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Sample records for abort guidance system

  1. Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort System Guidance and Control Analysis Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Kim, Sungwan; Raney, David L.; Aubuchon, Vanessa V.; Sparks, Dean W.; Busan, Ronald C.; Proud, Ryan W.; Merritt, Deborah S.

    2008-01-01

    Aborts during the critical ascent flight phase require the design and operation of Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) systems to escape from the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and return the crew safely to the Earth. To accomplish this requirement of continuous abort coverage, CEV ascent abort modes are being designed and analyzed to accommodate the velocity, altitude, atmospheric, and vehicle configuration changes that occur during ascent. Aborts from the launch pad to early in the flight of the CLV second stage are performed using the Launch Abort System (LAS). During this type of abort, the LAS Abort Motor is used to pull the Crew Module (CM) safely away from the CLV and Service Module (SM). LAS abort guidance and control studies and design trades are being conducted so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle abort requirements, design, and operation. This paper presents an overview of the Orion CEV, an overview of the LAS ascent abort mode, and a summary of key LAS abort analysis methods and results.

  2. Apollo experience report guidance and control systems: Lunar module abort guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurten, P. M.

    1975-01-01

    The history of a unique development program that produced an operational fixed guidance system of inertial quality is presented. Each phase of development, beginning with requirement definition and concluding with qualification and testing, is addressed, and developmental problems are emphasized. Software generation and mission operations are described, and specifications for the inertial reference unit are included, as are flight performance results. Significant program observations are noted.

  3. Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN and C) Design Overview and Flight Test Results from NASA's Max Launch Abort System (MLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lanzi, Raymond J.; Ward, Philip R.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Engineering and Safety Center designed, developed and flew the alternative Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) as risk mitigation for the baseline Orion spacecraft launch abort system already in development. The NESC was tasked with both formulating a conceptual objective system design of this alternative MLAS as well as demonstrating this concept with a simulated pad abort flight test. Less than 2 years after Project start the MLAS simulated pad abort flight test was successfully conducted from Wallops Island on July 8, 2009. The entire flight test duration was 88 seconds during which time multiple staging events were performed and nine separate critically timed parachute deployments occurred as scheduled. This paper provides an overview of the guidance navigation and control technical approaches employed on this rapid prototyping activity; describes the methodology used to design the MLAS flight test vehicle; and lessons that were learned during this rapid prototyping project are also summarized.

  4. Pitch Guidance Optimization for the Orion Abort Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stillwater, Ryan Allanque

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration created the Constellation program to develop the next generation of manned space vehicles and launch vehicles. The Orion abort system is initiated in the event of an unsafe condition during launch. The system has a controller gains schedule that can be tuned to reduce the attitude errors between the simulated Orion abort trajectories and the guidance trajectory. A program was created that uses the method of steepest descent to tune the pitch gains schedule by an automated procedure. The gains schedule optimization was applied to three potential abort scenarios; each scenario tested using the optimized gains schedule resulted in reduced attitude errors when compared to the Orion production gains schedule.

  5. Orion Guidance and Control Ascent Abort Algorithm Design and Performance Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proud, Ryan W.; Bendle, John R.; Tedesco, Mark B.; Hart, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    During the ascent flight phase of NASA s Constellation Program, the Ares launch vehicle propels the Orion crew vehicle to an agreed to insertion target. If a failure occurs at any point in time during ascent then a system must be in place to abort the mission and return the crew to a safe landing with a high probability of success. To achieve continuous abort coverage one of two sets of effectors is used. Either the Launch Abort System (LAS), consisting of the Attitude Control Motor (ACM) and the Abort Motor (AM), or the Service Module (SM), consisting of SM Orion Main Engine (OME), Auxiliary (Aux) Jets, and Reaction Control System (RCS) jets, is used. The LAS effectors are used for aborts from liftoff through the first 30 seconds of second stage flight. The SM effectors are used from that point through Main Engine Cutoff (MECO). There are two distinct sets of Guidance and Control (G&C) algorithms that are designed to maximize the performance of these abort effectors. This paper will outline the necessary inputs to the G&C subsystem, the preliminary design of the G&C algorithms, the ability of the algorithms to predict what abort modes are achievable, and the resulting success of the abort system. Abort success will be measured against the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) abort performance metrics and overall performance will be reported. Finally, potential improvements to the G&C design will be discussed.

  6. Launch Abort System Pathfinder Arrival

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Orion Launch Abort System, or LAS, pathfinder returned home to NASA Langley on Oct. 18 on its way to NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The hardware was built at Langley and was used in preparation f...

  7. Day of Launch Profile Selection for Pad Abort Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Ryan J.

    2010-01-01

    A day of launch selection approach that involves choosing from an array of pitch profiles of varying loft was analyzed with the purpose of reducing the risk of a land landing failure during a pad abort. It was determined that selecting from three pitch profiles can reduce the number of waterline abort performance requirement failures approximately in half without compromising other performance metrics.

  8. Global policy change and women's access to safe abortion: the impact of the World Health Organization's guidance in Africa.

    PubMed

    Hessini, Leila; Brookman-Amissah, Eunice; Crane, Barbara B

    2006-12-01

    Along with governments from around the world, African leaders agreed at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 1994 to address unsafe abortion as a major public health problem. At the five-year review of the ICPD, they decided further that health systems should make safe abortion services accessible for legal indications. Based on this mandate, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed norms and standards for quality abortion services, Safe Abortion: Technical and Policy Guidance for Health Systems, released in 2003. While abortion-related maternal mortality and morbidity remains very high in many African countries, stakeholders are increasingly using WHO recommendations in conjunction with other global and regional policy frameworks, including the African Union Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa, to spur new action to address this persistent problem. Efforts include: reforming national laws and policies; preparing service-delivery guidelines and regulations; strengthening training programs; and expanding community outreach programs. This paper reviews progress and lessons learned while drawing attention to the fragility of the progress made thus far and the key challenges that remain in ensuring access to safe abortion care for all African women. PMID:17518128

  9. J-2X Abort System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, Louis M.; Butas, John P.; Aguilar, Robert B.; Sowers, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    The J-2X is an expendable liquid hydrogen (LH2)/liquid oxygen (LOX) gas generator cycle rocket engine that is currently being designed as the primary upper stage propulsion element for the new NASA Ares vehicle family. The J-2X engine will contain abort logic that functions as an integral component of the Ares vehicle abort system. This system is responsible for detecting and responding to conditions indicative of impending Loss of Mission (LOM), Loss of Vehicle (LOV), and/or catastrophic Loss of Crew (LOC) failure events. As an earth orbit ascent phase engine, the J-2X is a high power density propulsion element with non-negligible risk of fast propagation rate failures that can quickly lead to LOM, LOV, and/or LOC events. Aggressive reliability requirements for manned Ares missions and the risk of fast propagating J-2X failures dictate the need for on-engine abort condition monitoring and autonomous response capability as well as traditional abort agents such as the vehicle computer, flight crew, and ground control not located on the engine. This paper describes the baseline J-2X abort subsystem concept of operations, as well as the development process for this subsystem. A strategy that leverages heritage system experience and responds to an evolving engine design as well as J-2X specific test data to support abort system development is described. The utilization of performance and failure simulation models to support abort system sensor selection, failure detectability and discrimination studies, decision threshold definition, and abort system performance verification and validation is outlined. The basis for abort false positive and false negative performance constraints is described. Development challenges associated with information shortfalls in the design cycle, abort condition coverage and response assessment, engine-vehicle interface definition, and abort system performance verification and validation are also discussed.

  10. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Allahbedashti, Neda

    2014-02-01

    Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas) as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA) and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA. PMID:24338232

  11. Space Shuttle ascent aborts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidgall, Richard A.

    1989-09-01

    Specific guidance functions and trajectory design of return to launch site (RTLS) and transoceanic abort landing (TAL) intact abort profiles, as well as the increasing emphasis on contingency aborts, are presented. Various systems failures including Space Shuttle main engine failures and detailed technical analyses, including the design of powered flight abort trajectories, are considered. The most critical of flight abort situations is the RTLS, while TAL is the preferred abort when uphill capability is no longer available. It is concluded that one principle must remain to ensure continuing success of Space Shuttle flights: namely that intact and contingency aborts necessitate development to ensure safe return of the vehicle, payload, and crew whenever possible.

  12. Closed-loop nominal and abort atmospheric ascent guidance for rocket-powered launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukeman, Greg A.

    2005-07-01

    An advanced ascent guidance algorithm for rocket-powered launch vehicles is developed. The ascent guidance function is responsible for commanding attitude, throttle and setting during the powered ascent phase of flight so that the vehicle attains target cutoff conditions in a near optimal manner while satisfying path constraints such as maximum allowed bending moment and maximum allowed axial acceleration. This algorithm cyclically solves the calculus-of-variations two-point boundary-value problem starting at vertical rise completion through orbit insertion. This is different from traditional ascent guidance algorithms which operate in an open-loop mode until the high dynamic pressure portion of the trajectory is over, at which time there is a switch to a closed loop guidance mode that operates under the assumption of negligible aerodynamic forces. The main contribution of this research is an algorithm of the predictor-corrector type wherein the state/costate system is propagated with known (navigated) initial state and guessed initial costate to predict the state/costate at engine cutoff. The initial costate guess is corrected, using a multi-dimensional Newton's method, based on errors in the terminal state constraints and the transversality conditions. Path constraints are enforced within the propagation process. A modified multiple shooting method is shown to be a very effective numerical technique for this application. Results for a single stage to orbit launch vehicle are given. In addition, the formulation for the free final time multi-arc trajectory optimization problem is given. Results for a two-stage launch vehicle burn-coast-burn ascent to orbit in a closed-loop guidance mode are shown. An abort to landing site formulation of the algorithm and numerical results are presented. A technique for numerically treating the transversality conditions is discussed that eliminates part of the analytical and coding burden associated with optimal control theory.

  13. Commercial Crew Program: Launch Abort Systems

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's work in the next generation of launch abort systems (LAS) is significantly different from past programs. Instead of designing a specific system for a given spacecraft or rocket, engineers ar...

  14. Launch Abort System Flight Test Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy; Bosworth, John T.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is an overview of the Launch Abort System (LAS) for the Constellation Program. The purpose of the paper is to review the planned tests for the LAS. The program will evaluate the performance of the crew escape functions of the Launch Abort System (LAS) specifically: the ability of the LAS to separate from the crew module, to gather flight test data for future design and implementation and to reduce system development risks.

  15. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  16. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  17. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  18. Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most healthcare providers advise counseling.

  19. Abortion.

    PubMed

    1993-09-01

    Vacuum aspiration, dilatation and curettage, hysterotomy, and, in some cases, hysterectomy comprise surgical methods of abortion. Oral administration of RU-486, epostane, prostaglandins E and F2 and vaginal suppositories of prostaglandins E and F2 are medical abortion methods. The traditional or clandestine methods are usually performed by unqualified persons and pregnant women themselves. These methods tend to be inefficient and harmful. They include oral preparations of herbs and drugs (e.g., quinine and ergot), introduction of fluids (e.g., household disinfectants) into the vagina, introduction of foreign bodies (e.g., twigs, stems, hollow tubes, needles, wire) into the uterus. Hospital records, death certificates, and community-based surveys are common sources of data on abortion. Worldwide, 40-70/1000 women of childbearing age undergo an abortion. 20-33% of all pregnancies are terminated. Abortion is always legal when it is performed to save a pregnant woman's life. In most countries, it is legal to protect the woman's physical or mental health against serious danger. The risk of death from a legal abortion is rare. On the other hand, when an abortion is performed by an unqualified, unskilled abortionist and/or under unhygienic conditions (all of which are common in countries who have a law against abortion) the risk of death is much higher. In fact, abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal death in many countries (25% and 86% of maternal deaths in Bangladesh and Romania, respectively). Common complications of abortion are incomplete abortion, trauma to pelvic organs (e.g., uterine perforation), tetanus, and infertility. In some developing countries, the cost of treating abortion complications account for up to 50% of maternity hospital budgets. Ways to reduce mortality from unsafe abortion include promoting contraceptive use, legalizing abortion, allowing trained practitioners to perform abortions for health reasons, and improving clinical management

  20. [Abortion].

    PubMed

    Dourlen-rollier, A M

    1971-01-01

    The historical and current (1969) abortion laws in France as well as those in other Western countries are analyzed. France has had a series of punitive abortion codes since the Napoleonic Code of 1810 prescribing solitary confinement for the woman. The reforms of 1920 and 1923 made provocation of abortion or contraceptional propaganda a "crime" (felony), later a "delit" (misdemeanor), called for trial before magistr ate instead of jury, but resulted in only about 200 convictions a year. The decree of 1939 extended the misdemeanor to women who aborted even if they were not pregnant, and provided for professional licenses such as that of surgeon or pharmacist to be suspended. The law of 1942 made abortion a social crime and increased the maximum penalty to capital punishment, which was exercised in 2 cases. About 4000 per year were convicted from 1942-1944. Now the law still applies to all who intend to abort, whether or not pregnant or successful, but punishemnt is limited to 1-5 years imprisonment, and 72,000 francs fine, or suspension of medical practice for 5 years. About 500 have been convicted per year. Since 1955 legal abortion has been available (to about 130 women over 4 years) if it is the only means to save the woman's life. Although pregnancy tests are controlled, the population desregards the law by resorting to clandestine abortion. The wealthy travel to Switzerland (where 68% of legal abortions are done on French women) or to England. Numbers are estimated by the French government at 250,000-300,000 per year, or 1 for every 2 live births, but by hospital statistics at 400,000-1,000,000 per year. The rest of the review covers abortion laws in Scandinavian, Central European, and individual US states as of 1969. PMID:12333138

  1. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed...

  2. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed...

  3. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed...

  4. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed...

  5. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed...

  6. Abortion.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, P D

    1991-08-01

    In 1990 abortion literature was characterized by articles relating to 1) the safety of surgical abortion procedures, 2) advances in knowledge and experience with medical abortifacients such as mifepristone (RU 486), and 3) reviews of psychologic and ethical considerations. Although technical methods differ greatly between countries and continents, there is increasing similarity between termination protocols in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Europe. The advent of mifepristone will make this even more so. Surgically, although dilatation and evacuation procedures are far more common in the United States than in other countries, the literature reflects a fine-tuning of analysis and technique, with safety the major consideration. Knowledge about the effectiveness of mifepristone continues to grow, and the effective dose for early first-trimester termination appears established. There is increasing evidence that at least in the short term, the negative psychologic sequelae of abortion are infrequent and are inconsequential as a public health issue. PMID:1878507

  7. Guidance of Nonlinear Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, George

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes a method for guiding a dynamic system through a given set of points. The paradigm is a fully automatic aircraft subject to air traffic control (ATC). The ATC provides a sequence of way points through which the aircraft trajectory must pass. The way points typically specify time, position, and velocity. The guidance problem is to synthesize a system state trajectory which satisfies both the ATC and aircraft constraints. Complications arise because the controlled process is multi-dimensional, multi-axis, nonlinear, highly coupled, and the state space is not flat. In addition, there is a multitude of possible operating modes, which may number in the hundreds. Each such mode defines a distinct state space model of the process by specifying the state space coordinatization, the partition of the controls into active controls and configuration controls, and the output map. Furthermore, mode transitions must be smooth. The guidance algorithm is based on the inversion of the pure feedback approximations, which is followed by iterative corrections for the effects of zero dynamics. The paper describes the structure and modules of the algorithm, and the performance is illustrated by several example aircraft maneuvers.

  8. Orion Launch Abort System Performance on Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, R.; Davidson, J.; Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Orion Program has tested a number of the critical systems of the Orion spacecraft on the ground, the launch environment cannot be replicated completely on Earth. A number of flight tests have been conducted and are planned to demonstrate the performance and enable certification of the Orion Spacecraft. Exploration Flight Test 1, the first flight test of the Orion spacecraft, was successfully flown on December 5, 2014 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's Space Launch Complex 37. Orion's first flight was a two-orbit, high-apogee, high-energy entry, low-inclination test mission used to validate and test systems critical to crew safety, such as heat shield performance, separation events, avionics and software performance, attitude control and guidance, parachute deployment and recovery operations. One of the key separation events tested during this flight was the nominal jettison of the LAS. Data from this flight will be used to verify the function of the jettison motor to separate the Launch Abort System from the crew module so it can continue on with the mission. The LAS nominal jettison event on Exploration Flight Test 1 occurred at six minutes and twenty seconds after liftoff (See Fig. 3). The abort motor and attitude control motors were inert for Exploration Flight Test 1, since the mission did not require abort capabilities. A suite of developmental flight instrumentation was included on the flight test to provide data on spacecraft subsystems and separation events. This paper will focus on the flight test objectives and performance of the LAS during ascent and nominal jettison. Selected LAS subsystem flight test data will be presented and discussed in the paper. Exploration Flight Test -1 will provide critical data that will enable engineering to improve Orion's design and reduce risk for the astronauts it will protect as NASA continues to move forward on its human journey to Mars. The lessons learned from Exploration Flight Test 1 and the other Flight Test

  9. Abortion.

    PubMed

    Savage, A

    1979-09-15

    I refer for termination anyone who requests it for--pace Mr V Tunkel, (28 July, p 253)--the law is generally regarded as being one of "abortion on demand." I have some misgivings as I do not believe that women in early pregnancy are always in a fit state to make a considered decision, and they cannot in the nature of things be given time. I have, however, become increasingly worried about the morbidity arising from the procedure, and it is interesting that letters on the subject (25 August, pp 495 and 496) should be followed by one reporting rupture of the uterus during prostaglandin-induced abortion--yet another complication to add to those of cervical incompetence, pelvic sepsis, and permanent neurological damage. In so far as these tragedies usually follow late terminations Mr John Corrie's Bill is to be welcomed. A few further points. I am not so cynical as to think that every impregnation is the result of a thoughtless act of male lust. Unlike Professor Peter Huntingford (25 August, p 496), I listen to men as well as women, and many of them are deeply involved emotionally in the pregnancy they have helped to produce. Certainly I think a man should have the right to be consulted if his wife is to undergo a procedure that might damage her health. It is unfair contemptuously to dismiss as "whims" opinions that differ from ones own. These may result from genuine conscientious doubts or inability to cope from overwork and understaffing. Abortion is quite the most expensive form of contraception, and perhaps in these days of financial stringency this should be taken into account. "Bigotry" is defined in my dictionary as "blind zeal." This could be said of those who enthusiastically promote a course of action without regard to circumstances, safety, or cost. PMID:497770

  10. Will Congress keep the two-tier system of abortion?

    PubMed

    Goodman, E

    1994-08-16

    Comments were made about the US legislative agenda to provide universal health insurance coverage and basic health care which must cover the most controversial procedure, abortion. Compromises have been offered that would deny abortion to any women receiving a government subsidy, that would allow employers to opt out of coverage, that would allow a nurse or doctor to opt out of performing an abortion, and that would allow women to refuse abortion insurance coverage. Neither prochoice nor prolife groups have cooperated in reducing the demand for abortion. Over the past several years, the debate has evolved to the point where prolife groups are trying to make abortion impossible, not just illegal, by murdering doctors and escorts and blocking clinic entrances. A CNN poll revealed in the beginning of August 1994 that 8% agreed that force was justifiable for preventing abortion, and 3% agreed that killing a doctor was justifiable. Members of Congress have attempted to create a neutral or safety zone to no avail. This has created the illusion of peace, but the abortion war rages on. Health care reform must address this controversial question and move in one direction or another. The present system perpetrates a double standard because the financially comfortable are covered for abortion care, and the poor under Medicaid are denied abortion coverage. PMID:12289883

  11. The PEP-II abort kicker system

    SciTech Connect

    Lamare, J de; Donaldson, A.; Kulikov, A. Lipari, J.

    1997-07-01

    The PEP-II project has two storage rings. The HER (High Energy Ring) has up to 1.48 A of electron beam at 9 GeV, and the LER (Low Energy Ring) has up to 2.14 A of positron beam at 3.1 GeV. To protect the HER and LER beam lines in the event of a ring component failure, each ring has an abort kicker system which directs the beam into a dump when a failure is detected. Due to the high current of the beams, the beam kick is tapered from 100% to 80% in 7.33 uS (the beam transit time around the time). This taper distributes the energy evenly across the window which separates the ring from the beam dump such that the window is not damaged. The abort kicker trigger is synchronized with the ion clearing gap of the beam allowing for the kicker field to rise from 0-80% in 370 nS. This report discusses the design of the system controls, interlocks, power supplies, and modulator.

  12. Full-Envelope Launch Abort System Performance Analysis Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubuchon, Vanessa V.

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of a new dispersion methodology is described, which dis-perses abort initiation altitude or time along with all other Launch Abort System (LAS) parameters during Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast, the standard methodology assumes that an abort initiation condition is held constant (e.g., aborts initiated at altitude for Mach 1, altitude for maximum dynamic pressure, etc.) while dispersing other LAS parameters. The standard method results in large gaps in performance information due to the discrete nature of initiation conditions, while the full-envelope dispersion method provides a significantly more comprehensive assessment of LAS abort performance for the full launch vehicle ascent flight envelope and identifies performance "pinch-points" that may occur at flight conditions outside of those contained in the discrete set. The new method has significantly increased the fidelity of LAS abort simulations and confidence in the results.

  13. Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) Propulsion on Pad Abort 1 (PA-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides a concise overview of the highly successful Orion Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) flight test, and the three rocket motors that contributed to this success. The primary purpose of the Orion PA-1 flight was to help certify the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS), which can be utilized in the unlikely event of an emergency on the launchpad or during mission vehicle ascent. The PA-1 test was the first fully integrated flight test of the Orion LAS, one of the primary systems within the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The Orion MPCV is part of the architecture within the Space Launch System (SLS), which is being designed to transport astronauts beyond low-Earth orbit for future exploration missions. Had the Orion PA-1 flight abort occurred during launch preparations for a real human spaceflight mission, the PA-1 LAS would have saved the lives of the crew. The PA-1 flight test was largely successful due to the three solid rocket motors of the LAS: the Attitude Control Motor (ACM); the Jettison Motor (JM); and the Abort Motor (AM). All three rocket motors successfully performed their required functions during the Orion PA-1 flight test, flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, culminating in a successful demonstration of an abort capability from the launchpad.

  14. Orion Launch Abort System Performance During Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, Rachel; Davidson, John; Gonzalez, Guillo

    2015-01-01

    The Orion Launch Abort System Office is taking part in flight testing to enable certification that the system is capable of delivering the astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Module to a safe environment during both nominal and abort conditions. Orion is a NASA program, Exploration Flight Test 1 is managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched on a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. Although the Launch Abort System Office has tested the critical systems to the Launch Abort System jettison event on the ground, the launch environment cannot be replicated completely on Earth. During Exploration Flight Test 1, the Launch Abort System was to verify the function of the jettison motor to separate the Launch Abort System from the crew module so it can continue on with the mission. Exploration Flight Test 1 was successfully flown on December 5, 2014 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's Space Launch Complex 37. This was the first flight test of the Launch Abort System preforming Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. The abort motor and attitude control motors were inert for Exploration Flight Test 1, since the mission did not require abort capabilities. Exploration Flight Test 1 provides critical data that enable engineering to improve Orion's design and reduce risk for the astronauts it will protect as NASA continues to move forward on its human journey to Mars. The Exploration Flight Test 1 separation event occurred at six minutes and twenty seconds after liftoff. The separation of the Launch Abort System jettison occurs once Orion is safely through the most dynamic portion of the launch. This paper will present a brief overview of the objectives of the Launch Abort System during a nominal Orion flight. Secondly, the paper will present the performance of the Launch Abort System at it fulfilled those objectives. The lessons learned from Exploration Flight Test 1 and the other Flight Test Vehicles will certainly

  15. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A PMA.... Any other metreurynter-balloon abortion system shall have an approved PMA or a declared completed...

  16. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a PDP is required. A PMA.... Any other metreurynter-balloon abortion system shall have an approved PMA or a declared completed...

  17. Integrated Flight Performance Analysis of a Launch Abort System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, Paul V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes initial flight performance analyses conducted early in the Orion Project to support concept feasibility studies for the Crew Exploration Vehicle s Launch Abort System (LAS). Key performance requirements that significantly affect abort capability are presented. These requirements have implications on sizing the Abort Motor, tailoring its thrust profile to meet escape requirements for both launch pad and high drag/high dynamic pressure ascent aborts. Additional performance considerations are provided for the Attitude Control Motor, a key element of the Orion LAS design that eliminates the need for ballast and provides performance robustness over a passive control approach. Finally, performance of the LAS jettison function is discussed, along with implications on Jettison Motor sizing and the timing of the jettison event during a nominal mission. These studies provide an initial understanding of LAS performance that will continue to evolve as the Orion design is matured.

  18. GN and C Design Overview and Flight Test Results from NASA's Max Launch Abort System (MLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lanzi, Ryamond J.; Ward, Philip R.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) designed, developed and flew the alternative Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) as risk mitigation for the baseline Orion spacecraft launch abort system (LAS) already in development. The NESC was tasked with both formulating a conceptual objective system (OS) design of this alternative MLAS as well as demonstrating this concept with a simulated pad abort flight test. The goal was to obtain sufficient flight test data to assess performance, validate models/tools, and to reduce the design and development risks for a MLAS OS. Less than 2 years after Project start the MLAS simulated pad abort flight test was successfully conducted from Wallops Island on July 8, 2009. The entire flight test duration was 88 seconds during which time multiple staging events were performed and nine separate critically timed parachute deployments occurred as scheduled. Overall, the as-flown flight performance was as predicted prior to launch. This paper provides an overview of the guidance navigation and control (GN&C) technical approaches employed on this rapid prototyping activity. This paper describes the methodology used to design the MLAS flight test vehicle (FTV). Lessons that were learned during this rapid prototyping project are also summarized.

  19. Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort System Flight Test Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.

    2007-01-01

    The Constellation program is an organization within NASA whose mission is to create the new generation of spacecraft that will replace the Space Shuttle after its planned retirement in 2010. In the event of a catastrophic failure on the launch pad or launch vehicle during ascent, the successful use of the launch abort system will allow crew members to escape harm. The Flight Test Office is the organization within the Constellation project that will flight-test the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office has proposed six tests that will demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests will be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and are similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. An overview of the launch abort system flight tests for the Orion crew exploration vehicle is given. Details on the configuration of the first pad abort flight test are discussed. Sample flight trajectories for two of the six flight tests are shown.

  20. Flight Guidance System Requirements Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven P.; Tribble, Alan C.; Carlson, Timothy M.; Danielson, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a requirements specification written in the RSML-e language for the mode logic of a Flight Guidance System of a typical regional jet aircraft. This model was created as one of the first steps in a five-year project sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center, Rockwell Collins Inc., and the Critical Systems Research Group of the University of Minnesota to develop new methods and tools to improve the safety of avionics designs. This model will be used to demonstrate the application of a variety of methods and techniques, including safety analysis of system and subsystem requirements, verification of key properties using theorem provers and model checkers, identification of potential sources mode confusion in system designs, partitioning of applications based on the criticality of system hazards, and autogeneration of avionics quality code. While this model is representative of the mode logic of a typical regional jet aircraft, it does not describe an actual or planned product. Several aspects of a full Flight Guidance System, such as recovery from failed sensors, have been omitted, and no claims are made regarding the accuracy or completeness of this specification.

  1. Reverse Launch Abort System Parachute Architecture Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litton, Daniel K.; O'Keefe, Stephen A.; Winski, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated a potential Launch Abort System (LAS) Concept of Operations and abort parachute architecture. The purpose of the study was to look at the concept of jettisoning the LAS tower forward (Reverse LAS or RLAS) into the free-stream flow rather than after reorienting to a heatshield forward orientation. A hypothesized benefit was that due to the compressed timeline the dynamic pressure at main line stretch would be substantially less. This would enable the entry parachutes to be designed and sized based on entry loading conditions rather than the current stressing case of a Pad Abort. Ultimately, concerns about the highly dynamic reorientation of the CM via parachutes, and the additional requirement of a triple bridle attachment for the RLAS parachute system, overshadowed the potential benefits and ended this effort.

  2. A Proposed Ascent Abort Flight Test for the Max Launch Abort System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, Paul V.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Starr, Brett R.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center initiated the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Project to investigate alternate crew escape system concepts that eliminate the conventional launch escape tower by integrating the escape system into an aerodynamic fairing that fully encapsulates the crew capsule and smoothly integrates with the launch vehicle. This paper proposes an ascent abort flight test for an all-propulsive towerless escape system concept that is actively controlled and sized to accommodate the Orion Crew Module. The goal of the flight test is to demonstrate a high dynamic pressure escape and to characterize jet interaction effects during operation of the attitude control thrusters at transonic and supersonic conditions. The flight-test vehicle is delivered to the required test conditions by a booster configuration selected to meet cost, manufacturability, and operability objectives. Data return is augmented through judicious design of the boost trajectory, which is optimized to obtain data at a range of relevant points, rather than just a single flight condition. Secondary flight objectives are included after the escape to obtain aerodynamic damping data for the crew module and to perform a high-altitude contingency deployment of the drogue parachutes. Both 3- and 6-degree-of-freedom trajectory simulation results are presented that establish concept feasibility, and a Monte Carlo uncertainty assessment is performed to provide confidence that test objectives can be met.

  3. Testing Strategies and Methodologies for the Max Launch Abort System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaible, Dawn M.; Yuchnovicz, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was tasked to develop an alternate, tower-less launch abort system (LAS) as risk mitigation for the Orion Project. The successful pad abort flight demonstration test in July 2009 of the "Max" launch abort system (MLAS) provided data critical to the design of future LASs, while demonstrating the Agency s ability to rapidly design, build and fly full-scale hardware at minimal cost in a "virtual" work environment. Limited funding and an aggressive schedule presented a challenge for testing of the complex MLAS system. The successful pad abort flight demonstration test was attributed to the project s systems engineering and integration process, which included: a concise definition of, and an adherence to, flight test objectives; a solid operational concept; well defined performance requirements, and a test program tailored to reducing the highest flight test risks. The testing ranged from wind tunnel validation of computational fluid dynamic simulations to component ground tests of the highest risk subsystems. This paper provides an overview of the testing/risk management approach and methodologies used to understand and reduce the areas of highest risk - resulting in a successful flight demonstration test.

  4. ADVANCEMENT OF THE RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.AHRENS,L.MI,J.OERTER,B.SANDBERG,J.WARBURTON,D.

    2003-05-12

    As one of the most critical system for RHIC operation, the beam abort kicker system has to be highly available, reliable, and stable for the entire operating range. Along with the RHIC commission and operation, consistent efforts have been spend to cope with immediate issues as well as inherited design issues. Major design changes have been implemented to achieve the higher operating voltage, longer high voltage hold-off time, fast retriggering and redundant triggering, and improved system protection, etc. Recent system test has demonstrated for the first time that both blue ring and yellow ring beam abort systems have achieved more than 24 hours hold off time at desired operating voltage. In this paper, we report break down, thyratron reverse arcing, and to build a fast re-trigger system to reduce beam spreading in event of premature discharge.

  5. Medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration for legal abortion protect women's health and reduce costs to the health system: findings from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Maria Isabel; Mendoza, Willis Simancas; Guerra-Palacio, Camilo; Guzman, Nelson Alvis; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2015-02-01

    The majority of abortions in Colombia continue to take place outside the formal health system under a range of conditions, with the majority of women obtaining misoprostol from a thriving black market for the drug and self-administering the medication. We conducted a cost analysis to compare the costs to the health system of three approaches to the provision of abortion care in Colombia: post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortions, and for legal abortions in a health facility, misoprostol-only medical abortion and vacuum aspiration abortion. Hospital billing records from three institutions, two large maternity hospitals and one specialist reproductive health clinic, were analysed for procedure and complication rates, and costs by diagnosis. The majority of visits (94%) were to the two hospitals for post-abortion care; the other 6% were for legal abortions. Only one minor complication was found among the women having legal abortions, a complication rate of less than 1%. Among the women presenting for post-abortion care, 5% had complications during their treatment, mainly from infection or haemorrhage. Legal abortions were associated not only with far fewer complications for women, but also lower costs for the health system than for post-abortion care. We calculated based on our findings that for every 1,000 women receiving post-abortion care instead of a legal abortion within the health system, 16 women experienced avoidable complications, and the health system spent US $48,000 managing them. Increasing women's access to safe abortion care would not only reduce complications for women, but would also be a cost-saving strategy for the health system. PMID:25702076

  6. Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Ascent Abort Coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Mark B.; Evans, Bryan M.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Falck, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to maintain continuous abort capability from lift off through destination arrival. This requirement is driven by the desire to provide the capability to safely return the crew to Earth after failure scenarios during the various phases of the mission. This paper addresses abort trajectory design considerations, concept of operations and guidance algorithm prototypes for the portion of the ascent trajectory following nominal jettison of the Launch Abort System (LAS) until safe orbit insertion. Factors such as abort system performance, crew load limits, natural environments, crew recovery, and vehicle element disposal were investigated to determine how to achieve continuous vehicle abort capability.

  7. RS-88 Rocket Engine Tested for Pad Abort Escape System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In this photo, an RS-88 development rocket engine is being test fired at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, in support of the Pad Abort Demonstration (PAD) test flights for NASA's Orbital Space Plane (OSP). The tests could be instrumental in developing the first crew launch escape system in almost 30 years. Paving the way for a series of integrated PAD test flights, the engine tests support development of a system that could pull a crew safely away from danger during liftoff. A series of 16 hot fire tests of a 50,000-pound thrust RS-88 rocket engine were conducted, resulting in a total of 55 seconds of successful engine operation. The engine is being developed by the Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power unit of the Boeing Company. Integrated launch abort demonstration tests in 2005 will use four RS-88 engines to separate a test vehicle from a test platform, simulating pulling a crewed vehicle away from an aborted launch. Four 156-foot parachutes will deploy and carry the vehicle to landing. Lockheed Martin is building the vehicles for the PAD tests. Seven integrated tests are plarned for 2005 and 2006.

  8. RS-88 Rocket Engine Tested for Pad Abort Escape System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This photo gives an overhead look at an RS-88 development rocket engine being test fired at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, in support of the Pad Abort Demonstration (PAD) test flights for NASA's Orbital Space Plane (OSP). The tests could be instrumental in developing the first crew launch escape system in almost 30 years. Paving the way for a series of integrated PAD test flights, the engine tests support development of a system that could pull a crew safely away from danger during liftoff. A series of 16 hot fire tests of a 50,000-pound thrust RS-88 rocket engine were conducted, resulting in a total of 55 seconds of successful engine operation. The engine is being developed by the Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power unit of the Boeing Company. Integrated launch abort demonstration tests in 2005 will use four RS-88 engines to separate a test vehicle from a test platform, simulating pulling a crewed vehicle away from an aborted launch. Four 156-foot parachutes will deploy and carry the vehicle to landing. Lockheed Martin is building the vehicles for the PAD tests. Seven integrated tests are plarned for 2005 and 2006.

  9. Travel guidance system for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Takanabe, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Ito, K.; Fujinami, H.

    1987-02-24

    A travel guidance system is described for vehicles including: a heading sensor for detecting a direction of movement of a vehicle; a distance sensor for detecting a distance traveled by the vehicle; a map data storage medium preliminarily storing map data; a control unit for receiving a heading signal from the heading sensor and a distance signal from the distance sensor to successively compute a present position of the vehicle and for generating video signals corresponding to display data including map data from the map data storage medium and data of the present position; and a display having first and second display portions and responsive to the video signals from the control unit to display on the first display portion a map and a present portion mark, in which: the map data storage medium comprises means for preliminarily storing administrative division name data and landmark data; and the control unit comprises: landmark display means for: (1) determining a landmark closest to the present position, (2) causing a position of the landmark to be displayed on the map and (3) retrieving a landmark massage concerning the landmark from the storage medium to cause the display to display the landmark message on the second display portion; division name display means for retrieving the name of an administrative division to which the present position belongs from the storage medium and causing the display to display a division name message on the second display portion; and selection means for selectively actuating at least one of the landmark display means and the division name display means.

  10. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePlus

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... The pregnancy is harmful to the woman's health (therapeutic abortion). The pregnancy resulted after a traumatic event ...

  11. Simulation Environment for Orion Launch Abort System Control Design Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMinn, J. Dana; Jackson, E. Bruce; Christhilf, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The development and use of an interactive environment to perform control system design and analysis of the proposed Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort System is described. The environment, built using a commercial dynamic systems design package, includes use of an open-source configuration control software tool and a collaborative wiki to coordinate between the simulation developers, control law developers and users. A method for switching between multiple candidate control laws and vehicle configurations is described. Aerodynamic models, especially in a development program, change rapidly, so a means for automating the implementation of new aerodynamic models is described.

  12. Delta launch vehicle inertial guidance system (DIGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, K. I.

    1973-01-01

    The Delta inertial guidance system, part of the Delta launch vehicle improvement effort, has been flown on three launches and was found to perform as expected for a variety of mission profiles and vehicle configurations.

  13. Systemic Mycobacteriosis in an Aborted Thoroughbred Fetus in Japan

    PubMed Central

    SANO, Yuto; MATSUDA, Kazuya; OSAKI, Keisuke; MIYASHO, Taku; TSUDA, Tomonori; TANIYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    A male Thoroughbred fetus was aborted on day 251 of pregnancy. Gross and histological examinations detected systemic granulomatous lesions in many superficial and visceral lymph nodes and organs including the liver, tonsils, lungs, thymus, spleen, right thyroid gland and gastrointestinal tract, and suppurative placentitis, pyogranulomatous amnionitis and intralesional acid-fast bacilli were also detected. An examination of the DNA base sequence of the β subunit of RNA polymerase demonstrated that Mycobacterium avium strain 104 had infected several organs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of equine fetal mycobacterial infection in Japan. PMID:25649944

  14. The Max Launch Abort System - Concept, Flight Test, and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) is an independent engineering analysis and test organization providing support across the range of NASA programs. In 2007 NASA was developing the launch escape system for the Orion spacecraft that was evolved from the traditional tower-configuration escape systems used for the historic Mercury and Apollo spacecraft. The NESC was tasked, as a programmatic risk-reduction effort to develop and flight test an alternative to the Orion baseline escape system concept. This project became known as the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS), named in honor of Maxime Faget, the developer of the original Mercury escape system. Over the course of approximately two years the NESC performed conceptual and tradeoff analyses, designed and built full-scale flight test hardware, and conducted a flight test demonstration in July 2009. Since the flight test, the NESC has continued to further develop and refine the MLAS concept.

  15. Museum Personnel's Opinions on Mobile Guidance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshimura, Hirokazu; Sekiguchi, Hiromi; Yabumoto, Yoshitaka

    2007-01-01

    While opinions from the general public are certainly important, opinions from the museum staff are also necessary to improve user service systems. this article introduces two groups of museum staff who have evaluated the usability of mobile guidance systems in Japanese museums. One group is the research team who used the PDA system in the National…

  16. Development of mining guidance and control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    New fundamental interface sensor concepts were identified and investigated including tabulation of the physical and performance characteristics of two new interface detector concepts: - natural background radiation and magnetic spin resonance. Studies of guidance and control techniques for the longwall miner identified three basic systems for use in automated/remote controlled longwall mining. The following projects were initiated: system study which will more completely define the longwall guidance and control system design concepts; integration of the various control functions (vertical, yaw, and roll); and hardware technical requirements.

  17. [State of the autonomic nervous system after induced abortion in the lst trimester].

    PubMed

    Bakuleva, L P; Gatina, G A; Kuz'mina, T I; Solov'eva, A D

    1990-04-01

    The autonomic nervous system has been examined in 271 patients with a history of first-trimester induced abortion. It was ascertained that induced abortion affected the autonomic nervous system, thus impairing adaptive potentials and entailing the onset or aggravation of preexisting autonomic vascular dystonia. PMID:2378404

  18. Abortion - surgical

    MedlinePlus

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... problem. Your pregnancy is harmful to your health (therapeutic abortion). The pregnancy resulted after a traumatic event ...

  19. Apollo experience report guidance and control systems: Primary guidance, navigation, and control system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, M. D.; Swingle, W. L.; Bachman, S. L.; Leblanc, C. J.; Howard, H. T.; Biggs, H. M.

    1976-01-01

    The primary guidance, navigation, and control systems for both the lunar module and the command module are described. Development of the Apollo primary guidance systems is traced from adaptation of the Polaris Mark II system through evolution from Block I to Block II configurations; the discussion includes design concepts used, test and qualification programs performed, and major problems encountered. The major subsystems (inertial, computer, and optical) are covered. Separate sections on the inertial components (gyroscopes and accelerometers) are presented because these components represent a major contribution to the success of the primary guidance, navigation, and control system.

  20. Radiological Studies for the LCLS Beam Abort System

    SciTech Connect

    Santana Leitner, M.; Vollaire, J.; Mao, X.S.

    2008-03-25

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a pioneer hard x-ray free electron laser is currently under construction at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It is expected that by 2009 LCLS will deliver laser pulses of unprecedented brightness and short length, which will be used in several forefront research applications. This ambitious project encompasses major design challenges to the radiation protection like the numerous sources and the number of surveyed objects. In order to sort those, the showers from various loss sources have been tracked along a detailed model covering 1/2 mile of LCLS accelerator by means of the Monte Carlo intra nuclear cascade codes FLUKA and MARS15. This article covers the FLUKA studies of heat load; prompt and residual dose and environmental impact for the LCLS beam abort system.

  1. Teenage abortion in Germany: with reference to the legal system in the United States.

    PubMed

    Belling, D W; Eberl, C

    1996-01-01

    This document compares the legal aspects of induced abortion in the US and Germany with a focus on how each country treats minors who wish to undergo abortion. After a short introduction, the second section describes the legal approach to abortion in the US where women (including minors) have an implicitly recognized constitutional right to abortion until compelling state interest intervenes at a point where the unborn child would be viable outside of the womb. States, however, may permit parents to participate in their daughter's abortion decisions as long as a "judicial bypass procedure" exists to protect the minor's rights. Section 3 describes the situation in Germany, where no constitutional right to abortion exists and where the fetus is protected by the constitution. A minor's right to abortion is determined by the provisions governing whether or not an abortion can be performed, by age limitations, and by the custody rights of the parents. Relevant decisions of the Federal Constitutional Court in 1975 and 1993 are reviewed to show that women have a duty to carry a pregnancy to term unless the woman requests the abortion within 12 weeks of conception and submits to counseling which seeks to protect the fetus (such an abortion would be illegal but immune from prosecution). German court rulings on the competency of minors to render consent are then noted to show that even minors have ultimate responsibility with regard to abortion. Analysis of the legal situation in Germany continues with a look at the personal custody rights of parents and the limitations on those rights imposed by the constitutional rights of the child, by the child's age, and by the child's self-reliance and capacity to assume responsibility. The conclusion contrasts the US and German legal sources of limitation of parental rights over the decisions of minors and the ways each system determines the competency of a minor to make such a decision. PMID:8666732

  2. Guidance system for laser targets

    DOEpatents

    Porter, Gary D.; Bogdanoff, Anatoly

    1978-01-01

    A system for guiding charged laser targets to a predetermined focal spot of a laser along generally arbitrary, and especially horizontal, directions which comprises a series of electrostatic sensors which provide inputs to a computer for real time calculation of position, velocity, and direction of the target along an initial injection trajectory, and a set of electrostatic deflection means, energized according to a calculated output of said computer, to change the target trajectory to intercept the focal spot of the laser which is triggered so as to illuminate the target of the focal spot.

  3. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePlus

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

  4. Flight Performance Feasibility Studies for the Max Launch Abort System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarabini, Paul V.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Beaty, James R.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) initiated the Max Launch Abort System Project to explore crew escape system concepts designed to be fully encapsulated within an aerodynamic fairing and smoothly integrated onto a launch vehicle. One objective of this design was to develop a more compact launch escape vehicle that eliminated the need for an escape tower, as was used in the Mercury and Apollo escape systems and what is planned for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The benefits for the launch vehicle of eliminating a tower from the escape vehicle design include lower structural weights, reduced bending moments during atmospheric flight, and a decrease in induced aero-acoustic loads. This paper discusses the development of encapsulated, towerless launch escape vehicle concepts, especially as it pertains to the flight performance and systems analysis trade studies conducted to establish mission feasibility and assess system-level performance. Two different towerless escape vehicle designs are discussed in depth: one with allpropulsive control using liquid attitude control thrusters, and a second employing deployable aft swept grid fins to provide passive stability during coast. Simulation results are presented for a range of nominal and off-nominal escape conditions.

  5. Video guidance, landing, and imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Knickerbocker, R. L.; Tietz, J. C.; Grant, C.; Rice, R. B.; Moog, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The adaptive potential of video guidance technology for earth orbital and interplanetary missions was explored. The application of video acquisition, pointing, tracking, and navigation technology was considered to three primary missions: planetary landing, earth resources satellite, and spacecraft rendezvous and docking. It was found that an imaging system can be mechanized to provide a spacecraft or satellite with a considerable amount of adaptability with respect to its environment. It also provides a level of autonomy essential to many future missions and enhances their data gathering ability. The feasibility of an autonomous video guidance system capable of observing a planetary surface during terminal descent and selecting the most acceptable landing site was successfully demonstrated in the laboratory. The techniques developed for acquisition, pointing, and tracking show promise for recognizing and tracking coastlines, rivers, and other constituents of interest. Routines were written and checked for rendezvous, docking, and station-keeping functions.

  6. Peacekeeper - Guidance system flight readiness review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, D. S.; Harrington, E. V.

    The Ballistic Missile Office (BMO) has developed and employed a procedure to insure the flight readiness of a Peacekeeper guidance system. The goals of this additional review procedure (over and above acceptance testing) are to minimize the risk of the guidance system failure and/or achieving substantially less than the designed accuracy. The roles, mission and interaction of teams of personnel from seven associate contractors are discussed using flow diagrams. The paper also includes methods used to identify and resolve areas of concern as well as examples of actual concerns discovered. The scope is discused, including both the various technical disciplines involved and the lowest level of build and test areas reviewed. Resulting build and test improvements are shown.

  7. Video Guidance Sensor System With Integrated Rangefinding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, Michael L. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor); Howard, Richard T. (Inventor); Roe, Fred Davis, Jr. (Inventor); Bell, Joseph L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A video guidance sensor system for use, p.g., in automated docking of a chase vehicle with a target vehicle. The system includes an integrated rangefinder sub-system that uses time of flight measurements to measure range. The rangefinder sub-system includes a pair of matched photodetectors for respectively detecting an output laser beam and return laser beam, a buffer memory for storing the photodetector outputs, and a digitizer connected to the buffer memory and including dual amplifiers and analog-to-digital converters. A digital signal processor processes the digitized output to produce a range measurement.

  8. Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Pad Abort Test Vehicle (PATV) II Attitude Control System (ACS) Integration and Pressurization Subsystem Dynamic Random Vibration Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekrami, Yasamin; Cook, Joseph S.

    2011-01-01

    In order to mitigate catastrophic failures on future generation space vehicles, engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have begun to integrate a novel crew abort systems that could pull a crew module away in case of an emergency at the launch pad or during ascent. The Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) is a recent test vehicle that was designed as an alternative to the baseline Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) to demonstrate the performance of a "tower-less" LAS configuration under abort conditions. The MLAS II test vehicle will execute a propulsive coast stabilization maneuver during abort to control the vehicles trajectory and thrust. To accomplish this, the spacecraft will integrate an Attitude Control System (ACS) with eight hypergolic monomethyl hydrazine liquid propulsion engines that are capable of operating in a quick pulsing mode. Two main elements of the ACS include a propellant distribution subsystem and a pressurization subsystem to regulate the flow of pressurized gas to the propellant tanks and the engines. The CAD assembly of the Attitude Control System (ACS) was configured and integrated into the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) design. A dynamic random vibration analysis was conducted on the Main Propulsion System (MPS) helium pressurization panels to assess the response of the panel and its components under increased gravitational acceleration loads during flight. The results indicated that the panels fundamental and natural frequencies were farther from the maximum Acceleration Spectral Density (ASD) vibrations which were in the range of 150-300 Hz. These values will direct how the components will be packaged in the vehicle to reduce the effects high gravitational loads.

  9. Air Data Boom System Development for the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Cox, Jeff; Bondurant, Robert; Dupont, Ron; ODonnell, Louise; Vellines, Wesley, IV; Johnston, William M.; Cagle, Christopher M.; Schuster, David M.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Newman, John A.; Tyler, Erik D.; Sterling, William J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) chartered the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) to demonstrate an alternate launch abort concept as risk mitigation for the Orion project's baseline "tower" design. On July 8, 2009, a full scale and passively, aerodynamically stabilized MLAS launch abort demonstrator was successfully launched from Wallops Flight Facility following nearly two years of development work on the launch abort concept: from a napkin sketch to a flight demonstration of the full-scale flight test vehicle. The MLAS flight test vehicle was instrumented with a suite of aerodynamic sensors. The purpose was to obtain sufficient data to demonstrate that the vehicle demonstrated the behavior predicted by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis and wind tunnel testing. This paper describes development of the Air Data Boom (ADB) component of the aerodynamic sensor suite.

  10. Flight evaluation of the terminal guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandlin, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The terminal guidance system (TGS) is avionic equipment which gives guidance along a curved descending flight path to a landing. A Cessna 182 was used as the test aircraft and the TGS was installed and connected to the altimeter, DME, RMI, and gyro compass. Approaches were flown by three different pilots. When the aircraft arrives at the termination point, it is set up on final approach for a landing. The TGS provides guidance for curved descending approaches with guideslopes of 6 deg which required, for experienced pilots, workloads that are approximately the same as for an ILS. The glideslope is difficult to track within 1/2 n.m. of the VOR/DME station. The system permits, for experienced pilots, satisfactory approaches with a turn radius as low as 1/2 n.m. and a glideslope of 6 deg. Turn angles have little relation to pilot workload for curved approaches. Pilot experience is a factor for curved approaches. Pilots with low instrument time have difficulty flying steep approaches with small turn radius. Turbulence increases the pilot workload for curved approaches. The TGS does not correct to a given flight path over the ground nor does it adequately compensate for wind drift.

  11. Optoelectronic Sensor System for Guidance in Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Book, Michael L.; Jackson, John L.

    2004-01-01

    The Video Guidance Sensor (VGS) system is an optoelectronic sensor that provides automated guidance between two vehicles. In the original intended application, the two vehicles would be spacecraft docking together, but the basic principles of design and operation of the sensor are applicable to aircraft, robots, vehicles, or other objects that may be required to be aligned for docking, assembly, resupply, or precise separation. The system includes a sensor head containing a monochrome charge-coupled- device video camera and pulsed laser diodes mounted on the tracking vehicle, and passive reflective targets on the tracked vehicle. The lasers illuminate the targets, and the resulting video images of the targets are digitized. Then, from the positions of the digitized target images and known geometric relationships among the targets, the relative position and orientation of the vehicles are computed. As described thus far, the VGS system is based on the same principles as those of the system described in "Improved Video Sensor System for Guidance in Docking" (MFS-31150), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 21, No. 4 (April 1997), page 9a. However, the two systems differ in the details of design and operation. The VGS system is designed to operate with the target completely visible within a relative-azimuth range of +/-10.5deg and a relative-elevation range of +/-8deg. The VGS acquires and tracks the target within that field of view at any distance from 1.0 to 110 m and at any relative roll, pitch, and/or yaw angle within +/-10deg. The VGS produces sets of distance and relative-orientation data at a repetition rate of 5 Hz. The software of this system also accommodates the simultaneous operation of two sensors for redundancy

  12. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the bovine abortion surveillance system in France.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Anne; Gay, Emilie; Fortané, Nicolas; Palussière, Mathilde; Hendrikx, Pascal; Hénaux, Viviane; Calavas, Didier

    2015-06-01

    Bovine abortion is the main clinical sign of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which France has been declared officially free since 2005. To ensure the early detection of any brucellosis outbreak, event-driven surveillance relies on the mandatory notification of bovine abortions and the brucellosis testing of aborting cows. However, the under-reporting of abortions appears frequent. Our objectives were to assess the aptitude of the bovine abortion surveillance system to detect each and every bovine abortion and to identify factors influencing the system's effectiveness. We evaluated five attributes defined by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control with a method suited to each attribute: (1) data quality was studied quantitatively and qualitatively, as this factor considerably influences data analysis and results; (2) sensitivity and representativeness were estimated using a unilist capture-recapture approach to quantify the surveillance system's effectiveness; (3) acceptability and simplicity were studied through qualitative interviews of actors in the field, given that the surveillance system relies heavily on abortion notifications by farmers and veterinarians. Our analysis showed that (1) data quality was generally satisfactory even though some errors might be due to actors' lack of awareness of the need to collect accurate data; (2) from 2006 to 2011, the mean annual sensitivity - i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion out of all those who detected such events - was around 34%, but was significantly higher in dairy than beef cattle herds (highlighting a lack of representativeness); (3) overall, the system's low sensitivity was related to its low acceptability and lack of simplicity. This study showed that, in contrast to policy-makers, most farmers and veterinarians perceived the risk of a brucellosis outbreak as negligible. They did not consider sporadic abortions as a suspected case of brucellosis and usually reported abortions only to

  13. Assessing the Mandatory Bovine Abortion Notification System in France Using Unilist Capture-Recapture Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bronner, Anne; Hénaux, Viviane; Vergne, Timothée; Vinard, Jean-Luc; Morignat, Eric; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier; Gay, Emilie

    2013-01-01

    The mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France aims to detect as soon as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis. However, under-reporting seems to be a major limitation of this system. We used a unilist capture-recapture approach to assess the sensitivity, i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion among those who detected such events, and representativeness of the system during 2006–2011. We implemented a zero-inflated Poisson model to estimate the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion, and among them, the proportion of farmers not reporting. We also applied a hurdle model to evaluate the effect of factors influencing the notification process. We found that the overall surveillance sensitivity was about 34%, and was higher in beef than dairy cattle farms. The observed increase in the proportion of notifying farmers from 2007 to 2009 resulted from an increase in the surveillance sensitivity in 2007/2008 and an increase in the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion in 2008/2009. These patterns suggest a raise in farmers’ awareness in 2007/2008 when the Bluetongue Virus (BTV) was detected in France, followed by an increase in the number of abortions in 2008/2009 as BTV spread across the country. Our study indicated a lack of sensitivity of the mandatory bovine abortion notification system, raising concerns about the ability to detect brucellosis outbreaks early. With the increasing need to survey the zoonotic Rift Valley Fever and Q fever diseases that may also cause bovine abortions, our approach is of primary interest for animal health stakeholders to develop information programs to increase abortion notifications. Our framework combining hurdle and ZIP models may also be applied to estimate the completeness of other clinical surveillance systems. PMID:23691004

  14. Assessing the mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France using unilist capture-recapture approach.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Anne; Hénaux, Viviane; Vergne, Timothée; Vinard, Jean-Luc; Morignat, Eric; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier; Gay, Emilie

    2013-01-01

    The mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France aims to detect as soon as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis. However, under-reporting seems to be a major limitation of this system. We used a unilist capture-recapture approach to assess the sensitivity, i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion among those who detected such events, and representativeness of the system during 2006-2011. We implemented a zero-inflated Poisson model to estimate the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion, and among them, the proportion of farmers not reporting. We also applied a hurdle model to evaluate the effect of factors influencing the notification process. We found that the overall surveillance sensitivity was about 34%, and was higher in beef than dairy cattle farms. The observed increase in the proportion of notifying farmers from 2007 to 2009 resulted from an increase in the surveillance sensitivity in 2007/2008 and an increase in the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion in 2008/2009. These patterns suggest a raise in farmers' awareness in 2007/2008 when the Bluetongue Virus (BTV) was detected in France, followed by an increase in the number of abortions in 2008/2009 as BTV spread across the country. Our study indicated a lack of sensitivity of the mandatory bovine abortion notification system, raising concerns about the ability to detect brucellosis outbreaks early. With the increasing need to survey the zoonotic Rift Valley Fever and Q fever diseases that may also cause bovine abortions, our approach is of primary interest for animal health stakeholders to develop information programs to increase abortion notifications. Our framework combining hurdle and ZIP models may also be applied to estimate the completeness of other clinical surveillance systems. PMID:23691004

  15. Abortion - surgical

    MedlinePlus

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  16. Shuttle Abort Flight Management (SAFM) - Application Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Howard; Straube, Tim; Madsen, Jennifer; Ricard, Mike

    2002-01-01

    One of the most demanding tasks that must be performed by the Space Shuttle flight crew is the process of determining whether, when and where to abort the vehicle should engine or system failures occur during ascent or entry. Current Shuttle abort procedures involve paging through complicated paper checklists to decide on the type of abort and where to abort. Additional checklists then lead the crew through a series of actions to execute the desired abort. This process is even more difficult and time consuming in the absence of ground communications since the ground flight controllers have the analysis tools and information that is currently not available in the Shuttle cockpit. Crew workload specifically abort procedures will be greatly simplified with the implementation of the Space Shuttle Cockpit Avionics Upgrade (CAU) project. The intent of CAU is to maximize crew situational awareness and reduce flight workload thru enhanced controls and displays, and onboard abort assessment and determination capability. SAFM was developed to help satisfy the CAU objectives by providing the crew with dynamic information about the capability of the vehicle to perform a variety of abort options during ascent and entry. This paper- presents an overview of the SAFM application. As shown in Figure 1, SAFM processes the vehicle navigation state and other guidance information to provide the CAU displays with evaluations of abort options, as well as landing site recommendations. This is accomplished by three main SAFM components: the Sequencer Executive, the Powered Flight Function, and the Glided Flight Function, The Sequencer Executive dispatches the Powered and Glided Flight Functions to evaluate the vehicle's capability to execute the current mission (or current abort), as well as more than IS hypothetical abort options or scenarios. Scenarios are sequenced and evaluated throughout powered and glided flight. Abort scenarios evaluated include Abort to Orbit (ATO), Transatlantic

  17. Orion Launch Abort System Jettison Motor Performance During Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, Rachel J.; Davidson, John B.; Winski, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the flight test objectives and performance of the Orion Launch Abort System during Exploration Flight Test-1. Exploration Flight Test-1, the first flight test of the Orion spacecraft, was managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. This flight test was a two-orbit, high-apogee, high-energy entry, low-inclination test mission used to validate and test systems critical to crew safety. This test included the first flight test of the Launch Abort System performing Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. Although the Orion Program has tested a number of the critical systems of the Orion spacecraft on the ground, the launch environment cannot be replicated completely on Earth. Data from this flight will be used to verify the function of the jettison motor to separate the Launch Abort System from the crew module so it can continue on with the mission. Selected Launch Abort System flight test data is presented and discussed in the paper. Through flight test data, Launch Abort System performance trends have been derived that will prove valuable to future flights as well as the manned space program.

  18. Congenital malformations of the central nervous system in spontaneous abortions.

    PubMed Central

    Creasy, M R; Alberman, E D

    1976-01-01

    A study of 2620 pregnancies ending in spontaneous abortion revealed a CNS defect in 3.6% of embryos and fetuses, and 3% of all complete conceptuses. The type of malformation observed varied with the gestational age at expulsion, encephaloceles being predominant in earlier specimens, while more typical anencephalus and spina bifida were more common among later abortions. Chromosome abnormalities were found in 40% of abortuses with CNS defects, but were almost entirely confined to those which were still at the embryonic stage of development. 53% of the latter were chromosomally abnormal, which is the same as the proportion found among embryos without a CNS malformation. Using published life-tables of recognized pregnancies it was estimated that the prevalence of anencephalus, spina bifida, or related malformation (other than hydrocephalus), without a chromosome anomaly, is 5.3 per thousand conceptuses at the beginning of the eighth week of gestation. By comparing this with the prevalence in total births, it was further estimated that only 24% of these are born alive, with 54% aborting spontaneously and 22% being stillborn. PMID:775092

  19. Regulatory guidance on soil cover systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, J.D.

    1991-12-31

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in September 1991, completed revisions to 14 sections of the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. The major purposes of the SRP are to ensure the quality and uniformity of the NRC staff`s safety reviews, and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate the acceptability of information and data provided in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) portion of the license application. SRP 3.2, entitled, Design Considerations for Normal and Abnormal/Accident Conditions, was one of the sections that was revised by the NRC staff. This revision was completed to provide additional regulatory guidance on the important considerations that need to be addressed for the proper design and construction of soil cover systems that are to be placed over the LLW. The cover system over the waste is acknowledged to be one of the most important engineered barriers for the long-term stable performance of the disposal facility. The guidance in revised SRP 3.2 summarizes the previous efforts and recommendations of the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and a peer review panel on the placement of soil cover systems. NRC published these efforts in NUREG/CR-5432. The discussions in this paper highlight selected recommendations on soil cover issues that the NRC staff considers important for ensuring the safe, long-term performance of the soil cover systems. The development phases to be discussed include: (1) cover design; (2) cover material selection; (3) laboratory and field testing; (4) field placement control and acceptance; and (5) penetrations through the constructed covers.

  20. Asymmetrical booster ascent guidance and control system design study. Volume 5: Space shuttle powered explicit guidance. [space shuttle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggers, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    An optimum powered explicit guidance algorithm capable of handling all space shuttle exoatospheric maneuvers is presented. The theoretical and practical basis for the currently baselined space shuttle powered flight guidance equations and logic is documented. Detailed flow diagrams for implementing the steering computations for all shuttle phases, including powered return to launch site (RTLS) abort, are also presented. Derivation of the powered RTLS algorithm is provided, as well as detailed flow diagrams for implementing the option. The flow diagrams and equations are compatible with the current powered flight documentation.

  1. Control method for video guidance sensor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor); Book, Michael L. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling operations in a video guidance sensor system wherein images of laser output signals transmitted by the system and returned from a target are captured and processed by the system to produce data used in tracking of the target. Six modes of operation are provided as follows: (i) a reset mode; (ii) a diagnostic mode; (iii) a standby mode; (iv) an acquisition mode; (v) a tracking mode; and (vi) a spot mode wherein captured images of returned laser signals are processed to produce data for all spots found in the image. The method provides for automatic transition to the standby mode from the reset mode after integrity checks are performed and from the diagnostic mode to the reset mode after diagnostic operations are carried out. Further, acceptance of reset and diagnostic commands is permitted only when the system is in the standby mode. The method also provides for automatic transition from the acquisition mode to the tracking mode when an acceptable target is found.

  2. [Abortion and rights. Legal thinking about abortion].

    PubMed

    Perez Duarte, A E

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of abortion in Mexico from a juridical perspective requires recognition that Mexico as a national community participates in a double system of values. Politically it is defined as a liberal, democratic, and secular state, but culturally the Judeo-Christian ideology is dominant in all social strata. This duality complicates all juridical-penal decisions regarding abortion. Public opinion on abortion is influenced on the 1 hand by extremely conservative groups who condemn abortion as homicide, and on the other hand by groups who demand legislative reform in congruence with characteristics that define the state: an attitude of tolerance toward the different ideological-moral positions that coexist in the country. The discussion concerns the rights of women to voluntary maternity, protection of health, and to making their own decisions regarding their bodies vs. the rights of the fetus to life. The type of analysis is not objective, and conclusions depend on the ideology of the analyst. Other elements must be examined for an objective consideration of the social problem of abortion. For example, aspects related to maternal morbidity and mortality and the demographic, economic, and physical and mental health of the population would all seem to support the democratic juridical doctrine that sees the clandestine nature of abortion as the principal problem. It is also observed that the illegality of abortion does not guarantee its elimination. Desperate women will seek abortion under any circumstances. The illegality of abortion also impedes health and educational policies that would lower abortion mortality. There are various problems from a strictly juridical perspective. A correct definition of the term abortion is needed that would coincide with the medical definition. The discussion must be clearly centered on the protected juridical right and the definition of reproductive and health rights and rights to their own bodies of women. The experiences of other

  3. Guidance of Nonlinear Nonminimum-Phase Dynamic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devasia, Santosh

    1997-01-01

    The first two years research work has advanced the inversion-based guidance theory for: (1) systems with non-hyperbolic internal dynamics; (2) systems with parameter jumps; (3) systems where a redesign of the output trajectory is desired; and (4) the generation of recovery guidance maneuvers.

  4. [Auditory guidance systems for the visually impaired people].

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Nie, Min; Luo, Lan; Tong, Shanbao; Niu, Jinhai; Zhu, Yisheng

    2010-04-01

    Visually impaired people face many inconveniences because of the loss of vision. Therefore, scientists are trying to design various guidance systems for improving the lives of the blind. Based on sensory substitution, auditory guidance has become an interesting topic in the field of biomedical engineering. In this paper, we made a state-of-technique review of the auditory guidance system. Although there have been many technical challenges, the auditory guidance system would be a useful alternative for the visually impaired people. PMID:20481341

  5. Study of fail-safe abort system for an actively cooled hypersonic aircraft, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peeples, M. E.; Herring, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Conceptual designs of a fail-safe abort system for hydrogen fueled actively cooled high speed aircraft are examined. The fail-safe concept depends on basically three factors: (1) a reliable method of detecting a failure or malfunction in the active cooling system, (2) the optimization of abort trajectories which minimize the descent heat load to the aircraft, and (3) fail-safe thermostructural concepts to minimize both the weight and the maximum temperature the structure will reach during descent. These factors are examined and promising approaches are evaluated based on weight, reliability, ease of manufacture and cost.

  6. Late-term abortion.

    PubMed

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed. PMID:9728645

  7. Flight Guidance System Validation Using SPIN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naydich, Dimitri; Nowakowski, John

    1998-01-01

    To verify the requirements for the mode control logic of a Flight Guidance System (FGS) we applied SPIN, a widely used software package that supports the formal verification of distributed systems. These requirements, collectively called the FGS specification, were developed at Rockwell Avionics & Communications and expressed in terms of the Consortium Requirements Engineering (CoRE) method. The properties to be verified are the invariants formulated in the FGS specification, along with the standard properties of consistency and completeness. The project had two stages. First, the FGS specification and the properties to be verified were reformulated in PROMELA, the input language of SPIN. This involved a semantics issue, as some constructs of the FGS specification do not have well-defined semantics in CoRE. Then we attempted to verify the requirements' properties using the automatic model checking facilities of SPIN. Due to the large size of the state space of the FGS specification an exhaustive state space analysis with SPIN turned out to be impossible. So we used the supertrace model checking procedure of SPIN that provides for a partial analysis of the state space. During this process, we found some subtle errors in the FGS specification.

  8. Induced Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Induced Abortion Patient Education FAQs Induced Abortion Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  9. VTOL shipboard letdown guidance system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phatak, A. V.; Karmali, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative letdown guidance strategies are examined for landing of a VTOL aircraft onboard a small aviation ship under adverse environmental conditions. Off line computer simulation of shipboard landing task is utilized for assessing the relative merits of the proposed guidance schemes. The touchdown performance of a nominal constant rate of descent (CROD) letdown strategy serves as a benchmark for ranking the performance of the alternative letdown schemes. Analysis of ship motion time histories indicates the existence of an alternating sequence of quiescent and rough motions called lulls and swells. A real time algorithms lull/swell classification based upon ship motion pattern features is developed. The classification algorithm is used to command a go/no go signal to indicate the initiation and termination of an acceptable landing window. Simulation results show that such a go/no go pattern based letdown guidance strategy improves touchdown performance.

  10. 43. Upper level, left to rightground missile guidance system liquid ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Upper level, left to right--ground missile guidance system liquid cooling equipment, guidance and control coupler rack, programmer group - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  11. 44. Upper level, left to rightground missile guidance system liquid ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Upper level, left to right--ground missile guidance system liquid cooling equipment, guidance and control coupler - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  12. Guidance Receptors in the Nervous and Cardiovascular Systems.

    PubMed

    Rubina, K A; Tkachuk, V A

    2015-10-01

    Blood vessels and nervous fibers grow in parallel, for they express similar receptors for chemokine substances. Recently, much attention is being given to studying guidance receptors and their ligands besides the growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines necessary to form structures in the nervous and vascular systems. Such guidance molecules determine trajectory for growing axons and vessels. Guidance molecules include Ephrins and their receptors, Neuropilins and Plexins as receptors for Semaphorins, Robos as receptors for Slit-proteins, and UNC5B receptors binding Netrins. Apart from these receptors and their ligands, urokinase and its receptor (uPAR) and T-cadherin are also classified as guidance molecules. The urokinase system mediates local proteolysis at the leading edge of cells, thereby providing directed migration. T-cadherin is a repellent molecule that regulates the direction of growing axons and blood vessels. Guidance receptors also play an important role in the diseases of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. PMID:26567567

  13. Optimal return-to-launchsite abort trajectories for an HL-20 Personnel Launch System vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutton, Kevin E.

    1993-01-01

    The Personnel Launch System (PLS) being studied by NASA is a system to complement the Space Shuttle and provide alternative access to space. The PLS consists of a manned spacecraft launched by an expendable launch vehicle (ELV). A candidate for the manned spacecraft is the HL-20 lifting body. In the event of an ELV malfunction during the initial portion of the ascent trajectory, the HL-20 will separate from the rocket and perform an unpowered return-to-launchsite (RTLS) abort. This paper describes an investigation of the RTLS abort scenario using optimal control theory. The objective of the abort trajectory is to maximize final altitude at a point near the runway. The assumption is then made that there exists a control history to steer the vehicle to any final altitude lower than the final optimal altitude. With this selection of cost function, and with this assumption, the feasibility of an RTLS abort at different times along the ascent trajectory can be determined. The method of differential inclusions, which allows the determination of optimal states and eliminates the need for determining the optimal controls, is used to determine the optimal trajectories.

  14. Optimal return-to-launchsite abort trajectories for an HL-20 Personnel Launch System vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, Kevin E.

    The Personnel Launch System (PLS) being studied by NASA is a system to complement the Space Shuttle and provide alternative access to space. The PLS consists of a manned spacecraft launched by an expendable launch vehicle (ELV). A candidate for the manned spacecraft is the HL-20 lifting body. In the event of an ELV malfunction during the initial portion of the ascent trajectory, the HL-20 will separate from the rocket and perform an unpowered return-to-launchsite (RTLS) abort. This paper describes an investigation of the RTLS abort scenario using optimal control theory. The objective of the abort trajectory is to maximize final altitude at a point near the runway. The assumption is then made that there exists a control history to steer the vehicle to any final altitude lower than the final optimal altitude. With this selection of cost function, and with this assumption, the feasibility of an RTLS abort at different times along the ascent trajectory can be determined. The method of differential inclusions, which allows the determination of optimal states and eliminates the need for determining the optimal controls, is used to determine the optimal trajectories.

  15. Overview of C/C-SiC Composite Development for the Orion Launch Abort System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Lee R.; Valentine, Peter G.; Schofield, Elizabeth S.; Beshears, Ronald D.; Coston, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Past and present efforts by the authors to further understanding of the ceramic matrix composite (CMC) material used in the valve components of the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) Attitude Control Motor (ACM) will be presented. The LAS is designed to quickly lift the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) away from its launch vehicle in emergency abort scenarios. The ACM is a solid rocket motor which utilizes eight throttleable nozzles to maintain proper orientation of the CEV during abort operations. Launch abort systems have not been available for use by NASA on manned launches since the last Apollo ]Saturn launch in 1975. The CMC material, carbon-carbon/silicon-carbide (C/C-SiC), is manufactured by Fiber Materials, Inc. and consists of a rigid 4-directional carbon-fiber tow weave reinforced with a mixed carbon plus SiC matrix. Several valve and full system (8-valve) static motor tests have been conducted by the motor vendor. The culmination of these tests was the successful flight test of the Orion LAS Pad Abort One (PA ]1) vehicle on May 6, 2010. Due to the fast pace of the LAS development program, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center assisted the LAS community by performing a series of material and component evaluations using fired hardware from valve and full ]system development motor tests, and from the PA-1 flight ACM motor. Information will be presented on the structure of the C/C-SiC material, as well as the efficacy of various non ]destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, including but not limited to: radiography, computed tomography, nanofocus computed tomography, and X-ray transmission microscopy. Examinations of the microstructure of the material via scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy will also be discussed. The findings resulting from the subject effort are assisting the LAS Project in risk assessments and in possible modifications to the final ACM operational design.

  16. Orion Pad Abort 1 GN and C Design and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, Edgar A.; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    The first flight test of the Orion Abort Flight Test project is scheduled to launch in Spring 2010. This flight test is known as Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) and it is intended to accomplish a series of flight test objectives, including demonstrating the capability of the Launch Abort System (LAS) to propel the Crew Module (CM) to a safe distance from a launch vehicle during a pad abort. The PA-1 Flight Test Article (FTA) is actively controlled by a guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) system for much of its flight. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design, development, and analysis of the PA-1 GN&C system. A description of the technical solutions that were developed to meet the challenge of satisfying many competing requirements is presented. A historical perspective of how the Orion LAV compares to the Apollo Launch Escape Vehicle (LEV) design will also be included.

  17. Launch Vehicle Abort Analysis for Failures Leading to Loss of Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Hill, Ashley D.; Beard, Bernard B.

    2013-01-01

    Launch vehicle ascent is a time of high risk for an onboard crew. There is a large fraction of possible failures for which time is of the essence and a successful abort is possible if the detection and action happens quickly enough. This paper focuses on abort determination based on data already available from the Guidance, Navigation, and Control system. This work is the result of failure analysis efforts performed during the Ares I launch vehicle development program. The two primary areas of focus are the derivation of abort triggers to ensure that abort occurs as quickly as possible when needed, but that false aborts are avoided, and evaluation of success in aborting off the failing launch vehicle.

  18. Bronchoscopy guidance system based on bronchoscope-motion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, Duane C.; Higgins, William E.

    2012-02-01

    Bronchoscopy-guidance systems assist physicians during bronchoscope navigation. However, these systems require an attending technician and fail to continuously track the bronchoscope. We propose a real-time technicianfree bronchoscopy-guidance system that employs continuous tracking. For guidance, our system presents directions on virtual views that are generated from the bronchoscope's tracked location. The system achieves bronchoscope tracking using a strategy that is based on a recently proposed method for sensor-based bronchoscope-motion tracking.1 Furthermore, a graphical indicator notifies the physician when he/she has maneuvered the bronchoscope to an incorrect branch. Our proposed system uses the sensor data to generate virtual views through multiple candidate routes and employs image matching in a Bayesian framework to determine the most probable bronchoscope pose. Tests based on laboratory phantoms validate the potential of the system.

  19. The health system cost of post-abortion care in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Vlassoff, Michael; Mugisha, Frederick; Sundaram, Aparna; Bankole, Akinrinola; Singh, Susheela; Amanya, Leo; Kiggundu, Charles; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-01-01

    This article presents estimates based on the research conducted in 2010 of the cost to the Ugandan health system of providing post-abortion care (PAC), filling a gap in knowledge of the cost of unsafe abortion. Thirty-nine public and private health facilities were sampled representing three levels of health care, and data were collected on drugs, supplies, material, personnel time and out-of-pocket expenses. In addition, direct non-medical costs in the form of overhead and capital costs were also measured. Our results show that the average annual PAC cost per client, across five types of abortion complications, was $131. The total cost of PAC nationally, including direct non-medical costs, was estimated to be $13.9 million per year. Satisfying all demand for PAC would raise the national cost to $20.8 million per year. This shows that PAC consumes a substantial portion of the total expenditure in reproductive health in Uganda. Investing more resources in family planning programmes to prevent unwanted and mistimed pregnancies would help reduce health systems costs. PMID:23274438

  20. The health system cost of post-abortion care in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Vlassoff, Michael; Musange, Sabine F; Kalisa, Ina R; Ngabo, Fidele; Sayinzoga, Felix; Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2015-01-01

    Based on research conducted in 2012, we estimate the cost to the Rwandan health-care system of providing post-abortion care (PAC) due to unsafe abortions, a subject of policy importance not studied before at the national level. Thirty-nine public and private health facilities representing three levels of health care were randomly selected for data collection from key care providers and administrators for all five regions. Using an ingredients approach to costing, data were gathered on drugs, supplies, material, personnel time and hospitalization. Additionally, direct non-medical costs such as overhead and capital costs were also measured. We found that the average annual PAC cost per client, across five types of abortion complications, was $93. The total cost of PAC nationally was estimated to be $1.7 million per year, 49% of which was expended on direct non-medical costs. Satisfying all demands for PAC would raise the national cost to $2.5 million per year. PAC comprises a significant share of total expenditure in reproductive health in Rwanda. Investing more resources in provision of contraceptive services to prevent unwanted or mistimed pregnancies would likely reduce health systems costs. PMID:24548846

  1. Guidance for Human-system Interfaces to Automatic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Stephen Fleger; Valerie Barnes

    2010-09-27

    Automation is ubiquitous in modern complex systems, and commercial nuclear- power plants are no exception. Automation is applied to a wide range of functions, including monitoring and detection, situation assessment, response planning, and response implementation. Automation has become a 'team player' supporting personnel in nearly all aspects of system operation. In light of its increasing use and importance in new- and future-plants, guidance is needed to conduct safety reviews of the operator's interface with automation. The objective of this research was to develop such guidance. We first characterized the important HFE aspects of automation, including six dimensions: Levels, functions, processes, modes, flexibility, and reliability. Next, we reviewed literature on the effects of all of these aspects of automation on human performance, and on the design of human-system interfaces (HSIs). Then, we used this technical basis established from the literature to identify general principles for human-automation interaction and to develop review guidelines. The guidelines consist of the following seven topics: Automation displays, interaction and control, automation modes, automation levels, adaptive automation, error tolerance and failure management, and HSI integration.

  2. A Flight Dynamics Perspective of the Orion Pad Abort One Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idicula, Jinu; Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.; Stillwater, Ryan; Yates, Max

    2009-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle is America s next generation of human rated spacecraft. The Orion Launch Abort System will take the astronauts away from the exploration vehicle in the event of an aborted launch. The pad abort mode of the Launch Abort System will be flight-tested in 2009 from the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. This paper examines some of the efforts currently underway at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center by the Controls & Dynamics group in preparation for the flight test. The concept of operation for the pad abort flight is presented along with an overview of the guidance, control and navigation systems. Preparations for the flight test, such as hardware testing and development of the real-time displays, are examined. The results from the validation and verification efforts for the aerodynamic and atmospheric models are shown along with Monte Carlo analysis results.

  3. [Discussing abortion].

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Discussions with several groups of low-income, middle-aged women in various countries of Latin America showed that most disapproved of abortion. In the course of group discussions about the motives of women who seek abortions and the psychological and sanitary conditions under which abortion occurs, however, their disapproval became less categorical. They began to accept the need to decriminalize abortion in order to protect women. The majority, strongly influenced by the Catholic Church, believed that human life begins at conception. Others disapproved of abortion because they feared it would be used as a birth control method and would encourage promiscuity. Most disapproved of abortion for single women attempting to escape family or social censure of unmarried motherhood. Fear of health effects or death from abortion and fear of divine punishment were also mentioned. Recognition of the anguish and pain suffered by women deciding to seek abortion and the difficulty of providing for the material and other needs of many children were factors that led to reconsideration of the wholesale condemnation of abortion. The women realized that such condemnations never take the woman's circumstances into account. Some of the women felt that aborting an unwanted pregnancy would be preferable to abandoning or neglecting an unwanted child. Many of the women came to feel that abortion should be legalized at least under some circumstances. PMID:12348503

  4. Mission-based guidance system design for autonomous UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Jongki

    The advantages of UAVs in the aviation arena have led to extensive research activities on autonomous technology of UAVs to achieve specific mission objectives. This thesis mainly focuses on the development of a mission-based guidance system. Among various missions expected for future needs, autonomous formation flight (AFF) and obstacle avoidance within safe operation limits are investigated. In the design of an adaptive guidance system for AFF, the leader information except position is assumed to be unknown to a follower. Thus, the only measured information related to the leader is the line-of-sight (LOS) range and angle. Adding an adaptive element with neural networks into the guidance system provides a capability to effectively handle leader's velocity changes. Therefore, this method can be applied to the AFF control systems that use a passive sensing method. In this thesis, an adaptive velocity command guidance system and an adaptive acceleration command guidance system are developed and presented. Since relative degrees of the LOS range and angle are different depending on the outputs from the guidance system, the architecture of the guidance system changes accordingly. Simulations and flight tests are performed using the Georgia Tech UAV helicopter, the GTMax, to evaluate the proposed guidance systems. The simulation results show that the neural network (NN) based adaptive element can improve the tracking performance by effectively compensating for the effect of unknown dynamics. It has also been shown that the combination of an adaptive velocity command guidance system and the existing GTMax autopilot controller performs better than the combination of an adaptive acceleration command guidance system and the GTMax autopilot controller. The successful flight evaluation using an adaptive velocity command guidance system clearly shows that the adaptive guidance control system is a promising solution for autonomous formation flight of UAVs. In addition, an

  5. ATRAN Terrain Sensing Guidance-The Grand-Daddy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Richard F.; Evans, Donald C.

    1980-12-01

    ATRAN was the pioneer terrain sensing guidance system developed in the 1950 era and deployed in Europe on the Air Force's mobile, ground launched TM-76A MACE cruise missile in the late 1950's and early 1960's. The background, principles and technology are described for this system which was the forerunner of todays modern autonomous standoff terrain sensing guided weapons.

  6. Star/horizon simulator used to test space guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, W. C.

    1967-01-01

    Star/horizon simulator is used for alignment and optical plus photoelectric tests of the sextant for the Apollo guidance and navigation system optical unit assembly. The unit is basically a refractive collimator with a two inch objective lens system and a twenty-four inch focal length.

  7. Fifth Generation Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Andrew D.; Cartwright, Glenn F.

    1997-01-01

    Emerging "fifth-generation" computer-assisted career guidance systems include Internet-based resources such as listservs and Web sites. Obstacles to fifth-generation systems include confidentiality, counselor resistance, and lack of training. Counselors can aid their development by authoring, collaborating, evaluating, and advocating for equal…

  8. Analysis of the combined maglev levitation, propulsion, and guidance system

    SciTech Connect

    He, J.L.; Coffey, H.T.; Rote, D.M.

    1995-03-01

    An analysis of a Japanese maglev system that uses only one set of coils in the guideway for combined levitation, propulsion, and guidance functions is presented. This preliminary study, using the dynamic circuit approach, indicates that the system is very promising.

  9. Guidance for human interface with artificial intelligence systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Scott S.; Woods, David D.

    1991-01-01

    The beginning of a research effort to collect and integrate existing research findings about how to combine computer power and people is discussed, including problems and pitfalls as well as desirable features. The goal of the research is to develop guidance for the design of human interfaces with intelligent systems. Fault management tasks in NASA domains are the focus of the investigation. Research is being conducted to support the development of guidance for designers that will enable them to make human interface considerations into account during the creation of intelligent systems.

  10. Robust neighboring extremal guidance for the advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, John; Speyer, Jason L.

    1993-01-01

    With the availability of modern flight computers, realtime neighboring extremal guidance seems feasible. To overcome sensitivity to unknown system parameters and environmental uncertainties, a robust neighboring extremal guidance scheme is proposed. About the optimal trajectory, the accessory problem in the calculus of variations is formed, generating a quadratic cost criterion in the perturbed states and controls. By formulating a disturbance attenuation problem based upon the second variation cost criterion, a differential game is formulated. The game theoretic cost criterion is minimized with respect to the perturbed control but maximized with respect to the unknown parameters in the linearized dynamics. The resulting differential game problem gives rise to a two-point boundary-value problem solved using the sweep method. The sweep method solution provides a linear robust neighboring extremal guidance scheme that is applied to the Advanced Launch System.

  11. Implementation of an optimum profile guidance system on STOLAND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, P. F.

    1978-01-01

    The implementation on the STOLAND airborne digital computer of an optimum profile guidance system for the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft is described. Major tasks were to implement the guidance and control logic to airborne computer software and to integrate the module with the existing STOLAND navigation, display, and autopilot routines. The optimum profile guidance system comprises an algorithm for synthesizing mimimum fuel trajectories for a wide range of starting positions in the terminal area and a control law for flying the aircraft automatically along the trajectory. The avionics software developed is described along with a FORTRAN program that was constructed to reflect the modular nature and algorthms implemented in the avionics software.

  12. Genetic Model of an Aborted Porphyry-copper System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, D. C.; Nitoi, E.; Szakacs, A.

    2009-05-01

    The Neogene Sturzii shallow intrusion from the East Carpathians (Bargau Mts., Romania), hosted by Paleogene-Miocene sediments of the Transcarpatian Flysch, developed as an immature porphyry copper structure. It consists of small volumes of dacites, andesites and related contact breccias, having a surface exposure of a few km2. Hydrothermal alteration occurred in the inner part of the intrusive body. The related mineralization consists of pyrite and chalcopyrite either as small veins or disseminated within the rock. A genetic model of the intrusive structure has been developed based on an integrated petrographic, geochemical, isotopic, fluid inclusion and geophysical study. The rapidly ascending calc-alkaline magmas that generated the intrusion are mantle-derived and contaminated with lower-crustal material. Pressure estimations for amphibole reveal significant differences between values corresponding to the crystal cores and rims, suggesting that decompression occurred during its crystallization. The occurrence of exploded fluid inclusions, as well as of primary igneous garnet, also indicate decompression regime during magma uplift and/or storage. All fluid inclusions identified in dacites are aqueous; C-N-S species were not detected. The general evolution of the fluids is toward decreasing salinity with decreasing temperature. Early high-T, high salinity fluids, most likely of magmatic origin, were subjected to a boiling event, related to a change of fluid pressure from litho- to hydrostatic, and followed by dilution with meteoric fluids as indicated by low salinities. These characteristics of the fluids suggest the tendency of the intrusion to evolve towards a porphyry copper system. We estimate that the evolution stopped due to decompression that allowed cold and dilute external fluids to enter the system and because of the small size of the intrusion that cooled down rapidly and could not induce extensive and long-lasting fluid circulation. Since there is no

  13. Psychosocial aspects of abortion

    PubMed Central

    Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users. PMID:1085671

  14. An integrated model-based neurosurgical guidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Songbai; Fan, Xiaoyao; Fontaine, Kathryn; Hartov, Alex; Roberts, David; Paulsen, Keith

    2010-02-01

    Maximal tumor resection without damaging healthy tissue in open cranial surgeries is critical to the prognosis for patients with brain cancers. Preoperative images (e.g., preoperative magnetic resonance images (pMR)) are typically used for surgical planning as well as for intraoperative image-guidance. However, brain shift even at the start of surgery significantly compromises the accuracy of neuronavigation, if the deformation is not compensated for. Compensating for brain shift during surgical operation is, therefore, critical for improving the accuracy of image-guidance and ultimately, the accuracy of surgery. To this end, we have developed an integrated neurosurgical guidance system that incorporates intraoperative three-dimensional (3D) tracking, acquisition of volumetric true 3D ultrasound (iUS), stereovision (iSV) and computational modeling to efficiently generate model-updated MR image volumes for neurosurgical guidance. The system is implemented with real-time Labview to provide high efficiency in data acquisition as well as with Matlab to offer computational convenience in data processing and development of graphical user interfaces related to computational modeling. In a typical patient case, the patient in the operating room (OR) is first registered to pMR image volume. Sparse displacement data extracted from coregistered intraoperative US and/or stereovision images are employed to guide a computational model that is based on consolidation theory. Computed whole-brain deformation is then used to generate a model-updated MR image volume for subsequent surgical guidance. In this paper, we present the key modular components of our integrated, model-based neurosurgical guidance system.

  15. Augmented reality guidance system for peripheral nerve blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedlake, Chris; Moore, John; Rachinsky, Maxim; Bainbridge, Daniel; Wiles, Andrew D.; Peters, Terry M.

    2010-02-01

    Peripheral nerve block treatments are ubiquitous in hospitals and pain clinics worldwide. State of the art techniques use ultrasound (US) guidance and/or electrical stimulation to verify needle tip location. However, problems such as needle-US beam alignment, poor echogenicity of block needles and US beam thickness can make it difficult for the anesthetist to know the exact needle tip location. Inaccurate therapy delivery raises obvious safety and efficacy issues. We have developed and evaluated a needle guidance system that makes use of a magnetic tracking system (MTS) to provide an augmented reality (AR) guidance platform to accurately localize the needle tip as well as its projected trajectory. Five anesthetists and five novices performed simulated nerve block deliveries in a polyvinyl alcohol phantom to compare needle guidance under US alone to US placed in our AR environment. Our phantom study demonstrated a decrease in targeting attempts, decrease in contacting of critical structures, and an increase in accuracy of 0.68 mm compared to 1.34mm RMS in US guidance alone. Currently, the MTS uses 18 and 21 gauge hypodermic needles with a 5 degree of freedom sensor located at the needle tip. These needles can only be sterilized using an ethylene oxide process. In the interest of providing clinicians with a simple and efficient guidance system, we also evaluated attaching the sensor at the needle hub as a simple clip-on device. To do this, we simultaneously performed a needle bending study to assess the reliability of a hub-based sensor.

  16. 76 FR 63676 - Final Division of Safety Systems Interim Staff Guidance DSS-ISG-2010-01: Staff Guidance Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... COMMISSION Final Division of Safety Systems Interim Staff Guidance DSS-ISG- 2010-01: Staff Guidance Regarding the Nuclear Criticality Safety Analysis for Spent Fuel Pools AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Regarding the Nuclear Criticality Safety Analysis for Spent Fuel Pools.'' This DSS-ISG provides...

  17. Automatic weld torch guidance control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smaith, H. E.; Wall, W. A.; Burns, M. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A highly reliable, fully digital, closed circuit television optical, type automatic weld seam tracking control system was developed. This automatic tracking equipment is used to reduce weld tooling costs and increase overall automatic welding reliability. The system utilizes a charge injection device digital camera which as 60,512 inidividual pixels as the light sensing elements. Through conventional scanning means, each pixel in the focal plane is sequentially scanned, the light level signal digitized, and an 8-bit word transmitted to scratch pad memory. From memory, the microprocessor performs an analysis of the digital signal and computes the tracking error. Lastly, the corrective signal is transmitted to a cross seam actuator digital drive motor controller to complete the closed loop, feedback, tracking system. This weld seam tracking control system is capable of a tracking accuracy of + or - 0.2 mm, or better. As configured, the system is applicable to square butt, V-groove, and lap joint weldments.

  18. Robust Neighboring Optimal Guidance for the Advanced Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, David G.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, optimization has become an engineering tool through the availability of numerous successful nonlinear programming codes. Optimal control problems are converted into parameter optimization (nonlinear programming) problems by assuming the control to be piecewise linear, making the unknowns the nodes or junction points of the linear control segments. Once the optimal piecewise linear control (suboptimal) control is known, a guidance law for operating near the suboptimal path is the neighboring optimal piecewise linear control (neighboring suboptimal control). Research conducted under this grant has been directed toward the investigation of neighboring suboptimal control as a guidance scheme for an advanced launch system.

  19. Development of a Tactical Guidance Research and Evaluation System (TGRES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a simulation tool for tactical guidance research and the evaluation of systems performance in a tactically significant environment is described. The objective of the tool is to provide a means by which researchers can explore and exploit enhancements to airplane agility. The completed tool will include high-fidelity batch and piloted simulation capabilities, an advanced tactical guidance logic and a user-friendly interface. While the tool is being developed for the purpose of studying airplane agility, its modularity should make it easily adaptable to the analysis of other technologies and thus be of interest to a number of potential users.

  20. Airbus windshear warning and guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonafe, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    From its first designed airplane, Airbus considered mandatory a help in the crew's decision-making process to initiate an escape maneuver and help to successfully realize it. All the Airbus airplanes designed since 1975 included an alpha-floor function and a speed reference control law imbedded in the speed reference system (SRS) box for A 300 and FAC and FCC for A 310, A300/600 and the A 320. Alpha-Floor function takes into account the airplane energy situation considering angle of attack and observed longitudinal situation in order to apply immediately the full power without any pilot action. Speed reference managers control airspeed and/or ground speed in order to survive a maximum in shear situation. In order to comply with the new FAA regulation: Aerospatiale and Airbus developed more efficient systems. A comparison between 1975 and a newly developed system is given. It is explained how the new system improves the situation.

  1. Closed-circuit television welding- electrode guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. E.; Stephens, D. L.; Taylor, R. A.; Wall, W. A.; Avery, R. M.; Wunsch, H. P.

    1974-01-01

    Closed-circuit TV camera is mounted parallel to electrode and moves along with it. Camera is scanned along seam so seam is viewed parallel with scan lines on TV monitor. Two fiber optics illuminators are attached to guidance system; they illuminate seam for TV camera.

  2. Factors Critical to the Adoption of Career Guidance Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kester, Ralph J.; Howard, John, Jr.

    The study endeavors to describe, assess, and trace the progress of six high schools as the faculty and staff responded to the adoption of an innovative career guidance system. The study provides a model, a method, and some generalizations about factors influencing the process. The document is organized according to: (1) definitions of basic…

  3. 14 CFR 25.1329 - Flight guidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... assumes that the pilot begins corrective action within a reasonable period of time. (h) When the flight... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight guidance system. 25.1329 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Instruments: Installation § 25.1329...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1329 - Flight guidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... assumes that the pilot begins corrective action within a reasonable period of time. (h) When the flight... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight guidance system. 25.1329 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Instruments: Installation § 25.1329...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1329 - Flight guidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... assumes that the pilot begins corrective action within a reasonable period of time. (h) When the flight... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight guidance system. 25.1329 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Instruments: Installation § 25.1329...

  6. Light path indication system for route guidance in public facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Kunio

    2008-03-01

    The authors developed a prototype indication display system for route guidance. We suppose that this system is set up in the public facilities especially a library. A city public library has a collection of many books. It is difficult for a visitor to find the desired book from many books. But we can recently use a library search system for inquiring the whereabouts of a book. The search system outputs a receipt which shows the search result. The destination is shown in this receipt. Though the visitor carries about the receipt during the treasure hunting, that receipt will be a trash after the arrival at his/her destination. The motivation of this research is to build the paperless whereabouts guide system. The guidance system using an electronic display would be possible to provide us with route information to the desired book.

  7. Miniature acoustic guidance system for endotracheal tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Eduardo J.

    Ensuring that the distal end of an endotracheal tube is properly located within the trachea, and that the tube is not obstructed by mucous deposition, is a major clinical concern in patients that require mechanical ventilation. A novel acoustic system was developed to allow for the continuous monitoring of endotracheal tube position and patency. A miniature sound source and two sensing microphones are placed in-line between the ventilator hose and the proximal end of the endotracheal tube. Reflections of an acoustic pulse from the endotracheal tube lumen and the airways are digitally analyzed to estimate the location and degree of obstruction, as well as the position of the distal end of the tube in the airway. The system was evaluated through computer simulations, in vitro studies, and in a rabbit model. The system noninvasively estimated tube position in vivo to within roughly 4.5 mm, and differentiated between proper tracheal, and erroneous bronchial or esophageal intubation in all cases. In addition, the system estimated the area and location of lumen obstructions in vitro to within 14% and 3.5 mm, respectively. These findings indicate that this miniature technology could improve the quality of care provided to the ventilated adult and infant.

  8. Optical guidance system for industrial vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, Robert D.; Eschbach, Eugene A.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Lind, Michael A.; Buck, Erville C.; Buck, Roger L.

    1990-01-01

    An automatically guided vehicle system for steering a vehicle. Optical sensing detects an image of a segment of track mounted above the path of the vehicle. Electrical signals corresponding to the position of the track are generated. A control circuit then converts these signals into movements for the steering of the vehicle.

  9. Automatic Guidance System for Welding Torches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H.; Wall, W.; Burns, M. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Digital system automatically guides welding torch to produce squarebutt, V-groove and lap-joint weldments within tracking accuracy of +0.2 millimeter. Television camera observes and traverses weld joint, carrying welding torch behind. Image of joint digitized, and resulting data used to derive control signals that enable torch to track joint.

  10. Evaluation of the Space Shuttle Transatlantic Abort Landing Atmospheric Sounding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, Frank B.

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the quality of thermodynamic and wind data measured by or derived from the Transatlantic Abort Landing (TAL) Atmospheric Sounding System (TASS). The system has Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking capability and includes a helium-filled latex balloon that carries an instrument package (sonde) and various ground equipment that receives and processes the data from the sonde. TASS is used to provide vertical profiles of thermodynamic and low-resolution wind data in support of Shuttle abort landing operations at TAL sites. TASS uses GPS to determine height, wind speed, and wind direction. The TASS sonde has sensors that directly measure air temperature and relative humidity. These are then used to derive air pressure and density. Test flights were conducted where a TASS sonde and a reference sonde were attached to the same balloon and the two profiles were compared. The objective of the testing was to determine if TASS thermodynamic and wind data met Space Shuttle Program (SSP) accuracy requirements outlined in the Space Shuttle Launch and Landing Program Requirements Document (PRD).

  11. Optical alignment of Centaur's inertial guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordan, Andrew L.

    1987-01-01

    During Centaur launch operations the launch azimuth of the inertial platform's U-accelerometer input axis must be accurately established and maintained. This is accomplished by using an optically closed loop system with a long-range autotheodolite whose line of sight was established by a first-order survey. A collimated light beam from the autotheodolite intercepts a reflecting Porro prism mounted on the platform azimuth gimbal. Thus, any deviation of the Porro prism from its predetermined heading is optically detected by the autotheodolite. The error signal produced is used to torque the azimuth gimbal back to its required launch azimuth. The heading of the U-accelerometer input axis is therefore maintained automatically. Previously, the autotheodolite system could not distinguish between vehicle sway and rotational motion of the inertial platform unless at least three prisms were used. One prism was mounted on the inertial platform to maintain azimuth alignment, and two prisms were mounted externally on the vehicle to track sway. For example, the automatic azimuth-laying theodolite (AALT-SV-M2) on the Saturn vehilce used three prisms. The results of testing and modifying the AALT-SV-M2 autotheodolite to simultaneously monitor and maintain alignment of the inertial platform and track the sway of the vehicle from a single Porro prism.

  12. Soil Vapor Extraction System Optimization, Transition, and Closure Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Becker, Dave; Simon, Michelle A.; Oostrom, Martinus; Rice, Amy K.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2013-02-08

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a prevalent remediation approach for volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. A diminishing rate of contaminant extraction over time is typically observed due to 1) diminishing contaminant mass, and/or 2) slow rates of removal for contamination in low-permeability zones. After a SVE system begins to show indications of diminishing contaminant removal rate, SVE performance needs to be evaluated to determine whether the system should be optimized, terminated, or transitioned to another technology to replace or augment SVE. This guidance specifically addresses the elements of this type of performance assessment. While not specifically presented, the approach and analyses in this guidance could also be applied at the onset of remediation selection for a site as a way to evaluate current or future impacts to groundwater from vadose zone contamination. The guidance presented here builds from existing guidance for SVE design, operation, optimization, and closure from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment. The purpose of the material herein is to clarify and focus on the specific actions and decisions related to SVE optimization, transition, and/or closure.

  13. Guidance-assist system for the blind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farcy, Rene; Damaschini, Roland M.

    2001-01-01

    We propose navigational aid systems for the blind relying on active laser profilometry and infrared proximetry with a real time vibrotactile interface. The Teletact and the Vigitact are small hand held or badge worn devices to improve the spatial perception, the mobility and the security of blind people. The Teletact is a hand held laser telemeter and gives an accurate 3D spatial perception up to ten meters. The Vigitact is an infrared scanner and provides an automatic vigilance from knees to head up to two meters. Both devices are now commercially available. We will report on the basic functional parts of these devices, the results of everyday use by blind people, and future technological improvements.

  14. Robotic System for Transapical Aortic Valve Replacement with MRI Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Mazilu, Dumitru; Horvath, Keith A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports our work on developing a robotic surgical system for transapical beating heart aortic valve replacement (AVR) under interactive real-time magnetic resonance imaging (rtMRI) guidance. Our system integrates a real-time MRI system, a compound MRI robot, as well as an interface for the surgeon to plan the procedure and manipulate the robot. The compound robot consists of a positioning module and a valve delivery module. A 5-DOF Inno-motion positioning arm provides and maintains direct access to the native aortic valve. A newly developed 3-DOF robotic valve delivery module allows the surgeon to remotely control bioprosthetic valve delivery with MRI guidance. Preliminary evaluation of the parameters of the robotic system demonstrates it can provide sufficient capability to successfully assist the surgeon. PMID:18982639

  15. A Self-Adaptive Missile Guidance System for Statistical Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peery, H. Rodney

    1960-01-01

    A method of designing a self-adaptive missile guidance system is presented. The system inputs are assumed to be known in a statistical sense only. Newton's modified Wiener theory is utilized in the design of the system and to establish the performance criterion. The missile is assumed to be a beam rider, to have a g limiter, and to operate over a flight envelope where the open-loop gain varies by a factor of 20. It is shown that the percent of time that missile acceleration limiting occurs can be used effectively to adjust the coefficients of the Wiener filter. The result is a guidance system which adapts itself to a changing environment and gives essentially optimum filtering and minimum miss distance.

  16. Video Guidance, Landing, and Imaging system (VGLIS) for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Knickerbocker, R. L.; Tietz, J. C.; Grant, C.; Flemming, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of an autonomous video guidance system that is capable of observing a planetary surface during terminal descent and selecting the most acceptable landing site was demonstrated. The system was breadboarded and "flown" on a physical simulator consisting of a control panel and monitor, a dynamic simulator, and a PDP-9 computer. The breadboard VGLIS consisted of an image dissector camera and the appropriate processing logic. Results are reported.

  17. Radio Ranging System for Guidance of Approaching Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manikonda, Vikram; vanDoom, Eric

    2008-01-01

    A radio communication and ranging system has been proposed for determining the relative position and orientations of two approaching spacecraft to provide guidance for docking maneuvers. On Earth, the system could be used similarly for guiding approaching aircraft and for automated positioning of large, heavy objects. In principle, the basic idea is to (1) measure distances between radio transceivers on the two spacecraft and (2) compute the relative position and orientations from the measured distances.

  18. Adaptive guidance and control for future remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowrie, J. W.; Myers, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    A unique approach to onboard processing was developed that is capable of acquiring high quality image data for users in near real time. The approach is divided into two steps: the development of an onboard cloud detection system; and the development of a landmark tracker. The results of these two developments are outlined and the requirements of an operational guidance and control system capable of providing continuous estimation of the sensor boresight position are summarized.

  19. Vehicle health management for guidance, navigation and control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radke, Kathleen; Frazzini, Ron; Bursch, Paul; Wald, Jerry; Brown, Don

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the program was to architect a vehicle health management (VHM) system for space systems avionics that assures system readiness for launch vehicles and for space-based dormant vehicles. The platforms which were studied and considered for application of VHM for guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) included the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS), the Horizontal Landing-20/Personnel Launch System (HL-20/PLS), the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) and the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO). This set was selected because dormancy and/or availability requirements are driving the designs of these future systems.

  20. Low Gravity Guidance System for Airborne Microgravity Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, W. J.; Emery, E. F.; Boyer, E. O.; Hegedus, C.; ODonoghue, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    Microgravity research techniques have been established to achieve a greater understanding of the role of gravity in the fundamentals of a variety of physical phenomena and material processing. One technique in use at the NASA Lewis Research Center involves flying Keplarian trajectories with a modified Lear Jet and DC-9 aircraft to achieve a highly accurate Microgravity environment by neutralizing accelerations in all three axis of the aircraft. The Low Gravity Guidance System (LGGS) assists the pilot and copilot in flying the trajectories by displaying the aircraft acceleration data in a graphical display format. The Low Gravity Guidance System is a microprocessor based system that acquires and displays the aircraft acceleration information. This information is presented using an electroluminescent display mounted over the pilot's instrument panel. The pilot can select the Microgravity range that is required for a given research event. This paper describes the characteristics, design, calibration and testing of the Low Gravity Guidance System Phase 3, significant lessons from earlier systems and the developmental work on future systems.

  1. The Parachute System Recovery of the Orion Pad Abort Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machin, Ricardo; Evans, Carol; Madsen, Chris; Morris, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    The Orion Pad Abort Test 1 was conducted at the US Army White Sands Missile range in May 2010. The capsule was successfully recovered using the original design for the parachute recovery system, referred to as the CEV Parachute Assembly System (CPAS). The CPAS was designed to a set of requirements identified prior to the development of the PA-1 test; these requirements were not entirely consistent with the design of the PA-1 test. This presentation will describe the original CPAS design, how the system was modified to accommodate the PA-1 requirements, and what special analysis had to be performed to demonstrate positive margins for the CPAS. The presentation will also discuss the post test analysis and how it compares to the models that were used to design the system.

  2. Study of a fail-safe abort system for an actively cooled hypersonic aircraft. Volume 1: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirello, C. J.; Herring, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Conceptual designs of a fail-safe abort system for hydrogen fueled actively cooled high speed aircraft are examined. The fail-safe concept depends on basically three factors: (1) a reliable method of detecting a failure or malfunction in the active cooling system, (2) the optimization of abort trajectories which minimize the descent heat load to the aircraft, and (3) fail-safe thermostructural concepts to minimize both the weight and the maximum temperature the structure will reach during descent. These factors are examined and promising approaches are evaluated based on weight, reliability, ease of manufacture and cost.

  3. Optimal control theory determination of feasible return-to-launch-site aborts for the HL-20 Personnel Launch System vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, Kevin E.

    1994-07-01

    The personnel launch system (PLS) being studied by NASA is a system to complement the space shuttle and provide alternative access to space. The PLS consists of a manned spacecraft launched by an expendable launch vehicle (ELV). A candidate for the manned spacecraft is the HL-20 lifting body. In the event of an ELV malfunction during the initial portion of the ascent trajectory, the HL-20 will separate from the rocket and perform an unpowered return to launch site (RTLS) abort. This work details an investigation, using optimal control theory, of the RTLS abort scenario. The objective of the optimization was to maximize final altitude. With final altitude as the cost function, the feasibility of an RTLS abort at different times during the ascent was determined. The method of differential inclusions was used to determine the optimal state trajectories, and the optimal controls were then calculated from the optimal states and state rates.

  4. Optimal control theory determination of feasible return-to-launch-site aborts for the HL-20 Personnel Launch System vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutton, Kevin E.

    1994-01-01

    The personnel launch system (PLS) being studied by NASA is a system to complement the space shuttle and provide alternative access to space. The PLS consists of a manned spacecraft launched by an expendable launch vehicle (ELV). A candidate for the manned spacecraft is the HL-20 lifting body. In the event of an ELV malfunction during the initial portion of the ascent trajectory, the HL-20 will separate from the rocket and perform an unpowered return to launch site (RTLS) abort. This work details an investigation, using optimal control theory, of the RTLS abort scenario. The objective of the optimization was to maximize final altitude. With final altitude as the cost function, the feasibility of an RTLS abort at different times during the ascent was determined. The method of differential inclusions was used to determine the optimal state trajectories, and the optimal controls were then calculated from the optimal states and state rates.

  5. Modeling, Analysis and Simulation Approaches Used in Development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Max Launch Abort System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuchnovicz, Daniel E.; Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Schuster, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineering and Safety Center was chartered to develop an alternate launch abort system (LAS) as risk mitigation for the Orion Project. Its successful flight test provided data for the design of future LAS vehicles. Design of the flight test vehicle (FTV) and pad abort trajectory relied heavily on modeling and simulation including computational fluid dynamics for vehicle aero modeling, 6-degree-of-freedom kinematics models for flight trajectory modeling, and 3-degree-of-freedom kinematics models for parachute force modeling. This paper highlights the simulation techniques and the interaction between the aerodynamics, flight mechanics, and aerodynamic decelerator disciplines during development of the Max Launch Abort System FTV.

  6. Abortion: the hidden plague.

    PubMed

    Tuckwell, S

    1974-05-01

    Abortion is called the invisible plague of all countries and cultures in the twentieth century. It is by far the most important method of birth control in the world today. For every 200 babies born there are at least 100 abortions. In the rich world, a woman who wants to end her pregnancy goes to an abortionist, but for millions of poor women, abortion happens spontaneously in their own homes induced by poor nutrition, sheer physical weakness, and too many pregnancies too close together. In countries where abortion is illegal, millions of women die each year as a result of severe illness or the botched handiwork of backyard operators. The most common complications are massive hemorrhaging, perforation of the uterus, laceration, sepsis, and renal failure. The experience of a great many countries shows that simply legalizing abortion can lead to a dramatic drop in death and illness. Relaxation of abortion laws can save lives, money, and misery for mothers and children. Illegal abortion has become a major problem in Africa there are 3 main types of women who enter hospitals with complications after abortions: 1) the teenager who is away from home; 2) the young woman, often educated, working, and with financial responsibilities, who is ambitious for herself, her husband, or her family; and 3) the woman in her thirties, illiterate, a rural worker, married most of her reproductive life, and pregnant most years. The third type of woman may abort because her system is utterly depleted. Such women must be shown that there is a good chance of survival for her children so that she will not have so many. PMID:12307249

  7. Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordano, A. J.; Mcswain, G. G.; Fernandes, S. T.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) Bridging program is reviewed to demonstrate the program plan and GN&C systems for the Space Shuttle. The ascent CN&C system is described in terms of elements such as the general-purpose digital computers, sensors for the navigation subsystem, the guidance-system software, and the flight-control subsystem. Balloon-based and lidar wind soundings are used for operations assessment on the day of launch, and the guidance software is based on dedicated units for atmospheric powered flight, vacuum powered flight, and abort-specific situations. Optimization of the flight trajectories is discussed, and flight-control responses are illustrated for wavelengths of 500-6000 m. Alternate sensors are used for load relief, and adaptive GN&C systems based on alternate gain synthesis are used for systems failures.

  8. Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Landing Parachute Demonstrator (LPD) Drop Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreves, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    The Landing Parachute Demonstrator (LPD) was conceived as a low-cost, rapidly-developed means of providing soft landing for the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) crew module (CM). Its experimental main parachute cluster deployment technique and off-the-shelf hardware necessitated a full-scale drop test prior to the MLAS mission in order to reduce overall mission risk. This test was successfully conducted at Wallops Flight Facility on March 6, 2009, with all vehicle and parachute systems functioning as planned. The results of the drop test successfully qualified the LPD system for the MLAS flight test. This document captures the design, concept of operations and results of the drop test.

  9. Why do farmers and veterinarians not report all bovine abortions, as requested by the clinical brucellosis surveillance system in France?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since 2005, France has been officially free of brucellosis, an infectious disease that causes abortion in cattle and can be transmitted from cattle to humans. Recent animal and human cases have drawn attention to the need to prevent infection of humans and animals from any primary outbreaks. In order to detect any new outbreaks as soon as possible, a clinical surveillance system requires farmers and veterinarians to report each abortion and to test the aborting cow for brucellosis. However, under-reporting limits the sensitivity of this system. Our objective was to identify the barriers and motivations influencing field actors in their decision to report or not to report bovine abortions. We used a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews of 12 cattle farmers and their eight veterinarians. Results Our analysis showed that four main themes influence the decision-making process of farmers and veterinarians: 1) the perceived risk of brucellosis and other abortive diseases; 2) the definition of a suspected case of brucellosis and other abortive diseases adopted by field actors, which is less sensitive than the mandatory definition; 3) the cost-benefit analysis conducted by actors, taking into account regulatory and health aspects, economic and financial losses, technical and practical factors; 4) the level of cooperation within the socio-technical network. We discussed how early detection may be improved by revising the definition of abortion, extending the time frame for notification and generalising the differential diagnosis of the causes of abortion. Conclusions In contrast to quantitative approaches, qualitative studies can identify the factors (including unknown factors) influencing the decision-making process of field actors and reveal why they take those factors into consideration. Our qualitative study sheds light on the factors underlying the poor sensitivity of clinical brucellosis surveillance system for cattle in France, and suggests

  10. An Automatic Terminal Guidance System for Rendezvous with a Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, Terrance M.

    1961-01-01

    This study includes a consideration of the design philosophy for an automatic terminal guidance system, a derivation of guidance equations required, and an outline of the general type of instrumentation necessary to provide the essential information. A control system for a sample vehicle is analyzed. A representative case, rendezvous with a satellite in circular orbit at 400 nautical miles, was examined. Terminal-stage nominal burning times of 200 and 400 seconds were used. For the 200-second case, initial errors in circumferential displacement of +/- 25,000 feet, in radial displacement of 7,000 to -9,000 feet, and in lateral displacement of +/- 20,000 feet were within the capabilities of the system. Velocity errors of 300 to -400 ft/sec in the circumferential direction, 180 to -200 ft/sec in the radial direction, and velocity offsets of at least 20 (+/- 800 ft/sec) in the lateral direction could also be handled. The 400-second case was capable of correcting larger errors, but limits were not determined. The dependence of required characteristic velocity on initial errors was determined and it was found that increases over the nominal terminal-stage characteristic velocity of the order of 15 percent covered most of the previously mentioned in-plane errors. The requirements were more severe for cases with lateral velocity offsets. A simplified set of guidance equations was tested and produced only slight variations in performance. Overall velocity requirements and mass ratios were determined for terminal-stage burning times of 100, 200, 300, and 400 seconds and for a range of transfer angles by using exact calculations for the terminal stage and an impulsive launching velocity. These results indicated that the shortest burning time consistent with the launch guidance errors expected gave the best mass ratio.

  11. Was the French clinical surveillance system of bovine brucellosis influenced by the occurrence and surveillance of other abortive diseases?

    PubMed

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Touratier, Anne; Gache, Kristel; Sala, Carole; Calavas, Didier

    2015-03-01

    The bovine brucellosis clinical surveillance system implemented in France aims to detect early any case of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It relies on the mandatory notification of every bovine abortion. Following the spread of the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in France in 2012 and 2013, and the implementation in 2012 of a clinical surveillance programme of Q fever based on abortion notifications in ten pilot départements, our objective was to study whether these two events influenced the brucellosis clinical surveillance system. The proportion of notifying farmers was analyzed over each semester from June 1, 2009 to June 30, 2013 according to the size and production type of herds, SBV status of départements and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance. Our analysis showed a slight increase in the proportion of notifying farmers as départements became infected by SBV, and after the implementation of Q fever surveillance (during the first semester of 2013). These variations might be explained by an increase in abortion occurrence (congenital deformities in newborns, due to SBV) and/or by an increase in farmers' and veterinarians' awareness (due to the spread of SBV and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance). These results highlight the difficulties in interpreting variations in the proportion of notifying farmers as a consequence of an increase in abortion occurrence. As bovine abortion surveillance can play an important role in the early warning for several diseases, there is a need to explore other ways to monitor abortions in cattle, such as syndromic surveillance using the dates of artificial insemination or calving data. PMID:25617916

  12. Sun sensing guidance system for high altitude aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A sun sensing guidance system for high altitude aircraft is described. The system is characterized by a disk shaped body mounted for rotation aboard the aircraft in exposed relation to solar radiation. The system also has a plurality of mutually isolated chambers; each chamber being characterized by an opening having a photosensor disposed therein and arranged in facing relation with the opening for receiving incident solar radiation and responsively providing a voltage output. Photosensors are connected in paired relation through a bridge circuit for providing heading error signals in response to detected imbalances in intensities of solar radiation.

  13. Techniques for developing approximate optimal advanced launch system guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeley, Timothy S.; Speyer, Jason L.

    1991-01-01

    An extension to the authors' previous technique used to develop a real-time guidance scheme for the Advanced Launch System is presented. The approach is to construct an optimal guidance law based upon an asymptotic expansion associated with small physical parameters, epsilon. The trajectory of a rocket modeled as a point mass is considered with the flight restricted to an equatorial plane while reaching an orbital altitude at orbital injection speeds. The dynamics of this problem can be separated into primary effects due to thrust and gravitational forces, and perturbation effects which include the aerodynamic forces and the remaining inertial forces. An analytic solution to the reduced-order problem represented by the primary dynamics is possible. The Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman or dynamic programming equation is expanded in an asymptotic series where the zeroth-order term (epsilon = 0) can be obtained in closed form.

  14. Unsafe abortion: the preventable pandemic.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David A; Benson, Janie; Singh, Susheela; Romero, Mariana; Ganatra, Bela; Okonofua, Friday E; Shah, Iqbal H

    2006-11-25

    Ending the silent pandemic of unsafe abortion is an urgent public-health and human-rights imperative. As with other more visible global-health issues, this scourge threatens women throughout the developing world. Every year, about 19-20 million abortions are done by individuals without the requisite skills, or in environments below minimum medical standards, or both. Nearly all unsafe abortions (97%) are in developing countries. An estimated 68 000 women die as a result, and millions more have complications, many permanent. Important causes of death include haemorrhage, infection, and poisoning. Legalisation of abortion on request is a necessary but insufficient step toward improving women's health; in some countries, such as India, where abortion has been legal for decades, access to competent care remains restricted because of other barriers. Access to safe abortion improves women's health, and vice versa, as documented in Romania during the regime of President Nicolae Ceausescu. The availability of modern contraception can reduce but never eliminate the need for abortion. Direct costs of treating abortion complications burden impoverished health care systems, and indirect costs also drain struggling economies. The development of manual vacuum aspiration to empty the uterus, and the use of misoprostol, an oxytocic agent, have improved the care of women. Access to safe, legal abortion is a fundamental right of women, irrespective of where they live. The underlying causes of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion today are not blood loss and infection but, rather, apathy and disdain toward women. PMID:17126724

  15. Multimodal system for the planning and guidance of bronchoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, William E.; Cheirsilp, Ronnarit; Zang, Xiaonan; Byrnes, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Many technical innovations in multimodal radiologic imaging and bronchoscopy have emerged recently in the effort against lung cancer. Modern X-ray computed-tomography (CT) scanners provide three-dimensional (3D) high-resolution chest images, positron emission tomography (PET) scanners give complementary molecular imaging data, and new integrated PET/CT scanners combine the strengths of both modalities. State-of-the-art bronchoscopes permit minimally invasive tissue sampling, with vivid endobronchial video enabling navigation deep into the airway-tree periphery, while complementary endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) reveals local views of anatomical structures outside the airways. In addition, image-guided intervention (IGI) systems have proven their utility for CT-based planning and guidance of bronchoscopy. Unfortunately, no IGI system exists that integrates all sources effectively through the complete lung-cancer staging work flow. This paper presents a prototype of a computer-based multimodal IGI system that strives to fill this need. The system combines a wide range of automatic and semi-automatic image-processing tools for multimodal data fusion and procedure planning. It also provides a flexible graphical user interface for follow-on guidance of bronchoscopy/EBUS. Human-study results demonstrate the system's potential.

  16. Crew Exploration Vehicle Ascent Abort Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B., Jr.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Proud, Ryan W.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Kenyon, Paul R.; Burt, Richard; McFarland, Mike

    2007-01-01

    One of the primary design drivers for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is to ensure crew safety. Aborts during the critical ascent flight phase require the design and operation of CEV systems to escape from the Crew Launch Vehicle and return the crew safely to the Earth. To accomplish this requirement of continuous abort coverage, CEV ascent abort modes are being designed and analyzed to accommodate the velocity, altitude, atmospheric, and vehicle configuration changes that occur during ascent. The analysis involves an evaluation of the feasibility and survivability of each abort mode and an assessment of the abort mode coverage. These studies and design trades are being conducted so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle abort requirements, design, and operation. This paper presents an overview of the CEV, driving requirements for abort scenarios, and an overview of current ascent abort modes. Example analysis results are then discussed. Finally, future areas for abort analysis are addressed.

  17. An onboard navigation system which fulfills Mars aerocapture guidance requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, Timothy J.; Fuhry, Douglas P.; Shepperd, Stanley W.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a candidate autonomous onboard Mars approach navigation scheme capable of supporting aerocapture into Mars orbit is discussed. An aerocapture guidance and navigation system which can run independently of the preaerocapture navigation was used to define a preliminary set of accuracy requirements at entry interface. These requirements are used to evaluate the proposed preaerocapture navigation scheme. This scheme uses optical sightings on Deimos with a star tracker and an inertial measurement unit for instrumentation as a source for navigation nformation. Preliminary results suggest that the approach will adequately support aerocaputre into Mars orbit.

  18. Guidance of Nonlinear Nonminimum-Phase Dynamic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devasia, Santosh

    1996-01-01

    The research work has advanced the inversion-based guidance theory for: systems with non-hyperbolic internal dynamics; systems with parameter jumps; and systems where a redesign of the output trajectory is desired. A technique to achieve output tracking for nonminimum phase linear systems with non-hyperbolic and near non-hyperbolic internal dynamics was developed. This approach integrated stable inversion techniques, that achieve exact-tracking, with approximation techniques, that modify the internal dynamics to achieve desirable performance. Such modification of the internal dynamics was used (a) to remove non-hyperbolicity which is an obstruction to applying stable inversion techniques and (b) to reduce large preactuation times needed to apply stable inversion for near non-hyperbolic cases. The method was applied to an example helicopter hover control problem with near non-hyperbolic internal dynamics for illustrating the trade-off between exact tracking and reduction of preactuation time. Future work will extend these results to guidance of nonlinear non-hyperbolic systems. The exact output tracking problem for systems with parameter jumps was considered. Necessary and sufficient conditions were derived for the elimination of switching-introduced output transient. While previous works had studied this problem by developing a regulator that maintains exact tracking through parameter jumps (switches), such techniques are, however, only applicable to minimum-phase systems. In contrast, our approach is also applicable to nonminimum-phase systems and leads to bounded but possibly non-causal solutions. In addition, for the case when the reference trajectories are generated by an exosystem, we developed an exact-tracking controller which could be written in a feedback form. As in standard regulator theory, we also obtained a linear map from the states of the exosystem to the desired system state, which was defined via a matrix differential equation.

  19. Computer guidance system for single-incision bimanual robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Marina; Turini, Giuseppe; Petroni, Gianluigi; Niccolini, Marta; Menciassi, Arianna; Ferrari, Mauro; Mosca, Franco; Ferrari, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of surgical robotics is following the progress of developments in Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS), which is moving towards Single-Incision Laparoscopic Surgery (SILS) procedures. The complexity of these techniques has favored the introduction of robotic surgical systems. New bimanual robots, which are completely inserted into the patient's body, have been proposed in order to enhance the surgical gesture in SILS procedures. However, the limited laparoscopic view and the focus on the end-effectors, together with the use of complex robotic devices inside the patient's abdomen, may lead to unexpected collisions, e.g., between the surrounding anatomical organs not involved in the intervention and the surgical robot. This paper describes a computer guidance system, based on patient-specific data, designed to provide intraoperative navigation and assistance in SILS robotic interventions. The navigator has been tested in simulations of some of the surgical tasks involved in a cholecystectomy, using a synthetic anthropomorphic mannequin. The results demonstrate the usability and efficacy of the navigation system, underlining the importance of avoiding unwanted collisions between the robot arms and critical organs. The proposed computer guidance software is able to integrate any bimanual surgical robot design. PMID:22687053

  20. Fuel-Conservation Guidance System for Powered-Lift Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; McLean, John D.

    1981-01-01

    A technique is described for the design of fuel-conservative guidance systems and is applied to a system that was flight tested on board NASA's sugmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft. An important operational feature of the system is its ability to rapidly synthesize fuel-efficient trajectories for a large set of initial aircraft positions, altitudes, and headings. This feature allows the aircraft to be flown efficiently under conditions of changing winds and air traffic control vectors. Rapid synthesis of fuel-efficient trajectories is accomplished in the airborne computer by fast-time trajectory integration using a simplified dynamic performance model of the aircraft. This technique also ensures optimum flap deployment and, for powered-lift STOL aircraft, optimum transition to low-speed flight. Also included in the design is accurate prediction of touchdown time for use in four-dimensional guidance applications. Flight test results have demonstrated that the automatically synthesized trajectories produce significant fuel savings relative to manually flown conventional approaches.

  1. The Road to Pad Abort 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces, N.M., engineers and technicians are preparing for the Pad Abort 1 flight test. The Launch Abort System is a sophisticated new rocket tower designed t...

  2. An integrated design for missile guidance/control/tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yefeng; Qiu, Haitao

    2008-10-01

    An integrated information system (IIS) which contains strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS), automatic pilot and terminal guidance seeker is proposed. Using rotating modulation approach, the performance of the low cost MEMS inertial sensor is improved by 20-30 times. The precision of the modulated MEMS gyro is available for strapdown navigation system and autopilot. The IIS gyros replace gimbal-based gyros are used in the line-of-sight (LOS) stabilization system. The seeker's LOS angular rate is estimated by combining the missile-fixed gyro information with gimbal coordinate rate information. The indirect LOS stabilization control loop is elaborately designed according to the gimbal kinematical relationship and dynamics models. The study and analysis results show that the compensation torque is available to null the disturbance and make the LOS stabilization. The proposed IIS saves two sets of gyros and make the SINS, autopilot, seeker integrated designing. It owns many advantages such as compact configuration, prominent low cost etc.

  3. Evaluation of the Space Shuttle Transatlantic Abort Landing Atmospheric Sounding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, Frank B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a study that was conducted to determine the quality of thermodynamic and wind data measured by the Space Shuttle Transatlantic Abort Landing (TAL) Atmospheric Sounding System (TASS). The system has Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking capability and provides profiles of atmospheric parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, and wind in support of potential emergency Space Shuttle landings at TAL sites. Ten comparison flights between the Low-Resolution Flight Element (LRFE) of the Automated Meteorological Profiling System (AMPS) and TASS were conducted at the Eastern Test Range (ETR) in early 2002. Initial results indicated that wind, temperature, and relative humidity compared well. However, incorrect GPS settings in the TASS software were resulting in altitude differences of about 60 to 70 m (approximately 200 to 230 ft) and air pressure differences of approximately 4 hectoPascals (hPa). TASS software updates to correct altitude data were completed in early 2003. Subsequent testing showed that altitude and air pressure differences were generally less than 5 m and 1 hPa, respectively.

  4. Second trimester abortions in India.

    PubMed

    Dalvie, Suchitra S

    2008-05-01

    This article gives an overview of what is known about second trimester abortions in India, including the reasons why women seek abortions in the second trimester, the influence of abortion law and policy, surgical and medical methods used, both safe and unsafe, availability of services, requirements for second trimester service delivery, and barriers women experience in accessing second trimester services. Based on personal experiences and personal communications from other doctors since 1993, when I began working as an abortion provider, the practical realities of second trimester abortion and case histories of women seeking second trimester abortion are also described. Recommendations include expanding the cadre of service providers to non-allopathic clinicians and trained nurses, introducing second trimester medical abortion into the public health system, replacing ethacridine lactate with mifepristone-misoprostol, values clarification among providers to challenge stigma and poor treatment of women seeking second trimester abortion, and raising awareness that abortion is legal in the second trimester and is mostly not requested for reasons of sex selection. PMID:18772082

  5. Upgrade of the beam transport lines and the beam-abort system and development of a tune compensator in KEKB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Naoko; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Mimashi, Toshihiro; Nakayama, Hisayoshi; Sakamoto, Yutaka; Satoh, Kotaro; Takasaki, Seiji; Tawada, Masafumi

    2013-03-01

    The KEKB collider achieved a maximum peak luminosity of 2.1×1034 cm-2 s-1 and an integrated luminosity of 1 ab-1 in its ten-year operation. Behind these glorious records there have been uncountable improvements in every subsystem. This paper describes the improvements in the beam transport line, injection kickers, septum magnets, the beam-abort system, and a newly developed pulsed-quadrupole system in detail.

  6. Restructuring the Guidance Delivery System: Implications for Rural High School Guidance Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, R. M.; Richardson, M. D.

    The educational reform movement of the past several years has forced all educators to critically examine both their current and perceived roles. The following model addresses the issues of a changing clientele, a changing society, and a changing expectation of the duties of school guidance counselors. The first requirement of a new scheduling…

  7. A navigational guidance system in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Hugo J; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2007-01-01

    Finding your way in large-scale space requires knowing where you currently are and how to get to your goal destination. While much is understood about the neural basis of one's current position during navigation, surprisingly little is known about how the human brain guides navigation to goals. Computational accounts argue that specific brain regions support navigational guidance by coding the proximity and direction to the goal, but empirical evidence for such mechanisms is lacking. Here, we scanned subjects with functional magnetic resonance imaging as they navigated to goal destinations in a highly accurate virtual simulation of a real city. Brain activity was then analyzed in combination with metric measures of proximity and direction to goal destinations that were derived from each individual subject's coordinates at every second of navigation. We found that activity in the medial prefrontal cortex was positively correlated, and activity in a right subicular/entorhinal region was negatively correlated with goal proximity. By contrast, activity in bilateral posterior parietal cortex was correlated with egocentric direction to goals. Our results provide empirical evidence for a navigational guidance system in the human brain, and define more precisely the contribution of these three brain regions to human navigation. In addition, these findings may also have wider implications for how the brain monitors and integrates different types of information in the service of goal-directed behavior in general. PMID:17492693

  8. A navigational guidance system in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Spiers, Hugo J.; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2008-01-01

    Finding your way in large-scale space requires knowing where you currently are and how to get to your goal destination. While much is understood about the neural basis of one’s current position during navigation, surprisingly little is known about how the human brain guides navigation to goals. Computational accounts argue that specific brain regions support navigational guidance by coding the proximity and direction to the goal, but empirical evidence for such mechanisms is lacking. Here, we scanned subjects with functional MRI (fMRI) as they navigated to goal destinations in a highly accurate virtual simulation of a real city. Brain activity was then analysed in combination with metric measures of proximity and direction to goal destinations which were derived from each individual subject’s coordinates at every second of navigation. We found that activity in the medial prefrontal cortex was positively correlated, and activity in a right subicular/entorhinal region was negatively correlated with goal proximity. By contrast, activity in bilateral posterior parietal cortex was correlated with egocentric direction to goals. Our results provide empirical evidence for a navigational guidance system in the human brain, and define more precisely the contribution of these three brain regions to human navigation. In addition, these findings may also have wider implications for how the brain monitors and integrates different types of information in the service of goal-directed behaviour in general. PMID:17492693

  9. ADGS-2100 Adaptive Display and Guidance System Window Manager Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Mike W.; Innis, John D.; Miller, Steven P.; Wagner, Lucas G.

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in modeling languages have made it feasible to formally specify and analyze the behavior of large system components. Synchronous data flow languages, such as Lustre, SCR, and RSML-e are particularly well suited to this task, and commercial versions of these tools such as SCADE and Simulink are growing in popularity among designers of safety critical systems, largely due to their ability to automatically generate code from the models. At the same time, advances in formal analysis tools have made it practical to formally verify important properties of these models to ensure that design defects are identified and corrected early in the lifecycle. This report describes how these tools have been applied to the ADGS-2100 Adaptive Display and Guidance Window Manager being developed by Rockwell Collins Inc. This work demonstrates how formal methods can be easily and cost-efficiently used to remove defects early in the design cycle.

  10. STS-1 operational flight profile. Volume 6: Abort analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The abort analysis for the cycle 3 Operational Flight Profile (OFP) for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) is defined, superseding the abort analysis previously presented. Included are the flight description, abort analysis summary, flight design groundrules and constraints, initialization information, general abort description and results, abort solid rocket booster and external tank separation and disposal results, abort monitoring displays and discussion on both ground and onboard trajectory monitoring, abort initialization load summary for the onboard computer, list of the key abort powered flight dispersion analysis.

  11. Effects of modifications to the space shuttle entry guidance and control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, R. W.; Stone, H. W.; Rowell, L. F.

    1976-01-01

    A nonlinear six degree of freedom entry simulation study was conducted to identify space shuttle guidance and control system software modifications which reduce the control system sensitivity to the guidance system sampling frequency. Several modifications which eliminated the control system sensitivity and associated control limit cycling were examined. The result of the modifications was a reduction in required reaction control system fuel.

  12. Orion Abort Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Peggy Sue

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of NASA's Constellation project is to create the new generation of spacecraft for human flight to the International Space Station in low-earth orbit, the lunar surface, as well as for use in future deep-space exploration. One portion of the Constellation program was the development of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) to be used in spaceflight. The Orion spacecraft consists of a crew module, service module, space adapter and launch abort system. The crew module was designed to hold as many as six crew members. The Orion crew exploration vehicle is similar in design to the Apollo space capsules, although larger and more massive. The Flight Test Office is the responsible flight test organization for the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office originally proposed six tests that would demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests were to be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and were similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. The first flight test of the launch abort system was a pad abort (PA-1), that took place on 6 May 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Primary flight test objectives were to demonstrate the capability of the launch abort system to propel the crew module a safe distance away from a launch vehicle during a pad abort, to demonstrate the stability and control characteristics of the vehicle, and to determine the performance of the motors contained within the launch abort system. The focus of the PA-1 flight test was engineering development and data acquisition, not certification. In this presentation, a high level overview of the PA-1 vehicle is given, along with an overview of the Mobile Operations Facility and information on the White Sands tracking sites for radar & optics. Several lessons learned are presented, including detailed information on the lessons learned in the development of wind

  13. Safety improvement issues for mission aborts of future space transportation systems.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, M; Wächter, M; Sachs, G

    2006-01-01

    Two-stage winged space access vehicles consisting of a carrier stage with airbreathing turbo/ram jet engines and a rocket propelled orbital stage which may significantly reduce space transport costs and have additional advantages offer a great potential for mission safety improvements. Formulating the nominal mission and abort scenarios caused by engine malfunctions as an optimal control problem allows full exploitation of safety capabilities. The shaping of the nominal mission has a significant impact on the prospective safety. For this purpose, most relevant mission aborts are considered together with the nominal mission, treating them as an optimization problem of branched trajectories where the branching point is not fixed. The applied procedure yields a safety improved nominal trajectory, showing the feasibility of the included mission aborts with minimum payload penalty. The other mission aborts can be separately treated, with the initial condition given by the state of the nominal trajectory at the time when a failure occurs. A mission abort plan is set up, covering all emergency scenarios. PMID:16480117

  14. Development of a biomechanical guidance system for periacetabular osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Armiger, Robert S.; Lepistö, Jyri; Mears, Simon C.; Taylor, Russell H.; Armand, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This paper presents and validates a computer-navigated system for performing periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) to treat developmental dysplasia of the hip. The main motivation of the biomechanical guidance system (BGS) is to plan and track the osteotomy fragment in real time during PAO while simplifying the procedure for less-experienced surgeons. The BGS aims at developing a platform for comparing biomechanical states of the joint with the current gold standard geometric assessment of anatomical angles. The purpose of this study was to (1) determine the accuracy with which the BGS tracks the hip joint through repositioning and (2) identify improvements to the workflow. Methods Nineteen cadaveric validation studies quantified system accuracy, verified system application, and helped to refine surgical protocol. In two surgeries, navigation and registration accuracy were computed by affixing fiducials to two cadavers prior to surgery. All scenarios compared anatomical angle measurements and joint positioning as measured intraoperatively to postoperatively. Results In the two cases with fiducials, computed fragment transformations deviated from measured fiducial transformations by 1.4 and 1.8 mm in translation and 1.0° and 2.2° in rotation, respectively. The additional seventeen surgeries showed strong agreement between intraoperative and postoperative anatomical angles, helped to refine the surgical protocol, and demonstrated system robustness. Conclusion Estimated accuracy with BGS appeared acceptable for future surgical applications. Several major system requirements were identified and addressed, improving the BGS and making it feasible for clinical studies. PMID:25234421

  15. Design and Analysis of Outer Mold Line Close-outs for the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Knutson, Jeffrey R.; Schuster, David M.; Tyler, Erik D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) chartered the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) to demonstrate an alternate launch abort concept as risk mitigation for the Orion project's baseline "tower" design. On July 8, 2009, a full scale, passive aerodynamically stabilized Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) pad abort demonstrator was successfully launched from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility. Aerodynamic close-outs were required to cover openings on the MLAS fairing to prevent aerodynamic flow-through and to maintain the MLAS OML surface shape. Two-ply duct tape covers were designed to meet these needs. The duct tape used was a high strength fiber reinforced duct tape with a rubberized adhesive that demonstrated 4.6 lb/in adhesion strength to the unpainted fiberglass fairing. Adhesion strength was observed to increase as a function of time. The covers were analyzed and experimentally tested to demonstrate their ability to maintain integrity under anticipated vehicle ascent pressure loads and to not impede firing of the drogue chute mortars. Testing included vacuum testing and a mortar fire test. Tape covers were layed-up on thin Teflon sheets to facilitate installation on the vehicle. Custom cut foam insulation board was used to fill mortar hole and separation joint cavities and provide support to the applied tape covers. Flight test results showed that the tape covers remained adhered during flight.

  16. Using Microcomputer Based Career Guidance Systems in a University Setting: Reaction Data from Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapes, Jerome T.; And Others

    This report compares the effectiveness of two microcomputer based career guidance systems that are gaining widespread acceptance--the System of Interactive Guidance and Information (SIGI), produced by the Educational Testing Service, and DISCOVER, produced by the American College Testing Program. Both systems are designed to lead the user through…

  17. Secure Data Transfer Guidance for Industrial Control and SCADA Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, Robert E.; Fluckiger, Jerry D.; Clements, Samuel L.; Tews, Cody W.; Burnette, John R.; Goranson, Craig A.; Kirkham, Harold

    2011-09-01

    This document was developed to provide guidance for the implementation of secure data transfer in a complex computational infrastructure representative of the electric power and oil and natural gas enterprises and the control systems they implement. For the past 20 years the cyber security community has focused on preventative measures intended to keep systems secure by providing a hard outer shell that is difficult to penetrate. Over time, the hard exterior, soft interior focus changed to focus on defense-in-depth adding multiple layers of protection, introducing intrusion detection systems, more effective incident response and cleanup, and many other security measures. Despite much larger expenditures and more layers of defense, successful attacks have only increased in number and severity. Consequently, it is time to re-focus the conventional approach to cyber security. While it is still important to implement measures to keep intruders out, a new protection paradigm is warranted that is aimed at discovering attempted or real compromises as early as possible. Put simply, organizations should take as fact that they have been, are now, or will be compromised. These compromises may be intended to steal information for financial gain as in the theft of intellectual property or credentials that lead to the theft of financial resources, or to lie silent until instructed to cause physical or electronic damage and/or denial of services. This change in outlook has been recently confirmed by the National Security Agency [19]. The discovery of attempted and actual compromises requires an increased focus on monitoring events by manual and/or automated log monitoring, detecting unauthorized changes to a system's hardware and/or software, detecting intrusions, and/or discovering the exfiltration of sensitive information and/or attempts to send inappropriate commands to ICS/SCADA (Industrial Control System/Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems.

  18. Acoustic-Modal Testing of the Ares I Launch Abort System Attitude Control Motor Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. Benjamin; Fischbach, Sean R.

    2010-01-01

    The Attitude Control Motor (ACM) is being developed for use in the Launch Abort System (LAS) of NASA's Ares I launch vehicle. The ACM consists of a small solid rocket motor and eight actuated pintle valves that directionally allocate.thrust_- 1t.has-been- predicted-that significant unsteady. pressure.fluctuations.will.exist. inside the-valves during operation. The dominant frequencies of these oscillations correspond to the lowest several acoustic natural frequencies of the individual valves. An acoustic finite element model of the fluid volume inside the valve has been critical to the prediction of these frequencies and their associated mode shapes. This work describes an effort to experimentally validate the acoustic finite model of the valve with an acoustic modal test. The modal test involved instrumenting a flight-like valve with six microphones and then exciting the enclosed air with a loudspeaker. The loudspeaker was configured to deliver broadband noise at relatively high sound pressure levels. The aquired microphone signals were post-processed and compared to results generated from the acoustic finite element model. Initial comparisons between the test data and the model results revealed that additional model refinement was necessary. Specifically, the model was updated to implement a complex impedance boundary condition at the entrance to the valve supply tube. This boundary condition models the frequency-dependent impedance that an acoustic wave will encounter as it reaches the end of the supply tube. Upon invoking this boundary condition, significantly improved agreement between the test data and the model was realized.

  19. Software Safety Analysis of a Flight Guidance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor); Tribble, Alan C.; Miller, Steven P.; Lempia, David L.

    2004-01-01

    This document summarizes the safety analysis performed on a Flight Guidance System (FGS) requirements model. In particular, the safety properties desired of the FGS model are identified and the presence of the safety properties in the model is formally verified. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the entire project, while Chapter 2 gives a brief overview of the problem domain, the nature of accidents, model based development, and the four-variable model. Chapter 3 outlines the approach. Chapter 4 presents the results of the traditional safety analysis techniques and illustrates how the hazardous conditions associated with the system trace into specific safety properties. Chapter 5 presents the results of the formal methods analysis technique model checking that was used to verify the presence of the safety properties in the requirements model. Finally, Chapter 6 summarizes the main conclusions of the study, first and foremost that model checking is a very effective verification technique to use on discrete models with reasonable state spaces. Additional supporting details are provided in the appendices.

  20. A Verbal Guidance System for Severe Disabled People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redjati, Abdelghani; Bousbia-Salah, Mounir

    2008-06-01

    The recent development in rehabilitation technology allows to significantly broaden the range of possible applications that support handicapped people in their daily lives. This paper presents a moral and physical support for the disabled. It consists in the development of a verbal guidance system based on a speech recognition development kit `VD364'. This aid is intended to control a wheelchair and a manipulator arm for people with severe disabilities and who can speak. The study and design, conducted in the framework of this contribution have enabled an adaptation for a possible application and maximum exploitation of words that can be generated by a vocal module. The problem addressed is to allow a manipulator arm to compensate mechanically arm movements to give the handicapped satisfaction of his needs (for instance, drinking a glass of water). The objective is then to put forward a vocal command system that allows the arm to move in a well determined area to accomplish tasks that must be given by the user in addition to the displacement of the wheelchair.

  1. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS) for interventional tool guidance.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M

    2014-01-01

    Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking. PMID:25337784

  2. Active Ultrasound Pattern Injection System (AUSPIS) for Interventional Tool Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking. PMID:25337784

  3. Design and Implementation of a GPS Guidance System for Agricultural Tractors Using Augmented Reality Technology

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Fernández, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; del-Pozo-San-Cirilo, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Current commercial tractor guidance systems present to the driver information to perform agricultural tasks in the best way. This information generally includes a treated zones map referenced to the tractor’s position. Unlike actual guidance systems where the tractor driver must mentally associate treated zone maps and the plot layout, this paper presents a guidance system that using Augmented Reality (AR) technology, allows the tractor driver to see the real plot though eye monitor glasses with the treated zones in a different color. The paper includes a description of the system hardware and software, a real test done with image captures seen by the tractor driver, and a discussion predicting that the historical evolution of guidance systems could involve the use of AR technology in the agricultural guidance and monitoring systems. PMID:22163479

  4. Fine Guidance System for the James Webb Space Telescope Delivered

    NASA Video Gallery

    Video has music in the background but no dialogue. The second of four main instruments to fly aboard NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (Webb) has been delivered to NASA. The Fine Guidance Sensor (F...

  5. 78 FR 18353 - Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System Validation in the User's Facility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... the Federal Register of October 29, 2007 (72 FR 61171), FDA announced the availability of the draft... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System... ``Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System Validation in the User's Facility'' dated...

  6. Guidance and Control System for a Satellite Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Jonathan Lamar; Cox, James; Mays, Paul Richard; Neidhoefer, James Christian; Ephrain, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A distributed guidance and control algorithm was developed for a constellation of satellites. The system repositions satellites as required, regulates satellites to desired orbits, and prevents collisions. 1. Optimal methods are used to compute nominal transfers from orbit to orbit. 2. Satellites are regulated to maintain the desired orbits once the transfers are complete. 3. A simulator is used to predict potential collisions or near-misses. 4. Each satellite computes perturbations to its controls so as to increase any unacceptable distances of nearest approach to other objects. a. The avoidance problem is recast in a distributed and locally-linear form to arrive at a tractable solution. b. Plant matrix values are approximated via simulation at each time step. c. The Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) method is used to compute perturbations to the controls that will result in increased miss distances. 5. Once all danger is passed, the satellites return to their original orbits, all the while avoiding each other as above. 6. The delta-Vs are reasonable. The controller begins maneuvers as soon as practical to minimize delta-V. 7. Despite the inclusion of trajectory simulations within the control loop, the algorithm is sufficiently fast for available satellite computer hardware. 8. The required measurement accuracies are within the capabilities of modern inertial measurement devices and modern positioning devices.

  7. 77 FR 38305 - Guidance for Industry on Lupus Nephritis Caused by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Developing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... a notice published in the Federal Register of June 22, 2010 (75 FR 35492), FDA announced the... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Lupus Nephritis Caused by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus--Developing Medical Products for Treatment; Withdrawal of Guidance AGENCY: Food...

  8. Guidance Systems across Europe: Heritage, Change and the Art of Becoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno da Fonseca, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Guidance systems exist within learning, working and welfare cultures, which are upheld by prevailing institutions and stakeholders. Implementing a lifelong approach questions rooted codes and idiosyncrasies of the sectors across which guidance is distributed. To support individuals' careers, unlock their potential and increase their contribution…

  9. Women's stories of abortion in southern Gabon, Africa.

    PubMed

    Hess, Rosanna F

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons women in rural, southern Gabon, Africa, chose to terminate their pregnancies, the methods used to induce abortions, and postabortion effects experienced by these women. Abortion is illegal in this country. A descriptive qualitative design guided the methodology for this study. Five women with a history of induced abortion were interviewed in-depth for their abortion story. Reasons cited for an abortion included lack of financial and partner support. Abortion methods included oral, rectal, and vaginal concoctions of leaves, bark, and water and over-the-counter medications, including misoprostol. Affects were physical, spiritual, and relational. Health care professionals need to provide women with guidance for appropriate contraceptive usage. Abortion after-care of women with physical and spiritual needs is important. Future research is suggested on the use of misoprostol in Gabon to understand its affects on women's reproductive health. PMID:17202528

  10. Approximate optimal guidance for the advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeley, T. S.; Speyer, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    A real-time guidance scheme for the problem of maximizing the payload into orbit subject to the equations of motion for a rocket over a spherical, non-rotating earth is presented. An approximate optimal launch guidance law is developed based upon an asymptotic expansion of the Hamilton - Jacobi - Bellman or dynamic programming equation. The expansion is performed in terms of a small parameter, which is used to separate the dynamics of the problem into primary and perturbation dynamics. For the zeroth-order problem the small parameter is set to zero and a closed-form solution to the zeroth-order expansion term of Hamilton - Jacobi - Bellman equation is obtained. Higher-order terms of the expansion include the effects of the neglected perturbation dynamics. These higher-order terms are determined from the solution of first-order linear partial differential equations requiring only the evaluation of quadratures. This technique is preferred as a real-time, on-line guidance scheme to alternative numerical iterative optimization schemes because of the unreliable convergence properties of these iterative guidance schemes and because the quadratures needed for the approximate optimal guidance law can be performed rapidly and by parallel processing. Even if the approximate solution is not nearly optimal, when using this technique the zeroth-order solution always provides a path which satisfies the terminal constraints. Results for two-degree-of-freedom simulations are presented for the simplified problem of flight in the equatorial plane and compared to the guidance scheme generated by the shooting method which is an iterative second-order technique.

  11. Approximate optimal guidance for the advanced launch system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeley, T. S.; Speyer, J. L.

    1993-12-01

    A real-time guidance scheme for the problem of maximizing the payload into orbit subject to the equations of motion for a rocket over a spherical, non-rotating earth is presented. An approximate optimal launch guidance law is developed based upon an asymptotic expansion of the Hamilton - Jacobi - Bellman or dynamic programming equation. The expansion is performed in terms of a small parameter, which is used to separate the dynamics of the problem into primary and perturbation dynamics. For the zeroth-order problem the small parameter is set to zero and a closed-form solution to the zeroth-order expansion term of Hamilton - Jacobi - Bellman equation is obtained. Higher-order terms of the expansion include the effects of the neglected perturbation dynamics. These higher-order terms are determined from the solution of first-order linear partial differential equations requiring only the evaluation of quadratures. This technique is preferred as a real-time, on-line guidance scheme to alternative numerical iterative optimization schemes because of the unreliable convergence properties of these iterative guidance schemes and because the quadratures needed for the approximate optimal guidance law can be performed rapidly and by parallel processing. Even if the approximate solution is not nearly optimal, when using this technique the zeroth-order solution always provides a path which satisfies the terminal constraints. Results for two-degree-of-freedom simulations are presented for the simplified problem of flight in the equatorial plane and compared to the guidance scheme generated by the shooting method which is an iterative second-order technique.

  12. Human-system Interfaces to Automatic Systems: Review Guidance and Technical Basis

    SciTech Connect

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins, J.C.

    2010-01-31

    Automation has become ubiquitous in modern complex systems and commercial nuclear power plants are no exception. Beyond the control of plant functions and systems, automation is applied to a wide range of additional functions including monitoring and detection, situation assessment, response planning, response implementation, and interface management. Automation has become a 'team player' supporting plant personnel in nearly all aspects of plant operation. In light of the increasing use and importance of automation in new and future plants, guidance is needed to enable the NRC staff to conduct safety reviews of the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of modern automation. The objective of the research described in this report was to develop guidance for reviewing the operator's interface with automation. We first developed a characterization of the important HFE aspects of automation based on how it is implemented in current systems. The characterization included five dimensions: Level of automation, function of automation, modes of automation, flexibility of allocation, and reliability of automation. Next, we reviewed literature pertaining to the effects of these aspects of automation on human performance and the design of human-system interfaces (HSIs) for automation. Then, we used the technical basis established by the literature to develop design review guidance. The guidance is divided into the following seven topics: Automation displays, interaction and control, automation modes, automation levels, adaptive automation, error tolerance and failure management, and HSI integration. In addition, we identified insights into the automaton design process, operator training, and operations.

  13. Career Information System Project: "Supermarket" Guidance System Conceptual Model for Suburban Community Colleges. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foothill Coll., Los Altos Hills, CA.

    This publication documents one community college's experience in setting up a "supermarket" guidance system model. Its goals were to maximize the number and kinds of available services, and make them maximally accessible to all students. A commercial design firm was hired to analyze the school's present and future requirements. A computer…

  14. US EPA GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEMS - TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION GUIDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA Geospatial Quality Council (GQC) was formed in 1998 to provide Quality Assurance guidance for the development, use, and products of geospatial activities and research. The long-term goals of the GQC are expressed in a living document, currently the EPA Geospatial Qua...

  15. Should abortion be legalized?

    PubMed

    Sodhy, L S

    1968-01-01

    Abortion is an important means of family planning, especially when contraception is unavailable or when it fails. Morbidity associated with legal abortion is low, though illegal abortion is a common cause of maternal mortality. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republic, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, and the German Demogratic Republic all have laws legalizing abortion. Legalized abortion is the surest method of population control and should be promoted if the moral and religious objections can be overcome. PMID:12255647

  16. A discrete adaptive guidance system for a roving vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    An adaptive guidance technique which provides a self-correcting path following capability in an environment sensitive semi-autonomous roving robot is described. A real-time maneuver planning function performs tradeoffs between speed, magnitude of expected deviations and accelerations to best satisfy the design goals of vehicle safety and reliability, subsystem autonomy, performance accuracy and operational efficiency. The appropriate combination of maneuver parameters is selected through an iterative process using knowledge of vehicle performance characteristics, environmental model updates and vehicle state

  17. An advanced arrangement of the combined propulsion, levitation and guidance system of superconducting Maglev

    SciTech Connect

    Fujie, Junji

    1999-09-01

    The PLG (combined Propulsion, Levitation and Guidance) method was proposed for a more favorable Maglev ground coil system, combining the functions of propulsion, levitation, and guidance of the vehicle into one coil. Research and development is currently being conducted on this method. In this paper, the characteristics of a newly-structured system for the PLG method is examined. The discussed characteristics include propulsion, levitation-guidance, vehicle dynamics in the cases of problems with the superconducting magnets, and the magnetic field on board the vehicle.

  18. Optimal guidance law development for an advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, Anthony J.; Leung, Martin S. K.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research effort was to develop a real-time guidance approach for launch vehicles ascent to orbit injection. Various analytical approaches combined with a variety of model order and model complexity reduction have been investigated. Singular perturbation methods were first attempted and found to be unsatisfactory. The second approach based on regular perturbation analysis was subsequently investigated. It also fails because the aerodynamic effects (ignored in the zero order solution) are too large to be treated as perturbations. Therefore, the study demonstrates that perturbation methods alone (both regular and singular perturbations) are inadequate for use in developing a guidance algorithm for the atmospheric flight phase of a launch vehicle. During a second phase of the research effort, a hybrid analytic/numerical approach was developed and evaluated. The approach combines the numerical methods of collocation and the analytical method of regular perturbations. The concept of choosing intelligent interpolating functions is also introduced. Regular perturbation analysis allows the use of a crude representation for the collocation solution, and intelligent interpolating functions further reduce the number of elements without sacrificing the approximation accuracy. As a result, the combined method forms a powerful tool for solving real-time optimal control problems. Details of the approach are illustrated in a fourth order nonlinear example. The hybrid approach is then applied to the launch vehicle problem. The collocation solution is derived from a bilinear tangent steering law, and results in a guidance solution for the entire flight regime that includes both atmospheric and exoatmospheric flight phases.

  19. Description of the primary flight display and flight guidance system logic in the NASA B-737 transport systems research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    A primary flight display format was integrated with the flight guidance and control system logic in support of various flight tests conducted with the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle B-737-100 airplane. The functional operation of the flight guidance mode control panel and the corresponding primary flight display formats are presented.

  20. Departure phase aborts for manned Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissel, Adam F.

    NASA goals are set on resumption of human activity on the Moon and extending manned missions to Mars. Abort options are key elements of any system designed to safeguard human lives and stated requirements stipulate the provision of an abort capability throughout the mission. The present investigation will focus on the formulation and analysis of possible abort modes during the Earth departure phase of manned Mars interplanetary transfers. Though of short duration, the departure phase encompasses a mission timeline where failures have frequently become manifest in historical manned spacecraft necessitating the inclusion of a departure phase abort capability. Investigated abort modes included aborts to atmospheric entry, and to Earth or Moon orbit. Considered interplanetary trajectory types included conjunction, opposition, and free-return trajectory classes. All abort modes were analyzed for aborts initiated at multiple points along each of these possible departure trajectories across all launch opportunities of the fifteen-year Earth-Mars inertial period. The consistently low departure velocities of the conjunction trajectories facilitated the greatest abort capability. An analysis of Mars transportation architectures was performed to determine the amount of available delta V inherent in each candidate architecture for executing departure aborts. Results indicate that a delta V of at least 4 km/s is required to achieve a continuous departure phase entry abort capability with abort flights less than three weeks duration for all transfer opportunity years. Less demanding transfer years have a corresponding increase in capability. The Earth orbit abort mode does not become widely achievable until more than 6 km/s delta V is provided; a capacity not manifest in any considered architecture. Optimization of the Moon abort mode resulted in slight departure date shifts to achieve improved lunar alignments. The Moon abort mode is only widely achievable for conjunction

  1. TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: CONSTRUCTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AND REMEDIAL DESIGN WASTE CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Technical Guidance Document is intended to augment the numerous construction quality control and construction quality assurance (CQC and CQA) documents that are available far materials associated with waste containment systems developed for Superfund site remediation. In ge...

  2. Abortion Before & After Roe

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu

    2013-01-01

    We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971–1975 to demonstrate that women travelled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A100- mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services. PMID:23811233

  3. Guidance, navigation & control systems for sounding rockets - flight results, current status and the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljunge, Lars

    2005-08-01

    At the 16th ESA Symposium on European Rockets and Balloons, two newly developed guidance and control systems by Saab Ericsson Space were presented: The S19D guidance and control system, which uses DS19 hardware to execute S19 type guidance and control. The GCS/DMARS guidance, navigation and control system, which is a modernisation of the GCS/RIINS. These two and the third recent system, the DS19, were developed as replacements for the analog S19 and the GCS/RIINS, both of which use very old technology. The design drivers or the DS19, the S19D and the GCS/DMARS are: User requirements. New technology with improved performance capability becoming available. Current technology becoming old and replacement parts hard to come by. This paper first lists some guidance related user requirements, and then discusses the performance that has been achieved in the various guidance systems, including the S19, for comparison. This is first done from a theoretical point of view and then by analyzing actual flight data. The ability of the systems to fulfil the user requirements is also discussed and finally, a look is taken into the future.

  4. Estimates of illegal abortions in Israel, 1980-83.

    PubMed

    Sabatello, E F

    1990-04-01

    Since the legalization of abortion in Israel in the late 1970s, only aggregate information on legal abortions has been available. A brief history of the public debate and relevant legislation concerning induced abortions in Israel is presented in the first part of this report. The second part presents estimates of the extent of illegal abortions in Israel during the years 1980-83. These estimates were obtained through standardization based on data for selected countries where the abortion law is similar to or more liberal than that in Israel, the system of abortion registration is more reliable and detailed, and the prevailing contraceptive habits and attitudes of women are known. Estimates indicate that: a) the total number of abortions in Israel is about half that quoted by the media from nonscientific sources, and b) the annual number of illegal abortions constitutes between 25 and 30% of the estimated total number of abortions. PMID:2347687

  5. Human Systems Integration: Unmanned Aircraft Control Station Certification Plan Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This document provides guidance to the FAA on important human factors considerations that can be used to support the certification of a UAS Aircraft Control Station (ACS). This document provides a synopsis of the human factors analysis, design and test activities to be performed to provide a basis for FAA certification. The data from these analyses, design activities, and tests, along with data from certification/qualification tests of other key components should be used to establish the ACS certification basis. It is expected that this information will be useful to manufacturers in developing the ACS Certification Plan,, and in supporting the design of their ACS.

  6. Asymmetrical booster ascent guidance and control system design study. Volume 1: Summary. [space shuttle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, F. E.; Lemon, R. S.; Jaggers, R. F.; Wilson, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Dynamics and control, stability, and guidance analyses are summarized for the asymmetrical booster ascent guidance and control system design studies, performed in conjunction with space shuttle planning. The mathematical models developed for use in rigid body and flexible body versions of the NASA JSC space shuttle functional simulator are briefly discussed, along with information on the following: (1) space shuttle stability analysis using equations of motion for both pitch and lateral axes; (2) the computer program used to obtain stability margin; and (3) the guidance equations developed for the space shuttle powered flight phases.

  7. Development of a unified guidance system for geocentric transfer. [for solar electric propulsion spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cake, J. E.; Regetz, J. D., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for open loop guidance of a solar electric propulsion spacecraft to geosynchronous orbit. The method consists of determining the thrust vector profiles on the ground with an optimization computer program, and performing updates based on the difference between the actual trajectory and that predicted with a precision simulation computer program. The motivation for performing the guidance analysis during the mission planning phase is discussed, and a spacecraft design option that employs attitude orientation constraints is presented. The improvements required in both the optimization program and simulation program are set forth, together with the efforts to integrate the programs into the ground support software for the guidance system.

  8. Development of a unified guidance system for geocentric transfer. [solar electric propulsion spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cake, J. E.; Regetz, J. D., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for open loop guidance of a solar electric propulsion spacecraft to geosynchronsus orbit. The method consists of determining the thrust vector profiles on the ground with an optimization computer program, and performing updates based on the difference between the actual trajectory and that predicted with a precision simulation computer program. The motivation for performing the guidance analysis during the mission planning phase is discussed, and a spacecraft design option that employs attitude orientation constraints is presented. The improvements required in both the optimization program and simulation program are set forth, together with the efforts to integrate the programs into the ground support software for the guidance system.

  9. Abortion and psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Stotland, Nada L

    2003-03-01

    The subject of abortion is fraught with politics, emotions, and misinformation. A widespread practice reaching far back in history, abortion is again in the news. Psychiatry sits at the intersection of the religious, ethical, psychological, sociological, medical, and legal facets of the abortion issue. Although the religions that forbid abortion are more prominent in the media, many religions have more liberal approaches. While the basic right to abortion has been upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court, several limitations have been permitted, including parental notification or consent (with the possibility of judicial bypass) for minors, waiting periods, and mandatory provision of certain, sometimes biased, information. Before the Roe v. Wade decision legalizing abortion in 1973, many women were maimed or killed by illegal abortions, and psychiatrists were sometimes asked to certify that abortions were justified on psychiatric grounds. Currently, there are active attempts to convince the public and women considering abortion that abortion frequently has negative psychiatric consequences. This assertion is not borne out by the literature: the vast majority of women tolerate abortion without psychiatric sequelae. The psychiatric outcome of abortion is best when patients are able to make autonomous, supported decisions. Psychiatrists need to know the medical and psychiatric facts about abortion. Psychiatrists can then help patients prevent unwanted pregnancies, make informed decisions consonant with their own values and circumstances when they become pregnant, and find appropriate social and medical resources whatever their decisions may be. PMID:15985924

  10. Solar Dynamics Observatory Guidance, Navigation, and Control System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, Wendy M.; Bourkland, Kristin L.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Liu, Kuo-Chia; Mason, Paul A. C.; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Russo, Angela M.; Starin, Scott R.; Vess, Melissa F.

    2011-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) was designed and built at the Goddard Space Flight Center, launched from Cape Canaveral on February 11, 2010, and reached its final geosynchronous science orbit on March 16, 2010. The purpose of SDO is to observe the Sun and continuously relay data to a dedicated ground station. SDO remains Sun-pointing throughout most of its mission for the instruments to take measurements of the Sun. The SDO attitude control system (ACS) is a single-fault tolerant design. Its fully redundant attitude sensor complement includes sixteen coarse Sun sensors (CSSs), a digital Sun sensor (DSS), three two-axis inertial reference units (IRUs), and two star trackers (STs). The ACS also makes use of the four guide telescopes included as a part of one of the science instruments. Attitude actuation is performed using four reaction wheels assemblies (RWAs) and eight thrusters, with a single main engine used to provide velocity-change thrust for orbit raising. The attitude control software has five nominal control modes, three wheel-based modes and two thruster-based modes. A wheel-based Safehold running in the attitude control electronics box improves the robustness of the system as a whole. All six modes are designed on the same basic proportional-integral-derivative attitude error structure, with more robust modes setting their integral gains to zero. This paper details the final overall design of the SDO guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) system and how it was used in practice during SDO launch, commissioning, and nominal operations. This overview will include the ACS control modes, attitude determination and sensor calibration, the high gain antenna (HGA) calibration, and jitter mitigation operation. The Solar Dynamics Observatory mission is part of the NASA Living With a Star program, which seeks to understand the changing Sun and its effects on the Solar System, life, and society. To this end, the SDO spacecraft carries three Sun

  11. Evaluation of Acoustic Emission NDE of Composite Crew Module Service Module/Alternate Launch Abort System (CCM SM/ALAS) Test Article Failure Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2010-01-01

    Failure tests of CCM SM/ALAS (Composite Crew Module Service Module / Alternate Launch Abort System) composite panels were conducted during July 10, 2008 and July 24, 2008 at Langley Research Center. This is a report of the analysis of the Acoustic Emission (AE) data collected during those tests.

  12. Legalized abortion in Czechoslovakia.

    PubMed

    Zidovsky, J; Zwinger, A

    1972-01-01

    A law legalizing abortion was passed nearly 20 years ago in Czechosl ovakia. The law aimed to give women the freedom to decide for themselves whether they want to be pregnant and to decrease the dangers of illegal abortion. The law resulted in a decreased number of abortions and of complications and deaths associated with abortion. Fertility in the country also declined. In 1968 there were more abortions than live births in the country. Since 1957, the law has been modified. The law still aims to prevent the birth of defective children and to protect the life and health of mothers. Each application for abortion is now examined on its own merits. Favorable economic circumstances, prolife social policies adopted by the government, and the new stricter interpretation of the abortion law have resulted in a r ising birthrate since 1969. Contraception is still stressed as preferab le to abortion. PMID:12256872

  13. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  14. 75 FR 45640 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Drug in Transdermal and Related Drug Delivery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Drug in Transdermal... guidance for industry entitled ``Residual Drug in Transdermal and Related Drug Delivery Systems.'' This... of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Residual Drug in Transdermal and Related Drug...

  15. Integration of the Resources of the Guidance and Counseling via Internet: Development of the "Guidance Network System (GNS)" in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiou, Hawjeng

    This paper discusses the efforts of the Taiwan government to establish a more comprehensive and effective guidance program for Taiwan's youth. It lists the six components involved in the development of this program, and describes several projects that have evolved out of this effort. The core of the "Six Year Project of School Guidance Work" was…

  16. Experimental and simulation study results of an Adaptive Video Guidance System /AVGS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Knickerbocker, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Studies relating to stellar-body exploration programs have pointed out the need for an adaptive guidance scheme capable of providing automatic real-time guidance and site selection capability. For the case of a planetary lander, without such guidance, targeting is limited to what are believed to be generally benign areas in order to ensure a reasonable landing-success probability. Typically, the Mars Viking Lander will be jeopardized by obstacles exceeding 22 centimers in diameter. The benefits of on-board navigation and real-time selection of a landing site and obstacle avoidance have been demonstrated by the Apollo lunar landings, in which man performed the surface sensing and steering functions. Therefore, an Adaptive Video Guidance System (AVGS) has been developed, bread-boarded, and flown on a six-degree-of-freedom simulator.

  17. Application of Fault Management Theory to the Quantitative Selection of a Launch Vehicle Abort Trigger Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Yunnhon; Johnson, Stephen B.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.

    2014-01-01

    , the abort triggers must have low false negative rates to be sure that real crew-threatening failures are detected, and also low false positive rates to ensure that the crew does not abort from non-crew-threatening launch vehicle behaviors. The analysis process described in this paper is a compilation of over six years of lessons learned and refinements from experiences developing abort triggers for NASA's Constellation Program (Ares I Project) and the SLS Program, as well as the simultaneous development of SHM/FM theory. The paper will describe the abort analysis concepts and process, developed in conjunction with SLS Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) to define a common set of mission phase, failure scenario, and Loss of Mission Environment (LOME) combinations upon which the SLS Loss of Mission (LOM) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) models are built. This abort analysis also requires strong coordination with the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and SLS Structures and Environments (STE) to formulate a series of abortability tables that encapsulate explosion dynamics over the ascent mission phase. The design and assessment of abort conditions and triggers to estimate their Loss of Crew (LOC) Benefits also requires in-depth integration with other groups, including Avionics, Guidance, Navigation and Control(GN&C), the Crew Office, Mission Operations, and Ground Systems. The outputs of this analysis are a critical input to SLS S&MA's LOC PRA models. The process described here may well be the first full quantitative application of SHM/FM theory to the selection of a sensor suite for any aerospace system.

  18. Abortion among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  19. Influence of radius of cylinder HTS bulk on guidance force in a maglev vehicle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longcai, Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Bulk superconductors had great potential for various engineering applications, especially in a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle system. In such a system, the HTS bulks were always exposed to AC external magnetic field, which was generated by the inhomogeneous surface magnetic field of the NdFeB guideway. In our previous work, it was observed that the guidance force of the YBCO bulk over the NdFeB guideway used in the HTS maglev vehicle system was decayed by the application of the AC external magnetic field. In this paper, we investigated the influence of the radius of the cylinder HTS bulk exposed to an AC magnetic field perturbation on the guidance force in the maglev vehicle system. From the results, it was found that the guidance force was stronger for the bulk with bigger radius and the guidance force decay rates of the bulks were approximately equal despite of the different radius in the maglev vehicle system. Therefore, in order to obtain higher guidance force in the maglev vehicle system, we could use the cylinder HTS bulks with the bigger radius.

  20. A hybrid optical system for broadband imaging in guidance and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaofang; Jiang, Yuesong; Shen, Chunyan; Zhao, Yiming

    2006-11-01

    A binary optics method has been adopted to improve upon a conventional optical system in guidance and control, and a hybrid broadband imaging system that includes a binary surface is analyzed and evaluated by optical design software ZEMAX. The practical design shows that the introduction of binary optics can simplify the structure of the imaging system and reduce the size and weight of the broadband guidance and control system. Moreover, it can help to acquire images of radiation of different wavelengths from targets; hence it will result in improved overall performance of missiles in wars.

  1. Advances in Orion's On-Orbit Guidance and Targeting System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarritt, Sara K.; Fill, Thomas; Robinson, Shane

    2015-01-01

    NASA's manned spaceflight programs have a rich history of advancing onboard guidance and targeting technology. In order to support future missions, the guidance and targeting architecture for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle must be able to operate in complete autonomy, without any support from the ground. Orion's guidance and targeting system must be sufficiently flexible to easily adapt to a wide array of undecided future missions, yet also not cause an undue computational burden on the flight computer. This presents a unique design challenge from the perspective of both algorithm development and system architecture construction. The present work shows how Orion's guidance and targeting system addresses these challenges. On the algorithm side, the system advances the state-of-the-art by: (1) steering burns with a simple closed-loop guidance strategy based on Shuttle heritage, and (2) planning maneuvers with a cutting-edge two-level targeting routine. These algorithms are then placed into an architecture designed to leverage the advantages of each and ensure that they function in concert with one another. The resulting system is characterized by modularity and simplicity. As such, it is adaptable to the on-orbit phases of any future mission that Orion may attempt.

  2. Automated longwall guidance and control systems, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybak, S. C.

    1978-01-01

    Candidate vertical control systems (VCS) and face advancement systems (FAS) required to satisfactorily automate the longwall system were analyzed and simulated in order to develop an overall longwall system configuration for preliminary design.

  3. Guidance and Control Algorithms for the Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jody L.; CwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Garcia-Llama, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) study was to identify feasible technologies that will enable human exploration of Mars, specifically to deliver large payloads to the Martian surface. This paper focuses on the methods used to guide and control two of the contending technologies, a mid- lift-to-drag (L/D) rigid aeroshell and a hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (HIAD), through the entry portion of the trajectory. The Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) is used to simulate and analyze the trajectories of the contending technologies and guidance and control algorithms. Three guidance algorithms are discussed in this paper: EDL theoretical guidance, Numerical Predictor-Corrector (NPC) guidance and Analytical Predictor-Corrector (APC) guidance. EDL-SA also considered two forms of control: bank angle control, similar to that used by Apollo and the Space Shuttle, and a center-of-gravity (CG) offset control. This paper presents the performance comparison of these guidance algorithms and summarizes the results as they impact the technology recommendations for future study.

  4. Intraoperative imaging and fluorescence image guidance in oncologic surgery using a wearable fluorescence goggle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Suman B.; Gao, Shengkui; Zhu, Nan; Liu, Yang; Sudlow, Gail P.; Akers, Walter J.; Liang, Rongguang; Gruev, Viktor; Achilefu, Samuel

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a wearable, fluorescence goggle based system for intraoperative imaging of tumors and image guidance in oncologic surgery. Our system can detect fluorescence from cancer selective near infra-red (NIR) contrast agent, facilitating intraoperative visualization of surgical margins and tumors otherwise not apparent to the surgeon. The fluorescence information is displayed directly to the head mounted display (HMD) of the surgeon in real time, allowing unhindered surgical procedure under image guidance. This system has the potential of improving surgical outcomes in oncologic surgery and reduce the chances of cancer recurrence.

  5. Integrated guidance, navigation and control verification plan primary flight system. [space shuttle avionics integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The verification process and requirements for the ascent guidance interfaces and the ascent integrated guidance, navigation and control system for the space shuttle orbiter are defined as well as portions of supporting systems which directly interface with the system. The ascent phase of verification covers the normal and ATO ascent through the final OMS-2 circularization burn (all of OPS-1), the AOA ascent through the OMS-1 burn, and the RTLS ascent through ET separation (all of MM 601). In addition, OPS translation verification is defined. Verification trees and roadmaps are given.

  6. Simulation development of a forward sensor-enhanced low-altitude guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelenka, Richard E.; Swenson, Harry N.; Dearing, Munro G.; Hardy, Gordon H.

    1993-01-01

    The requirement to operate aircraft at low-altitude near the terrain is common in the military community and essential for helicopters. The risk and crew workload in this flight regime is severe, with navigation, guidance, and obstacle avoidance demanding high attention. A guidance system relying on digitized terrain elevation maps has been developed that employs airborne navigation, mission requirements, aircraft performance limits, and radar altimeter returns to generate a valley-seeking, low-altitude trajectory between waypoints for display to the pilot. This system has been flight demonstrated to 150 ft above ground level altitude, and is primarily limited by the ability of the pilot to perform obstacle detection and avoidance. In this study, a wide field of view forward sensor has been modeled and incorporated in the guidance system for the purpose of relieving the pilot of the obstacle avoidance duty. The results of a piloted, motion-based simulation of this enhanced low-altitude guidance system is presented. Simulated flights to 50 ft altitude in the presence of obstacles were demonstrated while maintaining situational awareness and close tracking of the guidance trajectory.

  7. Orion Cislunar Guidance and Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Souza, Christopher; Crain, Timothy; Clark, Fred C.

    2007-01-01

    The Orion vehicle is being designed to provide nominal crew transport to the lunar transportation stack in low Earth orbit, crew abort prior during transit to the moon, and crew return to Earth once lunar orbit is achieved. Design of guidance and navigation algorithms to perform maneuvers in support of these functions is dependent on the support provided by navigation infrastructure, the performance of the onboard GN&C system, and the choice of trajectory maneuver methodology for outbound and return mission phases. This paper documents the preliminary integrated analyses performed by members of the Orion Orbit GN&C System team investigating the navigation update accuracy of a modern equivalent to the Apollo era ground tracking network and the expected onboard dispersion and navigation errors during a lunar mission using a linear covariance error analysis technique.

  8. Abortion in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Francome, C

    1992-08-22

    Substantial legal barriers to abortion persist in both the Irish Republic and Northern Ireland, despite growing popular support for abortion under certain conditions. A 1983 amendment to the republic's constitution guarantees the fetus the same right to life s the mother and bans the provision of information on abortion. Although a recent well publicized case of a pregnant, suicidal 14-year-old who travelled to England for an abortion resulted in an Irish Supreme Court ruling that abortion was acceptable in cases of "real and substantial risk" to a woman's life, uncertainty still surrounds the right to travel to England for the procedure. In Northern Ireland, the 1967 Abortion Act does not apply and abortions are denied even in cases of rape and incest. A total of 1766 women from Northern Ireland and 4158 from the republic travelled to England for abortions in 1991. Public opinion seems to have shifted toward support for less restrictive abortion laws, however. Whereas 80% of those surveyed in a 1980 Irish poll supported to ban on abortion in all cases, this statistic had dropped to 30% by 1990. Similarly, a 1991 poll taken in Northern Ireland found 80% of respondents to be a favor of abortion in cases where the procedure is necessary to maintain a woman's physical or mental health. PMID:1392954

  9. Guidance on Evaluating Options for Representing Clinical Data within Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hardiker, Nicholas R.; Hynes, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    The health information system PlunketPlus is a clinical initiative of Plunket (the Royal New Zealand Plunket Society) with a goal of further improving the health outcomes for children in New Zealand. The success of PlunketPlus depends heavily on how data is represented within the system. The purpose of the study described in this paper was to use PlunketPlus as a case study to inform the development of guidance on evaluating options for representing clinical data within health information systems, with a particular focus on automating existing informational processes. It has been possible to take some of the lessons learned to inform the development of initial more generic guidance that might be applicable across a range of domains. This paper concludes with a description of how Plunket applied the guidance as part of the development of PlunketPlus. PMID:24199074

  10. A guidance and navigation system for continuous low thrust vehicles. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tse, C. J. C.

    1973-01-01

    A midcourse guidance and navigation system for continuous low thrust vehicles is described. A set of orbit elements, known as the equinoctial elements, are selected as the state variables. The uncertainties are modelled statistically by random vector and stochastic processes. The motion of the vehicle and the measurements are described by nonlinear stochastic differential and difference equations respectively. A minimum time nominal trajectory is defined and the equation of motion and the measurement equation are linearized about this nominal trajectory. An exponential cost criterion is constructed and a linear feedback guidance law is derived to control the thrusting direction of the engine. Using this guidance law, the vehicle will fly in a trajectory neighboring the nominal trajectory. The extended Kalman filter is used for state estimation. Finally a short mission using this system is simulated. The results indicate that this system is very efficient for short missions.

  11. Procured abortion in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anate, M; Awoyemi, O; Oyawoye, O; Petu, O

    1995-06-01

    A prospective study of the maternal mortality and morbidity and other related social problems among 144 cases of procured abortion in Ilorin, Nigeria over a 24-month period is presented. A mortality rate of 90.3 per thousand procured abortions was recorded. Genital sepsis, haemorrhagic anaemia, gut injury, uterine perforation and vesico vaginal fistulae (VVF) were encountered. Poor referral system, late presentation, poor blood transfusion services and inadequate availability of drugs had adverse effects on the patients. The implications (the menace and frequency) of these and possible measures like improving the literacy level, the moral standards, contraceptive practice and family life education (sex education) are discussed. PMID:7498012

  12. Real-time pilot guidance system for improved flight test maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, R. R., Jr.; Schneider, E. T.

    1984-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Center has developed a pilot trajectory guidance system that increases the accuracy of flight-test data and decreases the time required to achieve and maintain desired test conditions. The system usually presented to the pilot computed differences between reference or desired and actual flight state conditions. The pilot then used a cockpit display as an aid to acquire and hold desired test conditions. This paper discusses various flight-test maneuvers and the quality of data obtained using the guidance system. Some comparisons are made between the quality of maneuvers obtained with and without the system. Limited details of the guidance system and algorithms used are included. In general, the guidance system improved the quality of the maneuvers and trajectories flown, as well as allowing trajectories to be flown that would not have been possible without the system. This system has moved from the developmental stage to full operational use in various Dryden research and test aircraft.

  13. Real-time pilot guidance system for improved flight-test maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, R. R., Jr.; Schneider, E. T.

    1983-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Research Facility has developed a pilot trajectory guidance system that is intended to increase the accuracy of flight-test data and decrease the time required to achieve and maintain desired test conditions, or both. The system usually presented to the pilot computed differences between reference or desired and actual flight state conditions. The pilot then used a cockpit display as an aid to acquire and hold desired test conditions. This paper discusses various flight-test maneuvers and the quality of data obtained using the guidance system. Some comparisons are made between the quality of maneuvers obtained with and without the system. Limited details of the guidance system and algorithms used are included. In general, the guidance system improved the quality of the maneuvers and trajectories flown, as well as allowing trajectories to be flown that would not have been possible without the system. This system has moved from the developmental stage to full operational use in various Dryden research and test aircraft.

  14. A Reaction to an Analysis of Nine Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Gonzalo, Jr.; Plansker, Christine M.

    1990-01-01

    Critiques the assessment of computer-assisted career guidance systems by Sampson et al. (CE 521 972), stating that the conceptual framework was sound and well developed and criteria were based on recognized experts. Limitations of the study are the assumption of equivalent effectiveness and the use of a checklist for comparing the systems. (SK)

  15. Performance analysis of the combined EDS maglev propulsion, levitation, and guidance system

    SciTech Connect

    He, J.L.; Coffey, H.T.; Rote, D.M.

    1993-10-01

    An analysis of the Japanese maglev system which uses only one set of coils in the guideway for combined levitation, propulsion, and guidance functions is presented in this paper. This preliminary study, using the dynamic circuit approach, indicates that the system is very promising.

  16. The role of repulsive guidance molecules in the embryonic and adult vertebrate central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Bernhard K; Yamashita, Toshihide; Schaffar, Gregor; Mueller, Reinhold

    2006-01-01

    During the development of the nervous system, outgrowing axons often have to travel long distances to reach their target neurons. In this process, outgrowing neurites tipped with motile growth cones rely on guidance cues present in their local environment. These cues are detected by specific receptors expressed on growth cones and neurites and influence the trajectory of the growing fibres. Neurite growth, guidance, target innervation and synapse formation and maturation are the processes that occur predominantly but not exclusively during embryonic or early post-natal development in vertebrates. As a result, a functional neural network is established, which is usually remarkably stable. However, the stability of the neural network in higher vertebrates comes at an expensive price, i.e. the loss of any significant ability to regenerate injured or damaged neuronal connections in their central nervous system (CNS). Most importantly, neurite growth inhibitors prevent any regenerative growth of injured nerve fibres. Some of these inhibitors are associated with CNS myelin, others are found at the lesion site and in the scar tissue. Traumatic injuries in brain and spinal cord of mammals induce upregulation of embryonic inhibitory or repulsive guidance cues and their receptors on the neurites. An example for embryonic repulsive directional cues re-expressed at lesion sites in both the rat and human CNS is provided with repulsive guidance molecules, a new family of directional guidance cues. PMID:16939972

  17. Characterizing Observed Limit Cycles in the Cassini Main Engine Guidance Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizvi, Farheen; Weitl, Raquel M.

    2011-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft dynamics-related telemetry during long Main Engine (ME) burns has indicated the presence of stable limit cycles between 0.03-0.04 Hz frequencies. These stable limit cycles cause the spacecraft to possess non-zero oscillating rates for extended periods of time. This indicates that the linear ME guidance control system does not model the complete dynamics of the spacecraft. In this study, we propose that the observed limit cycles in the spacecraft dynamics telemetry appear from a stable interaction between the unmodeled nonlinear elements in the ME guidance control system. Many nonlinearities in the control system emerge from translating the linear engine gimbal actuator (EGA) motion into a spacecraft rotation. One such nonlinearity comes from the gear backlash in the EGA system, which is the focus of this paper. The limit cycle characteristics and behavior can be predicted by modeling this gear backlash nonlinear element via a describing function and studying the interaction of this describing function with the overall dynamics of the spacecraft. The linear ME guidance controller and gear backlash nonlinearity are modeled analytically. The frequency, magnitude, and nature of the limit cycle are obtained from the frequency response of the ME guidance controller and nonlinear element. In addition, the ME guidance controller along with the nonlinearity is simulated. The simulation response contains a limit cycle with similar characterstics as predicted analytically: 0.03-0.04 Hz frequency and stable, sustained oscillations. The analytical and simulated limit cycle responses are compared to the flight telemetry for long burns such as the Saturn Orbit Insertion and Main Engine Orbit Trim Maneuvers. The analytical and simulated limit cycle characteristics compare well with the actual observed limit cycles in the flight telemetry. Both have frequencies between 0.03-0.04 Hz and stable oscillations. This work shows that the stable limit cycles occur

  18. Inertia sensor-based guidance system for upperlimb posture correction.

    PubMed

    Ding, Z Q; Luo, Z Q; Causo, A; Chen, I M; Yue, K X; Yeo, S H; Ling, K V

    2013-02-01

    Stroke rehabilitation is labor-intensive and time-consuming. To assist patients and therapists alike, we propose a wearable system that measures orientation and corrects arm posture using vibrotactile actuators. The system evaluates user posture with respect to a reference and gives feedback in the form of vibration patterns. Users correct their arm posture, one DOF at a time, by following a protocol starting from the shoulder up to the forearm. Five users evaluated the proposed system by replicating ten different postures. Experimental results demonstrated system robustness and showed that some postures were easier to mimic depending on their naturalness. PMID:21978912

  19. A Dual-Field Sensing Scheme for a Guidance System for the Blind

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qing; Han, Youngjoon

    2016-01-01

    An electronic guidance system is very helpful in improving blind people’s perceptions in a local environment. In our previous work “Lin, Q.; Han, Y. A Context-Aware-Based Audio Guidance System for Blind People Using a Multimodal Profile Model. Sensors 2014, 14, 18670–18700”, a context-aware guidance system using a combination of a laser scanner and a camera was proposed. By using a near-field graphical model, the proposed system could interpret a near-field scene in very high resolution. In this paper, our work is extended by adding a far-field graphical model. The integration of the near-field and the far-field models constitutes a dual-field sensing scheme. In the near-field range, reliable inference of the ground and object status is obtained by fusing range data and image data using the near-field graphical model. In the far-field range, which only the camera can cover, the far-field graphical model is proposed to interpret far-field image data based on appearance and spatial prototypes built using the near-field interpreted data. The dual-field sensing scheme provides a solution for the guidance systems to optimise their scene interpretation capability using simple sensor configurations. Experiments under various local conditions were conducted to show the efficiency of the proposed scheme in improving blind people’s perceptions in urban environments. PMID:27187388

  20. Development of the visually impaired person guidance system using GPS.

    PubMed

    Soeda, Koji; Aoki, Shingo; Yanashima, Kenji; Magatani, Kazushige

    2004-01-01

    Most of the visually impaired are able to walk independently, if they have the mental map of their walking area. However, in their unknown area, they cannot walk alone and they need a guide dog or help of others for walking. And not only a supporter of the visually impaired but a visually impaired person receives stress while walking. More over in Japan, there are about 300,000 visually impaired persons, and are about 900 guide dogs. These number of guide dogs are too few. Therefore, an auto navigation system for the visually impaired is required in Japan. Our objective is the development of the auto navigation system for the visually impaired. This navigation system obtains the position of an user (visually impaired user) by DGPS. From the digital map data base in our system and the position of an use are analyzed, and suitable route to the destination is calculated, and then our system guides the way to the destination to the user. In this paper, we'd like to report about our new navigation system for the visually impaired and report some experimental results of our system. From these results, we think our system will be a powerful for the visually impaired. PMID:17271403

  1. Abortion ruling in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Brahams, D

    1989-08-01

    Brahams summarizes a 1989 Quebec Court of Appeal decision in an abortion case and places the ruling in the context of worldwide trends in abortion regulation. In Tremblay v. Daigle (1989 Jul 26), the Quebec court upheld a lower court injunction banning a woman from having an abortion. The injunction had been obtained by the woman's former boyfriend, the putative father. Brahams discusses the current legal status of abortion in Canada, the Daigle court's reasoning, and how the British approach to the legal status of fathers and fetuses in abortion disputes differs from the Canadian. She also briefly summarizes recent abortion-related judicial and regulatory developments in the United States, Ireland, and France. PMID:2569146

  2. The Utilization of a Computer Assisted Guidance System in Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfautz, Charles Van Vleck

    2010-01-01

    Computer assisted guidance systems may adapt well to various models of academic advising, and they have the ability to address the challenge of meeting the diverse advising needs of community college students without sacrificing the integrity of academic advising (Fowkes & McWhirter, 2007). The purpose of this qualitative case study was to assess…

  3. The Social Influence of Two Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Systems: DISCOVER and SIGI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, James P., Jr.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared perceptions of expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness of computer-assisted guidance systems, as measured by adapted version of Counselor Rating Form, for 107 college students in two treatment conditions (DISCOVER and SIGI) and computer imaging control condition. Findings showed that students in both treatment conditions had more…

  4. A Science-Oriented Career Guidance System for the Physically Handicapped. Final Report & External Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomasville Board of Education, GA.

    A career guidance system to encourage and assist physically handicapped secondary level students and adults to undertake science careers was designed, produced, and field tested. Focus is on visual, hearing, and orthopedic handicaps. The following products were developed: (1) two hundred twenty-eight science-related career briefs in large print,…

  5. RADON REDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR EXISTING DETACHED HOUSES - TECHNICAL GUIDANCE (THIRD EDITION) FOR ACTIVE SOIL DEPRESSURIZATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical guidance document is designed to aid in the selection, design, installation and operation of indoor radon reduction techniques using soil depressurization in existing houses. Its emphasis is on active soil depressurization; i.e., on systems that use a fan to depre...

  6. Moderators of Efficacy for a Computer-Assisted Career Guidance System (CACGS) Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Molly Rae

    2013-01-01

    Research investigating career intervention efficacy has inadequately investigated the identification of important client factors which might moderate the effects of various career interventions. The current study had two aims. First it examined the efficacy of a newly developed Computer-Assisted Career Guidance System (CACGS) used alone, and the…

  7. Multiple pole electromagnetic propulsion system with separated ballistic guidance and electrical current contact surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Sims, Jr., James R.

    2008-07-15

    An electromagnetic propulsion system is disclosed having separate rails for ballistic guidance and for carrying current. In this system, one or more pairs of ballistic guidance rails are provided, with each ballistic guidance rail having a pair of current carrying rails joined to it to form a combined rail. Each combined rail is separated electrically from adjacent combined rails by electrically insulating blocks. Each of the current carrying rails in a given combined rail pair have the same electrical polarity, and the polarities alternate between adjacent combined rails. Armatures contact current carrying rails to complete the circuit to generate the accelerating Lorentz force on the armatures. Bore riders on the sabot and/or projectile are in contact with the ballistic guide rails. Separation of the current carrying and ballistic guidance functions increases resistance of the system to rail movement and bending, as well as reduced wear/damage to the rails. In further embodiments, a circumferential over wrap providing compressive force on the rails further increases resistance of the system to rail movement and bending.

  8. Using the Teaching and Guidance Policy Essentials Checklist to Build and Support Effective Early Childhood Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Sarah M.; Longstreth, Sascha L.; Salcedo-Potter, Nina S.; Staub, April

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of preschool expulsion, coupled with racial disparities in expulsion rates and the potential long term negative effects of challenging behaviors in the early years, has created an urgent need to build early childhood systems to address these issues. The teaching and guidance policy essentials checklist (TAG-PEC) has been developed…

  9. Rapid Geometry Creation for Computer-Aided Engineering Parametric Analyses: A Case Study Using ComGeom2 for Launch Abort System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, Veronica; Gage, Peter; Manning, Ted

    2007-01-01

    ComGeom2, a tool developed to generate Common Geometry representation for multidisciplinary analysis, has been used to create a large set of geometries for use in a design study requiring analysis by two computational codes. This paper describes the process used to generate the large number of configurations and suggests ways to further automate the process and make it more efficient for future studies. The design geometry for this study is the launch abort system of the NASA Crew Launch Vehicle.

  10. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  11. [Abortion law in Italy].

    PubMed

    Havránek, F

    1979-04-01

    On May 28, 1978, the Italian senate passed a law legalizing abortions. The law, passed against the will of the Christian Democrat party and the Vatican, is the most liberal in Western Europe. Any woman 18 or older is free to seek an abortion at a private or public institution during the first 90 days of pregnancy. Abortions can be sought on health, economic, social, family, or psychological grounds. A woman requests an abortion at a hospital or clinic, or from a physician. If termination is deemed urgent, the procedure may be performed immediately. If a request is denied, a woman may make another request 7 days later. Second trimester abortions are permitted only if grave danger to the woman or deformation of the fetus is suspected. Women under 18 meed the permission of their parents or legal guardians; a court may also grant permission. Passage of the law has facilitated open debate on the legal and medical aspects of abortion. It has also guaranteed women access to abortions. Physicians, who on grounds of conscience feel they can't perform abortions, may register to be exempt from having to perform them. They may not, however, deny a woman care before and after her abortion, and if they perform the procedure even once, their name is removed from the exempt register. Additionally, all physicians are bound to attempt to preserve the life of all women as well as any fetus which shows life outside the womb. PMID:445601

  12. Terminal guidance sensor system. [space shuttle coupling to orbiting satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system is described for guiding a claw to the proper distance and into the proper orientation in yaw and pitch, to engage a grappling fixture. The system includes four proximity sensors on the claw, that are arranged at corners of an imaginary square, which sense the distance to the top surface of the grappling fixture. If a pair of sensors at opposite corners of the square sense a different distance to the top surface of the grappling fixture, then it is known that the claw is rotated about a corresponding axis with respect to the plane of the grappling fixture.

  13. Nonlinear system guidance in the presence of transmission zero dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, G.; Hunt, L. R.; Su, R.

    1995-01-01

    An iterative procedure is proposed for computing the commanded state trajectories and controls that guide a possibly multiaxis, time-varying, nonlinear system with transmission zero dynamics through a given arbitrary sequence of control points. The procedure is initialized by the system inverse with the transmission zero effects nulled out. Then the 'steady state' solution of the perturbation model with the transmission zero dynamics intact is computed and used to correct the initial zero-free solution. Both time domain and frequency domain methods are presented for computing the steady state solutions of the possibly nonminimum phase transmission zero dynamics. The procedure is illustrated by means of linear and nonlinear examples.

  14. A real-time treatment guidance system for pleural PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Liang, Xing; Sandell, Julia; Finlay, Jarod C.; Dimofte, Andreea; Rodriguez, Carmen; Cengel, Keith; Friedberg, Joseph; Hahn, Stephen M.; Glatstein, Eli

    2012-02-01

    Intrapleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment with lung-sparing surgical treatment for mesothelioma. In the current intrapleural PDT protocol, a moving fiber-based point source is used to deliver the light and the light dose are monitored by 7 detectors placed in the pleural cavity. To improve the delivery of light dose uniformity, an infrared (IR) camera system is used to track the motion of the light sources. A treatment planning system uses feedback from the detectors as well as the IR camera to update light fluence distribution in real-time, which is used to guide the light source motion for uniform light dose distribution. We have reported previously the success of using IR camera to passively monitor the light fluence rate distribution. In this study, the real-time feedback has been implemented in the current system prototype, by transferring data from the IR camera to a computer at a rate of 20 Hz, and by calculation/displaying using Matlab. A dual-correction method is used in the feedback system, so that fluence calculation can match detector readings. Preliminary data from a phantom showed superior light uniformity using this method. Light fluence uniformity from patient treatments is also shown using the correction method dose model.

  15. Integrated Cable System Aging Management Guidance: Low-Voltage Cable

    SciTech Connect

    W.M.Denny

    2003-01-02

    The document provides insights into common aging issues and symptoms and includes pictures and descriptions of deterioration that is observable. The report provides a rapid review of the important information necessary to assess the aging of the low-voltage cable system used in nuclear power plants.

  16. 14 CFR 25.1329 - Flight guidance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... levers. Quick disengagement controls must be readily accessible to each pilot while operating the control wheel (or equivalent) and thrust control levers. (b) The effects of a failure of the system to disengage... the flightcrew to move the thrust levers without requiring excessive force. The autothrust may...

  17. Focused ultrasound thermal therapy system with ultrasound image guidance and temperature measurement feedback.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kao-Han; Young, Sun-Yi; Hsu, Ming-Chuan; Chan, Hsu; Chen, Yung-Yaw; Lin, Win-Li

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we developed a focused ultrasound (FUS) thermal therapy system with ultrasound image guidance and thermocouple temperature measurement feedback. Hydraulic position devices and computer-controlled servo motors were used to move the FUS transducer to the desired location with the measurement of actual movement by linear scale. The entire system integrated automatic position devices, FUS transducer, power amplifier, ultrasound image system, and thermocouple temperature measurement into a graphical user interface. For the treatment procedure, a thermocouple was implanted into a targeted treatment region in a tissue-mimicking phantom under ultrasound image guidance, and then the acoustic interference pattern formed by image ultrasound beam and low-power FUS beam was employed as image guidance to move the FUS transducer to have its focal zone coincident with the thermocouple tip. The thermocouple temperature rise was used to determine the sonication duration for a suitable thermal lesion as a high power was turned on and ultrasound image was used to capture the thermal lesion formation. For a multiple lesion formation, the FUS transducer was moved under the acoustic interference guidance to a new location and then it sonicated with the same power level and duration. This system was evaluated and the results showed that it could perform two-dimensional motion control to do a two-dimensional thermal therapy with a small localization error 0.5 mm. Through the user interface, the FUS transducer could be moved to heat the target region with the guidance of ultrasound image and acoustic interference pattern. The preliminary phantom experimental results demonstrated that the system could achieve the desired treatment plan satisfactorily. PMID:19163216

  18. Flight evaluation of a computer aided low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Jones, Raymond D.; Clark, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    The Flight Systems Development branch of the U.S. Army's Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) and NASA Ames Research Center have developed for flight testing a Computer Aided Low-Altitude Helicopter Flight (CALAHF) guidance system. The system includes a trajectory-generation algorithm which uses dynamic programming and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and precision navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission way points that seeks valleys to minimize threat exposure. This system was developed and evaluated through extensive use of piloted simulation and has demonstrated a 'pilot centered' concept of automated and integrated navigation and terrain mission planning flight guidance. This system has shown a significant improvement in pilot situational awareness, and mission effectiveness as well as a decrease in training and proficiency time required for a near terrain, nighttime, adverse weather system. AVRADA's NUH-60A STAR (Systems Testbed for Avionics Research) helicopter was specially modified, in house, for the flight evaluation of the CALAHF system. The near terrain trajectory generation algorithm runs on a multiprocessor flight computer. Global Positioning System (GPS) data are integrated with Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) data in the flight computer to provide a precise navigation solution. The near-terrain trajectory and the aircraft state information are passed to a Silicon Graphics computer to provide the graphical 'pilot centered' guidance, presented on a Honeywell Integrated Helmet And Display Sighting System (IHADSS). The system design, piloted simulation, and initial flight test results are presented.

  19. Apollo Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) Hardware Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews basic guidance, navigation and control (GNC) concepts, examines the Command and Service Module (CSM) and Lunar Module (LM) GNC organization and discusses the primary GNC and the CSM Stabilization and Control System (SCS), as well as other CSM-specific hardware. The LM Abort Guidance System (AGS), Control Electronics System (CES) and other LM-specific hardware are also addressed. Three subsystems exist on each vehicle: the computer subsystem (CSS), the inertial subsystem (ISS) and the optical subsystem (OSS). The CSS and ISS are almost identical between CSM and LM and each is designed to operate independently. CSM SCS hardware are highlighted, including translation control, rotation controls, gyro assemblies, a gyro display coupler and flight director attitude indicators. The LM AGS hardware are also highlighted and include the abort electronics assembly and the abort sensor assembly; while the LM CES hardware includes the attitude controller assembly, thrust/translation controller assemblies and the ascent engine arming assemble. Other common hardware including the Orbital Rate Display - Earth and Lunar (ORDEAL) and the Crewman Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), a docking aid, are also highlighted.

  20. [Prevention of abortion].

    PubMed

    Alberti, N; Nègre-Garnier, C

    1994-03-01

    Psychologists and marriage counselors conducting preabortion interviews in a French clinic note that women have emotions concerning abortion apart from the reasons they give for choosing to end their pregnancies. Their experience demonstrates that a pregnancy never occurs by chance, but always at a given moment of existence. An abortion becomes an event in the significant and particular history of each woman undergoing one. Particular circumstances of unemployment, illness, or other adversity become linked in the woman's later recollections of the abortion. Abortions often signify psychic problems of separation or loss, as demonstrated by the considerable number of immigrant women who undergo abortions after having been obliged to leave their native lands, or those who undergo abortions after the death of a child. Women choosing abortion experience anguish and guilt. Fantasies of the aborted child represent the period of mourning that must be surmounted. The psychic labor of the grief process allows a progressive detachment to be achieved. The belief that expanded knowledge and use of contraception would lead to a significant decline in abortion has been belied by experience; the number of abortions has been stable over the years despite ever increasing use of contraceptives of all types. The objective of contraception, a harmonious sexual relationship in which pregnancy does not occur, is itself complex. Choices related to a more or less distant future are made by individuals who are to a greater or lesser extent engaged in the relationship using more or less inconvenient techniques. Statements made by couples themselves perfectly reflect the paradoxes. Objections and resistances to contraceptive use are also prompted by societal norms of sex and reproduction. The couple are influenced in their abortion decision by their own level of maturity and by their family backgrounds. PMID:8009399

  1. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    SciTech Connect

    Uythoven, Jan; Boccardi, Andrea; Bravin, Enrico; Goddard, Brennan; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry; Höfle, Wolfgang; Jacquet, Delphine; Kain, Verena; Mazzoni, Stefano; Meddahi, Malika; Valuch, Daniel; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana

    2014-07-01

    To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  2. Abortion: the new debate.

    PubMed

    Callahan, D

    1986-06-01

    The course of the debate on abortion following the 1973 Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion has been marked by a variety of medical and scientific developments. Many of these new developments have important legal, psychologic, social, moral, and political implications. The cumulative impact of all these developments may pose a significant challenge to the social and legal foundations of Roe v. Wade. PMID:3523563

  3. Abortion in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Nancy B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored differences between 35 women who had abortions as teenagers and 36 women who had abortions as adults. Respondents reported on their premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and postabortion distress symptoms. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders, drug abuse, and psychotic delusions were significantly…

  4. Access to legal abortion.

    PubMed

    1993-10-01

    Countries are grouped by the nature and extent of access to legal abortion. The categories include abortion on demand, for social reasons, for health reasons, for rape or incest or to save a mother's life, and only to save a mother's life. Abortion on demand is available for about 40% of the world's population and may have restrictions, such as parental consent or approval of state committees or physicians. There are 22 countries in Europe, 12 in the former Soviet Union, four in Asia, four in the Americas, one in the Middle East (Turkey), and one in Africa (Tunisia) which provide access to early abortion on demand. Abortion for social and economic reasons is available to 21% of the world's population in five countries in Asia, three in Europe (Great Britain, Finland, and Hungary), and one in Africa (Zambia). Abortion for health reasons is available to 16% of the world's population located in 21 countries in Africa, eight in the Americas, seven in Asia, five in Europe, and four in the Middle East. Laws governing about 5% of the world's population permit abortion only in the case of rape, incest, or when a mother's life is in danger (Brazil, Mexico, and Sudan). 18% of the world's population is covered by laws which permit an abortion only when a mother's life is in danger; this includes 19 countries in Africa, 11 in the Americas, nine in Asia, seven in the Middle East, and one in Europe (Ireland). PMID:12287145

  5. "Conservative" views of abortion.

    PubMed

    Devine, P E

    1997-01-01

    The introduction to this essay, which presents and defends the "conservative" position on abortion, explains that this position holds that 1) abortion is wrong because it destroys the fetus; 2) the fetus has full personhood from conception (or very near conception); 3) abortion is only justified under special circumstances, such as when the pregnancy poses a threat to the woman's life; and 4) these conclusions should be reflected in law and public policy. Part 2 sets forth the moral foundations for this position. The third part considers the status of the fetus and reviews the various arguments that have been forwarded to resolve the question, such as the species principle, the potentiality principle, the sentience principle, and the conventionalist principle. Part 4 applies the conservative position to problems posed by hard cases, determines that abortion is a form of homicide from two weeks after fertilization (at the latest), reviews circumstances in which various legal definitions of homicide are applicable, argues for the denial of abortion funding by the state, and notes that violent militancy is not the appropriate response to a belief that abortion should be illegal. Section 5 refutes objections to the conservative position based on the fact that some opponents of abortion also oppose contraception, based on feminist ideals, and based on calls for religious freedom in a pluralistic society. In conclusion, the labels applied to the abortion debate are examined, and it is suggested that "communitarian" is the best term for the conservative position. PMID:12348327

  6. Flight evaluation of a computer aided low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Jones, Raymond D.; Clark, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    The Flight Systems Development branch of the U.S. Army's Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) and NASA Ames Research Center developed for flight testing a Computer Aided Low-Altitude Helicopter Flight (CALAHF) guidance system. The system includes a trajectory-generation algorithm which uses dynamic programming and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and precision navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission waypoints that seeks valleys to minimize threat exposure. This system was developed and evaluated through extensive use of piloted simulation and has demonstrated a 'pilot centered' concept of automated and integrated navigation and terrain mission planning flight guidance. This system has shown a significant improvement in pilot situational awareness, and mission effectiveness as well as a decrease in training and proficiency time required for a near terrain, nighttime, adverse weather system.

  7. Crew Exploration Vehicle Ascent Abort Coverage Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abadie, Marc J.; Berndt, Jon S.; Burke, Laura M.; Falck, Robert D.; Gowan, John W., Jr.; Madsen, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    An important element in the design of NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is the consideration given to crew safety during various ascent phase failure scenarios. To help ensure crew safety during this critical and dynamic flight phase, the CEV requirements specify that an abort capability must be continuously available from lift-off through orbit insertion. To address this requirement, various CEV ascent abort modes are analyzed using 3-DOF (Degree Of Freedom) and 6-DOF simulations. The analysis involves an evaluation of the feasibility and survivability of each abort mode and an assessment of the abort mode coverage using the current baseline vehicle design. Factors such as abort system performance, crew load limits, thermal environments, crew recovery, and vehicle element disposal are investigated to determine if the current vehicle requirements are appropriate and achievable. Sensitivity studies and design trades are also completed so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle design. An overview of the CEV ascent abort modes is presented along with the driving requirements for abort scenarios. The results of the analysis completed as part of the requirements validation process are then discussed. Finally, the conclusions of the study are presented, and future analysis tasks are recommended.

  8. Induced abortion: epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Baird, D

    1975-01-01

    Sir Dugald Baird sketches the history of abortion legislation in Great Britain from the beginning of the century. In his views the 1967 Abortion Act has been one of the most important and beneficial pieces of social legislation enacted in Britain in the last 100 years. It has, however, brought problems both of administration in the hospitals and to individual doctors and nurses, particularly when the patients are young single women and even schoolgirls. One of the consequences of the Abortion Act has been a fall in maternal mortality and perinatal mortality rates. Abortion does not seem to be followed by serious emotional sequelae. Nevertheless recent changes in sexual mores have introduced new and serious social problems which are discussed in relation to the role of the doctor in his relationship with patients seeking abortion. PMID:765461

  9. Abortion: a history.

    PubMed

    Hovey, G

    1985-01-01

    This review of abortion history considers sacred and secular practice and traces abortion in the US, the legacy of the 19th century, and the change that occurred in the 20th century. Abortion has been practiced since ancient times, but its legality and availability have been threatened continuously by forces that would denigrate women's fundamental rights. Currently, while efforts to decrease the need for abortion through contraception and education continue, access to abortion remains crucial for the well-being of millions of women. That access will never be secure until profound changes occur in the whole society. Laws that prohibit absolutely the practice of abortion are a relatively recent development. In the early Roman Catholic church, abortion was permitted for male fetuses in the first 40 days of pregnancy and for female fetuses in the first 80-90 days. Not until 1588 did Pope Sixtus V declare all abortion murder, with excommunication as the punishment. Only 3 years later a new pope found the absolute sanction unworkable and again allowed early abortions. 300 years would pass before the Catholic church under Pius IX again declared all abortion murder. This standard, declared in 1869, remains the official position of the church, reaffirmed by the current pope. In 1920 the Soviet Union became the 1st modern state formally to legalize abortion. In the early period after the 1917 revolution, abortion was readily available in state operated facilities. These facilities were closed and abortion made illegal when it became clear that the Soviet Union would have to defend itself against Nazi Germany. After World War II women were encouraged to enter the labor force, and abortion once again became legal. The cases of the Catholic church and the Soviet Union illustrate the same point. Abortion legislation has never been in the hands of women. In the 20th century, state policy has been determined by the rhythms of economic and military expansion, the desire for cheap

  10. Abortion in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Greydanus, D E; Railsback, L D

    1985-09-01

    This article reviews the difficult but complex subject of abortion in adolescents. Methods of abortion are outlined and additional aspects are presented: psychological effects, counseling issues, and legal parameters. It is our conclusion that intense efforts should be aimed at education of youth about sexuality and prevention of pregnancy, utilizing appropriate contraceptive services. When confronted with a youth having an unwanted pregnancy, all legal options need to be carefully explored: delivery, adoption, or abortion. The decision belongs to the youth and important individuals in her environment. Understanding developmental aspects of adolescence will help the clinician deal with the pregnant teenagers. If abortion is selected, a first trimester procedure is best. Finally, physicians are urged to be aware of the specific, ever changing legal dynamics concerning this subject which are present in their states. Abortion is a phenomenon which has become an emotional but undeniably important aspect of adolescent sexuality and adolescent health care, in this country and around the world. PMID:3916607

  11. Flight test of a low-altitude helicopter guidance system with obstacle avoidance capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelenka, Richard E.; Clark, Raymond F.; Branigan, Robert G.

    1995-01-01

    Military aircraft regularly conduct missions that include low-atltitude, near-terrain flight in order to increase covertness and payload effectiveness. Civilian applications include airborne fire fighting, police surveillance, search and rescue, and helicopter emergency medical service. Several fixed-wing aircraft now employ terrain elevation maps and forward-pointed radars to achieve automated terrain following or terrain avoidance flight. Similar systems specialized to helicopters and their flight regime have not received as much attention. A helicopter guidance system relying on digitized terrain elevation maps has been developed that employs airborne navigation, mission requirements, aircraft performance limits, and radar altimeter returns to generate a valley-seeking, low-altitude trajectory between waypoints. The guidance trajectory is symbolically presented to the pilot on a helmet mounted display. This system has been flight tested to 150 ft (45.7 m) above ground level altitude at 80 kts, and is primarily limited by the ability of the pilot to perform manual detection and avoidance of unmapped hazards. In this study, a wide field of view laser radar sensor has been incorporated into this guidance system to assist the pilot in obstacle detection and avoidance, while expanding the system's operational flight envelope. The results from early flight tests of this system are presented. Low-altitude missions to 100 ft (30.5 m) altitude at 80n kts in the presence of unmapped natural and man-made obstacles were demonstrated while the pilot maintained situational awareness and tracking of the guidance trajectory. Further reductions in altitude are expected with continued flight testing.

  12. Software Documentation for the Bartlesville Public Schools: Part One. The Bartlesville System Total Guidance Information Support System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Tommy L.; And Others

    The Total Guidance Information Support System (TGISS), is an information storage and retrieval system for counselors. The total TGISS, including hardware and software, extends the counselor's capabilities by providing ready access to student information under secure conditions. The hardware required includes: (1) IBM 360/50 central processing…

  13. 23 CFR Appendix D to Subpart A of... - Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System D Appendix D to Subpart A of Part 470 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY.... 470, Subpt. A, App. D Appendix D to Subpart A of Part 470—Guidance Criteria for Evaluating...

  14. 23 CFR Appendix D to Subpart A of... - Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System D Appendix D to Subpart A of Part 470 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY.... 470, Subpt. A, App. D Appendix D to Subpart A of Part 470—Guidance Criteria for Evaluating...

  15. Sensors and sensor systems for guidance and navigation II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 22, 23, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Sharon S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Topics discussed in this volume include aircraft guidance and navigation, optics for visual guidance of aircraft, spacecraft and missile guidance and navigation, lidar and ladar systems, microdevices, gyroscopes, cockpit displays, and automotive displays. Papers are presented on optical processing for range and attitude determination, aircraft collision avoidance using a statistical decision theory, a scanning laser aircraft surveillance system for carrier flight operations, star sensor simulation for astroinertial guidance and navigation, autonomous millimeter-wave radar guidance systems, and a 1.32-micron long-range solid state imaging ladar. Attention is also given to a microfabricated magnetometer using Young's modulus changes in magnetoelastic materials, an integrated microgyroscope, a pulsed diode ring laser gyroscope, self-scanned polysilicon active-matrix liquid-crystal displays, the history and development of coated contrast enhancement filters for cockpit displays, and the effect of the display configuration on the attentional sampling performance.

  16. Laparoscopic microwave ablation of human liver tumours using a novel three-dimensional magnetic guidance system

    PubMed Central

    Sindram, David; Simo, Kerri A; Swan, Ryan Z; Razzaque, Sharif; Niemeyer, David J; Seshadri, Ramanathan M; Hanna, Erin; McKillop, Iain H; Iannitti, David A; Martinie, John B

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate antenna placement is essential for effective microwave ablation (MWA) of lesions. Laparoscopic targeting is made particularly challenging in liver tumours by the needle's trajectory as it passes through the abdominal wall into the liver. Previous optical three-dimensional guidance systems employing infrared technology have been limited by interference with the line of sight during procedures. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate a newly developed magnetic guidance system for laparoscopic MWA of liver tumours in a pilot study. Methods Thirteen patients undergoing laparoscopic MWA of liver tumours gave consent to their participation in the study and were enrolled. Lesion targeting was performed using the InnerOptic AIM™ 3-D guidance system to track the real-time position and orientation of the antenna and ultrasound probe. Results A total of 45 ablations were performed on 34 lesions. The median number of lesions per patient was two. The mean ± standard deviation lesion diameter was 18.0 ± 9.2 mm and the mean time to target acquisition was 3.5 min. The first-attempt success rate was 93%. There were no intraoperative or immediate postoperative complications. Over an average follow-up of 7.8 months, one patient was noted to have had an incomplete ablation, seven suffered regional recurrences, and five patients remained disease-free. Conclusions The AIM™ guidance system is an effective adjunct for laparoscopic ablation. It facilitates a high degree of accuracy and a good first-attempt success rate, and avoids the line of site interference associated with infrared systems. PMID:25231167

  17. A 3D visualization and guidance system for handheld optical imaging devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azar, Fred S.; de Roquemaurel, Benoit; Cerussi, Albert; Hajjioui, Nassim; Li, Ang; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Sauer, Frank

    2007-03-01

    We have developed a novel 3D visualization and guidance system for handheld optical imaging devices. In this paper, the system is applied to measurements of breast/cancerous tissue optical properties using a handheld diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) instrument. The combined guidance system/DOS instrument becomes particularly useful for monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients and for longitudinal studies where measurement reproducibility is critical. The system uses relatively inexpensive hardware components and comprises a 6 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) magnetic tracking device including a DC field generator, three sensors, and a PCI card running on a PC workstation. A custom-built virtual environment combined with a well-defined workflow provide the means for image-guided measurements, improved longitudinal studies of breast optical properties, 3D reconstruction of optical properties within the anatomical map, and serial data registration. The DOS instrument characterizes tissue function such as water, lipid and total hemoglobin concentration. The patient lies on her back at a 45-degrees angle. Each spectral measurement requires consistent contact with the skin, and lasts about 5-10 seconds. Therefore a limited number of positions may be studied. In a reference measurement session, the physician acquires surface points on the breast. A Delaunay-based triangulation algorithm is used to build the virtual breast surface from the acquired points. 3D locations of all DOS measurements are recorded. All subsequently acquired surfaces are automatically registered to the reference surface, thus allowing measurement reproducibility through image guidance using the reference measurements.

  18. 3D ultrasound image guidance system used in RF uterine adenoma and uterine bleeding ablation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Mingyue; Luo, Xiaoan; Cai, Chao; Zhou, Chengping; Fenster, Aaron

    2006-03-01

    Uterine adenoma and uterine bleeding are the two most prevalent diseases in Chinese women. Many women lose their fertility from these diseases. Currently, a minimally invasive ablation system using an RF button electrode is being used in Chinese hospitals to destroy tumor cells or stop bleeding. In this paper, we report on a 3D US guidance system developed to avoid accidents or death of the patient by inaccurate localization of the tumor position during treatment. A 3D US imaging system using a rotational scanning approach of an abdominal probe was built. In order to reduce the distortion produced when the rotational axis is not collinear with the central beam of the probe, a new 3D reconstruction algorithm is used. Then, a fast 3D needle segmentation algorithm is used to find the electrode. Finally, the tip of electrode is determined along the segmented 3D needle and the whole electrode is displayed. Experiments with a water phantom demonstrated the feasibility of our approach.

  19. Phantom study of an ultrasound guidance system for transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    McLeod, A Jonathan; Currie, Maria E; Moore, John T; Bainbridge, Daniel; Kiaii, Bob B; Chu, Michael W A; Peters, Terry M

    2016-06-01

    A guidance system using transesophageal echocardiography and magnetic tracking is presented which avoids the use of nephrotoxic contrast agents and ionizing radiation required for traditional fluoroscopically guided procedures. The aortic valve is identified in tracked biplane transesophageal echocardiography and used to guide stent deployment in a mixed reality environment. Additionally, a transapical delivery tool with intracardiac echocardiography capable of monitoring stent deployment was created. This system resulted in a deployment depth error of 3.4mm in a phantom. This was further improved to 2.3mm with the custom-made delivery tool. In comparison, the variability in deployment depth for traditional fluoroscopic guidance was estimated at 3.4mm. PMID:25595049

  20. Guidance law simulation studies for complex approaches using the Microwave Landing System (MLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents results for MLS guidance algorithm development conducted by DAC for NASA under the Advance Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Technology Studies program (NAS1-18028). The study consisted of evaluating guidance laws for vertical and lateral path control, as well as speed control, by simulating an MLS approach for the Washington National Airport. This work is an extension and generalization of a previous ATOPS contract (NAS1-16202) completed by DAC in 1985. The Washington river approach was simulated by six waypoints and one glideslope change and consisted of an eleven nautical mile approach path. Tracking performance was generated for 10 cases representing several different conditions, which included MLS noise, steady wind, turbulence, and windshear. Results of this simulation phase are suitable for use in future fixed-base simulator evaluations employing actual hardware (autopilot and a performance management system), as well as crew procedures and information requirements for MLS.

  1. Optimization of levitation and guidance forces in a superconducting Maglev system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildizer, Irfan; Cansiz, Ahmet; Ozturk, Kemal

    2016-09-01

    Optimization of the levitation for superconducting Maglev systems requires effective use of vertical and guidance forces during the operation. In this respect the levitation and guidance forces in terms of various permanent magnet array configurations are analyzed. The arrangements of permanent magnet arrays interacting with the superconductor are configured for the purpose of increasing the magnetic flux density. According to configurations, modeling the interaction forces between the permanent magnet and the superconductor are established in terms of the frozen image model. The model is complemented with the analytical calculations and provides a reasonable agreement with the experiments. The agreement of the analytical calculation associated with the frozen image model indicates a strong case to establish an optimization, in which provides preliminary analysis before constructing more complex Maglev system.

  2. Benefits of HWIL simulation to develop guidance and control systems for missiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Tadashi

    2000-07-01

    The essential benefit of Hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation can be summarized as that the performance of missile guidance/control system is evaluated realistically without the modeling error by using actual hardware such as seeker systems, autopilot systems and servo equipments. HWIL simulation, however, requires very expensive facilities: in these facilities, target model generators are indispensable subsystems. In this paper, a target model generator for RF/IR seeker systems is introduced, and then, two technical problems with this facility are discussed: a method to overcome the line-of-sight (LSO) angle limitation and the RF/IR dual mode seeker simulation technique.

  3. Characterization of the SPR II generated radiation environments next to and within a guidance system

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.G.; Griffin, P.J.

    1994-02-01

    The neutron fluences and spectra and the gamma ray doses inside and in the vicinity of a guidance system exposed to the Sandia Pulsed Reactor II (SPR II) in four configurations have been determined. This project required customization of the environment and the application of new techniques to determine the spectra within the system. The required radiation environment was achieved, and the experimental results clearly demonstrated that the radiation environment inside the system was very different from that seen outside. This example demonstrates very clearly that experimenters must consider the effect the test apparatus may have on the environment inside the system.

  4. Legalized Abortion in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Thomas M.

    1967-01-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing. PMID:6062283

  5. Undue burden of abortion.

    PubMed

    Charo, A

    1992-07-01

    In Planned Parenthood vs. Casey, the US Supreme Court upheld all but 1 provision of Pennsylvania law that further restricts access to abortion. The law has a 24-hour waiting period, parental consent for minors with a judicial bypass, husband notification, and the circumstances of each abortion are to be reported to the state for statistical purposes. The Court overturned the husband notification provision even though it had a bypass procedure. The most important aspect of the decision was the change from the strict scrutiny in which abortion was to be left alone unless the state could show a compelling need to regulate it to an undue burden test in which the state is allowed to regulate abortion so long as it does not place an undue burden on women trying to seek abortion services. The 24-hour waiting period was upheld; however, it was also acknowledged that since 83% of women live in counties without abortion services, this may turn out to be an undue burden and it is open to review at later date when statistical evidence is available. The Opinion was written by Justices O'Connor, Kennedy, and Souter. Chief Justice Rehnquist and Justices Scalia, White, and Thomas dissented saying that the undue burden standard was unprecedented in constitutional law and undefinable in practice. It is likely now that the Court will begin writing abortion policy as it clarifies each specific point of the law rather than ruling on fundamental legal principles. PMID:1351612

  6. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing. PMID:6062283

  7. Evaluation of the navigation performance of shipboard-VTOL-landing guidance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Paulk, C. H., Jr.; Steck, S. A.; Schmidt, S. F.; Merz, A. W.

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the performance of a VTOL aircraft landing approach navigation system that receives data (1) from either a microwave scanning beam (MSB) or a radar-transponder (R-T) landing guidance system, and (2) information data-linked from an aviation facility ship. State-of-the-art low-cost-aided inertial techniques and variable gain filters were used in the assumed navigation system. Compensation for ship motion was accomplished by a landing pad deviation vector concept that is a measure of the landing pad's deviation from its calm sea location. The results show that the landing guidance concepts were successful in meeting all of the current Navy navigation error specifications, provided that vector magnitude of the allowable error, rather than the error in each axis, is a permissible interpretation of acceptable performance. The success of these concepts, however, is strongly dependent on the distance measuring equipment bias. In addition, the 'best possible' closed-loop tracking performance achievable with the assumed point-mass VTOL aircraft guidance concept is demonstrated.

  8. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. Methods The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Results The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers’ education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. Conclusion The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this

  9. Assessment and evaluation of MV image guidance system performance in radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kanakavelu, Nithya; Samuel, E. James Jebaseelan

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim The clinical use of imaging system in image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) necessitates performing periodic quality assurance of the system to be confident in applying corrections for patient set-up errors. We aim to develop and implement a quality assurance (QA) programme for megavoltage (MV) based image guidance system and assess its long term performance for a period of 3 years. Materials and methods Periodic QA tests were performed for the MV planar and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging system to assess the system safety, mechanical and geometrical accuracy, image quality and dose. The tests were performed using the equipment supplied by the manufacturer along with the image guidance system and using simple methods developed in-house. The test results were compared with expected or baseline values established during commissioning. Results The safety system was found to be functional. The results of mechanical and geometrical tests were in good agreement with the expected results. The system mechanical positioning was stable and reproducible within ±2 mm accuracy. The image quality and the imaging dose of the planar and CBCT imaging were found to agree with the baseline values and the manufacturer specifications. Discussion Throughout the three-year period, all the QA tests were within the specification. The mechanical and geometrical tests are most crucial as they directly affect the patient positioning accuracy. Conclusion We conclude that the MV image guidance system is efficient to perform IGRT and insist to perform periodic QA tests and calibration for the system. PMID:25949222

  10. Abortion in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sedgh, Gilda

    2010-07-01

    Maternal mortality is the second most common cause of death among women in Ghana, and more than one in 10 maternal deaths (11%) are the result of unsafe induced abortions.1 In addition, a substantial proportion of women who survive an unsafe abortion experience complications from the procedure. This suffering is all the more tragic because it is unnecessary: Many women likely turn to unsafe providers or do not obtain adequate postabortion care when it is needed because they are unaware that abortion is legal on fairly broad grounds in Ghana. PMID:20653094

  11. Metaboli-Net: online groupware system providing counseling guidance for patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Shigeki; Taniguchi, Shin-ichi; Kato, Atsuko; Inoue, Kazuoki; Yamamoto, Naoya; Ohkura, Tsuyoshi; Teramoto, Kei; Shigemasa, Chiaki; Kondoh, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    This study presented a newly developed online groupware system, Metaboli-Net, to yield counseling guidance on diet and exercise to patients with metabolic syndrome. A distinctive feature adopted in the system to maintain the retention rate of patients was the social network service (SNS) that enables the patients to share their dietary and relevant health information with other participants in the same group on the network. A pilot study was conducted to prove the effectiveness of the system in improving the patient's lifestyle and dietary health awareness. SNS also contributed to the participant's adherence to intervention programs. PMID:20543340

  12. The Development of the MSL Guidance, Navigation, and Control System for Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    San Martin, A. Miguel; Lee, Steven W.; Wong, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    On August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission successfully delivered the Curiosity rover to its intended target. It was the most complex and ambitious landing in the history of the red planet. A key component of the landing system, the requirements for which were driven by the mission ambitious science goals, was the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) system. This paper will describe the technical challenges of the MSL GN&C system, the resulting architecture and design needed to meet those challenges, and the development process used for its implementation and testing.

  13. Numerical Investigation of Supersonic Oscillatory Flow with Strong Interference over a Capsule-shaped Abort System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunpeng; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    The flow past a capsule-shaped space transportation system (STS) is numerically analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for different free stream Mach numbers ranging from 1.2 to 5.0, where a capsule is modeled by a cone, and a rocket by a circular cylinder. The objective of this research is to study Mach number effects on phenomena of the supersonic aerodynamic interference with periodic flow oscillations at supersonic regime. So far we have considered two models: model A (without disk) and model B (with disk). It was found from experimental and computational results that the flow around model A becomes steady, where aerodynamic interaction is not observed, while in model B, flow becomes unsteady with periodic oscillations. This flow oscillation is considered to be a potentially high risk in separation of the capsule and rocket. Therefore, the present study focuses on the unsteady case of model B. Numerical results at M=3.0 compared well with experimental ones, which validates the present CFD. Time-averaged results are employed to see the whole trajectories of shock waves and the variation in amplitude of flow oscillation during one cycle. Moreover, a fence is proposed as a device to suppress the flow oscillation.

  14. The onshore northeast Brazilian rift basins: An early Neocomian aborted rift system

    SciTech Connect

    Matos, R. )

    1990-05-01

    Early Cretaceous rift basins of northeastern Brazil illustrate key three-dimensional geometries of intracontinental rift systems, controlled mainly by the basement structures. These basins were formed and then abandoned during the early extension associated with the north-south-propagating separation of South America and Africa. During the early Neocomian, extensional deformation jumped from the easternmost basins (group 1: Sergipe Alagoas and Gabon basins; group 2: Reconcavo, Tucano, and Jatoba basins) to the west, forming a series of northeast-trending intracratonic basins (group 3: Araripe, Rio do Peixe, Iguatu, Malhada Vermelha, Lima Campos, and Potiguar basins). The intracratonic basins of groups 2 and 3 consist of asymmetric half-grabens separated by basement highs, transfer faults, and/or accommodation zones. These basins are typically a few tens of kilometers wide and trend northeast-southwest, roughly perpendicular to the main extension direction during the early Neocomian. Preexisting upper crustal weakness zones, like the dominantly northeast-southwest-trending shear zones of the Brazilian orogeny, controlled the development of intracrustal listric normal faults. Internal transverse structures such as transfer faults (Reconcavo basin and onshore Potiguar basin) and accommodation zones (onshore Potiguar basin and Araripe basin) were also controlled by the local basement structural framework. Transverse megafaults and lithostructural associations controlled the three main rift trends. The megashear zones of Pernanbuco (Brazil)-Ngaundere (Africa) apparently behaved like a huge accommodation zone, balancing extensional deformation along the Reconcavo-Jatoba/Sergipe Alagoas-Gabon trends with simultaneous extension along the Araripe-Potiguar trend. The Sergipe Alagoas-Gabon trend and the Potiguar basin represent the site of continued evolution into a marginal open basin following early Neocomian deformation.

  15. [Interregional project concerning abortion].

    PubMed

    Jourdain, A; Pierotti, D; Vinclair, M

    1979-01-01

    The law legalizing abortion in France was passed in 1975. To group information of a social and medical nature and to publish reports on their activities, a questionnaire was designed to be filled by physicians and nurses working in centers and hospitals performing abortion. There were 19,000 abortions performed in 1976, and 30,000 are expected to be performed in 1979. The questionnaire contains 80 questions gathering information on socieconomic data, on medical history, on the procedure of the intervention, and on the follow-up visit. A study done on 5700 questionnaires filled between 1976 and 1977 show that most abortion seekers belong to the middle class, and that pregnancy was due in 20% of cases to pill failure, and in 34% of cases to failure of behavioral methods, or to lack of contraception. 88% of patients declared themselves satisfied with the procedure. PMID:12309432

  16. Induced abortion in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hull, T H; Sarwono, S W; Widyantoro, N

    1993-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most difficult sociomedical problems facing the Indonesian government. While well-known in traditional society, the practice was discouraged by all Indonesian religious groups, and forbidden by the Dutch colonial authorities. Although abortion was technically illegal under the criminal code, a judicial interpretation in the early 1970s permitted medical professionals to offer the procedure so long as they were discreet and careful. The numbers of medical abortions carried out in Indonesia rose dramatically, and there was evidence of matching declines in the incidence of morbidity and mortality caused by dangerous illegal procedures. Medical and community groups campaigned for a more liberal abortion law to protect legal practitioners and stamp out illegal traditional practices. Their efforts appeared to bear fruit in the draft Health Law, but when the law was passed by the legislature in late 1992, the issue was again clouded by contradictions and inconsistencies. PMID:8212094

  17. Continuous Improvements to East Coast Abort Landings for Space Shuttle Aborts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Kevin D.

    2003-01-01

    Improvement initiatives in the areas of guidance, flight control, and mission operations provide increased capability for successful East Coast Abort Landings (ECAL). Automating manual crew procedures in the Space Shuttle's onboard guidance allows faster and more precise commanding of flight control parameters needed for successful ECALs. Automation also provides additional capability in areas not possible with manual control. Operational changes in the mission concept allow for the addition of new landing sites and different ascent trajectories that increase the regions of a successful landing. The larger regions of ECAL capability increase the safety of the crew and Orbiter.

  18. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.; AHRENS,L.; III FLILLER,R.; GASSNER,D.; MCINTYRE,G.T.; MICHNOFF,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.

    2002-06-03

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  19. Practical Maintenance of Digital Systems: Guidance to Maximize the Benefits of Digital Technology for the Maintenance of Digital Systems and Plant Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D; Scarola, K

    2004-10-30

    This report presents detailed guidance for the maintenance and testing of modern digital systems. The guidance provides practical means for plants to take advantage of the increased diagnostic and self-test capabilities of these systems. It helps plants avoid mistakes in design and installation that could lead to increased maintenance burden and decreased system reliability and availability.

  20. Botswana: abortion "debate" dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mogwe, A

    1992-01-01

    The Penal Code (Amendment) Bill or the abortion bill has the objective of liberalizing the current law on the regulation of abortion. Abortion had been strictly prohibited and carried stiff penalties. Anyone who attempted to assists a woman to procure an abortion could be liable to 7 years' imprisonment. However, medical abortions were distinguished as being medically determined to save the health of the mother. Demands for a reevaluation of the law came from the medical profession, and in response the Minister for Presidential Affairs submitted a bill to Parliament in November, 1990. The expressed government rationale for these proposed amendments was concern about the health of women. In Botswana about 200 women die yearly because of pregnancy. According to the proposed law: an abortion could be carried out within the first 16 weeks of pregnancy if: 1) the pregnancy were a result of rape, incest, or defilement (the impregnation of a girl aged 16 or less, the impregnation of imbeciles or idiots), 2) the physical or mental health of the woman were at risk because of the pregnancy, 3) the child would be born with a serious physical or mental abnormality. The abortion could be carried out only if 2 medical doctors approved it. The amendments fall far short of increasing women's control over their bodies. The Botswana Christian Council issued a statement early in the public debate. While it did not oppose the bill in its entirety, clear concern was expressed concerning the apparent right of determining who lives and who dies depending on the handicap of the child. This rather liberal position was challenged by the Roman Catholic Church which interpreted abortion as the murder of God-given life. The bill was nevertheless passed by Parliament in September 1991, and the President signed it on October 11, 1991. PMID:12288837

  1. Guidance system operations plan for manned CM earth orbital missions using program SKYLARK 1. Section 4: Operational modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The operational modes for the guidance system operations plan for Program SKYLARK 1 are presented. The procedures control the guidance and navigation system interfaces with the flight crew and the mission control center. The guidance operational concept is designed to comprise a set of manually initiated programs and functions which may be arranged by the flight crew to implement a large class of flight plans. This concept will permit both a late flight plan definition and a capability for real time flight plan changes.

  2. Abortion law across Australia--A review of nine jurisdictions.

    PubMed

    de Costa, Caroline; Douglas, Heather; Hamblin, Julie; Ramsay, Philippa; Shircore, Mandy

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the current legal status of abortion in Australia and its implications. Australian abortion law has been a matter for the states since before Federation. In the years since Federation there have been significant reforms and changes in the abortion laws of some jurisdictions, although not all. Across Australia there are now nine sets of laws, state and Commonwealth, concerned with abortion. The test of a lawful abortion varies greatly across jurisdictions. In a number of states and territories, it is necessary to establish a serious risk to the physical or mental health of the woman if the pregnancy was to continue. In some cases, the certification of two doctors is required, particularly for abortions at later gestations. There are also physical restrictions on access, such as in South Australia and the Northern Territory where abortion must take place in a hospital. Only in the ACT has abortion been removed from the criminal law altogether. Variations in the law and restrictions arising from these are not consistent with the aims and provision of the universal, accessible health care system aspired to in Australia. There is an urgent need for overall reform and the introduction of uniformity to Australia's abortion laws, including removal of abortion from the criminal law. PMID:25871844

  3. The effect of electromagnetic guidance system on early learning curve of ultrasound for novices

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Jung; Min, Jiyoung; Song, Kyungchul; Song, Jang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Electromagnetic guidance reveals needle alignment and position relative to the image plane on an ultrasound view. This study compared the early learning curves of novices performing ultrasound-guided needle placement with (n = 10) or without electromagnetic guidance (n = 10). Methods Participants performed 30 ultrasound-guided needle placements using an echogenic stick (0.3-cm diameter) as a target inside a phantom model; this early learning period was divided into sequential periods (P1: 1–5, P2: 6–10, P3: 11–15, P4: 16–20, P5: 21–25, P6: 26–30 attempts). Results Using an in-plane approach, the time required for needle placement in the EMG group was significantly shorter than that of the non-EMG group in P1, P2, P4, and P6 and the number of needle advances of the EMG group was significantly smaller than that of the non-EMG group in P1 and P2. Using an out-of-plane approaches, the time required for needle placement in the EMG group was significantly shorter than that of the non-EMG group in all periods, but the number of needle advances was similar between both groups in P1–P5. Conclusions The electromagnetic guidance system may be beneficial when performing ultrasound guided peripheral nerve blocks or vascular cannulation in the early learning period, especially by inexperienced operators with reducing patient risk. PMID:26885296

  4. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Guidance System for a Dedicated Intracranial Radiosurgery Treatment Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Ruschin, Mark; Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario ; Komljenovic, Philip T.; Ansell, Steve; Menard, Cynthia; Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario ; Bootsma, Gregory; Cho, Young-Bin; Chung, Caroline; Jaffray, David; Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Image guidance has improved the precision of fractionated radiation treatment delivery on linear accelerators. Precise radiation delivery is particularly critical when high doses are delivered to complex shapes with steep dose gradients near critical structures, as is the case for intracranial radiosurgery. To reduce potential geometric uncertainties, a cone beam computed tomography (CT) image guidance system was developed in-house to generate high-resolution images of the head at the time of treatment, using a dedicated radiosurgery unit. The performance and initial clinical use of this imaging system are described. Methods and Materials: A kilovoltage cone beam CT system was integrated with a Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery unit. The X-ray tube and flat-panel detector are mounted on a translational arm, which is parked above the treatment unit when not in use. Upon descent, a rotational axis provides 210 Degree-Sign of rotation for cone beam CT scans. Mechanical integrity of the system was evaluated over a 6-month period. Subsequent clinical commissioning included end-to-end testing of targeting performance and subjective image quality performance in phantoms. The system has been used to image 2 patients, 1 of whom received single-fraction radiosurgery and 1 who received 3 fractions, using a relocatable head frame. Results: Images of phantoms demonstrated soft tissue contrast visibility and submillimeter spatial resolution. A contrast difference of 35 HU was easily detected at a calibration dose of 1.2 cGy (center of head phantom). The shape of the mechanical flex vs scan angle was highly reproducible and exhibited <0.2 mm peak-to-peak variation. With a 0.5-mm voxel pitch, the maximum targeting error was 0.4 mm. Images of 2 patients were analyzed offline and submillimeter agreement was confirmed with conventional frame. Conclusions: A cone beam CT image guidance system was successfully adapted to a radiosurgery unit. The system is capable of

  5. Beam-guidance optics for high-power fiber laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohring, Bernd; Tassini, Leonardo; Protz, Rudolf; Zoz, Jürgen

    2013-05-01

    The realization of a high-energy laser weapon system by coupling a large number of industrial high-power fiber lasers is investigated. To perform the combination of the individual beams of the different fiber lasers within the optical path of the laser weapon, a special optical set-up is used. Each optical component is realized either as reflective component oras refractive optics. Both possibilities were investigated by simulations and experiments. From the results, the general aspects for the layout of the beam-guidance optics for a high-power fiber laser system are derived.

  6. Apollo experience report: Guidance and control systems; lunar module mission programer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernon, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    A review of the concept, operational requirements, design, and development of the lunar module mission programer is presented, followed by a review of component and subsystem performance during design-feasibility, design-verification, and qualification tests performed in the laboratory. The system was further proved on the unmanned Apollo 5 mission. Several anomalies were detected, and satisfactory solutions were found. These problems are defined and examined, and the corrective action taken is discussed. Suggestions are given for procedural changes to be used if future guidance and control systems of this type are to be developed.

  7. Application of redundancy in the Saturn 5 guidance and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, F. B.; White, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    The Saturn launch vehicle's guidance and control system is so complex that the reliability of a simplex system is not adequate to fulfill mission requirements. Thus, to achieve the desired reliability, redundancy encompassing a wide range of types and levels was employed. At one extreme, the lowest level, basic components (resistors, capacitors, relays, etc.) are employed in series, parallel, or quadruplex arrangements to insure continued system operation in the presence of possible failure conditions. At the other extreme, the highest level, complete subsystem duplication is provided so that a backup subsystem can be employed in case the primary system malfunctions. In between these two extremes, many other redundancy schemes and techniques are employed at various levels. Basic redundancy concepts are covered to gain insight into the advantages obtained with various techniques. Points and methods of application of these techniques are included. The theoretical gain in reliability resulting from redundancy is assessed and compared to a simplex system. Problems and limitations encountered in the practical application of redundancy are discussed as well as techniques verifying proper operation of the redundant channels. As background for the redundancy application discussion, a basic description of the guidance and control system is included.

  8. The Synthesis of Optimum Homing Missile Guidance Systems with Statistical Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Elwood C.; Smith, Gerald L.

    1959-01-01

    An analytical approach is presented which is applicable to the optimization of homing navigation guidance systems which are forced to operate in the presence of radar noise. The two primary objectives are to establish theoretical minimum miss distance performance and a method of synthesizing the optimum control system. The factors considered are: (1) target evasive maneuver, (2) radar glint noise, (3) missile maneuverability, and (4) the inherent time-varying character of the kinematics. Two aspects of the problem are considered. In the first, consideration is given only to minimization of the miss distance. The solution given cannot be achieved in practice because the required accelerations are too large. In the second, results are extended to the practical case where the limited acceleration capabilities of the missile are considered by placing a realistic restriction on the mean-square acceleration so that system operation is confined to the linear range. Although the exact analytical solution of the latter problem does not appear feasible, approximate solutions utilizing time-varying control systems can be found. One of these solutions - a range multiplication type control system - is studied in detail. It is shown that the minimum obtainable miss distance with a realistic restriction on acceleration is close to the absolute minimum for unlimited missile maneuverability. Furthermore, it is shown that there is an equivalence in performance between the homing and beam-rider type guidance systems. Consideration is given to the effect of changes in target acceleration, noise magnitude, and missile acceleration on the minimum miss distance.

  9. Integrated software health management for aerospace guidance, navigation, and control systems: A probabilistic reasoning approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbaya, Timmy

    Embedded Aerospace Systems have to perform safety and mission critical operations in a real-time environment where timing and functional correctness are extremely important. Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) systems substantially rely on complex software interfacing with hardware in real-time; any faults in software or hardware, or their interaction could result in fatal consequences. Integrated Software Health Management (ISWHM) provides an approach for detection and diagnosis of software failures while the software is in operation. The ISWHM approach is based on probabilistic modeling of software and hardware sensors using a Bayesian network. To meet memory and timing constraints of real-time embedded execution, the Bayesian network is compiled into an Arithmetic Circuit, which is used for on-line monitoring. This type of system monitoring, using an ISWHM, provides automated reasoning capabilities that compute diagnoses in a timely manner when failures occur. This reasoning capability enables time-critical mitigating decisions and relieves the human agent from the time-consuming and arduous task of foraging through a multitude of isolated---and often contradictory---diagnosis data. For the purpose of demonstrating the relevance of ISWHM, modeling and reasoning is performed on a simple simulated aerospace system running on a real-time operating system emulator, the OSEK/Trampoline platform. Models for a small satellite and an F-16 fighter jet GN&C (Guidance, Navigation, and Control) system have been implemented. Analysis of the ISWHM is then performed by injecting faults and analyzing the ISWHM's diagnoses.

  10. The Hubble Space Telescope fine guidance system operating in the coarse track pointing control mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittlesey, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Fine Guidance System has set new standards in pointing control capability for earth orbiting spacecraft. Two precision pointing control modes are implemented in the Fine Guidance System; one being a Coarse Track Mode which employs a pseudo-quadrature detector approach and the second being a Fine Mode which uses a two axis interferometer implementation. The Coarse Track Mode was designed to maintain FGS pointing error to within 20 milli-arc seconds (rms) when guiding on a 14.5 Mv star. The Fine Mode was designed to maintain FGS pointing error to less than 3 milli-arc seconds (rms). This paper addresses the HST FGS operating in the Coarse Track Mode. An overview of the implementation, the operation, and both the predicted and observed on orbit performance is presented. The discussion includes a review of the Fine Guidance System hardware which uses two beam steering Star Selector servos, four photon counting photomultiplier tube detectors, as well as a 24 bit microprocessor, which executes the control system firmware. Unanticipated spacecraft operational characteristics are discussed as they impact pointing performance. These include the influence of spherically aberrated star images as well as the mechanical shocks induced in the spacecraft during and following orbital day/night terminator crossings. Computer modeling of the Coarse Track Mode verifies the observed on orbit performance trends in the presence of these optical and mechanical disturbances. It is concluded that the coarse track pointing control function is performing as designed and is providing a robust pointing control capability for the Hubble Space Telescope.

  11. The application of emulation techniques in the analysis of highly reliable, guidance and control computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Migneault, Gerard E.

    1987-01-01

    Emulation techniques can be a solution to a difficulty that arises in the analysis of the reliability of guidance and control computer systems for future commercial aircraft. Described here is the difficulty, the lack of credibility of reliability estimates obtained by analytical modeling techniques. The difficulty is an unavoidable consequence of the following: (1) a reliability requirement so demanding as to make system evaluation by use testing infeasible; (2) a complex system design technique, fault tolerance; (3) system reliability dominated by errors due to flaws in the system definition; and (4) elaborate analytical modeling techniques whose precision outputs are quite sensitive to errors of approximation in their input data. Use of emulation techniques for pseudo-testing systems to evaluate bounds on the parameter values needed for the analytical techniques is then discussed. Finally several examples of the application of emulation techniques are described.

  12. A Virtual Audio Guidance and Alert System for Commercial Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Shrum, Richard; Miller, Joel; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Our work in virtual reality systems at NASA Ames Research Center includes the area of aurally-guided visual search, using specially-designed audio cues and spatial audio processing (also known as virtual or "3-D audio") techniques (Begault, 1994). Previous studies at Ames had revealed that use of 3-D audio for Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) advisories significantly reduced head-down time, compared to a head-down map display (0.5 sec advantage) or no display at all (2.2 sec advantage) (Begault, 1993, 1995; Begault & Pittman, 1994; see Wenzel, 1994, for an audio demo). Since the crew must keep their head up and looking out the window as much as possible when taxiing under low-visibility conditions, and the potential for "blunder" is increased under such conditions, it was sensible to evaluate the audio spatial cueing for a prototype audio ground collision avoidance warning (GCAW) system, and a 3-D audio guidance system. Results were favorable for GCAW, but not for the audio guidance system.

  13. A needle guidance system for biopsy and therapy using two-dimensional ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Bluvol, Nathan; Sheikh, Allison; Kornecki, Anat; Del Rey Fernandez, David; Downey, Donal; Fenster, Aaron

    2008-02-15

    Image-guided needle biopsies are currently used to provide a definitive diagnosis of breast cancer; however, difficulties in tumor targeting exist as the ultrasound (United States) scan plane and biopsy needle must remain coplanar throughout the procedure to display the actual needle tip position. The additional time associated with aligning and maintaining this coplanar relationship results in increased patient discomfort. Biopsy procedural efficiency is further hindered since needle pathway interpretation is often difficult, especially for needle insertions at large depths that usually require multiple reinsertions. The authors developed a system that would increase the speed and accuracy of current breast biopsy procedures using readily available two-dimensional (2D) US technology. This system is composed of a passive articulated mechanical arm that attaches to a 2D US transducer. The arm is connected to a computer through custom electronics and software, which were developed as an interface for tracking the positioning of the mechanical components in real time. The arm couples to the biopsy needle and provides visual guidance for the physician performing the procedure in the form of a real-time projected needle pathway overlay on an US image of the breast. An agar test phantom, with stainless steel targets interspersed randomly throughout, was used to validate needle trajectory positioning accuracy. The biopsy needle was guided by both the software and hardware components to the targets. The phantom, with the needle inserted and device decoupled, was placed in an x-ray stereotactic mammography (SM) machine. The needle trajectory and bead target locations were determined in three dimensions from the SM images. Results indicated a mean needle trajectory accuracy error of 0.75{+-}0.42 mm. This is adequate to sample lesions that are <2 mm in diameter. Chicken tissue test phantoms were used to compare core needle biopsy procedure times between experienced

  14. Learning guide for the terminal configured vehicle advanced guidance and control system mode select panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, M. A.; Callahan, R.

    1981-01-01

    This learning guide is designed to assist pilots in taking the PLATO presimulator training course on the advanced guidance and control system mode select panel. The learning guide is divided into five sections. The first section, the introduction, presents the course goals, prerequisites, definition of PLATO activities, and a suggested approach to completing the course. The remaining four sections present the purpose, learning activities and summary of each lesson of the AGCS PLATO course, which consists of (1) AGCS introduction; (2) lower order modes; (3) higher order modes; and (4) an arrival route exercise.

  15. Current technology for abortion.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, P G

    1978-12-01

    This discussion focuses on the presently available technology of abortion induction techniques, which, though recent scientific interest has been in abortifacient agents, still primarily consists of some variation on the ancient technique of forcible cervical dilatation and pregnancy extraction in the first trimester. With the advent of legal abortions in the United States, technology and expertise that will lower the already low rate of abortion-associated complications are of paramount importance. That abortion may be preferable to contraception as a fertility control measure is argued from the following 3 drawbacks of present means of contraception: 1) they are preventitive and must be used in advance of need; 2) they fail more frequently than is usually thought (e.g., 4% for birth control pills, 5% for IUDs, and from 17-21% for more conventional methods); and 3) they are associated, though rarely, with potentially fatal side effects such as heart attack, stroke, or infection (some also raise the incidence of pathological pregnancies). The article devotes itself to an overview of complications of induced abortions (the mortality for legal abortions is 1/100,000 vs. maternal mortality of 10/100,000 in the United States), and to discussions of appropriate evacuation procedures per gestational age. Instruments and techniques for menstrual regulation (uterine aspiration during first trimester), are discussed. Procedures and instrumentation required for standard vacuum aspiration are covered. Use of analgesics and anesthetics during abortion procedures comprises one topic, with especial focus on the use of curettage for midtrimester terminations. Midtrimester terminations by amnioinfusions of abortifacients (saline, urea, and prostaglandins, e.g.) are analyzed. And, in addition to discussing sequelae for each particular abortion type, a section is devoted to the sequelae of induced abortion for subsequent pregnancy. Though 100% effectiveness has not been achieved yet

  16. Insights from an expert group meeting on the definition and measurement of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Sedgh, Gilda; Filippi, Veronique; Owolabi, Onikepe O; Singh, Susheela D; Askew, Ian; Bankole, Akinrinola; Benson, Janie; Rossier, Clementine; Pembe, Andrea B; Adewole, Isaac; Ganatra, Bela; MacDonagh, Sandra

    2016-07-01

    Until recently, WHO operationally defined unsafe abortion as illegal abortion. In the past decade, however, the incidence of abortion by misoprostol administration has increased in countries with restrictive abortion laws. Access to safe surgical abortions has also increased in many such countries. An important effect of these trends has been that, even in an illegal environment, abortion is becoming safer, and an updated system for classifying abortion in accordance with safety is needed. Numerous factors aside from abortion method or legality should be taken into consideration in developing such a classification system. An Expert Meeting on the Definition and Measurement of Unsafe Abortion was convened in London, UK, on January 9-10, 2014, to move toward developing a classification system that both reflects current conditions and acknowledges the gradient of risk associated with abortion. The experts also discussed the types of research needed to monitor the incidence of abortion at each level of safety. These efforts are urgently needed if we are to ensure that preventing unsafe abortion is appropriately represented on the global public health agenda. Such a classification system would also motivate investment in research to accurately measure and monitor abortion incidence across categories of safety. PMID:27062249

  17. A Context-Aware-Based Audio Guidance System for Blind People Using a Multimodal Profile Model

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qing; Han, Youngjoon

    2014-01-01

    A wearable guidance system is designed to provide context-dependent guidance messages to blind people while they traverse local pathways. The system is composed of three parts: moving scene analysis, walking context estimation and audio message delivery. The combination of a downward-pointing laser scanner and a camera is used to solve the challenging problem of moving scene analysis. By integrating laser data profiles and image edge profiles, a multimodal profile model is constructed to estimate jointly the ground plane, object locations and object types, by using a Bayesian network. The outputs of the moving scene analysis are further employed to estimate the walking context, which is defined as a fuzzy safety level that is inferred through a fuzzy logic model. Depending on the estimated walking context, the audio messages that best suit the current context are delivered to the user in a flexible manner. The proposed system is tested under various local pathway scenes, and the results confirm its efficiency in assisting blind people to attain autonomous mobility. PMID:25302812

  18. A vehicle photoelectric detection system based on guidance of machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yawei; Liu, Yu; Chen, Wei; Chen, Jing; Guo, Jia; Zhou, Lijun; Zheng, Haotian; Zhang, Xuantao

    2015-04-01

    A vehicle photoelectric detection system based on guidance of machine vision is described in detail, which is composed of electric-optic turret, distributed perception module, position orientation system and data process terminal, etc. Simultaneously, a target detection method used in the system based on visual guide is also discussed in this paper. This method, based on the initial alignment of camera position and the precise alignment of target location, realizes the target acquisition and measurement by using the high-definition cameras of distributed perception module installed around the vehicle as the human eyes to guide the line of sight of optoelectronic devices on the turret to the field of view of one camera quickly and carry on small-scale target alignment operations. Simulation results show that the method could achieve the intelligent dynamic guide of photoelectric detection system, and improve the detection efficiency and accuracy.

  19. A complete augmented reality guidance system for liver punctures: first clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nicolau, S A; Pennec, X; Soler, L; Ayache, N

    2005-01-01

    We provided in an augmented reality guidance system for liver punctures, which has been validated on a static abdominal phantom. In this paper, we report the first in vivo experiments. We developed a strictly passive protocol to directly evaluate our system on patients. We show that the system algorithms work efficiently and we highlight the clinical constraints that we had to overcome (small operative field, weight and sterility of the tracked marker attached to the needle...). Finally, we investigate to what extent breathing motion can be neglected for free breathing patient. Results show that the guiding accuracy, close to 1 cm, is sufficient for large targets only (above 3 cm of diameter) when the breathing motion is neglected. In the near future, we aim at validating our system on smaller targets using a respiratory gating technique. PMID:16685888

  20. The military space system technology model - A guidance, navigation and control perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannenberg, K.; Daly, K. C.; Dorroh, W. E.; Fosth, D.; Iwens, R.; Pelka, G.; Williamson, R. K.

    The Military Space Systems Technology Model (MSSTM) represents a systematic approach to identify future technology needs based on perceived mission requirements. In provides help in the planning of technology programs which support the mission of the Space Division, Air Force Systems Command. The MSSTM represents a broad range of information concerning the projected military space missions systems, and technology requirements for the next 20 years. In an attempt to obtain an industry view of the MSSTM, the AIAA was asked by Space Division to review this model. The activity was divided into 15 different functional areas. The present investigation is concerned with the Guidance Navigation and Control (GNC) results. Attention is given to attitude determination and navigation, acquisition, pointing, tracking, large space structure control, GNC space operations, and questions of systems design. It is concluded that new GNC technology is needed to enable 17 of the considered missions to be performed.

  1. A low-cost inertial smoothing system for landing approach guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niessen, F. R.

    1973-01-01

    Accurate position and velocity information with low noise content for instrument approaches and landings is required for both control and display applications. In a current VTOL automatic instrument approach and landing research program, radar-derived landing guidance position reference signals, which are noisy, have been mixed with acceleration information derived from low-cost onboard sensors to provide high-quality position and velocity information. An in-flight comparison of signal quality and accuracy has shown good agreement between the low-cost inertial smoothing system and an aided inertial navigation system. Furthermore, the low-cost inertial smoothing system has been proven to be satisfactory in control and display system applications for both automatic and pilot-in-the-loop instrument approaches and landings.

  2. Parallel guidance endoscopic optical coherence tomography system for internal diagnosis through active cannulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gim, Suhyeon; Moon, Hyowon; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Lee, Deukhee; Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Keri

    2014-08-01

    A parallel guidance endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) system is proposed for minimally invasive internal inspection of inner organs or complex structures for diagnosis. The system is maneuvered to access the target using an active cannulas' steerable structures. The integration of a specially designed linkage device with the developed system allows the OCT endoscope to scan with enhanced signal-collective performance, while maintaining its tip at a constant distance from the target, as well as expanding the scanning range. The proposed system is integrated with flexible active cannulas, and this prototype is used for testing. The test results show that the device reliably performs for biological samples. Thus, it could be implemented for various types of noninvasive diagnoses in situations involving small entrances or crooked passage to a target.

  3. The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

  4. Unsafe abortion and abortion care in Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Kinaro, Joyce; Ali, Tag Elsir Mohamed; Schlangen, Rhonda; Mack, Jessica

    2009-11-01

    Unsafe abortion in Sudan results in significant morbidity and mortality. This study of treatment for complications of unsafe abortion in five hospitals in Khartoum, Sudan, included a review of hospital records and a survey of 726 patients seeking abortion-related care from 27 October 2007 to 31 January 2008, an interview of a provider of post-abortion care and focus group discussions with community leaders. Findings demonstrate enormous unmet need for safe abortion services. Abortion is legally restricted in Sudan to circumstances where the woman's life is at risk or in cases of rape. Post-abortion care is not easily accessible. In a country struggling with poverty, internal displacement, rural dwelling, and a dearth of trained doctors, mid-level providers are not allowed to provide post-abortion care or prescribe contraception. The vast majority of the 726 abortion patients in the five hospitals were treated with dilatation and curettage (D&C), and only 12.3% were discharged with a contraceptive method. Some women waited long hours before treatment was provided; 14.5% of them had to wait for 5-8 hours and 7.3% for 9-12 hours. Mid-level providers should be trained in safe abortion care and post-abortion care to make these services accessible to a wider community in Sudan. Guidelines should be developed on quality of care and should mandate the use of manual vacuum aspiration or misoprostol for medical abortion instead of D&C. PMID:19962640

  5. Space Shuttle guidance for multiple main engine failures during first stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sponaugle, Steven J.; Fernandes, Stanley T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents contingency abort guidance schemes recently developed for multiple Space Shuttle main engine failures during the first two minutes of flight (first stage). The ascent and entry guidance schemes greatly improve the possibility of the crew and/or the Orbiter surviving a first stage contingency abort. Both guidance schemes were required to meet certain structural and controllability constraints. In addition, the systems were designed with the flexibility to allow for seasonal variations in the atmosphere and wind. The ascent scheme guides the vehicle to a desirable, lofted state at solid rocket booster burnout while reducing the structural loads on the vehicle. After Orbiter separation from the solid rockets and the external tank, the entry scheme guides the Orbiter through one of two possible entries. If the proper altitude/range/velocity conditions have been met, a return-to-launch-site 'Split-S' maneuver may be attempted. Otherwise, a down-range abort to an equilibrium glide and subsequent crew bailout is performed.

  6. A compromise on abortion?

    PubMed

    Rhoden, N K

    1989-01-01

    Rhoden's article is one of three on "Abortion: searching for common ground" in this issue of the Hastings Center Report. Her article, together with those by M. Mahowald and M. Glendon, was prompted by the expectation that the impending U.S. Supreme Court decision in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (3 July 1989) would overturn or restrict Roe v. Wade (1973). Rhoden, an advocate for the pro-choice position, asks whether a compromise leading to an acceptable regulatory policy is possible or desirable among those on opposite sides of the abortion issue. She identifies several reasons why the Roe decision is vulnerable to review, but argues that effective education about sexuality and comprehensive social support of women are better approaches to abortion than restrictive legislation. PMID:2663778

  7. Abortion and human rights.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus. PMID:20303830

  8. [Spontaneous abortion. Etiologic survey. Results].

    PubMed

    Baaklini, N; Anguenot, J L; Boulanger, J C; Vitse, M

    1990-12-01

    The definition of repeated spontaneous abortions is subject to caution. For some, it corresponds to at least three repeated spontaneous abortions with no normal previous pregnancy; for others, it comprises the repeated spontaneous abortions occurring after a normal pregnancy. It is a frequent problem, especially if one tries to give a wider definition. The authors studied the frequency of repeated spontaneous abortions in a continuous series of 14,857 pregnancies which took place between January 1982 and December 1988. In the study of the aetiology of the repeated spontaneous abortions in the various groups of women defined according to the number of previous pregnancies and abortions, they find the classical causes of repeated spontaneous abortions in all the categories: therefore, it seems legitimate to them that a wider definition be given for repeated spontaneous abortions. PMID:2291048

  9. Advanced information processing system: Hosting of advanced guidance, navigation and control algorithms on AIPS using ASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Richard; Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Nagle, Gail A.; Schor, Andrei; Turkovich, John

    1994-01-01

    This program demonstrated the integration of a number of technologies that can increase the availability and reliability of launch vehicles while lowering costs. Availability is increased with an advanced guidance algorithm that adapts trajectories in real-time. Reliability is increased with fault-tolerant computers and communication protocols. Costs are reduced by automatically generating code and documentation. This program was realized through the cooperative efforts of academia, industry, and government. The NASA-LaRC coordinated the effort, while Draper performed the integration. Georgia Institute of Technology supplied a weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems. Martin Marietta used MATLAB to apply this method to a launch vehicle (FENOC). Draper supplied the fault-tolerant computing and software automation technology. The fault-tolerant technology includes sequential and parallel fault-tolerant processors (FTP & FTPP) and authentication protocols (AP) for communication. Fault-tolerant technology was incrementally incorporated. Development culminated with a heterogeneous network of workstations and fault-tolerant computers using AP. Draper's software automation system, ASTER, was used to specify a static guidance system based on FENOC, navigation, flight control (GN&C), models, and the interface to a user interface for mission control. ASTER generated Ada code for GN&C and C code for models. An algebraic transform engine (ATE) was developed to automatically translate MATLAB scripts into ASTER.

  10. A new terminal guidance sensor system for asteroid intercept or rendezvous missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyzhoft, Joshua; Basart, John; Wie, Bong

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the initial conceptual study results of a new terminal guidance sensor system for asteroid intercept or rendezvous missions, which explores the use of visual, infrared, and radar devices. As was demonstrated by NASA's Deep Impact mission, visual cameras can be effectively utilized for hypervelocity intercept terminal guidance for a 5 kilometer target. Other systems such as Raytheon's EKV (Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle) employ a different scheme that utilizes infrared target information to intercept ballistic missiles. Another example that uses infrared information is the NEOWISE telescope, which is used for asteroid detection and tracking. This paper describes the signal-to-noise ratio estimation problem for infrared sensors, minimum and maximum range of detection, and computational validation using GPU accelerated simulations. Small targets (50-100 m in diameter) are considered, and scaled polyhedron models of known objects, such as the Rosetta mission's Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, 101,955 Bennu, target of the OSIRIS-REx mission, and asteroid 433 Eros, are utilized. A parallelized ray tracing algorithm to simulate realistic surface-to-surface shadowing of a given celestial body is developed. By using the simulated models and parameters given from the formulation of the different sensors, impact mission scenarios are used to verify the feasibility for intercepting a small target.

  11. Enhancing pilot situation awareness by using an onboard taxi guidance system: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Bernd; Biella, Markus; Jakobi, Joern

    2004-08-01

    This study supplements prior and concurrent field trials testing the operational benefit of an Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS). A-SMGCS comprises a range of new technologies for both the flight deck and the air traffic control tower enabling more efficient and safe airport surface movement. These technologies are expected to significantly increase the throughput at presently highly congested major airports without compromising safety. A flight deck A-SMGCS module is the onboard guidance system TARMAC-AS. This module consists of a controller pilot data link (DL) communication and an electronic moving map (EMM), which also displays airport surface traffic information to the pilot crew. TARMAC-AS is evaluated in an investigation involving twenty commercial pilots who performed a series of approach, landing and taxiing simulation trials that were completed in a fixed-base cockpit simulator. Evaluation was based on subjective questionnaires, effectiveness of taxi operation, and visual scanning strategies derived from eye-point-of-gaze measurements. Results support the notion that EMM + DL improve awareness of the global airport surface situation, particularly under conditions of low visibility, enabling more efficient and timely surface movements and avoidance of conflicting traffic. A potential negative impact of increased head-down times was not substantiated.

  12. Capturing and tracking performance of the horizontal guidance and control systems of the terminal configured vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    A twin-jet commercial transport equipped with digital navigation, guidance, and control systems and advanced electronic display system was used for airborne operational research. The results of flight tests which evaluated a second-order horizontal-path guidance control law and the autopilot and airplane response are presented. This evaluation was accomplished through analysis of recorded flight data and through pilot opinion of the airplane maneuvers during automatic path-capture scenarios and path tracking. Four different path captures were flown at a ground speed of approximately 160 knots and repeated at approximately 300 knots. Path tracking tracking error was measured in terms of cross track error along two paths: one pat at cruise speeds and one at airport-terminal-area speeds. The path tracking accuracy and the smoothness of the airplane maneuvers were judged satisfactory for high speeds; however, at lower speeds the control law design should be improved so that tracking will be more accurate for operations in the airport terminal area.

  13. Three-dimensional guidance system for implant insertion: Part II. Dual axes table--problem solving.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, L A; Kruger, B

    1999-01-01

    The three-dimensional guidance system for implant insertion is a technique for placing a radiopaque vertical orientation pin over the crest of the alveolar ridge on the stone cast during fabrication of the radiographic guide. The cross-sectional and panoramic reformatted images were reproduced on a Polaroid or 35-mm print. The true vertical orientation pin facilitates (1) identification and the exact planned location of each implant in the reformatted images of the CT scan, (2) establishment of the internal starting point for the osteotomy on a photographic print, (3) optimum implant orientation, and (4) measurement of the angulation between the true vertical orientation line and optimum implant orientation. With the aid of a newly developed dual-axes base and transfer of the internal starting point of each implant to the stone cast, the buccolingual and mesiodistal implant inclinations for each implant were transferred to a surgical guide in the form of surgical steel drill guide tubes. The resulting pilot osteotomy transfers to the alveolar bone the exact starting point and the buccolingual and mesiodistal inclination for each implant. The technique provides a three-dimensional guidance system for implant insertion that is extremely accurate and yet practical. PMID:10709472

  14. Apollo experience report: Abort planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyle, C. T.; Foggatt, C. E.; Weber, B. D.

    1972-01-01

    Definition of a practical return-to-earth abort capability was required for each phase of an Apollo mission. A description of the basic development of the complex Apollo abort plan is presented. The process by which the return-to-earth abort plan was developed and the constraining factors that must be included in any abort procedure are also discussed. Special emphasis is given to the description of crew warning and escape methods for each mission phase.

  15. Loss of Control Prevention and Recovery: Onboard Guidance, Control, and Systems Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of control (LOC) is one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. LOC accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. These LOC hazards include vehicle impairment conditions, external disturbances; vehicle upset conditions, and inappropriate crew actions or responses. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. NASA previously defined a comprehensive research and technology development approach for reducing LOC accidents and an associated integrated system concept. Onboard technologies for improved situation awareness, guidance, and control for LOC prevention and recovery are needed as part of this approach. Such systems should include: LOC hazards effects detection and mitigation; upset detection, prevention and recovery; and mitigation of combined hazards. NASA is conducting research in each of these areas. This paper provides an overview of this research, including the near-term LOC focus and associated analysis, as well as preliminary flight system architecture.

  16. A guidance and navigation system for continuous low-thrust vehicles. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack-Chingtse, C.

    1973-01-01

    A midcourse guidance and navigation system for continuous low thrust vehicles was developed. The equinoctial elements are the state variables. Uncertainties are modelled statistically by random vector and stochastic processes. The motion of the vehicle and the measurements are described by nonlinear stochastic differential and difference equations respectively. A minimum time trajectory is defined; equations of motion and measurements are linearized about this trajectory. An exponential cost criterion is constructed and a linear feedback quidance law is derived. An extended Kalman filter is used for state estimation. A short mission using this system is simulated. It is indicated that this system is efficient for short missions, but longer missions require accurate trajectory and ground based measurements.

  17. Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F.

    1994-09-01

    This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout.

  18. Flight investigation of a four-dimensional terminal area guidance system for STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, F.; Hardy, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    A series of flight tests and fast-time simulations were conducted, using the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft and the STOLAND 4D-RNAV system to add to the growing data base of 4D-RNAV system performance capabilities. To obtain statistically meaningful data a limited amount of flight data were supplemented by a statistically significant amount of data obtained from fast-time simulation. The results of these tests are reported. Included are comparisons of the 4D-RNAV estimated winds with actual winds encountered in flight, as well as data on along-track navigation and guidance errors, and time-of-arrival errors at the final approach waypoint. In addition, a slight improvement of the STOLAND 4D-RNAV system is proposed and demonstrated, using the fast-time simulation.

  19. Automatic switching and guidance system to facilitate unassisted uroflowmetry using commercial electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Terai, Akito; Ueda, Nobufumi; Utsunomiya, Noriaki; Kohei, Naoki; Aoyama, Teruyoshi; Inoue, Koji

    2006-08-01

    To enable male patients to undergo uroflowmetry in a private condition without medical supervision, we devised an automatic switching and patient guidance system for the spinning disk uroflowmeter Urodyn 1000, using two commercial electronic devices (an infrared motion sensor tap and a memorizable vacuum fluorescent display). Instead of running the uroflowmeter continuously, which shortens the life of the spinning disk due to mechanical wear, an infrared motion sensor turns on the devices each time a patient enters the room. The patient urinates according to the timely instructions on the visible display and voided urine directly flows into a urinal. The devices are automatically turned off 5 min after the patient leaves the room. With the use of our system, men already acquainted with uroflowmetry could perform self-administered uroflowmetry any time in private. The system was considered useful for improving the quality of patient service. PMID:16903954

  20. Space Shuttle Abort Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.

  1. An image-guidance system for dynamic dose calculation in prostate brachytherapy using ultrasound and fluoroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Nathanael; Dehghan, Ehsan; Deguet, Anton; Mian, Omar Y.; Le, Yi; Burdette, E. Clif; Fichtinger, Gabor; Prince, Jerry L.; Song, Danny Y.; Lee, Junghoon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Brachytherapy is a standard option of care for prostate cancer patients but may be improved by dynamic dose calculation based on localized seed positions. The American Brachytherapy Society states that the major current limitation of intraoperative treatment planning is the inability to localize the seeds in relation to the prostate. An image-guidance system was therefore developed to localize seeds for dynamic dose calculation. Methods: The proposed system is based on transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and mobile C-arm fluoroscopy, while using a simple fiducial with seed-like markers to compute pose from the nonencoded C-arm. Three or more fluoroscopic images and an ultrasound volume are acquired and processed by a pipeline of algorithms: (1) seed segmentation, (2) fiducial detection with pose estimation, (3) seed matching with reconstruction, and (4) fluoroscopy-to-TRUS registration. Results: The system was evaluated on ten phantom cases, resulting in an overall mean error of 1.3 mm. The system was also tested on 37 patients and each algorithm was evaluated. Seed segmentation resulted in a 1% false negative rate and 2% false positive rate. Fiducial detection with pose estimation resulted in a 98% detection rate. Seed matching with reconstruction had a mean error of 0.4 mm. Fluoroscopy-to-TRUS registration had a mean error of 1.3 mm. Moreover, a comparison of dose calculations between the authors’ intraoperative method and an independent postoperative method shows a small difference of 7% and 2% forD90 and V100, respectively. Finally, the system demonstrated the ability to detect cold spots and required a total processing time of approximately 1 min. Conclusions: The proposed image-guidance system is the first practical approach to dynamic dose calculation, outperforming earlier solutions in terms of robustness, ease of use, and functional completeness. PMID:25186387

  2. An image-guidance system for dynamic dose calculation in prostate brachytherapy using ultrasound and fluoroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Nathanael Prince, Jerry L.; Dehghan, Ehsan; Deguet, Anton; Mian, Omar Y.; Le, Yi; Song, Danny Y.; Burdette, E. Clif; Fichtinger, Gabor; Lee, Junghoon

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Brachytherapy is a standard option of care for prostate cancer patients but may be improved by dynamic dose calculation based on localized seed positions. The American Brachytherapy Society states that the major current limitation of intraoperative treatment planning is the inability to localize the seeds in relation to the prostate. An image-guidance system was therefore developed to localize seeds for dynamic dose calculation. Methods: The proposed system is based on transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and mobile C-arm fluoroscopy, while using a simple fiducial with seed-like markers to compute pose from the nonencoded C-arm. Three or more fluoroscopic images and an ultrasound volume are acquired and processed by a pipeline of algorithms: (1) seed segmentation, (2) fiducial detection with pose estimation, (3) seed matching with reconstruction, and (4) fluoroscopy-to-TRUS registration. Results: The system was evaluated on ten phantom cases, resulting in an overall mean error of 1.3 mm. The system was also tested on 37 patients and each algorithm was evaluated. Seed segmentation resulted in a 1% false negative rate and 2% false positive rate. Fiducial detection with pose estimation resulted in a 98% detection rate. Seed matching with reconstruction had a mean error of 0.4 mm. Fluoroscopy-to-TRUS registration had a mean error of 1.3 mm. Moreover, a comparison of dose calculations between the authors’ intraoperative method and an independent postoperative method shows a small difference of 7% and 2% forD{sub 90} and V{sub 100}, respectively. Finally, the system demonstrated the ability to detect cold spots and required a total processing time of approximately 1 min. Conclusions: The proposed image-guidance system is the first practical approach to dynamic dose calculation, outperforming earlier solutions in terms of robustness, ease of use, and functional completeness.

  3. Piloted Simulation of Various Synthetic Vision Systems Terrain Portrayal and Guidance Symbology Concepts for Low Altitude En-Route Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takallu, M. A.; Glaab, L. J.; Hughes, M. F.; Wong, D. T.; Bartolone, A. P.

    2008-01-01

    In support of the NASA Aviation Safety Program's Synthetic Vision Systems Project, a series of piloted simulations were conducted to explore and quantify the relationship between candidate Terrain Portrayal Concepts and Guidance Symbology Concepts, specific to General Aviation. The experiment scenario was based on a low altitude en route flight in Instrument Metrological Conditions in the central mountains of Alaska. A total of 18 general aviation pilots, with three levels of pilot experience, evaluated a test matrix of four terrain portrayal concepts and six guidance symbology concepts. Quantitative measures included various pilot/aircraft performance data, flight technical errors and flight control inputs. The qualitative measures included pilot comments and pilot responses to the structured questionnaires such as perceived workload, subjective situation awareness, pilot preferences, and the rare event recognition. There were statistically significant effects found from guidance symbology concepts and terrain portrayal concepts but no significant interactions between them. Lower flight technical errors and increased situation awareness were achieved using Synthetic Vision Systems displays, as compared to the baseline Pitch/Roll Flight Director and Blue Sky Brown Ground combination. Overall, those guidance symbology concepts that have both path based guidance cue and tunnel display performed better than the other guidance concepts.

  4. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  5. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. PMID:25846035

  6. 23 CFR Appendix D to Subpart A of... - Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System D Appendix D to Subpart A of Part 470 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems Pt. 470, Subpt. A, App. D Appendix D...

  7. Real-time pilot guidance system for improved flight-test maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, E. T.; Meyer, R. R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The real-time pilot display uplink development at the Dryden Flight Research Facility is described, with a focus on recent F-104 studies. A nose boom gathers data on the Mach number, pressure altitude, and angle of attack. The system provides the pilot with guidance to improve maneuver accuracy and fly more complex trajectories. The uplink presents the pilot with computed differences between a reference flight path and actual flight state conditions, using a downlink to the ground where engineering computations are performed, feedback is transmitted, and corrections are applied. Details of the flight test trajectories and data from test results are provided for level turns, constant thrust turns, dynamic pressure trajectories, constant radar altitude accelerations and decelerations, and a Reynolds number trajectory. The system has proved capable of reducing pilot workload and saving fuel by decreasing the flight time necessary to obtain specific data.

  8. Preliminary Design of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control System of the Altair Lunar Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Ely, Todd; Sostaric, Ronald; Strahan, Alan; Riedel, Joseph E.; Ingham, Mitch; Wincentsen, James; Sarani, Siamak

    2010-01-01

    Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) is the measurement and control of spacecraft position, velocity, and attitude in support of mission objectives. This paper provides an overview of a preliminary design of the GN&C system of the Lunar Lander Altair. Key functions performed by the GN&C system in various mission phases will first be described. A set of placeholder GN&C sensors that is needed to support these functions is next described. To meet Crew safety requirements, there must be high degrees of redundancy in the selected sensor configuration. Two sets of thrusters, one on the Ascent Module (AM) and the other on the Descent Module (DM), will be used by the GN&C system. The DM thrusters will be used, among other purposes, to perform course correction burns during the Trans-lunar Coast. The AM thrusters will be used, among other purposes, to perform precise angular and translational controls of the ascent module in order to dock the ascent module with Orion. Navigation is the process of measurement and control of the spacecraft's "state" (both the position and velocity vectors of the spacecraft). Tracking data from the Earth-Based Ground System (tracking antennas) as well as data from onboard optical sensors will be used to estimate the vehicle state. A driving navigation requirement is to land Altair on the Moon with a landing accuracy that is better than 1 km (radial 95%). Preliminary performance of the Altair GN&C design, relative to this and other navigation requirements, will be given. Guidance is the onboard process that uses the estimated state vector, crew inputs, and pre-computed reference trajectories to guide both the rotational and the translational motions of the spacecraft during powered flight phases. Design objectives of reference trajectories for various mission phases vary. For example, the reference trajectory for the descent "approach" phase (the last 3-4 minutes before touchdown) will sacrifice fuel utilization efficiency in order to

  9. Development and hardware-in-the-loop test of a guidance, navigation and control system for on-orbit servicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benninghoff, Heike; Rems, Florian; Boge, Toralf

    2014-09-01

    The rendezvous phase is one of the most important phases in future orbital servicing missions. To ensure a safe approach to a non-cooperative target satellite, a guidance, navigation and control system which uses measurements from optical sensors like cameras was designed and developed. During ground-based rendezvous, stability problems induced by delayed position measurements can be compensated by using a specially adapted navigation filter. Within the VIBANASS (VIsion BAsed NAvigation Sensor System) test campaign, hardware-in-the-loop tests on the terrestrial, robotic based facility EPOS 2.0 were performed to test and verify the developed guidance, navigation and control algorithms using real sensor measurements. We could demonstrate several safe rendezvous test cases in a closed loop mode integrating the VIBANASS camera system and the developed guidance, navigation and control system to a dynamic rendezvous simulation.

  10. Simulation of Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems for Formation Flying Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Rich; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Concepts for missions of distributed spacecraft flying in formation abound. From high resolution interferometry to spatially distributed in-situ measurements, these mission concepts levy a myriad of guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) requirements on the spacecraft/formation as a single system. A critical step toward assessing and meeting these challenges lies in realistically simulating distributed spacecraft systems. The Formation Flying TestBed (FFTB) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center is a hardware-in-the-loop simulation and development facility focused on GNC issues relevant to formation flying systems. The FFTB provides a realistic simulation of the vehicle dynamics and control for formation flying missions in order to: (1) conduct feasibility analyses of mission requirements, (2) conduct and answer mission and spacecraft design trades, and (3) serve as a host for GNC software and hardware development and testing. The initial capabilities of the FFTB are based upon an integration of high fidelity hardware and software simulation, emulation, and test platforms developed or employed at GSFC in recent years, including a high-fidelity Global Positioning System (GPS) simulator which has been a fundamental component of the GNC Center's GPS Test Facility. The FFTB will be continuously evolving over the next several years from a tool with capabilities in GPS navigation hardware/software-in-the-loop analysis and closed loop GPS-based orbit control algorithm assessment. Eventually, it will include full capability to support all aspects of multi-sensor, absolute and relative state determination and control, in all (attitude and orbit) degrees of freedom, as well as information management for satellite clusters and constellations. A detailed description of the FFTB architecture is presented in the paper.

  11. Effects of Abortion Legalization in Nepal, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Jillian T.; Puri, Mahesh; Blum, Maya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rana, Ashma; Gurung, Geeta; Pradhan, Neelam; Regmi, Kiran; Malla, Kasturi; Sharma, Sudha; Grossman, Daniel; Bajracharya, Lata; Satyal, Indira; Acharya, Shridhar; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Darney, Philip D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. Methods We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001–2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001–2003), early implementation (2004–2006), and later implementation (2007–2010). Results 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85). Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75). Conclusion Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women’s health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance

  12. [Abortion and conscientious objection].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion. PMID:25815623

  13. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  14. Abortion in Brazil: legislation, reality and options.

    PubMed

    Guedes, A C

    2000-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Brazil except when performed to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. This paper gives a brief history of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary efforts to change abortion-related legislation in Brazil in the past 60 years, the contents of some of the 53 bills that have been tabled in that time, the non-governmental stakeholders involved and the debate itself in recent decades. The authorities in Brazil have never assumed full public responsibility for reproductive health care or family planning, let alone legal abortion; the ambivalence of the medical profession is an important obstacle. Most politicians avoid getting involved in the abortion debate, but the majority of bills in the 1990s have favoured less restrictive legislation. Incremental legislative and health service changes could help to improve the situation for women. Advocacy is probably the most important action, to promote an environment conducive to change. Clandestine abortion is a serious public health problem in Brazil, and the inadequacy of family planning services is one of the causes of this problem. The solutions should be made a priority for the Brazilian public health system. PMID:11424252

  15. Observations on abortion in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Castle, M A; Likwa, R; Whittaker, M

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the findings of a preliminary investigation of women who sought treatment for abortion from the Gynecological Emergency Ward at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia. Barriers to obtaining legal abortions are identified and the harsh experiences of women seeking treatment for complications of illegally induced abortion are discussed. The data contribute to an understanding of the intensity of abortion for Zambian women and draw attention to the value of small-scale, qualitative research on women's reproductive health care needs. It is suggested that a study be planned at UTH to determine how health care delivery can be improved for women who seek abortion. PMID:2219228

  16. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 3: A comparison of waypoint guidance algorithms for RNAV/MLS transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an investigation carried out for the Langley Research Center Terminal Configured Vehicle Program are presented. The investigation generated and compared three path update algorithms designed to provide smooth transition for an aircraft guidance system from DME, VORTAC, and barometric navaids to the more precise MLS by modifying the desired 3-D flight path. The first, called the Zero Cross Track, eliminates the discontinuity in cross track and altitude error by designating the first valid MLS aircraft position as the desired first waypoint, while retaining all subsequent waypoints. The discontinuity in track angle is left unaltered. The second, called the Tangent Path also eliminates the discontinuity in cross track and altitude and choose a new desired heading to be tangent to the next oncoming circular arc turn. The third, called the Continued Track eliminates the discontinuity in cross track, altitude and track angle by accepting the current MLS position and track angle as the desired ones and recomputes the location of the next waypoint. A method is presented for providing a waypoint guidance path reconstruction which treats turns of less than, and greater than, 180 degrees in a uniform manner to construct the desired path.

  17. The MAGEC system for spinal lengthening in children with scoliosis: A NICE Medical Technology Guidance.

    PubMed

    Jenks, Michelle; Craig, Joyce; Higgins, Joanne; Willits, Iain; Barata, Teresa; Wood, Hannah; Kimpton, Christine; Sims, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    Scoliosis-structural lateral curvature of the spine-affects around four children per 1,000. The MAGEC system comprises a magnetically distractible spinal rod implant and an external remote controller, which lengthens the rod; this system avoids repeated surgical lengthening. Rod implants brace the spine internally and are lengthened as the child grows, preventing worsening of scoliosis and delaying the need for spinal fusion. The Medical Technologies Advisory Committee at the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) selected the MAGEC system for evaluation in a NICE medical technologies guidance. Six studies were identified by the sponsor (Ellipse Technologies Inc.) as being relevant to the decision problem. Meta-analysis was used to compare the clinical evidence results with those of one conventional growth rod study, and equal efficacy of the two devices was concluded. The key weakness was selection of a single comparator study. The External Assessment Centre (EAC) identified 16 conventional growth rod studies and undertook meta-analyses of relevant outcomes. Its critique highlighted limitations around study heterogeneity and variations in baseline characteristics and follow-up duration, precluding the ability to draw firm conclusions. The sponsor constructed a de novo costing model showing that MAGEC rods generated cost savings of £9,946 per patient after 6 years, compared with conventional rods. The EAC critiqued and updated the model structure and inputs, calculating robust cost savings of £12,077 per patient with MAGEC rods compared with conventional rods over 6 years. The year of valuation was 2012. NICE issued a positive recommendation as supported by the evidence (Medical Technologies Guidance 18). PMID:25172432

  18. Abortion health services in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Wendy V.; Guilbert, Edith R.; Okpaleke, Christopher; Hayden, Althea S.; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; White, Katharine O’Connell; Jones, Heidi E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the location of Canadian abortion services relative to where reproductive-age women reside, and the characteristics of abortion facilities and providers. Design An international survey was adapted for Canadian relevance. Public sources and professional networks were used to identify facilities. The bilingual survey was distributed by mail and e-mail from July to November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures The number and location of services were compared with the distribution of reproductive-age women by location of residence. Results We identified 94 Canadian facilities providing abortion in 2012, with 48.9% in Quebec. The response rate was 83.0% (78 of 94). Facilities in every jurisdiction with services responded. In Quebec and British Columbia abortion services are nearly equally present in large urban centres and rural locations throughout the provinces; in other Canadian provinces services are chiefly located in large urban areas. No abortion services were identified in Prince Edward Island. Respondents reported provision of 75 650 abortions in 2012 (including 4.0% by medical abortion). Canadian facilities reported minimal or no harassment, in stark contrast to American facilities that responded to the same survey. Conclusion Access to abortion services varies by region across Canada. Services are not equitably distributed in relation to the regions where reproductive-age women reside. British Columbia and Quebec have demonstrated effective strategies to address disparities. Health policy and service improvements have the potential to address current abortion access inequity in Canada. These measures include improved access to mifepristone for medical abortion; provincial policies to support abortion services; routine abortion training within family medicine residency programs; and increasing the scope of practice for nurses and midwives to include abortion

  19. Abortion a business hurdle for nation's Catholic hospitals.

    PubMed

    Burda, D

    1989-08-25

    Abortion is the foremost moral issue for 626 Catholic hospitals nationwide since church teachings prohibit the performance of elective abortions. This and the fact that Catholic hospitals can not do voluntary sterilizations can hinder their ability to get managed care contracts. In some cases a hospital will not join a network because abortions and sterilizations are done in other hospitals in the network. In other cases they have been in plans where abortions are performed in other contract facilities; this does not violate the Catholic church policy since the abortions are not performed in their facility. When a Catholic and secular hospital plan a merger, Catholic ideals seem to take precedence. A Catholic hospital that went bankrupt in Philadelphia, was turned over to investors, and was under no obligation to follow the Catholic church's directives, but did not perform abortions anyway. In Washington state there are merger talks going on between a secular facility and the Franciscan Health System. The cessation of abortion and sterilization services appear to be outweighed by the financial benefits. Besides, these procedures can be performed through other providers in the area. In Michigan similar merger talks may fail because of the abortion issue. The government justice system is investigating and is likely to challenge any merger there. PMID:10294510

  20. SU-E-J-06: Additional Imaging Guidance Dose to Patient Organs Resulting From X-Ray Tubes Used in CyberKnife Image Guidance System

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, A; Ding, G

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The use of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) has become increasingly common, but the additional radiation exposure resulting from repeated image guidance procedures raises concerns. Although there are many studies reporting imaging dose from different image guidance devices, imaging dose for the CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System is not available. This study provides estimated organ doses resulting from image guidance procedures on the CyberKnife system. Methods: Commercially available Monte Carlo software, PCXMC, was used to calculate average organ doses resulting from x-ray tubes used in the CyberKnife system. There are seven imaging protocols with kVp ranging from 60 – 120 kV and 15 mAs for treatment sites in the Cranium, Head and Neck, Thorax, and Abdomen. The output of each image protocol was measured at treatment isocenter. For each site and protocol, Adult body sizes ranging from anorexic to extremely obese were simulated since organ dose depends on patient size. Doses for all organs within the imaging field-of-view of each site were calculated for a single image acquisition from both of the orthogonal x-ray tubes. Results: Average organ doses were <1.0 mGy for every treatment site and imaging protocol. For a given organ, dose increases as kV increases or body size decreases. Higher doses are typically reported for skeletal components, such as the skull, ribs, or clavicles, than for softtissue organs. Typical organ doses due to a single exposure are estimated as 0.23 mGy to the brain, 0.29 mGy to the heart, 0.08 mGy to the kidneys, etc., depending on the imaging protocol and site. Conclusion: The organ doses vary with treatment site, imaging protocol and patient size. Although the organ dose from a single image acquisition resulting from two orthogonal beams is generally insignificant, the sum of repeated image acquisitions (>100) could reach 10–20 cGy for a typical treatment fraction.

  1. COED Transactions, Vol. X, No. 1, January 1978. Design and Simulation of an Automobile Guidance Control System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefani, R. T.

    This document describes the design of an automatic guidance and control system for a passenger car. A simulation of that system is presented. Analog outputs are provided which compare human operator control to automatic control. One human control possibility is to provide the operator with sufficient feedback information that resulting performance…

  2. Guidance, navigation, and control subsystem equipment selection algorithm using expert system methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Cheryl L.

    1991-01-01

    Enhanced engineering tools can be obtained through the integration of expert system methodologies and existing design software. The application of these methodologies to the spacecraft design and cost model (SDCM) software provides an improved technique for the selection of hardware for unmanned spacecraft subsystem design. The knowledge engineering system (KES) expert system development tool was used to implement a smarter equipment section algorithm than that which is currently achievable through the use of a standard data base system. The guidance, navigation, and control subsystems of the SDCM software was chosen as the initial subsystem for implementation. The portions of the SDCM code which compute the selection criteria and constraints remain intact, and the expert system equipment selection algorithm is embedded within this existing code. The architecture of this new methodology is described and its implementation is reported. The project background and a brief overview of the expert system is described, and once the details of the design are characterized, an example of its implementation is demonstrated.

  3. Axon Guidance in the Auditory System: Multiple Functions of Eph Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Karina S.; Gabriele, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    The neural pathways of the auditory system underlie our ability to detect sounds and to transform amplitude and frequency information into rich and meaningful perception. While it shares some organizational features with other sensory systems, the auditory system has some unique functions that impose special demands on precision in circuit assembly. In particular, the cochlear epithelium creates a frequency map rather than a space map, and specialized pathways extract information on interaural time and intensity differences to permit sound source localization. The assembly of auditory circuitry requires the coordinated function of multiple molecular cues. Eph receptors and their ephrin ligands constitute a large family of axon guidance molecules with developmentally regulated expression throughout the auditory system. Functional studies of Eph/ephrin signaling have revealed important roles at multiple levels of the auditory pathway, from the cochlea to the auditory cortex. These proteins provide graded cues used in establishing tonotopically ordered connections between auditory areas, as well as discrete cues that enable axons to form connections with appropriate postsynaptic partners within a target area. Throughout the auditory system, Eph proteins help to establish patterning in neural pathways during early development. This early targeting, which is further refined with neuronal activity, establishes the precision needed for auditory perception. PMID:25010398

  4. The consequences of abortion legislation.

    PubMed

    Braude, M

    1983-01-01

    This article examines the consequences of the 1973 US Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion as well as potential implications of proposed legilation aimed at nullifying this decision. In addition to giving women the right to determine their own reproduction, legal abortion had had beneficial health effects for both mothers and infants. The partial reversal of abortion gains due to restrictions on public funding and limitations on how and where abortions can be performed has produced a slight increase in abortion mortality, but the impact has not been dramatic. Moreover, each year since 1973, women have been obtaining abortions earlier in pregnancy. Abortion may be experienced as a loss by the mother, but there is no evidence of serious psychological sequelae. In contrast, a large body of evidence supports the physical, psychological, and social benefits of legal abortion to women, children, and families. However, proponents of the proposed Human Life Amendment place protection of the rights of the fetus over all other considerations. Their antiabortion actions have challenged the medical tradition of privacy and the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship. Most supporters of legal abortion would prefer that there be fewer abortions; such a decrease is more likely as a result of better education and contraceptive methods rather than coercion. PMID:12340335

  5. Abortion: taking the debate seriously.

    PubMed

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Voluntarily induced abortion has been under permanent dispute and legal regulations, because societies invariably condemn extramarital pregnancies. In recent decades, a measure of societal tolerance has led to decriminalize and legalize abortion in accordance with one of two models: a more restricted and conservative model known as therapeutic abortion, and the model that accepts voluntary abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy. Liberalization of abortion aims at ending clandestine abortions and decriminalizes the practice in order to increase reproductive education and accessibility of contraceptive methods, dissuade women from interrupting their pregnancy and, ultimately, make abortion a medically safe procedure within the boundaries of the law, inspired by efforts to reduce the incidence of this practice. The current legal initiative to decriminalize abortion in Chile proposes a notably rigid set of indications which would not resolve the three main objectives that need to be considered: 1) Establish the legal framework of abortion; 2) Contribute to reduce social unrest; 3) Solve the public health issue of clandestine, illegal abortions. Debate must urgently be opened to include alternatives in line with the general tendency to respect women's decision within the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:26057783

  6. The Politicization of Abortion and the Evolution of Abortion Counseling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The field of abortion counseling originated in the abortion rights movement of the 1970s. During its evolution to the present day, it has faced significant challenges, primarily arising from the increasing politicization and stigmatization of abortion since legalization. Abortion counseling has been affected not only by the imposition of antiabortion statutes, but also by the changing needs of patients who have come of age in a very different era than when this occupation was first developed. One major innovation—head and heart counseling—departs in significant ways from previous conventions of the field and illustrates the complex and changing political meanings of abortion and therefore the challenges to abortion providers in the years following Roe v Wade. PMID:23153144

  7. Developing a Guidance and Counseling Program Curriculum for the Bermuda School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outerbridge, Emelita A. Jacqueline

    1999-01-01

    Outlines the development of a guidance and counseling program curriculum implemented by Bermuda's Ministry and Department of Education. The curriculum is designed to enable counselors to co-plan with teachers and other school personnel as an interdisciplinary team in the articulation of the guidance and counseling program with designated areas of…

  8. 75 FR 35492 - Guidance for Industry on Lupus Nephritis Caused By Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Developing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    .... Specifically, the guidance addresses study population enrollment and efficacy endpoints for LN trials. In the Federal Register of March 29, 2005 (70 FR 15868), FDA announced the availability of a draft guidance..., efficacy endpoints, and response criteria in SLE. FDA received a number of comments on the draft...

  9. Bodies, rights and abortion.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, H V

    1997-06-01

    The issue of abortion is discussed with reference to the claim that people have a right of control over their own bodies. Do people "own" their own bodies? If so, what would be entailed? These questions are discussed in commonsense terms and also in relation to the jurisprudence of Hohfeld, Honore, Munzer and Waldron. It is argued that whether or not women are morally and/or should be legally entitled to have abortions, such entitlements cannot be derived from a general moral entitlement to do what we will with our own bodies since there is no such entitlement. Whether or not we "own" them, we can have rights duties, liabilities, restrictions and disadvantages as well as rights concerning our own bodies. PMID:9220332

  10. Design of a Digital-Based, Multicomponent Nutrition Guidance System for Prevention of Early Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Black, Maureen M.; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions targeting parenting focused modifiable factors to prevent obesity and promote healthy growth in the first 1000 days of life are needed. Scale-up of interventions to global populations is necessary to reverse trends in weight status among infants and toddlers, and large scale dissemination will require understanding of effective strategies. Utilizing nutrition education theories, this paper describes the design of a digital-based nutrition guidance system targeted to first-time mothers to prevent obesity during the first two years. The multicomponent system consists of scientifically substantiated content, tools, and telephone-based professional support delivered in an anticipatory and sequential manner via the internet, email, and text messages, focusing on educational modules addressing the modifiable factors associated with childhood obesity. Digital delivery formats leverage consumer media trends and provide the opportunity for scale-up, unavailable to previous interventions reliant on resource heavy clinic and home-based counseling. Designed initially for use in the United States, this system's core features are applicable to all contexts and constitute an approach fostering healthy growth, not just obesity prevention. The multicomponent features, combined with a global concern for optimal growth and positive trends in mobile internet use, represent this system's future potential to affect change in nutrition practice in developing countries.

  11. An x-ray image guidance system for small animal stereotactic irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, K. H.; Pidikiti, R.; Stojadinovic, S.; Speiser, M.; Seliounine, S.; Saha, D.; Solberg, T. D.

    2010-12-01

    An x-ray image-guided small animal stereotactic irradiator was developed and characterized to enable tumor visualization and accurate target localization for small field, high dose irradiation. The system utilizes a custom collimation system, a motorized positioning system (x, y, θ), a digital imaging panel and operating software, and is integrated with a commercial x-ray unit. The essential characteristics of the irradiator include small radiation fields (1-10 mm), high dose rate (>10 Gy min-1) and submillimeter target localization. The software enables computer-controlled image acquisition, stage motion and target localization providing simple and precise automated target localization. The imaging panel was characterized in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and spatial resolution. Overall localization accuracy and precision were assessed. SNR, CNR and spatial resolution are 24 dB, 21 dB and 2.8 lp mm-1, respectively, and localization accuracy is approximately 65 µm with 6 µm precision. With the aid of image guidance, system performance was subsequently used to evaluate radiation response in a rat orthotopic lung tumor effectively sparing normal tissues and in a mouse normal lung. The capabilities of 3D treatment and cone-beam computed tomography are presented for 3D localization and delivery as a work in progress.

  12. An x-ray image guidance system for small animal stereotactic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Song, K H; Pidikiti, R; Stojadinovic, S; Speiser, M; Seliounine, S; Saha, D; Solberg, T D

    2010-12-01

    An x-ray image-guided small animal stereotactic irradiator was developed and characterized to enable tumor visualization and accurate target localization for small field, high dose irradiation. The system utilizes a custom collimation system, a motorized positioning system (x, y, θ), a digital imaging panel and operating software, and is integrated with a commercial x-ray unit. The essential characteristics of the irradiator include small radiation fields (1-10 mm), high dose rate (>10 Gy min(-1)) and submillimeter target localization. The software enables computer-controlled image acquisition, stage motion and target localization providing simple and precise automated target localization. The imaging panel was characterized in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and spatial resolution. Overall localization accuracy and precision were assessed. SNR, CNR and spatial resolution are 24 dB, 21 dB and 2.8 lp mm(-1), respectively, and localization accuracy is approximately 65 µm with 6 µm precision. With the aid of image guidance, system performance was subsequently used to evaluate radiation response in a rat orthotopic lung tumor effectively sparing normal tissues and in a mouse normal lung. The capabilities of 3D treatment and cone-beam computed tomography are presented for 3D localization and delivery as a work in progress. PMID:21081818

  13. Development and Utilization of a Patient-Oriented Outpatient Guidance System

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Mira; Koo, Bo Kyung; Kim, Byoung Jae; Hong, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Jongdeuk; Yoo, Sooyoung; Hwang, Hee; Seo, Jeongwan; Kim, Donghyeok

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To develop a tool which can easily access the hospital information system (HIS) to facilitate outpatient care and maximize patient satisfaction on his or her hospital visit. Methods Our Center for Informatics developed an outpatient guidance system (OGS) after careful analysis of the list of daily tasks undergone by patients and related work processes. Bluetooth beacons were installed to assist patients, to inform them of points of interest, and to guide them along the proper routes to and within the hospital. Results The OGS conveniently provided patients' clinic schedules, routes to the hospital, and direct costs; all of this information was embedded in the HIS accessed from patients' personal mobile devices or kiosks. Patients were also able to identify their locations within the hospital, receiving proper directions to subsequent task. Since its launch in October 2014, the number of mobile accesses increased from 4,011 to 8,242 per month within a year. Conclusions The substantial growth of interest in and use of our OGS in such a short period indicate that this system has been successfully incorporated into patients' daily activities. We believe that this system will continue to help improve health services and the well-being of those visiting the hospital. PMID:27525158

  14. Dynamic route guidance strategy in a two-route pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flow system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mianfang; Xiong, Shengwu; Li, Bixiang

    2016-05-01

    With the rapid development of transportation, traffic questions have become the major issue for social, economic and environmental aspects. Especially, during serious emergencies, it is very important to alleviate road traffic congestion and improve the efficiency of evacuation to reduce casualties, and addressing these problems has been a major task for the agencies responsible in recent decades. Advanced road guidance strategies have been developed for homogeneous traffic flows, or to reduce traffic congestion and enhance the road capacity in a symmetric two-route scenario. However, feedback strategies have rarely been considered for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flows with variable velocities and sizes in an asymmetric multi-route traffic system, which is a common phenomenon in many developing countries. In this study, we propose a weighted road occupancy feedback strategy (WROFS) for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flows, which considers the system equilibrium to ease traffic congestion. In order to more realistic simulating the behavior of mixed traffic objects, the paper adopted a refined and dynamic cellular automaton model (RDPV_CA model) as the update mechanism for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flow. Moreover, a bounded rational threshold control was introduced into the feedback strategy to avoid some negative effect of delayed information and reduce. Based on comparisons with the two previously proposed strategies, the simulation results obtained in a pedestrian-vehicle traffic flow scenario demonstrated that the proposed strategy with a bounded rational threshold was more effective and system equilibrium, system stability were reached.

  15. Catholic options in the abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Maguire, D C

    1990-01-01

    The little-known Roman Catholic theological doctrine of probabilism, an ethical system explicated in all manuals of moral theology, is explained using as an example the dilemma of abortion. Probabilism is based on the notion that a doubtful moral obligation may not be imposed as though it were certain. "Ubi dubium, ibi libertas," means where there is doubt, there is freedom. There are 2 types of moral probability, intrinsic probability, where the individual, without the help of moral theologians, perceives the inapplicability of a particular moral teaching; and extrinsic probability, which involves reliance on the findings of 5 or 6 reputable moral theologians, who may hold a liberal view. Probabilism implies a reasonable doubt, and one's reasons must be cogent, but not necessarily conclusive. Today's abortion debate is an example of a respectable debate, where the liberal view has been endorsed by a number of reputable religious or other humanitarian bodies that in some cases abortion is not always immoral. Other examples in history are the view once taught by the church that taking interest on loans was immoral, that depriving slaves and women of civil rights on non-Catholics of religious or political freedom was moral. For today's legislators, there is a precedent throughout theological history for the state permitting an evil: both St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas wrote that prostitution, although evil, should not be outlawed, because worse evils would occur with prohibition. Legislators who personally find abortion always immoral can support a Roe V. Wade decision because 1) it does not require anyone to have an abortion, and 2) the abortion debate, among Catholics, and non-Catholics is not settled. PMID:12178838

  16. Austerity and Abortion in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Lima, Joana Madureira; Reeves, Aaron; Billari, Francesco; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-06-01

    Economic hardship accompanying large recessions can lead families to terminate unplanned pregnancies. To assess whether abortions have risen during the recession, we collected crude abortion data from 2000 to 2012 from Eurostat for countries that had legal abortions and complete data. Declining trends in abortion ratios between 2000 and 2009 have been reversing. Excess abortions between 2010 and 2012 totaled 10.6 abortions per 1000 pregnancies ending in abortion or birth or 6701 additional abortions (95% CI 1190-9240) with stronger effects in younger ages. Economic shocks may increase recourse to abortion. Further research should explore causal pathways and protective factors. PMID:27009038

  17. Austerity and Abortion in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Billari, Francesco; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Economic hardship accompanying large recessions can lead families to terminate unplanned pregnancies. To assess whether abortions have risen during the recession, we collected crude abortion data from 2000 to 2012 from Eurostat for countries that had legal abortions and complete data. Declining trends in abortion ratios between 2000 and 2009 have been reversing. Excess abortions between 2010 and 2012 totaled 10.6 abortions per 1000 pregnancies ending in abortion or birth or 6701 additional abortions (95% CI 1190–9240) with stronger effects in younger ages. Economic shocks may increase recourse to abortion. Further research should explore causal pathways and protective factors. PMID:27009038

  18. Immunologically mediated abortion (IMA).

    PubMed

    Giacomucci, E; Bulletti, C; Polli, V; Prefetto, R A; Flamigni, C

    1994-06-01

    Roughly 20% of all clinical pregnancies evolve into "spontaneous abortions". The causes of spontaneous abortion have been determined in under 60% of the total and comprise genetic, infectious, hormonal and immunological factors. In some cases the immune tolerance mechanism may be impaired and the foetus immunologically rejected (IMA, immunologically mediated abortion). The immunological mechanism implicated depends on the time in which pregnancy loss takes place. During preimplantation and up to the end of implantation (13th day) the cell-mediated immune mechanism (potential alloimmune etiologies) is responsible for early abortion. This mechanism involves immunocompetent decidual cells (eGL, endometrial granulated lymphocytes) already present during pre-decidualization (late luteal phase) and their production of soluble factors or cytokines. Once the implantation process is over, after blastocyst penetration of the stroma and the decidual reaction of uterine tissue, IMA could be caused by cell-mediated and humoral mechanism (anti-paternal cytotoxic antibodies or autoantibody etiology), by the production of paternal anti major histocompatibility complex antibodies, or even by an autoimmune disorder leading to the production of autoantibodies (antiphospholipid antibodies, antinuclear antibodies or polyclonal B cell activation). The diagnostic work-up adopted to select IMA patients is crucial and includes primary (karyotype of both partners, toxo-test, hysterosalpingography, endometrial biopsy, thyroid function tests, serum hprolactin, luteal phase dating) and secondary (full hemochromocytometric test, search for LE cells, lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin, antinuclear antibodies, Rheumatoid factor, blood complement VDRL) investigations. Therapeutical approaches vary. If autoimmune disorders are demonstrated therapies with different combinations of corticosteroids, aspirin and heparin or intravenous immunoglobulin are administered. Otherwise, therapy with paternal

  19. Assimilation of Satellite Based Soil Moisture Data in the National Weather Service's Flash Flood Guidance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, D.; Lakhankar, T.; Cosgrove, B.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change and variability increases the probability of frequency, timing, intensity, and duration of flood events. After rainfall, soil moisture is the most important factor dictating flash flooding, since rainfall infiltration and runoff are based on the saturation of the soil. It is difficult to conduct ground-based measurements of soil moisture consistently and regionally. As such, soil moisture is often derived from models and agencies such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service (NOAA/NWS) use proxy estimates of soil moisture at the surface in order support operational flood forecasting. In particular, a daily national map of Flash Flood Guidance (FFG) is produced that is based on surface soil moisture deficit and threshold runoff estimates. Flash flood warnings are issued by Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and are underpinned by information from the Flash Flood Guidance (FFG) system operated by the River Forecast Centers (RFCs). This study analyzes the accuracy and limitations of the FFG system using reported flash flood cases in 2010 and 2011. The flash flood reports were obtained from the NWS Storm Event database for the Arkansas-Red Basin RFC (ABRFC). The current FFG system at the ABRFC provides gridded flash flood guidance (GFFG) System using the NWS Hydrology Laboratory-Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM) to translate the upper zone soil moisture to estimates of Soil Conservation Service Curve Numbers. Comparison of the GFFG and real-time Multi-sensor Precipitation Estimator derived Quantitative Precipitation Estimate (QPE) for the same duration and location were used to analyze the success of the system. Improved flash flood forecasting requires accurate and high resolution soil surface information. The remote sensing observations of soil moisture can improve the flood forecasting accuracy. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellites are two

  20. Comparing Accuracy of Cervical Pedicle Screw Placement between a Guidance System and Manual Manipulation: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Yu; Bao, Nirong; Zhao, Jianning; Mao, Guangping

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of cervical pedicle screw placement between a three-dimensional guidance system and manual manipulation. Material/Methods Eighteen adult cadavers were randomized into group A (n=9) and group B (n=9). Ninety pedicle screws were placed into the C3-C7 under the guidance of a three-dimensional locator in group A, and 90 screws were inserted by manual manipulation in group B. The cervical spines were scanned using computed tomography (CT). Parallel and angular offsets of the screws were compared between the two placement methods. Results In group A, 90% of the screws were within the pedicles and 10% breached the pedicle cortex. In group B, 55.6% were within the pedicle and 44.4% breached the pedicle cortex. Locator guidance showed significantly lower parallel and angular offsets in axial CT images (P<0.01), and significantly lower angular offset in sagittal CT images (P<0.01) than manual manipulation. Conclusions Locator guidance is superior to manual manipulation in accuracy of cervical screw placement. Locator guidance might provide better safety than manual manipulation in placing cervical screws. PMID:26348197

  1. Development of critical-area criteria for protecting Microwave Landing System azimuth and elevation antenna guidance signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dibenedetto, Michael Francis

    This dissertation presents the methodologies used to develop and validate protective zoning requirements for Microwave Landing System (MLS) azimuth and elevation guidance signals. Typically, the aviation community refers to these protective zoning requirements as critical areas. The purpose of defining critical areas about the azimuth and elevation antennas is to protect the radiated guidance signals from multipath errors caused by electromagnetic scattering of these signals by transient vehicles and aircraft. A method for applying the Federal Aviation Administration MLS Mathematic Model to characterize the guidance signal errors caused by interfering aircraft located ahead of the azimuth or elevation antenna is presented. This method was used to generate error-contour plots characterizing the guidance signal errors caused along a standard precision approach profile as a function of interfering aircraft type, location, and orientation. Error budgets were developed, including allocations to the error permitted to be caused by interfering aircraft. Based on these allocations, error-contour plots were analyzed to determine the areas that bound all of the interfering aircraft locations that have the potential to cause guidance-signal error that exceed the allocations. Methods for adapting these criteria to protect non-standard, computed-centerline, and advanced approach procedures are presented. The dissertation provides azimuth and elevation critical-area criteria for basic, computed-centerline, and advanced MLS procedures. Also, it presents the status of critical- area criteria development for Precision Distance Measuring Equipment. The dissertation recommends that validation and refinement of the criteria be performed as indicated by operational experience.

  2. The abortion debate in Australia.

    PubMed

    Read, Christine Margaret

    2006-09-01

    I recently watched a fascinating documentary about the crusade of Dr Bertram Wainer in the 1960s to bring the practice of illegal abortion in Victoria to an end. It documented the profound horror of the backyard abortion that so often ended in infection, sterility or death, and served as a potent reminder of a practice to which we must never return. Of course that cant happen again, abortion is legal now, isnt it? In Victoria in 1969 a Supreme Court judge ruled that an abortion is not unlawful if a doctor believed that: the abortion is necessary to preserve the woman from serious danger to her life or physical or mental health (Menhennit ruling). In Australia today however, abortion law remains conditional, unclear and inconsistent and, except in the ACT, is still part of criminal statutes. PMID:16969440

  3. Legal abortion and public health.

    PubMed

    Tietze, C

    1984-01-01

    Over 15 million abortions have been performed in the US since the process of abortion legalization began in 1967. Consequences of legalization have included a marked reduction of pregnancy-related mortality and the prevention in many cases of the birth of infants with major physical or mental defects. Prenatal diagnosis, backed up by selective abortion, has made procreation a possibility for many couples who might otherwise avoid childbearing. However, the number of abortions performed on the basis of prenatal diagnosis remains small, comprising only about .01% of all legal abortions. In recent months, the pro-choice movement in the US has been handed 2 important victories: the US Supreme Court reaffirmed the 1973 decision legalizing abortion and the US Senate defeated a constitutional amendment intended to reverse this decision. As a result of these victories, contributions to pro-choice groups have declined. Continued vigilance is needed to protect these victories. PMID:12267089

  4. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742

  5. 76 FR 2681 - Amended Environmental Impact Statement Filing System Guidance for Implementing 40 CFR 1506.9 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Amended Environmental Impact Statement Filing System Guidance for Implementing 40 CFR 1506.9 and 1506.10 of the Council on Environmental Quality's Regulations Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act 1. Introduction On October 7,...

  6. Guidance system operations plan for manned cm earth orbital and lunar missions using program Colossus 3. Section 2: Data links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, M. H.

    1971-01-01

    The data links for use with the guidance system operations plan for manned command module earth orbital and lunar missions using program Colossus 3 are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) digital uplink to CMC, (2) command module contiguous block update, (3) CMC retrofire external data update, (4) CMC digital downlink, and (5) CMC entry update.

  7. SIGI: Field Test and Evaluation of a Computer-Based System of Interactive Guidance and Information. Volume I: Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Warren; And Others

    The computer-based System of Interactive Guidance and Information (SIGI) was field tested and evaluated at five community colleges and one university. Developed by Educational Testing Service, SIGI assists students in the process of informed and rational career decision making. Interacting at a cathode-ray tube terminal with a computer, students…

  8. SIGI: Field Test and Evaluation of a Computer-Based System of Interactive Guidance and Information. Summary of Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Warren; And Others

    The computer-based System of Interactive Guidance and Information (SIGI) was field tested and evaluated at five community colleges and one university. Developed by Educational Testing Service, SIGI assists students in the process of informed and rational career decision making. Interacting at a cathode-ray tube terminal with a computer, students…

  9. 23 CFR Appendix D to Subpart A of... - Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Modifications to the National Highway System D Appendix D to Subpart A of Part 470 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY.... 470, Subpt. A, App. D Appendix D to Subpart A of Part 470—Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests.... Proposed additions should connect at each end with other routes on the NHS or serve a major...

  10. Can I Get a Little Advice Here? How an Overstretched High School Guidance System Is Undermining Students' College Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jean; Rochkind, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of the guidance system as it operates in public schools today indicate that counselors are often overworked and underprepared when it comes to helping students make the best decisions about their lives after high school. This survey of young adults aged 22 through 30 conducted by Public agenda for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation…

  11. The TURis System for Transurethral Resection of the Prostate: A NICE Medical Technology Guidance.

    PubMed

    Cleves, Andrew; Dimmock, Paul; Hewitt, Neil; Carolan-Rees, Grace

    2016-06-01

    The transurethral resection in saline (TURis) system was notified by the company Olympus Medical to the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence's (NICE's) Medical Technologies Evaluation Programme. Following selection for medical technologies guidance, the company developed a submission of clinical and economic evidence for evaluation. TURis is a bipolar surgical system for treating men with lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic enlargement. The comparator is any monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate (mTURP) system. Cedar, a collaboration between Cardiff and Vale University Health Board, Cardiff University and Swansea University in the UK, acted as an External Assessment Centre (EAC) for NICE to independently critique the company's submission of evidence. Eight randomised trials provided evidence for TURis, demonstrating efficacy equivalent to that of mTURP for improvement of symptoms. The company presented meta-analyses of key outcome measures, and the EAC made methodological modifications in response to the heterogeneity of the trial data. The EAC analysis found that TURis substantially reduced the relative risks of transurethral resection syndrome (relative risk 0.18 [95 % confidence interval 0.05-0.62]) and blood transfusion (relative risk 0.35 [95 % confidence interval 0.19-0.65]). The company provided a de novo economic model comparing TURis with mTURP. The EAC critiqued the model methodology and made modifications. This found TURis to be cost saving at £70.55 per case for existing Olympus customers and cost incurring at £19.80 per case for non-Olympus customers. When an additional scenario based on the only available data on readmission (due to any cause) from a single trial was modelled, the estimated cost saving per case was £375.02 for existing users of Olympus electrosurgery equipment and £284.66 per case when new Olympus equipment would need to be purchased. Meta-analysis of eight randomised trials showed

  12. Dworkin and Casey on abortion.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Sarah

    1996-01-01

    This article responds to two important recent treatments of abortion rights. I will mainly discuss Ronald Dworkin's recent writings concerning abortion: his article "Unenumerated rights: whether and how Roe should be overruled," and his book Life's Dominion. In these writings Dworkin presents a novel view of what the constitutional and moral argument surronding abortion is really about. Both debates actually turn, he argues, on the question of how to interpret the widely shared idea that human life is sacred. At the heart of the abortion debate is the essentially religious notion that human life has value which transcends its value to any particular person; abortion is therefore at bottom a religious issue. Dworkin hopes to use this analysis to show that the religion clauses of the First Amendment provide a "textual home" for a woman's right to choose abortion. I wish to scrutinize this suggestion here; I want to probe the precise consequences for abortion rights of such an understanding of their basis. I will argue that the consequences are more radical than Dworkin seems to realize. The other work I will examine here is the important 1992 Supreme Court decision on abortion, Planned Parenthood v. Casey. The controlling opinion in that case, written jointly by Justices Kennedy, O'Connor, and Souter, strongly reaffirmed Roe v. Wade, but also upheld most of the provisions of a Pennsylvania statute that had mandated various restrictions on abortion. The justices' basis for upholding these restictions was their introduction of a new constitutional standard for abortion regulations, an apparently weaker standard than those that had governed previous Supreme Court abortion decisions. I think there is a flaw in Casey's new constitutional test for abortion regulations, and I will explain, when we turn to Casey, what it is and why it bears a close relation to Dworkin's reluctance to carry his argument as far as it seems to go. PMID:11660187

  13. Simplified classification of spontaneous abortions.

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, D I

    1978-01-01

    A simple classification of products of conception aborted in early pregnancy is described. This classification bears a closer relation to the aetiology of the abortions and the timing of the teratological insult in those conceptuses with morphological abnormalities than have previous classifications. It is hoped it may be of value in counselling patients who abort recurrently and also in the assessment of some environmental hazards purported to cause early pregnancy wastage and congenital malformations. Images PMID:564967

  14. Anti-abortion movement.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K

    1985-01-01

    At the same time that American women celebrate the freedoms won thus far for so many Americans, American women must realize they face some of the greatest threats to liberty in recent memory. To understand this movement against American women, it is necessary to first understand the roots of the historic movement for women's rights. Reproductive freedom for many years topped the agenda of the modern women's movement. At a time and in a land where rights were being enriched and liberty prized, choice took a prominent role, specifically, the right to abortion but also generally to repdocuctive freedom and the many underlying issues involved. This is why the various efforts to criminalize abortion effect every citizen, because they pose a serious threat to the constitutional rights of each individual. This is the intellectual view, or the "head" argument. The Constitution states that: "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and no state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US." Each of these clauses expresses the philosophy on which the Constitution was founded -- individual liberty. While there has been some legitimate disagreement over what constitutes an inalienable right, the concept is clear: the government should not become involved in personal philosophical or religious matters, except to permit the freedom of personal philosophical or religious expression. The anti-abortion contignent makes its case by claiming that a fertilized egg is a cona fide person and should, therefore, be guaranteed the Constitution's full roster of protections. In its landmark Roe v. Wade opinion, the Supreme Court held what pro-choice activities have been claiming for years. Since there is no empirical test by which measure

  15. [Psychological consequences of induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Schleiss, L; Mygind, K A; Borre, R V; Petersson, B H

    1997-06-01

    One hundred and thirty consecutive women were interviewed about the development of psychological symptoms related to induced abortion two days before and four months after the abortion. Sixty-one (47%) participated in the second interview. Of the 61 women, 52% were psychologically influenced before the abortion to an extent which indicated severe crisis or actual psychiatric illness. Four months after the abortion 13 of these women were still psychologically affected. Furthermore, five women who were not affected before the abortion had developed psychological problems. Among ten of these women (16%) the physiological problems could only be related to the circumstance in connection with the abortion. For a number of women (30%) the abortion had a negative influence on their relationships and their sex lives, whereas other claimed that their relationship had become closer because of their reactions towards the abortions. In spite of these conditions all women indicated that their decision about the abortion had been the correct one under the given circumstances. PMID:9206861

  16. Analysis of beam loss induced abort kicker instability

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang W.; Sandberg, J.; Ahrens, L.; Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mi, J.; Pai, C.; Tan, Y.

    2012-05-20

    Through more than a decade of operation, we have noticed the phenomena of beam loss induced kicker instability in the RHIC beam abort systems. In this study, we analyze the short term beam loss before abort kicker pre-fire events and operation conditions before capacitor failures. Beam loss has caused capacitor failures and elevated radiation level concentrated at failed end of capacitor has been observed. We are interested in beam loss induced radiation and heat dissipation in large oil filled capacitors and beam triggered thyratron conduction. We hope the analysis result would lead to better protection of the abort systems and improved stability of the RHIC operation.

  17. Cadaveric in-situ testing of optical coherence tomography system-based skull base surgery guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cuiru; Khan, Osaama H.; Siegler, Peter; Jivraj, Jamil; Wong, Ronnie; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2015-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has extensive potential for producing clinical impact in the field of neurological diseases. A neurosurgical OCT hand-held forward viewing probe in Bayonet shape has been developed. In this study, we test the feasibility of integrating this imaging probe with modern navigation technology for guidance and monitoring of skull base surgery. Cadaver heads were used to simulate relevant surgical approaches for treatment of sellar, parasellar and skull base pathology. A high-resolution 3D CT scan was performed on the cadaver head to provide baseline data for navigation. The cadaver head was mounted on existing 3- or 4-point fixation systems. Tracking markers were attached to the OCT probe and the surgeon-probe-OCT interface was calibrated. 2D OCT images were shown in real time together with the optical tracking images to the surgeon during surgery. The intraoperative video and multimodality imaging data set, consisting of real time OCT images, OCT probe location registered to neurosurgical navigation were assessed. The integration of intraoperative OCT imaging with navigation technology provides the surgeon with updated image information, which is important to deal with tissue shifts and deformations during surgery. Preliminary results demonstrate that the clinical neurosurgical navigation system can provide the hand held OCT probe gross anatomical localization. The near-histological imaging resolution of intraoperative OCT can improve the identification of microstructural/morphology differences. The OCT imaging data, combined with the neurosurgical navigation tracking has the potential to improve image interpretation, precision and accuracy of the therapeutic procedure.

  18. A Cascading Storm-Flood-Landslide Guidance System: Development and Application in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ziyue; Tang, Guoqiang; Long, Di; Ma, Meihong; Hong, Yang

    2016-04-01

    Flash floods and landslides, triggered by storms, often interact and cause cascading effects on human lives and property. Satellite remote sensing data has significant potential use in analysis of these natural hazards. As one of the regions continuously affected by severe flash floods and landslides, Yunnan Province, located in Southwest China, has a complex mountainous hydrometeorology and suffers from frequent heavy rainfalls from May through to late September. Taking Yunnan as a test-bed, this study proposed a Cascading Storm-Flood-Landslide Guidance System to progressively analysis and evaluate the risk of the multi-hazards based on multisource satellite remote sensing data. First, three standardized rainfall amounts (average daily amount in flood seasons, maximum 1h and maximum 6h amount) from the products of Topical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) were used as rainfall indicators to derive the StorM Hazard Index (SMHI). In this process, an integrated approach of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Information-Entropy theory was adopted to determine the weight of each indicator. Then, land cover and vegetation cover data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products, soil type from the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD) soil map, and slope from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data were add as semi-static geo-topographical indicators to derive the Flash Flood Hazard Index (FFHI). Furthermore, three more relevant landslide-controlling indicators, including elevation, slope angle and soil text were involved to derive the LandSlide Hazard Index (LSHI). Further inclusion of GDP, population and prevention measures as vulnerability indicators enabled to consecutively predict the risk of storm to flash flood and landslide, respectively. Consequently, the spatial patterns of the hazard indices show that the southeast of Yunnan has more possibility to encounter with storms

  19. Crosswatch: a System for Providing Guidance to Visually Impaired Travelers at Traffic Intersections

    PubMed Central

    Coughlan, James M.; Shen, Huiying

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This paper describes recent progress on the “Crosswatch” project, a smartphone-based system developed for providing guidance to blind and visually impaired travelers at traffic intersections. Building on past work on Crosswatch functionality to help the user achieve proper alignment with the crosswalk and read the status of walk lights to know when it is time to cross, we outline the directions Crosswatch is now taking to help realize its potential for becoming a practical system: namely, augmenting computer vision with other information sources, including geographic information systems (GIS) and sensor data, and inferring the user's location much more precisely than is possible through GPS alone, to provide a much larger range of information about traffic intersections to the pedestrian. Design/methodology/approach The paper summarizes past progress on Crosswatch and describes details about the development of new Crosswatch functionalities. One such functionality, which is required for determination of the user's precise location, is studied in detail, including the design of a suitable user interface to support this functionality and preliminary tests of this interface with visually impaired volunteer subjects. Findings The results of the tests of the new Crosswatch functionality demonstrate that the functionality is feasible in that it is usable by visually impaired persons. Research limitations/implications While the tests that were conducted of the new Crosswatch functionality are preliminary, the results of the tests have suggested several possible improvements, to be explored in the future. Practical implications The results described in this paper suggest that the necessary technologies used by the Crosswatch system are rapidly maturing, implying that the system has an excellent chance of becoming practical in the near future. Originality/value The paper addresses an innovative solution to a key problem faced by blind and visually impaired

  20. 76 FR 51038 - Guidance for Industry on Residual Drug in Transdermal and Related Drug Delivery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... August 3, 2010 (75 FR 45640), FDA announced the availability of the draft version of this guidance. The... prolonged pharmacological effect of the drug. Also, some children have died from inadvertent exposure...

  1. Bibliographies and Abstracts. Clearinghouse for Computer-Assisted Guidance Systems. Project LEARN--Phase II. Lifelong Education, Assessment, and Referral Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan-Jones, Rebecca E.; And Others

    This document contains four bibliographies and two sets of abstracts of materials on computer-assisted guidance systems. The first bibliography contains references pertaining to the use of the computer-assisted guidance system, DISCOVER. The cited documents are classified as theoretical foundations, evaluation and research reports, program…

  2. Meteorological Integration for the Biological Warning and Incident Characterization (BWIC) System: General Guidance for BWIC Cities

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, William J.; Wang, Weiguo; Rutz, Frederick C.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Xie, YuLong; Seiple, Timothy E.; Allwine, K Jerry

    2007-02-16

    The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is responsible for developing systems to detect the release of aerosolized bioagents in urban environments. The system that accomplishes this, known as BioWatch, is a robust first-generation monitoring system. In conjunction with the BioWatch detection network, DHS has also developed a software tool for cities to use to assist in their response when a bioagent is detected. This tool, the Biological Warning and Incident Characterization (BWIC) System, will eventually be deployed to all BioWatch cities to aid in the interpretation of the public health significance of indicators from the BioWatch networks. BWIC consists of a set of integrated modules, including meteorological models, that estimate the effect of a biological agent on a city’s population once it has been detected. For the meteorological models in BWIC to successfully calculate the distribution of biological material, they must have as input accurate meteorological data, and wind fields in particular. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for cities to use in identifying sources of good-quality local meteorological data that BWIC needs to function properly. This process of finding sources of local meteorological data, evaluating the data quality and gaps in coverage, and getting the data into BWIC, referred to as meteorological integration, is described. The good news for many cities is that meteorological measurement networks are becoming increasingly common. Most of these networks allow their data to be distributed in real time via the internet. Thus, cities will often only need to evaluate the quality of available measurements and perhaps add a modest number of stations where coverage is poor.

  3. On eukaryotic intelligence: signaling system's guidance in the evolution of multicellular organization.

    PubMed

    Marijuán, Pedro C; del Moral, Raquel; Navarro, Jorge

    2013-10-01

    handling of DNA processes. Under signaling system's guidance, the whole processes of transcription, alternative splicing, mobile elements, and other elements of domain recombination have become closely intertwined and have propelled the differentiation capabilities of multicellular tissues and morphologies. An amazing variety of signaling and self-construction strategies have emerged out from the basic eukaryotic design of multicellular complexity, in millions and millions of new species evolved. This design can also be seen abstractly as a new kind of quasi-universal problem-solving 'engine' implemented at the biomolecular scale-providing the fundamentals of eukaryotic 'intelligence'. Analyzing in depth the problem-solving intelligence of eukaryotic cells would help to establish an integrative panorama of their information processing organization, and of their capability to handle the morphological and physiological complexity associated. Whether an informational updating of the venerable "cell theory" is feasible or not, becomes, at the time being - right in the middle of the massive data deluge/revolution from omic disciplines - a matter to careful consider. PMID:23850535

  4. Legal abortion: a painful necessity.

    PubMed

    Kero, A; Högberg, U; Jacobsson, L; Lalos, A

    2001-12-01

    This study was conducted to increase knowledge about the psychosocial background and current living conditions of Swedish women seeking abortion, along with their motives for abortion and their feelings towards pregnancy and abortion. Two hundred and eleven women answered a questionnaire when they consulted the gynaecologist for the first time. The study indicates that legal abortion may be sought by women in many circumstances and is not confined to those in special risk groups. For example, most women in the sample were living in stable relationships with adequate finances. The motives behind a decision to postpone or limit the number of children revealed a wish to have children with the right partner and at the right time in order to combine good parenting with professional career. The study shows that prevailing expectations about lifestyle render abortion a necessity in family planning. One-third of the women had had a previous abortion(s) and 12% had become pregnant in a situation where they had felt pressured or threatened by the man. Two-thirds of the women characterised their initial feelings towards the pregnancy solely in painful words while nearly all the others reported contradictory feelings. Concerning feelings towards the coming abortion, more than half expressed both positive and painful feelings such as anxiety, relief, grief, guilt, anguish, emptiness and responsibility, while one-third expressed only painful feelings. However, almost 70% stated that nothing could change their decision to have an abortion. Thus, this study highlights that contradictory feelings in relation to both pregnancy and the coming abortion are common but are very seldom associated with doubts about the decision to have an abortion. PMID:11710423

  5. Adolescent pregnancy: a study of aborters and non-aborters.

    PubMed

    Kane, F J; Lachenbruch, P A

    1973-10-01

    In a June 1970 through January 1971 study of 99 single girls seeking abortion and 33 single girls choosing to complete the pregnancy, knowledge of and/or access to contraceptives were not the problem. Emotional factors such as guilt over sexual activity, acting-out disorders (rebellious attitude, hippie lifestyle, indifference toward others), or severe reactions to loss of a love relationship contributed to pregnancy in both groups. The girls who became pregnant, especially the ones who chose to complete the pregnancy, viewed pregnancy and motherhood as a source of gratification and self-esteem. Research on motivational factors in adolescent pregnancy is needed to prevent high recidivism. The majority of state abortion laws requiring phychiatric deficiencies for abortions are misguided, since the girls who chose not to abort were more psychiatrically disturbed than the ones who had abortions. PMID:4742821

  6. Guidance Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartrell, Dan

    2005-01-01

    In this column, the author shares and comments on early childhood educators' use of guidance to foster young children's development and learning. He defines guidance as the commitment a teacher makes to teaching children how to solve their problems, rather than punishing them for having problems they haven't yet learned how to solve. The focus of…

  7. Alarm system management: evidence-based guidance encouraging direct measurement of informativeness to improve alarm response.

    PubMed

    Rayo, Michael F; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D

    2015-04-01

    Although there are powerful incentives for creating alarm management programmes to reduce 'alarm fatigue', they do not provide guidance on how to reduce the likelihood that clinicians will disregard critical alarms. The literature cites numerous phenomena that contribute to alarm fatigue, although many of these, including total rate of alarms, are not supported in the literature as factors that directly impact alarm response. The contributor that is most frequently associated with alarm response is informativeness, which is defined as the proportion of total alarms that successfully conveys a specific event, and the extent to which it is a hazard. Informativeness is low across all healthcare applications, consistently ranging from 1% to 20%. Because of its likelihood and strong evidential support, informativeness should be evaluated before other contributors are considered. Methods for measuring informativeness and alarm response are discussed. Design directions for potential interventions, as well as design alternatives to traditional alarms, are also discussed. With the increased attention and investment in alarm system management that alarm interventions are currently receiving, initiatives that focus on informativeness and the other evidence-based measures identified will allow us to more effectively, efficiently and reliably redirect clinician attention, ultimately improving alarm response. PMID:25734193

  8. Fault detection and identification in missile system guidance and control: a filtering approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padgett, Mary Lou; Evers, Johnny; Karplus, Walter J.

    1996-03-01

    Real-world applications of computational intelligence can enhance the fault detection and identification capabilities of a missile guidance and control system. A simulation of a bank-to- turn missile demonstrates that actuator failure may cause the missile to roll and miss the target. Failure of one fin actuator can be detected using a filter and depicting the filter output as fuzzy numbers. The properties and limitations of artificial neural networks fed by these fuzzy numbers are explored. A suite of networks is constructed to (1) detect a fault and (2) determine which fin (if any) failed. Both the zero order moment term and the fin rate term show changes during actuator failure. Simulations address the following questions: (1) How bad does the actuator failure have to be for detection to occur, (2) How bad does the actuator failure have to be for fault detection and isolation to occur, (3) are both zero order moment and fine rate terms needed. A suite of target trajectories are simulated, and properties and limitations of the approach reported. In some cases, detection of the failed actuator occurs within 0.1 second, and isolation of the failure occurs 0.1 after that. Suggestions for further research are offered.

  9. A Multi-Function Guidance, Navigation and Control System for Future Earth and Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambino, Joel; Dennehy, Neil; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past several years the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center (GNCC) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has actively engaged in the development of advanced GN&C technology to enable future Earth and Space science missions. The Multi-Function GN&C System (MFGS) design presented in this paper represents the successful coalescence of several discrete GNCC hardware and software technology innovations into one single highly integrated, compact, low power and low cost unit that simultaneously provides autonomous real time on-board attitude determination solutions and navigation solutions with accuracies that satisfy many future GSFC mission requirements. The MFGS is intended to operate as a single self-contained multifunction unit combining the functions now typically performed by a number of hardware units on a spacecraft. However, recognizing the need to satisfy a variety of future mission requirements, design provisions have been included to permit the unit to interface with a number of external remotely mounted sensors and actuators such as magnetometers, sun sensors, star cameras, reaction wheels and thrusters. The result is a highly versatile MFGS that can be configured in multiple ways to suit a realm of mission-specific GN&C requirements. It is envisioned that the MFGS will perform a mission enabling role by filling the microsat GN&C technology gap. In addition, GSFC believes that the MFGS could be employed to significantly reduce volume, power and mass requirements on conventional satellites.

  10. 3D transrectal ultrasound prostate biopsy using a mechanical imaging and needle-guidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bax, Jeffrey; Cool, Derek; Gardi, Lori; Montreuil, Jacques; Gil, Elena; Bluvol, Jeremy; Knight, Kerry; Smith, David; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron

    2008-03-01

    Prostate biopsy procedures are generally limited to 2D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging for biopsy needle guidance. This limitation results in needle position ambiguity and an insufficient record of biopsy core locations in cases of prostate re-biopsy. We have developed a multi-jointed mechanical device that supports a commercially available TRUS probe with an integrated needle guide for precision prostate biopsy. The device is fixed at the base, allowing the joints to be manually manipulated while fully supporting its weight throughout its full range of motion. Means are provided to track the needle trajectory and display this trajectory on a corresponding TRUS image. This allows the physician to aim the needle-guide at predefined targets within the prostate, providing true 3D navigation. The tracker has been designed for use with several end-fired transducers that can be rotated about the longitudinal axis of the probe to generate 3D images. The tracker reduces the variability associated with conventional hand-held probes, while preserving user familiarity and procedural workflow. In a prostate phantom, biopsy needles were guided to within 2 mm of their targets, and the 3D location of the biopsy core was accurate to within 3 mm. The 3D navigation system is validated in the presence of prostate motion in a preliminary patient study.

  11. "These things are dangerous": Understanding induced abortion trajectories in urban Zambia.

    PubMed

    Coast, Ernestina; Murray, Susan F

    2016-03-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant but preventable cause of global maternal mortality and morbidity. Zambia has among the most liberal abortion laws in sub-Saharan Africa, however this alone does not guarantee access to safe abortion, and 30% of maternal mortality is attributable to unsafe procedures. Too little is known about the pathways women take to reach abortion services in such resource-poor settings, or what informs care-seeking behaviours, barriers and delays. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted in 2013 with 112 women who accessed abortion-related care in a Lusaka tertiary government hospital at some point in their pathway. The sample included women seeking safe abortion and also those receiving hospital care following unsafe abortion. We identified a typology of three care-seeking trajectories that ended in the use of hospital services: clinical abortion induced in hospital; clinical abortion initiated elsewhere, with post-abortion care in hospital; and non-clinical abortion initiated elsewhere, with post-abortion care in hospital. Framework analyses of 70 transcripts showed that trajectories to a termination of an unwanted pregnancy can be complex and iterative. Individuals may navigate private and public formal healthcare systems and consult unqualified providers, often trying multiple strategies. We found four major influences on which trajectory a woman followed, as well as the complexity and timing of her trajectory: i) the advice of trusted others ii) perceptions of risk iii) delays in care-seeking and receipt of services and iv) economic cost. Even though abortion is legal in Zambia, girls and women still take significant risks to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Levels of awareness about the legality of abortion and its provision remain low even in urban Zambia, especially among adolescents. Unofficial payments required by some providers can be a major barrier to safe care. Timely access to safe abortion services depends on chance rather

  12. Abortion and parental responsibility.

    PubMed

    Winston, M E

    1986-01-01

    A theory on the morality of abortion is derived from the presumption that parents have special moral obligations to nurture their immature children. Three alternative models of the acquisition of parental responsibilities are examined: one based on biological relationships, one based on consent, and one based on causal responsibility. Each of the models is examined in terms of its ability to handle cases involving nonstandard methods of procreation, such as surrogate motherhood, artificial insemination by donor, and embryo transfer. It is concluded that the model based on causal responsibility provides the most adequate criterion for the ascription of parental responsibility toward fetuses. PMID:11650732

  13. Denial of abortion in legal settings

    PubMed Central

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePiñeres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-01-01

    Background Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. Methods In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic characteristics of legal abortion seekers, as well as the frequency and reasons that women are denied abortion care. Results The proportion of women denied abortion services and the reasons for which they were denied varied widely by country. In Colombia, 2% of women surveyed did not receive the abortions they were seeking; in South Africa, 45% of women did not receive abortions on the day they were seeking abortion services. In both Tunisia and Nepal, 26% of women were denied their wanted abortions. Conclusions The denial of legal abortion services may have serious consequences for women's health and wellbeing. Additional evidence on the risk factors for presenting later in pregnancy, predictors of seeking unsafe illegal abortion, and the health consequences of illegal abortion and childbirth after an unwanted pregnancy is needed. Such data would assist the development of programmes and policies aimed at increasing access to and utilisation of safe abortion services where abortion is legal, and harm reduction models for women who are unable to access legal abortion services. PMID:25511805

  14. New developments in the treatment of early-onset spinal deformity: role of the Shilla growth guidance system

    PubMed Central

    Morell, Sean M; McCarthy, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Early-onset scoliosis is a complex condition with multiple facets. The goal of treating any spinal deformity is to improve the condition of the patient with the least intervention necessary. A system that allows for continuation of natural spinal growth while correcting the deformity should be the goal of treating this complex condition. The SHILLA growth guidance system allows for continued growth of the pediatric spine while correcting and guiding the apex and guiding the future growth of the curvature. The system involves selective fusion across the apex of the curvature, and minimally invasive instrumentation is then used above and below the apex to allow for continued growth of the spine. A review of recent literature on the SHILLA growth guidance system shows promising results. Early animal models showed continued growth across unfused levels with minimal facet articular damage. Comparative studies to traditional growing rods showed significantly less total surgeries along with comparable correction and longitudinal growth. The SHILLA growth guidance system is a good option for this complex patient group. Results are comparable with other growing constructs with significantly less operative interventions. The SHILLA system allows for natural growth of the pediatric spine while correcting the scoliotic deformity in a minimally invasive method. The goal of this article is to present a comprehensive review of the SHILLA system surgical technique and the associated literature concerning this topic. PMID:27499651

  15. Herbal infusions used for induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Ciganda, Carmen; Laborde, Amalia

    2003-01-01

    Plants and herbs have been used to induce abortions but there is very little published information describing the commonly used ones. The purpose of this report is to describe the herbal products used to induce abortions, and to enhance awareness and understanding of their toxic effects. A descriptive retrospective survey was conducted on the calls received by the Montevideo Poison Centre between 1986 and 1999 concerning the ingestion of herbal infusions with abortive intent. A total of 86 cases involving 30 different plant species were identified. The species most frequently involved were ruda (Ruta chalepensis/graveolens), cola de quirquincho (Lycopodium saururus), parsley (Petroselinum hortense), and an over-the-counter herbal product named Carachipita. The components of Carachipita are pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), yerba de la perdiz (Margiricarpus pinnatus), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and guaycuri (Statice brasiliensis). Abortion occurred in 23 cases after the ingestion of parsley, ruda, Carachipita, celery, Cedron, francisco alvarez, floripon, espina colorada. Out of the 23 cases, 15 involved the only the ingestion of plants, 4 cases used injected drugs (presumably hormones), and in 4 cases there was associated self-inflicted instrumental manipulation. Multiple organ system failure occurred in those patients who had ingested ruda (alone or in combination with parsley or fennel), Carachipita, arnica, or bardana. Deaths occurred in one case of Carachipita ingestion and in 4 cases of ruda ingestion (2 cases of ruda alone, 2 cases of ruda with parsley and fennel). Self-inflicted instrumental manipulations were found in 4 of the patients with multiple organ system failure and in one of those who died. The results of this report are not conclusive, but it appears that the ingestion of plants to induce abortion involves the risk of severe morbidity and mortality. PMID:12807304

  16. Accuracy of cranial coplanar beam therapy using an oblique, stereoscopic x-ray image guidance system

    SciTech Connect

    Vinci, Justin P.; Hogstrom, Kenneth R.; Neck, Daniel W.

    2008-08-15

    A system for measuring two-dimensional (2D) dose distributions in orthogonal anatomical planes in the cranium was developed and used to evaluate the accuracy of coplanar conformal therapy using ExacTrac image guidance. Dose distributions were measured in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes using a CIRS (Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc.) anthropomorphic head phantom with a custom internal film cassette. Sections of radiographic Kodak EDR2 film were cut, processed, and digitized using custom templates. Spatial and dosimetric accuracy and precision of the film system were assessed. BrainScan planned a coplanar-beam treatment to conformally irradiate a 2-cm-diameterx2-cm-long cylindrical planning target volume. Prior to delivery, phantom misalignments were imposed in combinations of {+-}8 mm offsets in each of the principal directions. ExacTrac x-ray correction was applied until the phantom was within an acceptance criteria of 1 mm/1 deg. (first two measurement sets) or 0.4 mm/0.4 deg. (last two measurement sets). Measured dose distributions from film were registered to the treatment plan dose calculations and compared. Alignment errors, displacement between midpoints of planned and measured 70% isodose contours ({delta}c), and positional errors of the 80% isodose line were evaluated using 49 2D film measurements (98 profiles). Comparison of common, but independent measurements of {delta}c showed that systematic errors in the measurement technique were 0.2 mm or less along all three anatomical axes and that random error averaged ({sigma}{+-}{sigma}{sub {sigma}}) 0.29{+-}0.06 mm for the acceptance criteria of 1 mm/1 deg. and 0.15{+-}0.02 mm for the acceptance criteria of 0.4 mm/0.4 deg. . The latter was consistent with independent estimates that showed the precision of the measurement system was 0.3 mm (2{sigma}). Values of {delta}c were as great as 0.9, 0.3, and 1.0 mm along the P-A, R-L, and I-S axes, respectively. Variations in {delta}c along the P

  17. Performance comparison of different compact NIR fluorescent imaging systems with goggle display for intraoperative image-guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shengkui; Mondal, Suman; Zhu, Nan; Liang, Rongguang; Achilefu, Samuel; Gruev, Viktor

    2015-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent imaging system has been widely used for intraoperative image-guided application. In this paper, we present performance comparison from three compact NIR fluorescence imaging system prototypes with goggle display that we developed for intraoperative guidance: threshold detection based two camera system, feature matching based three cameras system and miniature beam-splitter single camera system. Their performance is evaluated according to sensitivity regarding different ICG concentrations, accuracy of image overlay between NIR-visible channels, compactness and practicability in intraoperative use. The comparison results show great potentials of using these NIR fluorescence imaging systems to improve user experience and surgical outcomes in intraoperative use.

  18. Partner violence and abortion characteristics.

    PubMed

    Colarossi, Lisa; Dean, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study using randomly selected medical charts of women reporting a history of partner violence and women with no history of partner violence at the time of a family planning or abortion appointment (n = 6,564 per group). We analyzed lifetime history of partner violence for odds of lifetime history of abortion and miscarriage number, and birth control problems. To more closely match timing, we analyzed a subsample of 2,186 women reporting current violence versus not at the time of an abortion appointment for differences in gestational age, medical versus surgical method choice, and return for follow-up visit. After adjusting for years at risk and demographic characteristics, women with a past history of partner violence were not more likely to have ever had one abortion, but they were more likely to have had problems with birth control, repeat abortions, and miscarriages than women with no history of violence. Women with current partner violence were also more likely to be receiving an abortion at a later gestational age. We found no differences between the groups in return for abortion follow-up visit or choice of surgical versus medication abortion. Findings support screening for the influence of partner violence on reproductive health and related safety planning. PMID:24580133

  19. Second-Trimester Abortion Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... carrying a pregnancy to term – the risk for women having an abortion increases with gestation. xiv Qualitative evidence suggests the abortion referral process – connecting a pregnant woman with the right provider – is patchy. xv In short, a woman ...

  20. Sex Guilt in Abortion Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Meg

    1977-01-01

    A measure of sex guilt was administered to clients of a university problem pregnancy counseling service who were planning to have abortions and to a group of sexually active nonpregnant university coeds. Sex guilt was found to be significantly higher for the abortion patients than for the nonpregnant group. (Author)

  1. Shuttle entry guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harpold, J. C.; Graves, C. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the entry guidance for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. This guidance provides the steering commands for trajectory control from initial penetration of the earth's atmosphere until the terminal area guidance is activated at an earth-relative speed of 2500 fps. At this point, the Orbiter is at a distance of about 50 nmi from the runway threshold, and at an altitude of about 80,000 ft. The entry guidance design is based on an analytic solution of the equations of motion defining the drag acceleration profile that meets the terminal criteria of the entry flight while maintaining the flight within systems and operational constraints. Guidance commands, which are based on a control law that ensures damping of oscillatory type trajectory motion, are computed to steer the Orbiter to this drag acceleration profile.

  2. Aiding Vertical Guidance Understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael; McCrobie, Daniel; Alkin, Martin; Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Palmer, Everett; McQuinn, Noreen

    1998-01-01

    A two-part study was conducted to evaluate modern flight deck automation and interfaces. In the first part, a survey was performed to validate the existence of automation surprises with current pilots. Results indicated that pilots were often surprised by the behavior of the automation. There were several surprises that were reported more frequently than others. An experimental study was then performed to evaluate (1) the reduction of automation surprises through training specifically for the vertical guidance logic, and (2) a new display that describes the flight guidance in terms of aircraft behaviors instead of control modes. The study was performed in a simulator that was used to run a complete flight with actual airline pilots. Three groups were used to evaluate the guidance display and training. In the training, condition, participants went through a training program for vertical guidance before flying the simulation. In the display condition, participants ran through the same training program and then flew the experimental scenario with the new Guidance-Flight Mode Annunciator (G-FMA). Results showed improved pilot performance when given training specifically for the vertical guidance logic and greater improvements when given the training and the new G-FMA. Using actual behavior of the avionics to design pilot training and FMA is feasible, and when the automated vertical guidance mode of the Flight Management System is engaged, the display of the guidance mode and targets yields improved pilot performance.

  3. A Double-Deck Elevator Group Supervisory Control System with Destination Floor Guidance System Using Genetic Network Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lu; Zhou, Jin; Mabu, Shingo; Hirasawa, Kotaro; Hu, Jinglu; Markon, Sandor

    The Elevator Group Supervisory Control Systems (EGSCS) are the control systems that systematically manage three or more elevators in order to efficiently transport the passengers in buildings. Double-deck elevators, where two elevators are connected with each other, serve passengers at two consecutive floors simultaneously. Double-deck Elevator systems (DDES) become more complex in their behavior than conventional single-deck elevator systems (SDES). Recently, Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology has been used in such complex systems. Genetic Network Programming (GNP), a graph-based evolutionary method, has been applied to EGSCS and its advantages are shown in some papers. GNP can obtain the strategy of a new hall call assignment to the optimal elevator when it performs crossover and mutation operations to judgment nodes and processing nodes. Meanwhile, Destination Floor Guidance System (DFGS) is installed in DDES, so that passengers can also input their destinations at elevator halls. In this paper, we have applied GNP to DDES and compared DFGS with normal systems. The waiting time and traveling time of DFGS are all improved because of getting more information from DFGS. The simulations showed the effectiveness of the double-deck elevators with DFGS in different building traffics.

  4. Abortion: epidemiology, safety, and technique.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, P D

    1992-08-01

    In 1991, the abortion literature was characterized by articles relating to 1) epidemiologic issues in abortion care, 2) advances in knowledge and experience with medical abortifacients such as mifepristone (RU 486), and 3) cervical ripening prior to abortion with the use of both mifepristone and prostaglandins. Technical methods of achieving termination of pregnancy continue to be similar in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Europe, although induction-abortion times are generally slower in Europe than in the United States. Surgically, dilatation and evacuation procedures continue to be more common in the United States than in other countries. The effectiveness of mifepristone is undisputed, and the recommended dose for early first-trimester termination is being compared with lower dose alternative regimens. There is additional evidence that at least in the short term, the negative psychological sequelae of abortion are infrequent and are inconsequential as a public health issue. PMID:1504270

  5. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong. PMID:25012846

  6. Teenage pregnancies and abortion.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, J E

    1984-01-01

    The issue of abortion, except when it is rendered moot because the fetus endangers the life of the mother, is not really a medical issue. The physician's role is to help patients achieve and maintain their maximum potential for physical, mental, and social well-being. To accomplish this, the physician must acquire a constantly evolving database of scientific knowledge, must evaluate this information in a critical and ethical manner, and must be prepared to apply what is learned. In the realm of applied ethics, no particular religion, profession, culture, class, or sex should be thought of as having all the answers in the realm of applied ethics. This physician's actions are predicated on the belief that, to a large extent, ethical precepts reflect the broader social and economic issues of the period in which they are articulated. If this is the case, then in today's world the population explosion, the postindustrial society, the women's rights movement, inequality of access, and the ability to perform prenatal diagnosis are all factors which have molded the approach to the issue of abortion. Only the last 3 of these can in any way be considered as medical. When considering the role of a physician in dealing with the issue of abortion in the adolescent, this individual relies on the concept articulated by the World Health Association (WHA): promoting the physical, emotional, and social well-being of one's patients. Each year in the US over 1 million 15-19 year olds become pregnant, resulting in over 600,000 births. Most of these pregnancies are unintentional, yet approximately 90% of the infants are kept in the home by mothers who are ill prepared to be parents. What is most disturbing is that the pregnancy rate for the younger mother, 16 years or under, is accounting for an ever increasing percentage of the total. Studies at the Adolescent Health Center of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City as well as national studies suggest that the younger teens are more

  7. Launch, Entry and Abort, Intravehicular Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    Senior spacesuit expert, will present information about Launch, Entry and Abort (LEA) spacesuits - part of an overall vehicle crew escape and survival system. These LEA spacesuits are worn during the launch and reentry to enhance crew survival. The U.S. has traditionally called these spacesuits Intravehicular Activity (IVA) spacesuits. The Russians refer to this type of spacesuit as "Rescue Suits." Thomas will discuss the success of the LEA suits and the consequences of eliminating their use or providing inadequate systems.

  8. Spacecraft boost and abort guidance and control systems requirement study, boost dynamics and control analysis study. Exhibit A: Boost dynamics and control anlaysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, F. E.; Price, J. B.; Lemon, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    The simulation developments for use in dynamics and control analysis during boost from liftoff to orbit insertion are reported. Also included are wind response studies of the NR-GD 161B/B9T delta wing booster/delta wing orbiter configuration, the MSC 036B/280 inch solid rocket motor configuration, the MSC 040A/L0X-propane liquid injection TVC configuration, the MSC 040C/dual solid rocket motor configuration, and the MSC 049/solid rocket motor configuration. All of the latest math models (rigid and flexible body) developed for the MSC/GD Space Shuttle Functional Simulator, are included.

  9. Bioaccumulation factor portions of the proposed water quality guidance for the Great Lakes system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Bioaccumulation factors are being proposed to be used in the derivation of human health and wildlife criteria specific for the Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative (GLWQI). Adopting the use of bioaccumulation factors instead of bioconcentration factors presents a significant change from current Agency guidance. Because there is not an established procedure for determining bioaccumulation factors, national guidance may be eventually modeled on the proposed GLWQI Guidance. The document was produced to facilitate review of and comment on the proposed procedure for determining bioaccumulation factors by persons who may not keep abreast of Federal Register notices, including the larger scientific community. The document is composed of two chapters and one appendix. Chapter 1 describes the development of the proposed procedure for determining bioaccumulation factors; Chapter 2 presents the proposed methodology for development of bioaccumulation factors.

  10. Apollo experience report. Guidance and control systems: Command and service module stabilization and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littleton, O. P.

    1974-01-01

    The concepts, design, development, testing, and flight results of the command and service module stabilization and control system are discussed. The period of time covered was from November 1961 to December 1972. Also included are a functional description of the system, a discussion of the major problems, and recommendations for future programs.

  11. A Vision System for Real Time Road and Object Recognition for Vehicle Guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, T. A.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    1987-02-01

    One crucial component of a control system for autonomous vehicle guidance is real time image analysis. This system part is burdened by the maximum flow of information. To overcome the high demands in computation power a combination of knowledge based scene analysis and special hardware has been developed. The use of knowledge based image analysis supports real time processing not by schematically evaluating all parts of the image, but only evaluating those which contain relevant information. This is due to the fact that in many practical problems the relevant information is very unevenly distributed over the image. Preknowledge of the problem or the aim of the mission and expectations or predictions about the scene sustantially reduce the amount of information to be processed. The operations during such an analysis may be divided into two classes - simple processes, e.g. filters, correlation, contour processing and simple search strategies - complex search and control strategy This classification supplied the concept for a special hardware. The complex tasks are performed by a universal processor 80286 while the remaining tasks are executed by a special coprocessor (including image memory). This combination permits the use of filter masks with a arbitrary geometry together with a powerful search strategy. A number of these basic modules may be configured into a multiprocessor system. The universal processor is programmed in a high level language. To support the coprocessor a set of software tools has been built. They permit interactive graphical manipulation of filtermasks, generation of simple search strategies and non real time simulation. Also the real data structures that control the function of the coprocessor are generated by this software package. The system is used within our autonomous vehicle project. One set of algorithms tracks the border lines of the road even if they are broken or disturbed by dirt. Also shadows of bridges crossing the road are

  12. 2D position guidance with single-station optical scan-based system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Siyang; Ren, Yongjie; Huang, Zhe; Chen, Yang; Hong, Tianqi

    2015-08-01

    The workshop Measuring Position System (wMPS) based on intersection of optical planes is widely applied in large-scale metrology. However, in guidance areas concerning more about horizontal directions such as in the area of transporting with AGVs, the coordinate of z axis which represents the height of the vehicle is of no particular importance. Also, the installation and parameters calibration of wMPS is complex and time-consuming. In this paper, a new method with single transmitter measuring two dimensional coordinate to guide the moving object (except the vertical direction) is proposed and demonstrated. The three dimensional coordinate of receiver was calculated if its horizontal angle, vertical angle and the coordinate of vertical direction are given. In order to get the receiver's horizontal and vertical angle, a serious of mathematical formulas was derived from a model of single transmitter with two rotating laser planes. The coordinate of vertical direction was obtained by the laser tracker and mapped from laser tracker coordinates to transmitter coordinates. Concerning that the coordinate of the vertical direction remains almost the same if the object moves in the level ground, a series of vertical-direction coordinates of moving object was measured beforehand and the average value of coordinates was the approximate vertical-direction coordinates of every point. To verify this method, the points acquired by the transmitter were remeasured by the laser tracker. Finally, the coordinates were compared and the results were analyzed. The experiment results show that the method's measuring accuracy has reached 5mm.

  13. Towards an intelligent system for clinical guidance on wheelchair tilt and recline usage.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jicheng; Wiechmann, Paul; Jan, Yih-Kuen; Jones, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We propose to construct an intelligent system for clinical guidance on how to effectively use power wheelchair tilt and recline functions. The motivations fall into the following two aspects. (1) People with spinal cord injury (SCI) are vulnerable to pressure ulcers. SCI can lead to structural and functional changes below the injury level that may predispose individuals to tissue breakdown. As a result, pressure ulcers can significantly affect the quality of life, including pain, infection, altered body image, and even mortality. (2) Clinically, wheelchair power seat function, i.e., tilt and recline, is recommended for relieving sitting-induced pressures. The goal is to increase skin blood flow for the ischemic soft tissues to avoid irreversible damage. Due to variations in the level and completeness of SCI, the effectiveness of using wheelchair tilt and recline to reduce pressure ulcer risks has considerable room for improvement. Our previous study indicated that the blood flow of people with SCI may respond very differently to wheelchair tilt and recline settings. In this study, we propose to use the artificial neural network (ANN) to predict how wheelchair power seat functions affect blood flow response to seating pressure. This is regression learning because the predicted outputs are numerical values. Besides the challenging nature of regression learning, ANN may suffer from the overfitting problem which, when occurring, leads to poor predictive quality (i.e., cannot generalize). We propose using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to train ANN to mitigate the impact of overfitting so that ANN can make correct predictions on both existing and new data. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is promising to improve ANN's predictive quality for new data. PMID:23366964

  14. Forebay Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling for The Dalles Dam to Support Behavior Guidance System Siting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2005-03-10

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were developed to support the siting and design of a behavioral guidance system (BGS) structure in The Dalles Dam (TDA) forebay on the Columbia River. The work was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (CENWP). The CFD results were an invaluable tool for the analysis, both from a Regional and Agency perspective (for the fish passage evaluation) and a CENWP perspective (supporting the BGS design and location). The new CFD model (TDA forebay model) included the latest bathymetry (surveyed in 1999) and a detailed representation of the engineered structures (spillway, powerhouse main, fish, and service units). The TDA forebay model was designed and developed in a way that future studies could easily modify or, to a large extent, reuse large portions of the existing mesh. This study resulted in these key findings: (1) The TDA forebay model matched well with field-measured velocity data. (2) The TDA forebay model matched observations made at the 1:80 general physical model of the TDA forebay. (3) During the course of this study, the methodology typically used by CENWP to contour topographic data was shown to be inaccurate when applied to widely-spaced transect data. Contouring methodologies need to be revisited--especially before such things as modifying the bathymetry in the 1:80 general physical model are undertaken. Future alignments can be evaluated with the model staying largely intact. The next round of analysis will need to address fish passage demands and navigation concerns. CFD models can be used to identify the most promising locations and to provide quantified metrics for biological, hydraulic, and navigation criteria. The most promising locations should then be further evaluated in the 1:80 general physical model.

  15. Apollo experience report: Guidance and control systems: Automated control system for unmanned mission AS-201

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    The Apollo command module heat shield and Apollo command and service module/Saturn launch vehicle structural integrity were evaluated in an unmanned test flight. An automated control system was developed to provide the mission event sequencing, the real-time ground control interface, and the backup attitude reference system for the unmanned flight. The required mission events, the design logic, the redundancy concept, and the ground-support-equipment concept are described and some development problem areas are discussed. The mission event time line and the real-time ground command list are included to provide an outline of the control system capabilities and requirements. The mission was accomplished with the automated control system, which functioned without flight anomalies.

  16. [Psychological aspects of induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Mouniq, C; Moron, P

    1982-06-01

    Results are presented of a literature review to identify social and psychological aspects of abortion. The literature does not provide a true profile of women requesting abortions, but some characteristics emerge. Reasons for requesting abortion include economic problems, difficult previous pregnancies, general medical contraindications to pregnancy, marital conflicts, feelings of loneliness, professional aspirations, problems with existing children, and feelings of insecurity about the future. However, the same feelings are found among women carrying their pregnancies to term. Unplanned pregnancies are more common during periods of depression. Most authors have found about 1/2 of women seeking abortions to be single and about 1/2 to be under 25 years old. Religion does not appear to be a determining factor. 1 study of psychological factors in abortion seekers found that a large number of single women seeking abortion had suffered traumatic experiences in childhood and were seeking security in inappropriate amorous relationships. Helene Deutsch stressed the destructive impulses latent in all pregnancies. Others have cited the ambivalence of the desire for pregnancy and feelings of loss after abortion. Studies published after legalization of abortion in the US and France however have stressed the nearly total absence of moderate or severe psychiatric symptoms after abortion. Responses immediately after the abortion may include feelings of relief, guilt, indifference, or ambivalence. Secondary affects appear minor to most authors. Psychological effects do not appear to be influenced by age, marital status, parity, intelligence, occupation, existence of a later pregnancy, or concommitant sterilization. "Premorbidity" and coercion by spouse or family were most closely associated with psychological symptoms. Numerous authors have found about twice as many negative reactions among women undergoing abortion for medical reasons. Most patients undergoing abortions for

  17. Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test - Ground and Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackenbergy, Davis L.; Hicks, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the ground and flight operations aspects to the Pad Abort 1 launch. The paper details the processes used to plan all operations. The paper then discussions the difficulties of integration and testing, while detailing some of the lessons learned throughout the entire launch campaign. Flight operational aspects of the launc are covered in order to provide the listener with the full suite of operational issues encountered in preparation for the first flight test of the Orion Launch Abort System.

  18. Herpesviral abortion in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Smith, K C

    1997-05-01

    Abortion or neonatal disease may follow infection with several alpha, beta and gamma-herpesviruses. The alpha-herpesvirus, equid herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), causes single or epizootic abortions or neonatal deaths in equids, and the closely related virus EHV-4 causes sporadic equine abortions. In cattle, the alpha-herpesviruses, bovine herpesvirus-1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus) and bovine herpesvirus-5 (bovine encephalitis virus), and a gamma-herpesvirus, bovine herpesvirus-4, have all been implicated as causes of abortion. In pigs, suid herpesvirus-1 (SHV-1: pseudorabies virus), an alpha-herpesvirus, and SHV-2 (porcine cytomegalovirus), a beta-herpesvirus, each cause abortion or neonatal piglet losses. Caprine herpesvirus-1, canine herpesvirus and feline herpesvirus-1, all alpha-herpesviruses, cause abortions or neonatal deaths in goats, dogs and cats, respectively. This review discusses the pathogenesis, pathology and laboratory diagnosis of these herpesviral abortions and neonatal diseases, with an emphasis on experimental studies of each disease. Alternative reviews covering other aspects of each infection, such as the genetic and antigenic structure of the viruses, host immune responses and approaches to vaccination and disease control are indicated at appropriate points in the text. PMID:9232116

  19. Republic of Ireland: abortion controversy.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The problems associated with illegal abortion dominate public discussion in Ireland. While abortion is illegal in Ireland, the Supreme Court directed in 1992 that Irish women can go to Britain for abortions when their lives are thought to be at risk. Abortion was a constant feature during the Irish Presidential election campaign in October, while a dispute about the future of a 13-year-old girl's pregnancy dominated the headlines in November. The presidential election on October 30 resulted in a victory for one of the two openly anti-choice candidates, Mary McAleese, a lawyer from Northern Ireland. With a voter turnout of 47.6%, McAleese polled 45.2% of the votes cast. Although the president may refuse to sign bills which have been passed by parliament, McAleese has said that she will sign whatever bill is placed before her, even if it liberalizes abortion law in the republic. As for the case of the 13-year-old pregnant girl, she was taken into the care of Irish health authority officials once the case was reported to the police. However, the health board, as a state agency, is prevented by Irish law from helping anyone travel abroad for abortion. The girl was eventually given leave in a judgement by a High Court Judicial Review on November 28 to travel to England for an abortion. PMID:12321445

  20. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  1. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  2. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  3. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  4. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  5. A Demonstration System of Occupational Information for Career Guidance. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Research.

    The purpose of this project was to test the effectiveness of a cooperative arrangement between the New York State Education Department and the New York State Employment Service, undertaken to produce and disseminate up-to-date information about local entry occupations for use in the career guidance of students. In a sampling of high schools and…

  6. System design impact of guidance and navigation analysis for a SEPS 1979 Encke flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, P.

    1975-01-01

    Baseline guidance and navigation strategy for an ecliptic projection of the Encke flyby mission consider solar electric propulsion stage parameters in generating optimized and targeted trajectory control. Results show the Encke relative approach error to be dominated by ephemerical uncertainties, particularly the velocity components.

  7. Induced abortion and contraception use

    PubMed Central

    du Prey, Beatrice; Talavlikar, Rachel; Mangat, Rupinder; Freiheit, Elizabeth A.; Drummond, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine what proportion of women seeking induced abortion in the Calgary census metropolitan area were immigrants. Design For 2 months, eligible women were asked to complete a questionnaire. Women who refused were asked to provide their country of birth (COB) to assess for selection bias. Setting Two abortion clinics in Calgary, Alta. Participants Women presenting at or less than 15 weeks’ gestational age for induced abortion for maternal indications. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of women seeking induced abortion services who were immigrants. Secondary outcomes compared socioeconomic characteristics and contraception use between immigrant and Canadian-born women. Results A total of 752 women either completed a questionnaire (78.6%) or provided their COB (21.4%). Overall, 28.9% of women living in the Calgary census metropolitan area who completed the questionnaire were immigrants, less than the 31.2% background proportion of immigrant women of childbearing age. However, 46.0% of women who provided only COB were immigrants. When these data were combined, 34.2% of women presenting for induced abortion identified as immigrant, a proportion not significantly different from the background proportion (P = .127). Immigrant women presenting for induced abortion tended to be older, more educated, married with children, and have increased parity. They were similar to Canadian-born women in number of previous abortions, income status, and employment status. Conclusion This study suggests that immigrant women in Calgary are not presenting for induced abortion in disproportionately higher numbers, which differs from existing European literature. This is likely owing to differing socioeconomic characteristics among the immigrant women in our study from what have been previously described in the literature (typically lower socioeconomic status). Much still needs to be explored with regard to factors influencing the use of

  8. New German abortion law agreed.

    PubMed

    Karcher, H L

    1995-07-15

    The German Bundestag has passed a compromise abortion law that makes an abortion performed within the first three months of pregnancy an unlawful but unpunishable act if the woman has sought independent counseling first. Article 218 of the German penal code, which was established in 1871 under Otto von Bismarck, had allowed abortions for certain medical or ethical reasons. After the end of the first world war, the Social Democrats tried to legalize all abortions performed in the first three months of pregnancy, but failed. In 1974, abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks was declared legal and unpunishable under the social liberal coalition government of chancellor Willy Brandt; however, the same year, the German Federal Constitution Court in Karlsruhe ruled the bill was incompatible with article 2 of the constitution, which guarantees the right to life and freedom from bodily harm to everyone, including the unborn. The highest German court also ruled that a pregnant woman had to seek a second opinion from an independent doctor before undergoing an abortion. A new, extended article 218, which included a clause giving social indications, was passed by the Bundestag. When Germany was unified, East Germans agreed to be governed by all West German laws, except article 218. The Bundestag was given 2 years to revise the article; however, in 1993, the Federal Constitution Court rejected a version legalizing abortion in the first 3 months of the pregnancy if the woman sought counsel from an independent physician, and suggested the recent compromise passed by the Bundestag, the lower house of the German parliament. The upper house, the Bundesrat, where the Social Democrats are in the majority, still has to pass it. Under the bill passed by the Bundestag, national health insurance will pay for an abortion if the monthly income of the woman seeking the abortion falls under a certain limit. PMID:7613423

  9. CONTINUOUS ABORT GAP CLEANING AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.FLILLER,R.III.FU,W.MICHNOFF,R.

    2004-07-05

    Since the RHIC Au-Au run in the year 2001 the 200 MHz cavity system was used at storage and a 28 MHz system during injection and acceleration. The rebucketing procedure potentially causes a higher debunching rate of heavy ion beams in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam can easily account for more than 50% of the total beam intensity. This effect is even stronger with the achieved high intensities of the RHIC Au-Au run in 2004. A beam abort at the presence of a lot of debunched beam bears the risk of magnet quenching and experimental detector damage due to uncontrolled beam losses. Thus it is desirable to avoid any accumulation of debunched beam from the beginning of each store, in particular to anticipate cases of unscheduled beam aborts due to a system failure. A combination of a fast transverse kickers and the new 2-stage copper collimator system are used to clean the abort gap continuously throughout the store with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. This report gives. an overview of the new gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  10. Abortion-seeking behaviour among Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Bankole, Akinrinola; Sedgh, Gilda; Oye-Adeniran, Boniface A; Adewole, Isaac F; Hussain, Rubina; Singh, Susheela

    2008-03-01

    This study used data from a community-based survey to examine women's experiences of abortion in Nigeria. Fourteen percent of respondents reported that they had ever tried to terminate a pregnancy, and 10% had obtained an abortion. The majority of women who sought an abortion did so early in the pregnancy. Forty-two percent of women who obtained an abortion used the services of a non-professional provider, a quarter experienced complications and 9% sought treatment for complications from their abortions. Roughly half of the women who obtained an abortion used a method other than D&C or MVA. The abortion prevalence and conditions under which women sought abortions varied by women's socio-demographic characteristics. Because abortion is illegal in Nigeria except to save the woman's life, many women take significant risks to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Reducing the incidence of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion can significantly impact the reproductive health of women in Nigeria. PMID:17711597

  11. Apollo experience report: Guidance and control systems: CSM service propulsion system gimbal actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahon, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    The service propulsion system gimbal actuators of the Apollo command and service module were developed, modified, and qualified between February 1962 and April 1968. The development of these actuators is described as the result of extensive testing, retesting, and modification of the initial design. Successful completion of each mission without anomalies attributable to the actuators indicated that the particular configuration (modification) in use was adequate for the flight profile imposed.

  12. Effects of a Velocity-Vector Based Command Augmentation System and Synthetic Vision System Terrain Portrayal and Guidance Symbology Concepts on Single-Pilot Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Dahai; Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Peak, Bob

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of synthetic vision system (SVS) concepts and advanced flight controls on the performance of pilots flying a light, single-engine general aviation airplane. We evaluated the effects and interactions of two levels of terrain portrayal, guidance symbology, and flight control response type on pilot performance during the conduct of a relatively complex instrument approach procedure. The terrain and guidance presentations were evaluated as elements of an integrated primary flight display system. The approach procedure used in the study included a steeply descending, curved segment as might be encountered in emerging, required navigation performance (RNP) based procedures. Pilot performance measures consisted of flight technical performance, perceived workload, perceived situational awareness and subjective preference. The results revealed that an elevation based generic terrain portrayal significantly improved perceived situation awareness without adversely affecting flight technical performance or workload. Other factors (pilot instrument rating, control response type, and guidance symbology) were not found to significantly affect the performance measures.

  13. Development of a three-dimensional guidance system for long-range maneuvering of a miniature autonomous underwater vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataei, Mansour; Yousefi-Koma, Aghil

    2014-12-01

    The present paper introduces a three-dimensional guidance system developed for a miniature Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The guidance system determines the best trajectory for the vehicle based on target behavior and vehicle capabilities. The dynamic model of this novel AUV is derived based on its special characteristics such as the horizontal posture and the independent diving mechanism. To design the guidance strategy, the main idea is to select the desired depth, presumed proportional to the horizontal distance of the AUV and the target. By connecting the two with a straight line, this strategy helps the AUV move in a trajectory sufficiently close to this line. The adjacency of the trajectory to the line leads to reasonably short travelling distances and avoids unsafe areas. Autopilots are designed using sliding mode controller. Two different engagement geometries are considered to evaluate the strategy's performance: stationary target and moving target. The simulation results show that the strategy can provide sufficiently fast and smooth trajectories in both target situations.

  14. The Development of Instruments to Measure Attitudes toward Abortion and Knowledge of Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1976-01-01

    This study developed an abortion attitude scale and abortion knowledge inventory that may be utilized by health educators, counselors, and researchers for assessing attitudes toward abortion and knowledge about it. (SK)

  15. Participation of nurses in abortions.

    PubMed

    Neustatter, P L

    1980-11-29

    Doctors for a Woman's Choice on Abortion would agree with 1 point in Lord Denning's ruling on the role of nurses in abortions induced by (PGS) prostaglandins (November 15, p. 1091). The nurse should not be doing a doctor's job, as Lord Denning indicated, and we sympathize with any nurse who is doing so (though the 1967 Abortion Act allows any nurse to abstain, on grounds of conscience). However, the ruling that nurses are not legally covered to participate in any way with the "procuring of a miscarriage" (using terminology of the 1861 Offenses against the Persons Act upon which the ruling is based) does not require a radical change in the practice of late abortions (constituting only 7% of the terminations) or any change in the law. PG abortion can be done without a nurse. With the extraamniotic technique, a very cheap pump can be used to give subsequent doses of the PG (a function normally performed by a nurse) through the catheter left inserted through the cervix after the 1st dose has been given by the doctor. Alternatively, the intraamniotic method can be used, where PG is instilled into the amniotic sac via a needle passed through the abdominal wall. This normally requires only 1 dose, given by the doctor. Rarely are subsequent doses needed; however they could be given by the doctor with very little addition to his or her workload. While the fact that PG abortion can be done without nurses is not realized, late abortion will be restricted, a situation which is entirely deplorable. Also deplorable are the comments of an antiabortion nature made by Lord Denning, over and above the legal ruling in his jurisdiction to make. His ruling, furthermore, seems to have been sufficiently confused for the Department of Health to withdraw its circular on abortion and await an interpretation before issuing another. PMID:6107800

  16. Approach to prevent locking in a spring-damper system by adaptive load redistribution with auxiliary kinematic guidance elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehb, Christopher M.; Platz, Roland; Melz, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    In many applications, kinematic structures are used to enable and disable degrees of freedom. The relative movement between a wheel and the body of a car or a landing gear and an aircraft fuselage are examples for a defined movement. In most cases, a spring-damper system determines the kinetic properties of the movement. However, unexpected high load peaks may lead to maximum displacements and maybe to locking. Thus, a hard clash between two rigid components may occur, causing acceleration peaks. This may have harmful effects for the whole system. For example a hard landing of an aircraft can result in locking the landing gear and thus damage the entire aircraft. In this paper, the potential of adaptive auxiliary kinematic guidance elements in a spring-damper system to prevent locking is investigated numerically. The aim is to provide additional forces in the auxiliary kinematic guidance elements in case of overloading the spring-damper system and thus to absorb some of the impact energy. To estimate the potential of the load redistribution in the spring-damper system, a numerical model of a two-mass oscillator is used, similar to a quarter-car-model. In numerical calculations, the reduction of the acceleration peaks of the masses with the adaptive approach is compared to the Acceleration peaks without the approach, or, respectively, when locking is not prevented. In addition, the required force of the adaptive auxiliary kinematic guidance elements is calculated as a function of the masses of the system and the drop height, or, respectively, the impact energy.

  17. System Integration and Preliminary In-Vivo Experiments of a Robot for Ultrasound Guidance and Monitoring during Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Şen, H. Tutkun; Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Zhang, Yin; Ding, Kai; Wong, John; Iordachita, Iulian; Kazanzides, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We are developing a cooperatively-controlled robot system in which a clinician and robot share control of a 3D ultrasound (US) probe. The goals of the system are to provide guidance for patient setup and real-time target monitoring during fractionated radiotherapy. Currently, there is limited use of realtime US image feedback during radiotherapy for lower abdominal organs and it has not yet been clinically applied for upper abdominal organs. One challenge is that placing an US probe on the patient produces tissue deformation around the target organ, leading to displacement of the target. Our solution is to perform treatment planning on the deformed organ and then to reproduce this deformation during radiotherapy. We therefore introduce a robot system to hold the US probe on the patient. In order to create a consistent deformation, the system records the robot position, contact force, and reference US image during simulation and then introduces virtual constraints (soft virtual fixtures) to guide the clinician to correctly place the probe during the fractionated treatments. Because the robot is under-actuated (5 motorized and 6 passive degrees-of-freedom), the guidance also involves a graphical user interface (adjustment GUI) to achieve the desired probe orientation. This paper presents the integrated system, a proposed clinical workflow, the results of an initial in-vivo canine study with a 3-DOF robot, and the results of phantom experiments with an improved 5-DOF robotic system. The results suggest that the guidance may enable the clinician to more consistently and accurately place the US probe. PMID:27099871

  18. Endogenous Candida endophthalmitis after induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Chen, S J; Chung, Y M; Liu, J H

    1998-06-01

    Reported, in this article, are the cases of two young women who developed endogenous Candida endophthalmitis after induced abortion. Both women experienced transient fever, chills, and abdominal pain after the abortion and were given antibiotics. The diagnosis of endophthalmitis was established on the basis of typical fundus appearance, positive vaginal culture, and (in one case) positive vitreous culture. In the first woman, who received vitrectomy and intravitreal amphotericin B injection, the affected eye had a best corrected visual acuity of 20/200. In the second woman, who was given systemic corticosteroid treatment before the correct diagnosis was reached, recurrent retinal detachment developed and the best corrected visual acuity was counting fingers. It appears that Candida organisms harbored in the genital tract are directly inoculated into the venous system during induced abortion. Once in the blood, if sufficient fungal load is present, Candida albicans tends to localize in the choroid and to spread toward the retina and vitreous cavity. The immunosuppressive effect of corticosteroids further increases the risk of endophthalmitis. PMID:9645729

  19. Paris court attacks abortion law.

    PubMed

    Dorozynski, A

    1995-07-15

    A Paris court last week challenged a 1993 law that makes it a criminal offense to obstruct abortions. The court acquitted nine anti-abortion protestors who had broken into the maternity ward of the public hospital Pitie-Salpetriere last November and prayed at the entrance of a ward where patients are admitted for abortions. The judges ruled that the protestors had not interfered with abortions being carried out because none were taking place at the time of the demonstration; furthermore, the judges stated, because the fetus could be considered a person (child), the protestors were protected by other laws which give immunity to those breaking a law in order to protect another person's life, or to defend a child that had been abandoned. The court continued to say that a fetus should be protected, whether or not it was considered a person, because it was definitely more than nothing. The Syndicat de la Magistrature, the association of French magistrates, believes the tribunal has denied the right to abortion guaranteed in the 1975 law. Veronique Neietz, who drafted the 1993 law, was "scandalized" by the decision and believes the decision of the court was made in retribution for a recent parliamentary decision to exclude anti-abortion protestors from the general amnesty given after presidential elections to minor offenders. During the same week of this court decision, two tribunals, in Lyons and in Bourg-en-Bresse, sentenced 45 anti-abortionists to suspended prison terms with fines. PMID:7613424

  20. Back-stepping active disturbance rejection control design for integrated missile guidance and control system via reduced-order ESO.

    PubMed

    Xingling, Shao; Honglun, Wang

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel composite integrated guidance and control (IGC) law for missile intercepting against unknown maneuvering target with multiple uncertainties and control constraint. First, by using back-stepping technique, the proposed IGC law design is separated into guidance loop and control loop. The unknown target maneuvers and variations of aerodynamics parameters in guidance and control loop are viewed as uncertainties, which are estimated and compensated by designed model-assisted reduced-order extended state observer (ESO). Second, based on the principle of active disturbance rejection control (ADRC), enhanced feedback linearization (FL) based control law is implemented for the IGC model using the estimates generated by reduced-order ESO. In addition, performance analysis and comparisons between ESO and reduced-order ESO are examined. Nonlinear tracking differentiator is employed to construct the derivative of virtual control command in the control loop. Third, the closed-loop stability for the considered system is established. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed IGC law in enhanced interception performance such as smooth interception course, improved robustness against multiple uncertainties as well as reduced control consumption during initial phase are demonstrated through simulations. PMID:25776190

  1. Human Factors Guidance for Control Room and Digital Human-System Interface Design and Modification, Guidelines for Planning, Specification, Design, Licensing, Implementation, Training, Operation and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    R. Fink, D. Hill, J. O'Hara

    2004-11-30

    Nuclear plant operators face a significant challenge designing and modifying control rooms. This report provides guidance on planning, designing, implementing and operating modernized control rooms and digital human-system interfaces.

  2. Development and installation of an advanced beam guidance system on Viking`s 2.4 megawatt EB furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Motchenbacher, C.A.; Grosse, I.A.

    1994-12-31

    Viking Metallurgical is a manufacturer of titanium alloy and superalloy seamless ring forgings for the aerospace industry. For more than 20 years Viking has used electron beam cold hearth melting to recover titanium alloy scrap and to produce commercially pure titanium ingot for direct forging. In the 1970`s Viking pioneered electron beam cold hearth melting and in 1983 added a two-gun, 2.4 MW furnace. As part of Vikings efforts to improve process control we have commissioned and installed a new electron beam guidance system. The system is capable of generating virtually unlimited EB patterns resulting in improved melt control.

  3. Atmospheric Ascent Guidance for Rocket-Powered Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dukeman, Greg A.

    2002-01-01

    An advanced ascent guidance algorithm for rocket- powered launch vehicles is developed. This algorithm cyclically solves the calculus-of-variations two-point boundary-value problem starting at vertical rise completion through main engine cutoff. This is different from traditional ascent guidance algorithms which operate in a simple open-loop mode until high dynamic pressure (including the critical max-Q) portion of the trajectory is over, at which time guidance operates under the assumption of negligible aerodynamic acceleration (i.e., vacuum dynamics). The initial costate guess is corrected based on errors in the terminal state constraints and the transversality conditions. Judicious approximations are made to reduce the order and complexity of the state/costate system. Results comparing guided launch vehicle trajectories with POST open-loop trajectories are given verifying the basic formulation of the algorithm. Multiple shooting is shown to be a very effective numerical technique for this application. In particular, just one intermediate shooting point, in addition to the initial shooting point, is sufficient to significantly reduce sensitivity to the guessed initial costates. Simulation results from a high-fidelity trajectory simulation are given for the case of launch to sub-orbital cutoff conditions as well as launch to orbit conditions. An abort to downrange landing site formulation of the algorithm is presented.

  4. [Abortion in Colombia. Medical, legal and socioeconomic aspects].

    PubMed

    Umaña, A O

    1973-01-01

    Abortion is a social problem and criminal sanctions are very ineffective in limiting it and are seldom applied (133 legal actions vs. 65,600 cases of induced abortion in 1965). Abortion is a social disease, as are prostitution, juvenile delinquency, drug abuse, and so far has been an insoluble problem. Colombian laws should be modified to reflect reality. Sex education must be emphasized, because ignorance is one of the main causes of abortion. Leniency should be applied toward women who cooperate with the authorities in identifying the person who performed an abortion. Legalization of abortion and enforcement of strict laws against it are considered as possible solutions, but both are rejected. The former is regarded as morally unacceptable and as imposing an excessive burden on scarce health services, the latter as even worse, imposing an equivalent burden on the court system, without s olving either health or social problems. The best and probably only solution is to improve education in family planning, to promote knowledge and motivation to enable the population to make sound and responsible decisions. PMID:4804875

  5. Five-Segment Booster (FSB) Abort to Orbit (ATO) Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Mark; Sauvageau, Donald R.; Hines, Mark; Geiser, Norman L.; Cash, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Five Segment Booster (FSB) concept has been evolving for a number of years as a means to enhance the overall safety and reliability of the Space Shuttle system by minimizing the need to fly the more challenging Return to Launch Site (RTLS) and Transoceanic Abort Landing (TAL) abort profiles. The initial evaluation of the FSB concept was conducted in 1996 to determine the feasibility of the FSB in achieving transatlantic abort leading TAL from the pad, thus eliminating the return to launch site (RTLS) abort mode. The initial study was conducted by ATK Thiokol and did show the potential for the FSB to eliminate the RTLS abort mode. Later Rockwell (now Boeing) conducted a similar study utilizing FSB performance characteristics and verified that the FSB could indeed achieve TAL from the pad, thereby eliminating the necessity for the RTLS abort. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the details of the enhancements achieved through the internally funded study conducted by Boeing and ATK Thiokol. To better understand the enhancements that were addressed as part of this follow-on study, some background on what was achieved in the Phase A study is appropriate.

  6. Self-management of medical abortion: a qualitative evidence synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Megan; Colvin, Christopher J; Swartz, Alison; Leon, Natalie

    2016-05-01

    Medical abortion is a method of pregnancy termination that by its nature enables more active involvement of women in the process of managing, and sometimes even administering the medications for, their abortions. This qualitative evidence synthesis reviewed the global evidence on experiences with, preferences for, and concerns about greater self-management of medical abortion with lesser health professional involvement. We focused on qualitative research from multiple perspectives on women's experiences of self-management of first trimester medical abortion (<12weeks gestation). We included research from both legal and legally-restricted contexts whether medical abortion was accessed through formal or informal systems. A review team of four identified 36 studies meeting inclusion criteria, extracted data from these studies, and synthesized review findings. Review findings were organized under the following themes: general perceptions of self-management, preparation for self-management, logistical considerations, issues of choice and control, and meaning and experience. The synthesis highlights that the qualitative evidence base is still small, but that the available evidence points to the overall acceptability of self-administration of medical abortion. We highlight particular considerations when offering self-management options, and identify key areas for future research. Further qualitative research is needed to strengthen this important evidence base. PMID:27578349

  7. Study of automatic and manual terminal guidance and control systems for space shuttle vehicles. Volume 2: Section 4 through appendix B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osder, S.; Keller, R.

    1971-01-01

    Guidance and control design studies that were performed for three specific space shuttle candidate vehicles are described. Three types of simulation were considered. The manual control investigations and pilot evaluations of the automatic system performance is presented. Recommendations for systems and equipment, both airborne and ground-based, necessary to flight test the guidance and control concepts for shuttlecraft terminal approach and landing are reported.

  8. Abortion restrictions may undermine welfare reform.

    PubMed

    1999-02-01

    Results from a study conducted by Pennsylvania State University's Population Research Institute indicate that more restrictive abortion laws in the US may have led to an increase in the number of single mothers, even given new welfare reform laws which make unmarried childbearing more costly. Study findings are based upon county rates of female-headed families from the 1980 and 1990 censuses, excluding those in Alaska and Hawaii. By making unmarried childbearing more costly, welfare reform has sparked a demand for abortion, while at the same time abortion laws have restricted access to abortion. An increasing number of unmarried women on welfare have therefore chosen childbearing over abortion. The study found a decline in the number of abortions in counties where abortion laws had become more strict. That states can now require abortion providers to notify the parents of minors who have abortions, to restrict Medicaid funding for abortions, and to establish 24-hour waiting periods has made abortion either a difficult or impossible option for some women. These restrictive abortion laws and geographic barriers to abortion have discouraged women from undergoing the procedure, increasing the number of female-headed families and single mothers. The public policy goal of reducing unmarried childbearing and female-headed families is being undermined by the growing geographic and legal barriers designed to discourage abortion. PMID:12348920

  9. Repeat abortions in New York City, 2010.

    PubMed

    Toprani, Amita; Cadwell, Betsy L; Li, Wenhui; Sackoff, Judith; Greene, Carolyn; Begier, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to describe factors associated with the number of past abortions obtained by New York City (NYC) abortion patients in 2010. We calculated rates of first and repeat abortion by age, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood-level poverty and the mean number of self-reported past abortions by age, race/ethnicity, neighborhood-level poverty, number of living children, education, payment method, marital status, and nativity. We used negative binomial regression to predict number of past abortions by patient characteristics. Of the 76,614 abortions reported for NYC residents in 2010, 57% were repeat abortions. Repeat abortions comprised >50% of total abortions among the majority of sociodemographic groups we examined. Overall, mean number of past abortions was 1.3. Mean number of past abortions was higher for women aged 30-34 years (1.77), women with ≥5 children (2.50), and black non-Hispanic women (1.52). After multivariable regression, age, race/ethnicity, and number of children were the strongest predictors of number of past abortions. This analysis demonstrates that, although socioeconomic disparities exist, all abortion patients are at high risk for repeat unintended pregnancy and abortion. PMID:25779755

  10. Internet Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Frank X.

    1999-01-01

    States that children need proper guidance and boundaries to reap the benefits of the Internet. Focuses on two issues: how parents can protect their children from the Internet's potential dangers and how they can help their children use the Internet to get work done. Includes suggestions for teachers to help parents meet these challenges. (VWC)

  11. GUIDANCE DOCUMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Defn: Guidance Document - A peer-reviewed document stating overarching principles and practices to be followed (also includes handbook documents).

    Bonneville Powerhouse 2 3D CFD for the Behavioral Guidance System

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.

    2010-02-01

    In 2008 and 2009, a 700 ft long, 10-ft deep floating forebay guidance wall called a behavioral guidance structure (BGS) was deployed in the Bonneville Powerhouse 2 forebay. The US Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (CENWP) contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop computational tools to assess the impact of the BGS on forebay hydraulics (this study). The tools developed here to provide a characterization of forebay hydraulics to be integrated with acoustic telemetry studies designed to measure the impact on juvenile salmon guidance and survival through Bonneville Powerhouse 2. In previous work, PNNL performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies for the Bonneville forebay for CENWP. In this study, the existing model was modified to include the BGS. The model included a bay-by-bay spillway, a truncated Powerhouse 1 forebay, Powerhouse 2 turbine intakes and corner collector, and the forebay bathymetry extending approximately 1.5km upstream from the tip of Cascade Island. Model validation outcomes were similar to that of past studies. Additional checks were included on the impact of the differencing scheme to flow solution. It was found that using upwind differencing was adequate and it was possible to use a truncated computational mesh of this model that included a BGS upstream of Powerhouse 2 and increased spatial resolution in the vicinity of the BGS. This model has been validated, run, and provided to CENWP to use for additional analysis of the Powerhouse 2 forebay hydraulics. The PNNL particle tracking software (PT6) was used to assess the impacts of mass and relative buoyancy on particle fate. The particle tracker was run for the Half Load case for the clean forebay and for the forebay with the BGS in place and the Corner Collector on. All tracker cases showed that the BGS moved the particles across the forebay increasing the number of particles exiting the model through the Corner Collector and (for streamlines

  12. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    PubMed

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited. PMID:6913282

  13. House subcmte. tightens abortion language.

    PubMed

    1978-05-10

    Medicaid would help pay for abortion in fewer circumstances under the fiscal 1979 Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW), appropriations bill approved May 4, 1978, by the House HEW Appropriations Subcommittee than it did in 1978. The new language would permit the funding only if the mother's life would be endangered if the pregnancy were carried to term. Current law permits abortion payments for this reason; if pregnancy results from rape or incest, or if the birth would cause the mother severe and long-lasting physical damage. Behind the scenes pressure probably will be applied to resolve the issue quickly this year since all House members are up for reelection and do not want to have such a sensitive issue intruding on their campaigns. 1 strategy being discussed is the inclusion of riders that would directly or indirectly provide federal funds for abortions in other appropriation measures such as funding for the Defense Department and federal employees health benefits. The House will have to contend with Senator Brooke (R-Massachusetts) ranking minority member on the Senate HEW Appropriations Subcommittee, who is determined to stand firm in favor of liberal abortion funding. With only minimal opposition for his Senate seat this year, Senate staffers say Brooke is not concerned with the possibility of abortion becoming a major campaign issue. It was Brooke who forced the House's hand last year and obtained a more relaxed abortion curb, much to the chagrin of the Carter Administration. The White House, with the President's popularity at a low ebb, would prefer not to be put in a position of taking sides publicly although it prefers the strict curbs. Carter is currently deciding which House members to assist during the campaign and such a no-win issue would only serve to complicate matters. He will have enough of a problem reconciling health spending increases without the added burden of abortion. PMID:12335662

  14. 76 FR 43332 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ...; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Focused Ultrasound Stimulator System for Aesthetic Use... Guidance Document: Focused Ultrasound Stimulator System for Aesthetic Use.'' This guidance document describes a means by which focused ultrasound stimulator systems for aesthetic use may comply with...

  15. Contraception and abortion in two Vietnamese communes.

    PubMed Central

    Gorbach, P M; Hoa, D T; Nhan, V Q; Tsui, A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The authors examined factors predicting abortion use in two communes in northern Vietnam. METHODS: A survey of 504 rural and 523 urban women of childbearing age was conducted. RESULTS: For the 13.6% of urban and 19% of rural commune women having had an abortion in the previous year, logistic regression analyses demonstrated that use of an intrauterine device reduced the likelihood of subsequent abortion in both communes. Traditional method use in the rural commune, however, increased women's likelihood of a subsequent abortion. CONCLUSIONS: Contraceptive use in these 2 communes affected abortion more than sociodemographic factors. Traditional method use by rural women is a risk for abortion. PMID:9551014

  16. Study of automatic and manual terminal guidance and control systems for space shuttle vehicles. Volume 1: Sections 1 through 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osder, S.; Keller, R.

    1971-01-01

    The results of a study to analyze, design, and evaluate guidance and control systems are presented that start at an altitude of about 100,000 feet and bring the unpowered space shuttle orbiters to a precision horizontal landing. The systems under consideration included fully automatic versions which involve no pilot participation as well as various manual configurations that provide combinations of displays and control augmentation which permit the pilot to control the vehicle to a successful landing. Two classes of vehicles were studied: the low cross range or straight-wing orbiter and the high cross range or delta-wing (delta body) orbiter. The recommended navigation, guidance and control system is shown to be compatible with realistic physical constraints that would exist in space shuttlecraft and to be consistent with the 1971 avionics equipment state of the art. Aircraft capable of aerodynamically simulating the various candidate space shuttlecraft in their unpowered, terminal area descent were investigated, and flight test recommendations, including system mechanizations, are made.

  17. Analysis of concentrating PV-T systems for the commercial/industrial sector. Volume III. Technical issues and design guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1984-09-01

    This report provide appropriate guidance for addressing the major technical issues associated with the design and installation of a photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) system. Nomographs are presented for developing preliminary sizing and costing, and issues associated with specific components and the overall design of the electrical and mechanical system are discussed. SAND82-7157/2 presents a review of current PV-T technology and operating systems and a study of potential PV-T applications. Detailed PV-T system designs for three selected applications and the results of a trade-off study for these applications are presented in SAND82-7157/4. A summary of the major results of this entire study and conclusions concerning PV-T systems and applications is presented in SAND82-7157/1.

  18. Using formal specification in the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) experiment. Formal design and verification technology for life critical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Doug; Jamsek, Damir

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this task was to investigate how formal methods could be incorporated into a software engineering process for flight-control systems under DO-178B and to demonstrate that process by developing a formal specification for NASA's Guidance and Controls Software (GCS) Experiment. GCS is software to control the descent of a spacecraft onto a planet's surface. The GCS example is simplified from a real example spacecraft, but exhibits the characteristics of realistic spacecraft control software. The formal specification is written in Larch.

  19. Nitric oxide levels in women with missed and threatened abortion: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Paradisi, Roberto; Fabbri, Raffaella; Battaglia, Cesare; Facchinetti, Fabio; Venturoli, Stefano

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the systemic production of nitric oxide (NO) in missed and threatened abortion and in nonpregnant and regular pregnant controls with the purpose of defining its role in the mechanisms regulating the first-trimester pregnancy toward either positive or negative evolution. Patients with missed abortion showed serum NO levels clearly decreased compared with nonpregnant patients and patients with regular pregnancy and threatened abortion, supporting a direct functional role of the NO mediator in early embryonic development and confirming its importance in the uterus and cervix during abortion. PMID:17349639

    1. Real-time approximate optimal guidance laws for the advanced launch system

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Speyer, Jason L.; Feeley, Timothy; Hull, David G.

      1989-01-01

      An approach to optimal ascent guidance for a launch vehicle is developed using an expansion technique. The problem is to maximize the payload put into orbit subject to the equations of motion of a rocket over a rotating spherical earth. It is assumed that the thrust and gravitational forces dominate over the aerodynamic forces. It is shown that these forces can be separated by a small parameter epsilon, where epsilon is the ratio of the atmospheric scale height to the radius of the earth. The Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman or dynamic programming equation is expanded in a series where the zeroth-order term (epsilon = 0) can be obtained in closed form. The zeroth-order problem is that of putting maximum payload into orbit subject to the equations of motion of a rocket in a vacuum over a flat earth. The neglected inertial and aerodynamic terms are included in higher order terms of the expansion, which are determined from the solution of first-order linear partial differential equations requiring only quadrature integrations. These quadrature integrations can be performed rapidly, so that real-time approximate optimization can be used to construct the launch guidance law.

    2. Abortion and the law: the Supreme Court, privacy, and abortion.

      PubMed

      Marsh, F H

      1997-01-01

      This article examines the impact of the continuing politicization of the abortion issue in the US on the rights of women and on the emerging concept of fetal rights. The introduction 1) attributes the "final and total politicization" of a woman's right to control her reproduction to the "undue burden" standard introduced by the Supreme Court in its 1992 Casey decision and 2) claims that, if unchecked, the concept of fetal rights may give the state's interest in protecting potential life supremacy over women's rights. The next section presents an in-depth discussion of the politicization of the right to abortion that covers such topics as how the courts before Casey became the forum for debating abortion policy, how the "undue burden" standard fails to set definite parameters of acceptable state behavior, how the Casey decision in effect abandons the trimester-based framework of reference provided in Roe vs. Wade, how Casey allows states to subtly coerce women seeking abortions, how the Casey decision failed to reduce the intense politicization of abortion, and how the court failed to protect individual rights to health care and abortion funding from states. Part 3 of the article begins its exploration of the concept of "fetal rights" with a sketch of the history of this concept in the US courts starting in 1884 when damages for miscarriage were denied. Ways in which fetal rights compete with the rights of a pregnant woman are described, the Supreme Court is blamed for allowing states to develop this concept, and issues of patient confidentiality versus reporting requirements are considered. It is concluded that the Supreme Court will have to act to limit fetal rights. PMID:12348324

    3. Navigation for space shuttle approach and landing using an inertial navigation system augmented by data from a precision ranging system or a microwave scan beam landing guidance system

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Mcgee, L. A.; Smith, G. L.; Hegarty, D. M.; Merrick, R. B.; Carson, T. M.; Schmidt, S. F.

      1970-01-01

      A preliminary study has been made of the navigation performance which might be achieved for the high cross-range space shuttle orbiter during final approach and landing by using an optimally augmented inertial navigation system. Computed navigation accuracies are presented for an on-board inertial navigation system augmented (by means of an optimal filter algorithm) with data from two different ground navigation aids; a precision ranging system and a microwave scanning beam landing guidance system. These results show that augmentation with either type of ground navigation aid is capable of providing a navigation performance at touchdown which should be adequate for the space shuttle. In addition, adequate navigation performance for space shuttle landing is obtainable from the precision ranging system even with a complete dropout of precision range measurements as much as 100 seconds before touchdown.

    4. Global consequences of unsafe abortion.

      PubMed

      Singh, Susheela

      2010-11-01

      Unsafe abortion is a significant cause of death and ill health in women in the developing world. A substantial body of research on these consequences exists, although studies are of variable quality. However, unsafe abortion has a number of other significant consequences that are much less widely recognized. These include the economic consequences, the immediate costs of providing medical care for abortion-related complications, the costs of medical care for longer-term health consequences, lost productivity to the country, the impact on families and the community, and the social consequences that affect women and families. This article will review the scientific evidence on the consequences of unsafe abortion, highlight gaps in the evidence base, suggest areas where future research efforts are needed, and speculate on the future situation regarding consequences and evidence over the next 5-10 years. The information provided is useful and timely given the current heightened interest in the issue of unsafe abortion, growing from the recent focus of national and international agencies on reducing maternal mortality by 75% by 2015 (as one of the Millennium Development Goals established in 2000). PMID:21118043

    5. Partial stabilization-based guidance.

      PubMed

      Shafiei, M H; Binazadeh, T

      2012-01-01

      A novel nonlinear missile guidance law against maneuvering targets is designed based on the principles of partial stability. It is demonstrated that in a real approach which is adopted with actual situations, each state of the guidance system must have a special behavior and asymptotic stability or exponential stability of all states is not realistic. Thus, a new guidance law is developed based on the partial stability theorem in such a way that the behaviors of states in the closed-loop system are in conformity with a real guidance scenario that leads to collision. The performance of the proposed guidance law in terms of interception time and control effort is compared with the sliding mode guidance law by means of numerical simulations. PMID:21963401

    6. Abortion in Latin America is a matter of desperation.

      PubMed

      Martinez, D

      1990-01-01

      For North Americans, the abortion debate is one of rights: the fetus' right to be born versus the mother's right to control her body. But for Latin American women, debating rights is a luxury that has little to do with the brutal reality of becoming pregnant and knowing it will be impossible to feed yet another child, says Sylvia Marcos. A Mexican psychotherapist who has taught at Harvard University, Marcos works with women in squatters' camps throughout Mexico. "If you want to end abortion in Latin America, you will have to change the whole economic system," said Marcos in an interview. Unfortunately, Marcos said, abortion foes have failed to come up with answers to the poverty that drives Latin American women to have what she estimates are 12 million illegal abortions a year. Women in Latin America, most of them Catholic, are expected to marry young and have many children. Most women choose abortion only after having many children and deciding it would be impossible to feed another, Marcos said. The combination of Catholicism and culture--extolling the virtues of large families--and women's utter lack of means to provide is devastating psychologically and physically, she said. Furthermore, about 1/2 of all Latin American women are raising children alone. "It's so unjust," said Marcos. The 12 million abortions reflect desperation--not an anti-life orientation, she said. "When you are hungry, you do not debate the ethics of when life begins," said Marcos. "If we had enough to eat, then we could care." Women who have abortions continue to call themselves Catholic but often quit going to communion. "Not only do they have a hard time recovering physically from illegal abortions, but they are denied spiritual enjoyment," Marcos said. Trapped in desperate situations, women ignore church teachings about abortion--particularly if they are Indians who still identify strongly with traditions that uphold different ideas about when life begins. Both prochoice and prolife

    7. Climatic factors associated with abortion occurrences in Japanese commercial pig herds.

      PubMed

      Iida, Ryosuke; Koketsu, Yuzo

      2015-06-01

      Objectives were to determine climatic and production factors associated with abortions in commercial swine herds and to compare the reproductive performances and culling patterns between aborting and non-aborting females that were re-inseminated. There were 309,427 service records analyzed for 56,375 females entered into 100 herds. Climate data were obtained from 21 weather stations located close to the herds. Mean daily average temperatures (Tavg) for the 21-day pre-mating period for each female were combined with the female's reproductive data. Generalized linear model assessments were conducted for abortion risk per service. Abortion risk per service (±SE) was 0.7±0.06%, and mean value of Tavg (range) was 15.0 °C (-10.7 to 32.7 °C). Risk factors associated with an increased abortion risk per service were greater numbers of parities, delivering more stillbirth fetuses, greater mean Tavg for the 21-day pre-mating periods and re-servicing of females that did not get pregnant at the first servicing (P<0.05). Abortion risk per service for parities 1-5 increased by 0.1-0.3% when the Tavg increased from 20 to 30 °C (P<0.05), but there were no such associations for parities 0 and 6 or greater (P≥0.37). Aborting re-serviced females had 0.4 fewer pigs born alive than non-aborting re-serviced females (P<0.05). Also, 64.6% of all aborting females were culled for reproductive failure, compared with only 23.4% of non-aborting females. In conclusion, producers should closely monitor females at greater risk of aborting and apply more advanced cooling systems. PMID:25906679

    8. Hospital Admission following Induced Abortion in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea – A Descriptive Study

      PubMed Central

      Vallely, Lisa M.; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kumbia, Antonia; Mola, Glen D. L.; Whittaker, Andrea

      2014-01-01

      Background In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion. Methods Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information. Findings Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119) of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119) of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported. Conclusion In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion. PMID:25329982

    9. A system for ultrasonic beacon-guidance of catheters and other minimally-invasive medical devices.

      PubMed

      Vilkomerson, D; Lyons, D

      1997-01-01

      Catheters and other interventional medical devices are presently guided by X-ray imaging, despite the advantages of ultrasound imaging over X-ray imaging in cost, safety, and availability. X-ray imaging is used because ultrasound reflects specularly from catheters and similar devices; their visibility is highly angle-dependent. With an omni-directional receiver mounted on a device, the receiver's location in the ultrasound image can be deduced from knowing which acoustic ray struck the receiver and the time from transmission of the imaging pulse to its reception by the receiver. This information is independent of specular reflection. The location of the device can then be indicated in the ultrasound image by an arrow pointing to the sensor, making possible ultrasound guidance of these devices. This paper describes the technical and practical considerations in the design and construction of the device-mounted receiver and associated electronics, and describes some clinical uses. PMID:18244147

    10. Extending enhanced-vision capabilities by integration of advanced surface movement guidance and control systems (A-SMGCS)

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Hecker, Peter; Doehler, Hans-Ullrich; Korn, Bernd; Ludwig, T.

      2001-08-01

      DLR has set up a number of projects to increase flight safety and economics of aviation. Within these activities one field of interest is the development and validation of systems for pilot assistance in order to increase the situation awareness of the aircrew. All flight phases ('gate-to-gate') are taken into account, but as far as approaches, landing and taxiing are the most critical tasks in the field of civil aviation, special emphasis is given to these operations. As presented in previous contributions within SPIE's Enhanced and Synthetic Vision Conferences, DLR's Institute of Flight Guidance has developed an Enhanced Vision System (EVS) as a tool assisting especially approach and landing by improving the aircrew's situational awareness. The combination of forward looking imaging sensors (such as EADS's HiVision millimeter wave radar), terrain data stored in on-board databases plus information transmitted from ground or other aircraft via data link is used to help pilots handling these phases of flight especially under adverse weather conditions. A second pilot assistance module being developed at DLR is the Taxi And Ramp Management And Control - Airborne System (TARMAC-AS), which is part of an Advanced Surface Management Guidance and Control System (ASMGCS). By means of on-board terrain data bases and navigation data a map display is generated, which helps the pilot performing taxi operations. In addition to the pure map function taxi instructions and other traffic can be displayed as the aircraft is connected to TARMAC-planning and TARMAC-communication, navigation and surveillance modules on ground via data-link. Recent experiments with airline pilots have shown, that the capabilities of taxi assistance can be extended significantly by integrating EVS- and TARMAC-AS-functionalities. Especially an extended obstacle detection and warning coming from the Enhanced Vision System increases the safety of ground operations. The presented paper gives an overview

    11. Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort Controller Performance Analysis

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Raney, David L.

      2007-01-01

      This paper covers the simulation and evaluation of a controller design for the Crew Module (CM) Launch Abort System (LAS), to measure its ability to meet the abort performance requirements. The controller used in this study is a hybrid design, including features developed by the Government and the Contractor. Testing is done using two separate 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) computer simulation implementations of the LAS/CM throughout the ascent trajectory: 1) executing a series of abort simulations along a nominal trajectory for the nominal LAS/CM system; and 2) using a series of Monte Carlo runs with perturbed initial flight conditions and perturbed system parameters. The performance of the controller is evaluated against a set of criteria, which is based upon the current functional requirements of the LAS. Preliminary analysis indicates that the performance of the present controller meets (with the exception of a few cases) the evaluation criteria mentioned above.

    12. Abortion counseling and the school counselor.

      PubMed

      Duncan, J A; Moffett, C F

      1974-01-01

      The Supreme Court decision of January 22, 1973, legalizing abortion now requires school counselors to examine both their personal and professional positions on abortion information and abortion counseling. To date a review of school counseling literature reveals a failure to deal with abortion as a counseling issue. Also, schools have failed to develop official policies regarding abortion counseling and the distribution of abortion information. The counselors who have provided abortion information to date have done so at the request of a student or parent rather than by making the information generally available. A study in 1973 in Virginia, however, revealed that Virginia counselor educators believed that there was a need for counselors in training to be exposed to abortion information as part of their formal training experience. Generally, today's present exposure to abortion information makes it impossible for counselors to continue to ignore a growing demand for both abortion information and counseling. School counselors must deal with the following questions: 1) What course of action should school counselors take when a pregnant young seeks counseling on alternatives to pregnancy continuation? 2) What is the counselor's professional role in abortion counseling with respect to his or her personal feelings and beliefs? 3) What kind of training if any should school counselors receive regarding abortion counseling? 4) Is there a need for in-service training on abortion counseling for school counselors? 5) Should various professional organizations develop materials that would assist their members in providing abortion counseling? 6) Should institutions such as schools, churches, and community agencies establish policies concerning abortion counseling? Although the answers are not simple, the school counselors and their professional organizations must begin to develop the answers in order to provide good counseling services to young women exercising their right to

    13. [Prevention of habitual abortion by buffycoat transfusions].

      PubMed

      Neumeyer, H; Kuhn, W; Götze, O; Hinney, B

      1985-01-01

      From an immunological point of view the product of pregnancy may be regarded as a haplo-different allotransplant. A system possibly closely linked to the HLA-region is postulated to lead to the immunological recognition of the fetus by the mother and, paradoxically, to a take of the "transplant". The postulated system apparently codes for antigens present on both trophoblast and adult lymphocytes (TLX = trophoblast-lymphocyte-crossreacting). The prevention of rejection is thought to be effected by blocking factors (BF) present in the serum or plasma of the mother. There may be different kinds of BF: a specific BF (detectable only in an autologous assay system), appearing late in pregnancy, which inhibits several lymphocyte-dependent reactions (e.g. production of MIF, MLC). This BF has been identified as an IgG-class antibody. a nonspecific BF, appearing early in pregnancy which inhibits the MLC in vitro. c) may be a third BF, also specific, which is found only in plasma but not in serum. All described BF-activities were absent in women with habitual abortions. HLA-identity or partial identity could imply TLX-identity. The consequence of such an identity could be: non-detection of the trophoblast by the immune system of the mother, no production of BF, abortion. However several investigators could not find any HLA-identity of the partners with habitual abortions. A protective effect on the fetus has been seen when pregnant women were immunised with adult leukocytes, using either buffycoats from various HLA-different but bloodgroup-compatible donors or isolated leukocytes from the spouse.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4072314

    14. Abortion, Moral Maturity and Civic Journalism.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Patterson, Maggie Jones; Hall, Megan Williams

      1998-01-01

      Contributes to rhetoric, moral reasonings scholarship, and journalism scholarship by examining public rhetoric on abortion and American popular media coverage (1940s to 1990s). Finds that the feminine means of moral reasoning has emerged into the foreground of discourse on abortion. Compares emergence of a common-ground rhetoric on abortion with a…

    15. Objective versus Subjective Responses to Abortion.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Robbins, James M.

      1979-01-01

      Measured psychological sequelae to induced abortion among women pregnant out of wedlock, using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and questions specific to willingness to repeat abortion under similar circumstances. Analyses indicated no relation between objective and subjective indicators. Affectivity after induced abortion had…

    16. Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

      2009-01-01

      The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

    17. Orientation toward Abortion: Guilt or Knowledge?

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Allgeier, A.R.; And Others

      1981-01-01

      Students (N=118) were classified as pro-choice, anti-abortion, or mixed on the basis of their responses to 10 fictitious case histories of women who requested abortion. Attitudinal differences are discussed in the context of the public controversy over abortion. (Author/CM)

    18. Temporal trends and spatial distribution of unsafe abortion in Brazil, 1996-2012

      PubMed Central

      Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Lima, Mauricélia da Silveira; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Carvalho, Francisco Herlânio Costa; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Heukelbach, Jorg

      2014-01-01

      OBJECTIVE To analyze temporal trends and distribution patterns of unsafe abortion in Brazil. METHODS Ecological study based on records of hospital admissions of women due to abortion in Brazil between 1996 and 2012, obtained from the Hospital Information System of the Ministry of Health. We estimated the number of unsafe abortions stratified by place of residence, using indirect estimate techniques. The following indicators were calculated: ratio of unsafe abortions/100 live births and rate of unsafe abortion/1,000 women of childbearing age. We analyzed temporal trends through polynomial regression and spatial distribution using municipalities as the unit of analysis. RESULTS In the study period, a total of 4,007,327 hospital admissions due to abortions were recorded in Brazil. We estimated a total of 16,905,911 unsafe abortions in the country, with an annual mean of 994,465 abortions (mean unsafe abortion rate: 17.0 abortions/1,000 women of childbearing age; ratio of unsafe abortions: 33.2/100 live births). Unsafe abortion presented a declining trend at national level (R2: 94.0%, p < 0.001), with unequal patterns between regions. There was a significant reduction of unsafe abortion in the Northeast (R2: 93.0%, p < 0.001), Southeast (R2: 92.0%, p < 0.001) and Central-West regions (R2: 64.0%, p < 0.001), whereas the North (R2: 39.0%, p = 0.030) presented an increase, and the South (R2: 22.0%, p = 0.340) remained stable. Spatial analysis identified the presence of clusters of municipalities with high values for unsafe abortion, located mainly in states of the North, Northeast and Southeast Regions. CONCLUSIONS Unsafe abortion remains a public health problem in Brazil, with marked regional differences, mainly concentrated in the socioeconomically disadvantaged regions of the country. Qualification of attention to women’s health, especially to reproductive aspects and attention to pre- and post-abortion processes, are necessary and urgent strategies to be implemented

    19. Temporal trends and spatial distribution of unsafe abortion in Brazil, 1996-2012.

      PubMed

      Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Lima, Mauricélia da Silveira; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Ramos Jr, Alberto Novaes; Carvalho, Francisco Herlânio Costa; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Heukelbach, Jorg

      2014-06-01

      OBJECTIVE To analyze temporal trends and distribution patterns of unsafe abortion in Brazil. METHODS Ecological study based on records of hospital admissions of women due to abortion in Brazil between 1996 and 2012, obtained from the Hospital Information System of the Ministry of Health. We estimated the number of unsafe abortions stratified by place of residence, using indirect estimate techniques. The following indicators were calculated: ratio of unsafe abortions/100 live births and rate of unsafe abortion/1,000 women of childbearing age. We analyzed temporal trends through polynomial regression and spatial distribution using municipalities as the unit of analysis. RESULTS In the study period, a total of 4,007,327 hospital admissions due to abortions were recorded in Brazil. We estimated a total of 16,905,911 unsafe abortions in the country, with an annual mean of 994,465 abortions (mean unsafe abortion rate: 17.0 abortions/1,000 women of childbearing age; ratio of unsafe abortions: 33.2/100 live births). Unsafe abortion presented a declining trend at national level (R2: 94.0%, p < 0.001), with unequal patterns between regions. There was a significant reduction of unsafe abortion in the Northeast (R2: 93.0%, p < 0.001), Southeast (R2: 92.0%, p < 0.001) and Central-West regions (R2: 64.0%, p < 0.001), whereas the North (R2: 39.0%, p = 0.030) presented an increase, and the South (R2: 22.0%, p = 0.340) remained stable. Spatial analysis identified the presence of clusters of municipalities with high values for unsafe abortion, located mainly in states of the North, Northeast and Southeast Regions. CONCLUSIONS Unsafe abortion remains a public health problem in Brazil, with marked regional differences, mainly concentrated in the socioeconomically disadvantaged regions of the country. Qualification of attention to women's health, especially to reproductive aspects and attention to pre- and post-abortion processes, are necessary and urgent strategies to be implemented

    20. Apollo guidance, navigation and control: Guidance system operations plans for manned LM earth orbital and lunar missions using Program COLOSSUS 3. Section 7: Erasable memory programs

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hamilton, M. H.

      1972-01-01

      Erasable-memory programs (EMPs) designed for the guidance computers used in the command (CMC) and lunar modules (LGC) are described. CMC programs are designated COLOSSUS 3, and the associated EMPs are identified by a three-digit number beginning with 5. LGC programs are designated LUMINARY 1E, and the associated EMPs are identified, with one exception, by a three-digit number beginning with 1. The exception is EMP 99. The EMPs vary in complexity from a simple flagbit setting to a long and intricate logical structure. They all, however, cause the computer to behave in a way not intended in the original design of the programs; they accomplish this off-nominal behavior by some alteration of erasable memory to interface with existing fixed-memory programs to effect a desired result.