Byrd, John; De Santis, Stefano; Denes, Peter; Placidi, Massimo; Turner, William; Zolotorev, Max

    2004-05-03

    The fill pattern in proton synchrotrons usually features an empty gap, longer than the abort kicker raise time, for machine protection. This gap is referred to as the ''abort gap'' and any particles, which may accumulate in it due to injection errors and diffusion between RF buckets, would be lost inside the ring, rather than in the beam dump, during the kicker firing. In large proton rings, due to the high energies involved, it is vital to monitor the build up of charges in the abort gap with a high sensitivity. We present a study of an abort gap monitor based on a photomultiplier with a gated microchannel plate, which would allow for detecting low charge densities by monitoring the synchrotron radiation emitted. We show results of beam test experiments at the Advanced Light Source using a Hamamatsu 5916U MCP-PMT and compare them to the specifications for the Large Hadron Collider

  5. Expected Performance of the LHC Synchrotron-Light Telescope (BSRT) and Abort-Gap Monitor (BSRA)

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Alan; /SLAC

    2010-06-07

    This Report presents calculations of the synchrotron light from proton and lead-ion beams in the LHC at all energies from 0.45 to 7 TeV. It computes the emission from three sources: the uniform-field region of the D3 dipole, the dipole's edge field, and the short undulator just upstream. Light emitted at or near visible wavelengths is assessed for making optical measurements of transverse beam profiles and for monitoring the emptiness of the abort gap in the fill pattern. There is sufficient light for both applications, although both species pass through energy ranges in the ramp with small photon counts. Effects limiting image resolution are examined, including geometric optics, depth of field, and diffraction. The Report also considers recent suggestions that the undulator, intended to supplement the dipole for low energies, should not be ramped off at high energies and perhaps should not be used at all. We conclude that the undulator is essential at low energy for both species, but that it is possible to leave the undulator on at the cost of some blurring at intermediate energies.

  6. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.; AHRENS,L.; III FLILLER,R.; GASSNER,D.; MCINTYRE,G.T.; MICHNOFF,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.

    2002-06-03

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  7. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    SciTech Connect

    Uythoven, Jan; Boccardi, Andrea; Bravin, Enrico; Goddard, Brennan; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry; Höfle, Wolfgang; Jacquet, Delphine; Kain, Verena; Mazzoni, Stefano; Meddahi, Malika; Valuch, Daniel; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana

    2014-07-01

    To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  8. CONTINUOUS ABORT GAP CLEANING AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.FLILLER,R.III.FU,W.MICHNOFF,R.

    2004-07-05

    Since the RHIC Au-Au run in the year 2001 the 200 MHz cavity system was used at storage and a 28 MHz system during injection and acceleration. The rebucketing procedure potentially causes a higher debunching rate of heavy ion beams in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam can easily account for more than 50% of the total beam intensity. This effect is even stronger with the achieved high intensities of the RHIC Au-Au run in 2004. A beam abort at the presence of a lot of debunched beam bears the risk of magnet quenching and experimental detector damage due to uncontrolled beam losses. Thus it is desirable to avoid any accumulation of debunched beam from the beginning of each store, in particular to anticipate cases of unscheduled beam aborts due to a system failure. A combination of a fast transverse kickers and the new 2-stage copper collimator system are used to clean the abort gap continuously throughout the store with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. This report gives. an overview of the new gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  9. Measurement of the intensity of the beam in the abort gap at the Tevatron utilizing synchrotron light

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman-Keup, R.; Lorman, E.; Meyer, T.; Pordes, S.; De Santis, S.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2005-05-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of abort gap beam intensity monitoring at the Tevatron collider at Fermilab. There are two somewhat independent monitors which measure the intensity of the synchrotron light emitted by particles in the abort gaps. One system uses a gated Photomultiplier Tube (PMT) to measure the light intensity, and the other system uses a single lens telescope, gated image intensifier, and Charge Injection Device (CID) camera to image the beam.

  10. LHC Abort Gap Cleaning Studies During Luminosity Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Bartmann, W.; Boccardi, A.; Bracco, C.; Bravin, E.; Goddard, B.; Hofle, W.; Jacquet, D.; Jeff, A.; Kain, V.; Meddahi, M.; /CERN

    2012-05-11

    The presence of significant intensities of un-bunched beam is a potentially serious issue in the LHC. Procedures using damper kickers for cleaning both the Abort Gap (AG) and the buckets targeted for injection, are currently in operation at flat bottom. Recent observations of relatively high population of the AG during physics runs brought up the need for AG cleaning during luminosity operation. In this paper the results of experimental studies performed in October 2011 are presented.

  11. [Research on abortion in Brazil: gaps and challenges for the public health field].

    PubMed

    Menezes, Greice; Aquino, Estela M L

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of abortion studies produced in the field of public health in Brazil, highlighting current research gaps and challenges. Most studies focus on women admitted to public hospitals for treatment of incomplete abortion, so their scope is limited to abortions presenting complications. Women's profiles, abortion methods, motives, and immediate consequences for women's physical health are also included. However, there remains a need for studies on the following aspects: measuring abortion incidence; investigating cases of post-abortion complications and death; analyzing the relationship between abortion and contraception; investigating the impact of abortion on women's mental health; and incorporating men's perspectives. There is an urgent need for evaluative research on abortion care in public services. Research results should be disseminated widely, so as to help overcome any ideological bias in the current debate on abortion rights in the country.

  12. Gap and stripline combined monitor

    DOEpatents

    Yin, Y.

    1986-08-19

    A combined gap and stripline monitor device for measuring the intensity and position of a charged particle beam bunch in a beam pipe of a synchrotron radiation facility is disclosed. The monitor has first and second beam pipe portions with an axial gap therebetween. An outer pipe cooperates with the first beam pipe portion to form a gap enclosure, while inner strips cooperate with the first beam pipe portion to form a stripline monitor, with the stripline length being the same as the gap enclosure length. 4 figs.

  13. Gap and stripline combined monitor

    DOEpatents

    Yin, Y.

    1984-02-16

    A combined gap and stripline monitor device for measuring the intensity and position of a charged particle beam bunch in a beam pipe of a synchrotron radiation facility. The monitor has first and second beam pipe portions with an axial gap therebetween. An outer pipe cooperates with the first beam pipe portion to form a gap enclosure, while inner strips cooperate with the first beam pipe portion to form a stripline monitor, with the stripline length being the same as the gap enclosure length.

  14. Gap and stripline combined monitor

    DOEpatents

    Yin, Yan

    1986-01-01

    A combined gap and stripline monitor device (10) for measuring the intensity and position of a charged particle beam bunch in a beam pipe of a synchotron radiation facility. The monitor has first and second beam pipe portions (11a, 11b) with an axial gap (12) therebetween. An outer pipe (14) cooperates with the first beam pipe portion (11a) to form a gap enclosure, while inner strips (23a-d) cooperate with the first beam pipe portion (11a) to form a stripline monitor, with the stripline length being the same as the gap enclosure length.

  15. Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most healthcare providers advise counseling.

  16. [Abortion].

    PubMed

    Dourlen-rollier, A M

    1971-01-01

    The historical and current (1969) abortion laws in France as well as those in other Western countries are analyzed. France has had a series of punitive abortion codes since the Napoleonic Code of 1810 prescribing solitary confinement for the woman. The reforms of 1920 and 1923 made provocation of abortion or contraceptional propaganda a "crime" (felony), later a "delit" (misdemeanor), called for trial before magistr ate instead of jury, but resulted in only about 200 convictions a year. The decree of 1939 extended the misdemeanor to women who aborted even if they were not pregnant, and provided for professional licenses such as that of surgeon or pharmacist to be suspended. The law of 1942 made abortion a social crime and increased the maximum penalty to capital punishment, which was exercised in 2 cases. About 4000 per year were convicted from 1942-1944. Now the law still applies to all who intend to abort, whether or not pregnant or successful, but punishemnt is limited to 1-5 years imprisonment, and 72,000 francs fine, or suspension of medical practice for 5 years. About 500 have been convicted per year. Since 1955 legal abortion has been available (to about 130 women over 4 years) if it is the only means to save the woman's life. Although pregnancy tests are controlled, the population desregards the law by resorting to clandestine abortion. The wealthy travel to Switzerland (where 68% of legal abortions are done on French women) or to England. Numbers are estimated by the French government at 250,000-300,000 per year, or 1 for every 2 live births, but by hospital statistics at 400,000-1,000,000 per year. The rest of the review covers abortion laws in Scandinavian, Central European, and individual US states as of 1969.

  17. Abortion.

    PubMed

    Hume, K

    1979-04-21

    The review by Aileen F. Connon of Abortion by Potts, Diggory and Peel (Journal, February 10) made interesting reading, especially her quotation of the "facinating statistical information" that Australia has 11.5 million people and 45,000 to 90,000 criminal abortions a year. These are rather wide upper and lower confidence limits. One wonders what other information the authors have included that is of the same standard of accuracy. On the other hand, Malcolm Potts told me some years ago that the experience of his parent organization, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, with the IUD in India was a disaster. That I could well believe. Seeing some of the victims, the sight would indeed be enough to stir the stony heart of the most inhuman consultant gynaecologist. There is in Australia, and indeed in the world, an increasing number of doctors who are revolted by the activities of the International Planned Parenthood Federation and its affiliates which aggressively promote abortion as "an acceptable method of fertility control," and even as the primary method. These are a cross-section of the profession and include some of its most distinguished and erudite members who would be both competent and happy to review a book such as Abortion by Potts et alii from a pro-life point of view. Could I suggest that in future your book reviews and editorials include some well informed commentaries from doctors representing that heretofore silent group? I am holding a long and growing list of Australian doctors who have signed the "Declaration of Doctors," thus explicitly spelling out their respect for human life from the first moment of biological existence to that of natural death. Their services are available on request.

  18. Abortion.

    PubMed

    Churchill, M

    1979-09-15

    I would like to take issue with Dr Colin Brewer's statements concerning intrauterine contraceptive devices and abortion (11 August, p 389). I agree that logically there is no distinction between IUCDs, and other abortifacients used early in pregnancy, and abortion methods used later in pregnancy. However, I disagree with his statement that to make illegal IUCDs and similar methods out of an "obsessive concern for microscopic forms of life" would be "absurd." Firstly, size has never been a criterion for the presence or absence of life, or of its importance. Surely Dr Brewer, MPs, and the public would be outraged by anything less than obsessively careful handling of, say, rabies or smallpox viruses in laboratories. Do not the products of conception, with the full potential of a human being unless actively interfered with by other men (neglecting normal fetal wastage), deserve any less concern? Secondly, mortality should not be determined by practicalities; rather morality should determine one's actions. The question of whether IUCDs and other such procedures should remain legal or be made illegal should not be determined by their efficacy, popularity, or economy. I agree fully with Dr Brewer--abortion is a moral issue and it is a pity that the BMF has not raised the moral issues at stake. Particularly so, as Lord Denning put it "...without morality there can be no law." I personally subscribe to the Hippocratic Oath. PMID:497769

  19. Abortion.

    PubMed

    Rice-Oxley, C P

    1979-09-15

    Professor Peter Hungerford (25 August, p 496) says that he is fed up with semantic arguments about abortion which ignore reality. He then invokes two major fantasies of the last decade, those of sexual equality and the woman's right to choose. The second of these has become an article of faith to many pro-abortionists and its credentials should be examined. Whence does this right derive? A woman takes part in a more or less pleasurable activity with a man and then, without her volition, with no conscious effort on her part at all, the miraculous occurs and a new life comes into being. How does she have the right to destroy this new life? The argument is usually to the effect that it belongs to her and could not survive without her: "It's mine and I can do what I like with it." Of course, it is true that a fetus cannot survive without the support of its mother; no more could Professor Hungerford or I survive without the support of our fellow men who provide us with food, drink, and clothing, but that does not give them the right to kill us. The claim to possession, the assumption that the fetus is owned by its mother involves, I believe, a semantic error. In a sense, the fetus is "hers" in that it is growing inside her, even though she did not create it. Likewise, her husband is hers because joined to her by marriage and her country is hers because she lives there, although she does not own either of them and certainly has no right to destroy them. The life growing inside the mother is not hers in the same way that a cardigan she has bought or knitted for herself is hers. It is the consideration of semantics that protects us from the "realities" of such as Professor Hungerford.

  20. Critical gaps in universal access to reproductive health: contraception and prevention of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Culwell, Kelly R; Vekemans, Marcel; de Silva, Upeka; Hurwitz, Manuelle; Crane, Barbara B

    2010-07-01

    Unsafe abortion accounts for a significant proportion of maternal deaths, yet it is often forgotten in discussions around reducing maternal mortality. Prevention of unsafe abortion starts with prevention of unwanted pregnancies, most effectively through contraception. When unwanted pregnancies occur, provision of safe, legal abortion services can further prevent unsafe abortions. If complications arise from unsafe abortion, emergency treatment must be available. Recommendations made on this issue during the Precongress Workshop held prior to the 2009 FIGO World Congress in Cape Town, South Africa, were part of a report that was adopted by the FIGO General Assembly. These recommendations address prevention of unsafe abortion and its consequences and support access to safe abortion care to the full extent allowed by national laws, along with 6 strategies for implementation, including integration of family planning into other reproductive health services, adequate training for providers, task-sharing with mid-level providers, and using evidence to discuss this issue with key stakeholders. PMID:20451196

  1. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePlus

    ... womb (uterus). There are different types of medical abortions: Therapeutic medical abortion is done because the woman has ... Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion

  2. Belle-II VXD radiation monitoring and beam abort with sCVD diamond sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rao, K. K.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, Lorenzo; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2016-07-01

    The Belle-II VerteX Detector (VXD) has been designed to improve the performances with respect to Belle and to cope with an unprecedented luminosity of 8 ×1035cm-2s-1 achievable by the SuperKEKB. Special care is needed to monitor both the radiation dose accumulated throughout the life of the experiment and the instantaneous radiation rate, in order to be able to promptly react to sudden spikes for the purpose of protecting the detectors. A radiation monitoring and beam abort system based on single-crystal diamond sensors is now under an active development for the VXD. The sensors will be placed in several key positions in the vicinity of the interaction region. The severe space limitations require a challenging remote readout of the sensors.

  3. Abortion - surgical

    MedlinePlus

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  4. Induced Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Induced Abortion Patient Education FAQs Induced Abortion Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  5. STS-1 operational flight profile. Volume 6: Abort analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The abort analysis for the cycle 3 Operational Flight Profile (OFP) for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) is defined, superseding the abort analysis previously presented. Included are the flight description, abort analysis summary, flight design groundrules and constraints, initialization information, general abort description and results, abort solid rocket booster and external tank separation and disposal results, abort monitoring displays and discussion on both ground and onboard trajectory monitoring, abort initialization load summary for the onboard computer, list of the key abort powered flight dispersion analysis.

  6. Abortion Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brashear, Diane B.

    1973-01-01

    The author discusses the characteristics and feelings of women undergoing abortion. She mentions the decisions which counselors must help such women face, the information they must be given, and the types of support they need. Increased counseling services are needed, she feels, for the markedly increased number of women seeking abortions. (EK)

  7. Unintended pregnancy and abortion in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Rubina

    2013-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy is common in Uganda, leading to high levels of unplanned births, unsafe abortions, and maternal injury and death. Because most pregnancies that end in abortion are unwanted, nearly all ill health and mortality resulting from unsafe abortion is preventable. This report summarizes evidence on the context and consequences of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Uganda, points out gaps in knowledge, and highlights steps that can be taken to reduce levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion, and, in turn, the high level of maternal mortality.

  8. Methods for monitoring dynamics of pulmonary RSV replication by viral culture and by real-time reverse transcription-PCR in vivo: Detection of abortive viral replication.

    PubMed

    Boukhvalova, Marina S; Yim, Kevin C; Prince, Gregory A; Blanco, Jorge C G

    2010-03-01

    Viral infection is normally detected either by viral culture or by PCR methods. Rarely is a combination of the two techniques used in the same study. Yet, when applied simultaneously, viral culture and PCR may reveal important features of viral biology, such as an abortive replication, as in the case of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. In this unit, we describe methods for detecting abortive RSV replication in a cotton rat model by using the plaque-forming unit assay and the real-time reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay. All steps of the process of monitoring viral replication in vivo are described, starting from the design of animal infection protocols. We continue on to the methods for extracting and processing lung samples for viral culture and RNA extraction, and finish with the actual methods of viral titration by the qRT-PCR and the plaque-forming unit assays.

  9. Abortion ethics.

    PubMed

    Fromer, M J

    1982-04-01

    Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view

  10. Open quarry monitoring using gap-filled LANDSAT 7 ETM SLC-OFF imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Raptis, Ilias

    2014-10-01

    Open quarries are at the same time a necessity but also a source of pollution. Necessity as they supply the necessary fuel for energy production and source of pollution as they affect biodiversity, vegetation cover and threaten water resources. The objective of this work is to indicate a monitoring methodology using Landsat ETM SLC off imagery. On May 31, 2003, the Scan Line Corrector (SLC), which compensates for the forward motion of Landsat 7, failed. Without an operating SLC, the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) line of sight now traces a zig-zag pattern along the satellite ground track. As a result, imaged area is duplicated, with width that increases towards the scene edge. An estimated twenty-two percent of any given scene is lost because of the SLC failure. The maximum width of the data gaps along the edge of the image would be equivalent to one full scan line, or approximately 390 to 450 meters. The precise location of the missing scan lines will vary from scene to scene. In this study a gap filling technique for Landsat ETM SLC off imagery is evaluated. Different Landsat 7 ETM+ images SLC off were restored and then compared to historical data and data from other sensors. The restored images have been used in order to monitor the expansion of an open quarry in western Peloponnese and the results are presented.

  11. Abortion care in Ghana: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody R

    2014-09-01

    The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research. A total of four (4) databases were searched with the keywords "Ghana and abortion" and hand review of reference lists was conducted. All abstracts were reviewed. The final include sample was 39 articles. Abortion-related complications represent a large component of admissions to gynecological wards in hospitals in Ghana as well as a large contributor to maternal mortality. Almost half of the included studies were hospital-based, mainly chart reviews. This review has identified gaps in the literature including: interviewing women who have sought unsafe abortions and with healthcare providers who may act as gatekeepers to women wishing to access safe abortion services. PMID:25438507

  12. [Abortion and rights. Legal thinking about abortion].

    PubMed

    Perez Duarte, A E

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of abortion in Mexico from a juridical perspective requires recognition that Mexico as a national community participates in a double system of values. Politically it is defined as a liberal, democratic, and secular state, but culturally the Judeo-Christian ideology is dominant in all social strata. This duality complicates all juridical-penal decisions regarding abortion. Public opinion on abortion is influenced on the 1 hand by extremely conservative groups who condemn abortion as homicide, and on the other hand by groups who demand legislative reform in congruence with characteristics that define the state: an attitude of tolerance toward the different ideological-moral positions that coexist in the country. The discussion concerns the rights of women to voluntary maternity, protection of health, and to making their own decisions regarding their bodies vs. the rights of the fetus to life. The type of analysis is not objective, and conclusions depend on the ideology of the analyst. Other elements must be examined for an objective consideration of the social problem of abortion. For example, aspects related to maternal morbidity and mortality and the demographic, economic, and physical and mental health of the population would all seem to support the democratic juridical doctrine that sees the clandestine nature of abortion as the principal problem. It is also observed that the illegality of abortion does not guarantee its elimination. Desperate women will seek abortion under any circumstances. The illegality of abortion also impedes health and educational policies that would lower abortion mortality. There are various problems from a strictly juridical perspective. A correct definition of the term abortion is needed that would coincide with the medical definition. The discussion must be clearly centered on the protected juridical right and the definition of reproductive and health rights and rights to their own bodies of women. The experiences of other

  13. Abortion Before & After Roe

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu

    2013-01-01

    We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971–1975 to demonstrate that women travelled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A100- mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services. PMID:23811233

  14. Abortion before & after Roe.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu

    2013-09-01

    We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971 to 1975 to demonstrate that women traveled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A 100-mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services.

  15. Calibration Monitoring for Sensor Calibration Interval Extension: Gaps in the Current Science Base

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Hashemian, Hash; Shumaker, Brent; Cummins, Dara

    2012-10-09

    Currently in the United States, periodic sensor recalibration is required for all safety-related sensors, typically occurring at every refueling outage, and it has emerged as a critical path item for shortening outage duration in some plants. International application of calibration monitoring has shown that sensors may operate for longer periods within calibration tolerances. This issue is expected to also be important as the United States looks to the next generation of reactor designs (such as small modular reactors and advanced concepts), given the anticipated longer refueling cycles, proposed advanced sensors, and digital instrumentation and control systems. Online monitoring (OLM) can be employed to identify those sensors that require calibration, allowing for calibration of only those sensors that need it. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) accepted the general concept of OLM for sensor calibration monitoring in 2000, but no U.S. plants have been granted the necessary license amendment to apply it. This paper summarizes a recent state-of-the-art assessment of online calibration monitoring in the nuclear power industry, including sensors, calibration practice, and OLM algorithms. This assessment identifies key research needs and gaps that prohibit integration of the NRC-approved online calibration monitoring system in the U.S. nuclear industry. Several technical needs were identified, including an understanding of the impacts of sensor degradation on measurements for both conventional and emerging sensors; the quantification of uncertainty in online calibration assessment; determination of calibration acceptance criteria and quantification of the effect of acceptance criteria variability on system performance; and assessment of the feasibility of using virtual sensor estimates to replace identified faulty sensors in order to extend operation to the next convenient maintenance opportunity.

  16. J-2X Abort System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, Louis M.; Butas, John P.; Aguilar, Robert B.; Sowers, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    The J-2X is an expendable liquid hydrogen (LH2)/liquid oxygen (LOX) gas generator cycle rocket engine that is currently being designed as the primary upper stage propulsion element for the new NASA Ares vehicle family. The J-2X engine will contain abort logic that functions as an integral component of the Ares vehicle abort system. This system is responsible for detecting and responding to conditions indicative of impending Loss of Mission (LOM), Loss of Vehicle (LOV), and/or catastrophic Loss of Crew (LOC) failure events. As an earth orbit ascent phase engine, the J-2X is a high power density propulsion element with non-negligible risk of fast propagation rate failures that can quickly lead to LOM, LOV, and/or LOC events. Aggressive reliability requirements for manned Ares missions and the risk of fast propagating J-2X failures dictate the need for on-engine abort condition monitoring and autonomous response capability as well as traditional abort agents such as the vehicle computer, flight crew, and ground control not located on the engine. This paper describes the baseline J-2X abort subsystem concept of operations, as well as the development process for this subsystem. A strategy that leverages heritage system experience and responds to an evolving engine design as well as J-2X specific test data to support abort system development is described. The utilization of performance and failure simulation models to support abort system sensor selection, failure detectability and discrimination studies, decision threshold definition, and abort system performance verification and validation is outlined. The basis for abort false positive and false negative performance constraints is described. Development challenges associated with information shortfalls in the design cycle, abort condition coverage and response assessment, engine-vehicle interface definition, and abort system performance verification and validation are also discussed.

  17. Unsafe abortion in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Olukoya, A A; Kaya, A; Ferguson, B J; AbouZahr, C

    2001-11-01

    Every year, an estimated 2.0-4.4 million adolescents resort to abortion. In comparison with adults, adolescents are more likely to delay the abortion, resort to unskilled persons to perform it, use dangerous methods and present late when complications arise. Adolescents are also more likely to experience complications. Consequently, adolescents seeking abortion or presenting with complications of abortion should be considered as a medical emergency. Issues requiring special attention in the management of abortion complications in adolescents are identified. Approaches to adolescent abortion should involve all levels of the health care system, as well as the community, and should include not only management of the consequences of unsafe abortion, but also post-abortion contraception and counseling. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy by providing information on sexuality, ensuring that reproductive health services are adolescent-friendly, creating a supportive environment, building young people's social and decision-making skills, and offering counseling in times of crisis are highlighted.

  18. Post abortion contraception.

    PubMed

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp, Helena Kallner

    2015-11-01

    A safe induced abortion has no impact on future fertility. Ovulation may resume as early as 8 days after the abortion. There is no difference in return to fertility after medical or surgical abortion. Most women resume sexual activity soon after an abortion. Contraceptive counseling and provision should therefore be an integrated part of the abortion services to help women avoid another unintended pregnancy and risk, in many cases an unsafe, abortion. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods that includes implants and intrauterine contraception have been shown to be the most effective contraceptive methods to help women prevent unintended pregnancy following an abortion. However, starting any method is better than starting no method at all. This Special Report will give a short guide to available methods and when they can be started after an induced abortion.

  19. Post abortion contraception.

    PubMed

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp, Helena Kallner

    2015-11-01

    A safe induced abortion has no impact on future fertility. Ovulation may resume as early as 8 days after the abortion. There is no difference in return to fertility after medical or surgical abortion. Most women resume sexual activity soon after an abortion. Contraceptive counseling and provision should therefore be an integrated part of the abortion services to help women avoid another unintended pregnancy and risk, in many cases an unsafe, abortion. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods that includes implants and intrauterine contraception have been shown to be the most effective contraceptive methods to help women prevent unintended pregnancy following an abortion. However, starting any method is better than starting no method at all. This Special Report will give a short guide to available methods and when they can be started after an induced abortion. PMID:26619082

  20. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  1. Conceptualising abortion stigma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuradha; Hessini, Leila; Mitchell, Ellen M H

    2009-08-01

    Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies upon power disparities and inequalities for its formation. In this paper, we identify social and political processes that favour the emergence, perpetuation and normalisation of abortion stigma. We hypothesise that abortion transgresses three cherished 'feminine' ideals: perpetual fecundity; the inevitability of motherhood; and instinctive nurturing. We offer examples of how abortion stigma is generated through popular and medical discourses, government and political structures, institutions, communities and via personal interactions. Finally, we propose a research agenda to reveal, measure and map the diverse manifestations of abortion stigma and its impact on women's health.

  2. Identifying monitoring gaps for amphibian populations in a North American biodiversity hotspot, the southeastern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walls, Susan

    2014-01-01

    I review the primary literature to ascertain the status of amphibian monitoring efforts in the southeastern USA, a “hotspot” for biodiversity in North America. This effort revealed taxonomic, geographic and ecological disparities in studies of amphibian populations in this region. Of the species of anurans and caudates known to occur in the Southeast, 73.8 and 33.3 %, respectively, have been monitored continuously for at least 4 years. Anurans are generally shorter-lived than are caudates and, thus, have been studied for the equivalent of at least one population turnover more than have caudates. The percentage of species (of those occurring in a given state) monitored continuously for at least 4 years was lowest for Alabama and Mississippi and highest for Florida for both taxa. The vast majority of studies (69.6 %) were conducted on species that inhabit natural freshwater wetlands, in contrast to other aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Species considered threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature comprised only 7.7 % of 65 species that have been studied consistently. The majority of comparative studies of contemporary versus historical occurrences were potentially biased by the use of “presence-only” historical data and resurveys of short duration. Other issues, such as inadequate temporal and spatial scale and neglect of different sources of error, were common. Awareness of these data gaps and sampling and statistical issues may help facilitate informed decisions in setting future monitoring priorities, particularly with respect to species, habitats and locations that have been largely overlooked in past and ongoing studies.

  3. Late-term abortion.

    PubMed

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed. PMID:9728645

  4. Late-term abortion.

    PubMed

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed.

  5. Abortion among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  6. Abortion and religion.

    PubMed

    Howell, N R

    1997-01-01

    This paper argues that religious communities should pose new questions about abortion in an attempt to reinvigorate the abortion debate and make it more constructive. Such questions would break the current impasse, enlarge the global and ecological scope of abortion inquiry, and engage plural religious perspectives in an interreligious dialogue about justice and abortion. After an introduction, the paper discusses the first impasse in the abortion debate, which is caused by conflicting definitions of personhood that create a fetus/pregnant woman dualism and artificially separate the fetus from its interdependence with the mother. Section 2 looks at how the abortion impasse results from the assertions of competing fetal and maternal rights and from conflict over who controls nature and women's bodies. The third section seeks alternatives to the dichotomizing of individual and community in the abortion debate in Christian theology, such as the notion of the relational self that demands attention to the wider social implications of reproduction. By examining theories that presume that people are relational, section 4 locates the abortion debate in a wider ecological context with concerns about overpopulation and environmental degradation. Section 5 explores questions of what authority can be used to determine whether abortion is ever justifiable for Christians and what authority is relevant for determining a Christian theological ethic of abortion. This section also looks at Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist views of abortion in the belief that the complex ethical issues relating to abortion may be explored through religious ritual. PMID:12348325

  7. Niphargus: a silicon band-gap sensor temperature logger for high-precision environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlet, Christian; Vanbrabant, Yves; Piessens, Kris; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Verheyden, Sophie

    2014-05-01

    A temperature logger, called 'Niphargus', was developed at the Geological Survey of Belgium to monitor temperature of local natural processes with sensitivity of the order of a few hundredths of degrees to monitor temperature variability in open air, caves, soils and rivers. The newly developed instrument uses a state-of-the-art band-gap silicon temperature sensor with digital output. This sensor reduces the risk of drift associated with thermistor-based sensing devices, especially in humid environments. The Niphargus is designed to be highly reliable, low-cost and powered by a single lithium cell with up to several years autonomy depending on the sampling rate and environmental conditions. The Niphargus was evaluated in an ice point bath experiment in terms of temperature accuracy and thermal inertia. The small size and low power consumption of the logger allow its use in difficult accessible environments, e.g. caves and space-constrained applications, inside a rock in a water stream. In both cases, the loggers have proven to be reliable and accurate devices. For example, spectral analysis of the temperature signal in the Han caves (Belgium) allowed detection and isolation of a 0.005° C amplitude day-night periodic signal in the temperature curve. PIC Figure 1: a Niphargus logger in its standard size. SMD components side. Photo credit: W. Miseur

  8. The relationship between restrictive state abortion laws and postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Medoff, Marshall H

    2014-01-01

    Is there a relationship between restrictive state abortion laws and postpartum depression? Do states with restrictive abortion laws have higher rates of postpartum depression? If there is a relationship, does it differ by the type of restrictive state abortion law? Using the Centers for Disease Control's 2008 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System state survey of the percentage of women who gave birth and suffered from postpartum depression, states with and without restrictive abortion laws were compared. The empirical results found that there were no significant differences in the incidence of postpartum depression between states with parental involvement laws, mandatory counseling laws, waiting period laws, two-visit laws, and states without these restrictive abortion laws. States that prohibit the Medicaid funding of abortions have significantly higher rates of postpartum depression than in those states that fund Medicaid abortions. PMID:25068613

  9. Regulatory policy and abortion clinics: implications for planning.

    PubMed

    Kay, B J; Neal, J R

    1978-01-01

    The practicalities of formulating regulatory policy associated with elective abortion often place public health officials at the center of political controversy. Resulting conflicts can inhibit a rational consideration of long-term objectives in implementing a national policy which assures legal accessibility to all who would select abortion as an alternative to term birth. Regulation which uses primarily structural criteria for monitoring and evaluating services tends to de-emphasize the importanc of contraceptive counseling as a component of abortion services. Our process/outcome evaluation of abortion clinics located in Chicago suggests that contraceptive counseling provided at the time of the abortion procedure has a potential long-term impact in terms of reducing the need for elective abortion. We suggest that regulation policy should include process and outcome criteria which support the eventual reduction in need for abortion as a long-range policy goal and suggest key issues for consideration when such a policy is formulated.

  10. Abortion: a reader's guide.

    PubMed

    Hisel, L M

    1996-01-01

    This review traces the discussion of abortion in the US through 10 of the best books published on the subject in the past 25 years. The first book considered is Daniel Callahan's "Abortion: Law, Choice and Morality," which was published in 1970. Next is book of essays also published in 1970: "The Morality of Abortion: Legal and Historical Perspectives," which was edited by John T. Noonan, Jr., who became a prominent opponent to the Roe decision. It is noted that Roman Catholics would find the essay by Bernard Haring especially interesting since Haring supported the Church's position on abortion but called for acceptance of contraception. Third on the list is historian James C. Mohr's review of "Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy," which was printed five years after the Roe decision. Selection four is "Enemies of Choice: The Right-to-Life Movement and Its Threat to Abortion" by Andrew Merton. This 1981 publication singled out a concern about sexuality as the overriding motivator for anti-abortion groups. Two years later, Beverly Wildung Harrison published a ground-breaking, feminist, moral analysis of abortion entitled "Our Right to Choose: Toward a New Ethic of Abortion. This was followed by a more empirical and sociopolitical feminist analysis in Kristin Luker's 1984 "Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood." The seventh book is by another feminist, Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, whose work "Abortion and Women's Choice: The State, Sexuality, and Reproductive Freedom" was first published in 1984 and reprinted in 1990. The eighth important book was "Abortion and Catholicism: The American Debate," edited by Thomas A. Shannon and Patricia Beattie Jung. Rounding out the list are the 1992 work "Life Itself: Abortion in the American Mind" by Roger Rosenblatt and Ronald Dworkin's 1993 "Life's Dominion: An Argument About Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom."

  11. Abortion: a reader's guide.

    PubMed

    Hisel, L M

    1996-01-01

    This review traces the discussion of abortion in the US through 10 of the best books published on the subject in the past 25 years. The first book considered is Daniel Callahan's "Abortion: Law, Choice and Morality," which was published in 1970. Next is book of essays also published in 1970: "The Morality of Abortion: Legal and Historical Perspectives," which was edited by John T. Noonan, Jr., who became a prominent opponent to the Roe decision. It is noted that Roman Catholics would find the essay by Bernard Haring especially interesting since Haring supported the Church's position on abortion but called for acceptance of contraception. Third on the list is historian James C. Mohr's review of "Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy," which was printed five years after the Roe decision. Selection four is "Enemies of Choice: The Right-to-Life Movement and Its Threat to Abortion" by Andrew Merton. This 1981 publication singled out a concern about sexuality as the overriding motivator for anti-abortion groups. Two years later, Beverly Wildung Harrison published a ground-breaking, feminist, moral analysis of abortion entitled "Our Right to Choose: Toward a New Ethic of Abortion. This was followed by a more empirical and sociopolitical feminist analysis in Kristin Luker's 1984 "Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood." The seventh book is by another feminist, Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, whose work "Abortion and Women's Choice: The State, Sexuality, and Reproductive Freedom" was first published in 1984 and reprinted in 1990. The eighth important book was "Abortion and Catholicism: The American Debate," edited by Thomas A. Shannon and Patricia Beattie Jung. Rounding out the list are the 1992 work "Life Itself: Abortion in the American Mind" by Roger Rosenblatt and Ronald Dworkin's 1993 "Life's Dominion: An Argument About Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom." PMID:12178914

  12. Full-Envelope Launch Abort System Performance Analysis Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubuchon, Vanessa V.

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of a new dispersion methodology is described, which dis-perses abort initiation altitude or time along with all other Launch Abort System (LAS) parameters during Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast, the standard methodology assumes that an abort initiation condition is held constant (e.g., aborts initiated at altitude for Mach 1, altitude for maximum dynamic pressure, etc.) while dispersing other LAS parameters. The standard method results in large gaps in performance information due to the discrete nature of initiation conditions, while the full-envelope dispersion method provides a significantly more comprehensive assessment of LAS abort performance for the full launch vehicle ascent flight envelope and identifies performance "pinch-points" that may occur at flight conditions outside of those contained in the discrete set. The new method has significantly increased the fidelity of LAS abort simulations and confidence in the results.

  13. Detection of gaps in the spatial coverage of coral reef monitoring projects in the US Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Asch, R G; Turgeon, D D

    2003-06-01

    As part of the US Coral Reef Task Force's National Program to Map, Assess, Inventory, and Monitor US Coral Reef Ecosystems, a comprehensive survey of projects/programs monitoring coral reef ecosystems and related habitats (i.e., seagrass beds and mangroves) in the US Caribbean and Pacific was undertaken. Information was gathered on a total of 296 monitoring and assessment projects conducted since 1990 in the US Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. Substantial gaps in monitoring coverage of US coral reef ecosystems were revealed through geographic information system (GIS) analysis of survey metadata. Although southern Florida contains approximately two-thirds of all marine monitoring projects found in the US Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico, we were unable to identify any ongoing projects that monitor coral reefs along Florida's western coast and off of the Florida Middle Grounds. Additionally, Florida is covered by approximately 1 900 km2 of mangroves, yet there were only four ongoing projects that monitor this ecosystem, leaving gaps in coverage in the Lower and Middle Keys and along the eastern and western coasts. The Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, located offshore of the Texas/Louisiana border, has an integral long-term monitoring program, but lacks a monitoring project that gathers long-term, quantitative data on reef lish abundance and certain water quality parameters. Numerous coral reef monitoring projects in Puerto Rico are concentrated on the island's southwestern coast surrounding La Parguera, while far fewer monitoring projects are conducted along the northern and southeastern coasts and around Vieques Island. In the US Virgin Islands, the paucity of monitoring projects in large areas of St. Croix and St. Thomas contrasts with monitoring activity in three marine protected areas (MPAs), where 66% of the US Virgin Islands' coral reef monitoring sites were found. Only a series of assessments have been conducted at Navassa, a small, uninhabited

  14. Abortion: the continuing controversy.

    PubMed

    Behrens, C E

    1972-08-01

    While most countries of the world practice abortion, government policy, medical opinion, private opinion and actual practice vary widely. Although mortality from legal abortions is quite low, complications rise sharply after 12 gestational weeks. No conclusive proof shows adverse postabortion psychological effects. Romania, Japan and the Soviet Union experienced declining birth rates when abortion was made available and New York City saw a decline in illegitimacy of approximately 12% from 1970 to 1971. Throughout the world abortion laws vary from restrictive to moderate to permissive. Where laws are restrictive, as in France and Latin America, illegal abortions are estimated in the millions. The controversy over abortion centers around the arguments of what constitutes a human life, and the rights of the fetus versus the right of a woman to control her reproductive life. A review of state abortion laws as of August 1972 shows pressure on state legislatures to change existing laws. The future of abortion depends upon technological advances in fertility control, development of substitutes like menstral extraction, prostaglandins and reversible sterilization. Development of these techniques will take time. At present only through education and improved delivery of contraceptives can dependence on abortion as a method of fertility control be eased. Citizen education in the United States, both sex education and education for responsbile parenthood, is in a poor state according to the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future. If recourse to abortion is to be moderated, it is the next generation of parents who will have to be educated.

  15. France: late abortion.

    PubMed

    Gaudry, D; Sadan, G

    1989-01-01

    In France, under the terms of a law passed by Parliament in 1975, a woman may have an abortion up to 12 weeks of pregnancy if she is a French resident and, in the event that she is a minor, she has parental consent. The woman must also have 2 medical consultations, a week apart. The woman is reimbursed by the state up to 70% of the cost of the abortion. After 12 weeks, abortion, except for therapeutic abortion, under the terms of Article 317 of the Criminal Code, is a crime, punishable by 6 months to 10 years in prison, a fine of between 1800 and 250,000 Francs, and loss of professional license. Moreover, Article 647 of the Health Code bans any advertising, incitement or propaganda for abortion or abortion-inducing products. Many French women go to Britain or Holland for abortions after 12 weeks, but they face the financial burden of traveling as well as the difficulties of getting help in a strange country and the stigma of having done something illegal. The Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial, which won the legalization of contraception in 1967, is now fighting for legal abortion as well as the distribution of information about sexuality, contraception, and abortion in the schools. 2 charges of incitement to abortion have been brought against the organization.

  16. Letter: The Canadian abortion law.

    PubMed

    Coffey, P G

    1976-08-01

    Removing abortion from the Criminal Code in Canada will mean that more and more abortions will be performed for nonmedical reasons which will result in an abortion-on-demand situation similar to that in Japan. Early complications of abortion include death, hemorrhage, shock, cervical injury, and infection. Later complications include premature births, spontaneous abortions, ectopic pregnancies, pelvic inflammation, and infertility. Legalized abortion does not seem to reduce the incidence of illegal abortion. There are also psychological, moral, and sociological consequences of legalized abortion. It would seem that liberal abortion makes bad medicine and leads to far-reaching consequences.

  17. In-process monitoring and adaptive control for gap in micro butt welding with pulsed YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahito, Yousuke; Kito, Masayuki; Katayama, Seiji

    2007-05-01

    A gap is one of the most important issues to be solved in laser welding of a micro butt joint, because the gap results in welding defects such as underfilling or a non-bonded joint. In-process monitoring and adaptive control has been expected as one of the useful procedures for the stable production of sound laser welds without defects. The objective of this research is to evaluate the availability of in-process monitoring and adaptive control in micro butt welding of pure titanium rods with a pulsed neodymium : yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd : YAG) laser beam of a 150 µm spot diameter. It was revealed that a 45 µm narrow gap was detected by the remarkable jump in a reflected light intensity due to the formation of the molten pool which could bridge the gap. Heat radiation signal levels increased in proportion to the sizes of molten pools or penetration depths for the respective laser powers. As for adaptive control, the laser peak power was controlled on the basis of the reflected light or the heat radiation signals to stably produce a sound deeply penetrated weld reduced underfilling. In the case of a 100 µm gap, the underfilling was greatly reduced by half smaller than those made with a conventional rectangular pulse shape in seam welding as well as spot welding with a pulsed Nd : YAG laser beam. Consequently, the adaptive control of the laser peak power on the basis of in-process monitoring could reduce the harmful effects due to a gap in micro butt laser welding with a pulsed laser beam.

  18. Abortion in early America.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Z

    1979-01-01

    This piece describes abortion practices in use from the 1600s to the 19th century among the inhabitants of North America. The abortive techniques of women from different ethnic and racial groups as found in historical literature are revealed. Thus, the point is made that abortion is not simply a "now issue" that effects select women. Instead, it is demonstrated that it is a widespread practice as solidly rooted in our past as it is in the present.

  19. Review of oil and HNS accidental spills in Europe: identifying major environmental monitoring gaps and drawing priorities.

    PubMed

    Neuparth, T; Moreira, S M; Santos, M M; Reis-Henriques, M A

    2012-06-01

    The European Atlantic area has been the scene of a number of extensive shipping incidents with immediate and potential long-term impacts to marine ecosystems. The occurrence of accidental spills at sea requires an effective response that must include a well executed monitoring programme to assess the environmental contamination and damage of the affected marine habitats. Despite a number of conventions and protocols developed by international and national authorities that focused on the preparedness and response to oil and HNS spills, much remains to be done, particularly in relation to the effectiveness of the environmental monitoring programmes implemented after oil and HNS spills. Hence, the present study reviews the status of the environmental monitoring programmes established following the major spill incidents over the last years in European waters, aiming at identifying the key monitoring gaps and drawing priorities for an effective environmental monitoring of accidental spills.

  20. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  1. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  2. Partial-birth abortion: the final frontier of abortion jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Bopp, J; Cook, C R

    1998-01-01

    Partial-birth abortion bans patterned after the federal bill passed by both houses of Congress are constitutional. The clear legislative definition can be easily distinguished from other abortion procedures. Abortion precedents do not apply to such bans because the abortion right pertains to unborn human beings, not to those partially delivered. Such bans are also rationally-related to legitimate state interests. Even if abortion jurisprudence is deemed to apply in the partial-birth abortion context, a ban is still constitutional under Casey because a ban on partial-birth abortions does not impose an undue burden on the abortion right.

  3. Abortion in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szawarski, Z

    1991-12-01

    As of July 1991 abortion is still legal in Poland. Currently the Polish Parliament has taken a break from the debate because the issue is so important that any decision must not be made in past. There is strong pressure from the Catholic Church to eliminate access to abortion. In the fall the Polish people will vote for and elect their first truly democratic Parliament. Abortion does not seem to be playing as important a role as other political issues. In 1956 a law was passed that allowed a woman to have an abortion for medical or social reasons. This law resulted in allowing women in Poland to use abortion as their primary form of contraception. The vast majority of the abortions were performed under the social justification. Then, when democracy same to Poland with the help of the Catholic Church, an unprecedented debate in the mass media, churches, and educational institutions was stirred up. The government attempted to stay out of the debate at first. But as people from different side of the debate saw that they had an opportunity to influence things in their favor, they began to politicize the issue. Currently there are 4 different drafts of the new Polish abortion law. 3 of them radically condemn abortion while the 4th condemns it as a method of family planning, but allows to terminate pregnancies in order to save the life of the mother. PMID:1777450

  4. [Abortion in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, Y; Hayase, T

    1993-01-01

    In Japan, the artificial abortion is a penal offence; only in the presence of certain conditions it is authorized under the provision of the Eugenic Protection Law which was promulgated in 1948. According to the law, the artificial abortion is restricted to the period, in which the fetus is not viable outside of the uterus. This period is prescribed by notification from the Ministry of Public Welfare; up to now it has been shortened twice (1976, 1991). Due to the introduction of economic reasons in the list of conditions and the simplification of the procedure the artificial abortion in Japan was virtually liberalized. Prosecution for illegal abortion is very rare in recent years. The number of reported artificial abortions decreases; in the about last 30 years it reduced by half. However, the increase in the number of abortions in women younger than 20 years of age is a problem. The abortion in teenagers is late compared with that in other age groups. Although the number of neonaticides does not seem to increase, the increase in the number of abortions in teenagers remains a serious problem in Japan. PMID:8352642

  5. Psychosocial aspects of abortion

    PubMed Central

    Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users. PMID:1085671

  6. CMA abortion survey.

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Responses to the question as to whether abortions should be performed at the woman's request during the first trimester of pregnancy were evenly divided. There was support for abortion on socioeconomic grounds, during the first trimester, from 61.5% of the respondents. Termination of pregnancy beyond the first trimester was supported by a majority of the respondents only in cases in which the woman's life is in danger (73.9%) or in which there is evidence of a severe physical abnormality in the fetus (70.6%) or in cases in which the woman's physical health is in danger (55.5%). Those who said they would not support abortion under any circumstances constitute, at most, 5.1% of the respondents. Support for the maintenance or the elimination of therapeutic abortion committees was addressed in two questions and in both cases the respondents were evenly divided. The responses to these two questions were compared and found to be logically consistent. Only physicians should perform abortions, and they should be performed in hospitals with the woman either as an inpatient or, during the first trimester, as an outpatient. The performance of first-trimester abortions in provincially approved abortion clinics was supported by 47.3% of the respondents. Of the 885 respondents who wished to see some amendment to the Criminal Code, 409 stated that the term "health" as used in the Criminal Code relative to the legal grounds for therapeutic abortion should be defined. PMID:6861064

  7. Abortion in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Nancy B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored differences between 35 women who had abortions as teenagers and 36 women who had abortions as adults. Respondents reported on their premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and postabortion distress symptoms. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders, drug abuse, and psychotic delusions were significantly…

  8. Resolving the abortion controversy.

    PubMed

    Rosoff, J I

    1989-01-01

    This article addresses legislative attempts to reverse Roe v. Wade, U.S. abortion laws vis-á-vis those of other developed nations, socioeconomic factors figuring into the decision (or option) to abort, and the positive potential impact of improved contraceptive use.

  9. Abortion: a history.

    PubMed

    Hovey, G

    1985-01-01

    This review of abortion history considers sacred and secular practice and traces abortion in the US, the legacy of the 19th century, and the change that occurred in the 20th century. Abortion has been practiced since ancient times, but its legality and availability have been threatened continuously by forces that would denigrate women's fundamental rights. Currently, while efforts to decrease the need for abortion through contraception and education continue, access to abortion remains crucial for the well-being of millions of women. That access will never be secure until profound changes occur in the whole society. Laws that prohibit absolutely the practice of abortion are a relatively recent development. In the early Roman Catholic church, abortion was permitted for male fetuses in the first 40 days of pregnancy and for female fetuses in the first 80-90 days. Not until 1588 did Pope Sixtus V declare all abortion murder, with excommunication as the punishment. Only 3 years later a new pope found the absolute sanction unworkable and again allowed early abortions. 300 years would pass before the Catholic church under Pius IX again declared all abortion murder. This standard, declared in 1869, remains the official position of the church, reaffirmed by the current pope. In 1920 the Soviet Union became the 1st modern state formally to legalize abortion. In the early period after the 1917 revolution, abortion was readily available in state operated facilities. These facilities were closed and abortion made illegal when it became clear that the Soviet Union would have to defend itself against Nazi Germany. After World War II women were encouraged to enter the labor force, and abortion once again became legal. The cases of the Catholic church and the Soviet Union illustrate the same point. Abortion legislation has never been in the hands of women. In the 20th century, state policy has been determined by the rhythms of economic and military expansion, the desire for cheap

  10. Induced abortion: epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Baird, D

    1975-01-01

    Sir Dugald Baird sketches the history of abortion legislation in Great Britain from the beginning of the century. In his views the 1967 Abortion Act has been one of the most important and beneficial pieces of social legislation enacted in Britain in the last 100 years. It has, however, brought problems both of administration in the hospitals and to individual doctors and nurses, particularly when the patients are young single women and even schoolgirls. One of the consequences of the Abortion Act has been a fall in maternal mortality and perinatal mortality rates. Abortion does not seem to be followed by serious emotional sequelae. Nevertheless recent changes in sexual mores have introduced new and serious social problems which are discussed in relation to the role of the doctor in his relationship with patients seeking abortion. PMID:765461

  11. Walking the abortion tightrope.

    PubMed

    Simms, M

    1971-03-01

    The abortion controversy in England was partially resolved on February 23, 1971, when Sir Keith Joseph, Secretary of State for Social Services, announced that an inquiry into the 1967 Abortion Act would be established, but one which would be concerned with the way the Act was working rather than the principles underlying it. Regional inequalities exist in the implementation of the Act (as with substandard services in Birmingham, Liverpool and Sheffield) due to opposition of the local gynecological establishment and a genuine shortage of facilities. These can be eliminated only through time and retirement and with public finance for more equal abortion facilities. The addition of a consultant clause into the Act would probably reduce the number of abortions in smaller private nursing homes, flood the National Health Service with abortion requests, and drive women back to criminal abortionists.

  12. When Is an Abortion Not an Abortion?

    PubMed

    Mutcherson, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Discussion about the similarities and differences between abortion and multi-fetal pregnancy reduction, including the tug-of-war over naming, highlights ongoing contestation about the relationship between the law, ethics, and women's bodies. Ultimately, the law must root itself in the realities of pregnancy including the physical and social consequences that any pregnancy creates for the woman who carries it.

  13. Insights from an expert group meeting on the definition and measurement of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Sedgh, Gilda; Filippi, Veronique; Owolabi, Onikepe O; Singh, Susheela D; Askew, Ian; Bankole, Akinrinola; Benson, Janie; Rossier, Clementine; Pembe, Andrea B; Adewole, Isaac; Ganatra, Bela; MacDonagh, Sandra

    2016-07-01

    Until recently, WHO operationally defined unsafe abortion as illegal abortion. In the past decade, however, the incidence of abortion by misoprostol administration has increased in countries with restrictive abortion laws. Access to safe surgical abortions has also increased in many such countries. An important effect of these trends has been that, even in an illegal environment, abortion is becoming safer, and an updated system for classifying abortion in accordance with safety is needed. Numerous factors aside from abortion method or legality should be taken into consideration in developing such a classification system. An Expert Meeting on the Definition and Measurement of Unsafe Abortion was convened in London, UK, on January 9-10, 2014, to move toward developing a classification system that both reflects current conditions and acknowledges the gradient of risk associated with abortion. The experts also discussed the types of research needed to monitor the incidence of abortion at each level of safety. These efforts are urgently needed if we are to ensure that preventing unsafe abortion is appropriately represented on the global public health agenda. Such a classification system would also motivate investment in research to accurately measure and monitor abortion incidence across categories of safety. PMID:27062249

  14. Insights from an expert group meeting on the definition and measurement of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Sedgh, Gilda; Filippi, Veronique; Owolabi, Onikepe O; Singh, Susheela D; Askew, Ian; Bankole, Akinrinola; Benson, Janie; Rossier, Clementine; Pembe, Andrea B; Adewole, Isaac; Ganatra, Bela; MacDonagh, Sandra

    2016-07-01

    Until recently, WHO operationally defined unsafe abortion as illegal abortion. In the past decade, however, the incidence of abortion by misoprostol administration has increased in countries with restrictive abortion laws. Access to safe surgical abortions has also increased in many such countries. An important effect of these trends has been that, even in an illegal environment, abortion is becoming safer, and an updated system for classifying abortion in accordance with safety is needed. Numerous factors aside from abortion method or legality should be taken into consideration in developing such a classification system. An Expert Meeting on the Definition and Measurement of Unsafe Abortion was convened in London, UK, on January 9-10, 2014, to move toward developing a classification system that both reflects current conditions and acknowledges the gradient of risk associated with abortion. The experts also discussed the types of research needed to monitor the incidence of abortion at each level of safety. These efforts are urgently needed if we are to ensure that preventing unsafe abortion is appropriately represented on the global public health agenda. Such a classification system would also motivate investment in research to accurately measure and monitor abortion incidence across categories of safety.

  15. Abortion and abortifacients.

    PubMed

    King, T M

    1978-01-01

    It is argued that abortion research is needed to improve existing techniques and to develop new ones to overcome logistical, financial, and political obstacles to wider availability. Such developments are reviewed, including early pregnancy tests, menstrual regulation, improved cervical dilatation methods, new second trimester abortifacients (e.g., urea and prostaglandins), and new first trimester abortifacients (e.g., injection of ethanol into the uterus and prostaglandin pills or vaginal suppositories). This last is quite promising because of the possibility of self-administration, removing much of the need for medical intervention. Further research is urged on 1) long-term side effects of abortion, particularly late or multiple abortions; and 2) ways to improve the delivery and integration of abortions into family planning programs. It is noted that because abortion seekers demonstrate by the fact itself a strong motivation to control fertility and are therefore enthusiastic acceptors of contraceptive methods, the widespread availability of early pregnancy tests and abortion could be the most effective way of increasing contraceptive practice and reducing abortion itself.

  16. Avoidance of late abortion.

    PubMed

    1979-11-24

    Induced abortion is now a common procedure in the United States and Britain. Methods for performing induced abortion are reviewed. Menstrual regulation, aspiration with a hand-held syringe and a flexible cannula within 6 weeks of the last period, is not often practiced in Britain. Several developing countries are using this simple technique to advantage. Vacuum aspiration in the 1st 12 weeks of pregnancy is the main method being used everywhere for 1st trimester procedures. Mortality rates with this method are low and, in well-organized clinics with experienced personnel, the rates can be reduced even further. It is agreed that 2nd trimester procedures are more complex, both physically and emotionally. In the last several years, dilatation and evacuation (D&E) has increased in popularity for 2nd trimester procedures. Dilation of the cervix is generally accomplished with laminaria, evacuation of the uterus with forceps, and then suction curettage applied. This procedure has replaced intraamniotic infusion, hysterotomy, and hysterectomy as the most commonly - practiced method, despite its need for special surgical skills and good clinical backup. Follow-up of abortions is difficult. Different long-term effects have been noted with different abortion procedures. Early abortion seems to have only a modest effect, if that. Whether late abortion has long-lasting effects remains open to question. Late abortion should be avoided.

  17. Abortion cases worrying.

    PubMed

    Mwanza, G

    1994-01-01

    The writer believes that life begins the instant that an human sperm cell and ovule fuse. This life must be respected and preserved. Abortion is shameful, but tolerated when either the mother or would-be baby's life is at stake. As the number of abortions continue to increase, the controversy over a woman's right to abortion rages on. The author wonders whether questions about abortion will ever be resolved and considers some possible solutions with reference to Zambia. There are many early pregnancies among Zambian youths. A 1993 study found 207 abortions per year in the country among 15-19 year olds; this includes illegal, incomplete, and induced abortions. The Coordinator for the Young Women Christian Association in Lusaka thinks that inadequate sex education is one of the factors contributing to the ever-rising number of abortions today. Youths have sexual intercourse without understanding the possible consequences. Parents, community leaders, and school authorities should instead become more involved and teach children about sex to lessen the incidence of abortion. Specifically, parents should talk to their children about sex as they mature, teaching them about their biological reproductive features and functions. The author is convinced that once children and youths understand their bodies, it will be very easy for them to control their desires. Most male and female teens do, however, cite love and sexual desire as the primary motives for their first relationships. The writer also mentions how pregnant girls get expelled from school and that women experience mental and physical side effects from induced abortion.

  18. Medicine and abortion law: complicating the reforming profession.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Sheelagh; Thomson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The complicated intra-professional rivalries that have contributed to the current contours of abortion law and service provision have been subject to limited academic engagement. In this article, we address this gap. We examine how the competing interests of different specialisms played out in abortion law reform from the early twentieth-century, through to the enactment of the Abortion Act 1967, and the formation of the structures of abortion provision in the early 1970s. We demonstrate how professional interests significantly shaped the landscape of abortion law in England, Scotland, and Wales. Our analysis addresses two distinct and yet related fields where professional interests were negotiated or asserted in the journey to law reform. Both debates align with earlier analysis that has linked abortion law reform with the market development of the medical profession. We argue that these two axes of debate, both dominated by professional interests, interacted to help shape law's treatment of abortion, and continue to influence the provision of abortion services today.

  19. Service provider perspectives on post-abortion contraception in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Fan; Puri, Mahesh; Rocca, Corinne H; Blum, Maya; Henderson, Jillian T

    2016-01-01

    The government of Nepal has articulated a commitment to the provision of post-abortion contraception since the implementation of a legal safe abortion policy in 2004. Despite this, gaps in services remain. This study examined the perspectives of abortion service providers and administrators regarding strengths and shortcomings of post-abortion contraceptive service provision. In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 abortion providers and administrators at four major health facilities that provide legal abortion in Nepal. Facility factors perceived to impact post-abortion contraceptive services included on-site availability of contraceptive supplies, dedicated and well-trained staff and adequate infrastructure. Cultural norms emerged as influencing contraceptive demand by patients, including method use being unacceptable for women whose husbands migrate and limited decision-making power among women. Service providers described their personal views on appropriate childbearing and the use of specific contraceptive methods that influenced counselling. Findings suggest that improvements to a facility's infrastructure and training to address provider biases and misinformation may improve post-abortion family planning uptake. Adapting services to be sensitive to cultural expectations and norms may help address some barriers to contraceptive use. More research is needed to determine how to best meet the contraceptive needs of women who have infrequent sexual activity or who may face stigma for using family planning, including adolescents, unmarried women and women whose husbands migrate.

  20. Abortion: pro and contra.

    PubMed

    Jebereanu, Laura; Jebereanu, Diana; Alaman, Roxana; Tofan, Andra; Jebereanu, Sorin; Pauncu, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    To kill a new life before it's born, to do an abortion. This is a problem of many generations. In the evolution of human civilization, the attitude concerning abortion was different in different cultures, periods, societies. The aim of our study is to evaluate the actual opinion and attitude of young persons, students, and residents in medicine in Timisoara city, and the situation of the whole country. We performed a questionnaire for 400 people, between the ages of 19 and 28 with superior studies. The group is composed of 320 (80%) women and 80 (20%) men. We accepted for recording and analyzing all the the completed questionnaires. The questions referred to the topic of abortion in the antecedents, and asked if they had had one, how it affected the life of the women and her family, the circumstances of acceptance of abortion today, religious aspects and different other aspects. PMID:17146907

  1. Improved sea level monitors for measuring vertical crustal deformation in the Shumagin seismic gap, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Ken; Beavan, John

    1987-01-01

    The relative vertical deformation detection capability of a network of sea level gauges in the Shumagin seismic gap, Alaska has been improved. An examination of the present noise levels suggests that the network is now capable of providing relative deformation data that is quieter than data from leveling, GPS, VLBI, or satellite laser ranging.

  2. Botswana: abortion "debate" dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mogwe, A

    1992-01-01

    The Penal Code (Amendment) Bill or the abortion bill has the objective of liberalizing the current law on the regulation of abortion. Abortion had been strictly prohibited and carried stiff penalties. Anyone who attempted to assists a woman to procure an abortion could be liable to 7 years' imprisonment. However, medical abortions were distinguished as being medically determined to save the health of the mother. Demands for a reevaluation of the law came from the medical profession, and in response the Minister for Presidential Affairs submitted a bill to Parliament in November, 1990. The expressed government rationale for these proposed amendments was concern about the health of women. In Botswana about 200 women die yearly because of pregnancy. According to the proposed law: an abortion could be carried out within the first 16 weeks of pregnancy if: 1) the pregnancy were a result of rape, incest, or defilement (the impregnation of a girl aged 16 or less, the impregnation of imbeciles or idiots), 2) the physical or mental health of the woman were at risk because of the pregnancy, 3) the child would be born with a serious physical or mental abnormality. The abortion could be carried out only if 2 medical doctors approved it. The amendments fall far short of increasing women's control over their bodies. The Botswana Christian Council issued a statement early in the public debate. While it did not oppose the bill in its entirety, clear concern was expressed concerning the apparent right of determining who lives and who dies depending on the handicap of the child. This rather liberal position was challenged by the Roman Catholic Church which interpreted abortion as the murder of God-given life. The bill was nevertheless passed by Parliament in September 1991, and the President signed it on October 11, 1991. PMID:12288837

  3. Moderate views of abortion.

    PubMed

    Sumner, L W

    1997-01-01

    This essay offers a moderate view of abortion that imposes a time limit for unrestricted abortion and specific indications for later abortions. The introduction notes that the discussion will provide a defense for this policy based on a moral analysis but that other options for moderates, especially options provided by freestanding views (the defense of which does not rest on any prior commitment about the morality of abortion), will also be considered. The next section considers the moral status of the fetus grounded in a criterion of moral standing that stipulates the necessary characteristics to achieve moral standing. This discussion concludes that a fetus acquires moral standing only when it becomes sentient. Section 3 moves the argument from ethics to politics to prove that a moderate policy must place no limitations on abortion before the time the fetus becomes sentient because before that time the fetus has no interest for the state to protect. The final section notes that some pro-choice advocates may be happier with the moderate policy proposed than with its controversial defense based on the moral status of the fetus and that another defense of a moderate policy could be based on a finding that the ethical issue can not be decided and that no view about abortion ethics is more reasonable than any other. The essay concludes that the ethical debate is ultimately unavoidable. PMID:12348328

  4. Abortion and regret.

    PubMed

    Greasley, Kate

    2012-12-01

    The article considers three theses about postabortion regret which seek to illustrate its pertinence to reasoning about abortion, and which are often deployed, either explicitly or implicitly, to dissuade women out of that reproductive choice. The first is that postabortion regret renders an abortion morally unjustified. The second is that that a relatively high incidence of postabortion regret-compared with a lower incidence of postnatal regret in the relevant comparator field-is good evidence for the moral impermissibility of abortion choice. The third is that high rates of postabortion regret suggest that abortion is not the most prudent or welfare-maximising choice for the woman concerned. All three theses argue for the compellingness of knowledge about postabortion regret in moral and practical reasoning about abortion, especially from the pregnant woman's point of view. This article argues that all three theses are flawed. In particular, it seeks to remind readers that feelings of regret directed at past decisions are often decoupled from the fact of the matter about their moral or rational justification. Moreover, certain features of reproductive decisions in particular make regret an especially unsuitable yardstick for actual justification in this context, and even less epistemically reliable as evidence for a lack of justification than it may be in other fields of decision-making. The implication is that rates of postabortion regret, even if they can be presumed to be higher than rates of postnatal regret, are not as pertinent to moral and practical reasoning about abortion as is sometimes suggested.

  5. Politics and abortion.

    PubMed

    Rosoff, J I

    1985-01-01

    The legalization of abortion in the United States by the Supreme Court in 1973 bypassed the political process in the majority of the states. Since then, however, political controversy and agitation in relation to abortion has become nationwide. From largely Catholic-based opposition, it has grown to encompass religious fundamentalists and to be a major part of the New Right's agenda. Abortion is now, pro and con, part of the platform of both political parties. The sweeping nature of the Supreme Court's decisions leaves the opposition with very little room to restrict abortion, short of overturning the decisions through a constitutional amendment. Such an amendment requires a two-thirds majority of Congress and passage is unlikely. However, funding bans on scores of federal programmes have succeeded in restricting access to abortion for the poor, the young and minorities. These restrictions are part of a long-term strategy to educate the public as to the evils of abortion with the aim of making it illegal again, either through the adoption of a constitutional amendment or by obtaining a reversal by a hoped-for change in membership of the Supreme Court.

  6. Measuring the impact of health policies using Internet search patterns: the case of abortion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Internet search patterns have emerged as a novel data source for monitoring infectious disease trends. We propose that these data can also be used more broadly to study the impact of health policies across different regions in a more efficient and timely manner. Methods As a test use case, we studied the relationships between abortion-related search volume, local abortion rates, and local abortion policies available for study. Results Our initial integrative analysis found that, both in the US and internationally, the volume of Internet searches for abortion is inversely proportional to local abortion rates and directly proportional to local restrictions on abortion. Conclusion These findings are consistent with published evidence that local restrictions on abortion lead individuals to seek abortion services outside of their area. Further validation of these methods has the potential to produce a timely, complementary data source for studying the effects of health policies. PMID:20738850

  7. Abortion and rape.

    PubMed

    Barry-Martin, P

    1977-10-26

    The letter is an answer to a previous letter which appeared in the same journal and which was discrediting, according to the author of this letter, the Royal Commission on Contraception, Sterilization, and Abortion. The earlier letter refutes a quote from "Abortion and Social Justice" used by the Commission, regarding the situation in Colorado after rape became an indication for abortion. The quote reports that although between 1967-1971 the number of abortions for rape totalled 290, no rapist was charged or convicted for the crime. However, according to the author of this letter, the actual quote reads somewhat differently, and states that, during the same period, "no rapist was ever charged with his crime, much less convicted of it, which casts some real doubts on the reality of the alleged rapes." The meaning of this passage is that none of the alleged rapists had actually caused the 290 pregnancies. From records and government statistics it is possible to count about 3300 cases of rape known to the police in Colorado for the years 1967-1971. To suggest that none of these cases were charged or convicted is ridiculous. The author also states that rape as an indication for abortion will lead to abuse of the law, and that pregnancy for actual rape is rare.

  8. Bridging the Self-care Deficit Gap: Remote Patient Monitoring and the Hospital-at-Home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafazzo, Joseph A.; Leonard, Kevin; Easty, Anthony C.; Rossos, Peter G.; Chan, Christopher T.

    This study examines the use of a remote patient monitoring intervention to address the challenge of patient self-care in complex hospital-at-home therapies. It was shown that in a home hemodialysis patient group, remote patient monitoring facilitated self-care and was supported by patients and, in particular, family caregivers. This does not come without cost to the patient however, who now has greater personal responsibility and accountability for their health management. Promising results from this study indicate that most patients are willing to assume this cost in exchange for the possibility of improved health outcomes.

  9. The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

  10. Addressing barriers to safe abortion.

    PubMed

    Culwell, Kelly R; Hurwitz, Manuelle

    2013-05-01

    The latest World Health Organization data estimate that the total number of unsafe abortions globally has increased to 21.6 million in 2008. There is increasing recognition by the international community of the importance of the contribution of unsafe abortion to maternal mortality. However, the barriers to delivery of safe abortion services are many. In 68 countries, home to 26% of the world's population, abortion is prohibited altogether or only permitted to save a woman's life. Even in countries with more liberal abortion legal frameworks, additional social, economic, and health systems barriers and the stigma surrounding abortion prevent adequate access to safe abortion services and postabortion care. While much has been achieved to reduce the barriers to comprehensive abortion care, much remains to be done. Only through the concerted action of public, private, and civil society partners can we ensure that women have access to services that are safe, affordable, confidential, and stigma free. PMID:23477700

  11. Abortion and human rights.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus. PMID:20303830

  12. A compromise on abortion?

    PubMed

    Rhoden, N K

    1989-01-01

    Rhoden's article is one of three on "Abortion: searching for common ground" in this issue of the Hastings Center Report. Her article, together with those by M. Mahowald and M. Glendon, was prompted by the expectation that the impending U.S. Supreme Court decision in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (3 July 1989) would overturn or restrict Roe v. Wade (1973). Rhoden, an advocate for the pro-choice position, asks whether a compromise leading to an acceptable regulatory policy is possible or desirable among those on opposite sides of the abortion issue. She identifies several reasons why the Roe decision is vulnerable to review, but argues that effective education about sexuality and comprehensive social support of women are better approaches to abortion than restrictive legislation. PMID:2663778

  13. Connecticut's new abortion statute.

    PubMed

    Healey, J M

    1990-08-01

    Amid the raging controversy on whether minors should have the same access to abortion as adults, the Connecticut legislature has passed a compromise statues that recognizes a minor's right seek an abortion, while imposing certain requirements. Those who seek to regulate access argue that because minors may lack the maturity to make a valid decision, parental notification is necessary; advocates of minors' right to access hold that it should be the minor who makes such personal decision. In an effort to resolve the conflict, Connecticut's law says that young women under the age of 16 must receive pregnancy-related information before an abortion can take place. Specifically., a physician or counselor is required to: 1) explain to the minor that the information provided is not intended to coerce or persuade her into making a particular choice; 2) explain that she may consider her decision any time prior to the operation or during the time period when abortion is legally permitted; 3) explain the alternatives of either carrying out the pregnancy or getting an abortion, including information on public and private agencies that may assist in carrying out the decision; 4) inform her that pubic and private agencies provide information on birth control; 5) discuss the possibility of involving the minor's parents(s), guardian(s), or other adult family member in the decision; and 6) allow the minor to ask questions and to obtain useful information. After the completion of the process, the minor must sign a form that attests that the requirements have been met, and -- if applicable -- that the minor has decided to involve a parent or relative. In cases where the health or safety of a minor requires and abortion, the Connecticut statute allows for the provisions to be waived.

  14. Orion Abort Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Peggy Sue

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of NASA's Constellation project is to create the new generation of spacecraft for human flight to the International Space Station in low-earth orbit, the lunar surface, as well as for use in future deep-space exploration. One portion of the Constellation program was the development of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) to be used in spaceflight. The Orion spacecraft consists of a crew module, service module, space adapter and launch abort system. The crew module was designed to hold as many as six crew members. The Orion crew exploration vehicle is similar in design to the Apollo space capsules, although larger and more massive. The Flight Test Office is the responsible flight test organization for the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office originally proposed six tests that would demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests were to be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and were similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. The first flight test of the launch abort system was a pad abort (PA-1), that took place on 6 May 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Primary flight test objectives were to demonstrate the capability of the launch abort system to propel the crew module a safe distance away from a launch vehicle during a pad abort, to demonstrate the stability and control characteristics of the vehicle, and to determine the performance of the motors contained within the launch abort system. The focus of the PA-1 flight test was engineering development and data acquisition, not certification. In this presentation, a high level overview of the PA-1 vehicle is given, along with an overview of the Mobile Operations Facility and information on the White Sands tracking sites for radar & optics. Several lessons learned are presented, including detailed information on the lessons learned in the development of wind

  15. Space Shuttle Abort Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.

  16. Access to Complex Abortion Care Service and Planning Improved through a Toll-Free Telephone Resource Line.

    PubMed

    Norman, Wendy V; Hestrin, Barbara; Dueck, Royce

    2014-01-01

    Background. Providing equitable access to the full range of reproductive health services over wide geographic areas presents significant challenges to any health system. We present a review of a service provision model which has provided improved access to abortion care; support for complex issues experienced by women seeking nonjudgmental family planning health services; and a mechanism to collect information on access barriers. The toll-free pregnancy options service (POS) of British Columbia Women's Hospital and Health Centre sought to improve access to services and overcome barriers experienced by women seeking abortion. Methods. We describe the development and implementation of a province-wide toll-free telephone counseling and access facilitation service, including establishment of a provincial network of local abortion service providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia from 1998 to 2010. Results. Over 2000 women annually access service via the POS line, networks of care providers are established and linked to central support, and central program planners receive timely information on new service gaps and access barriers. Conclusion. This novel service has been successful in addressing inequities and access barriers identified as priorities before service establishment. The service provided unanticipated benefits to health care planning and monitoring of provincial health care related service delivery and gaps. This model for low cost health service delivery may realize similar benefits when applied to other health care systems where access and referral barriers exist. PMID:24693291

  17. The demographic argument in Soviet debates over the legalization of abortion in the 1920s.

    PubMed

    Solomon, S G

    1993-01-01

    Russia legalized abortion in 1920. State policy was pronatalist. Regional abortion commissions were established in order to monitor costs and maintain records. The physicians before the legal change were mainly against legalization. In 1923 the abortion rate was 2.91 abortions per live birth. A 1923 study by M. Karlin, M.D., found among 1362 women that the health risk to women of zero parity with an induced abortion was higher than giving birth. Public discussion of abortion was limited between 1921 and 1924. Russian physicians between 1925 and 1927 both publicly and privately discussed the problems; greater attention to demographic concerns occurred during the 1930s. The connection between abortion and the declining birth rate was established in a limited way in a May 1927 obstetricians' society meeting in Kiev, Ukraine. The albeit unreliable statistics appeared to confirm the decline in the birth rate due to increased numbers of abortions. The literature in the 1920s was devoted to the well-being of women as workers; abortion policy favored the interests of working women and was set up for prevention of unsafe illegal abortions. Russian demographers were more concerned with population movements. Surveys found that the profiled abortion client was indeed not destitute, but better off and married. Roesle, a German demographer, considered legal abortion beneficial in reducing maternal mortality, but he was criticized for obscuring abortions' impact on the birth rate. The debate in Russia was tangled in ideology. A comparison of abortion rates in Vienna and Moscow by a Viennese demographer Peller found similar rates regardless of legality. Peller further suggested that contraception had more to do with birth rates. Even though rural populations were hard hit by famine in 1931 and forced collectivization in 1929, increased rural abortions were blamed for the declining rural birth rates. The demographic argument against abortion became prominent again in 1931/32 after

  18. Multiple Induced Abortions: Danish Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Mogens; David, Henry P.; Morgall, Janine M.

    1997-01-01

    Women having an induced abortion in an urban clinic were studied. First, second, and third time aborters (N=150) were interviewed. Variables including reasons for choosing abortion, life situations, contraceptive risk-taking, and ease of becoming pregnant were examined. Related studies and suggestions for postabortion counseling are discussed.…

  19. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. PMID:25846035

  20. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading.

  1. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  2. Insights from filling the gaps with high-resolution nutrient monitoring in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, P.; Cassidy, R.; Melland, A. R.

    2012-04-01

    Phosphorus and nitrogen fractions are arguably among the most important nutrient pollutants in rivers of developed countries with urban centres, industries and agriculture. National inventories of water quality monitoring data in rivers are, however, often spatially rich but temporally poor and biased in terms of source origin. Monitoring (or modelling) trajectories of water chemistry change from catchment management using these datasets is therefore problematic owing to the hydrological relationships (low and high flows) that control transfer from land to water and subsequent impact. The probabilities are high, for example, of scheduled sample collection reflecting groundwater or point source influences at low flows. Conversely, diffuse sources allied to storm flows are poorly represented; even over long-time scales. This has added implication for uncertainty generation in models designed to predict process and status of nutrients in catchment systems. Here we present three beneficial aspects related to the use of high-resolution river monitoring equipment in a national framework in Ireland, returning fractions of phosphorus and nitrogen on a sub-hourly basis and synchronous with discharge. Firstly, the datasets provide the most complete time-series possible for nutrient fluxes in rivers and, in Ireland, are being used primarily as an empirical basis to gauge the influence of agricultural polices to mitigate nutrient loss from land; showing the influences of specific measures as well as the influences of confounding issues. Secondly, for validation, the datasets are a challenge for modelling frameworks to emulate complex processes related to inter and intra-annual climatic variability, landuse change and policy influence. Thirdly, we show how the data can be used to devise a less frequent sampling regime to capture river nutrient flux processes that optimises the need to be spatially and temporally representative in catchment monitoring programmes.

  3. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  4. [Abortion and conscientious objection].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion.

  5. Observations on abortion in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Castle, M A; Likwa, R; Whittaker, M

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the findings of a preliminary investigation of women who sought treatment for abortion from the Gynecological Emergency Ward at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia. Barriers to obtaining legal abortions are identified and the harsh experiences of women seeking treatment for complications of illegally induced abortion are discussed. The data contribute to an understanding of the intensity of abortion for Zambian women and draw attention to the value of small-scale, qualitative research on women's reproductive health care needs. It is suggested that a study be planned at UTH to determine how health care delivery can be improved for women who seek abortion.

  6. Anti-abortion movement.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K

    1985-01-01

    At the same time that American women celebrate the freedoms won thus far for so many Americans, American women must realize they face some of the greatest threats to liberty in recent memory. To understand this movement against American women, it is necessary to first understand the roots of the historic movement for women's rights. Reproductive freedom for many years topped the agenda of the modern women's movement. At a time and in a land where rights were being enriched and liberty prized, choice took a prominent role, specifically, the right to abortion but also generally to repdocuctive freedom and the many underlying issues involved. This is why the various efforts to criminalize abortion effect every citizen, because they pose a serious threat to the constitutional rights of each individual. This is the intellectual view, or the "head" argument. The Constitution states that: "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and no state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US." Each of these clauses expresses the philosophy on which the Constitution was founded -- individual liberty. While there has been some legitimate disagreement over what constitutes an inalienable right, the concept is clear: the government should not become involved in personal philosophical or religious matters, except to permit the freedom of personal philosophical or religious expression. The anti-abortion contignent makes its case by claiming that a fertilized egg is a cona fide person and should, therefore, be guaranteed the Constitution's full roster of protections. In its landmark Roe v. Wade opinion, the Supreme Court held what pro-choice activities have been claiming for years. Since there is no empirical test by which measure

  7. [Recurrent spontaneous abortions].

    PubMed

    Salat-Baroux, J

    1988-01-01

    The process of fertilization in humans, is remarkably inefficient. Spontaneous abortion is estimated to be between 15 and 20% of all clinical pregnancies, and the early spontaneous abortion rate is closer to 30-50% of fertilized ova. Not all authors agree on the definition of "recurrent spontaneous abortion" (RSA), so the frequency of repeated pregnancy wastage is difficult to determine; from empirically derived data, it has been estimated to range between 0.4 and 0.8%. Because of the various etiologies of RSA, their association in determining an abortive event, it is difficult to evaluate their exact incidence. Moreover, their is no prospective study on this subject, so it is advisable to distinguish between the admitted causes, the likely factors, and the etiologies to be evaluated. In the first group, the congenital or acquired müllerian anomalies (especially the septate uterus), represent about 25% of the RSA, but a lot of problems concerning the physiopathology are still debated, even if the rate of pregnancies after surgery ranges around 50% in certain series. On the other hand, the genetic factors, identified especially with the banding technique, are undeniable: however, although the rate of chromosomal aberrations in the offspring (Monosomy X, Trisony 16, Triploidy) is very high (50 to 60% of spontaneous abortions in the first trimester of pregnancy), when couples with usual abortions are subjected to karyotypic analysis, genetic anomalies (especially translocations) are been noted in only 6.2% of the women and 2.6% of the men. In the second group, the infective factors (chlamydiae, toxoplasma and mycoplasma) are difficult to analyse since the serology is not sufficient without a real proof of an endometrial colonization. Among the endocrinological causes, the classical luteal phase deficiency remains a subject of controversy (estimated between 3 and 30%) not only for the establishment of the diagnosis, but also for the efficiency of progesterone

  8. Abortion (Amendment) Bill.

    PubMed

    Dundon, S

    1980-02-23

    Your editorial of Jan. 26 and the multi-signatory letter in your issue of Feb. 2 support the 1967 Abortion Act and suggest that Mr. Corrie's Bill is a retrograde step. The implication is that our professional knowledge should lead us to that conclusion. To take the opposite view risks being regarded as a member of a pressure group or a conscientious objector, but to remain silent might be construed as being in agreement. As I see it the great majority of people of varying ethnic groups, including those adhering to the Jewish, Muslim, and Christian faiths, subscribe to a behavioral code which regards human life as sacred: to take a life is to be countenanced only to save another. Abortion should be regarded as taking human life and morally wrong; making abortion legal does not make it morally right. Doctors are in a very difficult position, and cannot, no more than politicians can, make moral decisions for other people. Traditionally, however, the profession has a role in the responsibility for protection of life, and perhaps the public have a right to expect this protection. Human life begins at conception and some human rights begin at this time. Life (and its protection) seems to be a most basic right. The World Medical Association, in the Declaration of Oslo (1970), stated: "1. The first moral principle imposed upon the doctor is respect for human life as expressed in a clause of the Declaration of Geneva: 'I will maintain the utmost respect for human life from the time of conception.'" The 1967 Abortion Act did not result from a general referendum, much less a medical referendum. If the Corrie Bill is passed and abortions are cut by 2/3 as you suggest, this would, in my view, be a step, not back, but in the right direction.

  9. Abortion health services in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Wendy V.; Guilbert, Edith R.; Okpaleke, Christopher; Hayden, Althea S.; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; White, Katharine O’Connell; Jones, Heidi E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the location of Canadian abortion services relative to where reproductive-age women reside, and the characteristics of abortion facilities and providers. Design An international survey was adapted for Canadian relevance. Public sources and professional networks were used to identify facilities. The bilingual survey was distributed by mail and e-mail from July to November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures The number and location of services were compared with the distribution of reproductive-age women by location of residence. Results We identified 94 Canadian facilities providing abortion in 2012, with 48.9% in Quebec. The response rate was 83.0% (78 of 94). Facilities in every jurisdiction with services responded. In Quebec and British Columbia abortion services are nearly equally present in large urban centres and rural locations throughout the provinces; in other Canadian provinces services are chiefly located in large urban areas. No abortion services were identified in Prince Edward Island. Respondents reported provision of 75 650 abortions in 2012 (including 4.0% by medical abortion). Canadian facilities reported minimal or no harassment, in stark contrast to American facilities that responded to the same survey. Conclusion Access to abortion services varies by region across Canada. Services are not equitably distributed in relation to the regions where reproductive-age women reside. British Columbia and Quebec have demonstrated effective strategies to address disparities. Health policy and service improvements have the potential to address current abortion access inequity in Canada. These measures include improved access to mifepristone for medical abortion; provincial policies to support abortion services; routine abortion training within family medicine residency programs; and increasing the scope of practice for nurses and midwives to include abortion

  10. Abortion politics in the United States, 1972-1994: from single issue to ideology.

    PubMed

    Hout, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses issues of legal abortion and women's rights in the US. Abortion has been a political issue since the 1970s in the US. Following the Supreme Court's decision in the case of Roe vs. Wade, conservatives and liberals were divided based on their stand on abortion laws. Moreover, gender affects the range of opinions. Gender gap in abortion attitudes is most evident among conservatives. Conservative and extremely conservative women are against legal abortion more strongly than men with those same political views. Liberal and extremely liberal women have about the same amount of support for legal abortion as liberal men do. Labor force participation, marriage, education, and religion have impact on women and men's attitudes toward abortion; yet none of these explain the politicization of abortion. The change in support for legal abortion by political views and time period (1974-93) is shown in this paper. Women's rights are at the core when issues on abortion are to be discussed; the circumstances of the pregnancy and not the fetus become the focus. Although some women¿s groups support this stand, it faces a continuing debate with pro-life groups. The prevailing ideologies attempt to accommodate the new ideas expressed by the movement, while some of its stronger views are tempered in order to win a measure of political success. PMID:12349270

  11. [Acute complications of abortion].

    PubMed

    Obel, E

    1976-02-01

    The complications accompanying the various methods of abortion as studied in different surveys are reported. In studies of dilation and curettage (D and C) and vaccuum aspiration (VA), lethality ranges from .5 to 2.9 deaths/100,000 cases. Metrorrhagia occurred in 2.5-6% of the D and C cases studied and in 2.9-3.5% of the VA cases. The bleeding was accompanied by infection in most cases where abortive tissue remained in the uterus, which occured in .4-.8% of the D and C cases and in .6-.9% of the VA cases studied. Postabortive bleeding occurred through the 10th day in up to 25% of the patients and was related to the length of the gestation period before abortion. Pelvic infection, mostly of the endometrium, occurred in about 1.4% of the D and C patients and in .3-1.2% of the VA patients. 1.4% of the D and C patients and .6% of the VA patients experienced a rise in body temperature as the only complication of abortion. Perforation of the uterus occurred in about .8% of the D and C patients and in .1-.6% of VA patients. Lesions of the cervix had to be sutured in .1% of the D and C group and .3% of the VA group. Saline instillation, used for abortions in the second trimest er, had a mortality rate of about 20/100,000 cases. Since the success rate of saline instillation is 90-98%, complications are more frequent, often requiring treatment with oxytocin or curettage. Extensive bleeding occurred in 2.3-4%. Curettage of the placenta was required in about 2.1-16.9% of the cases. Pelvic inflammation occurred in about 2.5% and temperature elevation in 1-3.4%. Abdominal hysterotomies had a lethality of 208/100,000. Pelvic hemorrhage occurred in 31%, inflammation in 4.7%, temperature elevation in 13%, and febrile reactions in 31% of the abdominal hysterotomies studied. It is necessary to establish international definitions of abortion complications for better documentation, and postoperative observations should be recorded more conscientiously. PMID:1251502

  12. Abortion research in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gaslonde Sainz, S

    1976-08-01

    Surveys dealing with abortion in Latin America have provided useful information despite problems in the collection and use of the data. Considerations that should be taken into account in designing abortion surveys and using the resultant information have been discussed here. Special attention has been paid to the need for a broad definition of "abortion" in order to overcome difficulties in gathering information about abortion in Latin America. Surveys have shown increasing incidence of abortion throughout Latin America in the recent past. In examining changes over time it is crucial to interpret clearly and carefully the summary measures of proportion of pregnancies ending in abortion and abortion rates per 1,000 women. It is also important to realize that the level and direction of change of the abortion rate depends on both the rate at which women are becoming pregnant and the proportion of pregnancies ending in abortion. Better survey design and techniques and more careful use of the resulting information will aid in the planning and evaluation of programs aimed at reducing abortion in Latin America. PMID:960180

  13. Abortion: taking the debate seriously.

    PubMed

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2015-05-19

    Voluntarily induced abortion has been under permanent dispute and legal regulations, because societies invariably condemn extramarital pregnancies. In recent decades, a measure of societal tolerance has led to decriminalize and legalize abortion in accordance with one of two models: a more restricted and conservative model known as therapeutic abortion, and the model that accepts voluntary abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy. Liberalization of abortion aims at ending clandestine abortions and decriminalizes the practice in order to increase reproductive education and accessibility of contraceptive methods, dissuade women from interrupting their pregnancy and, ultimately, make abortion a medically safe procedure within the boundaries of the law, inspired by efforts to reduce the incidence of this practice. The current legal initiative to decriminalize abortion in Chile proposes a notably rigid set of indications which would not resolve the three main objectives that need to be considered: 1) Establish the legal framework of abortion; 2) Contribute to reduce social unrest; 3) Solve the public health issue of clandestine, illegal abortions. Debate must urgently be opened to include alternatives in line with the general tendency to respect women's decision within the first trimester of pregnancy.

  14. Religion and attitudes toward abortion and abortion policy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the association between religion and attitudes toward the practice of abortion and abortion policy in Brazil. Drawing upon data from the 2002 Brazilian Social Research Survey (BSRS), we test a number of hypotheses with regard to the role of religion on opposition to the practice of abortion and its legalization. Findings indicate that frequently attending Pentecostals demonstrate the strongest opposition to the practice of abortion and both frequently attending Pentecostals and Catholics demonstrate the strongest opposition to its legalization. Additional religious factors, such as a commitment to biblical literalism, were also found to be significantly associated with opposition to both abortion issues. Ultimately, the findings have implications for the future of public policy on abortion and other contentious social issues in Brazil.

  15. The Politicization of Abortion and the Evolution of Abortion Counseling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The field of abortion counseling originated in the abortion rights movement of the 1970s. During its evolution to the present day, it has faced significant challenges, primarily arising from the increasing politicization and stigmatization of abortion since legalization. Abortion counseling has been affected not only by the imposition of antiabortion statutes, but also by the changing needs of patients who have come of age in a very different era than when this occupation was first developed. One major innovation—head and heart counseling—departs in significant ways from previous conventions of the field and illustrates the complex and changing political meanings of abortion and therefore the challenges to abortion providers in the years following Roe v Wade. PMID:23153144

  16. Psychiatric aspects of therapeutic abortion.

    PubMed

    Doane, B K; Quigley, B G

    1981-09-01

    A search of the literature on the psychiatric aspects of abortion revealed poor study design, a lack of clear criteria for decisions for or against abortion, poor definition of psychologic symptoms experienced by patients, absence of control groups in clinical studies, and indecisiveness and uncritical attitudes in writers from various disciplines. A review of the sequelae of therapeutic abortion revealed that although the data are vague, symptoms of depression were reported most frequently, whereas those of psychosis were rare. Positive emotional responses and a favourable attitude toward therapeutic abortion were often reported, although again the statistical bases for these reports were inadequate. There was a lack of evidence that the reported effects were due to having an abortion rather than to other variables.Other areas dealt with inadequately in most of the articles reviewed included analyses of symptoms and of the evidence on the duration of sequelae, descriptions of the criteria for approving abortions, investigation of the psychiatric histories of the patients, presentation of data on the effects of refusing abortion requests, systematic study of a number of epidemiologic factors, and analyses of the circumstances leading to pregnancy in patients having abortions. The evidence was found to be sparse on the effects of supportive relationships, different abortion techniques and the length of gestation on the psychologic status of patients. Little attention was paid to the consequences of psychiatric labelling of patients, or to the effect of having an abortion on factors that may influence future pregnancies.The potential roles of health care professionals appear to deserve more study, and little research seems to have been done to compare the psychologic factors associated with abortion and those associated with live birth. As well, there is little evidence that differences in abortion legislation account for significant differences in the psychologic

  17. Late abortion meeting, Paris / France.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, A

    1989-01-01

    On January 27 and 28, 1989 a workshop and a meeting were organized in Paris by Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial (MFPF/France) and the IPPF Europe Region. The workshop was held on the first day. 24 staff and volunteers from Planned Parenthood Associations of 15 countries attended, reviewing abortion laws, the definition of therapeutic abortion, and the incidence and problems of second trimester abortion. Second trimester abortion is available in only a few European countries. Second trimester abortions are rare in France (about 2000 per annum), and in 1986 1717 French women travelled to England in order to seek an abortion. All late abortions are performed for serious reasons. Older women may mistake signs of pregnancy for the onset of the menopause; and women fearful of social or familial punishment, especially teenagers, may be reluctant to consult a doctor. The experiences of Denmark and Sweden, where the problem is partially solved, suggest some strategies: optimize accessibility of contraceptive services, particularly for women at higher risk of late abortion; diminish the taboo surrounding abortion, so that women are less frightened to seek help at an early stage of pregnancy; make abortion services available in all regions of the country; avert time-consuming enforced waiting periods or consent for minors; and stimulate public information campaigns on the importance of seeking help early. On January 28 a meeting involving about 200 participants took place at the Universite Paris Dauphine, Salle Raymond Aron. Speakers at the meeting discussed the issue of late abortion in Europe, the difficulties of obtaining late abortions, counseling, medical problems, the woman's point of view, and possible solutions. At the close of the meeting, the MFPF called on the French government to modify some of the articles in the Penal Code that restrict women's access to safe and legal abortion.

  18. Austerity and Abortion in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Billari, Francesco; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Economic hardship accompanying large recessions can lead families to terminate unplanned pregnancies. To assess whether abortions have risen during the recession, we collected crude abortion data from 2000 to 2012 from Eurostat for countries that had legal abortions and complete data. Declining trends in abortion ratios between 2000 and 2009 have been reversing. Excess abortions between 2010 and 2012 totaled 10.6 abortions per 1000 pregnancies ending in abortion or birth or 6701 additional abortions (95% CI 1190–9240) with stronger effects in younger ages. Economic shocks may increase recourse to abortion. Further research should explore causal pathways and protective factors. PMID:27009038

  19. [Chemical methods of abortion].

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Matthiesen, H

    1979-07-20

    Medicaments are used to prepare for instrument abortions in the 1st trimester and as inducers of abortion in the 2nd trimester. The effects, side effects, and dangers depend on the substances used and the route of application, which can be vaginal, cervical, injection, instillation, extraamniotic, intraamniotic, intravenous, or intramuscular. In the past, intraamniotic instillation of a 20% salt solution was the most common 2nd trimester method in Japan, the US, and Eastern Europe, giving a success rate of 90%. Serious side effects prompted substitution of extraamniotic instillation, which rarely produces serious side effects. Instillation of a 60% urea solution into the amniotic fluid in combination with oxytocin or prostaglandin produces an abortion in 13-21 hours, with a failure rate of 3% and a frequency of cervical laceration of under 1%. Extraamniotic use of a .1% solution of rivanol yields a success rate of about 85%, with a relatively long average time to explusion of 24-41 hours. In case of failure the procedure can be repeated. The advantage of the Rivanol method is the rarity of infectious complications. Alcohol is not used as a human abortifacient because it produces necrosis in the decidua and placenta. Prostaglandins are used in most 2nd trimester abortions. Research is underway to identify derivatives that will have an extended uterine impact without serious side effects. Different routes of administration have different effectiveness rates and dangers. All prostaglandins cause side effects including pain during uterine contractions, gastro-intestinal reactions, nausea, vomiting, fever, and headaches. Specific preparations are associated with other effects, some of them life-threatening. Emergency treatment should be available when these substances are used. Adjuvant measures may be employed before adminstration of an abortifacient agent to soften the cervix, or after administration to hasten the procedure. The choice of procedure depends upon the

  20. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  1. Public funding of abortions and abortion counseling for poor women.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R B

    1997-01-01

    This essay seeks to reveal the weakness in arguments against public funding of abortions and abortion counseling in the US based on economic, ethico-religious, anti-racist, and logical-consistency objections and to show that public funding of abortion is strongly supported by appeals to basic human rights, to freedom of speech, to informed consent, to protection from great harm, to justice, and to equal protection under the law. The first part of the article presents the case against public funding with detailed considerations of the economic argument, the ethico/religious argument, the argument that such funding supports racist genocide or eugenic quality control, and arguments that a logical inconsistency exists between the principles used to justify the legalization of abortions and arguments for public funding. The second part of the article presents the case for public funding by discussing the spending of public funds on morally offensive programs, arguments for public funding of abortion counseling for the poor, and arguments for public funding of abortions for the poor. It is concluded that it is morally unacceptable and rationally unjustifiable to refuse to expend public funds for abortions for low income women, because after all most money for legal abortions for the poor comes from welfare payments made to women. If conservative forces want to insure that no public funds pay for abortions, they must stop all welfare payments to pregnant women. PMID:12348330

  2. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742

  3. Dworkin and Casey on abortion.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Sarah

    1996-01-01

    This article responds to two important recent treatments of abortion rights. I will mainly discuss Ronald Dworkin's recent writings concerning abortion: his article "Unenumerated rights: whether and how Roe should be overruled," and his book Life's Dominion. In these writings Dworkin presents a novel view of what the constitutional and moral argument surronding abortion is really about. Both debates actually turn, he argues, on the question of how to interpret the widely shared idea that human life is sacred. At the heart of the abortion debate is the essentially religious notion that human life has value which transcends its value to any particular person; abortion is therefore at bottom a religious issue. Dworkin hopes to use this analysis to show that the religion clauses of the First Amendment provide a "textual home" for a woman's right to choose abortion. I wish to scrutinize this suggestion here; I want to probe the precise consequences for abortion rights of such an understanding of their basis. I will argue that the consequences are more radical than Dworkin seems to realize. The other work I will examine here is the important 1992 Supreme Court decision on abortion, Planned Parenthood v. Casey. The controlling opinion in that case, written jointly by Justices Kennedy, O'Connor, and Souter, strongly reaffirmed Roe v. Wade, but also upheld most of the provisions of a Pennsylvania statute that had mandated various restrictions on abortion. The justices' basis for upholding these restictions was their introduction of a new constitutional standard for abortion regulations, an apparently weaker standard than those that had governed previous Supreme Court abortion decisions. I think there is a flaw in Casey's new constitutional test for abortion regulations, and I will explain, when we turn to Casey, what it is and why it bears a close relation to Dworkin's reluctance to carry his argument as far as it seems to go.

  4. Abortion in a just society.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M E

    1993-01-01

    A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.

  5. Anti-abortion movement.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K

    1985-01-01

    At the same time that American women celebrate the freedoms won thus far for so many Americans, American women must realize they face some of the greatest threats to liberty in recent memory. To understand this movement against American women, it is necessary to first understand the roots of the historic movement for women's rights. Reproductive freedom for many years topped the agenda of the modern women's movement. At a time and in a land where rights were being enriched and liberty prized, choice took a prominent role, specifically, the right to abortion but also generally to repdocuctive freedom and the many underlying issues involved. This is why the various efforts to criminalize abortion effect every citizen, because they pose a serious threat to the constitutional rights of each individual. This is the intellectual view, or the "head" argument. The Constitution states that: "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and no state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US." Each of these clauses expresses the philosophy on which the Constitution was founded -- individual liberty. While there has been some legitimate disagreement over what constitutes an inalienable right, the concept is clear: the government should not become involved in personal philosophical or religious matters, except to permit the freedom of personal philosophical or religious expression. The anti-abortion contignent makes its case by claiming that a fertilized egg is a cona fide person and should, therefore, be guaranteed the Constitution's full roster of protections. In its landmark Roe v. Wade opinion, the Supreme Court held what pro-choice activities have been claiming for years. Since there is no empirical test by which measure

  6. Robotic Tube-Gap Inspector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.; Maslakowski, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Robotic vision system measures small gaps between nearly parallel tubes. Robot-held video camera examines closely spaced tubes while computer determines gaps between tubes. Video monitor simultaneously displays data on gaps.

  7. The abortion struggle in America.

    PubMed

    Warren, Mary Anne

    1989-10-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court's July 1989 decision in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services, while not overturning Roe v. Wade, extended the power of state and local governments to regulate abortion. Warren situates the Webster decision in a larger context of 19th and 20th century American anti-abortion legislation, the Court's 1973 Roe decision and its predecessors, and the anti-abortion campaign that followed Roe. She then discusses Webster and its legal, practical, and political implications, concluding that the future of legal abortion in the United States is radically uncertain.

  8. God's bullies: attacks on abortion.

    PubMed

    Hadley, J

    1994-01-01

    National politics in the US, Poland, and Ireland have in recent years been afire with debate over abortion. Conflicting abortion laws almost scuttled the reunification of Germany. This paper describes how the abortion debate took hold in post-Communist Poland and how the issue came to be so entrenched in US politics in the wake of the US Supreme Court's 1973 decision on abortion in the case of Roe vs. Wade. It focuses upon abortion mainly as a method of birth control which women have always sought when needed regardless of the procedure's legal status. The controversies and campaigns recorded and the ideas offered focus upon women's access to affordable, safe, and legal abortion. The author argues that Poland is no place to be a woman and presents sections on the country's church, government, and medical profession; Roe vs. Wade; who opposes abortion rights and their broad success; the 1992 US presidential election; Bill Clinton's presidency; why the abortion debate has been different in Britain; and new issues on abortion.

  9. Prophylactic antibiotics for curettage abortion.

    PubMed

    Grimes, D A; Schulz, K F; Cates, W

    1984-11-15

    Opinion is divided as to the advisability of routine use of prophylactic antibiotics for curettage abortion. Six studies, including three randomized clinical trials, suggest that prophylaxis reduces infectious morbidity associated with curettage abortions by about one half. Three other studies, two involving prophylaxis for instillation abortions and one involving a vaginal antiseptic for curettage abortion, support the hypothesis that antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces morbidity. Tetracyclines are commonly used for this purpose. The cost of routine prophylaxis even with an expensive tetracycline would appear to be offset by the savings in direct and indirect costs. Prophylaxis may help prevent both short-term morbidity and potential late sequelae, such as ectopic pregnancy and infertility.

  10. Controversy over abortion funding increases.

    PubMed

    1980-03-01

    The controversy surrounding the question of public financing of Medicaid abortions in the U.S. was fanned through 5 separate court decisions in January 1980. In 3 of the decisions--directed against the Connecticut, Minnesota, and Missouri Medicaid abortion programs--the courts invalidated the state laws on the grounds that they limited federal funding of abortions for poor women too narrowly. Another decision stated that the Missouri law violated the equal protection clause of th Constitution. A decision in the U.S. District Court in Brooklyn, New York, stated that the 1976 Hyde amendment's restrictions on federal payment for abortions under Medicaid are unconstitutional. Each case is briefly analyzed.

  11. The medicolegal aspects of abortion.

    PubMed

    Hall, R E

    1972-01-01

    There was little demand for abortion in the 19th century. There was no population explosion and large families were needed to tend the farm. People were more religious; women were 2nd class citizens; and abortions in those days were medically unsafe. The movement to reform abortion laws in the United States stemmed largely from 3 events in the early 1960s: 1) the request in 1963 of Sherri Finkbine for an abortion after she had taken thalidomide and then learned of its teratogenic potential; 2) a rubella epidemic in 1964 and 1965; and 3) the 1965 Supreme Court decision declaring the Connecticut birth control law to be unconstitutional. In 1970 abortion was completely legalized in the states of Hawaii, Alaska, New York and Washington -- the first 3 by legislation and the last by popular referendum. With 4 states operating under repeal laws, 12 under reform laws, and 34 under restrictive laws, the current practice of abortion in the U.S. at this time is chaotic. In order to cope with the tremendous new demand for abortions, doctors have had to learn new techniques and hospitals have had to modify their procedures and adapt their facilities. An obstacle in the transition to universally available abortion has been the resistance of attending physicians, house staff, paramedical personnel, and hospital administrators and trustees. The legal future of abortion lies more in the courts than in the legislatures. With the impetus provided by the 4 new repeal laws, other states will now revise their abortion statutes at an accelerated pace, but it will not be possible to achieve universal repeal by this state-by-state route. Medical practitioners need to prepare for the eventuality of legalized abortion on a national scale.

  12. Contraception following abortion and the treatment of incomplete abortion.

    PubMed

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp Kallner, Helena; Faúndes, Anibal

    2014-07-01

    Family planning counseling and the provision of postabortion contraception should be an integrated part of abortion and postabortion care to help women avoid another unplanned pregnancy and a repeat abortion. Postabortion contraception is significantly more effective in preventing repeat unintended pregnancy and abortion when it is provided before women leave the healthcare facility where they received abortion care, and when the chosen method is a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) method. This article provides evidence supporting these two critical aspects of postabortion contraception. It suggests that gynecologists and obstetricians have an ethical obligation to do everything necessary to ensure that postabortion contraception, with a focus on LARC methods, becomes an integral part of abortion and postabortion care, in line with the recommendations of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and of several other organizations.

  13. Real-Time Trajectory Assessment and Abort Management for the X-33 Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moise, M. C.; McCarter, J. W.; Mulqueen, J.

    2000-01-01

    The X-33 is a flying testbed to evaluate technologies and designs for a reusable Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) production vehicle. Although it is sub-orbital, it is trans-atmospheric. This paper will discuss the abort capabilities, both commanded and autonomous, available to the X-33. The cornerstone of the abort capabilities is the Performance Monitor (PM) and it's supporting software. PM is an on-board 3-DOF simulation, which evaluates the vehicle ability to execute the current trajectory. The Abort Manager evaluates the results from PM, and, when indicated, computes and implements an abort trajectory.

  14. Denial of abortion in legal settings

    PubMed Central

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePiñeres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-01-01

    Background Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. Methods In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic characteristics of legal abortion seekers, as well as the frequency and reasons that women are denied abortion care. Results The proportion of women denied abortion services and the reasons for which they were denied varied widely by country. In Colombia, 2% of women surveyed did not receive the abortions they were seeking; in South Africa, 45% of women did not receive abortions on the day they were seeking abortion services. In both Tunisia and Nepal, 26% of women were denied their wanted abortions. Conclusions The denial of legal abortion services may have serious consequences for women's health and wellbeing. Additional evidence on the risk factors for presenting later in pregnancy, predictors of seeking unsafe illegal abortion, and the health consequences of illegal abortion and childbirth after an unwanted pregnancy is needed. Such data would assist the development of programmes and policies aimed at increasing access to and utilisation of safe abortion services where abortion is legal, and harm reduction models for women who are unable to access legal abortion services. PMID:25511805

  15. Abortion Information: A Guidance Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolleat, Patricia L.

    1975-01-01

    A number of questions relating to providing abortion information to teenagers can be raised from legal, ethical and philosophical standpoints. The purpose of this article is to examine abortion information-giving from the perspective of counseling and guidance theory and practice. (Author)

  16. Abortion, Birthright and the Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadale, Vincent E.; And Others

    This transcript is the result of panel presentation given on the implications of liberalized abortion laws for counselors. A new law which went into effect in July, 1970, in New York State presented women with the option of obtaining a legal abortion up to the 24th week of pregnancy. Counselors in New York State were, therefore, presented with new…

  17. Advice in the Abortion Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luscutoff, Sidney A.; Elms, Alan C.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects in this study were asked to report the number of contacts-for-advice they had made when forming decisions to have a therapeutic abortion, or to carry a pregnancy to term. As predicted, the abortion group differed strongly from both other groups on most questions. (Author)

  18. Partner violence and abortion characteristics.

    PubMed

    Colarossi, Lisa; Dean, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study using randomly selected medical charts of women reporting a history of partner violence and women with no history of partner violence at the time of a family planning or abortion appointment (n = 6,564 per group). We analyzed lifetime history of partner violence for odds of lifetime history of abortion and miscarriage number, and birth control problems. To more closely match timing, we analyzed a subsample of 2,186 women reporting current violence versus not at the time of an abortion appointment for differences in gestational age, medical versus surgical method choice, and return for follow-up visit. After adjusting for years at risk and demographic characteristics, women with a past history of partner violence were not more likely to have ever had one abortion, but they were more likely to have had problems with birth control, repeat abortions, and miscarriages than women with no history of violence. Women with current partner violence were also more likely to be receiving an abortion at a later gestational age. We found no differences between the groups in return for abortion follow-up visit or choice of surgical versus medication abortion. Findings support screening for the influence of partner violence on reproductive health and related safety planning. PMID:24580133

  19. Abortion: epidemiology, safety, and technique.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, P D

    1992-08-01

    In 1991, the abortion literature was characterized by articles relating to 1) epidemiologic issues in abortion care, 2) advances in knowledge and experience with medical abortifacients such as mifepristone (RU 486), and 3) cervical ripening prior to abortion with the use of both mifepristone and prostaglandins. Technical methods of achieving termination of pregnancy continue to be similar in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Europe, although induction-abortion times are generally slower in Europe than in the United States. Surgically, dilatation and evacuation procedures continue to be more common in the United States than in other countries. The effectiveness of mifepristone is undisputed, and the recommended dose for early first-trimester termination is being compared with lower dose alternative regimens. There is additional evidence that at least in the short term, the negative psychological sequelae of abortion are infrequent and are inconsequential as a public health issue. PMID:1504270

  20. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong.

  1. [Induced abortion: a world perspective].

    PubMed

    Henshaw, S K

    1987-01-01

    This article presents current estimates of the number, rate, and proportion of abortions for all countries which make such data available. 76% of the world's population lives in countries where induced abortion is legal at least for health reasons. Abortion is legal in almost all developed countries. Most developing countries have some laws against abortion, but it is permitted at least for health reasons in the countries of 67% of the developing world's population. The other 33%--over 1 billion persons--reside mainly in subSaharan Africa, Latin America, and the most orthodox Muslim countries. By the beginning of the 20th century, abortion had been made illegal in most of the world, with rules in Africa, Asia, and Latin America similar to those in Europe and North America. Abortion legislation began to change first in a few industrialized countries prior to World War II and in Japan in 1948. Socialist European countries made abortion legal in the first trimester in the 1950s, and most of the industrialized world followed suit in the 1960s and 1970s. The worldwide trend toward relaxed abortion restrictions continues today, with governments giving varying reasons for the changes. Nearly 33 million legal abortions are estimated to be performed annually in the world, with 14 million of them in China and 11 million in the USSR. The estimated total rises to 40-60 million when illegal abortions added. On a worldwide basis some 37-55 abortions are estimated to occur for each 1000 women aged 15-44 years. There are probably 24-32 abortions per 100 pregnancies. The USSR has the highest abortion rate among developed countries, 181/1000 women aged 15-44, followed by Rumania with 91/1000, many of them illegal. The large number of abortions in some countries is due to scarcity of modern contraception. Among developing countries, China apparently has the highest rate, 62/1000 women aged 15-44. Cuba's rate is 59/1000. It is very difficult to calculate abortion rates in countries

  2. Abortion in Croatia and Slovenia.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In Slovenia abortion will continue to be available during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy as it has been since 1978. The Slovenian Constitutional Court passed this decision in December, 1991 calling the right to abortion a basic human right. T he ruling was a setback both for the government's conservative parties and the Catholic church. In Croatia, where the Catholic church is campaigning against abortion, the situation is quite different. Zagreb is full of stickers and posters with anti-abortion messages branding abortion murder and spreading inaccurate information in announcements. In 1990, there were 56,000 abortions. For every child that was born, one was aborted. The largest Croatian newspaper publicizes the Catholic view. They want pro-choice women of the volunteer group Tresnjevka to stop their struggle. The church and conservative women's groups press for inclusion of abortion in the Constitution. They are very powerful, and the fear is that might soon succeed in restricting or outlawing abortion. Tresnjevka is making efforts to organize a coordination and information center for women in Zagreb where there are 350,000 women and children refugees. Informative brochures are printed on natural healing methods in gynecology, as drugs are very scarce, and addresses for gynecological emergency care are also provided. Abortion has been legally available on demand during the 1st 10 weeks of pregnancy since 1978. Fore year Tresnjevka has worked for women, trying to raise funds from personal donations and from the government for their activities. Funds from foreign countries have never been received. At present many of the group's activities are on hold because of lack of funds, nevertheless the determination to continue fighting is alive. PMID:12285925

  3. Teenage pregnancies and abortion.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, J E

    1984-01-01

    The issue of abortion, except when it is rendered moot because the fetus endangers the life of the mother, is not really a medical issue. The physician's role is to help patients achieve and maintain their maximum potential for physical, mental, and social well-being. To accomplish this, the physician must acquire a constantly evolving database of scientific knowledge, must evaluate this information in a critical and ethical manner, and must be prepared to apply what is learned. In the realm of applied ethics, no particular religion, profession, culture, class, or sex should be thought of as having all the answers in the realm of applied ethics. This physician's actions are predicated on the belief that, to a large extent, ethical precepts reflect the broader social and economic issues of the period in which they are articulated. If this is the case, then in today's world the population explosion, the postindustrial society, the women's rights movement, inequality of access, and the ability to perform prenatal diagnosis are all factors which have molded the approach to the issue of abortion. Only the last 3 of these can in any way be considered as medical. When considering the role of a physician in dealing with the issue of abortion in the adolescent, this individual relies on the concept articulated by the World Health Association (WHA): promoting the physical, emotional, and social well-being of one's patients. Each year in the US over 1 million 15-19 year olds become pregnant, resulting in over 600,000 births. Most of these pregnancies are unintentional, yet approximately 90% of the infants are kept in the home by mothers who are ill prepared to be parents. What is most disturbing is that the pregnancy rate for the younger mother, 16 years or under, is accounting for an ever increasing percentage of the total. Studies at the Adolescent Health Center of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City as well as national studies suggest that the younger teens are more

  4. Smoking habits and spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Sandahl, B

    1989-04-01

    Smoking habits have been compared in three samples of pregnancies: (1) spontaneous abortions (n = 610); (2) induced abortions (n = 800); and (3) deliveries (n = 1337). The variables studied were, besides smoking habits, day of LMP, outcome of earlier pregnancies, maternal age, and, for the delivery sample, also diagnoses of mother and child, gestational length, sex, and birthweight. A statistical analysis of the association between smoking and the risk of having a spontaneous abortion was made. The comparisons were made with all types of intra-uterine pregnancies but spontaneous abortions, e.g., deliveries and induced abortions. The effects and consequences of that are discussed. The smoking rates according to pregnancy outcome differ among the samples. In the induced abortion sample 58% smoked compared with 50% in the spontaneous abortion sample and 44% in the delivery sample. The well-known effect of smoking on gestational length and birthweight was shown. No significant effect of smoking on the miscarriage risk was seen. The only trend was the opposite. Possible explanations for this are discussed.

  5. Republic of Ireland: abortion controversy.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The problems associated with illegal abortion dominate public discussion in Ireland. While abortion is illegal in Ireland, the Supreme Court directed in 1992 that Irish women can go to Britain for abortions when their lives are thought to be at risk. Abortion was a constant feature during the Irish Presidential election campaign in October, while a dispute about the future of a 13-year-old girl's pregnancy dominated the headlines in November. The presidential election on October 30 resulted in a victory for one of the two openly anti-choice candidates, Mary McAleese, a lawyer from Northern Ireland. With a voter turnout of 47.6%, McAleese polled 45.2% of the votes cast. Although the president may refuse to sign bills which have been passed by parliament, McAleese has said that she will sign whatever bill is placed before her, even if it liberalizes abortion law in the republic. As for the case of the 13-year-old pregnant girl, she was taken into the care of Irish health authority officials once the case was reported to the police. However, the health board, as a state agency, is prevented by Irish law from helping anyone travel abroad for abortion. The girl was eventually given leave in a judgement by a High Court Judicial Review on November 28 to travel to England for an abortion.

  6. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  7. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  8. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  9. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  10. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  11. Fathers and abortion.

    PubMed

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-08-01

    I argue that it is possible for prospective mothers to wrong prospective fathers by bearing their child; and that lifting paternal liability for child support does not correct the wrong inflicted to fathers. It is therefore sometimes wrong for prospective mothers to bear a child, or so I argue here. I show that my argument for considering the legitimate interests of prospective fathers is not a unique exception to an obvious right to procreate. It is, rather, part of a growing consensus that procreation can be morally problematic and that generally talking of rights in this context might not be warranted. Finally, I argue that giving up a right to procreate does not imply nor suggest giving up on women's absolute right to abort, which I defend.

  12. [Umberto Eco and abortion].

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    The Cardinal of Milan and the linguist and writer Umberto Eco maintained a correspondence in the mid-1990s in connection with the Italian magazine ¿Liberal¿. One of the issues discussed was the conflict between belief in the value of human life and existing abortion legislation. Umberto Eco stated that he would do all in his power to dissuade a woman pregnant with his child from having an abortion, regardless of the personal cost to the parents, because the birth of a child is a miracle. He would not, however, feel capable of imposing his ethical position on anyone else. Terrible moments occur in which women have a right to make autonomous decisions concerning their bodies, their feelings, their futures. Those who disagree cite the right to life, a rather vague concept about which even atheists can be enthusiastic. The moment at which a new human being is formed has been brought to the center of Catholic theology, despite its uncertainty; the beginning of a new life may always need to be understood as a process whose end result is the newborn. Only the mother should decide at what moment the process may be interrupted. The cardinal¿s response distinguished between psychic and physical life, on the one hand, and life participating in the life of God on the other. The threshold is the moment of conception, reflecting a continuity of identity. The new being is worthy of respect. Any violation of the affection and care owed to the being can only be experienced as a profound suffering and painful laceration that may never heal. The response of Eco is unknown. PMID:12349541

  13. [Umberto Eco and abortion].

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    The Cardinal of Milan and the linguist and writer Umberto Eco maintained a correspondence in the mid-1990s in connection with the Italian magazine ¿Liberal¿. One of the issues discussed was the conflict between belief in the value of human life and existing abortion legislation. Umberto Eco stated that he would do all in his power to dissuade a woman pregnant with his child from having an abortion, regardless of the personal cost to the parents, because the birth of a child is a miracle. He would not, however, feel capable of imposing his ethical position on anyone else. Terrible moments occur in which women have a right to make autonomous decisions concerning their bodies, their feelings, their futures. Those who disagree cite the right to life, a rather vague concept about which even atheists can be enthusiastic. The moment at which a new human being is formed has been brought to the center of Catholic theology, despite its uncertainty; the beginning of a new life may always need to be understood as a process whose end result is the newborn. Only the mother should decide at what moment the process may be interrupted. The cardinal¿s response distinguished between psychic and physical life, on the one hand, and life participating in the life of God on the other. The threshold is the moment of conception, reflecting a continuity of identity. The new being is worthy of respect. Any violation of the affection and care owed to the being can only be experienced as a profound suffering and painful laceration that may never heal. The response of Eco is unknown.

  14. Psychological sequelae of induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Romans-Clarkson, S E

    1989-12-01

    This article reviews the scientific literature on the psychological sequelae of induced abortion. The methodology and results of studies carried out over the last twenty-two years are examined critically. The unanimous consensus is that abortion does not cause deleterious psychological effects. Women most likely to show subsequent problems are those who were pressured into the operation against their own wishes, either by relatives or because their pregnancy had medical or foetal contraindications. Legislation which restricts abortion causes problems for women with unwanted pregnancies and their doctors. It is also unjust, as it adversely most affects lower socio-economic class women.

  15. Abortion incidence in Cambodia, 2005 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Fetters, Tamara; Samandari, Ghazaleh

    2015-01-01

    Although Cambodia now permits elective abortion, scarcity of research on this topic means that information on abortion incidence is limited to regional estimates. This estimation model combines national survey data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) with national prospective data of abortion procedures from government health facilities, collected in 2005 and 2010, to calculate the national incidence of safe and unsafe abortion. According to DHS, the proportion of all induced abortions that took place in a health facility in the five years preceding each survey increased from almost 52% to 60%. Projecting from facility-based abortions to national estimates, the national abortion rate increased from 21 to 28 per 1000 women aged 15-44. The abortion ratio also increased from 19 to 28 per 100 live births. This research quantifies an increase in safely induced abortions in Cambodia and provides a deeper understanding of induced abortion trends in Cambodia.

  16. Launch Abort System Pathfinder Arrival

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Orion Launch Abort System, or LAS, pathfinder returned home to NASA Langley on Oct. 18 on its way to NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The hardware was built at Langley and was used in preparation f...

  17. Abortion: the antithesis of womanhood?

    PubMed

    Timpson, J

    1996-04-01

    The debate regarding the practice and role of abortion has been an enduring and problematic area of discourse within the nursing literature, with a tendency towards a polarized and inevitably simplistic analysis of what, for many practitioners, women and families, remains a highly complex and morally fraught concept. This paper attempts to explore the concept of abortion from within a feminist epistemology, to present a review of the literature as regards women's reproductive health and responsibilities, and thereby to contribute to the process of better understanding the role of abortion within contemporary health care practice. In order to facilitate the study it has been necessary to explore the wide spectrum of historical, philosophical, legal, moral and political imperatives pertaining to the meaning of abortion as represented within contemporary society, not only in relation to women and their reproductive health, but to feminism, women's well-being and self-determinism per se. PMID:8675897

  18. Abortion and the human animal.

    PubMed

    Tollefsen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    I discuss three topics. First, there is a philosophical connecting thread between several recent trends in the abortion discussion, namely, the issue of our animal nature, and physical embodiment. The philosophical name given to the position that you and I are essentially human animals is "animalism." In Section II of this paper, I argue that animalism provides a unifying theme to recent discussions of abortion. In Section III, I discuss what we do not find among recent trends in the abortion discussion, namely "the right to privacy." I suggest some reasons why the right to privacy is conspicuous by its absence. Finally, I address Patrick Lee's claim that the evil of abortion involves "the moral deterioration that the act brings to those who are complicit in it, and to the culture that fosters it."

  19. Investigation of abort procedures for space shuttle-type vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, R. W.; Eide, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation has been made of abort procedures for space shuttle-type vehicles using a point mass trajectory optimization program known as POST. This study determined the minimum time gap between immediate and once-around safe return to the launch site from a baseline due-East launch trajectory for an alternate space shuttle concept which experiences an instantaneous loss of 25 percent of the total main engine thrust.

  20. The Development of Instruments to Measure Attitudes toward Abortion and Knowledge of Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1976-01-01

    This study developed an abortion attitude scale and abortion knowledge inventory that may be utilized by health educators, counselors, and researchers for assessing attitudes toward abortion and knowledge about it. (SK)

  1. Participation of nurses in abortions.

    PubMed

    Neustatter, P L

    1980-11-29

    Doctors for a Woman's Choice on Abortion would agree with 1 point in Lord Denning's ruling on the role of nurses in abortions induced by (PGS) prostaglandins (November 15, p. 1091). The nurse should not be doing a doctor's job, as Lord Denning indicated, and we sympathize with any nurse who is doing so (though the 1967 Abortion Act allows any nurse to abstain, on grounds of conscience). However, the ruling that nurses are not legally covered to participate in any way with the "procuring of a miscarriage" (using terminology of the 1861 Offenses against the Persons Act upon which the ruling is based) does not require a radical change in the practice of late abortions (constituting only 7% of the terminations) or any change in the law. PG abortion can be done without a nurse. With the extraamniotic technique, a very cheap pump can be used to give subsequent doses of the PG (a function normally performed by a nurse) through the catheter left inserted through the cervix after the 1st dose has been given by the doctor. Alternatively, the intraamniotic method can be used, where PG is instilled into the amniotic sac via a needle passed through the abdominal wall. This normally requires only 1 dose, given by the doctor. Rarely are subsequent doses needed; however they could be given by the doctor with very little addition to his or her workload. While the fact that PG abortion can be done without nurses is not realized, late abortion will be restricted, a situation which is entirely deplorable. Also deplorable are the comments of an antiabortion nature made by Lord Denning, over and above the legal ruling in his jurisdiction to make. His ruling, furthermore, seems to have been sufficiently confused for the Department of Health to withdraw its circular on abortion and await an interpretation before issuing another. PMID:6107800

  2. [Induced abortion: pro and con].

    PubMed

    Balić, Adem; Balić, Devleta; Habibović, A; Adzajlić, A

    2003-01-01

    Induced abortion like a method of birth control is the most unpopular method but it is a choice of great deal women especially in our environment. In connection with very loud demands for sharpened the low of pregnancy interrupting, many authors analyse methods, complications and risk groups of women, its acceptability like a method of family planning. At the end they give conclusion with some concrete suggestions and the aim to reduce the number of induced abortions. PMID:14528715

  3. The PEP-II abort kicker system

    SciTech Connect

    Lamare, J de; Donaldson, A.; Kulikov, A. Lipari, J.

    1997-07-01

    The PEP-II project has two storage rings. The HER (High Energy Ring) has up to 1.48 A of electron beam at 9 GeV, and the LER (Low Energy Ring) has up to 2.14 A of positron beam at 3.1 GeV. To protect the HER and LER beam lines in the event of a ring component failure, each ring has an abort kicker system which directs the beam into a dump when a failure is detected. Due to the high current of the beams, the beam kick is tapered from 100% to 80% in 7.33 uS (the beam transit time around the time). This taper distributes the energy evenly across the window which separates the ring from the beam dump such that the window is not damaged. The abort kicker trigger is synchronized with the ion clearing gap of the beam allowing for the kicker field to rise from 0-80% in 370 nS. This report discusses the design of the system controls, interlocks, power supplies, and modulator.

  4. Genetics, amniocentesis, and abortion.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, K

    1984-01-01

    At this time a rather large number of congenital abnormalities still occur. About 2-3% of pregnancies will result in children with major congenital abnormalities that cannot be detected prenatally. Yet, with the availability of prenatal diagnosis for an ever increasing number of genetic problems and, more recently, for developmental problems as well, a new option was offered to couples at risk when they took the risk of pregnancy: finding out whether the fetus was abnormal. An early argument regarding the ethics of this option was formulated by Dan Callahan, director of the Hastings Institute for Ethics, Society and the Life Sciences, when he indicated the need to be careful about the term "option." A need exists to be careful about societal pressures in favor of the new medical options--on, for example, a pregnant woman who is over 35 and does not get a prenatal diagnosis; or on a woman carrying a Down's syndrome child identified by prenatal diagnosis not to have an abortion. This was the 1st specter raised when prenatal diagnosis was introduced. The most common indication for amniocentesis is the risk of chromosomal abnormalities. The risk of discovering a chromosomal abnormality by amniocentesis is about double the risk at birth because a number of chromosomally abnormal fetuses are lost late in the 2nd trimester by spontaneous abortion. The age cutoff at 35 raises an immediate ethical question: since the total number of births to women over age 35 seems to be increasing, and at the same time a greater and greater percentage of children with Down's syndrome are born to women under age 35, the question arises as to whether amniocentesis should be done on all pregnancies, and whether all births with Down's syndrome should be selectively aborted or avoided. Amniocentesis in all pregnancies is impractical at this time from the technological and the cost perspective, but the ethical question should be raised. Among the X-linked disorders, 1 group cannot be

  5. Safe abortion: a woman's right.

    PubMed

    Sangala, Vanessa

    2005-07-01

    Complications of induced abortion sadly remain significant causes of maternal mortality and morbidity around the world, but only in countries that do not provide access to safe abortion services. This article presents a brief account of how high maternal mortality from induced abortion became history in the UK and the dire consequences to women's health that unsafe abortion still has in many countries of the world. It gives a brief overview of the methods available to evacuate the uterus, with particular reference to manual vacuum aspiration. The status of the law in different countries is discussed, together with the need for health professionals to interpret repressive laws in ways that enables them to care for women who seek their help. Safe abortion services are cost effective, essential services for women. Men are part and parcel of the reason women resort to terminating a pregnancy, and, together with the countless children whose lives are dependent on a healthy caring mother, are also beneficiaries of safe abortion services. There can be no excuse for continuing to deny these services to so many women around the world.

  6. Abortion and infertility in Russia.

    PubMed

    Kulakov, V I

    1995-03-01

    The exceptionally high rate of induced abortion in Russia (204/100 live births in 1991) and of abortion-related genital tract infection and infertility implies an urgent need for both the prevention of unwanted pregnancy and less invasive abortion techniques. Vacuum aspiration is gradually replacing curettage as the abortion method of choice for first-trimester abortions, and research is being conducted on pharmacologic abortion involving prostaglandins in combination with RU-486. Infertility, which affects 10-15% of married Russian couples, accounts for 50% of visits to the largest gynecologic hospitals. 92% of women and 49% of men in couples with impaired fertility exhibit pathology of the reproductive system, primarily prior inflammatory morbidity of the genitalia. The use of surgery to correct these impairments is largely unsuccessful, especially when there has been prior treatment with the hydroturbation method. The Federal Family Planning Program for 1993-97 reflects increased awareness of the problem; among its goals are the creation of state and social structures for a family planning service, mass media campaigns, the preparation of educational materials on the avoidance of unwanted pregnancy, and staff training in sex education and family planning.

  7. Abortion and neonaticide: ethics, practice, and policy in four nations.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael L

    2002-06-01

    Abortion, particularly later-term abortion, and neonaticide, selective non-treatment of newborns, are feasible management strategies for fetuses or newborns diagnosed with severe abnormalities. However, policy varies considerably among developed nations. This article examines abortion and neonatal policy in four nations: Israel, the US, the UK and Denmark. In Israel, late-term abortion is permitted while non-treatment of newborns is prohibited. In the US, on the other hand, later-term abortion is severely restricted, while treatment to newborns may be withdrawn. Policy in the UK and Denmark bridges some of these gaps with liberal abortion and neonatal policy. Disparate policy within and between nations creates practical and ethical difficulties. Practice diverges from policy as many practitioners find it difficult to adhere to official policy. Ethically, it is difficult to entirely justify perinatal policy in these nations. In each nation, there are elements of ethically sound policy, while other aspects cannot be defended. Ethical policy hinges on two underlying normative issues: the question of fetal/newborn status and the morality of killing and letting die. While each issue has been the subject of extensive debate, there are firm ethical norms that should serve as the basis for coherent and consistent perinatal policy. These include 1) a grant of full moral and legal status to the newborn but only partial moral and legal status to the late-term fetus 2) a general prohibition against feticide unless to save the life of the mother or prevent the birth of a fetus facing certain death or severe pain or suffering and 3) a general endorsement of neonaticide subject to a parent's assessment of the newborn's interest broadly defined to consider physical harm as well as social, psychological and or financial harm to related third parties. Policies in each of the nations surveyed diverging from these norms should be the subject of public discourse and, where possible

  8. Crew Exploration Vehicle Ascent Abort Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B., Jr.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Proud, Ryan W.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Kenyon, Paul R.; Burt, Richard; McFarland, Mike

    2007-01-01

    One of the primary design drivers for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is to ensure crew safety. Aborts during the critical ascent flight phase require the design and operation of CEV systems to escape from the Crew Launch Vehicle and return the crew safely to the Earth. To accomplish this requirement of continuous abort coverage, CEV ascent abort modes are being designed and analyzed to accommodate the velocity, altitude, atmospheric, and vehicle configuration changes that occur during ascent. The analysis involves an evaluation of the feasibility and survivability of each abort mode and an assessment of the abort mode coverage. These studies and design trades are being conducted so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle abort requirements, design, and operation. This paper presents an overview of the CEV, driving requirements for abort scenarios, and an overview of current ascent abort modes. Example analysis results are then discussed. Finally, future areas for abort analysis are addressed.

  9. Abortion restrictions may undermine welfare reform.

    PubMed

    1999-02-01

    Results from a study conducted by Pennsylvania State University's Population Research Institute indicate that more restrictive abortion laws in the US may have led to an increase in the number of single mothers, even given new welfare reform laws which make unmarried childbearing more costly. Study findings are based upon county rates of female-headed families from the 1980 and 1990 censuses, excluding those in Alaska and Hawaii. By making unmarried childbearing more costly, welfare reform has sparked a demand for abortion, while at the same time abortion laws have restricted access to abortion. An increasing number of unmarried women on welfare have therefore chosen childbearing over abortion. The study found a decline in the number of abortions in counties where abortion laws had become more strict. That states can now require abortion providers to notify the parents of minors who have abortions, to restrict Medicaid funding for abortions, and to establish 24-hour waiting periods has made abortion either a difficult or impossible option for some women. These restrictive abortion laws and geographic barriers to abortion have discouraged women from undergoing the procedure, increasing the number of female-headed families and single mothers. The public policy goal of reducing unmarried childbearing and female-headed families is being undermined by the growing geographic and legal barriers designed to discourage abortion. PMID:12348920

  10. Repeat abortions in New York City, 2010.

    PubMed

    Toprani, Amita; Cadwell, Betsy L; Li, Wenhui; Sackoff, Judith; Greene, Carolyn; Begier, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to describe factors associated with the number of past abortions obtained by New York City (NYC) abortion patients in 2010. We calculated rates of first and repeat abortion by age, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood-level poverty and the mean number of self-reported past abortions by age, race/ethnicity, neighborhood-level poverty, number of living children, education, payment method, marital status, and nativity. We used negative binomial regression to predict number of past abortions by patient characteristics. Of the 76,614 abortions reported for NYC residents in 2010, 57% were repeat abortions. Repeat abortions comprised >50% of total abortions among the majority of sociodemographic groups we examined. Overall, mean number of past abortions was 1.3. Mean number of past abortions was higher for women aged 30-34 years (1.77), women with ≥5 children (2.50), and black non-Hispanic women (1.52). After multivariable regression, age, race/ethnicity, and number of children were the strongest predictors of number of past abortions. This analysis demonstrates that, although socioeconomic disparities exist, all abortion patients are at high risk for repeat unintended pregnancy and abortion. PMID:25779755

  11. Europe's abortion wars: womb for debate.

    PubMed

    Blinken, A J

    1991-01-01

    As Europe edges toward some sort of unity, the volatile abortion debate has begun to spill across national boundaries. Reflecting the continent's religious and cultural diversity, abortion laws throughout Europe vary widely. Holland and Sweden have the most liberal abortion laws. The former allows abortion on demand, while the later permits abortion until the 18th week -- and possibly up until term, if the National Health Bureau gives permission. Britain, France, and Belgium have also adopted liberal abortion laws. Other nations, however, have more conservative laws. Since 1983, Ireland has banned abortion entirely. Spain allows abortion only in cases of rape, malformed fetuses, or when the mother's life is in danger. Many countries are also experiencing bitter debates over abortion. Czechoslovakia's liberal abortion law has come under increasing pressure, and in Poland, bishops and legislators have feuded over the legality of abortion. The move towards unification has only intensified these debates. Germany is currently without a national abortion law, as the former East Germany still enjoys a more liberal abortion law than West Germany. Differences over abortion laws have led to what is know in Europe as abortion shipping. Every year, an estimated 15,000 Irish women travel to England, some 7,000 German women go to Holland, and some 3,000 French women travel to England -- all seeking to take advantage of another country's abortion law. Some Europeans have begun to look for continent-wide laws on abortion. Recently, an Irish group argued against its country's law before the European court of Justice. Right-to-life groups have also fought to establish continent-wide restrictions. So far, it seems unlikely that Europe will reach an agreement on the issue of abortion.

  12. Contemporary issues for spontaneous abortion. Does recurrent abortion exist?

    PubMed

    Reindollar, R H

    2000-09-01

    Most of the time, spontaneous abortion is a random event and represents the natural selection process. Although a recurrent factor may be present and may cause one or more abortions for a given couple, such instances are rare. Well-substantiated causes include parental chromosomal abnormalities (e.g., translocation), antiphospholipid syndrome, PCOD, and maternal age greater than 40 years. Müllerian duplication defects are most likely a cause of pregnancy loss for some women. A growing body of evidence refutes the role of corpus luteum defect as a common cause of recurrent abortion. Other causes are numerically infrequent in occurrence. It is likely that cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption contribute to pregnancy wastage. Although some therapies for the causes listed herein have been proven effective by randomized controlled trials, most have not. Given the excellent outcome demonstrated for most couples with unexplained recurrent abortion in the absence of treatment, it is difficult to recommend unproven therapies, especially if they are invasive and expensive. Instead of examining the environment in which pregnancy has occurred or been planned, clinicians have simply counted the number of spontaneous abortions among couples in an attempt to determine who should be evaluated. The former approach would seem most appropriate and proactive.

  13. Abortion epidemic in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Viel, B

    1983-05-01

    Recent surveys have shown that 3.4 million illegal abortions may be taking place in the Latin American countries every year, with a rate of around 45/1000 women of childbearing age. Yet only in Cuba can women have abortion on demand. In the other countries the penalty for the abortionist and the client is a prison sentence. The only way of measuring the frequency of abortion is through the numbers of women entering hospitals for treatment of postabortion complication, but not all countries publish hospitals statistics that are reliable. Surveys in Chile and Colombia for 1974 show a rate of 11.7-17.9/1000 women of fertile age undergoing illegal abortions, with only 1/3 resulting in complications. The law is not strictly enforced in these countries because the number of people that will have to be prosecuted is too large and because there is no place to care for the young children of women who will be prosecuted. Yet the abortion death rate (38% of total maternal deaths) is so high that a new policy must be drawn up, especially since women who have normal deliveries are sent home earlier to make room for those with abortion complications, resulting in a high infant mortality rate. In addition the rate of pregnancies among adolescents is very high due to the permissive social atmosphere combined with a lack of sex education in the schools. Studies that would allow international comparisons to show ways to prevent the consequences of illegal abortions are needed.

  14. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    PubMed

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited. PMID:6913282

  15. [Induced abortion in China: problems and interventions].

    PubMed

    Wu, Shang-chun; Qiu, Hong-yan

    2010-10-01

    Pooled literatures showed that the induced abortion in China faces many problems:the number of induced abortion remains large; most cases are young and nulliparity women; the frequency of abortion is high; and the interval between one and another abortion is short. Health promotion strategies should be applied to address these problems. It is important to increase the population's awareness of contraception,especially among nulliparity and migrant populations. Routine and effective contraceptive methods should be recommended and emphasized during induced abortion and delivery to lower the rate of induced abortion.

  16. Trends in Inequalities in Induced Abortion According to Educational Level among Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    García-Subirats, Irene; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Díez, Elia; Borrell, Carme

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe trends in inequalities by women’s socioeconomic position and age in induced abortion in Barcelona (Spain) over 1992–1996 and 2000–2004. Induced abortions occurring in residents in Barcelona aged 20 and 44 years in the study period are included. Variables are age, educational level, and time periods. Induced abortion rates per 1,000 women and absolute differences for educational level, age, and time period are calculated. Poisson regression models are fitted to obtain the relative risk (RR) for trends. Induced abortion rates increased from 10.1 to 14.6 per 1,000 women aged 20–44 (RR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41–1.47) between 1992–1996 and 2000–2004. The abortion rate was highest among women aged 20–24 and 25–34 and changed little among women aged 35–44. Among women aged 20–24 and 25–34, those with a primary education or less had higher rates of induced abortion in the second period. Induced abortion rates also grew in those women with secondary education. In the 35–44 age group, the induced abortion rate declined among women with a secondary education (RR = 0.66; 95% CI 0.60–0.73) and slightly among those with a greater level of education. Induced abortion is rising most among women in poor socioeconomic positions. This study reveals deep inequalities in induced abortion in Barcelona, Spain. The trends identified in this study suggest that policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancies are failing in Spain. Our study fills an important gap in literature on recent trends in Southern Europe. PMID:20229107

  17. Trends in inequalities in induced abortion according to educational level among urban women.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Gloria; García-Subirats, Irene; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Díez, Elia; Borrell, Carme

    2010-05-01

    This study aims to describe trends in inequalities by women's socioeconomic position and age in induced abortion in Barcelona (Spain) over 1992-1996 and 2000-2004. Induced abortions occurring in residents in Barcelona aged 20 and 44 years in the study period are included. Variables are age, educational level, and time periods. Induced abortion rates per 1,000 women and absolute differences for educational level, age, and time period are calculated. Poisson regression models are fitted to obtain the relative risk (RR) for trends. Induced abortion rates increased from 10.1 to 14.6 per 1,000 women aged 20-44 (RR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41-1.47) between 1992-1996 and 2000-2004. The abortion rate was highest among women aged 20-24 and 25-34 and changed little among women aged 35-44. Among women aged 20-24 and 25-34, those with a primary education or less had higher rates of induced abortion in the second period. Induced abortion rates also grew in those women with secondary education. In the 35-44 age group, the induced abortion rate declined among women with a secondary education (RR = 0.66; 95% CI 0.60-0.73) and slightly among those with a greater level of education. Induced abortion is rising most among women in poor socioeconomic positions. This study reveals deep inequalities in induced abortion in Barcelona, Spain. The trends identified in this study suggest that policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancies are failing in Spain. Our study fills an important gap in literature on recent trends in Southern Europe.

  18. Abortion applicants in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Henker, F O

    1973-03-01

    The article reports upon the characteristics of 300 abortion applicants in Arkansas manifesting significant stress from unwanted pregnancy between May 1, 1970 and June 30, 1971. The sample is limited by the fact that all of these women had been willing to seek medical aid. Patients ranged from ages 13-47, 131 of them ages 17-21. 35% had had some college education; another 29% were high school graduates. 50.6%, 20.6%, and 27.3% were single, divorced, and married, respectively. 59.6% of the patients were primiparas. 18.3%, 9.6%, and 12.3% were classified as being neurotic, having psychophysiologic tendencies (gastrointestinal problems, obesity, chronic headaches), and having sociopathic features (passive-aggressive, frankly rebellious, delinquent, antisocial, alcoholic), respectively. 12 women had noticeable schizoid features; 4 women had mildly active schizophrenia. Fathers of the women were usually blue-collar workers (55.3%) or white-collar workers (24.6%). The most frequent ordinal sibling position among the women was oldest child (38%). Parental instability (1 or both parents lost through death, divorce, father usually away working, chronic alcoholism, etc.) was reported by 39.6% of the patients. Patients' attitudes toward the unwanted pregnancy included dislike of inexpediency of the situation (82.6%), self-depreciation (55.6%), and aversion (28.6%). Precipitated psychiatric disorders were for the greatest part mild. Manifesting symptoms included depression (66.7%), anxiety (21%), and mixed anxiety and depression (12.2%). Suicidal threats and gestures were made by 22 and 8 patients, respectively. In summary, the study reveals a group of predominantly Caucasian women from unstable, middle-class urban families who were going through an adjustment reaction to adolescence or adult life.

  19. Abortion and the law: the Supreme Court, privacy, and abortion.

    PubMed

    Marsh, F H

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the impact of the continuing politicization of the abortion issue in the US on the rights of women and on the emerging concept of fetal rights. The introduction 1) attributes the "final and total politicization" of a woman's right to control her reproduction to the "undue burden" standard introduced by the Supreme Court in its 1992 Casey decision and 2) claims that, if unchecked, the concept of fetal rights may give the state's interest in protecting potential life supremacy over women's rights. The next section presents an in-depth discussion of the politicization of the right to abortion that covers such topics as how the courts before Casey became the forum for debating abortion policy, how the "undue burden" standard fails to set definite parameters of acceptable state behavior, how the Casey decision in effect abandons the trimester-based framework of reference provided in Roe vs. Wade, how Casey allows states to subtly coerce women seeking abortions, how the Casey decision failed to reduce the intense politicization of abortion, and how the court failed to protect individual rights to health care and abortion funding from states. Part 3 of the article begins its exploration of the concept of "fetal rights" with a sketch of the history of this concept in the US courts starting in 1884 when damages for miscarriage were denied. Ways in which fetal rights compete with the rights of a pregnant woman are described, the Supreme Court is blamed for allowing states to develop this concept, and issues of patient confidentiality versus reporting requirements are considered. It is concluded that the Supreme Court will have to act to limit fetal rights.

  20. Use of Heated Helium to Simulate Surface Pressure Fluctuations on the Launch Abort Vehicle During Abort Motor Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta; James, George H.; Burnside, Nathan J.; Fong, Robert; Fogt, Vincent A.

    2011-01-01

    The solid-rocket plumes from the Abort motor of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV, also know as Orion) were simulated using hot, high pressure, Helium gas to determine the surface pressure fluctuations on the vehicle in the event of an abort. About 80 different abort situations over a wide Mach number range, (0.3< or =M< or =1.2) and vehicle attitudes (+/-15deg) were simulated inside the NASA Ames Unitary Plan, 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel. For each abort case, typically two different Helium plume and wind tunnel conditions were used to bracket different flow matching critera. This unique, yet cost-effective test used a custom-built hot Helium delivery system, and a 6% scale model of a part of the MPCV, known as the Launch Abort Vehicle. The test confirmed the very high level of pressure fluctuations on the surface of the vehicle expected during an abort. In general, the fluctuations were found to be dominated by the very near-field hydrodynamic fluctuations present in the plume shear-layer. The plumes were found to grow in size for aborts occurring at higher flight Mach number and altitude conditions. This led to an increase in the extent of impingement on the vehicle surfaces; however, unlike some initial expectations, the general trend was a decrease in the level of pressure fluctuations with increasing impingement. In general, the highest levels of fluctuations were found when the outer edges of the plume shear layers grazed the vehicle surface. At non-zero vehicle attitudes the surface pressure distributions were found to become very asymmetric. The data from these wind-tunnel simulations were compared against data collected from the recent Pad Abort 1 flight test. In spite of various differences between the transient flight situation and the steady-state wind tunnel simulations, the hot-Helium data were found to replicate the PA1 data fairly reasonably. The data gathered from this one-of-a-kind wind-tunnel test fills a gap in the manned-space programs

  1. Microfluidic application-specific integrated device for monitoring direct cell-cell communication via gap junctions between individual cell pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Philip J.; Hung, Paul J.; Shaw, Robin; Jan, Lily; Lee, Luke P.

    2005-05-01

    Direct cell-cell communication between adjacent cells is vital for the development and regulation of functional tissues. However, current biological techniques are difficult to scale up for high-throughput screening of cell-cell communication in an array format. In order to provide an effective biophysical tool for the analysis of molecular mechanisms of gap junctions that underlie intercellular communication, we have developed a microfluidic device for selective trapping of cell-pairs and simultaneous optical characterizations. Two different cell populations can be brought into membrane contact using an array of trapping channels with a 2μm by 2μm cross section. Device operation was verified by observation of dye transfer between mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) placed in membrane contact. Integration with lab-on-a-chip technologies offers promising applications for cell-based analytical tools such as drug screening, clinical diagnostics, and soft-state biophysical devices for the study of gap junction protein channels in cellular communications. Understanding electrical transport mechanisms via gap junctions in soft membranes will impact quantitative biomedical sciences as well as clinical applications.

  2. The Road to Pad Abort 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces, N.M., engineers and technicians are preparing for the Pad Abort 1 flight test. The Launch Abort System is a sophisticated new rocket tower designed t...

  3. Abortion: the right to an argument.

    PubMed

    Meilaender, G

    1989-01-01

    Our moral puzzles about abortion will not be resolved by resort to compromise positions and adoption of middle ground, for abortion concerns how we understand ourselves as a people and how we define membership in this community. PMID:2606652

  4. [Induced abortion: a comparison between married and single women residing in the city of São Paulo in 2008].

    PubMed

    de Souza e Silva, Rebeca; Andreoni, Solange

    2012-07-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate the association between having had an induced abortion and marital status (being single or legally married) in women residing in the city of São Paulo. This analysis is derived from a broader population survey on abortion conducted in 2008. In this study we focus on the subset of 389 single and legally married women between 15 and 49 years of age. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between induced abortion and being single or married, monitoring age, education, income, number of live births, contraceptive use and acceptance of the practice of abortion. Being single was the only characteristic associated with having had an induced abortion, in other words, when faced with a pregnancy single women were four times more likely to have an abortion than married women (OR=3.9; p=0.009).

  5. Roe v. Wade. On abortion.

    PubMed

    French, M

    1998-01-01

    In ancient Assyria, fathers held the right of life or death over their newborn infants, but women found to have performed an abortion on themselves or others were impaled and denied burial. This punishment was otherwise reserved for crimes against the state such as high treason or assault on the king. Likewise, in Babylon if a wife arranged her husband's death so that she could marry another man, she was convicted of treason and impaled or crucified. Thus, ancient thought paralleled the husband-wife relationship with that of the state-subject. The small group of men who generally dominate institutions such as the state, the church, or a corporation have a primary demand for obedience and deference to their supreme authority from their underlings. These groups did not condemn abortion because it involved questions of life or death. After all, many states have permitted infanticide, many still sanction execution, and all are willing to sacrifice the lives of their soldiers in war. Patriarchs condemn abortion because they consider it treasonous for a woman to assert the right to use her own judgement and to treat her body as if it were her own and not the property of her husband. This denies the supremacy of the male, which is the first principle of patriarchs. Because patriarchal institutions depend upon the subjection of women, women's bodies become important markers in the struggle for human freedom. This explains why patriarchal institutions in the US have continuously attacked women's right to abortion by fragmenting the statute allowing abortion and attempting to render the fragments illegal. While US women have won other rights that can be protected legally, women require the right to abortion in order to possess the right to physical integrity and to be able to undo what men have done to them. Otherwise, men would be able to create a set-back in women's human rights by forcing women into motherhood.

  6. SUICIDE, PSYCHIATRISTS AND THERAPEUTIC ABORTION.

    PubMed

    ROSENBERG, A J; SILVER, E

    1965-06-01

    Pressures for interruption of pregnancy by therapeutic abortion constantly increase, both for liberalization of laws and for interpreting existing law more broadly. There are wide variations and inconsistencies in psychiatric attitudes and practices about therapeutic abortion. Follow-up patient data are scant, but necessary. Results of questionnaires indicate that such data can be obtained, and convey the impression that patients seem to manage after pregnancy, regardless of outcome, much as they had before pregnancy. This study indicates that the incidence of suicide in pregnant women is approximately one-sixth that of the rate for non-pregnant women in comparable age groups, implying that perhaps pregnancy has a psychically protective role.

  7. Improving abortion care in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Bradley, J; Sikazwe, N; Healy, J

    1991-01-01

    In this commentary, the impact of the introduction of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) for incomplete abortion patients and for early uterine evacuation is discussed for the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. This 3-year training and service delivery program was begun in 1988 after it was clear that 15% of maternal deaths were due to illegally induced abortion. The prior procedure of dilation and curettage (D and C) required use of the main operating room and general anesthesia, which resulted in severe congestion and treatment delays. As a result of the new MVA procedure, congestion has decreased substantially, treatment is safer and more timely, and the staff's ability to provide abortions has increased. Family planning counseling is provided to postabortion patients in a more thorough fashion, and the savings in time has improved the quality of patient-staff interactions. Specifically, the patient flow has improved from a 12-hour wait to a 4-6 hour wait and rarely requires overnight hospitalization. The demand for the main operating room had decreased which frees space, time, and commodities for other gynecological treatment. The shorter procedure and release time means a minimal loss of earnings and productivity, and allows for greater privacy in explaining absences to families, schools, or employers. The improved quality of are is reflected in the figures for number treated, i.e., in 1989, 74% were treated with MVA for incomplete abortion 12 weeks and pregnancy termination 8 weeks compared with 26% treated with D and C. In 1990, the figures were 86% with MVA and 14% with D and C. The likelihood of complications from hemorrhage and sepsis have also been reduced. The MVA procedure is also less traumatic for the patient. The increased access to safe legal abortion services is reflected in the ratio of induced to incomplete abortions between 1988-1990 (1:25 to 1:5). Family planning counseling is provided by a full-time counselor who counsels preabortion

  8. Combatting the "partial-birth abortion" myth.

    PubMed

    1998-11-01

    Despite the efforts of pro-choice activists in the US to point out the critical differences between so-called "partial-birth abortions" and late-term abortions, the public remains confused about the issue. Proposed federal legislation banning "partial-birth abortions" excludes any language defining late-term abortions (time period or fetal viability). Thus, such a ban would apply to any abortion at any stage of pregnancy. Only the states of Kansas and Utah have passed legislation that limit the ban to late-term abortions. The term "partial-birth abortion" also has no independent meaning: it is not a medical term nor does it refer to a medical procedure. The correct term, "intact dilation and extraction," is never mentioned in most proposed legislation, much of which is written in broad enough language to outlaw all abortions. Most states that passed bans on "partial-birth abortions," in fact, had previously banned late-term abortions. In Georgia, a court order revised a "partial-birth abortion" law by limiting it to post-viability dilation and extraction and insisting on exceptions to protect the pregnant women's life and health. The courts have severely limited or enjoined "partial-birth abortion" legislation in 19 of the 20 states where challenges were mounted. Because an educated public overwhelmingly rejects the bans, reproductive rights activists are attempting to educate the public despite the inability or unwillingness of the media to make the crucial distinction. PMID:12294330

  9. Combatting the "partial-birth abortion" myth.

    PubMed

    1998-11-01

    Despite the efforts of pro-choice activists in the US to point out the critical differences between so-called "partial-birth abortions" and late-term abortions, the public remains confused about the issue. Proposed federal legislation banning "partial-birth abortions" excludes any language defining late-term abortions (time period or fetal viability). Thus, such a ban would apply to any abortion at any stage of pregnancy. Only the states of Kansas and Utah have passed legislation that limit the ban to late-term abortions. The term "partial-birth abortion" also has no independent meaning: it is not a medical term nor does it refer to a medical procedure. The correct term, "intact dilation and extraction," is never mentioned in most proposed legislation, much of which is written in broad enough language to outlaw all abortions. Most states that passed bans on "partial-birth abortions," in fact, had previously banned late-term abortions. In Georgia, a court order revised a "partial-birth abortion" law by limiting it to post-viability dilation and extraction and insisting on exceptions to protect the pregnant women's life and health. The courts have severely limited or enjoined "partial-birth abortion" legislation in 19 of the 20 states where challenges were mounted. Because an educated public overwhelmingly rejects the bans, reproductive rights activists are attempting to educate the public despite the inability or unwillingness of the media to make the crucial distinction.

  10. Abortion, Moral Maturity and Civic Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Maggie Jones; Hall, Megan Williams

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to rhetoric, moral reasonings scholarship, and journalism scholarship by examining public rhetoric on abortion and American popular media coverage (1940s to 1990s). Finds that the feminine means of moral reasoning has emerged into the foreground of discourse on abortion. Compares emergence of a common-ground rhetoric on abortion with a…

  11. [[Prevalence of induced abortion in Korea

    PubMed

    Lim, J; Lee, S; Bae, H

    1989-07-01

    The authors analyze recent trends in the prevalence of induced abortions in South Korea. They attempt to determine motivations for abortion, examine its side effects, and investigate the impact of induced abortions on infertility. The focus is on creating recommendations for population policy and maternal and child health care. Data are from the 1988 Korean National Fertility and Family Health Survey. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  12. Abortion in Adolescence: The Ethical Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silber, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    This essay, addressed to medical personnel and counselors, presents a bioethical approach to adolescent abortion. Topics include an overview of abortion in the U.S., related medical issues, data pertinent to adolescent abortions, ethical theory, adolescent moral development, and moral aspects of treatment of adolescents. (Author/DB)

  13. Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

  14. Orientation toward Abortion: Guilt or Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allgeier, A.R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Students (N=118) were classified as pro-choice, anti-abortion, or mixed on the basis of their responses to 10 fictitious case histories of women who requested abortion. Attitudinal differences are discussed in the context of the public controversy over abortion. (Author/CM)

  15. Abortion: a legal and public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Kunins, H; Rosenfield, A

    1991-01-01

    Abortion is an issue of great public concern and debate. The majority of US citizens support a woman's right to choose, but it has not always been that way. Abortion was made legal in 1973 but women have been abortions for hundreds of years before that. The history of abortion is therefore a history of women breaking the law and subjecting themselves to great physical and social risk. Abortion law in the US has been changed mostly by the Supreme Court. After Roe v Wade (1973) there were many other cases brought before the Court involving federal and state funding of abortion, father's rights, parental consent for minors, and many other finer points of law and policy regarding abortion. Abortion is commonly practiced in many developing countries including the ones where it is illegal. The data collected from these countries gives researchers here a great deal of information on the clinical and sociological aspects of abortion. Medical technology has broadened the scope of abortion by introducing medication to induce abortion such as RU486. Abortion is no longer an exclusively surgical procedure. Since it can performed now with a pill it will be almost impossible to regulate it as strictly as before.

  16. Sociology and abortion: legacies and strategies.

    PubMed

    Imber, J B

    1979-11-01

    A survey essay sees the sociological view of abortion practice in 1979 appearing as a dense web of philosophical conundrums and at times violent political strategies; with abortion still not typically seen as 1 form of birth control among others. Attention is called to the variety of approaches to abortion in books and articles about its medical, demographic, religious, historical, political, philosophical, psychological, practical, and personal aspects. These include: James C. Mohr's Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy 1800-1900; Abortion, by Potts, Diggory, and Peel; Abortion in Psychosocial Perspective: Trends in Transnational Research, edited by Davis, Friedman, Van der Tak, and Seville; Linda Francke's The Ambivalence of Abortion; Mary K. Zimmerman's Passage Through Abortion: The Personal and Social Reality of Women's Experiences; Abortion Politics: The Hawaii Experience, by Steinhoff and Diamond; John Connery's Abortion: the Development of the Roman Catholic Perspective; Abortion: New Directions for Policy Studies, by Manier, Liu, and Solomon; and Harry Harris' Prenatal Diagnosis and Selective Abortion.

  17. The determination of minority carrier lifetimes in direct band-gap semiconductors by monitoring intensity-modulated luminescence radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Roos, O.

    1985-01-01

    When an extrinsic, direct band-gap semiconductor sample is irradiated by photons of an energy higher than the energy of the band gap between valence and conduction bands, excess electron-hole pairs are generated which, while diffusing through the sample, produce luminescence via radiative recombination. If, furthermore, the intensity of the impinging beam of photons is modulated sinusoidally, the luminescence radiation escaping from the sample will be phase shifted with respect to the original photon beam in a characteristic way. It will be shown that by measuring the phase shift at different modulation frequencies, the Shockley-Read-Hall lifetime of minority carriers may be ascertained. The method is nondestructive inasmuch as there is no need to fabricate p-n junctions or Ohmic contacts, nor is it necessary to remove already existing Ohmic contacts of angle lap the surface, etc., procedures often needed when determining lifetimes with the scanning electron microscope (in which case a p-n junction must be present).

  18. Access to safe abortion: building choices for women living with HIV and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In many areas of the world where HIV prevalence is high, rates of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion have also been shown to be high. Of all pregnancies worldwide in 2008, 41% were reported as unintended or unplanned, and approximately 50% of these ended in abortion. Of the estimated 21.6 million unsafe abortions occurring worldwide in 2008 (around one in 10 pregnancies), approximately 21.2 million occurred in developing countries, often due to restrictive abortion laws and leading to an estimated 47,000 maternal deaths and untold numbers of women who will suffer long-term health consequences. Despite this context, little research has focused on decisions about and experiences of women living with HIV with regard to terminating a pregnancy, although this should form part of comprehensive promotion of sexual and reproductive health rights. In this paper, we explore the existing evidence related to global and country-specific barriers to safe abortion for all women, with an emphasis on research gaps around the right of women living with HIV to choose safe abortion services as an option for dealing with unwanted pregnancies. The main focus is on the situation for women living with HIV in Brazil, Namibia and South Africa as examples of three countries with different conditions regarding women's access to safe legal abortions: a very restrictive setting, a setting with several indications for legal abortion but non-implementation of the law, and a rather liberal setting. Similarities and differences are discussed, and we further outline global and country-specific barriers to safe abortion for all women, ending with recommendations for policy makers and researchers. PMID:22078463

  19. A request for an abortion.

    PubMed

    Walker, A; Marsden, S; Rubin, P

    1990-12-01

    How to manage to abortion request by a hypothetical 30-year old married woman who states the she fears a deformed child because of taking an antibiotic combination, cotrimoxazole, containing trimethoprim is discussed by 3 physicians. The 1st doctor would confirm pregnancy with an exam and a laboratory test, schedule another consultation for counseling, and schedule a pelvic ultrasound if she decides to carry the pregnancy. If she wants an abortion, the physician would counsel her at length about her marriage and the emotional consequences of abortion. The 2nd physician would advise her that fetal abnormality from trimethoprim has not been reported in women. Since this doctor is personally opposed to abortion, she would refer the patient to another doctor to make the arrangements, and counsel her again afterward. The 3rd physician added the advice that 1-2% of all U.K. births are abnormal in some way. He would take steps to establish the precise gestational date, recommend an ultrasound scan at 18 weeks to cover himself legally and suggest that the patient's husband join in the counseling session to help bring out feelings about the marriage and the pregnancy.

  20. Abortion, infanticide and moral context.

    PubMed

    Porter, Lindsey

    2013-05-01

    In 'After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?', Giubilini and Minerva argue that infanticide should be permitted for the same reasons as abortion. In particular, they argue that infanticide should be permitted even for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be best interests) of the newborn. They claim that abortion is permissible for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be interests) of the fetus because fetuses lack a right to life. They argue that newborns also lack a right to life, and they conclude that therefore, the same reasons that justify abortion can justify infanticide. This conclusion does not follow. The lack of a right to life is not decisive. Furthermore, the justificatory power of a given reason is a function of moral context. Generalisations about reasons across dissimilar moral contexts are invalid. However, a similar conclusion does follow-that fetus-killing and newborn-killing are morally identical in identical moral contexts-but this conclusion is trivial, since fetuses and newborns are never in identical moral contexts.

  1. Abortion, infanticide and moral context.

    PubMed

    Porter, Lindsey

    2013-05-01

    In 'After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?', Giubilini and Minerva argue that infanticide should be permitted for the same reasons as abortion. In particular, they argue that infanticide should be permitted even for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be best interests) of the newborn. They claim that abortion is permissible for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be interests) of the fetus because fetuses lack a right to life. They argue that newborns also lack a right to life, and they conclude that therefore, the same reasons that justify abortion can justify infanticide. This conclusion does not follow. The lack of a right to life is not decisive. Furthermore, the justificatory power of a given reason is a function of moral context. Generalisations about reasons across dissimilar moral contexts are invalid. However, a similar conclusion does follow-that fetus-killing and newborn-killing are morally identical in identical moral contexts-but this conclusion is trivial, since fetuses and newborns are never in identical moral contexts. PMID:23637451

  2. Mifepristone and first trimester abortion.

    PubMed

    Murray, S; Muse, K

    1996-06-01

    The development of safe, effective, nonsurgical methods of pregnancy termination has the potential to avert significant maternal mortality and morbidity, especially in developing countries. RU-486 blocks the action of progesterone and cortisol, leading to structural changes in the endothelium of decidual capillaries, decidual necrosis, and subsequent detachment of the products of conception. When RU-486 is administered in conjunction with a low dose of a prostaglandin such as misoprostol, the abortion rate is comparable to that for vacuum aspiration (e.g., 94-96%). This regimen is contraindicated, however, in women aged 35 years and older, smokers, and those with medical problems such as diabetes, hypertension, clotting disorders, or anemia. In countries with strict abortion laws, RU-486 has been used to induce menstrual bleeding in women whose periods are delayed up to 10 days. An obstacle to more widespread acceptance of RU-486 has been its medicalization through national guidelines that stipulate waiting periods or require multiple visits to an approved abortion clinic. Women are likely to prefer RU-486 over surgical abortion because it allows the patient more control over her pregnancy termination and is less invasive. As political controversy continues to delay RU-486's introduction to the US and most developing countries, there are concerns that the drug will become a black market commodity used for self-induction.

  3. RU-486: the "abortion pill".

    PubMed

    Herranz, G

    1991-05-23

    A report sent by the Vatican to bishops' conferences throughout the world calls RU-486, the so-called abortion pill currently available in France, "a new, serious threat to human life." The report was developed at the Vatican's request by Gonzalo Herranz, a Spanish bioethicist. A cover letter to bishops' conferences from Cardinal Alfonso Lopez Trujillo, president of the Pontifical Council for the Family, suggested that the report be used "to resist the introduction of the abortion pill RU-486 into your country." Related to TU-486 and to new terminology some use to characterize its non-surgical approach to abortion is an intention "to amoralize and thereby place the transmission of human life into an ethically neutral terrain and reduce it to pure biology," says the report. The report discusses possible future uses of RU-486 as a contraceptive, stating: "Women would no longer have to worry themselves about whether they have conceived or not. Each month they would proceed to clean out their uterus chemically." The report refers to RU-486 as "a technical step forward in an area that did not need it." It says, "The abortion pill favors a woman's privacy and secret, but it condemns her to solitude." The English text from the Vatican follows. PMID:16145821

  4. U.S. EPA OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS (ROCKY GAP, MD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Optimal Well Locator (OWL): uses linear regression to fit a plane to the elevation of the water table in monitoring wells in each round of sampling. The slope of the plane fit to the water table is used to predict the direction and gradient of ground water flow. Along with ...

  5. Family planning is reducing abortions.

    PubMed

    Clinton, H R

    1997-01-01

    This news brief presents the US President's wife's statement on the association between use of family planning and a decline in abortions worldwide. Hillary Rodham Clinton attended the Sixth Conference of Wives of Heads of State and Government of the Americas held in La Paz, Bolivia. The conference was suitably located in Bolivia, a country with the highest rates of maternal mortality in South America. Bolivia has responded by launching a national family planning campaign coordinated between government, nongovernmental, and medical organizations. Half of Bolivian women experience pregnancy and childbirth without the support of trained medical staff. Mortality from abortion complications account for about half of all maternal deaths in Bolivia. Voluntary family planning workers teach women about the benefits of child spacing, breast feeding, nutrition, prenatal and postpartum care, and safe deliveries. Bolivia has succeeded in increasing its contraceptive use rates and decreasing the number of safe and unsafe abortions. Bolivia's program effort was supported by USAID. USAID provided technical assistance and funds for the establishment of a network of primary health care clinics. Mrs. Clinton visited one such clinic in a poor neighborhood in La Paz, which in its first six months of operation provided 2200 consultations, delivered 200 babies, registered 700 new family planning users, and immunized 2500 children. Clinics such as this one will be affected by the US Congress's harsh cuts in aid, which reduce funding by 35% and delay program funding by 9 months. These US government cuts in foreign aid are expected to result in an additional 1.6 million abortions, over 8000 maternal deaths, and 134,000 infant deaths in developing countries. An investment in population assistance represents a sensible, cost-effective, and long-term strategy for improving women's health, strengthening families, and reducing abortion.

  6. Family planning is reducing abortions.

    PubMed

    Clinton, H R

    1997-01-01

    This news brief presents the US President's wife's statement on the association between use of family planning and a decline in abortions worldwide. Hillary Rodham Clinton attended the Sixth Conference of Wives of Heads of State and Government of the Americas held in La Paz, Bolivia. The conference was suitably located in Bolivia, a country with the highest rates of maternal mortality in South America. Bolivia has responded by launching a national family planning campaign coordinated between government, nongovernmental, and medical organizations. Half of Bolivian women experience pregnancy and childbirth without the support of trained medical staff. Mortality from abortion complications account for about half of all maternal deaths in Bolivia. Voluntary family planning workers teach women about the benefits of child spacing, breast feeding, nutrition, prenatal and postpartum care, and safe deliveries. Bolivia has succeeded in increasing its contraceptive use rates and decreasing the number of safe and unsafe abortions. Bolivia's program effort was supported by USAID. USAID provided technical assistance and funds for the establishment of a network of primary health care clinics. Mrs. Clinton visited one such clinic in a poor neighborhood in La Paz, which in its first six months of operation provided 2200 consultations, delivered 200 babies, registered 700 new family planning users, and immunized 2500 children. Clinics such as this one will be affected by the US Congress's harsh cuts in aid, which reduce funding by 35% and delay program funding by 9 months. These US government cuts in foreign aid are expected to result in an additional 1.6 million abortions, over 8000 maternal deaths, and 134,000 infant deaths in developing countries. An investment in population assistance represents a sensible, cost-effective, and long-term strategy for improving women's health, strengthening families, and reducing abortion. PMID:12293000

  7. Post-abortion syndrome: creating an affliction.

    PubMed

    Dadlez, E M; Andrews, William L

    2010-11-01

    The contention that abortion harms women constitutes a new strategy employed by the pro-life movement to supplement arguments about fetal rights. David C. Reardon is a prominent promoter of this strategy. Post-abortion syndrome purports to establish that abortion psychologically harms women and, indeed, can harm persons associated with women who have abortions. Thus, harms that abortion is alleged to produce are multiplied. Claims of repression are employed to complicate efforts to disprove the existence of psychological harm and causal antecedents of trauma are only selectively investigated. We argue that there is no such thing as post-abortion syndrome and that the psychological harms Reardon and others claim abortion inflicts on women can usually be ascribed to different causes. We question the evidence accumulated by Reardon and his analysis of data accumulated by others. Most importantly, we question whether the conclusions Reardon has drawn follow from the evidence he cites. PMID:19594725

  8. [Induced abortion--a historical outline].

    PubMed

    Glenc, F

    1974-11-11

    An historical review of the use of induced abortion is presented, beginning with early eras. The Chinese were the 1st to record the practice of induced abortion, with this operation being administered to royal concubines recorded at 500-515 B.C. Induced abortion was not used in ancient Greece, either for criminal or ethical reason. However, the ancient Greeks did utilize compulsory abortion for serious economic indications, as a means of controlling natural growth. Greek medical, gyneoclogigcal instruments for adminsitering abortions were described by Hippocrates. The Greek moral attitudes on abortion were largely adopted by the Romans, which were later altered by the appearance of Christianity and new ethical ideas. These ideas dominated European attitudes, along with the Church of Rome, limiting induced abortion to cases where the life of the mother was threatened. This attitude has existed until the present century, when these moral ideas are being challanged seriously for the 1st time in modern history. PMID:4610534

  9. Orientations toward abortion: guilty or knowledge?

    PubMed

    Allgeier, A R; Allgeier, E R; Rywick, T

    1981-01-01

    Students (N = 118) were classified as pro-choice, anti-abortion, or mixed on the basis of their responses to ten fictitious case histories of females who requested abortion. The distribution of participants on the abortion issue was quite similar to the results of a 1979 national survey. As expected, these groups differed on attitudes toward abortion as murder, the legalization of abortion, and the morality of premarital sex. The groups differed significantly in levels of sex guilt, but did not exhibit significant differences in levels of sexual knowledge. The results were discussed within the context of the public controversy over abortion. It was suggested that the affective messages accompanying the sexual socialization of children and adolescents may be more predictive of orientations toward abortion than the weight of intellectual arguments regarding the rights of the fetus, the point at which a fetus becomes viable, or a woman's right to have control over her own body.

  10. Evidence mounts for sex-selective abortion in Asia.

    PubMed

    Westley, S B

    1995-01-01

    In Korea, China, and Taiwan--countries where son preference persists--the availability of prenatal screening techniques and induced abortion has produced an imbalance in the naturally occurring sex ratios of 104-107 male births for every 100 female births. Policy responses to sex-selective abortion were the focus of a 1994 International Symposium on Sex Preference for Children in the Rapidly Changing Demographic Dynamics in Asia sponsored by the United Nations Population Fund and the Government of the Republic of Korea. Modern technology (i.e., amniocentesis, ultrasound, and chorionic villi sampling) enables couples to control both family size and sex selection. According to data from the 1990 Korean Census, 80,000 female fetuses were aborted from 1986-90 as a result of son preference. In the late 1980s, the Governments of Korea, China, and India imposed bans on the use of medical technology for prenatal sex determination, but many observers maintain that regulations have served only to make the procedures clandestine and more expensive. To remedy the problems underlying sex-selective abortion, the Symposium recommended the following government actions: 1) implement policies and programs to diminish gender discrimination; 2) establish guidelines for the monitoring and regulation of prenatal testing; 3) utilize mass and folk media, interpersonal channels, and school curricula to promote gender equality; 4) strengthen the ethics curriculum of medical schools to address son preference; and 5) increase the capability of statistical and research organizations to collect gender-disaggregated data.

  11. Induced abortion--a global health problem.

    PubMed

    Odlind, V

    1997-01-01

    Every year around 500,000 women are estimated to die from pregnancy-related causes, the majority in the developing world and many as a consequence of unsafe abortion. Around 25 per cent of maternal deaths in Asia and 30-50 per cent of maternal deaths in Africa and Latin America occur as a result of induced abortion. Data on abortion related maternal morbidity is less reliable than mortality but suggests that for every maternal death 10-15 women suffer significant pregnancy-related morbidity, i.e. infertility, genito-urinary problems and/or chronic pain. Induced abortion occurs in practically every society in the world but only 40 per cent of the women in the world live in countries where abortion is legally free. A permissive legislation is an important prerequisite for medically safe and early abortion. Oppositely, with a restrictive law, abortion is difficult to obtain, costly and possibly unsafe, in particular to the least affluent women in the society. Induced abortion in a developed country with legal and easy access to services is a safe procedure with hardly any mortality and very low morbidity. The best strategy to reduce the number of unsafe abortions is prevention of unwanted pregnancy. The consequences of unsafe abortion on women's health need to be acknowledged by everybody in the society in order to improve abortion care. It is necessary to adjust legal and other barriers to medically safe abortion in order to follow the declaration at the UN conference on population in Cairo, 1994, which stated that abortion, wherever legal, should be safe. It is also necessary to introduce preventive measures where abortions are performed, i.e. good and easily accessible family planning services.

  12. [Therapeutic abortion: a difficult choice].

    PubMed

    Gratton-Jacob, F

    1981-01-01

    Because the primary responsibility for the care and raising of children still falls on women, they should be able to decide freely whether or not to have children. Although many women who do not initially desire their pregnancies turn out to be adequate mothers, studies have shown that unwanted children suffer disproportionately from a variety of emotional and behavioral disorders. Studies have also found that large numbers of women seeking abortions failed to use any contraception while others used less effective methods, sometimes because of lack of knowledge. Even the most reliable contraceptive methods are liable to occasional failures. According to some authors, undesired pregnancy many reflect a struggle of adolescents with authoritarian parents, the search of a lonely person for something to love or possess, a proof of femininity, an expression of conflict with the partner or an attempt to force a marriage, or ambivalence among middle-aged women at the prospect of becoming more independent when their children enter school. Women may obtain abortions at accredited hospitals in the Province of Quebec upon decision of a committee of 3 physicians that continuation of the pregnancy would result in danger to the life or health of the patient. In 1970 some 100-150,000 illegal abortions occurred, resulting in hospitalization of 20,000 women for complications. In 1972, 4 French-speaking hospitals performed 136 of the 2919 therapeutic abortions sought in the Province of Quebec. In recent years the number has increased. Reasons for obtaining an abortion are usually social or economic: poor relationship with the father, sufficient number of children already born, age of the preceding infant, economic difficulties, mother's age, or effect of pregnancy on work. Many adolescents refuse to tell their parents of their pregnancy for fear of their reaction, but others enjoy considerable parental support. A study of about 5000 French speaking adolescents conducted in 1977

  13. Remaining gaps for "safe" CO2 storage: the INGV CO2GAPS vision of "learning by doing" monitoring geogas leakage, reservoirs contamination/mixing and induced/triggered seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrocchi, F.; Vinciguerra, S.; Chiarabba, C.; Boschi, E.; Anselmi, M.; Burrato, P.; Buttinelli, M.; Cantucci, B.; Cinti, D.; Galli, G.; Improta, L.; Nazzari, M.; Pischiutta, M.; Pizzino, L.; Procesi, M.; Rovelli, A.; Sciarra, A.; Voltattorni, N.

    2012-12-01

    The CO2GAPS project proposed by INGV is intended to build up an European Proposal for a new kind of research strategy in the field of the geogas storage. Aim of the project would be to fill such key GAPS concerning the main risks associated to CO2 storage and their implications on the entire Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) process, which are: i) the geogas leakage both in soils and shallow aquifers, up to indoor seepage; ii) the reservoirs contamination/mixing by hydrocarbons and heavy metals; iii) induced or triggered seismicity and microseismicity, especially for seismogenic blind faults. In order to consider such risks and make the CCS public acceptance easier, a new kind of research approach should be performed by: i) a better multi-disciplinary and "site specific" risk assessment; ii) the development of more reliable multi-disciplinary monitoring protocols. In this view robust pre-injection base-lines (seismicity and degassing) as well as identification and discrimination criteria for potential anomalies are mandatory. CO2 injection dynamic modelling presently not consider reservoirs geomechanical properties during reactive mass-transport large scale simulations. Complex simulations of the contemporaneous physic-chemical processes involving CO2-rich plumes which move, react and help to crack the reservoir rocks are not totally performed. These activities should not be accomplished only by the oil-gas/electric companies, since the experienced know-how should be shared among the CCS industrial operators and research institutions, with the governments support and overview, also flanked by a transparent and "peer reviewed" scientific popularization process. In this context, a preliminary and reliable 3D modelling of the entire "storage complex" as defined by the European Directive 31/2009 is strictly necessary, taking into account the above mentioned geological, geochemical and geophysical risks. New scientific results could also highlighting such opportunities

  14. Abort Options for Potential Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, P. V.; Striepe, S. A.; Powell, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    Mars trajectory design options were examined that would accommodate a premature termination of a nominal manned opposition class mission for opportunities between 2010 and 2025. A successful abort must provide a safe return to Earth in the shortest possible time consistent with mission constraints. In this study, aborts that provided a minimum increase in the initial vehicle mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) were identified by locating direct transfer nominal missions and nominal missions including an outbound or inbound Venus swing-by that minimized IMLEO. The ease with which these missions could be aborted while meeting propulsion and time constraints was investigated by examining free return (unpowered) and powered aborts. Further reductions in trip time were made to some aborts by the addition or removal of an inbound Venus swing-by. The results show that, although few free return aborts met the specified constraints, 85% of each nominal mission could be aborted as a powered abort without an increase in propellant. Also, in many cases, the addition or removal of a Venus swing-by increased the number of abort opportunities or decreased the total trip time during an abort.

  15. Is Induced Abortion Really Declining in Armenia?

    PubMed

    Jilozian, Ann; Agadjanian, Victor

    2016-06-01

    As in other post-Soviet settings, induced abortion has been widely used in Armenia. However, recent national survey data point to a substantial drop in abortion rates with no commensurate increase in modern contraceptive prevalence and no change in fertility levels. We use data from in-depth interviews with women of reproductive age and health providers in rural Armenia to explore possible underreporting of both contraceptive use and abortion. While we find no evidence that women understate their use of modern contraception, the analysis suggests that induced abortion might indeed be underreported. The potential for underreporting is particularly high for sex-selective abortions, for which there is growing public backlash, and medical abortion, a practice that is typically self-administered outside any professional supervision. Possible underreporting of induced abortion calls for refinement of both abortion registration and relevant survey instruments. Better measurement of abortion dynamics is necessary for successful promotion of effective modern contraceptive methods and reduction of unsafe abortion practices.

  16. The Incidence of Abortion in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bankole, Akinrinola; Adewole, Isaac F.; Hussain, Rubina; Awolude, Olutosin; Singh, Susheela; Akinyemi, Joshua O.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT Because of Nigeria’s low contraceptive prevalence, a substantial number of women have unintended pregnancies, many of which are resolved through clandestine abortion, despite the country’s restrictive abortion law. Up-to-date estimates of abortion incidence are needed. METHODS A widely used indirect methodology was used to estimate the incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in Nigeria in 2012. Data on provision of abortion and postabortion care were collected from a nationally representative sample of 772 health facilities, and estimates of the likelihood that women who have unsafe abortions experience complications and obtain treatment were collected from 194 health care professionals with a broad understanding of the abortion context in Nigeria. RESULTS An estimated 1.25 million induced abortions occurred in Nigeria in 2012, equivalent to a rate of 33 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–49. The estimated unintended pregnancy rate was 59 per 1,000 women aged 15–49. Fifty-six percent of unintended pregnancies were resolved by abortion. About 212,000 women were treated for complications of unsafe abortion, representing a treatment rate of 5.6 per 1,000 women of reproductive age, and an additional 285,000 experienced serious health consequences but did not receive the treatment they needed. CONCLUSION Levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion continue to be high in Nigeria. Improvements in access to contraceptive services and in the provision of safe abortion and postabortion care services (as permitted by law) may help reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:26871725

  17. Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderman, Lawrence J.; Prichard, Lorraine; Fuller, Scott; Atkinson, Leslie

    1974-01-01

    A questionnaire comprising case histories was administered to 27 Protestant and 27 Catholic clergymen in the San Diego area to test their attitudes toward the use of birth control, sterilization and abortion in families with specific genetic problems. The responses indicated: • Catholic and Protestant clergymen do not always follow the official positions of their churches in these matters, although the majority of them do. • Protestant clergymen were more likely to approve of birth control, sterilization, and abortion than Catholic clergymen. • The approval responses of Protestant and Catholic clergymen were not greatly influenced by whether the illness variables involved high Mendelian risk, high psychological cost, high social cost, or poor prognosis. • The approval responses of Protestant and Catholic clergymen were not significantly influenced by the socio-ethnic background of the families. PMID:4813802

  18. RHIC Abort Kicker Prefire Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Y.; Perlstein, S.

    2014-07-07

    In an attempt to discover any pattern to prefire events, abort prefire kicker data from 2007 to the present day have been recorded. With the 2014 operations concluding, this comprises 8 years of prefire data. Any activities that the Pulsed Power Group did to decrease prefire occurrences were recorded as well, but some information may be missing. The following information is a compilation of the research to date.

  19. 241-SY-101 DACS High hydrogen abort limit reduction (SCR 473) acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    ERMI, A.M.

    1999-09-09

    The capability of the 241-SY-101 Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) computer system to provide proper control and monitoring of the 241-SY-101 underground storage tank hydrogen monitoring system utilizing the reduced hydrogen abort limit of 0.69% was systematically evaluated by the performance of ATP HNF-4927. This document reports the results of the ATP.

  20. Differential Impact of Abortion on Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Wanda; Reardon, David

    1992-01-01

    Compared adolescent and adult reactions to abortion among 252 women. Compared to adults, adolescents were significantly more likely to be dissatisfied with choice of abortion and with services received, to have abortions later in gestational period, to feel forced by circumstances to have abortion, to report being misinformed at time of abortion,…

  1. The health reform monitoring survey: addressing data gaps to provide timely insights into the affordable care act.

    PubMed

    Long, Sharon K; Kenney, Genevieve M; Zuckerman, Stephen; Goin, Dana E; Wissoker, Douglas; Blavin, Fredric; Blumberg, Linda J; Clemans-Cope, Lisa; Holahan, John; Hempstead, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The Health Reform Monitoring Survey (HRMS) was launched in 2013 as a mechanism to obtain timely information on the Affordable Care Act (ACA) during the period before federal government survey data for 2013 and 2014 will be available. Based on a nationally representative, probability-based Internet panel, the HRMS provides quarterly data for approximately 7,400 nonelderly adults and 2,400 children on insurance coverage, access to health care, and health care affordability, along with special topics of relevance to current policy and program issues in each quarter. For example, HRMS data from summer 2013 show that more than 60 percent of those targeted by the health insurance exchanges struggle with understanding key health insurance concepts. This raises concerns about some people's ability to evaluate trade-offs when choosing health insurance plans. Assisting people as they attempt to enroll in health coverage will require targeted education efforts and staff to support those with low health insurance literacy.

  2. Convergence of continuous glucose monitoring and in-hospital tight glycemic control: closing the gap between caregivers and industry.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michaela; Skladany, Matthew J; Ludwig, Christopher R; Guthermann, Joshua S

    2007-11-01

    The convergence of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and tight glycemic control protocols is approaching. As with the diffusion of any innovative technology, there will be challenges that will likely delay widespread adoption. With the objective of assessing the current mindset of health care professionals toward CGM adoption in the hospital intensive care unit (ICU) setting and resulting implications to industry, Boston Biomedical Consultants surveyed >60 U.S. ICU managers and nurses during Spring 2007. The underlying sentiment expressed by survey respondents toward CGM was positive, with many citing potential benefits of CGM adoption, such as labor savings, improved glycemic control, and assistance with insulin dosing. While the demand for CGM in the hospital clearly exists, early stage product acceptance will remain limited given the substantial education, market development, and economic hurdles.

  3. [Abortions and prevention of pregnancies in 1992].

    PubMed

    Helweg-Larsen, K; Wichmann, B

    1994-03-01

    In January 1994, the Health Service published its statistics about pregnancy prevention and abortion in 1991 and 1992. The number of legal abortions was 19,729 in 1991 and 18,833 in 1992, which was the lowest figure since the law was introduced about elective abortion in 1973. 2623 fewer abortions were carried out in 1992 than five years before. The general abortion rate decreased from 15.8 in 1990 to 14.9 in 1992 (it was the highest in 1975 with 23.7). The age-specific abortion rate fell mostly in the 18-29 age group, with fewer in the 15-19 and 30-34 age groups. The number of children who were born to women over 40 increased from 390 in 1982 to 864 in 1992, while the birth rate of women under 20 decreased to almost half. The abortion rate was the highest in large cities, it was about 2.5 times higher than in the county of Ringkobing, which had the lowest rate, especially in the age groups under 25 years. The combined abortion rate (per 1000 women of reproductive age) was 578 in 1982, 540 in 1990, and 505 in 1992. 97.5% of abortions were performed within 12 weeks of pregnancy in accordance with the abortion law. 2% of abortions were carried out because of the woman's health or for social indications. 80% of abortions were performed in the 10th week of pregnancy mostly with vacuum aspiration. Complications decreased compared to previous years, and made up 2.6% of all abortions in 1992, mainly bleeding and, for 1/5 of them, inflammatory conditions. Half of the women who underwent an abortion in 1992 had given birth to at least one living child, 8% to more than three. Half of the 20% of women who could given birth but chose abortion had given birth in the previous two years and 27% within less than a year before abortion. The number of spontaneous abortions was 10,717 in 1991 and 10,605 in 1992, about 1000 fewer than in 1990. The number of male sterilizations fell from 2784 in 1991 to 1722 in 1992, and female sterilizations from 4777 to 4429. About 13 million condoms

  4. [Abortion. Spain: the keys to the controversy].

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    For many years, illegal abortion has been denounced in Spain. The estimate of 300,000 abortions annually is widely quoted but poorly founded in fact. Weekend "charters" to London and Amsterdam for women seeking abortions have been commented upon, denounced, and caricatured. The evidence indicates that abortions occur in Spain despite their illegality, just as they occur in every other country and have always occurred. Poor women abort in a poor way, with traditional healers, while rich women abort in a rich way, with physicians. "Charters" are the solution of the middle class. Proposed legislation in Spain would permit abortion on 3 grounds: rape, fetal malformation, and risk to the woman's life if the pregnancy continued. Excesses have been committed both by those opposing abortion and by those struggling for liberalization of laws. Defenders of abortion, such as radical feminists, appear to forget that abortion is a medical procedure with possible dangerous psychophysical consequences, and that preventive measures such as sex education and diffusion of contraception or social measures such as assistance for unwed mothers and their children would be preferrable to abortion. There is the question of whether medical personnel should be excused from assisting in abortions on grounds of conscience and whether those who do assist in abortions automatically become "progressive" by doing so. The staunchest defenders of fetal life are not moved to contribute anything beyond words to improvement of the plight of the many millions of already born who live in miserable conditions of hunger and want. Abortion is a violent act against the fetus and the pregnant woman. Its criminalization is a violent act against the woman and a social intrusion into matters better left to personal ethics. The government which proposes abortion on a few grounds fails to initiate a program to promote life through social protection of single mothers and their children or of families in general

  5. From unwanted pregnancy to safe abortion: Sharing information about abortion in Asia through animation.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Shweta; Dalvie, Suchitra

    2015-05-01

    Although unsafe abortion continues to be a leading cause of maternal mortality in many countries in Asia, the right to safe abortion remains highly stigmatized across the region. The Asia Safe Abortion Partnership, a regional network advocating for safe abortion, produced an animated short film entitled From Unwanted Pregnancy to Safe Abortion to show in conferences, schools and meetings in order to share knowledge about the barriers to safe abortion in Asia and to facilitate conversations on the right to safe abortion. This paper describes the making of this film, its objectives, content, dissemination and how it has been used. Our experience highlights the advantages of using animated films in addressing highly politicized and sensitive issues like abortion. Animation helped to create powerful advocacy material that does not homogenize the experiences of women across a diverse region, and at the same time emphasize the need for joint activities that express solidarity.

  6. From unwanted pregnancy to safe abortion: Sharing information about abortion in Asia through animation.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Shweta; Dalvie, Suchitra

    2015-05-01

    Although unsafe abortion continues to be a leading cause of maternal mortality in many countries in Asia, the right to safe abortion remains highly stigmatized across the region. The Asia Safe Abortion Partnership, a regional network advocating for safe abortion, produced an animated short film entitled From Unwanted Pregnancy to Safe Abortion to show in conferences, schools and meetings in order to share knowledge about the barriers to safe abortion in Asia and to facilitate conversations on the right to safe abortion. This paper describes the making of this film, its objectives, content, dissemination and how it has been used. Our experience highlights the advantages of using animated films in addressing highly politicized and sensitive issues like abortion. Animation helped to create powerful advocacy material that does not homogenize the experiences of women across a diverse region, and at the same time emphasize the need for joint activities that express solidarity. PMID:26278840

  7. [Psychiatric and psychological consequences of abortion].

    PubMed

    Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco

    2007-02-14

    Over the last decades a debate on the psychological and psychiatric consequences of the right to abortion took place. Abortion is a word-wide phenomenon linked to different aspects of public health. Although negative consequences are assumed to occur after abortion, most of the women who decide to terminate their pregnancy show several signs of relief. For instance, a decrease of signs of anxiety and depression may occur during the first month after abortion. Actually, the critical moment is the pre-abortion period. In this phase, most of the psychiatric and psychologic manifestations take place. Moreover, recent studies reinforce the importance to address the consequences of abortion with a multidisciplinary approach integrating somatic and psychologic components.

  8. Abortion in Sri Lanka: the double standard.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramya

    2013-03-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required.

  9. Health benefits of legal abortion: an analysis.

    PubMed

    Tyrer, L B

    1985-01-01

    The abolition of legal abortion in the US would seriously threaten the health, and even the lives, of women and children. Statistics on the relationship between abortion and health attained before and after abortion was legalized were used to project some of the probable consequences of reversing the US Supreme Court's 1973 Roe v. Wade decision. Abortion has been widely practiced throughout US history, but the actual number of procedures performed before some states legalized abortion is unknown. Few legal procedures were performed for medical reasons, yet many illegal abortions took place. In 1955, a panel of experts could only provide a "best estimate" of between 200,000 and 1,200,000 illegally induced abortions occurring annually in the US. The actual number was most likely closer to the higher figure. The complication rates for illegal abortions, most of which were performed by unskilled practitioners in unsafe settings, were much higher than the rates for legal abortion now. Complications were related to ineffective or unsafe methods, Sepsis, particularly with the bacterium "Clostridium prefringens," which causes gas gangrene, was a major problem that has virtually disappeared. Each year prior to the 1970s, more than 100 women in the US died of abortion complications. Due to the fact that vital statistics reflect an incomplete ascertainment of deaths, the actual number of deaths is probably larger, possibly by as much as 50%. In 1983 more than 1.3 million procedures were performed -- a figure close to the estimated number of illegal abortions performed before 1970. In comparison, 672,000 hysterectomies and 424,000 tonsillectomy operations were performed the same year. The number of abortion-related deaths in the US decreased between 1972 and 1980, from 90 to 16. Most of this decrease resulted from the availability and safety of legal abortion. Legal abortion carries an especially low risk of death, particularly when performed in the 1st trimester. For the 1972

  10. Abortion in Thailand: a feminist perspective.

    PubMed

    Lerdmaleewong, M; Francis, C

    1998-01-01

    With the passing of the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, China, women's issues in Asia have moved increasingly to the forefront. One such issue, abortion, continues to generate controversy as many women argue for protection and/or recognition of their reproductive rights. The objectives of this paper are threefold: (1) To examine the abortion debate in Thailand, identifying issues raised by Thai feminist scholars about the status of women; (2) To overview some of the more prominent feminist arguments regarding abortion (particularly those written by Canadian and American scholars) as a tool for defining women's reproductive rights; (3) To focus on a study of attitudes toward abortion among health care personnel and post-induced abortion patients in Bangkok, Thailand in order to discern the degree of support (if any) for feminist abortion arguments.

  11. Abortion in Sri Lanka: The Double Standard

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

  12. Producing change in attitudes toward abortion.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R A

    1977-01-01

    During the 1969-1970 school year, 351 upperclassmen at a southeastern university were used in a study on the use of different communication methods to change attitudes toward abortion. Following the pretest questionnaire, the group was divided into 4 groups and treated in the following ways: 1) a panel from the group presented pros and cons of abortion; 2) the group broke into 5-member discussion groups to talk about attitudes toward abortion; 3) a movie on normal birth was presented to this group; and 4) the 4th group received no interim abortion-related communication. The movie had no effect on abortion attitudes. The discussions had a slight liberalizing effect on abortion attitudes. Less than 3% of the students in the survey changed their attitude. PMID:12308804

  13. The abortion decision: reasons and ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Allanson, S; Astbury, J

    1995-09-01

    Self-in-relation theory and pilot data responses to an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet by 20 women attending an abortion-providing clinic challenge previous formulations of the abortion decision. Pilot data suggest that: women may make an abortion decision based primarily on pragmatics, a belief in their right to choose and knowledge of the safety and simplicity of the procedure. A discrepancy may exist for a significant minority of women between their abstract beliefs/knowledge and the personal meaning for them of the pregnancy, abortion and its safety. Important links may exist between maternal attachment and anxiety about the safety of the abortion procedure. Ramifications for counselling and future research are discussed. PMID:8528379

  14. Addressing critical environmental data gaps via low-cost, real-time, cellular-based environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caylor, K. K.; Wolf, A.; Siegfried, B.

    2014-12-01

    collect can expand weather monitoring, but more crucially can monitor otherwise unobserved biological (including human) responses to environmental drivers. These data in turn can be assimilated into models, as a means to contextualize and distill these noisy observations into actionable knowledge.

  15. Abortion: a guide to making ethical choices.

    PubMed

    Maguire, M R; Maguire, D C

    1983-09-01

    A mature attitude toward abortion rests on responsible decision-making and action taking, not on the belief in irreversible events. Abortion is therefore a choice which should be made if it is the most correct and responsible action in view of one's own circumstances. There are a number of doubts, concerns and moral--as opposed to medical--questions that women may be asking themselves as they face this serious choice. The guide addresses these issues to help women think through that choice. It is important to know, for instance, that the Pope has never formally proclaimed a doctrine of faith on the matter of abortion. The Catholic Church, when considered in its diversity, teaches that some abortions can be moral; the conscience of a person is the final arbiter of any abortion decision. Conscience is humans' progressively refined ability to think about situations and evaluate their moral goodness/badness. With respect to abortion, this means that a woman should make the choice that seems best to her. The fear that having an abortion will result in excommunication from the Church is dismissed here. A distinction must be made between committing the sin of abortion and having an abortion. The former obtains when people act against their own conscience. The attitude toward abortion as murder and the issue of the fetus' afterlife are responded to in terms of personhood, a complicated concept on which there is no legal, scientific or religious consensus. Instead, the answer is a function of the time period and its prevalent beliefs. Today, the viability of the fetus has become an important determinant of life. Having an abortion, giving birth, and use of contraceptives when no children are wanted, are responses to which a woman is entitled. Her choice is moral when based on responsible and conscious decisions and actions. The views of Protestantism and Judaism on abortion are clarified briefly.

  16. First-trimester surgical abortion technique.

    PubMed

    Yonke, Nicole; Leeman, Lawrence M

    2013-12-01

    New data have emerged to support changes in first-trimester abortion practice in regard to antibiotic prophylaxis, cervical ripening, the use of manual vacuum aspiration, and pain management. This article addresses these new recommendations and reviews techniques in performing manual and electric vacuum uterine aspiration procedures before 14 weeks' gestation, including very early abortion (<7 weeks' gestation), technically difficult abortions, management of complications, and postabortal contraception. The information discussed also applies to miscarriage management.

  17. [Legal abortivity and life project of women].

    PubMed

    Bielli, C; Racioppi, F

    1988-01-01

    This article concerns the relationship between fertility and legal abortivity in the first 5-year period of the 80's. The legal abortivity pattern of married women, by age and prior fertility is studied in 4 typical regions. This typology is stated considering both levels of fertility of abortivity at 1980-81 (low fertility-low abortivity; low fertility-high abortivity; high fertility-high abortivity; high fertility-low abortivity). In each region the change in the age-conception order specifies abortivity rate is examined by a regression model. Same interesting results can be stressed. Young women seem to be the most involved in the changing fertility pattern during the years considered. They appear at 1984-85 with a number of children more strictly reduced than during 1980-81. Of them, those residing in the too low fertility regions, as well as those residing in the high fertility-high abortivity region seem to be exposed to a lower risk of a legal abortion. The same results cannot be found for young residents in the high fertility-low abortivity region. In other words, those above seem to be in progress as it concerns the prevention possibility of an unplanned conception, otherwise the same cannot be stated for these latter. Many more women had a legal abortion in the early 80's, while less younger women, in a similar status, seem to risk the same 5 years later. At least, spreading knowledge about family planning methods seems to be working as outlined in the spirit of the 194 law operating in public health services. (Author's modified).

  18. Gap between technically accurate information and socially appropriate information for structural health monitoring system installed into tall buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mita, Akira

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the structural health monitoring system for tall buildings is now widely recognized by at least structural engineers and managers at large real estate companies to ensure the structural safety immediately after a large earthquake and appeal the quantitative safety of buildings to potential tenants. Some leading real estate companies decided to install the system into all tall buildings. Considering this tendency, a pilot project for the west area of Shinjuku Station supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency was started by the author team to explore a possibility of using the system to provide safe spaces for commuters and residents. The system was installed into six tall buildings. From our experience, it turned out that viewing only from technological aspects was not sufficient for the system to be accepted and to be really useful. Safe spaces require not only the structural safety but also the soundness of key functions of the building. We need help from social scientists, medical doctors, city planners etc. to further improve the integrity of the system.

  19. Medical abortion in Australia: a short history.

    PubMed

    Baird, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Surgical abortion has been provided liberally in Australia since the early 1970s, mainly in privately owned specialist clinics. The introduction of medical abortion, however, was deliberately obstructed and consequently significantly delayed when compared to similar countries. Mifepristone was approved for commercial import only in 2012 and listed as a government subsidised medicine in 2013. Despite optimism from those who seek to improve women's access to abortion, the increased availability of medical abortion has not yet addressed the disadvantage experienced by poor and non-metropolitan women. After telling the story of medical abortion in Australia, this paper considers the context through which it has become available since 2013. It argues that the integration of medical abortion into primary health care, which would locate abortion provision in new settings and expand women's access, has been constrained by the stigma attached to abortion, overly cautious institutionalised frameworks, and the lack of public health responsibility for abortion services. The paper draws on documentary sources and oral history interviews conducted in 2013 and 2015. PMID:26719008

  20. Pregnancy complications following legally induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Obel, E B

    1979-01-01

    The frequency of pregnancy and delivery complications in women whose previous pregnancy had been terminated by a legally induced abortion is evaluated in a prospective and a retrospective study. Bleeding before 28 weeks of gestation and retention of placenta or placental tissue occurred more frequently after legal abortion that in a control group matched for age, parity, and socio-economic status. Other pregnancy and delivery complications did not occur more frequently after legal abortion. It is of particular interest that the study could not demonstrate an increased frequency of low birth weight among women whose previous pregnancy had been terminated by legal abortion.

  1. Husbands' involvement in abortion in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Johansson, A; Nga, N T; Huy, T Q; Dat, D D; Holmgren, K

    1998-12-01

    This study analyzes the involvement of men in abortion in Vietnam, where induced abortion is legal and abortion rates are among the highest in the world. Twenty men were interviewed in 1996 about the role they played in their wives' abortions and about their feelings and ethical views concerning the procedure. The results showed that both husbands and wives considered the husband to be the main decisionmaker regarding family size, which included the decision to have an abortion, but that, in fact, some women had undergone an abortion without consulting their husbands in advance. Parents and in-laws were usually not consulted; the couples thought they might object to the decision on moral grounds. Respondents' ethical perspectives on abortion are discussed. When faced with an unwanted pregnancy, the husbands adopted an ethics of care and responsibility toward family and children, although some felt that abortion was immoral. The study highlights the importance of understanding husbands' perspectives on their responsibilities and rights in reproductive decisionmaking and their ethical and other concerns related to abortion.

  2. The abortion battle: the Canadian scene.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, P

    1994-01-01

    In January 1988 the Supreme Court of Canada struck down the country's archaic abortion law on the ground that it imposed arbitrary delays and unfair disparities in access to abortion across the country. Since then, the conservative government of Canada has made a few attempts to introduce a new abortion policy, but it did not get passed in the parliament because the revised bills failed to protect women's right to 'life, liberty, and security of the person' within the meaning of the Canadian Charter. Canada has been without an abortion law for over four years and there has been a wide range of provincial policies and confusion in the country. Despite the legal vacuum, Canadian women are not frenziedly having abortions. However, the militancy of the anti-abortion groups has steadily intensified with continued assault on a woman's right to make reproductive choices. Since no law, short of banning abortions altogether, is going to satisfy abortion opponents, the abortion battle will rage on in Canada. PMID:8065237

  3. The abortion issue in the 1984 elections.

    PubMed

    Granberg, D

    1987-01-01

    In the 1984 election, Ronald Reagan, the Republican presidential incumbent and an opponent of legal abortion, defeated Walter Mondale, a prochoice Democrat, by a wide margin. Despite Reagan's sweep of 49 states, however, conservatives lost a little ground in the Senate, where four of the seven new senators elected take a prochoice position on abortion. On the other hand, antiabortion forces registered some gains in the House of Representatives. The voting groups were more divided over the abortion issue in 1984 than they had been in 1980: In 1980, Reagan voters and Carter voters did not differ significantly in their attitudes toward abortion, but in 1984, Reagan voters were significantly more likely to be opposed to abortion than were Mondale voters. Nevertheless, only a small minority of voters considered abortion to be a major national issue, and the two voter groups were far more divided on several other issues than they were on abortion. There was no antiabortion consensus among the electorate as a whole, or among Reagan voters in particular. The level of approval for legalized abortion has, in fact, remained quite stable since 1973, and a popular base in favor of banning abortion seems to be lacking. PMID:3595819

  4. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Allahbedashti, Neda

    2014-02-01

    Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas) as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA) and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  5. Two steps back: Poland's new abortion law.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, W

    1993-06-01

    After the fall of Communism in Poland, the Catholic church exerted pressure to increase its influence in public life. One way in which this pressure has manifested itself has been in the passing of a restrictive abortion bill which was signed into law on February 15, 1993. Abortion had been legalized in Poland in 1956 and was used as a means of birth control because of a lack of availability and use of contraceptives. The number of abortions performed was variously reported as 60,000 - 300,000/year. In 1990, the Ministry of Health imposed restrictions on abortions at publicly funded hospitals, and 3 deaths were reported from self-induced abortions. In 1 year (1989-90), the number of induced abortions at 1 hospital dropped from 71 to 19, while the number of self-induced abortions increased from 48 to 85. Further restrictions were introduced in May 1992 as part of the "Ethical Code for Physicians," which allows abortions only in cases where the mother's life or health is in danger or in cases or rape. This code brought abortions to a halt at publicly funded hospitals and doubled or even tripled the cost of private abortions. Women have been refused abortions in tragic and life=threatening situations since the code was adopted. When an outright anti family planning bill was drafted in November 1992, the Polish citizenry collected 1,300,000 signatures to force a referendum. The referendum was not held, but the bill was defeated. The amended bill which passed allows abortions in publicly funded hospitals only when the mother's life or health is in danger and in cases of rape, incest, or incurable deformity of the fetus. The implications of this law remain unclear, since its language is strange and vague. The reproductive rights of Polish women face a further threat because the Catholic church is working to limit the availability of contraceptive methods which they deem to be "early abortives." On the other side of the issue, the Federation for Women and Planned

  6. Attitudes towards abortion in the Danish population.

    PubMed

    Norup, Michael

    1997-10-01

    This article reports the results of a survey, by mailed questionnaire, of the attitudes among a sample of the Danish population towards abortion for social and genetic reasons. Of 1080 questionnaires sent to a random sample of persons between 18 and 45 years, 731 (68%) were completed and returned. A great majority of the respondents were liberal towards early abortion both for social reasons and in case of minor disease. In contrast, there was controversy about late abortions for social reasons and in the case of Down syndrome. Further there was strong reluctance to accept late abortion in case of minor disease. An analysis of the response patterns showed that most of the respondents had gradualist views on abortion, i.e. they would allow all early abortions, but only abortions for some reasons later in pregnancy. It was also found that the number who would find an early abortion acceptable in general was much higher than the number who would accept it in their own case. These findings suggest that a great part of the resistance towards abortion does not rest on a concern for the rights and interests for the fetus. Instead it may be explained on a view according to which fetal life is ascribed intrinsic moral value.

  7. [Abortion: 20 years of Brazilian research].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Corrêa, Marilena; Squinca, Flávia; Braga, Kátia Soares

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the main characteristics of the scientific literature on abortion in Brazil. Data were collected from 88 literature bases, and 2,109 documents from 1987 to 2008 were retrieved. Based on the findings, the field of abortion in Brazil is dominated by female researchers affiliated with public universities and nongovernmental organizations from the Southeast, with training in health sciences. There is no research on abortion in the North, while 14% of the studies were conducted in the Northeast and 4% in the Central-West. Abortion has been a constant theme in the scientific literature in Brazil, increasing in the mid-20th century.

  8. Abortion Decision and Ambivalence: Insights via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allanson, Susie

    2007-01-01

    Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…

  9. Prenatal diagnosis, selective abortion, and the Abortion (Amendment) Bill.

    PubMed

    Laurence, K M

    1980-02-01

    The rapid development of early prenatal diagnostic tests for some fetal malformations and abnormalities and the introduction of this approach to malformation into clinical practice in most areas of the United Kingdom has, to a great extent, been made possible by the 1967 Abortion Act. Although at least 30 of every 1000 pregnancies will end in a seriously malformed infant with reduced survival, or survival with impaired quality of life, only less than 1/3 of these abnormal fetuses are currently amenable to early antenatal detection. Yet, it has been estimated that about 10% of all pregnancies can be identified as having a risk of 1 of these detectable abnormalities of more than 1 in 100. Most prenatal diagnostic tests available at this time involve an amniocentesis, which cannot generally be carried out safely and successfully before 15 or 16 weeks' gestation. Laboratory tests on the amniotic fluid itself or on the cells it contains must follow, generally after a period of cell culture. Fetosocopy at about 18 weeks or later is at present rarely used because of its technical difficulties as well as its relatively high risk of complications. Ultrasound is largely used as a preliminary to amniocentesis or to identify anencephaly. 1 of the problems of these prenatal tests often involving lengthy laboratory techniques is reflected in the late termination times reported from 1 large center, where barely 1/2 the terminations for fetal malformations could be performed before 20 weeks' gestation. 2 provisions of John Corrie's Bill now before Parliament may have a profound effect on prenatal diagnosis and related aspects of secondary prevention of fetal malformation. These are the suggested lowering of the gestational age at which abortions can normally be performed, and the strengthening of the conscience clause enabling physicians to refuse to provide a certificate for abortion.

  10. Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access

    MedlinePlus

    Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access June 2008 Approximately one-fifth (19%) of the 6. ... occurring annually in the U.S. end in induced abortion. 1 While abortion is one of the most ...

  11. Evidence supporting broader access to safe legal abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal; Shah, Iqbal H

    2015-10-01

    Unsafe abortion continues to be a major cause of maternal death; it accounts for 14.5% of all maternal deaths globally and almost all of these deaths occur in countries with restrictive abortion laws. A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. Despite this evidence, abortion is denied even when the legal condition for abortion is met. The present article aims to contribute to a better understanding that one can be in favor of greater access to safe abortion services, while at the same time not be "in favor of abortion," by reviewing the evidence that indicates that criminalization of abortion only increases mortality and morbidity without decreasing the incidence of induced abortion, and that decriminalization rapidly reduces abortion-related mortality and does not increase abortion rates.

  12. Incidence of Induced Abortion and Post-Abortion Care in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, Sarah C.; Kimaro, Godfather; Muganyizi, Projestine; Philbin, Jesse; Kahwa, Amos; Ngadaya, Esther; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2015-01-01

    Background Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and unsafe abortion is one of its leading causes. Yet little is known about its incidence. Objectives To provide the first ever estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion in Tanzania, at the national level and for each of the 8 geopolitical zones (7 in Mainland plus Zanzibar). Methods A nationally representative survey of health facilities was conducted to determine the number of induced abortion complications treated in facilities. A survey of experts on abortion was conducted to estimate the likelihood of women experiencing complications and obtaining treatment. These surveys were complemented with population and fertility data to obtain abortion numbers, rates and ratios, using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. Results In Tanzania, women obtained just over 405,000 induced abortions in 2013, for a national rate of 36 abortions per 1,000 women age 15–49 and a ratio of 21 abortions per 100 live births. For each woman treated in a facility for induced abortion complications, 6 times as many women had an abortion but did not receive care. Abortion rates vary widely by zone, from 10.7 in Zanzibar to 50.7 in the Lake zone. Conclusions The abortion rate is similar to that of other countries in the region. Variations by zone are explained mainly by differences in fertility and contraceptive prevalence. Measures to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated maternal mortality include expanding access to post-abortion care and contraceptive services to prevent unintended pregnancies. PMID:26361246

  13. Abortion and infant mortality before and after the 1973 US Supreme Court decision on abortion.

    PubMed

    Robertson, L S

    1981-07-01

    The 50 states of the US were compared in 1971-72 and 1974-75 with respect to percentage apparent conceptions aborted and infant mortality rates attributed to various causes. Only nonvehicle accidental deaths were consistently related to abortion. The correlation is nonlinear; nonvehicle accidental deaths were especially high in states with little or no abortion. A decline in nonvehicle accidental deaths from before to after the Supreme Court decision was most pronounced in states where there were fewest abortions before the decision and where increases in abortion followed the decision.

  14. What can obstetrician/gynecologists do to support abortion access?

    PubMed

    Mark, Alice G; Wolf, Merrill; Edelman, Alison; Castleman, Laura

    2015-10-01

    Unsafe abortion causes approximately 13% of all maternal deaths worldwide, with higher rates in areas where abortion access is restricted. Because safe abortion is so low risk, if all women who needed an abortion could access safe care, this rate would drop dramatically. As women's health providers and advocates, obstetrician/gynecologists can support abortion access. By delivering high-quality, evidence-based care ourselves, supporting other providers who perform abortion, helping women who access abortion in the community, providing second-trimester care, and improving contraceptive uptake, we can decrease morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion. PMID:26433507

  15. A qualitative investigation of low-income abortion clients' attitudes toward public funding for abortion.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Adrianne; Manski, Ruth; Dennis, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    We explored how low-income abortion clients in states where public funding was and was not available perceived the role of public funding for abortion. From October 2010 through February 2011, we conducted 71 semi-structured in-depth telephone interviews with low-income abortion clients in Arizona, Florida, New York, and Oregon. Women reported weighing numerous factors when determining which circumstances warranted public funding. Though most women generally supported coverage, they deviated from their initial support when asked about particular circumstances. Respondents felt most strongly that abortion should not be covered when a woman could not afford another child or was pregnant outside of a romantic relationship. Participants used disparaging language to describe the presumed behavior of women faced with unintended pregnancies. In seeking to discredit "other" women's abortions, women revealed the complex nature of abortion stigma. We propose that women's abortion experiences and subsequent opinions on coverage indicated three distinct manifestations of abortion stigma: women (1) resisted the prominent discourse that marks women who have had abortions as selfish and irresponsible; (2) internalized societal norms that stereotype women based on the circumstances surrounding the abortion; and (3) reproduced stigma by distancing themselves from the negative stereotypes associated with women who have had abortions. PMID:25068780

  16. The persistence of induced abortion in Cuba: exploring the notion of an "abortion culture".

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Danièle; Flynn, Andrea

    2009-03-01

    Cuba's annual induced abortion rate persistently ranks among the highest in the world, and abortion plays a prominent role in Cuban fertility regulation despite widespread contraceptive prevalence and state promotion of modern contraceptives. We explore this phenomenon using the concept of an "abortion culture," typically used in reference to Soviet and post-Soviet countries. We synthesize existing literature to provide a historical account of abortion and contraception in Cuba. We also provide a qualitative analysis of abortion and contraceptive use based on in-depth interviews conducted in 2005 in Havana with 24 women who have had an abortion and 10 men whose partners have had an abortion. Information gained from a focus-group discussion with medical professionals also informed the study. Our four principal findings are: (a) longstanding awareness of abortion, (b) the view of abortion as a personal decision, (c) the influence of economic constraints on the decision to induce an abortion, and (d) general skepticism toward contraceptives. We discuss our results on abortion in Cuba in relation to the notion of social diffusion, an approach commonly used to explain the spread of fertility control throughout a population.

  17. Emotional responses of women following therapeutic abortion.

    PubMed

    Adler, N E

    1975-04-01

    Factor analysis of post-abortion emotional responses revealed three factors. Negative emotions split into two factors: socially-and internally-based. Positive emotions, constituting the third factor, were experienced most strongly. Correlations with background variables suggest two influences on response: the woman's social environment and her internalized concerns about the abortion.

  18. Counseling for Women Who Seek Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth M.

    1972-01-01

    Concerned professionals in various parts of the country have formed crisis-oriented counseling services to meet the needs of women who request abortions. This article presents information obtained from a sample of women seeking abortions and discusses the counselor's role in the decision making process. (Author)

  19. Comment: unethical ethics investment boycotts and abortion.

    PubMed

    Furedi, A

    1998-01-01

    Ethical investment funds have traditionally boycotted the arms industry, companies known to pollute the environment, and those involved in animal research. However, recent newspaper reports suggest that some investment funds plan to also boycott hospitals and pharmaceutical companies involved in abortion-related activities. Ethical Financial, anti-abortion independent financial advisors, are encouraging a boycott of investment in private hospitals and manufacturers of equipment involved in abortions, and pharmaceutical firms which produce postcoital contraception or conduct embryo research. Ethical Financial claims that Family Assurance has agreed to invest along anti-abortion lines, Aberdeen Investment is already boycotting companies linked to abortion, and Hendersons ethical fund plans to follow suit. There is speculation that Standard Life, the largest mutual insurer in Europe, will also refuse to invest in abortion-related concerns when it launches its ethical fund in the spring. Managers of ethical funds should, however, understand that, contrary to the claims of the anti-choice lobby, there is extensive public support for legal abortion, emergency contraception, and embryo research. Individuals and institutions which contribute to the development of reproductive health care services are working to alleviate the distress of unwanted pregnancy and infertility, laudable humanitarian goals which should be encouraged. Those who try to restrict the development of abortion methods and services simply show contempt for women, treating them as people devoid of conscience who are incapable of making moral choices.

  20. Group A Streptococcus endometritis following medical abortion.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Poyart, Claire; Kernéis, Solen

    2014-07-01

    Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol. PMID:24829245

  1. Group A Streptococcus Endometritis following Medical Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Kernéis, Solen

    2014-01-01

    Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol. PMID:24829245

  2. Strategies for the prevention of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2012-10-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the main causes of maternal mortality and severe morbidity in countries with restrictive abortion laws. In 2007, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) created a Working Group on the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences (WGPUA). This led to a FIGO initiative with that aim which has the active participation of 43 FIGO member societies. The WGPUA has recommended that the plans of action of the countries participating in the initiative consider several levels of prevention shown to have the potential to successfully reduce unsafe abortions: (1) primary prevention of unintended pregnancy and induced abortion; (2) secondary prevention to ensure the safety of an abortion procedure that could not be avoided; (3) tertiary prevention of further complications of an unsafe abortion procedure that has taken place already, through high-quality postabortion care; and (4) quaternary prevention of repeated abortion procedures through postabortion family planning counseling and contraceptive services. This paper reviews these levels of prevention and the evidence that they can be effective.

  3. Comment: unethical ethics investment boycotts and abortion.

    PubMed

    Furedi, A

    1998-01-01

    Ethical investment funds have traditionally boycotted the arms industry, companies known to pollute the environment, and those involved in animal research. However, recent newspaper reports suggest that some investment funds plan to also boycott hospitals and pharmaceutical companies involved in abortion-related activities. Ethical Financial, anti-abortion independent financial advisors, are encouraging a boycott of investment in private hospitals and manufacturers of equipment involved in abortions, and pharmaceutical firms which produce postcoital contraception or conduct embryo research. Ethical Financial claims that Family Assurance has agreed to invest along anti-abortion lines, Aberdeen Investment is already boycotting companies linked to abortion, and Hendersons ethical fund plans to follow suit. There is speculation that Standard Life, the largest mutual insurer in Europe, will also refuse to invest in abortion-related concerns when it launches its ethical fund in the spring. Managers of ethical funds should, however, understand that, contrary to the claims of the anti-choice lobby, there is extensive public support for legal abortion, emergency contraception, and embryo research. Individuals and institutions which contribute to the development of reproductive health care services are working to alleviate the distress of unwanted pregnancy and infertility, laudable humanitarian goals which should be encouraged. Those who try to restrict the development of abortion methods and services simply show contempt for women, treating them as people devoid of conscience who are incapable of making moral choices. PMID:12321439

  4. Restricting Federal Funds for Abortion: Another Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Paul M.; Thomas, Laura S.

    1983-01-01

    No public funds are saved by forbidding the use of federal funds for abortions among poor women. The future public cost of an unwanted birth is estimated for 1978 to be almost 100 times the cost of an abortion. (Author/RM)

  5. Abortion: The Viewpoint of Potential Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamrick, Michael H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A college survey showed strong support by a majority for legalized abortion, governmental support of abortion and family planning services, voluntary sterilization, and sex education and birth control information and/or services in the schools. Important differences of opinion among subgroups were, however, indicated. (Author/MJB)

  6. Safe abortion: a right for refugees?

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Aimee

    2002-05-01

    Thanks to initiatives since 1994, most reproductive health programmes for refugee women now include family planning and safe delivery care. Emergency contraception and post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortion are recommended, but provision of these services has lagged behind, while services for women who wish to terminate an unwanted pregnancy are almost non-existent. Given conditions in refugee settings, including high levels of sexual violence, unwanted pregnancies are of particular concern. Yet the extent of need for abortion services among refugee women remains undocumented. UNFPA estimates that 25-50% of maternal deaths in refugee settings are due to complications of unsafe abortion. Barriers to providing abortion services may include internal and external political pressure, legal restrictions, or the religious affiliation of service providers. Women too may be pressured to continue pregnancies and are often unable to express their needs or assert their rights. Abortion advocacy efforts should highlight the specific needs of refugee women and encourage provision of services where abortion is legally indicated, especially in cases of rape or incest, and risk to a woman's physical and mental health. Implementation of existing guidelines on reducing the occurrence and consequences of sexual violence in refugee settings is also important. Including refugee women in international campaigns for expanded access to safe abortion is critical in addressing the specific needs of this population. PMID:12369319

  7. Abortion and nursing: a legal update.

    PubMed

    Horsley, J

    1992-12-01

    Almost 2 decades after the Supreme Court's landmark decision in Roe v. Wade, nurses' refusal to assist in abortions is still in question. There are about 1.6 million abortions a year. If Congress passes the Freedom of Choice Act, American women will be guaranteed continued access to abortion. But the effect of new regulations on 2 million nurses is the issue. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 protects those who refuse to participate in abortions because of their religious beliefs. Several states have also enacted laws giving the right to health care workers to refuse to participate on ethical grounds. In Florida a staffer at an ambulatory care center was demoted after refusing to assist in an abortion. The appeals court ruled in the nurse's favor, stating that she should have been given a different assignment. Nurses who oppose abortion are advised by attorneys not to accept jobs where they are likely to be expected to assist in them. A New York City nurse refused to assist in an abortion and was reassigned to an administrative position, which she contested. The arbitrator restored her to her original position indicating that if the Freedom of Choice Act is passed it will not eliminate a nurse's right not to assist. In 1988 the so-called gag rule was issued barring caregivers at 4000 federally funded family planning clinics serving nearly 5 million women/year from recommending abortion to patients.

  8. Adolescents and Abortion: Choice in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Rebecca

    This publication seeks to explain the many facets of adolescent abortion: teenagers' need for access to safe abortion; the need for confidentiality in order to ensure safety; the real intent and effect of parental involvement laws; and the roles of parents and the state in safeguarding the health of pregnant teenagers. The first section looks at…

  9. Induced Abortion: An Ethical Conundrum for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millner, Vaughn S.; Hanks, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most controversial moral issues in American culture, but counselor value struggles regarding abortion are seldom addressed in counseling literature. This article considers the conflictual nature of the ethical principles of autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence as they can occur within the…

  10. Complexifying Commodification, Consumption, ART, and Abortion.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2015-01-01

    This commentary on Madeira's paper complicates the relationships between commodification, consumption, abortion, and assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) she draws in two ways. First, I examine under what conditions the commodification of ARTs, gametes, and surrogacy lead to patients becoming consumers. Second, I show that there are some stark difference between applying commodification critiques to ART versus abortion.

  11. [Abortion: an ethical or political issue?].

    PubMed

    Divay, Sophie

    2015-12-01

    Forty years after the decriminalisation of abortion, what is society's view of this hard-fought right of women? Do they finally have the freedom to control their own bodies? The sociological view put forward here questions the professional positioning of caregivers faced with women requesting an elective abortion.

  12. House seeks restrictions on "bogus" abortion clinics.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    Recent Congressional hearings have identified over 2000 pro-life counseling centers that deceptively portray themselves as abortion clinics. The issue has now become regulating these facilities referred to as bogus clinics. The bogus clinics enjoy a good deal of protection from the Federal Trade Commission because they are all registered as non-profit organizations. Many people investigating the situation feel that the issues of pro-life and pro-choice are not central. What is most important is the fact that these bogus clinics are able to attract people who think they can obtain abortions when in fact these facilities do not offer such services. The staff at the bogus clinics have been reported to detain, harass, and coerce women who want to have abortions. They often show graphic films and employ psychological pressure in an attempt to convince the woman not to have an abortion. The Pearson Foundation published a 93 page manual titled, "How to Start and Operate Your Own Pro-Life Crisis Pregnancy Center". The manual outlines all the steps and procedures necessary to run an operation committed into deceiving women into thinking they offer abortion services. So far, proposed legislation would either require Yellow Pages publishers to list abortion alternatives and abortion services separately, or make facilities that do not provide abortions declare it in a disclaimer. However, federal authority in this situation is unclear. other proposals would give the FTC control of non-profits, or only deceptive non-profits.

  13. Abortion 1982: the Supreme Court once again.

    PubMed

    Healey, J M

    1982-11-01

    Clearly, abortion in the US continues to be a major medico-legal issue which will not go away. 5 major abortion cases are scheduled for review by the US Supreme Court during its 1982-83 term. Taken together, these 5 cases challenge several of the key conclusions of the Court's review of the abortion question. The primary focus of the cases is the state's power to regulate the abortion decision during the 1st and 2nd trimester of the pregnancy. 2 cases involve ordinances passed by the City of Akron regulating access to abortion in areas such as consent and notification requirements and the location of abortions after the 1st trimester. 2 of the cases involve a Missouri statute also dealing with the requirement that abortions after the 1st trimester be performed in a hospital. The final case involves a Virginia criminal prosecution of a physician accused of violating the state's requirement of in-hospital performance of a 2nd trimester abortion. In the case of Roe v. Wade, the Court had established the "trimester trilogy" governing state regulation of the abortion procedure. For the stage of the pregnancy prior to the end of the 1st trimester, the Court held that the abortion decision and its effectuation must be left to the medical judgment of the pregnant women's attending physician. For the stage of the pregnancy subsequent to the end of the 1st trimester, the Court ruled that the state may promote its interest in the health of the mother by regulating the abortion procedure in ways reasonably related to maternal health. For the stage of pregnancy subsequent to viability, the state may promote its interest in the potentiality of human life by regulation, even prohibiting abortion, except where it is necessary to preserve the mother's life or health. These 5 cases challenge the role of the Court in determining the scope of appropriate state regulation at various stages of the pregnancy. Suffering a loss of prestige in the 10 years since the Roe v. Wade and Doe v

  14. XMM-Newton Monitoring of the Close Pre-main-sequence Binary AK Sco. Evidence of Tide-driven Filling of the Inner Gap in the Circumbinary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; López-Santiago, Javier; Talavera, Antonio; Sytov, A. Yu.; Bisikalo, D.

    2013-03-01

    AK Sco stands out among pre-main-sequence binaries because of its prominent ultraviolet excess, the high eccentricity of its orbit, and the strong tides driven by it. AK Sco consists of two F5-type stars that get as close as 11 R * at periastron passage. The presence of a dense (ne ~ 1011 cm-3) extended envelope has been unveiled recently. In this article, we report the results from an XMM-Newton-based monitoring of the system. We show that at periastron, X-ray and UV fluxes are enhanced by a factor of ~3 with respect to the apastron values. The X-ray radiation is produced in an optically thin plasma with T ~ 6.4 × 106 K and it is found that the N H column density rises from 0.35 × 1021 cm-2 at periastron to 1.11 × 1021 cm-2 at apastron, in good agreement with previous polarimetric observations. The UV emission detected in the Optical Monitor band seems to be caused by the reprocessing of the high-energy magnetospheric radiation on the circumstellar material. Further evidence of the strong magnetospheric disturbances is provided by the detection of line broadening of 278.7 km s-1 in the N V line with Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Numerical simulations of the mass flow from the circumbinary disk to the components have been carried out. They provide a consistent scenario with which to interpret AK Sco observations. We show that the eccentric orbit acts like a gravitational piston. At apastron, matter is dragged efficiently from the inner disk border, filling the inner gap and producing accretion streams that end as ring-like structures around each component of the system. At periastron, the ring-like structures come into contact, leading to angular momentum loss, and thus producing an accretion outburst.

  15. [Counter-acception or abort and lie].

    PubMed

    Maruani, G

    1979-09-01

    In this very short but fiery and violent paper against abortion the author states that most women seeking abortion are actually lying to themselves, pretending they want something which, in reality, they do not want, i.e. an abortion. The laws regulating abortion in most countries are such that a woman is practically forbidden to make an independent decision, despite, or because of the number of counseling sessions and of meetings with doctors that she must go through. Radio, television, newspapers and magazines, friends and relatives, all contribute to make of abortion a run-of-the-mill operation, while it should be seen as scandal, and as the total negation of any maternal instinct. PMID:12158286

  16. [Therapeutic abortion, unjustified absence in health policy].

    PubMed

    Chávez-Alvarado, Susana

    2013-07-01

    Although abortion for health reasons is not considered a crime in Peru, the State does not allow its inclusion in public policy, thus violating women's right to terminate a pregnancy when it affects their health. When examining the article in the Criminal Code which decriminalizes this type of abortion, provisions are identified which protect women and set the conditions to offer this type of service. This document sets the debate about the arguments used by the Peruvian State for not approving a therapeutic abortion protocol which would regulate the provision and financing of therapeutic abortion in public services, and explains why this obligation should be complied with, based on the conceptual framework of "health exception" In addition, it presents two cases brought before the judicial court in which the Peruvian State was found guilty of violating the human rights of two adolescents to whom a therapeutic abortion was denied.

  17. Information needs among Italian abortion patients.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson Agostino, M

    1997-01-01

    Controversy still surrounds abortion and abortion care in many countries. Information for women who seek abortion is not always as objective and complete as desired. In Italy abortion has been legal for the last decades. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate general information needs among patients in a hospital in Rome. A questionnaire concerning information needs, opinions on information to include in a booklet, and methods of information was distributed among 212 women in a public hospital in Rome. Women answered the questionnaire very differently, and general information needs were not shown to be as essential as expected; their present needs seemed especially underestimated. However, a booklet with information as objective and complete as possible is suggested as a way of giving information to abortion patients.

  18. Medical abortion: the hidden revolution.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Phil

    2015-07-01

    While the medical abortion (MA) drugs, mifepristone and misoprostol, have radically altered reproductive health practices around the world, there has been little field research on the sales and use of these drugs, especially in developing countries. This leaves the family planning community with many unanswered questions. While good profiles of contraceptive use are available for many countries and we have good technical data on the MA drugs' efficacy, dosages and regimens such as home dosage of misoprostol versus clinic dosage, we have very little information about the quantities of MA drugs sold, how they are used, where they are used, and, in the case of misoprostol, for what purposes. Sales data are available from one excellent commercial survey and from social marketing sales of mifepristone and misoprostol and these are presented. Acknowledging the sensitivity of the issue, especially in countries where abortion is severely restricted, the author makes a plea for careful additional research to shed light on an important and growing part of the international reproductive health picture.

  19. Women's risk of repeat abortions is strongly associated with alcohol consumption: a longitudinal analysis of a Russian national panel study, 1994-2009.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Katherine; Grundy, Emily; Kenward, Michael G; Leon, David A

    2014-01-01

    Abortion rates in Russia, particularly repeat abortions, are among the highest in the world, and abortion complications make a substantial contribution to the country's high maternal mortality rate. Russia also has a very high rate of hazardous alcohol use. However, the association between alcohol use and abortion in Russia remains unexplored. We investigated the longitudinal predictors of first and repeat abortion, focussing on women's alcohol use as a risk factor. Follow-up data from 2,623 women of reproductive age (16-44 years) was extracted from 14 waves of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), a nationally representative panel study covering the period 1994-2009. We used discrete time hazard models to estimate the probability of having a first and repeat abortion by social, demographic and health characteristics at the preceding study wave. Having a first abortion was associated with demographic factors such as age and parity, whereas repeat abortions were associated with low education and alcohol use. After adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic factors, the risk of having a repeat abortion increased significantly as women's drinking frequency increased (P<0.001), and binge drinking women were significantly more likely to have a repeat abortion than non-drinkers (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.62-3.20). This association was not accounted for by contraceptive use or a higher risk of pregnancy. Therefore the determinants of first and repeat abortion in Russia between 1994-2009 were different. Women who had repeat abortions were distinguished by their heavier and more frequent alcohol use. The mechanism for the association is not well understood but could be explained by unmeasured personality factors, such as risk taking, or social non-conformity increasing the risk of unplanned pregnancy. Heavy or frequent drinkers constitute a particularly high risk group for repeat abortion, who could be targeted in prevention efforts. PMID:24671000

  20. Women's Risk of Repeat Abortions Is Strongly Associated with Alcohol Consumption: A Longitudinal Analysis of a Russian National Panel Study, 1994–2009

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Katherine; Grundy, Emily; Kenward, Michael G.; Leon, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Abortion rates in Russia, particularly repeat abortions, are among the highest in the world, and abortion complications make a substantial contribution to the country's high maternal mortality rate. Russia also has a very high rate of hazardous alcohol use. However, the association between alcohol use and abortion in Russia remains unexplored. We investigated the longitudinal predictors of first and repeat abortion, focussing on women's alcohol use as a risk factor. Follow-up data from 2,623 women of reproductive age (16–44 years) was extracted from 14 waves of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), a nationally representative panel study covering the period 1994–2009. We used discrete time hazard models to estimate the probability of having a first and repeat abortion by social, demographic and health characteristics at the preceding study wave. Having a first abortion was associated with demographic factors such as age and parity, whereas repeat abortions were associated with low education and alcohol use. After adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic factors, the risk of having a repeat abortion increased significantly as women's drinking frequency increased (P<0.001), and binge drinking women were significantly more likely to have a repeat abortion than non-drinkers (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.62–3.20). This association was not accounted for by contraceptive use or a higher risk of pregnancy. Therefore the determinants of first and repeat abortion in Russia between 1994–2009 were different. Women who had repeat abortions were distinguished by their heavier and more frequent alcohol use. The mechanism for the association is not well understood but could be explained by unmeasured personality factors, such as risk taking, or social non-conformity increasing the risk of unplanned pregnancy. Heavy or frequent drinkers constitute a particularly high risk group for repeat abortion, who could be targeted in prevention efforts. PMID:24671000

  1. Women's risk of repeat abortions is strongly associated with alcohol consumption: a longitudinal analysis of a Russian national panel study, 1994-2009.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Katherine; Grundy, Emily; Kenward, Michael G; Leon, David A

    2014-01-01

    Abortion rates in Russia, particularly repeat abortions, are among the highest in the world, and abortion complications make a substantial contribution to the country's high maternal mortality rate. Russia also has a very high rate of hazardous alcohol use. However, the association between alcohol use and abortion in Russia remains unexplored. We investigated the longitudinal predictors of first and repeat abortion, focussing on women's alcohol use as a risk factor. Follow-up data from 2,623 women of reproductive age (16-44 years) was extracted from 14 waves of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), a nationally representative panel study covering the period 1994-2009. We used discrete time hazard models to estimate the probability of having a first and repeat abortion by social, demographic and health characteristics at the preceding study wave. Having a first abortion was associated with demographic factors such as age and parity, whereas repeat abortions were associated with low education and alcohol use. After adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic factors, the risk of having a repeat abortion increased significantly as women's drinking frequency increased (P<0.001), and binge drinking women were significantly more likely to have a repeat abortion than non-drinkers (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.62-3.20). This association was not accounted for by contraceptive use or a higher risk of pregnancy. Therefore the determinants of first and repeat abortion in Russia between 1994-2009 were different. Women who had repeat abortions were distinguished by their heavier and more frequent alcohol use. The mechanism for the association is not well understood but could be explained by unmeasured personality factors, such as risk taking, or social non-conformity increasing the risk of unplanned pregnancy. Heavy or frequent drinkers constitute a particularly high risk group for repeat abortion, who could be targeted in prevention efforts.

  2. If war is "just," so is abortion.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    1991-01-01

    Currently Catholic bishops are applying an inconsistent ethical paradigm to the issues of war and abortion. Based on the seamless garment theory war, abortion and capital punishment are all immoral acts because they are of the same garment. They are all "killing acts" and as such they are immoral. However there is within the Catholic paradigm the idea of a just war. The just war theory states that the destruction of human life in war is justified if it is for a greater good. However abortion has no exceptions, there is no just abortion in the rules of the Catholic Church. The author takes the just war doctrine as presented by the Catholic Church and shows how it could easily apply to abortion. Both war and abortion involve the taking of a human life, but in the case of war the taking of a life is justified if it is done to protect your own life. The same exception in abortion would be to allow abortion when the mother's life is in danger. yet no such exception exists. The just war theory further states that was is necessary to protect national integrity, particularly if the violation erodes the quality of life for its citizens. The same exception for abortion would include allowing abortions for women who already have more children then they can care for or if having the child would erode the quality of life for the woman. Other aspects of the just war theory include the competence and goals of the national leaders. Women must also be allowed to be competent moral agents. Proponents of the seamless garment theory will bring up the fact that in a just war only combatants die yet the fetus is innocent. But no war has ever been fought without the loss of innocent civilians.

  3. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion

    PubMed Central

    Urquia, Marcelo L.; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O’Campo, Patricia J.; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H.; Henry, David A.; Ray, Joel G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. Methods: We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Results: Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75–2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26–2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44–3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02–7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. Interpretation: High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. PMID:27067818

  4. States rebel against Federal abortion orders.

    PubMed

    Kent, C; Tokarski, C

    1994-01-01

    Despite the ascent of Bill Clinton to Presidential power in the US and his early successful repeals of bans on abortion counseling at federally funded clinics, abortions in military hospitals, and fetal tissue research, the controversy and debate over a woman's right to abortion continues in the US. The Hyde Amendment, named after Representative Henry Hyde, Republican from Illinois, has been in effect since 1976 barring Medicaid from funding abortions except to save the life of the pregnant woman. Congress in 1993, however, eased the amendment to allow states to use Medicaid funds to pay for abortions for low-income women in the cases of rape or incest. Anti-abortion lawmakers were assured by the provision's sponsors that the Clinton Administration would not force states to comply. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) instead sent a letter to state Medicaid directors on December 28, 1993, ordering them to use Medicaid funds to pay for abortions for low-income women who were the victims of rape or incest. President Clinton subsequently complained that HHS had bypassed his office in issuing the directive, state Medicaid directors protested that the directive had been imposed without the usual notice and allowance of time for public comment, and states claimed that the order clashes with existing state laws which ban the public funding of abortions not required to save the life of the mother. Officials from Arkansas, Colorado, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, and Utah have stated that they may fight the directive, while the HHS will most likely not move to rescind or change its directive. The issue will probably be resolved in the courts. The authors note that this state/federal battle over Medicaid-funded abortions is only part of a larger war scheduled to take place in Congress over whether pregnancy-related services, including abortion, will be covered in the Administration's Health Security Act.

  5. [Induced abortion: a vulnerable public health problem].

    PubMed

    Requena, M

    1991-03-01

    Induced abortion is an urgent public health problem that can be controlled if it is approached in its true complexity and with a social and humanist perspective. Induced abortion has been discussed in Chile since the last century, but not always openly. Abortion is not just an individual and collective medical problem, it is also an ethical, religious, legal, demographic, political, and psychological problem. Above all it is a problem of human rights. In the past 60 years, more than 50 countries representing 76% of the world population have liberalized their abortion legislation. Around 980 million women have some degrees of access of legal abortion. The magnitude of illegal abortion is difficult to determine because of the desire of women to hide their experiences. Estimates of the incidence of abortion in Chile made some 25 years ago are no longer valid because of the numerous social changes in the intervening years. The number of abortions in Chile in 1987 was estimated using an indirect residual method at 195,441, of which 90%, or 175,897, were induced. By this estimate, 38.8% of pregnancies in Chile end in abortion. Data on hospitalizations for complications of induced abortion show an increase from 13.9/1000 fertile aged women in 1940 to 29.1 in 1965. By 1987, with increased contraceptive usage, the rate declined to 10.5 abortions per 1000 fertile aged women. The cost of hospitalization for abortion complications in 1987, despite the decline, was still estimated at US $4.3 million, a large sum in an era of declining health resources. The problem of induced abortion can be analyzed by placing it in the context of elements affecting the desire to control fertility. 4 complexes of variables are involved: those affecting the supply of contraceptive, the demand for contraceptives, the various costs of fertility control measure, and alternatives to fertility control for satisfying various needs. The analysis is further complicated when efforts are made to

  6. Can the Danish abortion rate be changed?

    PubMed

    Lawson, C

    1990-06-01

    Topics of interest to women were discussed at a 1-day conference. 85% of the participants were women. The theme was, "Can the abortion rate be changed?" The number of abortions rose from 19,919 in 1985 to 21,199 in 1988, a rate of 6%. The previous 8 years had shown a steady decrease from 25,662 in 1977. This was especially pronounced in women under 25. The birth rate climbed 10% at the same time. With the exception of Ireland, free access to abortion is the rule in the majority of the countries of Europe. Prenatal diagnosis (PD)--chorionic villus biopsies and amniocentesis--was begun in 1970 in Denmark. Investigation of placental biopsies was begun in 1983. The number of diagnoses rose sharply after this. From 1980-1988 the number of legally induced abortions was between 20,000 and 23,000. The number of spontaneous abortions rose from 8000 to over 9000. There were approximately 70 abortions because of PD. This figure reached 133 in 1980. Women aged 35 and above have made increasing use of PD. After PD was brought about, the number of legal abortions dropped. 42% of pregnant women over 35 carried to term;l 46% chose legal abortion. In the 40-year age group, the figures were 23% and 60%, respectively. Data on 140 abortion seekers (AS) (ages 16-21) in Denmark (73.6% replied) were compared to 201 sexually active youngsters who were not pregnant. The abortion seekers showed no difference from those not pregnant. However, more among the AS had started sexual intercourse with the 1st 2 years after menarche; they had had many different sexual partners. 73.9% of the AS used contraception at 1st intercourse, compared to 82.1% of those not pregnant. In the abortion-seeking group, about 1/3 became pregnant despite the use of contraception (generally a condom). 44% had most recently used a pill. In 1973, a law was passed permitting abortion before the end of the 12th week of pregnancy. In the last 17 years, abortions have become more frequent among young career women. The

  7. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lamina, Mustafa Adelaja

    2015-01-01

    Background. Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. Method. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. Results. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. Conclusion. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high. PMID:26078881

  8. Fertility after contraception or abortion.

    PubMed

    Huggins, G R; Cullins, V E

    1990-10-01

    There is a very small correlation, if any, between the prior use of OCs and congenital malformations, including Down's syndrome. There are few, if any, recent reports on masculinization of a female fetus born to a mother who took an OC containing 1 mg of a progestogen during early pregnancy. However, patients suspected of being pregnant and who are desirous of continuing that pregnancy should not continue to take OCs, nor should progestogen withdrawal pregnancy tests be used. Concern still exists regarding the occurrence of congenital abnormalities in babies born to such women. The incidence of postoperative infection after first trimester therapeutic abortion in this country is low. However, increasing numbers of women are undergoing repeated pregnancy terminations, and their risk for subsequent pelvic infections may be multiplied with each succeeding abortion. The incidence of prematurity due to cervical incompetence or surgical infertility after first trimester pregnancy terminations is not increased significantly. Asherman's syndrome may occur after septic therapeutic abortion. The pregnancy rate after treatment of this syndrome is low. The return of menses and the achievement of a pregnancy may be slightly delayed after OCs are discontinued, but the fertility rate is within the normal range by 1 year. The incidence of postpill amenorrhea of greater than 6 months' duration is probably less than 1%. The occurrence of the syndrome does not seem to be related to length of use or type of pill. Patients with prior normal menses as well as those with menstrual abnormalities before use of OCs may develop this syndrome. Patients with normal estrogen and gonadotropin levels usually respond with return of menses and ovulation when treated with clomiphene. The rate for achievement of pregnancy is much lower than that for patients with spontaneous return of menses. The criteria for defining PID or for categorizing its severity are diverse. The incidence of PID is higher

  9. Crew Exploration Vehicle Ascent Abort Coverage Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abadie, Marc J.; Berndt, Jon S.; Burke, Laura M.; Falck, Robert D.; Gowan, John W., Jr.; Madsen, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    An important element in the design of NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is the consideration given to crew safety during various ascent phase failure scenarios. To help ensure crew safety during this critical and dynamic flight phase, the CEV requirements specify that an abort capability must be continuously available from lift-off through orbit insertion. To address this requirement, various CEV ascent abort modes are analyzed using 3-DOF (Degree Of Freedom) and 6-DOF simulations. The analysis involves an evaluation of the feasibility and survivability of each abort mode and an assessment of the abort mode coverage using the current baseline vehicle design. Factors such as abort system performance, crew load limits, thermal environments, crew recovery, and vehicle element disposal are investigated to determine if the current vehicle requirements are appropriate and achievable. Sensitivity studies and design trades are also completed so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle design. An overview of the CEV ascent abort modes is presented along with the driving requirements for abort scenarios. The results of the analysis completed as part of the requirements validation process are then discussed. Finally, the conclusions of the study are presented, and future analysis tasks are recommended.

  10. Legal abortion in Italy: 1980-1981.

    PubMed

    Tosi, S L; Grandolfo, M E; Spinelli, A; O'Reilly, K R; Hogue, C J

    1985-01-01

    In 1980 and 1981, there were 446,430 legal abortions performed in Italy. There were about 345 legal abortions per 1,000 live births in 1980 and 363 in 1981. About 1.6 percent of women aged 15-49 obtained abortions in both years. An analysis of the characteristics of Italian women who obtained abortions indicates that most were married (about 70 percent), aged 18-36 (74 percent), had had less than a high school education (74 percent) and had had at least one previous live birth (70-75 percent). In 1981, 88 percent of abortions were obtained in public hospitals; 58 percent were carried out at eight or fewer weeks of gestation; and 78 percent were performed under general anesthesia. Only 20 percent were performed without an overnight stay in the hospital; and over 40 percent of women were hospitalized for two days or longer. Infection after the abortion was reported in only 0.03 percent of cases in 1981, and hemorrhage was reported in only 0.27 percent. In 1981, between 43 percent and 84 percent of gynecologists (depending on the region of the country) declined to perform abortions on grounds of conscience. PMID:3872230

  11. Abortion: women's demands. Report from Piriapolis.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A

    1993-01-01

    On November 26-28, 1992, the Latin American and Caribbean Women's Health Network convened a meeting in Uruguay entitled, "Abortion in Latin America: Perspectives and Strategies." The first session was devoted to discussion of a paper that argues that a feminist ethic must be developed to counteract the dominant patriarchal ethic, which fails to improve women's lives. The next session covered the World Bank's concerns about the economic consequences of illegal abortion. The third session included descriptions of the experiences of the coordinator of the Sao Paulo Municipal Women's Health Program and of the new Argentine National Women's Health Network. Debate and discussion were generated by the next speaker, who presented a legislative proposal for the decriminalization of abortion in Latin America and noted that restrictive policies, which have failed to reduce abortion rates, will be difficult to change. It was proposed that regional campaigns be launched to legalize abortion as a first step in achieving reproductive rights for women. After a review of abortion-related activities in the region during the past year, participants composed a five-year plan of action in the areas of research, data centralization, petition campaigns, and publication of a review of abortion legislation. Finally, it was proposed that a counselor training course in sexual and reproductive rights be developed. PMID:12179717

  12. Ireland: child rape case undermines abortion ban.

    PubMed

    1992-11-01

    Abortion has been illegal in Ireland since 1861. This position was written into the national Constitution in 1963 and reconfirmed by referendum in 1983. Contraception is also illegal in the country. The pregnancy of a 14-year old adolescent due to an alleged rape, however, has caused many in Ireland to voice their support for abortion in limited circumstances. Approximately 5000 pregnant women go from Ireland to the United Kingdom annually for abortions. This 14-year old youth also planned to make the crossing, but was blocked from leaving by the Irish police and later by an injunction of the Attorney-General. The Irish Supreme Court upheld the injunction even though the young woman was reportedly contemplating suicide. A national outcry ensued with thousands of demonstrators marching in Dublin to demand the availability of information on abortion and that Irish women be allowed to travel whenever and wherever they desire. 66% of respondents to recent public opinion polls favor abortion in certain circumstances. Ultimately, the Irish Supreme Court reversed their stance to allow pregnant Irish women to travel internationally and gave suicidal Irish women the right to abortions. These decisions were made shortly within the time frame needed for the young lady in question to received a legal abortion in the United Kingdom.

  13. Spanish cabinet moves to liberalize abortion law.

    PubMed

    1995-07-14

    On July 7 (1995), the cabinet of Spain's socialist prime minister Felipe Gonzalez approved a measure to expand the country's abortion law by permitting a woman to obtain the procedure during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy in circumstances not currently allowed. Since 1985, abortion has been legal throughout pregnancy in the following situations: when a medical specialist not associated with the procedure determines that an abortion is necessary to "avert a serious risk to [a woman's] physical or mental health;" during the first 12 weeks if the pregnancy results from reported rape; and within the first 22 weeks when two physicians not associated with the abortion certify that the fetus would develop "severe physical or mental defects." The new legislation, which also requires women to receive nonbinding counseling, permits abortions when a health care professional determines that carrying to term will cause a woman severe anxiety for social or economic reasons. Before the measure can become law, it must be approved by the Spanish Parliament, which is expected to vote on the proposal in September. The Catalan nationalist grouping, which has been a key supporter of the socialist government, is among the forces opposing liberalization of the abortion statute. Partly due to the abortion controversy, the Catalan coalition is expected to vote on July 17 to decide whether to continue its backing.

  14. Abortion stigma: a reconceptualization of constituents, causes, and consequences.

    PubMed

    Norris, Alison; Bessett, Danielle; Steinberg, Julia R; Kavanaugh, Megan L; De Zordo, Silvia; Becker, Davida

    2011-01-01

    Stigmatization is a deeply contextual, dynamic social process; stigma from abortion is the discrediting of individuals as a result of their association with abortion. Abortion stigma is under-researched and under-theorized, and the few existing studies focus only on women who have had abortions. We build on this work, drawing from the social science literature to describe three groups whom we posit are affected by abortion stigma: Women who have had abortions, individuals who work in facilities that provide abortion, and supporters of women who have had abortions, including partners, family, and friends, as well as abortion researchers and advocates. Although these groups are not homogeneous, some common experiences within the groups--and differences between the groups--help to illuminate how people manage abortion stigma and begin to reveal the roots of this stigma itself. We discuss five reasons why abortion is stigmatized, beginning with the rationale identified by Kumar, Hessini, and Mitchell: The violation of female ideals of sexuality and motherhood. We then suggest additional causes of abortion stigma, including attributing personhood to the fetus, legal restrictions, the idea that abortion is dirty or unhealthy, and the use of stigma as a tool for anti-abortion efforts. Although not exhaustive, these causes of abortion stigma illustrate how it is made manifest for affected groups. Understanding abortion stigma will inform strategies to reduce it, which has direct implications for improving access to care and better health for those whom stigma affects.

  15. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  16. Emotional Sequelae of Abortion: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemkau, Jeanne Parr

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes literature on normative reactions to abortion and factors that increase risk of negative emotional sequelae. Discusses characteristics of woman, social support and cultural milieu around the abortion, the medical environment and abortion procedure itself, and events subsequent to abortion which may cause conflict. Discusses implications…

  17. The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

  18. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  19. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  20. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  1. The deprivation argument against abortion.

    PubMed

    Stretton, Dean

    2004-04-01

    The most plausible pro-life argument claims that abortion is seriously wrong because it deprives the foetus of something valuable. This paper examines two recent versions of this argument. Don Marquis's version takes the valuable thing to be a 'future like ours', a future containing valuable experiences and activities. Jim Stone's version takes the valuable thing to be a future containing conscious goods, which it is the foetus's biological nature to make itself have. I give three grounds for rejecting these arguments. First, they lead to unacceptable inequalities in the wrongness of killing. Second, they lead to counterintuitive results in a range of imaginary cases. Third, they ignore the role of psychological connectedness in determining the magnitude or seriousness of deprivation-based harms: because the foetus is only weakly psychologically connected to its own future, it cannot be seriously harmed by being deprived of that future. PMID:15148946

  2. Gap Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  3. Intravascular spill of hyperosmolar urea during induced midtrimester abortion.

    PubMed

    Kovasznay, B M; Burkman, R T; Atienza, M F; King, T M

    1979-01-01

    Intravascular spill of hypertonic sodium chloride and the resultant serious and occasionally fatal consquences have been reported in association with induced midtrimester abortion. This report details 3 cases of intravascular spill of hyperosmolar urea. Although urea may pose less concern, because of its ability to readily cross cell membranes and its action as an osmotic diuretic, inadvertent intravascular spill can produce symptoms that include nausea, headache, sensations of warmth, and intense uterine cramping. In addition, abnormal blood pigments may occasionally be noted in the urine. Treatment includes intravenous hydration, careful monitoring of fluid/electrolyte balance and renal function, and avoiding the use of oxytocic agents.

  4. The Marquis de Sade and induced abortion.

    PubMed Central

    Farr, A D

    1980-01-01

    In 1795 the Marquis de Sade published his La Philosophic dans le boudoir, in which he proposed the use of induced abortion for social reasons and as a means of population control. It is from this time that medical and social acceptance of abortion can be dated, although previously the subject had not been discussed in public in modern times. It is suggested that it was largely due to de Sade's writing that induced abortion received the impetus which resulted in its subsequent spread in western society. PMID:6990001

  5. Immediate Intrauterine Device Insertion Following Surgical Abortion.

    PubMed

    Patil, Eva; Bednarek, Paula H

    2015-12-01

    Placement of an intrauterine device (IUD) immediately after a first or second trimester surgical abortion is safe and convenient and decreases the risk of repeat unintended pregnancy. Immediate postabortion IUD placement is not recommended in the setting of postprocedure hemorrhage, uterine perforation, infection, or hematometra. Otherwise, there are few contraindications to IUD placement following surgical abortion. Sexually transmitted infection screening should follow US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. No additional antibiotics are needed beyond those used for the abortion. Placing immediate postabortion IUDs makes highly-effective long-acting reversible contraception more accessible to women. PMID:26598301

  6. How technology is reframing the abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Callahan, D

    1986-02-01

    Since the 1973 Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion, medical and scientific developments have focused greater public and professional attention on the status of the fetus. Their cumulative effect may influence legal, social, and moral thought and set the stage for a change in public opinion and a challenge to legalized abortion. There is as yet no inexorable convergence of medical data and legal opinion that would undermine the rational of Roe v. Wade. But the prochoice movement must find room for an open airing of the moral questions if abortion is to remain what it should be--a legally acceptable act.

  7. Preventing infective complications relating to induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Mary, Nirmala; Mahmood, Tahir A

    2010-08-01

    Infective complications following induced abortions are still a common cause of morbidity and mortality. This review focusses on defining the strategies to improve care of women seeking an induced abortion and to reduce infective complications. We have considered the evidence for screening and cost-effectiveness for antibiotic prophylaxis. Current evidence suggests that treating all women with prophylactic antibiotics in preference to screening and treating is the most cost-effective way of reducing infective complications following induced abortions. The final strategy to prevent infective complications should be individualized for each region/area depending on the prevalence of organisms causing pelvic infections and the resources available.

  8. Selective abortion in Brazil: the anencephaly case.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora

    2007-08-01

    This paper discusses the Brazilian Supreme Court ruling on the case of anencephaly. In Brazil, abortion is a crime against the life of a fetus, and selective abortion of non-viable fetuses is prohibited. Following a paradigmatic case discussed by the Brazilian Supreme Court in 2004, the use of abortion was authorized in the case of a fetus with anencephaly. The objective of this paper is to analyze the ethical arguments of the case, in particular the strategy of avoiding the moral status of the fetus, the cornerstone thesis of the Catholic Church. PMID:17614991

  9. Access to services: advocacy for abortion.

    PubMed

    Edouard, Lindsay

    2014-10-01

    Twenty-five years ago, in 1989, family planning services in Britain faced a serious crisis with contentious cuts for community clinics being contemplated by health authorities. There was extensive discussion on ethical issues relating to the provision of abortion services. Social acceptance of abortion occurred in association with departure from traditional values due to the exigencies of modern life. Twenty-five years later, in 2014, abortion unfortunately continues to cause controversy in international health, despite guidance for its incorporation in comprehensive reproductive health care services.

  10. Public opinion about abortion-related stigma among Mexican Catholics and implications for unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    McMurtrie, Stephanie M; García, Sandra G; Wilson, Kate S; Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Fawcett, Gillian M

    2012-09-01

    A nationally representative survey was conducted among 3000 Catholics in Mexico during 2009 and 2010. Respondents were presented with a hypothetical situation about a young woman who decided to have an abortion and were asked their personal opinion of her. On the basis of a stigma index, it was found that the majority (61%) had stigmatizing attitudes about abortion; however, 81% believed that abortion should be legal in at least some circumstances. Respondents were significantly more likely to stigmatize abortion if they disagreed with the Mexico City law legalizing the procedure (odds ratio 1.66; 95% CI, 1.30-2.11) and believed that abortion should be prohibited in all cases (odds ratio 3.13; 95% CI, 2.28-4.30). Such stigma can lead women to seek unsafe abortions to avoid judgment by society.

  11. XMM-NEWTON MONITORING OF THE CLOSE PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE BINARY AK SCO. EVIDENCE OF TIDE-DRIVEN FILLING OF THE INNER GAP IN THE CIRCUMBINARY DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez de Castro, Ana Ines; Lopez-Santiago, Javier; Talavera, Antonio; Sytov, A. Yu.; Bisikalo, D.

    2013-03-20

    AK Sco stands out among pre-main-sequence binaries because of its prominent ultraviolet excess, the high eccentricity of its orbit, and the strong tides driven by it. AK Sco consists of two F5-type stars that get as close as 11 R{sub *} at periastron passage. The presence of a dense (n{sub e} {approx} 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}) extended envelope has been unveiled recently. In this article, we report the results from an XMM-Newton-based monitoring of the system. We show that at periastron, X-ray and UV fluxes are enhanced by a factor of {approx}3 with respect to the apastron values. The X-ray radiation is produced in an optically thin plasma with T {approx} 6.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K and it is found that the N{sub H} column density rises from 0.35 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} at periastron to 1.11 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} at apastron, in good agreement with previous polarimetric observations. The UV emission detected in the Optical Monitor band seems to be caused by the reprocessing of the high-energy magnetospheric radiation on the circumstellar material. Further evidence of the strong magnetospheric disturbances is provided by the detection of line broadening of 278.7 km s{sup -1} in the N V line with Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Numerical simulations of the mass flow from the circumbinary disk to the components have been carried out. They provide a consistent scenario with which to interpret AK Sco observations. We show that the eccentric orbit acts like a gravitational piston. At apastron, matter is dragged efficiently from the inner disk border, filling the inner gap and producing accretion streams that end as ring-like structures around each component of the system. At periastron, the ring-like structures come into contact, leading to angular momentum loss, and thus producing an accretion outburst.

  12. Abortion Providers' Experiences with Medicaid Abortion Coverage Policies: A Qualitative Multistate Study

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Amanda; Blanchard, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the implementation of state Medicaid abortion policies and the impact of these policies on abortion clients and abortion providers. Data Source From 2007 to 2010, in-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of 70 abortion-providing facilities in 15 states. Study Design In-depth interviews focused on abortion providers' perceptions regarding Medicaid and their experiences working with Medicaid and securing reimbursement in cases that should receive federal funding: rape, incest, and life endangerment. Data Extraction Data were transcribed verbatim before being coded. Principal Findings In two study states, abortion providers reported that 97 percent of submitted claims for qualifying cases were funded. Success receiving reimbursement was attributed to streamlined electronic billing procedures, timely claims processing, and responsive Medicaid staff. Abortion providers in the other 13 states reported reimbursement for 36 percent of qualifying cases. Providers reported difficulties obtaining reimbursement due to unclear rejections of qualifying claims, complex billing procedures, lack of knowledgeable Medicaid staff with whom billing problems could be discussed, and low and slow reimbursement rates. Conclusions Poor state-level implementation of Medicaid coverage of abortion policies creates barriers for women seeking abortion. Efforts to ensure policies are implemented appropriately would improve women's health. PMID:22742741

  13. Receiving versus being denied an abortion and subsequent tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Sarah C M; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-03-01

    The negative health consequences of tobacco use are well documented. Some research finds women receiving abortions are at increased risk of subsequent tobacco use. This literature has methodological problems, most importantly, inappropriate comparison groups. This study uses data from the Turnaway Study, a longitudinal study of women who all sought, but did not all receive, abortions at 30 facilities across the United States. Participants included women presenting just before an abortion facility's gestational age limit who received abortions (Near Limit Abortion Group, n = 452), just after the gestational limit who were denied abortions (Turnaways, n = 231), and who received first trimester abortions (First Trimester Abortion Group, n = 273). This study examined the association between receiving versus being denied an abortion and subsequent tobacco use over 2-years. Trajectories of tobacco use over 2 years were compared using multivariate mixed effects regression. Women receiving abortion maintained their level of tobacco use over 2 years. Women denied abortion initially had lower levels of tobacco use than women receiving abortion, but increased their tobacco use from 1 week through 12-18 months post-abortion seeking and then decreased their use by 2 years post-abortion seeking. Baseline parity modified these associations. Receiving an abortion was not associated with an increase in tobacco use over time. Overall, women who carry unwanted pregnancies to term appear to demonstrate similar cessation and resumption patterns to other pregnant women.

  14. Commercial Crew Program: Launch Abort Systems

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's work in the next generation of launch abort systems (LAS) is significantly different from past programs. Instead of designing a specific system for a given spacecraft or rocket, engineers ar...

  15. Thatcher condemns attacks on abortion mp.

    PubMed

    1987-12-19

    The Prime Minister, Mrs Margaret Thatcher, has stepped in to condemn a series of violent attacks on Liberal MP David Alton who is trying to reduce the [Illegible word] limit on abortions from 28 to 18 weeks.

  16. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone levels normally change throughout ... the development of breast cancer. Important Information about Breast Cancer Risk Factors At present, the factors known to ...

  17. Spiral Kicker for the beam abort system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. L.

    The feasibility of a special kicker to produce a damped spiral beam at the beam dump for the beam abort system was determined. There appears to be no problem with realizing this concept at a reasonably low cost.

  18. Ethnocultural identity and induced abortion in Kazakstan.

    PubMed

    Agadjanian, V; Qian, Z

    1997-12-01

    This study analyzes ethnic differences in induced abortion among ever-married women in Kazakstan, drawing on data from the 1995 Kazakstan Demographic and Health Survey. Instead of conventional ethnic markers, such as "Kazak" or "Russian," it focuses on more complex ethnocultural identities that combine ascribed ethnicity with language use. Because of the history of russification in Kazakstan, three ethnocultural groups are defined and compared--Kazak women who chose to be interviewed in Kazak, Kazak women who chose to be interviewed in Russian, and women of European background interviewed in Russian. Whereas women of European origin were the most likely to undergo induced abortion, the Russian-interviewed Kazaks had higher abortion ratios and were more likely to terminate their pregnancies than were the Kazak-interviewed Kazaks, net of other characteristics. The implications of the results for induced abortion trends and family planning policy in Kazakstan are discussed in addition to other findings. PMID:9431652

  19. Abortion and the search for public policy.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, R L

    1993-01-01

    The social policy towards abortion determined by the Roe vs. Wade decision can be overturned at any time depending upon how the US Supreme Court reacts to challenges to its earlier ruling. Roe vs. Wade was decided by a 7 to 2 vote, and the members of the Supreme Court appointed by Presidents Reagan and Bush were chosen to uphold a conservative (anti-abortion) ideology. Although more than half of the present Court was appointed by these presidents, President Clinton now has the opportunity to appoint 2 more Justices. The public policy positions which are currently available to the Supreme Court or to Congress can be ranked on a chart from liberal to conservative. In this article, 7 different positions are described in detail, and the public policy implications of the implementation of each position are described. The first position considered is the extreme conservative position of "no abortion; no exceptions" as defined by author and Roman Catholic theologian Gerald Kelly. The only procedures allowed which would end the life of a fetus would be those to remove an ovary or fallopian tube in the case of an extrauterine pregnancy (permissible under the doctrine of double effect). In the most extreme interpretation of this situation (which Kelly does not seem to hold), those who perform abortions would be prosecuted for murder. The next position considered is the most liberal position, which is espoused by Michael Tooley, and which holds that abortion and early infanticide are both permissible. The third position is that which allows no abortion but has limited exceptions in cases of rape or incest. The appropriate consideration for abortion presented next is that of the late Joseph Fletcher who believed that whatever love requires is the proper response to the situation. Philosopher Dan Callahan espouses the notion that abortion should be performed for compelling reasons only (after effective counseling). The trimester approach to the problem of abortion is that set

  20. Catholicism and abortion since Roe v. Wade.

    PubMed

    Hisel, L M

    1998-01-01

    This document summarizes a sample of significant activities and events undertaken by Roman Catholics in response to the US Supreme Court's Roe vs. Wade decision legalizing induced abortion. The summaries begin with the 1966 creation of the National Right to Life Committee and cover opposition of Catholic bishops to the Roe decision, the organization of the National Committee for a Human Life Amendment (NCHLA), the mock investiture of a female pope by Catholics for a Free Choice, dismissal of a pro-life priest from the Jesuits, excommunication of various women because of their work with pro-choice agencies or ones that provided abortion services, meetings of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) with presidential candidates, NCHLA lobbying for the Hyde Amendment, open letters and advertisements published by CFC, the effort of Abortion Rights Mobilization to strip the Catholic church of its tax-exempt status, the Vatican order for all priests to leave political office, actions taken by nuns to support the pro-choice position, the proposal of the "seamless garment" argument under the principle of the "consistent ethic of life," initiation of the post-abortion reconciliation project, the actions of Catholic politicians, the filing of amicus curiae briefs, support of bishops for Operation Rescue, forums on abortion conducted by an Archbishop, the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion, targeting by bishops of pro-choice candidates for sanctions and excommunication, testimony and lobbying in opposition of the Freedom of Choice Act, false accusations about the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development leveled by bishops, lobbying by bishops in support of a ban on late-term abortions, lobbying to increase the access of low-income women to abortion, and consideration by the bishops of reinstituting "meatless Fridays" to express Catholic opposition to "attacks on human life and dignity." PMID:12178893

  1. Catholicism and abortion since Roe v. Wade.

    PubMed

    Hisel, L M

    1998-01-01

    This document summarizes a sample of significant activities and events undertaken by Roman Catholics in response to the US Supreme Court's Roe vs. Wade decision legalizing induced abortion. The summaries begin with the 1966 creation of the National Right to Life Committee and cover opposition of Catholic bishops to the Roe decision, the organization of the National Committee for a Human Life Amendment (NCHLA), the mock investiture of a female pope by Catholics for a Free Choice, dismissal of a pro-life priest from the Jesuits, excommunication of various women because of their work with pro-choice agencies or ones that provided abortion services, meetings of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) with presidential candidates, NCHLA lobbying for the Hyde Amendment, open letters and advertisements published by CFC, the effort of Abortion Rights Mobilization to strip the Catholic church of its tax-exempt status, the Vatican order for all priests to leave political office, actions taken by nuns to support the pro-choice position, the proposal of the "seamless garment" argument under the principle of the "consistent ethic of life," initiation of the post-abortion reconciliation project, the actions of Catholic politicians, the filing of amicus curiae briefs, support of bishops for Operation Rescue, forums on abortion conducted by an Archbishop, the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion, targeting by bishops of pro-choice candidates for sanctions and excommunication, testimony and lobbying in opposition of the Freedom of Choice Act, false accusations about the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development leveled by bishops, lobbying by bishops in support of a ban on late-term abortions, lobbying to increase the access of low-income women to abortion, and consideration by the bishops of reinstituting "meatless Fridays" to express Catholic opposition to "attacks on human life and dignity."

  2. Cambodia passes new limits on abortion.

    PubMed

    1997-10-17

    According to international news sources, Cambodia's parliament approved a law limiting the circumstances under which abortions can be performed on October 6 [1997]. Members of parliament say the new law, the first ever passed regulating abortion in Cambodia, is intended to reduce maternal morality rates from abortions performed by unlicensed health practitioners under unsanitary conditions. Local news outlets report that the Cambodian Health Ministry estimates the maternal mortality at 4.7 deaths per 1000 live births. The rate in the US is 0.12 deaths per 1000 live births. The law requires that abortions be performed by licensed health professionals in hospitals and certified clinics within the first trimester of pregnancy, and that women under the age of 18 must obtain parental consent. The new law also sets harsh penalties for those who harm women during illegal procedures--up to 5 years in prison if a woman is injured and up to 10 years if she dies. Opponents of the law say they fear that the new restrictions will push abortion even further underground, as the hospital system cannot handle the current demand for abortion. PMID:12292784

  3. Abortion politics and the production of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lisa H

    2013-08-01

    It is common to think of scientific research and the knowledge it generates as neutral and value free. Indeed, the scientific method is designed to produce "objective" data. However, there are always values built into science, as historians of science and technology have shown over and over. The relevant question is not how to rid science of values but, instead, to ask which values and whose values belong? Currently, antiabortion values consistently determine US research policy. Abortion research is declared illegitimate in covert and overt ways, at the level of individual researchers and research policy broadly. Most importantly, federal policy impedes conduct of both basic and clinical research in abortion. However, it is not just research in abortion that is deemed "illegitimate;" research in infertility and in vitro fertilization is as well. Federal funding of any reproductive health research agenda that would pose more than minimal risk to a fetus or embryo is banned. This leaves unanswered scientific questions about abortion, infertility, miscarriage and contraception among other areas. Since moral ground is occupied not just by abortion opponents but also by people who support abortion rights, there is at the very least a competing moral claim to consider changing federal research funding policy. Women and families deserve access to knowledge across the spectrum of reproductive health issues, whether they seek to end or start a pregnancy. Thus, research funding is an issue of reproductive justice. PMID:23815965

  4. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    PubMed

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve.

  5. Abortion issue goes to US courts.

    PubMed

    Charatan, F B

    1995-04-22

    The antiabortion groups and their lawyers have added a new weapon to their arsenal against physicians who perform abortions in the US: malpractice lawsuits. The nonprofit educational organization Life Dynamics generates material for personal injury lawyers and is participating in 80 cases. It has assembled 642 lawyers and 500 physicians in its abortion malpractice program. Life Dynamics calls for persons to support lawsuits to increase malpractice insurance rates of abortionists, thereby forcing them out of business. Its 2-day 1994 seminar in Texas addressed abortion injuries, an alleged link between abortion and breast cancer, and abortion as a likely source of post-traumatic stress disorder. A lawyer and general counsel of the Arizona Right-to-Life has filed two lawsuits against a Phoenix physician who performs abortion. The trial judge dismissed both cases and fined the lawyer for frivolous lawsuits. An appeal overturned the fines. The lawyer has three more lawsuits on the docket. The physician had complained to the Arizona Bar Association about the lawyer. Even though the physician's insurance company did not pay any claims, its underwriters deemed him an actuarial risk, thereby making him essentially uninsurable. Local medical associations have failed to take a position on the lawyer's legal misconduct because they do not want to alienate some members. The Planned Parenthood Federation of America agreed that the lawsuits brought against the Phoenix physician were fraudulent and that they do not aim to protect women but to revoke their right to choose. PMID:7728049

  6. Abortion politics and the production of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lisa H

    2013-08-01

    It is common to think of scientific research and the knowledge it generates as neutral and value free. Indeed, the scientific method is designed to produce "objective" data. However, there are always values built into science, as historians of science and technology have shown over and over. The relevant question is not how to rid science of values but, instead, to ask which values and whose values belong? Currently, antiabortion values consistently determine US research policy. Abortion research is declared illegitimate in covert and overt ways, at the level of individual researchers and research policy broadly. Most importantly, federal policy impedes conduct of both basic and clinical research in abortion. However, it is not just research in abortion that is deemed "illegitimate;" research in infertility and in vitro fertilization is as well. Federal funding of any reproductive health research agenda that would pose more than minimal risk to a fetus or embryo is banned. This leaves unanswered scientific questions about abortion, infertility, miscarriage and contraception among other areas. Since moral ground is occupied not just by abortion opponents but also by people who support abortion rights, there is at the very least a competing moral claim to consider changing federal research funding policy. Women and families deserve access to knowledge across the spectrum of reproductive health issues, whether they seek to end or start a pregnancy. Thus, research funding is an issue of reproductive justice.

  7. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    PubMed

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve. PMID:7716799

  8. Gap Resolution

    2009-06-16

    With the continued improvements of next generation DNA sequencing technologies and their advantages over traditional Sanger sequencing, the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) has modified its sequencing pipeline to take advantage of the benefits of such technologies. Currently, standard 454 Titanium, paired end 454 Titanium, and Illumina GAll data are generated for all microbial projects and then assembled using draft assemblies at a much greater throughput than before. However, it also presents us with new challenges.more » In addition to the increased throughput, we also have to deal with a larger number of gaps in the Newbler genome assemblies. Gaps in these assemblies are usually caused by repeats (Newbler collapses repeat copies into individual contigs, thus creating gaps), strong secondary structures, and artifacts of the PCR process (specific to 454 paired end libraries). Some gaps in draft assemblies can be resolved merely by adding back the collapsed data from repeats. To expedite gap closure and assembly improvement on large numbers of these assemblies, we developed software to address this issue.« less

  9. Cross-cultural attitudes toward abortion--Greeks versus Americans.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Stephen J; Marcos, Anastasios C

    2003-04-01

    Using data from 1,494 Greeks and 1,993 Americans, this study finds that social abortion attitudes are a separate dimension from physical abortion attitudes. According to our structural equation model, abortion attitudes are influenced significantly by religiosity and sexual liberalism. The model explains social abortion attitudes significantly better than physical abortion attitudes. Although the model is applicable to both countries, there are three major differences between Greece and the United States. First, in Greece religiosity has a smaller impact on sexual liberalism, and sexual liberalism has a much weaker impact on both types of abortion attitudes, particularly social abortion attitudes. Second, in Greece religiosity is more strongly related to abortion attitudes than in the United States, particularly to social abortion attitudes. Third, education has a weaker influence in Greece than in the United States.

  10. Grid Fin Stabilization of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruzan, Daniel A.; Mendenhall, Michael R.; Rose, William C.; Schuster, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted by Nielsen Engineering & Research (NEAR) and Rose Engineering & Research (REAR) in conjunction with the NASA Engineering & Safety Center (NESC) on a 6%-scale model of the Orion launch abort vehicle (LAV) configured with four grid fins mounted near the base of the vehicle. The objectives of these tests were to 1) quantify LAV stability augmentation provided by the grid fins from subsonic through supersonic Mach numbers, 2) assess the benefits of swept grid fins versus unswept grid fins on the LAV, 3) determine the effects of the LAV abort motors on grid fin aerodynamics, and 4) generate an aerodynamic database for use in the future application of grid fins to small length-to-diameter ratio vehicles similar to the LAV. The tests were conducted in NASA Ames Research Center's 11x11-foot transonic wind tunnel from Mach 0.5 through Mach 1.3 and in their 9x7-foot supersonic wind tunnel from Mach 1.6 through Mach 2.5. Force- and moment-coefficient data were collected for the complete vehicle and for each individual grid fin as a function of angle of attack and sideslip angle. Tests were conducted with both swept and unswept grid fins with the simulated abort motors (cold jets) off and on. The swept grid fins were designed with a 22.5deg aft sweep angle for both the frame and the internal lattice so that the frontal projection of the swept fins was the same as for the unswept fins. Data from these tests indicate that both unswept and swept grid fins provide significant improvements in pitch stability as compared to the baseline vehicle over the Mach number range investigated. The swept fins typically provide improved stability as compared to the unswept fins, but the performance gap diminished as Mach number was increased. The aerodynamic performance of the fins was not observed to degrade when the abort motors were turned on. Results from these tests indicate that grid fins can be a robust solution for stabilizing the Orion LAV over a wide

  11. Women's Private Conversations about Abortion: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Herold, Stephanie; Kimport, Katrina; Cockrill, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Abortion is a relatively frequent experience, yet public discourse about abortion is contentious and stigmatizing. Little literature is available on private conversations about abortion, which may be distinct from public discourse. We explored private discourse by documenting the nature of women's discussions about abortion with peers in a book club. We recruited thirteen women's book clubs in nine states. Participants (n = 119) read the book Choice: True Stories of Birth, Contraception, Infertility, Adoption, Single Parenthood, & Abortion, and participated in a book club meeting, which we audio-recorded and transcribed. Data collection occurred between April 2012 and April 2013. In contrast to public discourse of abortion, private discourse was nuanced and included disclosures of multiple kinds of experiences with abortion. Participants disclosed having abortions, considering abortion as an option for past or future pregnancies, and supporting others through an abortion. Distinguishing between public and private discourse enabled us to identify that an "abortion experience" could include personal decisions, hypothetical decisions, or connection with someone having an abortion. The book club atmosphere provided a rare opportunity for participants to explore their relationship to abortion. More research is needed to understand the role of private discourse in reducing abortion stigma. PMID:26086582

  12. Abortion controversy hinders state reform effort.

    PubMed

    Frece, J W

    1993-10-28

    A review of the progress and problems of the state of Maryland on health care reform is provided. The Standard Benefits Package Task Force completed and approved in a preliminary 7 to 2 vote a long list of benefits, including abortion services, to be covered in health plans that must be made available to small businesses by July 1, 1994. Small businesses are those employing at least 2 workers and no more than 50 workers. The value of benefits cannot exceed $3519, or policies, $3034. The new health care law passed in summer, 1993 stipulated that the value of basic policies for small companies cannot exceed 12% of wages. The development of a minimum package of benefits was the first phase of the health care reform law. Final decision on benefits will be made sometime in the first week of November and presented to the full 7-member Health Care Access and Cost Commission by November 4, 1993. Abortion opponents have opposed insurance coverage of abortions on the grounds that it is not health care and it forces employers opposed to abortion to accept this package, or deny coverage to employees. A public hearing is expected to hear from abortion foes about their notion to offer abortion coverage as an option or "rider" to the standard insurance policy. The task force has another option: to describe the benefit in terms that do not mention abortion per se, but refer to "family planning services and services for pregnant women," which is the wording in the Clinton health care plan. The Director of Public Affairs for Planned Parenthood of Maryland, Bebe Verdery, reported that the organization is strongly opposed to abortion as optional coverage. Kevin Appleby, Associate Director of Social Concerns for the Maryland Catholic Conference, finds that respect for rights of those with moral concerns against abortion should be respected. The task force is confronted with issues of cost, since its initial benefits package was too high, and, most troubling, the controversy over

  13. [Glimpses from the history of abortion].

    PubMed

    Holmdahl, B

    1992-05-01

    For a long time in human history, global population growth was checked by infant mortality, which ranged from 30-50% and did not start sinking until the beginning of the 1800s in the west. Child murder in the west was prohibited by law around the 1100-1200s, but it continued secretly. Among private people, induced abortion was allowed. In the holy scripts of Hinduism and Brahminism, abortion was prohibited. Hippocrates wrote that doctors should not give women abortifacient. The church father Augustinus stated that it was not within human power to discern when the soul entered the body, a circumstance that forbid abortion. A church meeting in 305 A.D. distanced itself from abortion, and this has been the stand of the Catholic Church ever since. In Sweden, exposing a child to the elements was practiced until the end of the 1200s, when it became prohibited. Protestants punished child murder by death. During 1759-78, 217 women were executed for child-killing. From the 1400s, church law punished abortion, and later, capital and punishment was meted out for it, but a distinction was made if the fetus was alive or stillborn. The law in 1734 punished abortion by the death of all concerned. The death penalty was abolished in 1864. In 1896, Anna Linholm reported to the policy in Uppsala that a midwife had been practicing clandestine abortions. Some of her patients were admitted to hospital for hemorrhaging. She was sentenced to hard labor. During 1851-1903, a total of 1408 abortions were reported to the health service. 90% of these became known because of death caused by obduction. Phosphorus was used for abortion in 1271 cases, arsenic in 62, and mechanical aids in 8 cases. About 1//2 of all female suicides at the end of the 1800s was performed by pregnant women who ate phosphorus. Almost all were unmarried, and 56% carried it out after the 5th month of pregnancy. In 1901, phosphorus was prohibited in Swedish homes. In 1875, free abortions became available. However, the

  14. Abortion--a philosophical perspective.

    PubMed

    Jali, M N

    2001-11-01

    The central issue in the abortion debate is the moral status of the conceptus. There are two positions that argue this issue. At one extreme are the views of the pro-life group which argues that human life begins at the moment of conception whilst at the other are views of the pro-choice group that argues in favour of a woman's right to self-determination. Two basic principles come into conflict in this debate, namely the Value of Life and that of Self-determination. In this paper the arguments forwarded by each group in justification of its position are presented. Also discussed is the moderate developmental viewpoint which accepts that the genetic basis of an individual is established at conception. Some development, however, has to occur before the conceptus can be called a person. The fact that an entity is a potential person is a prima facie reason for not destroying it. On the other hand, we need not conclude that a person has a right to life by virtue of that potentiality. Simultaneously we should recognise that the right a potential entity has, may be nullified by the woman's right to self-determination. PMID:11993259

  15. A simplified method for differential staining of aborted and non-aborted pollen grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to use chemical staining to discriminate aborted from non-aborted pollen grains has well-known practical applications in agriculture. A commonly used technique for assessing pollen vitality, Alexander’s stain, uses chloral hydrate, phenol and mercuric chloride, all of which are highly to...

  16. Medical Students’ Attitudes toward Abortion Education: Malaysian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tey, Nai-peng; Yew, Siew-yong; Low, Wah-yun; Su’ut, Lela; Renjhen, Prachi; Huang, M. S. L.; Tong, Wen-ting; Lai, Siow-li

    2012-01-01

    Background Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students’ attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. Methods and Results A survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward abortion among medical students was conducted in two public universities and a private university in Malaysia in 2011. A total of 1,060 students returned the completed questionnaires. The survey covered about 90% of medical students in Years 1, 3, and 5 in the three universities. About 90% of the students wanted more training on the general knowledge and legal aspects of abortion, and pre-and post-abortion counseling. Overall, 75.9% and 81.0% of the students were in favor of including in medical education the training on surgical abortion techniques and medical abortion, respectively. Only 2.4% and 1.7% were opposed to the inclusion of training of these two methods in the curriculum. The remaining respondents were neutral in their stand. Desire for more abortion education was associated with students’ pro-choice index, their intention to provide abortion services in future practice, and year of study. However, students’ attitudes toward abortion were not significantly associated with gender, type of university, or ethnicity. Conclusions Most students wanted more training on abortion. Some students also expressed their intention to provide abortion counseling and services in their future practice. Their desire for more training on abortion should be taken into account in the new curriculum. Abortion education is an important step towards making available safe abortion services to enable women to exercise their reproductive rights. PMID:23300600

  17. Latin American women’s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades. This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women’s experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal. Women’s personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support. Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and

  18. Devising an indicator to detect mid-term abortions in dairy cattle: a first step towards syndromic surveillance of abortive diseases.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Hénaux, Viviane; Madouasse, Aurélien; Gay, Emilie; Calavas, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Bovine abortion surveillance is essential for human and animal health because it plays an important role in the early warning of several diseases. Due to the limited sensitivity of traditional surveillance systems, there is a growing interest for the development of syndromic surveillance. Our objective was to assess whether, routinely collected, artificial insemination (AI) data could be used, as part of a syndromic surveillance system, to devise an indicator of mid-term abortions in dairy cattle herds in France. A mid-term abortion incidence rate (MAIR) was computed as the ratio of the number of mid-term abortions to the number of female-weeks at risk. A mid-term abortion was defined as a return-to-service (i.e., a new AI) taking place 90 to 180 days after the previous AI. Weekly variations in the MAIR in heifers and parous cows were modeled with a time-dependent Poisson model at the département level (French administrative division) during the period of 2004 to 2010. The usefulness of monitoring this indicator to detect a disease-related increase in mid-term abortions was evaluated using data from the 2007-2008 episode of bluetongue serotype 8 (BT8) in France. An increase in the MAIR was identified in heifers and parous cows in 47% (n = 24) and 71% (n = 39) of the departements. On average, the weekly MAIR among heifers increased by 3.8% (min-max: 0.02-57.9%) when the mean number of BT8 cases that occurred in the previous 8 to 13 weeks increased by one. The weekly MAIR among parous cows increased by 1.4% (0.01-8.5%) when the mean number of BT8 cases occurring in the previous 6 to 12 weeks increased by one. These results underline the potential of the MAIR to identify an increase in mid-term abortions and suggest that it is a good candidate for the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system for bovine abortions. PMID:25746469

  19. Devising an indicator to detect mid-term abortions in dairy cattle: a first step towards syndromic surveillance of abortive diseases.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Hénaux, Viviane; Madouasse, Aurélien; Gay, Emilie; Calavas, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Bovine abortion surveillance is essential for human and animal health because it plays an important role in the early warning of several diseases. Due to the limited sensitivity of traditional surveillance systems, there is a growing interest for the development of syndromic surveillance. Our objective was to assess whether, routinely collected, artificial insemination (AI) data could be used, as part of a syndromic surveillance system, to devise an indicator of mid-term abortions in dairy cattle herds in France. A mid-term abortion incidence rate (MAIR) was computed as the ratio of the number of mid-term abortions to the number of female-weeks at risk. A mid-term abortion was defined as a return-to-service (i.e., a new AI) taking place 90 to 180 days after the previous AI. Weekly variations in the MAIR in heifers and parous cows were modeled with a time-dependent Poisson model at the département level (French administrative division) during the period of 2004 to 2010. The usefulness of monitoring this indicator to detect a disease-related increase in mid-term abortions was evaluated using data from the 2007-2008 episode of bluetongue serotype 8 (BT8) in France. An increase in the MAIR was identified in heifers and parous cows in 47% (n = 24) and 71% (n = 39) of the departements. On average, the weekly MAIR among heifers increased by 3.8% (min-max: 0.02-57.9%) when the mean number of BT8 cases that occurred in the previous 8 to 13 weeks increased by one. The weekly MAIR among parous cows increased by 1.4% (0.01-8.5%) when the mean number of BT8 cases occurring in the previous 6 to 12 weeks increased by one. These results underline the potential of the MAIR to identify an increase in mid-term abortions and suggest that it is a good candidate for the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system for bovine abortions.

  20. Devising an Indicator to Detect Mid-Term Abortions in Dairy Cattle: A First Step Towards Syndromic Surveillance of Abortive Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Hénaux, Viviane; Madouasse, Aurélien; Gay, Emilie; Calavas, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Bovine abortion surveillance is essential for human and animal health because it plays an important role in the early warning of several diseases. Due to the limited sensitivity of traditional surveillance systems, there is a growing interest for the development of syndromic surveillance. Our objective was to assess whether, routinely collected, artificial insemination (AI) data could be used, as part of a syndromic surveillance system, to devise an indicator of mid-term abortions in dairy cattle herds in France. A mid-term abortion incidence rate (MAIR) was computed as the ratio of the number of mid-term abortions to the number of female-weeks at risk. A mid-term abortion was defined as a return-to-service (i.e. a new AI) taking place 90 to 180 days after the previous AI. Weekly variations in the MAIR in heifers and parous cows were modeled with a time-dependent Poisson model at the département level (French administrative division) during the period of 2004 to 2010. The usefulness of monitoring this indicator to detect a disease-related increase in mid-term abortions was evaluated using data from the 2007–2008 episode of bluetongue serotype 8 (BT8) in France. An increase in the MAIR was identified in heifers and parous cows in 47% (n = 24) and 71% (n = 39) of the départements. On average, the weekly MAIR among heifers increased by 3.8% (min-max: 0.02–57.9%) when the mean number of BT8 cases that occurred in the previous 8 to 13 weeks increased by one. The weekly MAIR among parous cows increased by 1.4% (0.01–8.5%) when the mean number of BT8 cases occurring in the previous 6 to 12 weeks increased by one. These results underline the potential of the MAIR to identify an increase in mid-term abortions and suggest that it is a good candidate for the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system for bovine abortions. PMID:25746469

  1. Abortion attitudes as determinants of perceptions regarding male involvement in abortion decisions.

    PubMed

    Coleman, P K; Nelson, E S

    1999-01-01

    Abortion decisions have a potentially meaningful effect on the lives of men. Previous research suggests that both men and women generally believe that men have the right to be involved in such decisions. However, very little research attention has been devoted to identifying individual difference correlates of discrepant levels of endorsement for male involvement in abortion decisions. The extent to which abortion attitudes (on a pro-choice to pro-life continuum), conceptualization of abortion as strictly a female issue, and interest in the issue operate as effective predictors of the appropriate level of male involvement in abortion decisions was examined in a sample of 1,387 college students. Results of a multiple regression analysis revealed that 44% of the variance in male involvement scores was explained by the predictor variables. PMID:9919847

  2. A cross-cultural history of abortion.

    PubMed

    Shain, R N

    1986-03-01

    Abortion is a universal phenomenon, occurring throughout recorded history and at all levels of societal organization. Techniques are highly varied, as are the circumstances under which it is practised. The status of and attitudes towards abortion in Western civilization are variable and have, in most cases, been changing. As of 1982, 10% and 18% of the world's population respectively, lived in countries where abortion was totally prohibited or where it was permitted only to save the mother's life. In the USA, various national surveys indicate liberalization of public attitudes towards pregnancy termination between 1965 and the years immediately following the Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision (1973) which legalized abortion. More recent polls demonstrate little attitudinal change since 1972-1973: between 80% and 90% of Americans approve of abortion in the case of poor health, a seriously defective fetus, or rape, and between 40% and 50% indicate approval for all other reasons as well. Only 10% of the American population would like to see abortion prohibited under all circumstances. Sociodemographic analyses indicate that individuals who disapprove of abortion differ from those who approve of its availability in that they are more likely to be Roman Catholic or fundamentalist Protestant; are, in general, more strongly committed to organized religion; are on the traditional/conservative end of the spectrum with regard to women's role in life, premarital sex, sex education and civil liberties; and tend to have achieved a relatively low educational level. 'Pro-life' and 'pro-choice' activists tend to be women who are completely different from one another in sociodemographic characteristics and in overall values, particularly as these relate to traditional versus modern female roles.

  3. Influence of induced abortion on gestational duration in subsequent pregnancies.

    PubMed Central

    van der Slikke, J W; Treffers, P E

    1978-01-01

    We studied the effect of previous induced and spontaneous abortion on gestational duration in subsequent pregnancies in 12 obstetric departments in the Netherlands. Only primiparae were studied. Of 504 women who had had a previous induced abortion, 18 (3.6%) delivered before 32 weeks' gestational age. Forty of 1313 women with a history of spontaneous abortion (3.0%) and 259 of 12 678 women with no history of abortion (2.1%) also delivered before 32 weeks. The differences between the three groups were not significant. In the Netherlands there are no significant indications that spontaneous midtrimester abortions or premature deliveries are caused by a previous induced abortion. PMID:620303

  4. Spain still in need of a good abortion law.

    PubMed

    Gasco, M

    1991-09-01

    In 1985 Spain adopted a new abortion law that allows women to have abortions if: 1) the pregnancy poses a physical or mental risk, 2) the fetus risks a defect, 3) in cases of rape. 94% of all abortions are carried out in private clinics. Before the law only 411 abortions were reported, after the law 16,766 were reported the next year. 52% of the women were unmarried, 49% had no children, and 93% were less than 12 weeks pregnant. The availability of safe abortions is limited by: 1) lack of centers in most geographical regions and 2) lack of clinics or hospitals in the public health system that will give abortion services. The addition of 4th ground for abortion would not significantly improve access to abortion services since 98% of all abortions are performed under the mental risk indication. A better solution would be to adopt a time limit system similar to other European countries. Since 93% of all abortion occur within 12 weeks of pregnancy, it would accommodate most women. However, whether by executive order or legislation, increasing legal access will still not increase access. There simply is n system in place to accommodate the number of women who would seek abortions i they became legal (it is estimated that 200000 women got to England annually seeking abortion.) Doctors do not want to perform abortions and there is no social or legal standing to force them to do so. PMID:12284545

  5. [Abortion-related mortality in Brazil: decrease in spatial inequality].

    PubMed

    Lima, B G

    2000-03-01

    Abortion is not only a major cause of obstetric hospitalization in poor countries, but it also represents the failure of the public health system to provide enough information about contraceptive methods and thus prevent pregnancies. In Brazil, the high utilization rates of health facilities due to abortions reflect the ongoing difficulties with family planning and contraception. In addition, mortality resulting from abortions serves as an indicator of the quality of abortion procedures, an important point in a country where the practice is illegal and therefore done clandestinely. In this study, we analyzed the rates of mortality resulting from abortions among women 10 to 54 years old, including women who died from spontaneous and induced abortion, from 1980 to 1995, for the various regions of the country. The information we used came from the mortality data bank of the public health system of the Ministry of Health. Population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics. We studied 2,602 deaths, 15% of which were due to missed abortion, spontaneous abortion, or legally permitted induced abortion. The other 85% of the deaths were due to illegal induced abortions or to nonspecified abortions. The mortality rates from abortion-related causes have steadily decreased in all the regions of Brazil, but this improvement has been unevenly distributed in the country. The region with the smallest decrease in this rate (38% over 15 years) was the Northeast. The age of women dying from abortions progressively declined over the period studied.

  6. Restricted access to abortion in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland: exploring abortion tourism and barriers to legal reform.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Fiona; O'Dowd, Kellie

    2014-01-01

    Access to abortion remains a controversial issue worldwide. In Ireland, both north and south, legal restrictions have resulted in thousands of women travelling to England and Wales and further afield to obtain abortions in the last decade alone, while others purchase the 'abortion pill' from Internet sources. This paper considers the socio-legal context in both jurisdictions, the data on those travelling to access abortion and the barriers to legal reform. It argues that moral conservatism in Ireland, north and south, has contributed to the restricted access to abortion, impacting on the experience of thousands of women, resulting in these individuals becoming 'abortion tourists'.

  7. Conservative management of spontaneous abortions. Women's experiences.

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, E.; Janssen, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe women's experiences with expectant management of spontaneous abortions. DESIGN: Descriptive survey using questionnaires with fixed-choice and open-ended questions. The latter were analyzed for themes, using qualitative methods. SETTING: Urban and suburban private primary care family practices. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of family practice patients (59 of 80 eligible) pregnant for less than 12 weeks who had spontaneous abortions without surgery. Response rate was 84.7%; 50 questionnaires were received from the 59 women. METHOD: Women were asked about their physical experiences, including amount of pain and bleeding; emotional effects; their satisfaction with medical care; and their suggestions for improving care. MAIN FINDINGS: The mean worst pain experienced during a spontaneous abortion on an 11-point scale was 5.9. Bleeding varied, but was often very heavy. Satisfaction rate was 92.9% with family physician care and 84.6% with hospital care. Women described the emotional effect of "natural" spontaneous abortions and made recommendations for improving care. CONCLUSIONS: A better understanding of the physical and emotional experiences of the women in this study might help physicians better prepare and support patients coping with expectant management of spontaneous abortions. PMID:10540695

  8. [Pregnancy and induced abortion among teenagers].

    PubMed

    Tado, S

    1985-11-01

    The number of pregnancies and induced abortions among Japanese teenagers has recently increased. 2 of 5 pregnant single women whom social workers assist are teenagers. The teenagers fall into 2 groups: those under 18, who are in a sexually awakening period, or 18 and older, who are maturing. Those under 18, despite a strong tendency toward sexual activity, are predominantly insecure and run away from home to escape adversity and seek friendship among members of the opposite sex. After becoming pregnant, they go home only to embarrass their parents. Ultimately, they choose abortion or, because of their own inability, their babies are taken care of by their families or in foster homes. Those 18 or older, despite their knowledge of the relationship between sexual intercourse and pregnancy, typically did not take it seriously. Consequently, their reaction to their pregnancies tends toward shock and panic. Many try to keep their pregnancy from their parents. Though they do not want abortion, their circumstances may force them to it. Behind the increase of unexpected pregnancy and unwanted abortion in both age groups are several factors: the lack of sexual education suitable to their level of their physical maturity; a lack of responsibility by the male teenagers, who cannot relate their own actions to their partners' pregnancies; and the ignorance of pregnant teenagers, who cannot see that abortions may hurt them not only physically but mentally in the long run. PMID:3854863

  9. Abortion in Brazil: legislation, reality and options.

    PubMed

    Guedes, A C

    2000-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Brazil except when performed to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. This paper gives a brief history of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary efforts to change abortion-related legislation in Brazil in the past 60 years, the contents of some of the 53 bills that have been tabled in that time, the non-governmental stakeholders involved and the debate itself in recent decades. The authorities in Brazil have never assumed full public responsibility for reproductive health care or family planning, let alone legal abortion; the ambivalence of the medical profession is an important obstacle. Most politicians avoid getting involved in the abortion debate, but the majority of bills in the 1990s have favoured less restrictive legislation. Incremental legislative and health service changes could help to improve the situation for women. Advocacy is probably the most important action, to promote an environment conducive to change. Clandestine abortion is a serious public health problem in Brazil, and the inadequacy of family planning services is one of the causes of this problem. The solutions should be made a priority for the Brazilian public health system.

  10. The Supreme Court, liberty, and abortion.

    PubMed

    Annas, G J

    1992-08-27

    While the issue of abortion has fueled a great deal of personal and political debate and controversy in the US, few have actually read the Supreme Court's rulings on Roe v. Wade and Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, which are central to the debate. This essay summarizes both rulings, examines the difference between the 2, and discusses implications for medical practice. Casey is important to states, physicians, and patients. Of central import is the ruling's restriction against states to outlaw abortion before viability. Other measures are, however, included which will complicate record keeping and securing consent. Restrictions against and/or steps required by the physician practicing abortion may also spread to apply to other medical procedures. The essay considers the future of Roe v. Wade. Whether or not a Freedom of Choice Act is ultimately passed in Congress, abortion will continue to divide large segments of the American population. Anti-abortionists will continue to attempt to overthrow women's right of free choice to abortion.

  11. Access to abortion services: abortions performed by mid-level practitioners.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, E A

    1993-01-01

    Because the number of physicians available to perform abortions in the US is dwindling, certified nurse-midwives, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants should be trained and permitted to perform abortions. Roadblocks to this change are the fact that the Supreme Court would likely allow states to prevent mid-level practitioners from performing abortions in the name of protecting the health of the mother. Also, existing statutes would probably not be interpreted by courts to allow mid-level practitioners to perform abortions. However, physician assistants have been performing abortions in Vermont since 1975, and a 1981-82 comparative study affirmed that physician assistants are well-equipped to perform abortions (of 2458 procedures, the complication rate/1000 was 27.4 for physician assistants and 30.8 for physicians). However, controversy surrounds the provision of abortion by these physician assistants in Vermont, since the relevant statute suggests that abortion is illegal unless performed by a physician. However, the statute has not been changed since Roe vs. Wade and is likely unconstitutional. Court cases in Missouri and Tennessee suggest that courts may be willing to include abortion within the scope of progressive nursing practice acts, but a recent similar case in Massachusetts resulted in a narrow interpretation of nursing practice statutes. Because the definition of professional nursing varies with each state statute, it will be a formidable task to convince every jurisdiction to include abortion as a permissible mid-level practice. Even in Vermont, the nursing practice statute defines in an exclusive list what services the professional nurse may perform (whereas the physician assistant regulations limit their scope of practice only to that delegated by a supervising physician). States could, of course, pass statutes which include abortion as a permissible practice for the mid-level practitioner. However, specific legislation would provide a clear

  12. Pneumatic gap sensor and method

    DOEpatents

    Bagdal, K.T.; King, E.L.; Follstaedt, D.W.

    1992-03-03

    An apparatus and method for monitoring and maintaining a predetermined width in the gap between a casting nozzle and a casting wheel, wherein the gap is monitored by means of at least one pneumatic gap sensor. The pneumatic gap sensor is mounted on the casting nozzle in proximity to the casting surface and is connected by means of a tube to a regulator and a transducer. The regulator provides a flow of gas through a restictor to the pneumatic gap sensor, and the transducer translates the changes in the gas pressure caused by the proximity of the casting wheel to the pneumatic gap sensor outlet into a signal intelligible to a control device. The relative positions of the casting nozzle and casting wheel can thereby be selectively adjusted to continually maintain a predetermined distance between their adjacent surfaces. The apparatus and method enables accurate monitoring of the actual casting gap in a simple and reliable manner resistant to the extreme temperatures and otherwise hostile casting environment. 6 figs.

  13. Pneumatic gap sensor and method

    DOEpatents

    Bagdal, Karl T.; King, Edward L.; Follstaedt, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method for monitoring and maintaining a predetermined width in the gap between a casting nozzle and a casting wheel, wherein the gap is monitored by means of at least one pneumatic gap sensor. The pneumatic gap sensor is mounted on the casting nozzle in proximity to the casting surface and is connected by means of a tube to a regulator and a transducer. The regulator provides a flow of gas through a restictor to the pneumatic gap sensor, and the transducer translates the changes in the gas pressure caused by the proximity of the casting wheel to the pneumatic gap sensor outlet into a signal intelligible to a control device. The relative positions of the casting nozzle and casting wheel can thereby be selectively adjusted to continually maintain a predetermined distance between their adjacent surfaces. The apparatus and method enables accurate monitoring of the actual casting gap in a simple and reliable manner resistant to the extreme temperatures and otherwise hostile casting environment.

  14. Arc voltage distribution skewness as an indicator of electrode gap during vacuum arc remelting

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Rodney L.; Zanner, Frank J.; Grose, Stephen M.

    1998-01-01

    The electrode gap of a VAR is monitored by determining the skewness of a distribution of gap voltage measurements. A decrease in skewness indicates an increase in gap and may be used to control the gap.

  15. Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  16. Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159500.html Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows ... from mosquito-borne Zika may be driving up abortion rates in Latin American countries affected by the ...

  17. International developments in abortion laws: 1977-88.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1988-01-01

    During the period between 1977 and the first quarter of 1988, 35 countries liberalized their abortion laws and four countries limited grounds for the procedure. Most legislation has extended abortion eligibility through traditional indications such as danger to maternal health or fetal handicap, but a number of other indications have been created such as adolescence, advanced maternal age, family circumstances, and AIDS or HIV infection. A number of countries have redesigned their abortion laws as part of a comprehensive package to facilitate access to and delivery of contraception, voluntary sterilization, and abortion services. Abortion litigation has increased and stimulated the liberalization of abortion provisions and the support of women's autonomous choice within the law. In Canada, the entire criminal prohibition of abortion was held unconstitutional for violating women's integrity and security. In contrast, Latin American and other constitutional developments may limit legal abortion to instances of danger to women's lives. PMID:3048126

  18. Their Right to an Abortion, Your Right to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share Their Right to an Abortion, Your Right to Know Page Content Article Body ... a handful of states grant minors access to abortion without their parents’ knowledge or permission. The majority ...

  19. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  20. The abortion ethos: pervasive but not persuasive.

    PubMed

    Andrusko, D

    1989-01-01

    The history of the past 16 years has borne out pro-life predictions that abortion would be the precursor of an even wider assault on helpless people. The unborn initially were the victim of choice because they were, in 1973, outside our customary line of moral vision. But as a dress rehearsal for a pattern of discretionary killing what was most significant about abortion was its explicit rejection of the Declaration of Independence's principle holding that our right to life is "inalienable." Abortion taught us that the lives of some are alienable and raised the question, why not the lives of others? Contrary to stereotype, the pro-life movement is a classic reform movement, inbued with a fierce belief in the inherent worth and equality of mankind.

  1. Medical abortion options may advance in 1998.

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    The US debut of mifepristone (RU-486) was delayed in 1997 by legal and manufacturer problems. However, the Population Council is searching worldwide for companies to produce mifepristone for the US market. In the meantime, women in a number of US cities can obtain mifepristone through clinical trials coordinated by the New York City-based Abortion Rights Mobilization. The trials are evaluating the effectiveness of a 200 mg dosage of the drug and will continue until there is a commercial product. New developments in medical abortion will be announced in 1998. Currently, 29 Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA) affiliates are recruiting women for its study of methotrexate and misoprostol. By midsummer 1998, the organization expects to have data from what is the largest multicenter trial to date of a methotrexate and misoprostol medical abortion regimen. PMID:12348221

  2. Ethical considerations on methods used in abortions.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Eike-Henner W

    2015-03-01

    There is a fundamental inconsistency in Western society's treatment of non-human animals on the one hand, and of human foetuses on the other. While most Western countries allow the butchering of animals and their use in experimentation, this must occur under carefully controlled conditions that are intended to minimize their pain and suffering as much as possible. At the same time, most Western countries permit various abortion methods without similar concerns for the developing fetus. The only criteria for deciding which abortion method is used centre in the stage of the pregnancy, the size of the fetus, the health of the pregnant woman and the physician's preference. This is out of step with the underlying ethos of animal cruelty legislation, cannot be justified ethically and should be rectified by adjusting abortion methods to the capacity of the fetus to experience nociception and/or pain. PMID:23076345

  3. Delayed reproductive complications after induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Dalaker, K; Lichtenberg, S M; Okland, G

    1979-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken regarding subsequent pregnancy in 619 women who had their preceding pregnancy terminated by legal abortion, compared with an age- and parity-matched group of 619 women who continued with the pregnancy to delivery. The groups were compared for complications such as first and second trimester abortion, cervical incompetence, pre-term delivery, ectopic pregnancy and sterility. The total complication rate was 24.3 per cent in the abortion group, and 20.2 per cent in the controls. No significant difference was found between the two groups for any of the parameters examined, except for a significantly higher rate of complications amongst women who had not had a previous delivery: 25.5 per cent as opposed to 13.2 per cent in the control group.

  4. The abortion ethos: pervasive but not persuasive.

    PubMed

    Andrusko, D

    1989-01-01

    The history of the past 16 years has borne out pro-life predictions that abortion would be the precursor of an even wider assault on helpless people. The unborn initially were the victim of choice because they were, in 1973, outside our customary line of moral vision. But as a dress rehearsal for a pattern of discretionary killing what was most significant about abortion was its explicit rejection of the Declaration of Independence's principle holding that our right to life is "inalienable." Abortion taught us that the lives of some are alienable and raised the question, why not the lives of others? Contrary to stereotype, the pro-life movement is a classic reform movement, inbued with a fierce belief in the inherent worth and equality of mankind. PMID:10294688

  5. Ethical considerations on methods used in abortions.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Eike-Henner W

    2015-03-01

    There is a fundamental inconsistency in Western society's treatment of non-human animals on the one hand, and of human foetuses on the other. While most Western countries allow the butchering of animals and their use in experimentation, this must occur under carefully controlled conditions that are intended to minimize their pain and suffering as much as possible. At the same time, most Western countries permit various abortion methods without similar concerns for the developing fetus. The only criteria for deciding which abortion method is used centre in the stage of the pregnancy, the size of the fetus, the health of the pregnant woman and the physician's preference. This is out of step with the underlying ethos of animal cruelty legislation, cannot be justified ethically and should be rectified by adjusting abortion methods to the capacity of the fetus to experience nociception and/or pain.

  6. Abortion laws in African Commonwealth countries.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1981-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the range of current (1981) abortion laws in the African Commonwealth countries, traces the origins of the laws to their colonial predecessors, and discusses legal reform that would positively provide for legal termination of pregnancy. The authors claim that the range of these laws demonstrates an evolution that leads from customary/common law (Lesotho and Swaziland) to basic law (Botswana, The Gambia, Malawi, Mauritius, Nigeria's Northern States and Seychelles) to developed law (Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria's Southern States, Sierra Leone, and Uganda), and, finally, to advanced law (Zambia and Zimbabwe). The authors call for treating abortion as an issue of health and welfare as opposed to one of crime and punishment. Since most of the basic law de jure is treated and administered as developed law de facto, the authors suggest decriminalizing abortion and propose ways in which to reform the law: clarifying existing law; liberalizing existing law to allow abortion based upon certain indications; limiting/removing women's criminal liability for seeking an abortion; allowing hindsight contraception; protecting providers treating women in good faith; publishing recommended fees for services to protect poor women; protecting providers who treat women with incomplete abortion; and punishing providers who fail to provide care to women in need, with the exception of those seeking protection under a conscience clause. The authors also suggest clarifying the means by which health services involving pregnancy termination may be delivered, including: clarification of the qualifications of practitioners who may treat women; specification of the facilities that may treat women, perhaps broken down by gestational duration of the pregnancy; specifying gestational limits during which the procedure can be performed; clarifying approval procedures and consents; and allowing for conscientious objections to performing the procedure.

  7. Re-establishment of menstruation after abortion.

    PubMed

    Purola, E; Nerdrum, T

    1968-01-01

    The sample consisted of 33 patients who had had abortions in the 7-18 week of pregnancy, except 1 case where the duration of pregnancy had been 25 weeks. In 21 cases legal interruption of pregnancy had been carried out. The remaining 12 came to the hospital after the onset of bleeding. Methods used for the determination of ovulation were measurements of the basal temperature, cytological smear, and single endometrial biopsy. The interval between abortions and the onset of menstruation was 25-64 days, the average being 39 days. Endometrial biopsies were done on all patients 16-39 days after ovulation. The first cycle after abortion was determined to be anovular in 25, and probably so in 4 others, while ovulation had occurred in 4. In the 21 patients having had therapeutic abortions ovulation had occurred in only 1 while in the 12 patients who had had spontaneous abortions ovulation occurred in 3. Histological findings were hyperplastic endometrium in 3, endometritis in 6 and retained fragments in 5. Check-up examination of 27 patients at the second menstrual period established that 15 had ovular cycles. Patients having legal abortion were routinely given 5 mg of estradiolbenzoate a day to a total of 10-15 mg. It is thought that this dose of estrogen may depress pituitary activity and thus disturb the mechanism leading to normal ovulation. Of 41 cytological vaginal smears 15 could not be analyzed owing to infection. All but 1 of the remaining showed results consistent with those obtained by biopsy.

  8. [Risks in legal, induced abortion. Review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Stamm, H E

    1980-01-01

    A literature review is presented about the risks of induced abortion, as indicated in research from Switzerland and other countries of the world. The attitude of the various countries toward abortion appears to be becoming more liberal. The incidence of legal induced abortions has decreased slightly over the past years, despite more liberal abortion laws. Switzerland lies about in the middle of the scale, with 139 abortions/1000 women and 227/1000 births in 1974. The mortality associated with induced abortion is 1-4 deaths to 100,000 pregnancies, which is about the same risk as 10 years' use of the IUD or oral contraceptives. Most of the deaths occur when abortion is induced after the 16th week of pregnancy. About 10% of all complications of abortion are serious. The complication rate of abortion is highest in patients who undergo hysterotomy or hysterectomy and lowest for those undergoing the Karmen method or vacuum aspiration. No studies have shown a significant increase in the incidence of spontaneous abortions, of cervical insufficiency, of premature births, and of small-for-date babies as a consequence of having undergone induced abortion. There is a tendency, for these complications to occur, especially when dilatation beyond 10 mm is necessary or when the pregnancy is in an advanced stage. It is important to remember, however, that similar tendencies are observed among multiparae, and that the risks of abortion are less than those of childbirth. Cases of depression are recorded in conjunction with induced abortion, but undergoing abortion also relieves many cases of depression due to unwanted pregnancy. There is an increased incidence of sterility after abortion when prophylactic measures are taken against pelvic infection. Outpatient abortions should be performed by dilatation and curettage, before the 12th week of pregnancy. Local paracervical anesthesia is the method of choice for ambulant operations.

  9. Abortion services in the United States, 1979 and 1980.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, S K; Forrest, J D; Sullivan, E; Tietze, C

    1982-01-01

    Reports results of the 7th national survey by the Alan Guttmacher Institute of all known providers of abortion in the US. There were 1.55 million abortions in 1980, about 1/4 of all pregnancies and 1/2 of unintended ones. About 3% of women of childbearing age obtained an abortion. The rate increased by 2% from 1979 to 1980, compared to an increase of 4% over the previous 2 years. As the increases have been smaller each year, the rate may stabilize in 1982 at 1980 levels. Despite the continuing controversy, geographic availability improved somewhat, although 78% of all counties had no provider and 59 of the 305 metropolitan areas had no facilities reporting abortions. Almost 70% of nonmetropolitan women live in counties with no facilities reporting abortions--only 4.5% of abortions take place in nonmetropolitan areas. Other factors restricting availability of abortion include lack of Medicaid funding in most states, parental notification and consent requirements (by law in 7 states), period of gestation at which abortions may be performed (30% of providers will only perform abortions up to 10 weeks' gestation; only 21% will perform them after 14 weeks), and the way in which hospitals are organized to provide services. 3/4 of all abortions were performed in 459 clinics and hospitals which reported 1000 or more abortions each. The proportion performed in nonhospital facilities has risen steadily since legalization: nearly 80% were performed in these facilities in 1980 compared with less than 1/2 in 1973. Improvements and simplification in abortion techniques have contributed to this trend. Only 55% of hospital abortion providers perform any outpatient abortions, and in most cases women are unable to arrange for a hospital abortion without a referral, further restricting access to abortion services in many cases.

  10. Cow attributes, herd management, and reproductive history events associated with abortion in cow-calf herds from Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Waldner, C L

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify herd management and cow characteristics that are associated with abortion in cow-calf herds in Western Canada. Reproductive events were closely monitored in 29,713 cows in 203 herds from the beginning of the breeding season in 2001 through the calving season in 2002. Herd management and cow-level risk factors such as age, body condition score, and previous reproductive history were measured through a series of herd visits by project personnel and detailed individual animal records maintained by the herd owner. Pregnancy status was assessed in fall of 2001 by the herd veterinarian. Cows most likely to abort were replacement heifers, cows that were more than 10 years of age, cows with a body condition score of less than or equal to or 5 of 9 at pregnancy testing, or with twin pregnancies. Cows vaccinated for bovine viral diarrhea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bred on community pastures were less likely to abort than cows from community pastures that were not vaccinated. Cows bred on community pastures that were not vaccinated were also more likely to abort than cows that were not on community pastures regardless of vaccination status. Adverse calving-associated events such as severe dystocia, problems such as uterine prolapse or retained placentas, abortion or calf death within 1 hour of birth were also associated with an increased risk of abortion the subsequent calving season after accounting for all other factors.

  11. Second trimester abortion as a cause of maternal death: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Avcioglu, Sümeyra Nergiz; Altinkaya, Sündüz Özlem; Küçük, Mert; Zafer, Emre; Sezer, Selda Demircan; Yüksel, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Each year, an estimated 529 000 maternal deaths occur worldwide. In literature, it is known that maternal mortality can occur during pregnancy, peripartum and also in postpartum period. Although very rare, maternal deaths may occur after spontaneous abortion. In present case, 37 year old G5P4 (Caesarean Section) women was admitted to Adnan Menderes University, Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic with diagnosis of missed abortion at 18 weeks’ gestation. She had been hospitalized in the public maternity hospital for five days due to abortus incipience and prolapse of amnion membranes but had no contractions. Fetal heart beats ceased at the second day of hospitalization. Medically induced abortion was recommended but not accepted by the patient. At the fifth day of hospitalization, she was referred to our clinic due to deterioration of general health condition, low blood pressure and tachycardia. In emergency department, it was determined that she was not oriented, had confusion, had blood pressure of 49/25 mmHg and tachycardia. In ultrasonographic examination, 18 week in utero ex fetus was determined and there was free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. The free fluid was suspected to be amniotic fluid due to rupture of uterus. Laparotomy was performed, no uterine rupture, hematoma or atony was observed. However during laparotomy, a very bad smelling odor, might be due to septicemia, was felt in the operation room. Cardiac arrest occurred during that operation. In autopsy report, it was concluded that maternal death was because of remaining of inutero ex fetus for a long time. In conclusion, although very rare, maternal deaths after spontaneous abortion may occur. Because spontaneous abortion is a common outcome of pregnancy, continued careful, strict monitoring and immediate treatment of especially second trimester spontaneous abortion is recommended to prevent related, disappointing, unexpected maternal deaths. PMID:26958124

  12. Abortion and contraceptive practices in eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Kovács, L

    1997-07-01

    In countries of the CCEE region (Countries of Central and Eastern Europe) the very high incidence of pregnancy termination is characteristic of family planning and the notion 'contraception instead of abortion' has not yet been achieved. The causes and consequences of this unfortunate situation will be reviewed: the reproductive health indicators in the area; the status of contraceptive use and of abortion; the impact of legislation in the different countries; and the efforts to achieve changes. The conclusions of the 'Szeged Declaration' which led to an increase in contraceptive prevalence will be discussed.

  13. [Religion, morality and politics: the abortion debate].

    PubMed

    Ladriere, P

    1982-01-01

    The views of morality enunciated by the Protestant and Catholic churches in the process of France's abortion law revision are examined through an analysis of the testimony of each church and its moral theologians during hearings held from July-November 1973 by the Commission of Cultural, Family, and Social Affairs of the National Assembly concerning the proposed abortion legislation. The offical Catholic Church position, which restated a neoscholastic philosophy with its theory of human nature, natural law, natural right, and natural morality, was opposed by 2 priests who participated as members of other organizations. The moral principles behind the official Catholic position included the sacred and absolute principle of respect for life, the beginning of human life at conception, and the responsibility to protect the fetus as a human being. Internal Catholic challenges to the official position appeared to rest principally on the question of when life begins but also touched on the inappropriateness of viewing unwanted pregnancy as a punishment for sexual activity, the constant recourse to authority of the church, and the reluctance to reexamine questions on new evidence. Faced with the likely replacement of abortion law consistent with Catholic morality by 1 seriously at variance, the French Church and state while justifying their organized opposition to any change. The right of the church to impose its views on the legislature and on society, the view of the cultural context of abortion as a degradation of public attitudes expressed in rejection of children, the necessary connections between sexuality and fertility, the necessity for women to be able to control their fertility if they were to participate fully in society, the debased conditions in which thousands of illegal abortions occurred or the exaggeration of such conditions were other issues. Proposed legislation on abortion was opposed by the official Catholic position, which instead called for a vaguely

  14. [The decision process in induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Ytterstad, T S; Tollan, A

    1990-06-20

    This study describes the pattern of decision as reported by women undergoing elective abortion. The results are based on interviews with 45 of 67 women admitted to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Tromsø, during a two month period in 1988. All women had informed, and most often consulted, at least one person before making the decision, usually their partner and/or a female friend. The majority of the persons consulted supported her, whatever her decision. According to the women, they made the women, the final decision themselves. Two women were persuaded by their partner to decide to have an elective abortion.

  15. [Religion, morality and politics: the abortion debate].

    PubMed

    Ladriere, P

    1982-01-01

    The views of morality enunciated by the Protestant and Catholic churches in the process of France's abortion law revision are examined through an analysis of the testimony of each church and its moral theologians during hearings held from July-November 1973 by the Commission of Cultural, Family, and Social Affairs of the National Assembly concerning the proposed abortion legislation. The offical Catholic Church position, which restated a neoscholastic philosophy with its theory of human nature, natural law, natural right, and natural morality, was opposed by 2 priests who participated as members of other organizations. The moral principles behind the official Catholic position included the sacred and absolute principle of respect for life, the beginning of human life at conception, and the responsibility to protect the fetus as a human being. Internal Catholic challenges to the official position appeared to rest principally on the question of when life begins but also touched on the inappropriateness of viewing unwanted pregnancy as a punishment for sexual activity, the constant recourse to authority of the church, and the reluctance to reexamine questions on new evidence. Faced with the likely replacement of abortion law consistent with Catholic morality by 1 seriously at variance, the French Church and state while justifying their organized opposition to any change. The right of the church to impose its views on the legislature and on society, the view of the cultural context of abortion as a degradation of public attitudes expressed in rejection of children, the necessary connections between sexuality and fertility, the necessity for women to be able to control their fertility if they were to participate fully in society, the debased conditions in which thousands of illegal abortions occurred or the exaggeration of such conditions were other issues. Proposed legislation on abortion was opposed by the official Catholic position, which instead called for a vaguely

  16. Abortion, Adoption, and Marriage: Alternative Resolutions of an Unwanted Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nock, Steven L.

    1994-01-01

    Responds to previous article by Stolley and Hall (this issue) on presentation of adoption and abortion in undergraduate marriage and family textbooks. Contends that Stolley and Hall have constructed the issue as involving but two options (abortion and adoption). Asserts that abortion and adoption are but two of several related topics. Considers…

  17. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to... type of device may include aspiration cannula, vacuum source, and vacuum controller. (b)...

  18. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to... type of device may include aspiration cannula, vacuum source, and vacuum controller. (b)...

  19. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to... type of device may include aspiration cannula, vacuum source, and vacuum controller. (b)...

  20. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to... type of device may include aspiration cannula, vacuum source, and vacuum controller. (b)...

  1. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to... type of device may include aspiration cannula, vacuum source, and vacuum controller. (b)...

  2. The Psychosocial Factors of the Abortion Experience: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shusterman, Lisa Roseman

    1976-01-01

    Due to faulty methodology no general statements can be made about psychosocial factors for women receiving illegal abortions. Women receiving therapeutic abortions experienced favorable psychological consequences more often than negative consequences. New abortion patients are mostly young, unmarried women who are not in a social position to care…

  3. The Expression of Experience: Code's Critique of Gilligan's Abortion Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, Alice

    1991-01-01

    Presents a response to Lorraine Code's critique of Carol Gilligan's abortion study. Urges that abortion be read as a socially constructed experience based on more than women's moral decisions. Discusses language and experience to present abortion as an area of contested meaning in historical and ideological constructions of social life. (DK)

  4. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  5. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  6. The Effect of Religious Membership on Teen Abortion Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomal, Annette

    2001-01-01

    Studied abortion rates among teenagers in 1,024 counties in 18 states that report abortion numbers. Results show that counties with high levels of religious membership were more likely to be in a state with a parental involvement law for teenage abortions. Both religious membership level and a parental involvement law were negatively related to…

  7. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  8. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  9. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  10. Bridging NCL research gaps.

    PubMed

    Stehr, Frank; van der Putten, Herman

    2015-10-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, collectively called NCLs, are rare and fatal lysosomal storage diseases that mainly affect children. Due to the fact that NCLs are both rare and heterogeneous (mutations in thirteen different genes) significant gaps exist in both preclinical and clinical research. Altogether, these gaps are major hurdles to bring therapies to patients while the need for new therapies is urgent to help them and their families. To define gaps and discuss solutions, a round table discussion involving teams and different stake holders took place during the 14th International Conference on Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (Batten Disease) in Cordóba, Argentina. Topics covered by the teams and their leaders (in parentheses) included basic and translational research gaps with regard to large animal models (I. Tammen, D.N. Palmer), human NCL pathology and access to human tissue (J.D. Cooper, H.H. Goebel), rare NCLs (S. Hofman, I. Noher), links of NCLs to other diseases (F.M. Platt), gaps between clinic and clinical trials (H. Adams, A. Schulz), international collaborative efforts working towards a cure (S.E. Mole, H. Band) perspectives on palliative care from patient organizations (M. Frazier, A. West), and issues NCL researchers face when progressing to independent career in academia (M. Bond). Thoughts presented by the team leaders include previously unpublished opinions and information on the lack of understanding of disease pathomechanisms, gene function, assays for drug discovery and target validation, natural history of disease, and biomarkers for monitoring disease progression and treatment effects. This article is not intended to review the NCL literature. It includes personal opinions of the authors and it provides the reader with a summary of gaps discussed and solutions proposed by the teams. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Current Research on the Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (Batten Disease). PMID:26056946

  11. Estimates of the rate of illegal abortion and the effects of eliminating therapeutic abortion, Alberta 1973-74.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, S A; Krótki, K J

    1979-01-01

    Data from the Growth of Alberta Family Study were used to estimate the illegal abortion rate for the residents of Edmonton, Alberta and to assess the potential impact of eliminating therapeutic abortion on the birth rate and on the illegal abortion rate. The study population consisted of 938 women, aged 18-54. The women were divided into 3 groups, and sensitive abortion data was elicited from each group using different data collection techniques. One group was asked about abortion in the traditional interview mode. Another group was asked to mail in their responses to abortion answers anonymously, and the remaining group was questioned about abortion using the (RRT) randomized response technique. The use of the RRT allowed the respondent to answer yes or no questions without the interviewer being aware that the respondent was responding to sensitive abortion questions. The RRT elicited information on a greater number of abortions than the other 2 techniques. According to calculations based on the RRT elicited information, the illegal abortion rate in Edmonton was 22.4/100 conceptions surviving the 1st 4 weeks of gestation. In view of the controversy surrounding the current abortion law, an effort was made to assess the effects of eliminating therapeutic abortions. A method, previously developed by Tietze for calculating the impact of abortion laws on the birth rate in New York, was applied to the Alberta data. The conclusion was reached that if therapeutic abortions were eliminated, the effect on the birth rate would be negligible and the illegal abortion rate would increase by 12%. The estimated illegal abortion rates and other major study results were presented in tabular form.

  12. Eight electrode optical readout gap

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.; Crain, Robert W.

    1985-01-01

    A protective device for a plurality of electrical circuits includes a pluity of isolated electrodes forming a gap with a common electrode. An output signal, electrically isolated from the circuits being monitored, is obtained by a photosensor viewing the discharge gap through an optical window. Radioactive stabilization of discharge characteristics is provided for slowly changing voltages and carbon tipped dynamic starters provide desirable discharge characteristics for rapidly varying voltages. A hydrogen permeation barrier is provided on external surfaces of the device.

  13. Attitudes to abortion in the era of reform: evidence from the Abortion Law Reform Association correspondence.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma L

    2011-01-01

    This article examines letters sent by members of the general public to the Abortion Law Reform Association (ALRA) in the decade immediately before the 1967 Abortion Act. It shows how a voluntary organisation, in their aim of supporting a specific cause of unclear legality, called forth correspondence from those in need. In detailing the personal predicaments of those facing an unwanted pregnancy, this body of correspondence was readily deployed by ALRA in their efforts to mobilise support for abortion law reform, thus exercising a political function. A close examination of the content of the letters and the epistolary strategies adopted by their writers reveals that as much as they were a lobbying tool for changes in abortion law, these letters were discursively shaped by debates surrounding that very reform.

  14. Expansion of Safe Abortion Services in Nepal Through Auxiliary Nurse‐Midwife Provision of Medical Abortion, 2011‐2013

    PubMed Central

    Basnett, Indira; Shrestha, Dirgha Raj; Shrestha, Meena Kumari; Shah, Mukta; Aryal, Shilu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The termination of unwanted pregnancies up to 12 weeks’ gestation became legal in Nepal in 2002. Many interventions have taken place to expand access to comprehensive abortion care services. However, comprehensive abortion care services remain out of reach for women in rural and remote areas. This article describes a training and support strategy to train auxiliary nurse‐midwives (ANMs), already certified as skilled birth attendants, as medical abortion providers and expand geographic access to safe abortion care to the community level in Nepal. Methods This was a descriptive program evaluation. Sites and trainees were selected using standardized assessment tools to determine minimum facility requirements and willingness to provide medical abortion after training. Training was evaluated via posttests and observational checklists. Service statistics were collected through the government's facility logbook for safe abortion services (HMIS‐11). Results By the end of June 2014, medical abortion service had been expanded to 25 districts through 463 listed ANMs at 290 listed primary‐level facilities and served 25,187 women. Providers report a high level of confidence in their medical abortion skills and considerable clinical knowledge and capacity in medical abortion. Discussion The Nepali experience demonstrates that safe induced abortion care can be provided by ANMs, even in remote primary‐level health facilities. Post‐training support for providers is critical in helping ANMs handle potential barriers to medical abortion service provision and build lasting capacity in medical abortion. PMID:26860072

  15. Algorithm for Determination of Orion Ascent Abort Mode Achievability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    For human spaceflight missions, a launch vehicle failure poses the challenge of returning the crew safely to earth through environments that are often much more stressful than the nominal mission. Manned spaceflight vehicles require continuous abort capability throughout the ascent trajectory to protect the crew in the event of a failure of the launch vehicle. To provide continuous abort coverage during the ascent trajectory, different types of Orion abort modes have been developed. If a launch vehicle failure occurs, the crew must be able to quickly and accurately determine the appropriate abort mode to execute. Early in the ascent, while the Launch Abort System (LAS) is attached, abort mode selection is trivial, and any failures will result in a LAS abort. For failures after LAS jettison, the Service Module (SM) effectors are employed to perform abort maneuvers. Several different SM abort mode options are available depending on the current vehicle location and energy state. During this region of flight the selection of the abort mode that maximizes the survivability of the crew becomes non-trivial. To provide the most accurate and timely information to the crew and the onboard abort decision logic, on-board algorithms have been developed to propagate the abort trajectories based on the current launch vehicle performance and to predict the current abort capability of the Orion vehicle. This paper will provide an overview of the algorithm architecture for determining abort achievability as well as the scalar integration scheme that makes the onboard computation possible. Extension of the algorithm to assessing abort coverage impacts from Orion design modifications and launch vehicle trajectory modifications is also presented.

  16. Spontaneous abortion and unexpected death: a critical discussion of Marquis on abortion.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Mary Clayton

    2013-02-01

    In his classic paper, 'Why abortion is immoral', Don Marquis argues that what makes killing an adult seriously immoral is that it deprives the victim of the valuable future he/she would have otherwise had. Moreover, Marquis contends, because abortion deprives a fetus of the very same thing, aborting a fetus is just as seriously wrong as killing an adult. Marquis' argument has received a great deal of critical attention in the two decades since its publication. Nonetheless, there is a potential challenge to it that seems to have gone unnoticed. A significant percentage of fetuses are lost to spontaneous abortion. Once we bring this fact to our attention, it becomes less clear whether Marquis can use his account of the wrongness of killing to show that abortion is the moral equivalent of murder. In this paper, I explore the relevance of the rate of spontaneous abortion to Marquis' classic anti-abortion argument. I introduce a case I call Unexpected Death in which someone is about to commit murder, but, just as the would-be murderer is about to strike, his would-be victim dies unexpectedly. I then ask: what does Marquis' account of killing imply about the moral status of what the would-be murderer was about to do? I consider four responses Marquis could give to this question, and I examine what implications these responses have for Marquis' strategy of using his account of the wrongness of killing an adult to show that abortion is in the same moral category. PMID:23038800

  17. Abortion: A Problem-Solving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Lloyd P.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to use the vehicle of a controversial issue--abortion--as a means of illustrating the advantages of teaching such issues through a problem-solving method. Discussion ideas and resources are presented. (Author/JR)

  18. Abortion Legalization and Childbearing in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Vázquez, Edith Y; Parrado, Emilio A

    2016-06-01

    In 2007 abortion was legalized in the Federal District of Mexico, making it the largest jurisdiction in Latin America, outside of Cuba, to allow women to have abortions on request during the first trimester of pregnancy. While the implications of the law for women's health and maternal mortality have been investigated, its potential association with fertility behavior has yet to be assessed. We examine metropolitan-area differences in overall and parity-specific childbearing, as well as the age pattern of childbearing between 2000 and 2010 to identify the contribution of abortion legalization to fertility in Mexico. Our statistical specification applies difference-in-difference regression methods that control for concomitant changes in other socioeconomic predictors of fertility to assess the differential influence of the law across age groups. In addition, we account for prior fertility levels and change to better separate the effect of the law from preceding trends. Overall, the evidence suggests a systematic association between abortion legalization and fertility. The law appears to have contributed to lower fertility in Mexico City compared to other metropolitan areas and prior trends. The influence is mostly visible among women aged 20-34 in connection with the transition to first and second child, with limited impact on teenage fertility. There is some evidence that its effect might be diffusing to the Greater Mexico City Metropolitan area. PMID:27285423

  19. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  20. Abortion Legalization and Childbearing in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Vázquez, Edith Y; Parrado, Emilio A

    2016-06-01

    In 2007 abortion was legalized in the Federal District of Mexico, making it the largest jurisdiction in Latin America, outside of Cuba, to allow women to have abortions on request during the first trimester of pregnancy. While the implications of the law for women's health and maternal mortality have been investigated, its potential association with fertility behavior has yet to be assessed. We examine metropolitan-area differences in overall and parity-specific childbearing, as well as the age pattern of childbearing between 2000 and 2010 to identify the contribution of abortion legalization to fertility in Mexico. Our statistical specification applies difference-in-difference regression methods that control for concomitant changes in other socioeconomic predictors of fertility to assess the differential influence of the law across age groups. In addition, we account for prior fertility levels and change to better separate the effect of the law from preceding trends. Overall, the evidence suggests a systematic association between abortion legalization and fertility. The law appears to have contributed to lower fertility in Mexico City compared to other metropolitan areas and prior trends. The influence is mostly visible among women aged 20-34 in connection with the transition to first and second child, with limited impact on teenage fertility. There is some evidence that its effect might be diffusing to the Greater Mexico City Metropolitan area.

  1. Debate: Should Abortion Be Available on Request?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Bernard; Lawrence, George

    1971-01-01

    Two physicians debate whether abortions should be available on request regardless of medical indications. The crux of the issue is whether the fetus should be considered body tissue over which the woman has complete control or whether society has an interest in the embryo and should protect it. (Author/BY)

  2. Evaluation of stated motives for legal abortion.

    PubMed

    Törnbom, M; Ingelhammar, E; Lilja, H; Möller, A; Svanberg, B

    1994-03-01

    In a study of 404 women (simple random sample), 20-29 years of age, 201 (group A) applying for abortion and 203 (group B) continuing their pregnancies, the women were given a questionnaire and in addition were interviewed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the spontaneous personal motives of women for abortion at a time when age is not supposed to be a common reason. The results showed that more than half of the women expressed that a bad relationship with the partner in one way or another was a motive for the abortion. Other important motives included characteristics of the women and their partners, mainly immaturity, work/studies and unsuitable life situation for having a child. Less common motives seemed to be economy, dwelling and medical and health factors. It is obvious that women in this study wanted to have a stable relationship to the child's father before they dared or wanted to have a child. Social networks in modern society seem to be too weak. The women do not want to face social and emotional problems as lonely mothers. Political decisions in the society, for example with parental benefit according to your income discourage women from continuing their pregnancies during their studies. It also seems important for the woman to feel mature enough to have a child. The provision and encouragement of methods for safer sex may be a possible way by which to reduce the number of abortions.

  3. How Attitudes Toward Abortion are Changing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elise F.; Westoff, Charles F.

    1978-01-01

    Data were obtained from the 1975 National Fertility Study concerning the acceptability of abortion, based largely on reinterviews with respondents from the 1970 sample. Using these data, aggregate trends over time and patterns of change for individuals have been analyzed. (BB)

  4. Endocrine alterations around the time of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen.

    PubMed

    Boeta, M; Zarco, L

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor and compare the concentrations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), progesterone and estrone sulphate during normal and failed pregnancies of mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen, relating their individual endocrine profiles to the time of pregnancy loss, and to the histopathologic findings in the aborted fetuses and placenta. Mares (n=54) were used, 32 of them impregnated with donkey semen and 22 impregnated with horse semen. Blood samples were taken twice a week from Day 35 to 120 of pregnancy. Ultrasonographic observations of the fetus were carried out twice a week. The incidence of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey semen (30%) was greater (P<0.05) than the 5% observed in mares impregnated with horse semen. From Week 8 to the end of the sampling period, the mean progesterone concentrations of mares with normal mule pregnancies were less (P<0.05) than those of mares with normal pregnancies with equine fetuses. The concentrations of eCG were less (P<0.05) in mule pregnancies from Week 6. Estrone sulphate concentrations were only different (P<0.05) between types of pregnancy on Weeks 13 and 14, being in this case greater with the mule pregnancies. Most of the abortions of mule fetuses were associated with lesser progesterone concentrations than the average for mares with successful mule pregnancies. Four of the abortions of mule fetuses and the only abortion of horse fetus occurred in mares with lesser progesterone and very low eCG concentrations, and were classified as caused by luteal impairment secondary to eCG deficiency; estrone sulphate concentrations were less than normal or absent before these abortions. Two mares aborted after several weeks of low progesterone concentrations in the presence of eCG concentrations that were normal for mule pregnancies, suggesting primary luteal deficiency. In three mares carrying a mule fetus, the concentrations of progesterone and estrone sulphate decreased

  5. Endocrine alterations around the time of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen.

    PubMed

    Boeta, M; Zarco, L

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor and compare the concentrations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), progesterone and estrone sulphate during normal and failed pregnancies of mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen, relating their individual endocrine profiles to the time of pregnancy loss, and to the histopathologic findings in the aborted fetuses and placenta. Mares (n=54) were used, 32 of them impregnated with donkey semen and 22 impregnated with horse semen. Blood samples were taken twice a week from Day 35 to 120 of pregnancy. Ultrasonographic observations of the fetus were carried out twice a week. The incidence of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey semen (30%) was greater (P<0.05) than the 5% observed in mares impregnated with horse semen. From Week 8 to the end of the sampling period, the mean progesterone concentrations of mares with normal mule pregnancies were less (P<0.05) than those of mares with normal pregnancies with equine fetuses. The concentrations of eCG were less (P<0.05) in mule pregnancies from Week 6. Estrone sulphate concentrations were only different (P<0.05) between types of pregnancy on Weeks 13 and 14, being in this case greater with the mule pregnancies. Most of the abortions of mule fetuses were associated with lesser progesterone concentrations than the average for mares with successful mule pregnancies. Four of the abortions of mule fetuses and the only abortion of horse fetus occurred in mares with lesser progesterone and very low eCG concentrations, and were classified as caused by luteal impairment secondary to eCG deficiency; estrone sulphate concentrations were less than normal or absent before these abortions. Two mares aborted after several weeks of low progesterone concentrations in the presence of eCG concentrations that were normal for mule pregnancies, suggesting primary luteal deficiency. In three mares carrying a mule fetus, the concentrations of progesterone and estrone sulphate decreased

  6. Emotional distress in Israeli women before and after abortion.

    PubMed

    Teichman, Y; Shenhar, S; Segal, S

    1993-04-01

    Emotional distress in a group of Israeli women who requested legal abortion was compared with that in a group of women on the verge of delivery and in a random group of nonpregnant women on measures of anxiety and depression. Emotional consequences of the abortion were evaluated by before-and-after comparisons of the same measures in a subgroup of the aborting women. Findings indicated significantly greater distress in the aborting women, with lower levels after the abortion. The effects on emotional well-being of personal and contextual factors and their interactions were also examined.

  7. Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Ascent Abort Coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Mark B.; Evans, Bryan M.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Falck, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to maintain continuous abort capability from lift off through destination arrival. This requirement is driven by the desire to provide the capability to safely return the crew to Earth after failure scenarios during the various phases of the mission. This paper addresses abort trajectory design considerations, concept of operations and guidance algorithm prototypes for the portion of the ascent trajectory following nominal jettison of the Launch Abort System (LAS) until safe orbit insertion. Factors such as abort system performance, crew load limits, natural environments, crew recovery, and vehicle element disposal were investigated to determine how to achieve continuous vehicle abort capability.

  8. Attitudes toward the level of men's involvement in abortion decisions.

    PubMed

    Nelson, E S; Coleman, P K; Swager, M J

    1997-06-01

    College students completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitudes toward the level of male responsibility in abortion decisions. Overall, both men and women thought that men should have some degree of involvement in the abortion decision. However, as expected by the first hypothesis, men indicated a desire for more responsibility in the abortion decision than women thought the men should have. A second hypothesis predicted women would feel more strongly than men that abortion was strictly a woman's issue. Contrary to the hypothesis, women tended to disagree that abortion was strictly a women's issue. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:12295943

  9. [Peru: reproductive health, abortion and family planning].

    PubMed

    Ferrando, D

    1994-01-01

    The average number of children per woman in Peru declined from 7 to 3.5 between 1960-65 and 1990-95, but the 1991 Demographic and Health Survey indicates that ideal family size was 2.7. Significant socioeconomic and regional fertility differentials persist. Despite the desire for smaller families, 59% of reproductive-age women use no contraceptive method. The most widely used method in Peru is rhythm. Around 34% of women 15-44 years old, some 2 million women, can be considered insufficiently protected against risks of unwanted pregnancy. The 1991 survey found that 1/3 of women using contraceptive methods had experienced failure of their method, with proportions ranging from 32% for rhythm to 1.2% for IUD. Abortion is illegal in Peru, as in most of Latin America, but is known to be widespread. The recurring public debates about abortion are hampered by lack of reliable data. The Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) estimate for Peru was based on data from the 1991 Demographic and Health Survey, official hospital discharge statistics, and a survey of 197 professionals and nonprofessionals. The AGI study reveals that a wide variety of techniques are used to induce abortion. There are the safe, modern methods, such as vacuum aspiration or dilatation and curettage, but the most common methods include inserting a probe or catheter, sometimes pouring toxic fluids into the uterus. Women also insert metal objects into the uterus or herbal suppositories into the vagina. They jump, fall, exercise violently, and take injections. 84% of rural women and 64% of poor urban women attempt to induce the abortion themselves or seek the aid of untrained midwives. 95% of wealthier urban women are attended by health professionals. An estimated 1 in 5 illegal abortions in Peru result in hospitalization. Applying this ratio to the estimated 54,230 hospitalizations for induced abortion in 1989 results in an estimate of 271,150 induced abortions in that year, equivalent to 43% of live births.

  10. State abortion policy, geographic access to abortion providers and changing family formation.

    PubMed

    Lichter, D T; McLaughlin, D K; Ribar, D C

    1998-01-01

    This study examined whether new barriers to abortion access are likely to contribute to increased female headship in the US. State and country fixed effects models are estimated for the impact of geographic access to abortion providers, notification requirements, parental consent, and Medicaid funding restrictions. Data were obtained from county records from summary tape files of the 1980 and 1990 censuses; abortion provider information from the Alan Guttmacher Institute; and physicians active in OB-GYN patient care data from the Bureau of Health Professionals Area Resource File. Pooled data amounted to 6132 observations for 3066 counties. The data included nonmarital births without a marriage and marital births followed by separation or divorce. Sensitivity analysis accounted for local divorce rates. Fixed effects controls accounted for unobserved variables. Population-weighted descriptive statistics are provided for dependent and key independent variables. Abortion provider declines ranged from 13% to 19%. Findings indicate that declines in geographic access accounted for a small, but significant, decline in increased female headship. About 50% of the increase among Black female headship was accounted for by restrictions on Medicaid funding. A modest amount of the rise in White female headship was due to state parent notification requirements. The difference in the estimated impact of abortion providers in the state and county specific models supported findings of Kane and Staiger. Sensitivity models did not alter the effects of access to abortion providers and physicians. Findings suggest conflicting or competing public policy goals.

  11. An alternate mechanism of abortive release marked by the formation of very long abortive transcripts.

    PubMed

    Chander, Monica; Austin, Karyn M; Aye-Han, Nwe-Nwe; Sircar, Piya; Hsu, Lilian M

    2007-11-01

    The Esigma70-dependent N25 promoter is rate-limited at promoter escape. Here, RNA polymerase repeatedly initiates and aborts transcription, giving rise to a ladder of short RNAs 2-11 nucleotides long. Certain mutations in the initial transcribed sequence (ITS) of N25 lengthen the abortive initiation program, resulting in the release of very long abortive transcripts (VLATs) 16-19 nucleotides long. This phenomenon is completely dependent on sequences within the first 20 bases of the ITS since altering sequences downstream of +20 has no effect on their formation. VLAT formation also requires strong interactions between RNA polymerase and the promoter. Mutations that change the -35 and -10 hexamers and the intervening 17 base pair spacer away from consensus decrease the probability of aborting at positions +16 to +19. An unusual characteristic of the VLATs is their undiminished levels in the presence of GreB, which rescues abortive RNAs (abortive release at VLAT positions.

  12. Visualising abortion: emotion discourse and fetal imagery in a contemporary abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Nick; Zeedyk, Suzanne; Raitt, Fiona

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a recent UK anti-abortion campaign in which the use of fetal imagery--especially images of fetal remains--was a prominent issue. A striking feature of the texts produced by the group behind the campaign was the emphasis given to the emotions of those viewing such imagery. Traditionally, social scientific analyses of mass communication have problematised references to emotion and viewed them as being of significance because of their power to subvert the rational appraisal of message content. However, we argue that emotion discourse may be analysed from a different perspective. As the categorisation of the fetus is a social choice and contested, it follows that all protagonists in the abortion debate (whether pro- or anti-abortion) are faced with the task of constructing the fetus as a particular entity rather than another, and that they must seek to portray their preferred categorisation as objective and driven by an 'out-there' reality. Following this logic, we show how the emotional experience of viewing fetal imagery was represented so as to ground an anti-abortion construction of the fetus as objective. We also show how the arguments of the (pro-abortion) opposition were construed as totally discrepant with such emotions and so were invalidated as deceitful distortions of reality. The wider significance of this analysis for social scientific analyses of the abortion debate is discussed. PMID:15893054

  13. Report: a study of morbidity of induced abortion data from women belonging to Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Farah; Aslam, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morbidity of induced abortion in relation to facilities, service providers and social responses of general population of women, from Karachi, Pakistan. Cross-sectional survey, conducted from February to December 2010, through a researcher-administered questionnaire from 61 randomly selected women, who underwent for Induced Abortion, aged 18-50 years. The questionnaire included open and closed ended questions, regarding demography, facilities, service providers and various complications observed. Overall, 98 immediate health problems were reported by 40 (65.5%) of the respondents, 153 late adverse effects or chronic by 46 (75.4%); while 101 mental complications had been reported by 45 (73.8%) of the 61 aborting women; respectively. Private clinics surfaced as the most frequently adopted source as reported by 40.7% of the respondents. Two third majorities had the procedure in satisfactory, good hygienic conditions by skilled professionals. Around 59% of the aborting women were aware of the religious perspective of the subject. Marked incidence of complications had been registered, regardless of type of method adopted, hygienic condition of the procedure or skill of the provider. Although, awareness of religious perspective of the subject was there, still quite a lot opted for abortion. This suggests that strong socioeconomic factors influence women to take peril of such an attempt. It also reveals the existence of a big gap for the awareness services for educating the risks involved to the women's health. Study revealed that services are easily accessible; without any legal, religious or social barriers. Semi or un-educated women, mostly from low socioeconomic sector are opting the procedure in majority, being less aware and stalwartly influenced by environmental factors; hence excessive availability of abortion services should be revisited. Lack of deep awareness of the consequences also contributes for deteriorating

  14. Report: a study of morbidity of induced abortion data from women belonging to Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Farah; Aslam, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morbidity of induced abortion in relation to facilities, service providers and social responses of general population of women, from Karachi, Pakistan. Cross-sectional survey, conducted from February to December 2010, through a researcher-administered questionnaire from 61 randomly selected women, who underwent for Induced Abortion, aged 18-50 years. The questionnaire included open and closed ended questions, regarding demography, facilities, service providers and various complications observed. Overall, 98 immediate health problems were reported by 40 (65.5%) of the respondents, 153 late adverse effects or chronic by 46 (75.4%); while 101 mental complications had been reported by 45 (73.8%) of the 61 aborting women; respectively. Private clinics surfaced as the most frequently adopted source as reported by 40.7% of the respondents. Two third majorities had the procedure in satisfactory, good hygienic conditions by skilled professionals. Around 59% of the aborting women were aware of the religious perspective of the subject. Marked incidence of complications had been registered, regardless of type of method adopted, hygienic condition of the procedure or skill of the provider. Although, awareness of religious perspective of the subject was there, still quite a lot opted for abortion. This suggests that strong socioeconomic factors influence women to take peril of such an attempt. It also reveals the existence of a big gap for the awareness services for educating the risks involved to the women's health. Study revealed that services are easily accessible; without any legal, religious or social barriers. Semi or un-educated women, mostly from low socioeconomic sector are opting the procedure in majority, being less aware and stalwartly influenced by environmental factors; hence excessive availability of abortion services should be revisited. Lack of deep awareness of the consequences also contributes for deteriorating

  15. AN ENGINEERING SOLUTION TO THE RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER UPGRADE.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.ROSER,T.SANDBERG,J.TAN,Y.ET AL.

    2004-05-23

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is the world largest superconducting accelerator for nuclear energy research. Particle beams traveling in opposite directions in two accelerator rings, Blue and Yellow, collide at six interaction regions to create phenomena of the early universe. There are more than 1700 superconducting magnets and very sophisticate and delicate large detectors inside the RHIC tunnel. With high beam intensity and ultra high beam energy, an inadvertent loss of beam can result severe damage to the superconducting magnets and detectors. Beam abort kickers are used to remove beam safely from the ring. The large inductive load, high current capability, short beam gap, and high reliability are the challenging issues of this system design. With high intensity and high momentum beam operation, it is desirable to have all high voltage modulators located outside of RHIC tunnel. However, to generate 22 kA output current per modulator with fast rise time, a conventional low impedance PFN and matched transmission cable design can push the operation voltage easily into 100 kV range. The large quantity of high voltage pulse transmission cables required by conventional design is another difficult issue. Therefore, the existing system has all ten high voltage modulators located inside RHIC tunnel. More than a hundred plastic packaged mineral oil filled high voltage capacitors raise serious concerns of fire and smoking threats. Other issues, such as kicker misfire, device availability in the future, and inaccessibility during operation, also demand an engineering solution for the future upgrade. In this paper, we investigate an unconventional approach to meet the technical challenges of RHIC beam abort system. The proposed design has all modulators outside of the RHIC tunnel. It will transmit output pulse through high voltage cables. The modulators will utilize solid-state switches, and operate at a maximum voltage in 30 to

  16. Comparison of Two Recent Launch Abort Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittemore, Gary D.; Harding, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The development of new and safer manned space vehicles is a top priority at NASA. Recently two different approaches of how to accomplish this mission of keeping astronauts safe was successfully demonstrated. With work already underway on an Apollo-like launch abort system for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), an alternative design concept named the Max Launch Abort System, or MLAS, was developed as a parallel effort. The Orion system, managed by the Constellation office, is based on the design of a single solid launch abort motor in a tower positioned above the capsule. The MLAS design takes a different approach placing the solid launch abort motor underneath the capsule. This effort was led by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). Both escape systems were designed with the Ares I Rocket as the launch vehicle and had the same primary requirement to safely propel a crew module away from any emergency event either on the launch pad or during accent. Beyond these two parameters, there was little else in common between the two projects, except that they both concluded in successful launches that will further promote the development of crew launch abort systems. A comparison of these projects from the standpoint of technical requirements; program management and flight test objectives will be done to highlight the synergistic lessons learned by two engineers who worked on each program. This comparison will demonstrate how the scope of the project architecture and management involvement in innovation should be tailored to meet the specific needs of the system under development.

  17. Herbal infusions used for induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Ciganda, Carmen; Laborde, Amalia

    2003-01-01

    Plants and herbs have been used to induce abortions but there is very little published information describing the commonly used ones. The purpose of this report is to describe the herbal products used to induce abortions, and to enhance awareness and understanding of their toxic effects. A descriptive retrospective survey was conducted on the calls received by the Montevideo Poison Centre between 1986 and 1999 concerning the ingestion of herbal infusions with abortive intent. A total of 86 cases involving 30 different plant species were identified. The species most frequently involved were ruda (Ruta chalepensis/graveolens), cola de quirquincho (Lycopodium saururus), parsley (Petroselinum hortense), and an over-the-counter herbal product named Carachipita. The components of Carachipita are pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), yerba de la perdiz (Margiricarpus pinnatus), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and guaycuri (Statice brasiliensis). Abortion occurred in 23 cases after the ingestion of parsley, ruda, Carachipita, celery, Cedron, francisco alvarez, floripon, espina colorada. Out of the 23 cases, 15 involved the only the ingestion of plants, 4 cases used injected drugs (presumably hormones), and in 4 cases there was associated self-inflicted instrumental manipulation. Multiple organ system failure occurred in those patients who had ingested ruda (alone or in combination with parsley or fennel), Carachipita, arnica, or bardana. Deaths occurred in one case of Carachipita ingestion and in 4 cases of ruda ingestion (2 cases of ruda alone, 2 cases of ruda with parsley and fennel). Self-inflicted instrumental manipulations were found in 4 of the patients with multiple organ system failure and in one of those who died. The results of this report are not conclusive, but it appears that the ingestion of plants to induce abortion involves the risk of severe morbidity and mortality.

  18. A note on "An economic approach to abortion demand.".

    PubMed

    Sun, W

    1995-01-01

    Donna S. Rothstein analyzed the socioeconomic factors which affect the demand for abortion using a cross-section of 1985 data for the fifty states of the US and Washington, D.C. The dependent variable was the percentage of pregnancies of women aged 15-44 which are terminated through legal abortion. Rothstein found that the average cost of abortions and the unemployment rate had significant negative effects upon the demand for abortion, while disposable personal per capita income, the availability of Medicaid funding for abortion, the percentage of unmarried women aged 15 and older, the states which are located in the far west, and the divorce rate had significant positive effects upon the demand for abortion. Educational status had no significant effect upon abortion. The author re-estimated Rothstein's abortion demand model using a continuous abortion price variable instead of a dummy variable to find that the abortion price and Medicaid funding have insignificant effects upon demand for abortion. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:12292333

  19. Abortion in Europe, 1920-91: a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    David, H P

    1992-01-01

    This article grew out of a keynote address prepared for the conference, "From Abortion to Contraception: Public Health Approaches to Reducing Unwanted Pregnancy and Abortion Through Improved Family Planning Services," held in Tbilisi, Georgia, USSR in October 1990. The article reviews the legal, religious, and medical situation of induced abortion in Europe in historical perspective, and considers access to abortion services, attitudes of health professionals, abortion incidence, morbidity and mortality, the new antiprogestins, the characteristics of abortion seekers, late abortions, postabortion psychological reactions, effects of denied abortion, and repeat abortion. Special attention is focused on the changes occurring in Romania, Albania, and the former Soviet Union, plus the effects of the new conservatism elsewhere in the formerly socialist countries of central and eastern Europe, particularly Poland. Abortion is a social reality that can no more be legislated out of existence than the controversy surrounding it can be stilled. No matter how effective family planning services and practices become, there will always be a need for access to safe abortion services.

  20. Second trimester abortion laws globally: actuality, trends and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Boland, Reed

    2010-11-01

    There are important and compelling reasons why women have second trimester abortions, which constitute a significant percentage of all abortions performed. Laws vary widely around the world on the legality of these abortions. In many cases, they are quite restrictive. Indeed, the later in pregnancy an abortion is sought, the more restrictive the law tends to be. However, many laws say little about second trimester or later abortions. This article reviews the laws of the 191 countries around the world for which information is available and categorizes them by legal indications, which include preservation of the woman's life, health reasons, pregnancy due to sex offences, fetal impairment, socio-economic reasons and on request. Given that there are serious reasons why women have second trimester abortions, and that the laws in many countries do not make these abortions legally available, this paper makes recommendations on how laws and regulations can be changed in order better to respond to women's needs. While most countries may not decriminalise all abortions in the near future, especially second trimester abortions, less comprehensive legislative and regulatory reforms are possible. These include recommendations aimed at ensuring that abortions are carried out safely and as early as possible in pregnancy, and improving access to safe abortions by removing unnecessary legal and regulatory restrictions.

  1. [Induced abortions in the Third Reich. Legal basis and provision].

    PubMed

    Link, G

    2000-01-01

    This article analyses, after introductory comments on the legal situation in the German Empire and the Weimar Republic, the legal basis for induced abortions during National Socialist rule in Germany. During this period the first legal definition for eugenically and medically indicated abortions was established. At the same time the prohibition of induced abortions outside these criteria was controlled more strictly and violations were punished more severely. This concerned abortions mainly for social reasons. The intention was to legalize abortion for those deemed "less worthy" while, at the same time, to minimise the number of abortions of those considered as "more valuable" to society. The main thrust of this policy was to increase the birth rate of "valuable" citizens. The second part of this paper focuses on eugenic and medical abortions at the University of Freiburg's Maternity Hospital. PMID:11050762

  2. Eliminating the phrase "elective abortion": why language matters.

    PubMed

    Janiak, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2016-02-01

    The phrase "elective abortion" is often used to describe induced abortions performed for reasons other than a direct, immediate threat to maternal physical health. We argue that the term "elective abortion" is variably defined, misrepresents the complexity and multiplicity of indications for abortion and perpetuates stigma. In practice, restricting access to abortion at the legal, regulatory or institutional level based on subjective perceptions of patient need constrains health care providers' ability to act according to their best clinical judgments and limits patient access to care. The phrase "elective abortion" should be eliminated from scientific and medical discourse to prevent further damage to the public understanding of the variety of indications for which women require expeditious and equitable access to induced abortion. PMID:26480889

  3. Eliminating the phrase "elective abortion": why language matters.

    PubMed

    Janiak, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2016-02-01

    The phrase "elective abortion" is often used to describe induced abortions performed for reasons other than a direct, immediate threat to maternal physical health. We argue that the term "elective abortion" is variably defined, misrepresents the complexity and multiplicity of indications for abortion and perpetuates stigma. In practice, restricting access to abortion at the legal, regulatory or institutional level based on subjective perceptions of patient need constrains health care providers' ability to act according to their best clinical judgments and limits patient access to care. The phrase "elective abortion" should be eliminated from scientific and medical discourse to prevent further damage to the public understanding of the variety of indications for which women require expeditious and equitable access to induced abortion.

  4. [Induced abortions in the Third Reich. Legal basis and provision].

    PubMed

    Link, G

    2000-01-01

    This article analyses, after introductory comments on the legal situation in the German Empire and the Weimar Republic, the legal basis for induced abortions during National Socialist rule in Germany. During this period the first legal definition for eugenically and medically indicated abortions was established. At the same time the prohibition of induced abortions outside these criteria was controlled more strictly and violations were punished more severely. This concerned abortions mainly for social reasons. The intention was to legalize abortion for those deemed "less worthy" while, at the same time, to minimise the number of abortions of those considered as "more valuable" to society. The main thrust of this policy was to increase the birth rate of "valuable" citizens. The second part of this paper focuses on eugenic and medical abortions at the University of Freiburg's Maternity Hospital.

  5. Recent developments in abortion law in industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Boland, R

    1990-01-01

    An effort to bring new insights into the US abortion debate, this article reviews recent legal developments concerning abortion in 7 other industrialized countries. In addition to the US, the author examines developments in Canada, England, Ireland, France, Belgium, Romania, and Bulgaria. In the US, the Supreme Court has become the battleground for an increasingly bitter abortion debate. The 1989 ruling in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services has setback the 1973 Roe v. Wade ruling which guaranteed a woman's right to an abortion. Although the Webster did not overturn Roe, it did significantly weaken the trimester approach to abortion regulation and open the door to further restrictions. In Canada, however, the court has overturned a previously burdensome abortion law. The abortion debate in England has centered around the standard that says that an abortion may not take place when the fetus is "capable of being born alive." Conforming to present scientific knowledge, English law now allows abortions on demand during the 1st 12 weeks of pregnancy -- bringing England closer to the practice of other European countries. Belgium has also recently approved of unimpeded abortions during the 1st 12 weeks. In France, the governments has ordered the manufacturer of RU486 to make the abortifacient available to French women. Ireland, however, remains the only industrialized country in the world where abortion is still illegal. The cases of Bulgaria and Romania show what can happen when abortion becomes the pawn of social policy and ideology. Romania is the extreme case. Prior to his downfall in 1989, President Ceaucescu had instituted one of the most restrictive abortion laws as part of a pronatalist policy. This resulted in widespread misery for women and created a great number of unwanted children, which the author warns is the result of restrictive abortions laws.

  6. Physician provision of abortion before Roe v. Wade.

    PubMed

    Joffe, C

    1991-01-01

    With the possibility of the Supreme Court overturning the landmark Roe v. Wade (1973) case legalizing abortion, a review of abortion practices pre-Roe is instructive. Abortion became criminalized in the US around 1870, yet many abortions were performed. While estimates for the yearly number of pre-Roe illegal abortions roughly resemble today's number of legal abortions, the difference between legal and illegal abortion rests in the difference between the large number of women who died or were injured then, and the very few women who now die from illegal abortions. Along with the self-induced abortion, different categories of providers performed illegal abortions: physicians, nonphysicians, nurses, midwives, and lay people; all with varying skill, experience, and motives. While there were "butchers" and sexual exploiters, there were also competent, beloved physicians. There were the financially motivated physicians providing abortions full time, and the occasional providers acting with a sense of conscience, risking successful practices and jail. Within this "conscience" group of 44 interviewees gathered through personal networks, ads, etc., abortions were: performed outside of hospitals, reducing the risk of discovery, but creating greater medical risks; begun outside of a hospital with the intrusion into the uterus of an object, provoking a "spontaneous abortion" (miscarriage) needing completion by D and C (dilation and curettage) within a hospital, but only a limited number of such patients could be referred before arousing suspicion; and in a hospital under disguised circumstances, a very tricky undertaking with severe limitations, available only a few times before risking detection. Avoidance and lack of training by today's physicians and the well organized antiabortion groups will undoubtedly make illegal abortions even more difficult to engage in than the pre-Roe days.

  7. Needs for laws dealing with abortion in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ojo, S L

    1976-09-01

    This paper reviews from the point of view of a lawyer, the need for abortion, the state of the laws in Africa and hazards of illegal abortion encouraged by restrictive laws. The author then examines the trends in the liberalization of laws in Africa and poses the problem of intention towards liberalization and the tendency of the governments to continue retaining some aspects of the restrictive laws. It is concluded that restrictive abortion laws in many African countries have proved ineffective and should therefore be liberalized. Miller's 8 stages in a woman's reproductive career when she is especially vulnerable psychologically to unwanted pregnancy and the 5 aspects of ego psychology to explain these stages are delineated. Hazards of illegal abortions include use of unqualified personnel, unsanitary conditions, high mortality rate and a sense of punishment conveyed especially to the poor and uneducated which may deter them from seeking medical assistance and contraceptive advice after the operation. 7% of the world's population live in countries where abortion is prohibited; for 12% abortion is permitted only to save the life of the mother; 15% must have broad medical grounds for abortion; for 22% social factors are taken into consideration; 36% can have abortions at their own request, 8% are subject to restrictive abortion laws. Only Tunisia and Zambia in Africa have so far liberalized their abortion laws. Liberalization will substantially reduce frequency of illegal and/or self induced abortions and the incidence of illegitimate births. Women who practice contraception are more likely to accept abortion and those who have an abortion are more likely to accept contraceptive methods when available. Since Potts predicts that 1/3 of all married couples will have at least 1 unplanned pregnancy, liberalization of abortion laws cannot be denied on the argument that instead emphasis should be placed on prevention through family planning education and services. The

  8. Pneumatic gap sensor and method

    SciTech Connect

    Bagdal, K.T.; King, E.L.; Follstaedt, D.W.

    1992-03-03

    This patent describes in a casting system which including an apparatus for monitoring the gap between a casting nozzle and a casting surface of a substrate during casting of molten material, wherein the molten material is provided through a channel of the casting nozzle for casting onto the casting surface of the substrate for solidification. It comprises: a pneumatic gap mounted at least partially within a cavity in the casting nozzle adjacent the channel and having a sensor face located within the gap between the nozzle and the casting surface of the substrate, means for supply gas under predetermined pressure to the inlet orifice; and means for measuring the pressure of the gas within the sensor chamber during casting procedures, whereby relative changes in the gap can be determined by corresponding changes in the measured pressure. This patent also describes a method for monitoring the gap between a casting nozzle and a casting surface of a substrate for continuous casting of molten material. It comprises: providing a casting nozzle with a channel for directing the flow of molten material, locating the nozzle and the casting surface is proximity with one another and having a predetermined gap there-between, and dressing the sensor face to correspond in conformation to the casting surface and to adjust the predetermined distance as desired; providing a molten material to the nozzle for casting onto and casting surface; supplying gas at a predetermined pressure to the inlet orifice of the sensor during casting procedures.

  9. Exploring the pathways of unsafe abortion in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sushanta K; Andersen, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 40 years after enactment of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act of 1971, unsafe abortion continues to be a neglected women's health issue in India. This prospective study of women presenting for post-abortion care in 10 selected hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India, aimed to understand the incidence, types and severity of post-abortion complications, probable causes of complications and consequences to women in terms of hospitalisation and incurred costs. Among 1565 women presenting for induced abortion-related services between July and November 2007, 381 women with post-abortion complications consented to participate. Data reveal a high prevalence of post-abortion complications (29%). Approximately half of women originally attempted to induce abortion at home using medication, home-made concoctions or traditional methods. Ninety percent sought care from either qualified (37%) or unqualified providers. More than half of the women were hospitalised as a result of post-abortion complications. This study suggests that supporting access to safely induced abortion services and improving community awareness on legal aspects, safe methods and approved providers are all necessary to reduce morbidity associated with unsafe abortion.

  10. Abortion law across Australia--A review of nine jurisdictions.

    PubMed

    de Costa, Caroline; Douglas, Heather; Hamblin, Julie; Ramsay, Philippa; Shircore, Mandy

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the current legal status of abortion in Australia and its implications. Australian abortion law has been a matter for the states since before Federation. In the years since Federation there have been significant reforms and changes in the abortion laws of some jurisdictions, although not all. Across Australia there are now nine sets of laws, state and Commonwealth, concerned with abortion. The test of a lawful abortion varies greatly across jurisdictions. In a number of states and territories, it is necessary to establish a serious risk to the physical or mental health of the woman if the pregnancy was to continue. In some cases, the certification of two doctors is required, particularly for abortions at later gestations. There are also physical restrictions on access, such as in South Australia and the Northern Territory where abortion must take place in a hospital. Only in the ACT has abortion been removed from the criminal law altogether. Variations in the law and restrictions arising from these are not consistent with the aims and provision of the universal, accessible health care system aspired to in Australia. There is an urgent need for overall reform and the introduction of uniformity to Australia's abortion laws, including removal of abortion from the criminal law.

  11. [An opinion survey on abortion in Mexico City].

    PubMed

    Núñez-Fernández, L; Shrader-Cox, E; Benson, J

    1994-01-01

    In view of the lack of information regarding abortion attitudes in Mexico, an abortion opinion survey was conducted in Mexico City among 387 women and 338 men. Respondents were asked if they agreed with a woman's abortion decision under seven different circumstances. Affirmative responses were analyzed by respondents' sociodemographic and reproductive health characteristics and a scale was created to measure respondents' overall attitudes toward abortion. Greatest support was expressed for a woman's right to an abortion, and to abortion in cases of fetal defect, threat to the mother's life, and rape. On the attitudinal scale, however, respondents generally disapproved abortion. Male respondents were more likely than female respondents to support a woman's abortion decision. Males in union, females not in union, respondents over thirty years of age, those with more than primary school education, those with fewer pregnancies, those with no history of child mortality, and those with a history of or experience with abortion, were also more likely to support an abortion decision.

  12. Women on waves: where next for the abortion boat?

    PubMed

    Gomperts, Rebecca

    2002-05-01

    Women on Waves was founded to contribute to the prevention of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortions throughout the world by direct action. Because national penal laws, including those governing abortion, generally extend only as far as territorial waters (12 miles), Women on Waves made plans to provide reproductive health services on a ship with a mobile clinic, including abortions, outside the territorial waters of countries where abortion is illegal. We went to Ireland first because it was nearby and there was a dedicated pro-choice community with immediate interest in and commitment to the project. Although we encountered problems that meant we could not do abortions, we were contacted by more than 300 women in five days and provided reproductive health information, contraception, workshops and information on where to obtain legal abortions in Europe. In many parts of the world an anti-abortion backlash is taking place. To safeguard our reproductive rights in the face of anti-abortion activities, it is crucial to recapture a pro-active, pro-choice role. Women on Waves helped to make visible the need for legal abortion services in Ireland, and the extensive class and other differences between women able to access abortions abroad and those who could not. We are currently attempting to resolve our status under Dutch law, but until women everywhere have the right to reproductive freedom, we will continue to make waves. PMID:12369324

  13. The Relationship between Neutralization Techniques and Induced Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Kalateh Sadati, Ahmad; Tabei, Seyed Ziaaddin; Salehzadeh, Hamzeh; Rahnavard, Farnaz; Namavar Jahromi, Bahia; Hemmati, Soroor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Induced abortion is not only a serious threat for women’s health, but also a controversial topic for its ethical and moral problems. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between neutralization techniques and attempting to commit abortion in married women with unintended pregnancy. Methods: After in-depth interviews with some women who had attempted abortion, neutralization themes were gathered. Next, to analyze the data quantitatively, a questionnaire was created including demographic and psychosocial variables specifically related to neutralization. The participants were divided into two groups (abortion and control) of unintended pregnancy and were then compared. Results: Analysis of psychosocial variables revealed a significant difference in the two groups at neutralization, showing that neutralization in the control group (56.97±10.24) was higher than that in the abortion group (44.19±12.44). To evaluate the findings more accurately, we examined the causal factors behind the behaviors of the abortion group. Binary logistic regression showed that among psychosocial factors, neutralization significantly affected abortion (95% CI=1.07-1.35). Conclusion: Despite the network of many factors affecting induced abortion, neutralization plays an important role in reinforcing the tendency to attempt abortion. Furthermore, the decline of religious beliefs, as a result of the secular context of the modern world, seems to have an important role in neutralizing induced abortion. PMID:25349851

  14. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

    2015-02-01

    Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes.

  15. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

    2015-02-01

    Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes. PMID:25715152

  16. Liberalisation of abortion laws in Nigeria: the undergraduates' perspective.

    PubMed

    Orji, E O; Adeyemi, A B; Esimai, O A

    2003-01-01

    Nothing in the field of health care generates more controversy than does the issue of abortion. The views of 396 undergraduates of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria concerning the liberalisation of abortion laws were investigated in May 2001. Ninety respondents (22.7%) supported the liberalisation of abortion laws in Nigeria because they believed that it would lead to reduction in associated morbidity and mortality, encourage more qualified personnel to perform it, encourage women to request abortion openly and encourage accurate statistics on abortion. However, the majority of the respondents (59.6%) opposed the liberalisation of abortion laws due to the fear that it would increase promiscuity, sexually transmitted diseases and abortion rates. Religious opposition and the belief that liberalisation would not reduce the level of poverty, ignorance and poor reproductive health facilities were the common factors leading to unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Nigeria. Support for the liberalisation of abortion laws shows significant relationship with increasing age (P = 0.001), male sex (P = 0.001) and a science-orientated faculty (P<0.05), but not religion. There is every indication that the issue of abortion is one that will continue to be unresolved for the forseeable future.

  17. Ugandan opinion-leaders' knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ann M; Kibombo, Richard; Cats-Baril, Deva

    2014-10-01

    While laws in Uganda surrounding abortion remain contradictory, a frequent interpretation of the law is that abortion is only allowed to save the woman's life. Nevertheless abortion occurs frequently under unsafe conditions at a rate of 54 abortions per 1000 women of reproductive age annually, taking a large toll on women's health. There are an estimated 148,500 women in Uganda who experience abortion complications annually. Understanding opinion leaders' knowledge and perceptions about unsafe abortion is critical to identifying ways to address this public health issue. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 41 policy-makers, cultural leaders, local politicians and leaders within the health care sector in 2009-10 at the national as well as district (Bushenyi, Kamuli and Lira) level to explore their knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion and the potential for policy to address this issue. Only half of the sample knew the current law regulating abortion in Uganda. Respondents understood that the result of the current abortion restrictions included long-term health complications, unwanted children and maternal death. Perceived consequences of increasing access to safe abortion included improved health as well as overuse of abortion, marital conflict and less reliance on preventive behaviour. Opinion leaders expressed the most support for legalization of abortion in cases of rape when the perpetrator was unknown. Understanding opinion leaders' perspectives on this politically sensitive topic provides insight into the policy context of abortion laws, drivers behind maintaining the status quo, and ways to improve provision under the law: increase education among providers and opinion leaders.

  18. [Contraception and abortion: an update in 2015].

    PubMed

    Chung, D; Ferro Luzzi, E; Bettoli Musy, L; Narring, F

    2015-09-23

    Family doctors can play an important role in preventing unplanned pregnancies. This article addresses the different contraceptives methods available in Switzerland, which are classified in 2 groups and recommends using the GATHER approach (Greet, Ask, Tell, Help, Explain, Return) to promote compliance. LARC (long acting reversible contraceptives) can be recommended to any woman who needs a reliable birth control method. These contraceptives require minimum effort for high efficiency. Further explanation regarding the use of an emergency contraception must be provided when short action contraceptives are chosen. Switzerland's abortion rate is one of the lowest in the world. Medical abortion tends to be more and more prominent. Under certain circumstances, it can be self-administered at home.

  19. [The modern indications for abortion (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stucki, D

    1980-01-15

    Within the Swiss legal code, somatic and psychiatric indications for interruption of pregnancy are very well indicated and codified. These days, however, only 8% of indications for abortion are based on purely medical reasons; the great majority of indications are "modern", a clear manifestation of a slipping away from classical indications toward a much more liberal intervention which often has nothing to do with the corporal integrity of the mother, but with that of the child, or which simply takes into consideration the future quality of life of everybody involved. This evolution is a reflection of the new role of women in society, and also the result of the recent progresses of the science of neonatology. Such enlarged indications for abortion are accepted by most doctors concerned with these problems, and they include such different reasons as IUD failure, hormonal contraception failure, very young or too old age, exposure to X-rays, divorce and exposure to chemotherapy.

  20. National abortion group begins education effort.

    PubMed

    1999-11-01

    This paper reports on the public awareness and education campaign of the National Abortion Federation (NAF) in the US. The campaign aims to prepare women and health care providers for the advent of mifepristone and other forms of medical abortion. This preparation includes the release of a provider manual, videotape, and CD-ROM that will coincide with the US approval of mifepristone. Once the manual, videotape, and CD-ROM are complete, NAF is planning a one-day training sessions in the year 2000 to coincide with various regional and national medical meetings. The education campaign will be made available through the Internet and possibly through satellite-based technology. NAF also provides public service messages to heighten the awareness of the Federation's toll-free hotline, in which it offers option counseling, referrals to qualified providers, help with funding, and information on dealing with individual state restrictions. PMID:12295330

  1. Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) Propulsion on Pad Abort 1 (PA-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides a concise overview of the highly successful Orion Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) flight test, and the three rocket motors that contributed to this success. The primary purpose of the Orion PA-1 flight was to help certify the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS), which can be utilized in the unlikely event of an emergency on the launchpad or during mission vehicle ascent. The PA-1 test was the first fully integrated flight test of the Orion LAS, one of the primary systems within the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The Orion MPCV is part of the architecture within the Space Launch System (SLS), which is being designed to transport astronauts beyond low-Earth orbit for future exploration missions. Had the Orion PA-1 flight abort occurred during launch preparations for a real human spaceflight mission, the PA-1 LAS would have saved the lives of the crew. The PA-1 flight test was largely successful due to the three solid rocket motors of the LAS: the Attitude Control Motor (ACM); the Jettison Motor (JM); and the Abort Motor (AM). All three rocket motors successfully performed their required functions during the Orion PA-1 flight test, flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, culminating in a successful demonstration of an abort capability from the launchpad.

  2. RU 486: an alternative to surgical abortion.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, K; Briggs, J; McMaster, D

    1994-09-01

    After 5 years of use in more than 100,000 European women, RU 486, an antiprogestin medication used as a medical abortifacient, has recently come under scrutiny in the United States. This article discusses the current and potential uses of RU 486. Also addressed are the history, advantages, and disadvantages of medical abortion (including the acceptability of the method from a woman-centered perspective); new clinical trials; and ethical issues.

  3. Medical Evidence and Expertise in Abortion Jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Aziza

    2015-01-01

    For another thing, the division of medical opinion about the matter at most means uncertainty, a factor that signals the presence of risk, not its absence. That division here involves highly qualified knowledgeable experts on both sides of the issue.--Stenberg v. Carhart, 2000. While we find no reliable data to measure the phenomenon, it seems unexceptionable to conclude some women come to regret their choice to abort the infant life they once created and sustained.--Gonzales v. Carhart, 2007.

  4. US poised to outlaw late abortion technique.

    PubMed

    Bozalis, D

    1995-11-18

    The House of Representatives passed a bill, by a two-thirds majority (288-139), prohibiting late (at 19-20 weeks gestation) abortion using intrauterine cranial decompression. The bill now awaits judgment from the Senate Judiciary Committee for hearings. If the bill becomes law, physicians performing the procedure could face up to two years in prison. Chris Smith, Republican cochairman of the House Pro-Life Caucus, who introduced the bill in the House, described the vote as historic. During his emotional speech, the procedure was described in order to desanitize a form of abortion that he called barbaric torture. Patricia Schroeder, Colorado House Representative, argued that the wording of the bill allowed the procedure only when it was the only possible way of saving the mother's life; the woman's health and future fertility were, in effect, set aside. There is no exception clause for when the woman's life or health is endangered. Schroeder fears women will be forced to choose more dangerous methods of abortion and believes more discussion is required regarding health risks and a more precise definition of when the procedure may be used. She is joined by the California Medical Association, the American Medical Women's Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, and the American Medical Association.

  5. Third trimester abortion: is compassion enough?

    PubMed

    Chervenak, F A; McCullough, L B; Campbell, S

    1999-04-01

    One comprehensive ethical framework that can be applied to cases of third trimester abortion is based on the following notion: patient trust depends upon physicians developing specific virtues and basing their professional actions on these virtues. One such virtue, as described by Dr. John Gregory in 1772, is sympathy for the distress of others that overcomes self-interest. This application of sympathy and desire to relieve suffering can justify late term abortion in some cases. The compassionate response to sympathy forwarded by Gregory, however, must be properly regulated by reason, as Gregory himself recognized. Thomas Percival (1740-1803), author of the classic text "Medical Ethics," charged physicians with uniting "tenderness" (Gregory's "sympathy") with "steadiness." This combination of virtues reoccurs in the contemporary work of bioethicists Edmund Pellegrino and David Thomasma. The intellectual component of compassion requires physicians to exhibit compassion towards their patients, and this includes fetal patients. Thus, third trimester abortion is only justified in cases where fetal abnormalities are associated with the certainty or near certainty of early death or of a complete absence of cognitive developmental capacity. Most anomalies fail to meet these criteria, and physicians must exhibit the virtues of self-effacement and integrity to make rigorous, clinical, ethical judgements and properly balance the interests of the pregnant woman and the fetus.

  6. US poised to outlaw late abortion technique.

    PubMed

    Bozalis, D

    1995-11-18

    The House of Representatives passed a bill, by a two-thirds majority (288-139), prohibiting late (at 19-20 weeks gestation) abortion using intrauterine cranial decompression. The bill now awaits judgment from the Senate Judiciary Committee for hearings. If the bill becomes law, physicians performing the procedure could face up to two years in prison. Chris Smith, Republican cochairman of the House Pro-Life Caucus, who introduced the bill in the House, described the vote as historic. During his emotional speech, the procedure was described in order to desanitize a form of abortion that he called barbaric torture. Patricia Schroeder, Colorado House Representative, argued that the wording of the bill allowed the procedure only when it was the only possible way of saving the mother's life; the woman's health and future fertility were, in effect, set aside. There is no exception clause for when the woman's life or health is endangered. Schroeder fears women will be forced to choose more dangerous methods of abortion and believes more discussion is required regarding health risks and a more precise definition of when the procedure may be used. She is joined by the California Medical Association, the American Medical Women's Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, and the American Medical Association. PMID:7496271

  7. Endogenous Candida endophthalmitis after induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Chen, S J; Chung, Y M; Liu, J H

    1998-06-01

    Reported, in this article, are the cases of two young women who developed endogenous Candida endophthalmitis after induced abortion. Both women experienced transient fever, chills, and abdominal pain after the abortion and were given antibiotics. The diagnosis of endophthalmitis was established on the basis of typical fundus appearance, positive vaginal culture, and (in one case) positive vitreous culture. In the first woman, who received vitrectomy and intravitreal amphotericin B injection, the affected eye had a best corrected visual acuity of 20/200. In the second woman, who was given systemic corticosteroid treatment before the correct diagnosis was reached, recurrent retinal detachment developed and the best corrected visual acuity was counting fingers. It appears that Candida organisms harbored in the genital tract are directly inoculated into the venous system during induced abortion. Once in the blood, if sufficient fungal load is present, Candida albicans tends to localize in the choroid and to spread toward the retina and vitreous cavity. The immunosuppressive effect of corticosteroids further increases the risk of endophthalmitis. PMID:9645729

  8. The health system cost of post-abortion care in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Vlassoff, Michael; Mugisha, Frederick; Sundaram, Aparna; Bankole, Akinrinola; Singh, Susheela; Amanya, Leo; Kiggundu, Charles; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-01-01

    This article presents estimates based on the research conducted in 2010 of the cost to the Ugandan health system of providing post-abortion care (PAC), filling a gap in knowledge of the cost of unsafe abortion. Thirty-nine public and private health facilities were sampled representing three levels of health care, and data were collected on drugs, supplies, material, personnel time and out-of-pocket expenses. In addition, direct non-medical costs in the form of overhead and capital costs were also measured. Our results show that the average annual PAC cost per client, across five types of abortion complications, was $131. The total cost of PAC nationally, including direct non-medical costs, was estimated to be $13.9 million per year. Satisfying all demand for PAC would raise the national cost to $20.8 million per year. This shows that PAC consumes a substantial portion of the total expenditure in reproductive health in Uganda. Investing more resources in family planning programmes to prevent unwanted and mistimed pregnancies would help reduce health systems costs. PMID:23274438

  9. [Practice in situations of legal abortion from the perspective of health professionals at Fernando Magalhães public hospital].

    PubMed

    Farias, Rejane Santos; Cavalcanti, Ludmila Fontenele

    2012-07-01

    The scope of this study was to analyze perceptions of health professionals at Fernando Magalhães Public Hospital regarding situations involving the practice of legal abortion. With this in mind, we sought to characterize the professionals interviewed, understand the qualifying process for assistance of women requiring abortion and identify the perceptions of the professionals regarding the practice of legal abortion. The quantitative and qualitative approach in terms of methodology was adopted. The instruments used were analysis of institutional documentation and semi-structured interviews based on a script with informed consent. The results of this research revealed: the inappropriate use of the right to conscientious objection by health professionals; the existence of difficulties faced by professionals in construction of a posture that ensures access to legally sanctioned abortion; and the interference of ethical and religious values as an important element in professional attitudes that discourage the practice of legal abortion. Measures for the ongoing education of professionals and the monitoring of actions applied to technical norms are recommended.

  10. [The psychological (long-term) sequelae of abortion].

    PubMed

    Shadmi, N; Bloch, M; Hermoni, D

    2002-10-01

    This article aims to review the available literature on the short and long-term psychological sequelae of abortion. This subject remains controversial. The most common reactions women experienced after pregnancy loss were grief, depression and anxiety. From the reviewed literature it seems that those reactions are more common following spontaneous abortion than after therapeutic abortion. Risk factors for these reactions include past psychiatric history, social and cultural attitude, poor social support, history of previous therapeutic abortion, the fact that the current abortion is the result of medical or genetic problem, no living children, or being a single woman. Most of the reviewed papers deal with short-term reactions and raise the need for long term research (more than 2 years). Only one such paper was found. It is recommended that all those who treat women that had an abortion should be aware of its psychological consequences and help identify and refer high-risk women for treatment.

  11. Why do women present late for induced abortion?

    PubMed

    Lee, Ellie; Ingham, Roger

    2010-08-01

    This article summarises the findings of studies relating to why women present for abortion at gestations of more than 12 weeks. Its primary focus is on British experience, but relevant studies from other countries are described. Key findings reveal that there are many different reasons. Much of the delay occurs prior to women requesting an abortion; other key issues include women's concerns about what is involved in having the abortion and aspects of relationships with their partners and/or parents. Further, after requesting an abortion, delays are partly 'service-related' - for example, waiting for appointments - and partly 'woman-related' for example, missing or cancelling appointments. The relative contributions to the delay of these various factors are discussed. The implications of the research for abortion education and service provision are considered. Abortion for reasons linked to foetal abnormality is not covered in this article.

  12. Late abortion and the European convention for human rights.

    PubMed

    te Braake, T A

    1999-01-01

    National abortion laws usually do not allow abortion when a foetus is independently viable, i.e. from a gestational age of about 24 weeks. Fetal anomalies, which may be a reason to seek abortion, are sometimes detected only in an advanced stage of pregnancy. National legislatures who want to allow 'late' abortion need to account for the protection the fetus may derive from the European Convention for the protection of human rights. As yet it remains unclear to what extent the fetus can in fact derive protection from the Convention, although several national abortion laws have been tested against it by the European Commission. The significance of the reports of the Commission on the question whether national legislation allowing abortion of a viable fetus is in conflict with the Convention, is explored. It is concluded that there is no European legal standard in terms of duration of pregnancy to which national legislatures are committed.

  13. It Is Time to Integrate Abortion Into Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Roe v Wade decision made safe abortion available but did not change the reality that more than 1 million women face an unwanted pregnancy every year. Forty years after Roe v Wade, the procedure is not accessible to many US women. The politics of abortion have led to a plethora of laws that create enormous barriers to abortion access, particularly for young, rural, and low-income women. Family medicine physicians and advanced practice clinicians are qualified to provide abortion care. To realize the promise of Roe v Wade, first-trimester abortion must be integrated into primary care and public health professionals and advocates must work to remove barriers to the provision of abortion within primary care settings. PMID:23153160

  14. Measuring abortion-related mortality: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Gerdts, Caitlin; Tunçalp, Ozge; Johnston, Heidi; Ganatra, Bela

    2015-01-01

    Two recent efforts to quantify the causes of maternal deaths on a global scale generated divergent estimates of abortion-related mortality. Such discrepancies in estimates of abortion-related mortality present an important opportunity to explore unique challenges and opportunities associated with the generation and interpretation of abortion-related mortality estimates. While innovations in primary data collection and estimation methodologies are much needed, at the very least, studies that seek to measure maternal deaths due to abortion should endeavor to improve transparency, acknowledge limitations of data, and contextualize results. As we move towards sustainable development goals beyond 2015, the need for valid and reliable estimates of abortion-related mortality has never been more pressing. The post-MDG development agenda that aims to improve global health, reduce health inequities, and increase accountability, requires new and novel approaches be tested to improve measurement and estimation of abortion-related mortality, as well as incidence, safety and morbidity. PMID:26377189

  15. Population Policy: Abortion and Modern Contraception Are Substitutes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Grant; Valente, Christine

    2016-08-01

    A longstanding debate exists in population policy about the relationship between modern contraception and abortion. Although theory predicts that they should be substitutes, the empirical evidence is difficult to interpret. What is required is a large-scale intervention that alters the supply (or full price) of one or the other and, importantly, that does so in isolation (reproductive health programs often bundle primary health care and family planning-and in some instances, abortion services). In this article, we study Nepal's 2004 legalization of abortion provision and subsequent expansion of abortion services, an unusual and rapidly implemented policy meeting these requirements. Using four waves of rich individual-level data representative of fertile-age Nepalese women, we find robust evidence of substitution between modern contraception and abortion. This finding has important implications for public policy and foreign aid, suggesting that an effective strategy for reducing expensive and potentially unsafe abortions may be to expand the supply of modern contraceptives. PMID:27383846

  16. Legal abortion: the impending obsolescence of the trimester framework.

    PubMed

    Mangel, C P

    1988-01-01

    Women who wish to terminate a pregnancy, and physicians willing to perform abortions, are subject to increasing harassment from groups which challenge the constitutional abortion right upheld by the Supreme Court in Roe v. Wade. Their vulnerability, in fact, parallels the vulnerability of the abortion right. This Article analyzes the inherent weakness and impending obsolescence of the trimester framework established in Roe. Present medical evidence of maternal health risks and fetal viability demonstrates that the trimester framework is inconsistent with current medical knowledge, and will likely be rendered obsolete by developments in medical technology. The Article suggests that adoption of an alternative constitutional basis for legal abortion is necessary to preserve the abortion right, and explores the utility of two arguments grounded in the equal protection doctrine. Finally, it discusses means of preserving legal abortion within the confines of the trimester framework established in Roe v. Wade.

  17. Stewardship challenges abortion: A proposed means to mitigate abortion's social divisiveness

    PubMed Central

    Tardiff, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1973 the legislated constitutional right to abortion has produced a political dichotomy (anti-abortion versus pro-abortion) within the United States, even while witnessing a gradual decline in the rate of abortions. A third paradigm, moral stewardship, is advanced as an effective means to ameliorate this social divisiveness. Incorporating the concept of stewardship into deliberations of pregnancy termination would require recognition, through fact-based education programs, of the life circumstances that prompt the consideration to terminate a pregnancy. Based on collective responsibility, policies, and programs are needed to foster social justice for parents and for the offspring brought to term, without creating excessive burdens on women faced with an unwanted pregnancy. Moral stewardship is perceived as humanitarian to family and community and advantageous to society overall. It also offers a serious opportunity to reshape our society from divisiveness to inclusiveness, and to guide science policy judgment that enhances and strengthens social justice. Lay summary: Differing opinions over the ethics of human abortion have been legion since Roe v. Wade (1973). The disputes between pro- and anti-abortion factions have segregated society with few improvements in social justice. This study offers an alternative approach, one capable of social assimilation and justice for unwanted offspring and pregnant mothers bearing them. It promotes moral stewardship toward the unborn whose humanity and personhood are recognized genetically and supported philosophically by long-standing ethical principles. Stewardship incorporates all people at all levels of society based on collective responsibility, supported by government policies, yet not restricting a mother's choices for the future of her unborn offspring. PMID:26912934

  18. Stewardship challenges abortion: A proposed means to mitigate abortion's social divisiveness.

    PubMed

    Tardiff, Robert G

    2015-08-01

    Since 1973 the legislated constitutional right to abortion has produced a political dichotomy (anti-abortion versus pro-abortion) within the United States, even while witnessing a gradual decline in the rate of abortions. A third paradigm, moral stewardship, is advanced as an effective means to ameliorate this social divisiveness. Incorporating the concept of stewardship into deliberations of pregnancy termination would require recognition, through fact-based education programs, of the life circumstances that prompt the consideration to terminate a pregnancy. Based on collective responsibility, policies, and programs are needed to foster social justice for parents and for the offspring brought to term, without creating excessive burdens on women faced with an unwanted pregnancy. Moral stewardship is perceived as humanitarian to family and community and advantageous to society overall. It also offers a serious opportunity to reshape our society from divisiveness to inclusiveness, and to guide science policy judgment that enhances and strengthens social justice. Lay summary: Differing opinions over the ethics of human abortion have been legion since Roe v. Wade (1973). The disputes between pro- and anti-abortion factions have segregated society with few improvements in social justice. This study offers an alternative approach, one capable of social assimilation and justice for unwanted offspring and pregnant mothers bearing them. It promotes moral stewardship toward the unborn whose humanity and personhood are recognized genetically and supported philosophically by long-standing ethical principles. Stewardship incorporates all people at all levels of society based on collective responsibility, supported by government policies, yet not restricting a mother's choices for the future of her unborn offspring. PMID:26912934

  19. Stewardship challenges abortion: A proposed means to mitigate abortion's social divisiveness.

    PubMed

    Tardiff, Robert G

    2015-08-01

    Since 1973 the legislated constitutional right to abortion has produced a political dichotomy (anti-abortion versus pro-abortion) within the United States, even while witnessing a gradual decline in the rate of abortions. A third paradigm, moral stewardship, is advanced as an effective means to ameliorate this social divisiveness. Incorporating the concept of stewardship into deliberations of pregnancy termination would require recognition, through fact-based education programs, of the life circumstances that prompt the consideration to terminate a pregnancy. Based on collective responsibility, policies, and programs are needed to foster social justice for parents and for the offspring brought to term, without creating excessive burdens on women faced with an unwanted pregnancy. Moral stewardship is perceived as humanitarian to family and community and advantageous to society overall. It also offers a serious opportunity to reshape our society from divisiveness to inclusiveness, and to guide science policy judgment that enhances and strengthens social justice. Lay summary: Differing opinions over the ethics of human abortion have been legion since Roe v. Wade (1973). The disputes between pro- and anti-abortion factions have segregated society with few improvements in social justice. This study offers an alternative approach, one capable of social assimilation and justice for unwanted offspring and pregnant mothers bearing them. It promotes moral stewardship toward the unborn whose humanity and personhood are recognized genetically and supported philosophically by long-standing ethical principles. Stewardship incorporates all people at all levels of society based on collective responsibility, supported by government policies, yet not restricting a mother's choices for the future of her unborn offspring.

  20. Serious infection associated with induced abortion in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Angela

    2012-12-01

    Though serious infection after induced abortion is rare, infections account for one third of abortion-related deaths in the United States. Most fatal cases of infection after induced medical abortion have involved clostridial species. These reported cases share important clinical features that may guide clinicians to earlier recognition and institution of therapy. This article reviews our current knowledge regarding serious clostridial infections postabortion including the typical clinical presentation, pathophysiology, modes of diagnosis, and available treatment.

  1. Coverage of abortion controversial in both public and private plans.

    PubMed

    Sollom, T

    1996-09-01

    During 1995-96, 17 of 50 US states used their own resources, either voluntarily or under state court order, to pay for all or most abortions for low-income women. Alaska, Maryland, New York, and Washington are the only states to voluntarily pay for these abortions. Anti-choice legislators in California, Illinois, New York, and West Virginia tried unsuccessfully to cut funding for these abortions. Arkansas is the only state to circumvent direct payment for abortions for low-income women. Alabama, Mississippi, and South Dakota still are not complying with the court order but remain in the Medicaid program. Massachusetts has passed legislation to allow health insurance to cover abortions for state and city employees, thereby undoing a 17-year ban on the use of public funds for abortions for employees or their spouses. On the other hand, Virginia's governor has unilaterally, via an executive order, eliminated health insurance coverage for most abortions for state employees and their dependents. Anti-choice legislators have shepherded legislation that prohibit private insurance coverage for abortion unless women pay an extra premium in Idaho, Kentucky, Missouri, and North Dakota. Legislators in Illinois and Minnesota have passed state subsidized health care reform programs that exclude abortion from coverage except when the mother's life is endangered. There appears to be a loophole in the MinnesotaCare program that allows women to obtain state-financed abortions for other reasons, so antifunding lawmakers will introduce a bill in 1997 to close the loophole. The loophole is a result of a conflict between state and federal laws as a result of a 1995 federal waiver granted to Minnesota. The waiver allows pregnant women who earn up to 275% of the federal poverty level to be eligible for either MinnesotaCare or Medicaid. Abortion-rights legislators find MinnesotaCare's exclusion of abortion coverage to be a violation of the court order. They plan to submit a bill in 1997 to

  2. Gap between active and passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The gap between active and passive solar could hardly be wider. The reasons for this are discussed and advantages to narrowing the gap are analyzed. Ten years of experience in both active and passive systems are reviewed, including costs, frequent problems, performance prediction, performance modeling, monitoring, and cooling concerns. Trends are analyzed, both for solar space heating and for service water heating. A tendency for the active and passive technologies to be converging is observed. Several recommendations for narrowing the gap are presented.

  3. José Barzelatto lecture: Vision on unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2010-04-01

    José Barzelatto first distinguished himself as a leader with a vision in his years as a medical student. Later, principally as Director of the Reproductive Health Program at the World Health Organization and of the Ford Foundation program for women's sexual and reproductive rights, he contributed immensely toward the recognition of women's sexual and reproductive rights as part of their basic human rights. José Barzelatto's vision on abortion reflects his drive to promote social justice and respect individual rights, respect diversity, and promote a social consensus for a peaceful society. He believed that the fetus has moral value and did not accept abortion as a method of fertility control, but understood that abortion is a social phenomenon that cannot be changed with legal or moral condemnation. He accepted that condemning women who abort does not prevent abortion, is unfair, and causes great human suffering at a high social cost. José proposed nine points to form the basis for an overlapping consensus on abortion, on which to base a practical consensus that would allow societies to reduce the number of abortions and minimize their consequences. If we can agree on all or most of those points we would achieve the common objectives of: fewer women confronting the dilemma of how to deal with an unwanted pregnancy; fewer induced abortions; and fewer women suffering the consequences of unsafe abortion.

  4. Constructing access to legal abortion services in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Billings, Deborah L; Moreno, Claudia; Ramos, Celia; González de León, Deyanira; Ramírez, Rubén; Villaseñor Martínez, Leticia; Rivera Díaz, Mauricio

    2002-05-01

    For the last three decades, government and health institutions have recognised that unsafe abortion is an important social and public health problem in Mexico. Although the Penal Code in every state defines at least one situation in which abortion is legal, access to legal abortion services is restricted for women throughout Mexico. In August 2000, the Mexico City Legislative Assembly reformed the Penal Code to include a wider range of grounds on which abortion is legal and added regulations to ensure access to legal abortion services in cases of rape and forced artificial insemination. The Mexican Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the reforms in January 2002. This paper describes a collaborative project between Ipas Mexico and the Mexico City Department of Health to provide legal abortions in cases of rape and to ensure that comprehensive health services for survivors of sexual violence are available and accessible. It describes a model of care being introduced into 15 public general and maternal-child health hospitals in Mexico City through a programme of multi-disciplinary consciousness-raising workshops and training courses on sexual violence and legal abortion. Few health care providers have had prior training in service provision for survivors of sexual violence or abortion service delivery. Workshop participants showed a high level of willingness to participate in legal abortion services for survivors of sexual violence when and if they are receive solid institutional support.

  5. Fake abortion clinics: the threat to reproductive self-determination.

    PubMed

    Mertus, J A

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of "fake abortion clinics" poses a great threat to women's ability to make free and informed procreative decisions. Such clinics intentionally deceive pregnant women into believing that they provide a full range of women's health services when, in reality, they provide only a pregnancy test, accompanied by intense anti-abortion propaganda. Because fake abortion clinics threaten women's interests in "privacy" and decisional autonomy, state attorneys general should challenge them under deceptive business practice statutes. Successful challenges can be brought without violating anti-abortion groups' First Amendment rights. PMID:2309498

  6. Launch Architecture Impact on Ascent Abort and Crew Survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathias, Donovan L.; Lawrence, Scott L.

    2006-01-01

    A study was performed to assess the effect of booster configuration on the ascent abort process. A generic abort event sequence was created and booster related risk drivers were identified. Three model boosters were considered in light of the risk drivers: a solid rocket motor configuration, a side mount combination solid and liquid configuration, and a stacked liquid configuration. The primary risk drivers included explosive fireball, overpressure, and fragment effects and booster-crew module re-contact. Risk drivers that were not specifically booster dependent were not addressed. The solid rocket configuration had the most benign influence on an abort while the side mount architecture provided the most challenging abort environment.

  7. José Barzelatto lecture: Vision on unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2010-04-01

    José Barzelatto first distinguished himself as a leader with a vision in his years as a medical student. Later, principally as Director of the Reproductive Health Program at the World Health Organization and of the Ford Foundation program for women's sexual and reproductive rights, he contributed immensely toward the recognition of women's sexual and reproductive rights as part of their basic human rights. José Barzelatto's vision on abortion reflects his drive to promote social justice and respect individual rights, respect diversity, and promote a social consensus for a peaceful society. He believed that the fetus has moral value and did not accept abortion as a method of fertility control, but understood that abortion is a social phenomenon that cannot be changed with legal or moral condemnation. He accepted that condemning women who abort does not prevent abortion, is unfair, and causes great human suffering at a high social cost. José proposed nine points to form the basis for an overlapping consensus on abortion, on which to base a practical consensus that would allow societies to reduce the number of abortions and minimize their consequences. If we can agree on all or most of those points we would achieve the common objectives of: fewer women confronting the dilemma of how to deal with an unwanted pregnancy; fewer induced abortions; and fewer women suffering the consequences of unsafe abortion. PMID:20064638

  8. Single and repeated elective abortions in Japan: a psychosocial study.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, T; Toda, M A; Shima, S; Sugawara, M

    1998-09-01

    Despite its social, legal and medical importance, termination of pregnancy (TOP) (induced abortion) has rarely been the focus of psychosocial research. Of a total of 1329 women who consecutively attended the antenatal clinic of a general hospital in Japan, 635 were expecting their first baby. Of these 635 women, 103 (16.2%) had experienced TOP once previously (first aborters), while 47 (7.4%) had experienced TOP two or more times (repeated aborters). Discriminant function analysis was performed using psychosocial variables found to be significantly associated with either first abortion or repeated abortion in bivariate analyses. This revealed that both first and repeated aborters could be predicted by smoking habits and an unwanted current pregnancy while the repeated aborters appear to differ from first aborters in having a longer pre-marital dating period, non-arranged marriages, smoking habits, early maternal loss experience or a low level of maternal care during childhood. These findings suggest that both the frequency of abortion and its repetition have psychosocial origins.

  9. Fake abortion clinics: the threat to reproductive self-determination.

    PubMed

    Mertus, J A

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of "fake abortion clinics" poses a great threat to women's ability to make free and informed procreative decisions. Such clinics intentionally deceive pregnant women into believing that they provide a full range of women's health services when, in reality, they provide only a pregnancy test, accompanied by intense anti-abortion propaganda. Because fake abortion clinics threaten women's interests in "privacy" and decisional autonomy, state attorneys general should challenge them under deceptive business practice statutes. Successful challenges can be brought without violating anti-abortion groups' First Amendment rights.

  10. Irish abortion ban strengthened as information is censored and seized.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In Ireland it is illegal to distribute information about abortion services. This means that magazines like Cosmopolitan have to remove ads for abortion clinics from the magazines printed for Ireland. A BBC television show about abortion was aired in Ireland with the names of the clinics blacked out. Even the phone books of foreign cities have removed because they contain the phone numbers of abortion clinics. Currently the only price where women can get information about abortion clinics is from a very small network of priests, doctors, and activists. Some activists have resorted to writing the phone numbers of abortion clinics in England on the public bathroom walls. Officially there are 4000 Irish women who travel to England for abortions every year. That figure only represents the women that give Irish addresses. The real figure is estimated to be about 8000 annually. 14 students were arrested for distributing leaflets with information about abortion clinics in England. They lost their case in both the Irish and European courts and have been fined, undisclosed amounts. Ireland is 85% Catholic and the Catholic Church still has a great deal of influence in Irish politics. The head of the Irish Family Planning Association said that the Catholic Church has moved Ireland back into the Dark Ages. Abortion was made illegal in Ireland in 1986. Contraception was legalized in 1980 and in 1985 condoms were allowed to be sold without a doctors prescription. PMID:12317129

  11. Record numbers of Irish women visit Britain for abortion.

    PubMed

    Payne, D

    1999-09-01

    The abortion issue among Irish women in Britain is presented. About 2000 women from Northern Ireland travel to Britain each year because of the 1967 Abortion Act in the UK does not apply in the province. Most women travelling from the republic are working women in their 20s. There are various factors contributing to their decision to consider abortion. Some of these are the demands of work and the persisting stigma of single motherhood. Furthermore, the demand for emergency contraception is teeming in the republic, as stated by the Well Woman Center chief executive Allison Begas. This situation has encouraged the government to pass a referendum on abortion.

  12. Incidence and socioeconomic determinants of abortion in rural Upper Egypt.

    PubMed

    Yassin, K M

    2000-07-01

    Because of a growing cultural and religious sensitivity and controversy over reproductive health issues, particularly abortion, this area remains relatively unexplored in Egypt. This study was conducted using a participatory approach to determine the morbidity and determinants of abortion in rural Upper Egypt. In all, 1025 women from six villages in Upper Egypt were included in the study. Information regarding the incidence of abortion, patterns of health care utilization and risk factors was obtained using a structured interview format. The local dialect was used in formulating questions and they were revised and amended by a panel of local leaders, interviewers and representatives of the study population. Interviewers were local educated (secondary or university level) female volunteers. Information about exposure to 17 risk factors was also collected and statistical analysis was done by estimating the odds ratio and applying a test of statistical significance. Then, a multivariate logistic regression model was applied to control for possible interactions and confounding effects. The results were that 40.6% (n=416) had aborted at least once; of them 24.6% (n=252) had aborted more than once and were designated as recurrent aborters. The lifetime prevalence of recurrent abortion was estimated to be 25% and nearly 21% of pregnancies were aborted. The incidence of abortion was estimated to be 265 per 1000 live birth. Only 21.9% (n=91) of women received medical care for the last abortion. The vast majority of women (92%, n=299) who did not seek medical help received help from traditional and domestic sources. These sources are midwife (59.9%, n=179), relative or neighbour (29.8%, n=89), and traditional practitioner (10.4%, n=31). The multivariate analysis revealed that the incidence of abortion is significantly associated with gravidity, consanguinity, and mother occupation, while recurrent abortion is associated with gravidity, consanguinity and woman's age at

  13. Are all abortions equal? Should there be exceptions to the criminalization of abortion for rape and incest?

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Politics, public discourse, and legislation restricting abortion has settled on a moderate orthodoxy: restrict abortion, but leave exceptions for pregnancies that result from rape and incest. I challenge that consensus and suggest it may be much harder to defend than those who support the compromise think. From both Pro-Life and Pro-Choice perspectives, there are good reasons to treat all abortions as equal. PMID:25846041

  14. Women’s Experience Obtaining Abortion Care in Texas after Implementation of Restrictive Abortion Laws: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Sarah E.; White, Kari; Hopkins, Kristine; Potter, Joseph E.; Grossman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background In November 2013, Texas implemented three abortion restrictions included in House Bill 2 (HB 2). Within six months, the number of facilities providing abortion decreased by almost half, and the remaining facilities were concentrated in large urban centers. The number of medication abortions decreased by 70% compared to the same period one year prior due to restrictions on this method imposed by HB 2. The purpose of this study was to explore qualitatively the experiences of women who were most affected by the law: those who had to travel farther to reach a facility and those desiring medication abortion. Methods In August and September 2014, we conducted 20 in-depth interviews with women recruited from ten abortion clinics across Texas. The purposive sample included women who obtained or strongly preferred medication abortion or traveled ≥50 miles one way to the clinic. The interview guide focused on women’s experiences with obtaining services following implementation of HB 2, and a thematic analysis was performed. Results Women faced informational, cost and logistical barriers seeking abortion services, and these obstacles were often compounded by poverty. Two women found the process of finding or getting to a clinic so onerous that they considered not having the procedure, although they ultimately had an abortion; another woman decided to continue her pregnancy, in part because of challenges in getting to the clinic. For two women, arranging travel required disclosure to more people than desired. Women who strongly preferred medication abortion were frustrated by the difficulty or inability to obtain their desired method, especially among those who were near or just beyond the gestational age limit. The restricted eligibility criteria for medication abortion and difficulty finding clinics offering the method created substantial access barriers. Conclusions Medication abortion restrictions and clinic closures following HB 2 created substantial

  15. Are all abortions equal? Should there be exceptions to the criminalization of abortion for rape and incest?

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Politics, public discourse, and legislation restricting abortion has settled on a moderate orthodoxy: restrict abortion, but leave exceptions for pregnancies that result from rape and incest. I challenge that consensus and suggest it may be much harder to defend than those who support the compromise think. From both Pro-Life and Pro-Choice perspectives, there are good reasons to treat all abortions as equal.

  16. The Gender Gap and Women's Issues in the 1988 Presidential Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Victoria

    Two factors during the 1988 presidential campaign were largely responsible for the erosion of "women's issues" and the so-called "gender gap"--the perception that a candidate is unattractive to women voters. This perception is thought to be based upon the candidate's stand on issues such as abortion, day care and the Equal Rights Amendment. First,…

  17. Abortion, metaphysics and morality: a review of Francis Beckwith's defending life: a moral and legal case against abortion choice.

    PubMed

    Nobis, Nathan

    2011-06-01

    In Defending Life: A Moral and Legal Case Against Abortion Choice (2007) and an earlier article in this journal, "Defending Abortion Philosophically"(2006), Francis Beckwith argues that fetuses are, from conception, prima facie wrong to kill. His arguments are based on what he calls a "metaphysics of the human person" known as "The Substance View." I argue that Beckwith's metaphysics does not support his abortion ethic: Moral, not metaphysical, claims that are part of this Substance View are the foundation of the argument, and Beckwith inadequately defends these moral claims. Thus, Beckwith's arguments do not provide strong support for what he calls the "pro-life" view of abortion. PMID:21597083

  18. [Abortion in unsafe conditions. Concealment, illegality, corruption and negligence].

    PubMed

    Ortiz Ortega, A

    1993-01-01

    "Abortion practiced under conditions of risk" is a phrase used to refer to illegal abortion. The phrase does not highlight the disappearance of risk when legislation changes. Rather, it calls attention to the fact that legal restrictions significantly increase dangers while failing to discourage women determined to terminate pregnancies. The International Planned Parenthood Federation defines abortion under conditions of risk as the use of nonoptimal technology, lack of counseling and services to orient the woman's decision and provide postabortion counseling, and the limitation of freedom to make the decision. The phrase encompasses concealment, illegality, corruption, and negligence. It is designed to impose a reproductive health perspective in response to an unresolved social conflict. Steps have been developed to improve the situation of women undergoing abortion even without a change in its legal status. Such steps include training and purchase of equipment for treatment of incomplete abortions and development of counseling and family planning services. The central difficulty of abortion induced in conditions of risk derives from the laws imposing the need for secrecy. In Mexico, the abortion decision belongs to the government and the society, while individual absorb the consequences of the practice of abortion. Public decision making about abortion is dominated by the concept that the female has an obligation to carry any pregnancy to term. Women who interfere with male descendency and practice a sexuality distinct from reproduction are made to pay a price in health and emotional balance. Resolution of the problem of abortion will require new concepts in terms of legal status, public health issues, and the rights of women. The problem becomes more pressing as abortion becomes more common in a country anxious to advance in the demographic transition. Only a commitment to the reproductive health of women and the full development of their rights as citizens will

  19. Tooley's immodest proposal: Abortion and Infanticide.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Christina Hoff

    1985-06-01

    Sommers takes strong issue with the thesis of Michael Tooley's book, Abortion and Infanticide (New York: Oxford University Press; 1984)--that there is nothing seriously wrong with painlessly killing human infants, even those that are healthy and normal. She reviews Tooley's arguments about what constitutes personhood and his contention that human infants first become "quasi-persons" at the age of three months, then recommmends that opponents of infanticide meet his challenge on different grounds--that the human infant is distinctive in being the product of responsible persons who are morally committed to its care "on arrival."

  20. Staphylococcus hyicus abortion in a sow.

    PubMed

    Onet, G E; Pommer, J L

    1991-08-01

    Five aborted fetuses from a mature sixth-parity sow with severe greasy pig disease as a gilt, were submitted for diagnostic evaluation. Necropsy of the fetuses revealed serogelatinous edema in the SC connective tissue of the ventral abdominal region (especially around the umbilicus), exaggerated amounts of serohemorrhagic fluid in the abdominal, pleural, and pericardial cavities, and hemorrhagic kidneys, with diminished consistency. Staphylococcus hyicus was isolated in pure culture from liver, lung, kidney, and brain tissues and from abdominal, pleural, pericardial, and gastric fluids.

  1. Medical Evidence and Expertise in Abortion Jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Aziza

    2015-01-01

    For another thing, the division of medical opinion about the matter at most means uncertainty, a factor that signals the presence of risk, not its absence. That division here involves highly qualified knowledgeable experts on both sides of the issue.--Stenberg v. Carhart, 2000. While we find no reliable data to measure the phenomenon, it seems unexceptionable to conclude some women come to regret their choice to abort the infant life they once created and sustained.--Gonzales v. Carhart, 2007. PMID:26237984

  2. Tooley's immodest proposal: Abortion and Infanticide.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Christina Hoff

    1985-06-01

    Sommers takes strong issue with the thesis of Michael Tooley's book, Abortion and Infanticide (New York: Oxford University Press; 1984)--that there is nothing seriously wrong with painlessly killing human infants, even those that are healthy and normal. She reviews Tooley's arguments about what constitutes personhood and his contention that human infants first become "quasi-persons" at the age of three months, then recommmends that opponents of infanticide meet his challenge on different grounds--that the human infant is distinctive in being the product of responsible persons who are morally committed to its care "on arrival." PMID:11643787

  3. After-birth abortion: the intuition argument.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Zohar

    2013-05-01

    The argument advanced by Giubilini and Minerva is an important one, but it suffers from some shortcomings. I briefly criticise their reasoning and method and argue that after birth abortion should be limited largely to infants with disabilities. My argument is based not on solid scientific evidence or cold rational reasoning but on intuition, something that has long been discounted as irrelevant in biomedical discourse. I end with a recommendation to all of us: in order to make a change, one should not only choose one's battles, but also one's weapon and mode of attack. PMID:23637457

  4. After-birth abortion: the intuition argument.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Zohar

    2013-05-01

    The argument advanced by Giubilini and Minerva is an important one, but it suffers from some shortcomings. I briefly criticise their reasoning and method and argue that after birth abortion should be limited largely to infants with disabilities. My argument is based not on solid scientific evidence or cold rational reasoning but on intuition, something that has long been discounted as irrelevant in biomedical discourse. I end with a recommendation to all of us: in order to make a change, one should not only choose one's battles, but also one's weapon and mode of attack.

  5. Abortion a business hurdle for nation's Catholic hospitals.

    PubMed

    Burda, D

    1989-08-25

    Abortion is the foremost moral issue for 626 Catholic hospitals nationwide since church teachings prohibit the performance of elective abortions. This and the fact that Catholic hospitals can not do voluntary sterilizations can hinder their ability to get managed care contracts. In some cases a hospital will not join a network because abortions and sterilizations are done in other hospitals in the network. In other cases they have been in plans where abortions are performed in other contract facilities; this does not violate the Catholic church policy since the abortions are not performed in their facility. When a Catholic and secular hospital plan a merger, Catholic ideals seem to take precedence. A Catholic hospital that went bankrupt in Philadelphia, was turned over to investors, and was under no obligation to follow the Catholic church's directives, but did not perform abortions anyway. In Washington state there are merger talks going on between a secular facility and the Franciscan Health System. The cessation of abortion and sterilization services appear to be outweighed by the financial benefits. Besides, these procedures can be performed through other providers in the area. In Michigan similar merger talks may fail because of the abortion issue. The government justice system is investigating and is likely to challenge any merger there.

  6. Abort-once-around entry corridor analysis program document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyle, H. C.

    1975-01-01

    The abort once around entry target corridor analysis program (ABECAP) was studied. The allowable range of flight path angles at entry interface for acceptable entry trajectories from a shuttle abort once around (AOA) situation was established. The solutions thus determined may be shown as corridor plots of entry interface flight path angle versus range from entry interface (EI) to the target.

  7. Abortion in the United States: Past, Present, and Future Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krannich, Richard S.

    1980-01-01

    Increases in abortions can be traced to changing public opinion, women entering the labor force, and higher levels of premarital sexual activity. Abortion tends to be more common among younger women and those in lower income and education categories. More aggressive family planning programs are needed. (JAC)

  8. Medical and surgical options for induced abortion in first trimester.

    PubMed

    Hamoda, Haitham; Templeton, Allan

    2010-08-01

    Medical abortion has been shown to be an effective alternative to surgery for termination of pregnancy in the late as well as the early first trimester of pregnancy. This review discusses the development, application and the current issues with medical and surgical abortion in the first trimester. Studies comparing the two approaches are also assessed as well as potential research directions in this area.

  9. Mourning and Guilt among Greek Women Having Repeated Abortions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naziri, D.; Tzavaras, A.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted clinical study concerning bereavement process of Greek women after abortion. Found strong identificatory tendencies on both mother and father images. Argues that, in cases of repeated abortion, mourning and guilt do not only refer to murdered and lost "person-fetus" but principally to death and loss of object of ambiguous desire.…

  10. Abortion as "Deviance"; Traditional Female Roles Vs. The Feminist Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, R. A. Hudson; Martindale, Lois J.

    The paper focuses on the relationship between changing societal norms and actual, emotional acceptance of them for oneself, with regard to changing norms toward women's roles as they relate to the areas of abortion and sexual behavior. Elective abortion still is regarded by many as a "deviant" activity. Such a view has sprung from an uncritical…

  11. Illinois, Massachusetts: governors veto restrictions on state funds for abortion.

    PubMed

    1977-10-01

    Within a 24-hour period Governor James R. Thompson (Republican) of Illinois and Governor Michael S. Dukakis (Democrat) of Massachusetts vetoed bills which would have prohibited use of state funds to pay for abortion unless the woman's life were in danger. Since the U.S. Supreme Court ruling that neither the Constitution nor federal law requires states to pay Medicaid benefits for nonherapeutic abortions, many states have adopted similar restrictive policies. As of September 25, 1977, a total of 30 states had discontinued payment for abortion while 13 of the remaining 20 have committed themselves to continuing abortion payments. For fiscal year 1976 about 261,000-274,000 poor women received abortions paid for at least in part by federal or state funds. The total public expense was $60 million. 75% of these abortions were in California, Illinois, Michigan, New Jersey, New YOrk, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas. 3 of these states have cut off public funding. The average cost of a nonpublic abortion is $280, which is $42 more than the average monthly welfare payment for an entire family. It, thus seems unlikely that poor women will be able to afford abortion. PMID:12308832

  12. Abortion-Related Services: Value Clarification through "Difficult Dialogues" Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpeli, Moliehi Rosemary; Botma, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Midwives play a pivotal role in women's health in the face of increased deaths related to backyard abortions. Since the commencement in South Africa of the Name of the Act No. 92 of 1996 that allows abortion services, there has been a moral divide among healthcare workers in South Africa. This article reflects the opinions of preregistration…

  13. Abortion in Young Women and Subsequent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Ridder, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The extent to which abortion has harmful consequences for mental health remains controversial. We aimed to examine the linkages between having an abortion and mental health outcomes over the interval from age 15-25 years. Methods: Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 25-year longitudinal study…

  14. Regulating Abortion: Impact on Patients and Providers in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Silvie; Joyce, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The State of Texas began enforcement of the Woman's Right to Know (WRTK) Act on January 1, 2004. The law requires that all abortions at or after 16 weeks' gestation be performed in an ambulatory surgical center (ASC). In the month the law went into effect, not one of Texas's 54 nonhospital abortion providers met the requirements of a surgical…

  15. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  16. Grief and Elective Abortion: Breaking the Emotional Bond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppers, Larry G.

    1988-01-01

    Used maternal-infant bonding as theoretical framework to examine grief and elective abortion in 80 women who terminated their pregnancies either by vacuum aspiration, dilitation and evacuation, or intrauterine induction. Found grief associated with elective abortion to be symptomatically similar to grief experienced following involuntary…

  17. U.S. abortion policy since Roe v. Wade.

    PubMed

    Mcfarlane, D R

    1993-01-01

    After noting in its introduction that in Roe vs. Wade the US Supreme Court federalized (rather than nationalized) abortion policy with the result that states were given parameters in which they could develop their own abortion policies, this article reviews subsequent Supreme Court decisions about abortion from Doe vs. Bolton in 1973 through Bray vs. Alexandria Women's Health Clinic in 1993. The narrative review is illustrated by a table which indicates year, ruling, case name, and major findings for each of the 23 cases. The review reveals that the parameters set for states by the Supreme Court have been subject to change and reversal as the composition of the Court has changed. The Court has also given states wide discretion in the area of paying for abortions for women who are eligible for Medicaid with the result that 30 states provide no abortion funding unless a Medicaid patient's life is endangered by the pregnancy. The Supreme Court rulings have also allowed states to develop widely differing policies about parental consent/notification before a minor can obtain an abortion. Of the 35 states with parental consent notification laws on their books, only 15 actually enforce them. Other state restrictions include the requirement for the performance of specified tests before an abortion can occur, a prohibition on the use of public facilities for abortions, and a prohibition on public employees participating in the performance of an abortion. State activity in the realm of abortion legislation is expected to continue as an outcome of the Webster and Casey decisions, but with the election of President Clinton, more abortion policy developments are expected to take place on the federal level. These include repeal of the "gag rule" which banned abortion counseling in federally-supported family planning clinics, passage of the Freedom of Choice Act (stuck in committee in 1992) to codify the rulings in Roe vs. Wade, passage of the Freedom of Access to Clinic

  18. Understanding why women seek abortions in the US

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current political climate with regards to abortion in the US, along with the economic recession may be affecting women’s reasons for seeking abortion, warranting a new investigation into the reasons why women seek abortion. Methods Data for this study were drawn from baseline quantitative and qualitative data from the Turnaway Study, an ongoing, five-year, longitudinal study evaluating the health and socioeconomic consequences of receiving or being denied an abortion in the US. While the study has followed women for over two full years, it relies on the baseline data which were collected from 2008 through the end of 2010. The sample included 954 women from 30 abortion facilities across the US who responded to two open ended questions regarding the reasons why they wanted to terminate their pregnancy approximately one week after seeking an abortion. Results Women’s reasons for seeking an abortion fell into 11 broad themes. The predominant themes identified as reasons for seeking abortion included financial reasons (40%), timing (36%), partner related reasons (31%), and the need to focus on other children (29%). Most women reported multiple reasons for seeking an abortion crossing over several themes (64%). Using mixed effects multivariate logistic regression analyses, we identified the social and demographic predictors of the predominant themes women gave for seeking an abortion. Conclusions Study findings demonstrate that the reasons women seek abortion are complex and interrelated, similar to those found in previous studies. While some women stated only one factor that contributed to their desire to terminate their pregnancies, others pointed to a myriad of factors that, cumulatively, resulted in their seeking abortion. As indicated by the differences we observed among women’s reasons by individual characteristics, women seek abortion for reasons related to their circumstances, including their socioeconomic status, age, health, parity and

  19. Was the French clinical surveillance system of bovine brucellosis influenced by the occurrence and surveillance of other abortive diseases?

    PubMed

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Touratier, Anne; Gache, Kristel; Sala, Carole; Calavas, Didier

    2015-03-01

    The bovine brucellosis clinical surveillance system implemented in France aims to detect early any case of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It relies on the mandatory notification of every bovine abortion. Following the spread of the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in France in 2012 and 2013, and the implementation in 2012 of a clinical surveillance programme of Q fever based on abortion notifications in ten pilot départements, our objective was to study whether these two events influenced the brucellosis clinical surveillance system. The proportion of notifying farmers was analyzed over each semester from June 1, 2009 to June 30, 2013 according to the size and production type of herds, SBV status of départements and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance. Our analysis showed a slight increase in the proportion of notifying farmers as départements became infected by SBV, and after the implementation of Q fever surveillance (during the first semester of 2013). These variations might be explained by an increase in abortion occurrence (congenital deformities in newborns, due to SBV) and/or by an increase in farmers' and veterinarians' awareness (due to the spread of SBV and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance). These results highlight the difficulties in interpreting variations in the proportion of notifying farmers as a consequence of an increase in abortion occurrence. As bovine abortion surveillance can play an important role in the early warning for several diseases, there is a need to explore other ways to monitor abortions in cattle, such as syndromic surveillance using the dates of artificial insemination or calving data.

  20. Drop short control of electrode gap

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, Robert W.; Maroone, James P.; Tipping, Donald W.; Zanner, Frank J.

    1986-01-01

    During vacuum consumable arc remelting the electrode gap between a consumable electrode and a pool of molten metal is difficult to control. The present invention monitors drop shorts by detecting a decrease in the voltage between the consumable electrode and molten pool. The drop shorts and their associated voltage reductions occur as repetitive pulses which are closely correlated to the electrode gap. Thus, the method and apparatus of the present invention controls electrode gap based upon drop shorts detected from the monitored anode-cathode voltage. The number of drop shorts are accumulated, and each time the number of drop shorts reach a predetermined number, the average period between drop shorts is calculated from this predetermined number and the time in which this number is accumulated. This average drop short period is used in a drop short period electrode gap model which determines the actual electrode gap from the drop short. The actual electrode gap is then compared with a desired electrode gap which is selected to produce optimum operating conditions and the velocity of the consumable error is varied based upon the gap error. The consumable electrode is driven according to any prior art system at this velocity. In the preferred embodiment, a microprocessor system is utilized to perform the necessary calculations and further to monitor the duration of each drop short. If any drop short exceeds a preset duration period, the consumable electrode is rapidly retracted a predetermined distance to prevent bonding of the consumable electrode to the molten remelt.