Science.gov

Sample records for abort impact accidents

  1. Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most healthcare providers advise counseling.

  2. Abortion.

    PubMed

    1993-09-01

    Vacuum aspiration, dilatation and curettage, hysterotomy, and, in some cases, hysterectomy comprise surgical methods of abortion. Oral administration of RU-486, epostane, prostaglandins E and F2 and vaginal suppositories of prostaglandins E and F2 are medical abortion methods. The traditional or clandestine methods are usually performed by unqualified persons and pregnant women themselves. These methods tend to be inefficient and harmful. They include oral preparations of herbs and drugs (e.g., quinine and ergot), introduction of fluids (e.g., household disinfectants) into the vagina, introduction of foreign bodies (e.g., twigs, stems, hollow tubes, needles, wire) into the uterus. Hospital records, death certificates, and community-based surveys are common sources of data on abortion. Worldwide, 40-70/1000 women of childbearing age undergo an abortion. 20-33% of all pregnancies are terminated. Abortion is always legal when it is performed to save a pregnant woman's life. In most countries, it is legal to protect the woman's physical or mental health against serious danger. The risk of death from a legal abortion is rare. On the other hand, when an abortion is performed by an unqualified, unskilled abortionist and/or under unhygienic conditions (all of which are common in countries who have a law against abortion) the risk of death is much higher. In fact, abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal death in many countries (25% and 86% of maternal deaths in Bangladesh and Romania, respectively). Common complications of abortion are incomplete abortion, trauma to pelvic organs (e.g., uterine perforation), tetanus, and infertility. In some developing countries, the cost of treating abortion complications account for up to 50% of maternity hospital budgets. Ways to reduce mortality from unsafe abortion include promoting contraceptive use, legalizing abortion, allowing trained practitioners to perform abortions for health reasons, and improving clinical management

  3. Summary of miscellaneous hazard environments for hypothetical Space Shuttle and Titan IV launch abort accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, M.; Mukunda, M.

    1989-01-01

    The various analyses described here were aimed at obtaining a more comprehensive understanding and definition of the environments in the vicinity of the Radioisotope Thermal Generator (RTG) during certain Space Transportation System (STS) and Titan IV launch abort accidents. Addressed here are a number of issues covering explosion environments and General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) responses to those environments.

  4. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis.

    PubMed

    Goldhaber, M K; Staub, S L; Tokuhata, G K

    1983-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss. PMID:6859357

  5. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, M.K.; Staub, S.L.; Tokuhata, G.K.

    1983-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss.

  6. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Goldhaber, M K; Staub, S L; Tokuhata, G K

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss. PMID:6859357

  7. [Abortion].

    PubMed

    Dourlen-rollier, A M

    1971-01-01

    The historical and current (1969) abortion laws in France as well as those in other Western countries are analyzed. France has had a series of punitive abortion codes since the Napoleonic Code of 1810 prescribing solitary confinement for the woman. The reforms of 1920 and 1923 made provocation of abortion or contraceptional propaganda a "crime" (felony), later a "delit" (misdemeanor), called for trial before magistr ate instead of jury, but resulted in only about 200 convictions a year. The decree of 1939 extended the misdemeanor to women who aborted even if they were not pregnant, and provided for professional licenses such as that of surgeon or pharmacist to be suspended. The law of 1942 made abortion a social crime and increased the maximum penalty to capital punishment, which was exercised in 2 cases. About 4000 per year were convicted from 1942-1944. Now the law still applies to all who intend to abort, whether or not pregnant or successful, but punishemnt is limited to 1-5 years imprisonment, and 72,000 francs fine, or suspension of medical practice for 5 years. About 500 have been convicted per year. Since 1955 legal abortion has been available (to about 130 women over 4 years) if it is the only means to save the woman's life. Although pregnancy tests are controlled, the population desregards the law by resorting to clandestine abortion. The wealthy travel to Switzerland (where 68% of legal abortions are done on French women) or to England. Numbers are estimated by the French government at 250,000-300,000 per year, or 1 for every 2 live births, but by hospital statistics at 400,000-1,000,000 per year. The rest of the review covers abortion laws in Scandinavian, Central European, and individual US states as of 1969. PMID:12333138

  8. Abortion.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, P D

    1991-08-01

    In 1990 abortion literature was characterized by articles relating to 1) the safety of surgical abortion procedures, 2) advances in knowledge and experience with medical abortifacients such as mifepristone (RU 486), and 3) reviews of psychologic and ethical considerations. Although technical methods differ greatly between countries and continents, there is increasing similarity between termination protocols in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Europe. The advent of mifepristone will make this even more so. Surgically, although dilatation and evacuation procedures are far more common in the United States than in other countries, the literature reflects a fine-tuning of analysis and technique, with safety the major consideration. Knowledge about the effectiveness of mifepristone continues to grow, and the effective dose for early first-trimester termination appears established. There is increasing evidence that at least in the short term, the negative psychologic sequelae of abortion are infrequent and are inconsequential as a public health issue. PMID:1878507

  9. Abortion.

    PubMed

    Savage, A

    1979-09-15

    I refer for termination anyone who requests it for--pace Mr V Tunkel, (28 July, p 253)--the law is generally regarded as being one of "abortion on demand." I have some misgivings as I do not believe that women in early pregnancy are always in a fit state to make a considered decision, and they cannot in the nature of things be given time. I have, however, become increasingly worried about the morbidity arising from the procedure, and it is interesting that letters on the subject (25 August, pp 495 and 496) should be followed by one reporting rupture of the uterus during prostaglandin-induced abortion--yet another complication to add to those of cervical incompetence, pelvic sepsis, and permanent neurological damage. In so far as these tragedies usually follow late terminations Mr John Corrie's Bill is to be welcomed. A few further points. I am not so cynical as to think that every impregnation is the result of a thoughtless act of male lust. Unlike Professor Peter Huntingford (25 August, p 496), I listen to men as well as women, and many of them are deeply involved emotionally in the pregnancy they have helped to produce. Certainly I think a man should have the right to be consulted if his wife is to undergo a procedure that might damage her health. It is unfair contemptuously to dismiss as "whims" opinions that differ from ones own. These may result from genuine conscientious doubts or inability to cope from overwork and understaffing. Abortion is quite the most expensive form of contraception, and perhaps in these days of financial stringency this should be taken into account. "Bigotry" is defined in my dictionary as "blind zeal." This could be said of those who enthusiastically promote a course of action without regard to circumstances, safety, or cost. PMID:497770

  10. Differential Impact of Abortion on Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Wanda; Reardon, David

    1992-01-01

    Compared adolescent and adult reactions to abortion among 252 women. Compared to adults, adolescents were significantly more likely to be dissatisfied with choice of abortion and with services received, to have abortions later in gestational period, to feel forced by circumstances to have abortion, to report being misinformed at time of abortion,…

  11. Measuring the impact of health policies using Internet search patterns: the case of abortion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Internet search patterns have emerged as a novel data source for monitoring infectious disease trends. We propose that these data can also be used more broadly to study the impact of health policies across different regions in a more efficient and timely manner. Methods As a test use case, we studied the relationships between abortion-related search volume, local abortion rates, and local abortion policies available for study. Results Our initial integrative analysis found that, both in the US and internationally, the volume of Internet searches for abortion is inversely proportional to local abortion rates and directly proportional to local restrictions on abortion. Conclusion These findings are consistent with published evidence that local restrictions on abortion lead individuals to seek abortion services outside of their area. Further validation of these methods has the potential to produce a timely, complementary data source for studying the effects of health policies. PMID:20738850

  12. The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

  13. Launch Architecture Impact on Ascent Abort and Crew Survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathias, Donovan L.; Lawrence, Scott L.

    2006-01-01

    A study was performed to assess the effect of booster configuration on the ascent abort process. A generic abort event sequence was created and booster related risk drivers were identified. Three model boosters were considered in light of the risk drivers: a solid rocket motor configuration, a side mount combination solid and liquid configuration, and a stacked liquid configuration. The primary risk drivers included explosive fireball, overpressure, and fragment effects and booster-crew module re-contact. Risk drivers that were not specifically booster dependent were not addressed. The solid rocket configuration had the most benign influence on an abort while the side mount architecture provided the most challenging abort environment.

  14. Regulating Abortion: Impact on Patients and Providers in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Silvie; Joyce, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The State of Texas began enforcement of the Woman's Right to Know (WRTK) Act on January 1, 2004. The law requires that all abortions at or after 16 weeks' gestation be performed in an ambulatory surgical center (ASC). In the month the law went into effect, not one of Texas's 54 nonhospital abortion providers met the requirements of a surgical…

  15. [A survey on serious accidents associated with abortion before and after the law of 1975].

    PubMed

    Achard, B; Cohen, J; Legrain, M; Chapman, A

    1979-11-01

    To investigate the effects of the law legalizing abortion, passed in France in 1975, on serious complications caused by the procedure, the authors have investigated 2 such complications, acute renal failure, and tetanus. Such complications are treated only in specialized reanimation centers, therefore it was possible, through the medical dossiers, to statistically measure the number of cases treated before and after the 1975 law. The number of cases of acute renal insufficiency began to drop in 1973, possibly due to the fact that many women would then go to Britain to seek abortion, where it had already been legalized. After 1975 the number of cases treated went from 233 to 45, and cases of death went from 34 to 4. Only 8 cases of tetanus were reported, and all before the 1975 law. These conclusions agree with other data published in the literature on the effects of the legalization of abortion on its medical complications. PMID:12261674

  16. Conscientious objection and its impact on abortion service provision in South Africa: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite abortion being legally available in South Africa after a change in legislation in 1996, barriers to accessing safe abortion services continue to exist. These barriers include provider opposition to abortion often on the grounds of religious or moral beliefs including the unregulated practice of conscientious objection. Few studies have explored how providers in South Africa make sense of, or understand, conscientious objection in terms of refusing to provide abortion care services and the consequent impact on abortion access. Methods A qualitative approach was used which included 48 in-depth interviews with a purposively selected population of abortion related health service providers, managers and policy influentials in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Results The ways in which conscientious objection was interpreted and practiced, and its impact on abortion service provision was explored. In most public sector facilities there was a general lack of understanding concerning the circumstances in which health care providers were entitled to invoke their right to refuse to provide, or assist in abortion services. Providers seemed to have poor understandings of how conscientious objection was to be implemented, but were also constrained in that there were few guidelines or systems in place to guide them in the process. Conclusions Exploring the ways in which conscientious objection was interpreted and applied by differing levels of health care workers in relation to abortion provision raised multiple and contradictory issues. From providers’ accounts it was often difficult to distinguish what constituted confusion with regards to the specifics of how conscientious objection was to be implemented in terms of the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act, and what was refusal of abortion care based on opposition to abortion in general. In order to disentangle what is resistance to abortion

  17. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePlus

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... The pregnancy is harmful to the woman's health (therapeutic abortion). The pregnancy resulted after a traumatic event ...

  18. After After Tiller: the impact of a documentary film on understandings of third-trimester abortion.

    PubMed

    Sisson, Gretchen; Kimport, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Onscreen pseudo-experiences have been shown to influence public perceptions of contested social issues. However, research has not considered whether such experiences have limits in their influence and/or vary in their impact. Using the case of third-trimester abortion, an issue subject to high amounts of misinformation, low public support and low occurrence in the general population, we investigate how the pseudo-experience of viewing After Tiller, a documentary film showing stories of third-trimester abortion, providers and patients, might serve as a counterpoint to misinformation and myth. We interviewed 49 viewers to assess how viewing the film interacted with viewers' previously held understandings of later abortion. Participants reported that viewing made them feel more knowledgeable about later-abortion patients and providers and increased their support for legal third-trimester abortion access, suggesting the efficacy of this pseudo-experience in changing belief. Nonetheless, respondents' belief systems were not entirely remade and the effects of the film varied, particularly in regards to gatekeeping around the procedure and the reasons why women seek later abortion. Findings show the potential of onscreen pseudo-experiences as a means for social change, but also reveal their limits and varying impacts. PMID:26670628

  19. Abortion - surgical

    MedlinePlus

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... problem. Your pregnancy is harmful to your health (therapeutic abortion). The pregnancy resulted after a traumatic event ...

  20. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePlus

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

  1. Abortion Before & After Roe

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu

    2013-01-01

    We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971–1975 to demonstrate that women travelled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A100- mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services. PMID:23811233

  2. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on High School Graduation through Selection and Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    This analysis examines whether the legalization of abortion changed high school graduation rates among the children selected into birth. Unless women in all socio-economic circumstances sought abortions to the same extent, increased use of abortion must have changed the distribution of child development inputs. I find that higher abortion ratios…

  3. Abortion - surgical

    MedlinePlus

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  4. Global impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Catlin, R.J.; Goldman, M.

    1988-12-16

    Radioactive material was deposited throughout the Northern Hemisphere as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station on 26 April 1986. On the basis of a large amount of environmental data and new integrated dose assessment and risk models, the collective dose commitment to the approximately 3 billion inhabitants is calculated to be 930,000 person-gray, with 97% in the western Soviet Union and Europe. The best estimates for the lifetime expectation of fatal radiogenic cancer would increase the risk from 0 to 0.02% in Europe and 0 to 0.003% in the Northern Hemisphere. By means of an integration of the environmental data, it is estimated that approximately 100 petabecquerels of cesium-137 (1 PBq = 10(15) Bq) were released during and subsequent to the accident.

  5. Tourist visitation impacts of the accident at Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Himmelberger, J.J.; Ogneva-Himmelberger, Y.A.; Baughman, M.L.

    1993-12-31

    This paper analyzes tourist visitation impacts of the March 27, 1979 accident at Three Mile Island. A review of the literature, supplemented with recollections from Pennsylvanian public officials, are used to specify a conventional tourism impact model which holds that depressed 1979 summer tourism season was more influenced by gasoline shortages and possibly other confounding variables (such as rainy local weather conditions and a polio outbreak) than by the nuclear accident. Regression analysis using monthly visitation data for Hershey Chocolate World, Gettysburg National Park, The Pennsylvania Dutch Convention and Visitor Bureau, and several state parks as dependent variables provide support for this model. Potential tourism implications of an accident at Yucca Mountain are briefly discussed in light of our findings.

  6. The impact of Mississippi's mandatory delay law on the timing of abortion.

    PubMed

    Joyce, T; Kaestner, R

    2000-01-01

    This article examined the effect of Mississippi's mandatory delay law on the timing of abortion. This mandate imposes that a woman seeking abortion must first receive in person information about the fetus and alternatives to abortion. She must then wait at least 24 hours before having an abortion. The Mississippi abortion data were stratified by location of the nearest provider, and the effects on the likelihood of a second-trimester abortion and on gestational age at the time of abortion were assessed. Results of the analysis of data for the 34,748 abortions revealed that the proportion of second-trimester procedures were at least 2.6% points greater among women whose nearest abortion provider was in-state than among those whose nearest provider was out-of-state. The overall effect of the law on mean gestation was to delay an abortion by about 4 days (0.61 weeks). In conclusion, the proportion of abortions performed later in pregnancy will probably increase if more states impose mandatory delay laws with in-person counseling requirements. PMID:10710701

  7. Induced Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Induced Abortion Patient Education FAQs Induced Abortion Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  8. National Ignition Facility: Impacts of chemical accidents and comparison of chemical and radiological accident approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.A.; Policastro, A.J.; Rhodes, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    An environmental assessment was conducted to estimate potential impacts or consequences associated with constructing and operating the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF). The multidisciplinary assessment covered topics ranging from radiological and chemical health and safety to socioeconomic and land-use issues. The impacts of five chemical accidents that could occur at NIF are compared, and the extent of their consequences for workers and off-site populations are discussed. Each of the five accident scenarios was modeled by a chemical release and dispersion model with a toxicological criterion for evaluating potential irreversible human health effects. Results show that most of the chemical release scenarios considered will not impair the general public in taking protective actions in the event of an accidental release. The two exceptions are the mercury release (equipment failure) scenarios for the conceptual design and the enhanced design. In general, the predicted maximum threat zones are significantly less than the distance to the point of nearest public access.

  9. Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) following a postulated accident in PHWRS

    SciTech Connect

    Soni, N.; Kansal, M.; Rammohan, H. P.; Malhotra, P. K.

    2012-07-01

    Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) following postulated accident i.e Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) with failed Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), performed as part of the reactor safety analysis of a typical 700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor(PHWR). The rationale behind the assessment is that the public needs to be protected in the event that the postulated accident results in radionuclide release outside containment. Radionuclides deliver dose to the human body through various pathways namely, plume submersion, exposure due to ground deposition, inhalation and ingestion. The total exposure dose measured in terms of total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) is the sum of doses to a hypothetical adult human at exclusion zone boundary by all the exposure pathways. The analysis provides the important inputs to decide upon the type of emergency counter measures to be adopted during the postulated accident. The importance of the various pathways in terms of contribution to the total effective dose equivalent(TEDE) is also assessed with respect to time of exposure. Inhalation and plume gamma dose are the major contributors towards TEDE during initial period of accident whereas ingestion and ground shine dose start dominating in TEDE in the extended period of exposure. Moreover, TEDE is initially dominated by I-131, Kr-88, Te-132, I-133 and Sr-89, whereas, as time progresses, Xe-133,I-131 and Te-132 become the main contributors. (authors)

  10. Abortion: the new debate.

    PubMed

    Callahan, D

    1986-06-01

    The course of the debate on abortion following the 1973 Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion has been marked by a variety of medical and scientific developments. Many of these new developments have important legal, psychologic, social, moral, and political implications. The cumulative impact of all these developments may pose a significant challenge to the social and legal foundations of Roe v. Wade. PMID:3523563

  11. The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

  12. The laws that affect abortion in the United States and their impact on women's health.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L K; Naylor, K L

    1991-12-01

    Abortion has been a hotly contested political issue since the mid 1960s, when states began liberalizing their abortion laws. Recent Supreme Court rulings, such as Rust vs. Sullivan, the retirement of two liberal Supreme Court justices and the battle over Louisiana's abortion legislation have created new fervor on both fronts of the battle. All health care providers who care for women need to be cognizant of the current abortion laws and the factors that influence the abortion decision. These factors include the different levels of health risk and financial implications posed by continued pregnancy or abortion. Historically, numerous court cases have influenced women's health care, and reviews of several significant cases are provided. The Webster vs. Reproductive Health Services decision was the first case that directly challenged the Roe vs. Wade decision. The Webster decision enables states to have greater authority in writing their own abortion laws. Individual state laws can vary greatly, so it is vitally important for providers to know and understand the laws of their state. PMID:1798604

  13. Radioactivity impacts of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident on the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, W.; Chen, L.; Yu, W.; Ma, H.; Zeng, Z.; Lin, J.; Zeng, S.

    2015-02-01

    The Fukushima Nuclear Accident (FNA) resulted in a large amount of radionuclides released into the atmosphere and dispersed globally, which has greatly raised public concerns. The state of the art for source terms of 19 kinds of radionuclides derived from the FNA was comprehensively collected and compared with levels of the global fallout and the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident (CNA). The atmospheric impacts of the FNA were evaluated from three aspects including radioactive baseline of the atmosphere, the concentration limits in standards and radiological protection. The FNA should not impose significant radiological risk on the public members in the countries excluding Japan. A conceptual scheme of Fukushima-derived radionuclides with physical and physicochemical insights on different temporal-spatial timescales was discussed and illustrated to understand their fates in the atmosphere.

  14. Severe Accident Analysis Code SAMPSON Improvement for IMPACT Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujita, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Takashi; Naitoh, Masanori

    SAMPSON is the integral code for severe accident analysis in detail with modular structure, developed in the IMPACT project. Each module can run independently and communication with multiple analysis modules supervised by the analysis control module makes an integral analysis possible. At the end of Phase 1 (1994-1997), demonstration simulations by combinations of up to 11 analysis modules had been performed and physical models in the code had been verified by separate-effect tests and validated by inegral tests. Multi-dimensional mechanistic models and theoretical-based conservation equations have been applied, during Phase 2 (1998-2000). New models for Accident Management evaluation have been also developed. Verificaton and validation have been performed by analysing separate-effect tests and inegral tests, while actual plant analyses are also being in progress.

  15. Psychosocial aspects of abortion

    PubMed Central

    Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users. PMID:1085671

  16. Analysis of Maximum Reasonably Foreseeable Accidents for the Yucca Mountain Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS)

    SciTech Connect

    S.B. Ross; R.E. Best; S.J. Maheras; T.I. McSweeney

    2001-08-17

    Accidents could occur during the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This paper describes the risks and consequences to the public from accidents that are highly unlikely but that could have severe consequences. The impact of these accidents would include those to a collective population and to hypothetical maximally exposed individuals (MEIs). This document discusses accidents with conditions that have a chance of occurring more often than 1 in 10 million times in a year, called ''maximum reasonably foreseeable accidents''. Accidents and conditions less likely than this are not considered to be reasonably foreseeable.

  17. [Discussing abortion].

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Discussions with several groups of low-income, middle-aged women in various countries of Latin America showed that most disapproved of abortion. In the course of group discussions about the motives of women who seek abortions and the psychological and sanitary conditions under which abortion occurs, however, their disapproval became less categorical. They began to accept the need to decriminalize abortion in order to protect women. The majority, strongly influenced by the Catholic Church, believed that human life begins at conception. Others disapproved of abortion because they feared it would be used as a birth control method and would encourage promiscuity. Most disapproved of abortion for single women attempting to escape family or social censure of unmarried motherhood. Fear of health effects or death from abortion and fear of divine punishment were also mentioned. Recognition of the anguish and pain suffered by women deciding to seek abortion and the difficulty of providing for the material and other needs of many children were factors that led to reconsideration of the wholesale condemnation of abortion. The women realized that such condemnations never take the woman's circumstances into account. Some of the women felt that aborting an unwanted pregnancy would be preferable to abandoning or neglecting an unwanted child. Many of the women came to feel that abortion should be legalized at least under some circumstances. PMID:12348503

  18. Adolescent Abortion and Mandated Parental Involvement: The Impact of Back Alley Laws on Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinn, Susan; And Others

    This document notes that many states have passed, or are considering, laws that would mandate parental consent for, or notification of, a young woman's decision to obtain an abortion. Constructed in a question-and-answer format, the document then examines a number of issues concerned with such mandated parental involvement. It examines who is…

  19. Impact of Counseling on Repeated Unplanned Pregnancy and Contraceptive Behavior in Low SES Abortion Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnhill, Michael S.; And Others

    High numbers of repeat abortions at a medical school clinic prompted clinic personnel to develop an experimental fertility control counseling program. Counseling objectives included the following: (1) to engender rapport and trust; (2) to assess the patient's past contraceptive use and psychosocial history; (3) to improve patient's knowledge of…

  20. Abortion-seeking behaviour among Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Bankole, Akinrinola; Sedgh, Gilda; Oye-Adeniran, Boniface A; Adewole, Isaac F; Hussain, Rubina; Singh, Susheela

    2008-03-01

    This study used data from a community-based survey to examine women's experiences of abortion in Nigeria. Fourteen percent of respondents reported that they had ever tried to terminate a pregnancy, and 10% had obtained an abortion. The majority of women who sought an abortion did so early in the pregnancy. Forty-two percent of women who obtained an abortion used the services of a non-professional provider, a quarter experienced complications and 9% sought treatment for complications from their abortions. Roughly half of the women who obtained an abortion used a method other than D&C or MVA. The abortion prevalence and conditions under which women sought abortions varied by women's socio-demographic characteristics. Because abortion is illegal in Nigeria except to save the woman's life, many women take significant risks to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Reducing the incidence of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion can significantly impact the reproductive health of women in Nigeria. PMID:17711597

  1. Aviation Ground Accidents: The Requirements for Cost Impact Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Frank H.

    1983-01-01

    Aviation accidents are costly, whether they occur in the air or on the ground. Precise information regarding the cost of ground accidents is important, but not easily available on an industry-wide basis. This article points up the need for information on ground accident costs. (Author)

  2. The consequences of abortion legislation.

    PubMed

    Braude, M

    1983-01-01

    This article examines the consequences of the 1973 US Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion as well as potential implications of proposed legilation aimed at nullifying this decision. In addition to giving women the right to determine their own reproduction, legal abortion had had beneficial health effects for both mothers and infants. The partial reversal of abortion gains due to restrictions on public funding and limitations on how and where abortions can be performed has produced a slight increase in abortion mortality, but the impact has not been dramatic. Moreover, each year since 1973, women have been obtaining abortions earlier in pregnancy. Abortion may be experienced as a loss by the mother, but there is no evidence of serious psychological sequelae. In contrast, a large body of evidence supports the physical, psychological, and social benefits of legal abortion to women, children, and families. However, proponents of the proposed Human Life Amendment place protection of the rights of the fetus over all other considerations. Their antiabortion actions have challenged the medical tradition of privacy and the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship. Most supporters of legal abortion would prefer that there be fewer abortions; such a decrease is more likely as a result of better education and contraceptive methods rather than coercion. PMID:12340335

  3. Fukushima Daiichi Accident and Its Radiological Impact on the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevelacqua, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident is a topic of current media and public interest. It provides a means to motivate students to understand the fission process and the barriers that have been designed to prevent the release of fission products to the environment following a major nuclear power reactor accident. The Fukushima Daiichi accident…

  4. Fukushima Daiichi Accident and Its Radiological Impact on the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevelacqua, J. J.

    2012-09-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident is a topic of current media and public interest. It provides a means to motivate students to understand the fission process and the barriers that have been designed to prevent the release of fission products to the environment following a major nuclear power reactor accident. The Fukushima Daiichi accident further encourages a discussion of the effect of fission products upon the environment, including the resulting contamination of air, water, soil, animals, fish, milk, and crops. Accident-generated radiation levels that caused the evacuation of people 20-30 km from the facility further serve to foster student interest and desire to understand the science associated with the Fukushima Daiichi accident.

  5. The health impact of major nuclear accidents: the case of Greece.

    PubMed

    Kollas, J G

    1993-10-01

    An assessment of the radiological consequences that would result for the population of Greece from postulated major nuclear accidents in the Kozloduy nuclear power station in Bulgaria is performed. Kozloduy lies at a distance of 225 km from the northern borders of Greece and contains six reactors, all of the Russian WWER type. The postulated accidents that are classified as level 7 accidents on the International Nuclear Event Scale, involve significant releases of radioactive materials into the environment, and widespread health and environmental effects. The analysis is performed by the MACCS code. The estimated consequences are compared to the corresponding actual impact of the Chernobyl accident in Greece. The results of the analysis indicate that, under the conservative assumptions adopted, the radiological consequences of the most severe accidents considered would be about 1.5 orders of magnitude larger than the actual radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. PMID:8259439

  6. Root causes and impacts of severe accidents at large nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Högberg, Lars

    2013-04-01

    The root causes and impacts of three severe accidents at large civilian nuclear power plants are reviewed: the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011. Impacts include health effects, evacuation of contaminated areas as well as cost estimates and impacts on energy policies and nuclear safety work in various countries. It is concluded that essential objectives for reactor safety work must be: (1) to prevent accidents from developing into severe core damage, even if they are initiated by very unlikely natural or man-made events, and, recognizing that accidents with severe core damage may nevertheless occur; (2) to prevent large-scale and long-lived ground contamination by limiting releases of radioactive nuclides such as cesium to less than about 100 TBq. To achieve these objectives the importance of maintaining high global standards of safety management and safety culture cannot be emphasized enough. All three severe accidents discussed in this paper had their root causes in system deficiencies indicative of poor safety management and poor safety culture in both the nuclear industry and government authorities. PMID:23423737

  7. [Psychological aspects of induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Mouniq, C; Moron, P

    1982-06-01

    genetic reasons have been found to experience shame and guilt. Repeat abortion constitutes about 10-15% of all abortions, and reflects resistence to contraception. 1 study found repeat abortion seekers to have a low educational level, lack of knowledge of sex, image of sexuality as degrading, self-punishing masochistic tendencies, passivity, and other pathology. Routine psychiatric consultations for abortion should be avoided, and primary responsibility should be assumed by the physician for identifying patients at risk of psychological sequelae. Factors placing women at high psychological risk after abortion can be identified in the American literature: severe psychiatric ailment, lack of familial support, abortion for medical reasons, severe ambivalence, and familial or medical pressure. A consultation or brief treatment permitting the woman to elaborate her decision can help prevent postabortal difficulties. The interviewer should help the woman to understand whether her unexpected pregnancy was in reality an accident or the expression of an intense but unconscious desire for pregnancy, and thus to understand the reasons for her indecision. Various patterns of disturbance may be uncovered during treatment. PMID:12268236

  8. Seventeen years of legalized abortion in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Saw, S

    1988-06-01

    "In this paper we first discuss the two-stage process of legalizing induced abortion in Singapore, the initial legalization to make it available on a restrictive basis in 1970 and the complete liberalization to make it available on demand from 1975 onwards. The incidence of abortions registered in the last seventeen years and the major characteristics of aborters are analysed. The impact of abortion on the rapid decline of fertility to below-replacement level is highlighted, and the need to reduce abortion by amending the more liberal aspects of the law are considered at the end of the paper." PMID:12341971

  9. Approaches to accident analysis in recent US Department of Energy environmental impact statements

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, C.; Folga, S.; Nabelssi, B.

    1996-12-31

    A review of accident analyses in recent US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) was conducted to evaluate the consistency among approaches and to compare these approaches with existing DOE guidance. The review considered several components of an accident analysis: the overall scope, which in turn should reflect the scope of the EIS; the spectrum of accidents considered; the methods and assumptions used to determine frequencies or frequency ranges for the accident sequences; and the assumption and technical bases for developing radiological and chemical atmospheric source terms and for calculating the consequences of airborne releases. The review also considered the range of results generated with respect to impacts on various worker and general populations. In this paper, the findings of these reviews are presented and methods recommended for improving consistency among EISs and bringing them more into line with existing DOE guidance.

  10. The global impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Anspaugh, L R; Catlin, R J; Goldman, M

    1988-12-16

    Radioactive material was deposited throughout the Northern Hemisphere as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station on 26 April 1986. On the basis of a large amount of environmental data and new integrated dose assessment and risk models, the collective dose commitment to the approximately 3 billion inhabitants is calculated to be 930,000 person-gray, with 97% in the western Soviet Union and Europe. The best estimates for the lifetime expectation of fatal radiogenic cancer would increase the risk from 0 to 0.02% in Europe and 0 to 0.003% in the Northern Hemisphere. By means of an integration of the environmental data, it is estimated that approximately 100 petabecquerels of cesium-137 (1 PBq = 10(15) Bq) were released during and subsequent to the accident. PMID:3201240

  11. Spallation Neutron Source Accident Terms for Environmental Impact Statement Input

    SciTech Connect

    Devore, J.R.; Harrington, R.M.

    1998-08-01

    This report is about accidents with the potential to release radioactive materials into the environment surrounding the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). As shown in Chap. 2, the inventories of radioactivity at the SNS are dominated by the target facility. Source terms for a wide range of target facility accidents, from anticipated events to worst-case beyond-design-basis events, are provided in Chaps. 3 and 4. The most important criterion applied to these accident source terms is that they should not underestimate potential release. Therefore, conservative methodology was employed for the release estimates. Although the source terms are very conservative, excessive conservatism has been avoided by basing the releases on physical principles. Since it is envisioned that the SNS facility may eventually (after about 10 years) be expanded and modified to support a 4-MW proton beam operational capability, the source terms estimated in this report are applicable to a 4-MW operating proton beam power unless otherwise specified. This is bounding with regard to the 1-MW facility that will be built and operated initially. See further discussion below in Sect. 1.2.

  12. Natural hazard impacts on transport systems: analyzing the data base of transport accidents in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    We consider a transport accident as any accident that occurs during transportation of people and goods. It comprises of accidents involving air, road, rail, water, and pipeline transport. With over 1.2 million people killed each year, road accidents are one of the world's leading causes of death; another 20-50 million people are injured each year on the world's roads while walking, cycling, or driving. Transport accidents of other types including air, rail, and water transport accidents are not as numerous as road crashes, but the relative risk of each accident is much higher because of the higher number of people killed and injured per accident. Pipeline ruptures cause large damages to the environment. That is why safety and security are of primary concern for any transport system. The transport system of the Russian Federation (RF) is one of the most extensive in the world. It includes 1,283,000 km of public roads, more than 600,000 km of airlines, more than 200,000 km of gas, oil, and product pipelines, 115,000 km of inland waterways, and 87,000 km of railways. The transport system, especially the transport infrastructure of the country is exposed to impacts of various natural hazards and weather extremes such as heavy rains, snowfalls, snowdrifts, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, snow avalanches, debris flows, rock falls, fog or icing roads, and other natural factors that additionally trigger many accidents. In June 2014, the Ministry of Transport of the RF has compiled a new version of the Transport Strategy of the RF up to 2030. Among of the key pillars of the Strategy are to increase the safety of the transport system and to reduce negative environmental impacts. Using the data base of technological accidents that was created by the author, the study investigates temporal variations and regional differences of the transport accidents' risk within the Russian federal regions and a contribution of natural factors to occurrences of different

  13. The impact of Ghana’s R3M programme on the provision of safe abortions and postabortion care

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Aparna; Juarez, Fatima; Ahiadeke, Clement; Bankole, Akinrinola; Blades, Nakeisha

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, in response to the high maternal mortality, driven largely by unsafe abortions, the government of Ghana, in partnership with other organizations, launched the reducing maternal mortality and morbidity (R3M) programme in seven districts in Greater Accra, Ashanti and Eastern, to improve comprehensive abortion care services. This article examines whether this intervention made a difference to the provision of safe abortion services and postabortion care (PAC). We also examine the role played by provider attitudes and knowledge of the abortion law, on providers with clinical training in service provision. Primary data on health care providers in Ghana, collected using a quasi-experimental design, were analysed using propensity score weighting. Apart from the treatment group, the sample included two controls: (1) Districts in Accra, Ashanti and Eastern, not exposed to the treatment; and (2) Districts from distant Brong Ahafo, also not exposed to the treatment. The findings show that providers in the treatment group are nearly 16 times as likely to provide safe abortions compared with their peers in Brong Ahafo, and ∼2.5 times as likely compared with providers in the other control group. R3M providers were also different from their peers in providing PAC. Associations between provider attitudes and knowledge of the law on both outcomes were either non-significant or inconsistent including for providers with clinical knowledge of abortion provision. Provider confidence however is strongly associated with service provision. We conclude that the R3M programme is helping safe abortion provision, with the differences being greater with control groups that are geographically distant, perhaps owing to lower contamination from movement of providers between facilities. Increasing provider confidence is key to improving both safe abortion provision and PAC. PMID:25261230

  14. Global policy change and women's access to safe abortion: the impact of the World Health Organization's guidance in Africa.

    PubMed

    Hessini, Leila; Brookman-Amissah, Eunice; Crane, Barbara B

    2006-12-01

    Along with governments from around the world, African leaders agreed at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 1994 to address unsafe abortion as a major public health problem. At the five-year review of the ICPD, they decided further that health systems should make safe abortion services accessible for legal indications. Based on this mandate, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed norms and standards for quality abortion services, Safe Abortion: Technical and Policy Guidance for Health Systems, released in 2003. While abortion-related maternal mortality and morbidity remains very high in many African countries, stakeholders are increasingly using WHO recommendations in conjunction with other global and regional policy frameworks, including the African Union Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa, to spur new action to address this persistent problem. Efforts include: reforming national laws and policies; preparing service-delivery guidelines and regulations; strengthening training programs; and expanding community outreach programs. This paper reviews progress and lessons learned while drawing attention to the fragility of the progress made thus far and the key challenges that remain in ensuring access to safe abortion care for all African women. PMID:17518128

  15. Impact of Clinic Closures on Women Obtaining Abortion Services After Implementation of a Restrictive Law in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Liza; Grossman, Daniel; White, Kari; Keefe-Oates, Brianna; Baum, Sarah E.; Hopkins, Kristine; Stolp, Chandler W.; Potter, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the additional burdens experienced by Texas abortion patients whose nearest in-state clinic was one of more than half of facilities providing abortion that had closed after the introduction of House Bill 2 in 2013. Methods. In mid-2014, we surveyed Texas-resident women seeking abortions in 10 Texas facilities (n = 398), including both Planned Parenthood–affiliated clinics and independent providers that performed more than 1500 abortions in 2013 and provided procedures up to a gestational age of at least 14 weeks from last menstrual period. We compared indicators of burden for women whose nearest clinic in 2013 closed and those whose nearest clinic remained open. Results. For women whose nearest clinic closed (38%), the mean one-way distance traveled was 85 miles, compared with 22 miles for women whose nearest clinic remained open (P ≤ .001). After adjustment, more women whose nearest clinic closed traveled more than 50 miles (44% vs 10%), had out-of-pocket expenses greater than $100 (32% vs 20%), had a frustrated demand for medication abortion (37% vs 22%), and reported that it was somewhat or very hard to get to the clinic (36% vs 18%; P < .05). Conclusions. Clinic closures after House Bill 2 resulted in significant burdens for women able to obtain care. PMID:26985603

  16. Impact of the Illinois Seat Belt Use Law on Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Steven M.

    1992-01-01

    The impact of the 1985 Illinois seat belt law is explored using Box-Jenkins Auto-Regressive, Integrated Moving Averages (ARIMA) techniques and monthly accident statistical data from the state department of transportation for January-July 1990. A conservative estimate is that the law provides benefits of $15 million per month in Illinois. (SLD)

  17. Impact of stillbirth and abortion on the subsequent fertility and productivity of Holstein, Brown Swiss and their crosses in subtropics.

    PubMed

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud Salah

    2015-10-01

    Stillbirth and abortion are serious problems in cattle breeding, from both economic and animal welfare standpoints. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and implications of stillbirth and abortion on the subsequent reproductive and production performance of the pure Holstein (HO), Brown Swiss (BS), and their F1 crosses (BF) in Egypt. The total number of records was 9275. The pure BS heifers had significantly (P < 0.05) lower incidence of stillbirth, abortion, and twinning (4.5, 2.3, and 1.5 %, respectively), compared with pure HO heifers (15.4, 5.3, and 4.8 %, respectively). Pure BS and BF cows coped with the harsh conditions of abnormal births, even though their subsequent reproductive indices were slightly reduced after stillbirths. In contrast, pure HO cows had significantly (P < 0.05) longer calving intervals and days open (475 and 198 days and 427 and 151 days, respectively) after stillbirths and abortions, compared with those that had normal births (381 and 149 days, respectively). Stillbirths decreased 305-day milk yield (305-MY, 14.5 %) and peak milk yield (Peak-MY, 29.1 %) in pure HO cows when compared with those calved normally. However, productive indices of pure BS and BF cows exposed to stillbirth or abortion were more tolerant. In conclusion, pure BS and BF cows can endure the difficult consequences of stillbirths or abortions under subtropical conditions. Nevertheless, fertility and milk yield had been deteriorated in pure HO. PMID:26070294

  18. Assessment of the potential impact of Nuclear Power Plant accidents on aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wotawa, Gerhard; Arnold, Delia; Maurer, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The nuclear accidents in Chernobyl in 1986 and in Fukushima in 2011 demonstrated the urgent need to provide adequate guidance for land-based, marine and airborne transport. Quick assessments of potential impacts are essential to avoid unnecessary traffic disruptions while guaranteeing appropriate safety levels for staff in the transport industry as well as travellers. Such estimates are to be provided under difficult circumstances, mostly due to the lack of reliable initial information on the severity of the accident and the exact source term of radionuclides. Regarding aviation, there are three equally relevant aspects to look at, namely aircraft in cruising altitude (about 40000 ft), aircraft approaching an airport, and finally the airports as such as critical infrastructure, including airport operations and ground transport. Based on the accident scenarios encountered in the Chernobyl and Fukushima cases, exemplary case studies shall be provided to assess the potential impacts of such events on aviation. The study is based on the Atmospheric Transport and Dispersion Model (ATDM) FLEXPART and a simplified scheme to calculate effective dose rates based on a few key radionuclides (Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133). Besides the impact assessment, possible new products provided by WMO Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres in the event of an accident shall be discussed as well.

  19. Nonmarital births and state abortion policies.

    PubMed

    Medoff, Marshall H

    2010-09-01

    This study examines the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on nonmarital childbearing since the passage of the 1996 welfare reform bill. The empirical results find that the price of an abortion, a Medicaid funding restriction, and a waiting period law are associated with a decrease in a state's nonmarital birthrate. The negative effects of restrictive abortion laws on a state's nonmarital birthrate are found to occur in various age groups. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that restrictive abortion laws induce unmarried women to change their level of unprotected sexual activity or contraceptive behavior, thereby reducing the likelihood of an unwanted nonmarital pregnancy. PMID:20818592

  20. Space Shuttle ascent aborts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidgall, Richard A.

    1989-09-01

    Specific guidance functions and trajectory design of return to launch site (RTLS) and transoceanic abort landing (TAL) intact abort profiles, as well as the increasing emphasis on contingency aborts, are presented. Various systems failures including Space Shuttle main engine failures and detailed technical analyses, including the design of powered flight abort trajectories, are considered. The most critical of flight abort situations is the RTLS, while TAL is the preferred abort when uphill capability is no longer available. It is concluded that one principle must remain to ensure continuing success of Space Shuttle flights: namely that intact and contingency aborts necessitate development to ensure safe return of the vehicle, payload, and crew whenever possible.

  1. Input-output model for MACCS nuclear accident impacts estimation¹

    SciTech Connect

    Outkin, Alexander V.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Vargas, Vanessa N

    2015-01-27

    Since the original economic model for MACCS was developed, better quality economic data (as well as the tools to gather and process it) and better computational capabilities have become available. The update of the economic impacts component of the MACCS legacy model will provide improved estimates of business disruptions through the use of Input-Output based economic impact estimation. This paper presents an updated MACCS model, bases on Input-Output methodology, in which economic impacts are calculated using the Regional Economic Accounting analysis tool (REAcct) created at Sandia National Laboratories. This new GDP-based model allows quick and consistent estimation of gross domestic product (GDP) losses due to nuclear power plant accidents. This paper outlines the steps taken to combine the REAcct Input-Output-based model with the MACCS code, describes the GDP loss calculation, and discusses the parameters and modeling assumptions necessary for the estimation of long-term effects of nuclear power plant accidents.

  2. Simulation of impact of the Generic Accident-Resistant Packaging (GAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Slavin, A.M.

    1994-10-01

    Finite element simulations modelling impact of the Generic Accident-Resistant Packaging (GAP) have been performed. The GAP is a nuclear weapon shipping container that will be used by accident response groups from both the United States and the United Kingdom. The package is a thin-walled steel structure filled with rigid polyurethane foam and weighs approximately 5100 lbs when loaded. The simulations examined 250 ft/s impacts onto a rigid target at several orientations. The development of the finite element model included studies of modelling assumptions and material parameters. Upon completion of the simulation series, three full-scale impact tests were performed. A comparison of the simulation results to the test data is given. Differences between the results and data are examined, and possible explanations for the differences are discussed.

  3. Should abortion be legalized?

    PubMed

    Sodhy, L S

    1968-01-01

    Abortion is an important means of family planning, especially when contraception is unavailable or when it fails. Morbidity associated with legal abortion is low, though illegal abortion is a common cause of maternal mortality. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republic, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, and the German Demogratic Republic all have laws legalizing abortion. Legalized abortion is the surest method of population control and should be promoted if the moral and religious objections can be overcome. PMID:12255647

  4. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers. PMID:26513334

  5. The Impact of In-Vehicle Cell-Phone Use on Accidents or Near-Accidents among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2004-01-01

    With in-vehicle use of cell phones rapidly increasing, the safety of young drivers, who represent 14% of licensed drivers but 26% of drivers involved in fatal crashes, may be disproportionately threatened. The authors used a questionnaire to examine the association between in-vehicle cell-phone use and accidents or near-accidents among 1,291…

  6. [Abortion and rights. Legal thinking about abortion].

    PubMed

    Perez Duarte, A E

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of abortion in Mexico from a juridical perspective requires recognition that Mexico as a national community participates in a double system of values. Politically it is defined as a liberal, democratic, and secular state, but culturally the Judeo-Christian ideology is dominant in all social strata. This duality complicates all juridical-penal decisions regarding abortion. Public opinion on abortion is influenced on the 1 hand by extremely conservative groups who condemn abortion as homicide, and on the other hand by groups who demand legislative reform in congruence with characteristics that define the state: an attitude of tolerance toward the different ideological-moral positions that coexist in the country. The discussion concerns the rights of women to voluntary maternity, protection of health, and to making their own decisions regarding their bodies vs. the rights of the fetus to life. The type of analysis is not objective, and conclusions depend on the ideology of the analyst. Other elements must be examined for an objective consideration of the social problem of abortion. For example, aspects related to maternal morbidity and mortality and the demographic, economic, and physical and mental health of the population would all seem to support the democratic juridical doctrine that sees the clandestine nature of abortion as the principal problem. It is also observed that the illegality of abortion does not guarantee its elimination. Desperate women will seek abortion under any circumstances. The illegality of abortion also impedes health and educational policies that would lower abortion mortality. There are various problems from a strictly juridical perspective. A correct definition of the term abortion is needed that would coincide with the medical definition. The discussion must be clearly centered on the protected juridical right and the definition of reproductive and health rights and rights to their own bodies of women. The experiences of other

  7. Burden, distribution and impact of domestic accidents in a semi-urban area of coastal Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Stalin, P; Senthilvel, V; Kanimozhy, K; Singh, Zile; Rajkamal, R; Purty, Anil J

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of domestic accidents, describe the factors associated with domestic accidents and assess the medical and economical consequences of domestic accidents. Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a semi-urban area of Tamil Nadu during February 2013. A total of 3947 study participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Study variables included were socio-demography, housing conditions, epidemiological factors, medical and economical consequences of domestic accidents. Means and proportions were calculated. The prevalence of domestic accidents was 12.7%. Out of 500 domestic accidents, falls (54.4%) was the most common type of domestic accident. Females and the respondents in age group of 21-40 years were more commonly affected. About 60% of victims received treatment. Mean duration of hospital stay, mean amount of money spent for treatment and mean number of days away from routine work for falls category were 16 days, US$25 and 8 days, respectively, which are higher than other types of accidents. The burden and impact of domestic accidents was high. Therefore, in order to prevent and control domestic accidents, promotion of house safety measures and creation of awareness among the community using IEC programmes have to be undertaken. PMID:24025116

  8. Global consequences of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Singh, Susheela

    2010-11-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant cause of death and ill health in women in the developing world. A substantial body of research on these consequences exists, although studies are of variable quality. However, unsafe abortion has a number of other significant consequences that are much less widely recognized. These include the economic consequences, the immediate costs of providing medical care for abortion-related complications, the costs of medical care for longer-term health consequences, lost productivity to the country, the impact on families and the community, and the social consequences that affect women and families. This article will review the scientific evidence on the consequences of unsafe abortion, highlight gaps in the evidence base, suggest areas where future research efforts are needed, and speculate on the future situation regarding consequences and evidence over the next 5-10 years. The information provided is useful and timely given the current heightened interest in the issue of unsafe abortion, growing from the recent focus of national and international agencies on reducing maternal mortality by 75% by 2015 (as one of the Millennium Development Goals established in 2000). PMID:21118043

  9. Abortion and psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Stotland, Nada L

    2003-03-01

    The subject of abortion is fraught with politics, emotions, and misinformation. A widespread practice reaching far back in history, abortion is again in the news. Psychiatry sits at the intersection of the religious, ethical, psychological, sociological, medical, and legal facets of the abortion issue. Although the religions that forbid abortion are more prominent in the media, many religions have more liberal approaches. While the basic right to abortion has been upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court, several limitations have been permitted, including parental notification or consent (with the possibility of judicial bypass) for minors, waiting periods, and mandatory provision of certain, sometimes biased, information. Before the Roe v. Wade decision legalizing abortion in 1973, many women were maimed or killed by illegal abortions, and psychiatrists were sometimes asked to certify that abortions were justified on psychiatric grounds. Currently, there are active attempts to convince the public and women considering abortion that abortion frequently has negative psychiatric consequences. This assertion is not borne out by the literature: the vast majority of women tolerate abortion without psychiatric sequelae. The psychiatric outcome of abortion is best when patients are able to make autonomous, supported decisions. Psychiatrists need to know the medical and psychiatric facts about abortion. Psychiatrists can then help patients prevent unwanted pregnancies, make informed decisions consonant with their own values and circumstances when they become pregnant, and find appropriate social and medical resources whatever their decisions may be. PMID:15985924

  10. Legalized abortion in Czechoslovakia.

    PubMed

    Zidovsky, J; Zwinger, A

    1972-01-01

    A law legalizing abortion was passed nearly 20 years ago in Czechosl ovakia. The law aimed to give women the freedom to decide for themselves whether they want to be pregnant and to decrease the dangers of illegal abortion. The law resulted in a decreased number of abortions and of complications and deaths associated with abortion. Fertility in the country also declined. In 1968 there were more abortions than live births in the country. Since 1957, the law has been modified. The law still aims to prevent the birth of defective children and to protect the life and health of mothers. Each application for abortion is now examined on its own merits. Favorable economic circumstances, prolife social policies adopted by the government, and the new stricter interpretation of the abortion law have resulted in a r ising birthrate since 1969. Contraception is still stressed as preferab le to abortion. PMID:12256872

  11. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  12. Community health nurses' perceptions, knowledge, and involvement in abortion services.

    PubMed

    Swenson, I; Swanson, J; Oakley, D

    1994-01-01

    To learn more about the abortion-related experiences and value orientation of nurses, questionnaires were mailed to 1900 randomly selected community health nurses in the US; 844 (45%) responded. Although only 7% worked in settings where abortions are performed, half provide abortion counseling or referral. Their knowledge about the epidemiology of abortion in the US and recent abortion-related legislation was inadequate, and only 28.6% had received training about the clinical aspects of abortion in nursing school. Respondents' attitudes toward induced abortion were generally supportive; 82.0% believed federal funds should be provided for the procedure, 81.6% agreed women in the first trimester of pregnancy should have the right to choose abortion, and 70.3% supported abortion on demand. However, 27.8% indicated that abortion services in their communities were being negatively impacted by anti-abortion groups; only 9.7% felt that pro-choice groups were having a significant impact in their area. 56.0% reported they had been involved in some political activity relating to abortion, largely voting for a pro-abortion rights candidate or writing letters to legislators. 56.4& indicated they would vote against a candidate they otherwise supported if his or her views on abortion were unacceptable. 21.9% and 16.8% of nurses were involved with local or national Planned Parenthood; under 3% were members of anti-abortion groups. In-service training programs on the abortion issue are recommended to enable community health nurses to expand their counseling and political advocacy skills. PMID:7849540

  13. Driver behavior and accident frequency in school zones: Assessing the impact of sign saturation.

    PubMed

    Strawderman, Lesley; Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Huang, Yunchen; Nandi, Apurba

    2015-09-01

    Based on the models of human information processing, if a driver observes too many of the same signs, he or she may no longer pay attention to those signs. In the case of school zones, this expected effect may lead to non-compliance to posted speeds, negatively impacting safety around nearby schools. This study aims to investigate the effect of the number of nearby school zones on driver behavior (vehicle speed and compliance) and accident frequency. As a measure of the density of school zones, this study introduced and defined a new term sign saturation and presented a methodology to calculate sign saturation for school zones. Results found a significant effect of sign saturation on vehicle speed, compliance, and accident frequency. This study also examined the speeding behavior in school zones for different time of the day and day of the week. Results found that speeding was more prevalent in the early mornings and during the weekends. PMID:26070018

  14. (Environmental impact of radionuclide release during the Kyshtym, Windscale, and Chernobyl accidents)

    SciTech Connect

    Trabalka, J.R.

    1990-10-22

    The traveler attended the conference, Comparative Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Radionuclides Released During Three Major Nuclear Accidents: Kyshtym, Windscale, and Chernobyl and presented an invited paper giving a western perspective of the Kyshtym (Chelyabinsk-40) high-level waste explosion that took place in 1957. Papers of interest to several ORNL and DOE programs were presented. These covered the topics of accident source terms, atmospheric dispersion, resuspension, chemical and physical forms of contamination (e.g., hot'' particles), environmental contamination and transfer, radiological effects on humans and the environment, and countermeasures. The traveler also made valuable contacts with Soviet and other scientists related to an ongoing assessment sponsored by the International Union of Radioecologists of releases from the Chelyabinsk-40 site. This included an agreement in principle for direct participation by key Soviet scientists.

  15. Late-term abortion.

    PubMed

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed. PMID:9728645

  16. Abortion among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  17. Abortion and the law: the Supreme Court, privacy, and abortion.

    PubMed

    Marsh, F H

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the impact of the continuing politicization of the abortion issue in the US on the rights of women and on the emerging concept of fetal rights. The introduction 1) attributes the "final and total politicization" of a woman's right to control her reproduction to the "undue burden" standard introduced by the Supreme Court in its 1992 Casey decision and 2) claims that, if unchecked, the concept of fetal rights may give the state's interest in protecting potential life supremacy over women's rights. The next section presents an in-depth discussion of the politicization of the right to abortion that covers such topics as how the courts before Casey became the forum for debating abortion policy, how the "undue burden" standard fails to set definite parameters of acceptable state behavior, how the Casey decision in effect abandons the trimester-based framework of reference provided in Roe vs. Wade, how Casey allows states to subtly coerce women seeking abortions, how the Casey decision failed to reduce the intense politicization of abortion, and how the court failed to protect individual rights to health care and abortion funding from states. Part 3 of the article begins its exploration of the concept of "fetal rights" with a sketch of the history of this concept in the US courts starting in 1884 when damages for miscarriage were denied. Ways in which fetal rights compete with the rights of a pregnant woman are described, the Supreme Court is blamed for allowing states to develop this concept, and issues of patient confidentiality versus reporting requirements are considered. It is concluded that the Supreme Court will have to act to limit fetal rights. PMID:12348324

  18. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident: Atmospheric and oceanic impacts over the five years.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Katsumi

    2016-06-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in huge environmental and socioeconomic impacts to Japan. To document the actual environmental and socioeconomic effects of the FDNPP accident, we describe here atmospheric and marine contamination due to radionuclides released from the FDNPP accident using papers published during past five years, in which temporal and spatial variations of FDNPP-derived radionuclides in air, deposition and seawater and their mapping are recorded by local, regional and global monitoring activities. High radioactivity-contaminated area in land were formed by the dispersion of the radioactive cloud and precipitation, depending on land topography and local meteorological conditions, whereas extremely high concentrations of (131)I and radiocesium in seawater occurred due to direct release of radioactivity-contaminated stagnant water in addition to atmospheric deposition. For both of atmosphere and ocean, numerical model simulations, including local, regional and global-scale modeling, were extensively employed to evaluate source terms of the FDNPP-derived radionuclides from the monitoring data. These models also provided predictions of the dispersion and high deposition areas of the FDNPP-derived radionuclides. However, there are significant differences between the observed and simulated values. Then, the monitoring data would give a good opportunity to improve numerical modeling. PMID:27032342

  19. Abortion in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Francome, C

    1992-08-22

    Substantial legal barriers to abortion persist in both the Irish Republic and Northern Ireland, despite growing popular support for abortion under certain conditions. A 1983 amendment to the republic's constitution guarantees the fetus the same right to life s the mother and bans the provision of information on abortion. Although a recent well publicized case of a pregnant, suicidal 14-year-old who travelled to England for an abortion resulted in an Irish Supreme Court ruling that abortion was acceptable in cases of "real and substantial risk" to a woman's life, uncertainty still surrounds the right to travel to England for the procedure. In Northern Ireland, the 1967 Abortion Act does not apply and abortions are denied even in cases of rape and incest. A total of 1766 women from Northern Ireland and 4158 from the republic travelled to England for abortions in 1991. Public opinion seems to have shifted toward support for less restrictive abortion laws, however. Whereas 80% of those surveyed in a 1980 Irish poll supported to ban on abortion in all cases, this statistic had dropped to 30% by 1990. Similarly, a 1991 poll taken in Northern Ireland found 80% of respondents to be a favor of abortion in cases where the procedure is necessary to maintain a woman's physical or mental health. PMID:1392954

  20. Abortion Providers' Experiences with Medicaid Abortion Coverage Policies: A Qualitative Multistate Study

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Amanda; Blanchard, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the implementation of state Medicaid abortion policies and the impact of these policies on abortion clients and abortion providers. Data Source From 2007 to 2010, in-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of 70 abortion-providing facilities in 15 states. Study Design In-depth interviews focused on abortion providers' perceptions regarding Medicaid and their experiences working with Medicaid and securing reimbursement in cases that should receive federal funding: rape, incest, and life endangerment. Data Extraction Data were transcribed verbatim before being coded. Principal Findings In two study states, abortion providers reported that 97 percent of submitted claims for qualifying cases were funded. Success receiving reimbursement was attributed to streamlined electronic billing procedures, timely claims processing, and responsive Medicaid staff. Abortion providers in the other 13 states reported reimbursement for 36 percent of qualifying cases. Providers reported difficulties obtaining reimbursement due to unclear rejections of qualifying claims, complex billing procedures, lack of knowledgeable Medicaid staff with whom billing problems could be discussed, and low and slow reimbursement rates. Conclusions Poor state-level implementation of Medicaid coverage of abortion policies creates barriers for women seeking abortion. Efforts to ensure policies are implemented appropriately would improve women's health. PMID:22742741

  1. The impact of accident attention, ideology, and environmentalism on American attitudes toward nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Besley, John C; Oh, Sang-Hwa

    2014-05-01

    This study involves the analysis of three waves of survey data about nuclear energy using a probability-based online panel of respondents in the United States. Survey waves included an initial baseline survey conducted in early 2010, a follow-up survey conducted in 2010 following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and an additional follow-up conducted just after the 2011 Fukushima, Japan, nuclear accident. The central goal is to assess the degree to which changes in public views following an accident are contingent on individual attention and respondent predispositions. Such results would provide real-world evidence of motivated reasoning. The primary analysis focuses on the impact of Fukushima and how the impact of individual attention to energy issues is moderated by both environmental views and political ideology over time. The analysis uses both mean comparisons and multivariate statistics to test key relationships. Additional variables common in the study of emerging technologies are included in the analysis, including demographics, risk and benefit perceptions, and views about the fairness of decisionmakers in both government and the private sector. PMID:24329941

  2. Relative radiological impact from a reactor accident in the case of emerging nuclear fuels.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, G

    2009-08-01

    An assessment has been carried out on the radiological impact on an area contaminated from an accident of a nuclear reactor loaded with different actinide fuels considered in transmutation and recycling schemes. The impact of these schemes is compared to reference cases of commercial UO2 and MOX fuels. The effective dose equivalent delivered to permanent residents has been calculated using the RESRAD code and used as an index for the assessment purposes. The highest and lowest doses would be delivered from the self-generating recycling of actinides in fast and thermal reactors, respectively. External irradiation is the main contributor to the dose delivered to the target population in comparison to ingestion and inhalation. The external dose delivered would be attributed for the first few years to 134Cs and for the following several tens of years to 137Cs. PMID:19590275

  3. Abortion ruling in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Brahams, D

    1989-08-01

    Brahams summarizes a 1989 Quebec Court of Appeal decision in an abortion case and places the ruling in the context of worldwide trends in abortion regulation. In Tremblay v. Daigle (1989 Jul 26), the Quebec court upheld a lower court injunction banning a woman from having an abortion. The injunction had been obtained by the woman's former boyfriend, the putative father. Brahams discusses the current legal status of abortion in Canada, the Daigle court's reasoning, and how the British approach to the legal status of fathers and fetuses in abortion disputes differs from the Canadian. She also briefly summarizes recent abortion-related judicial and regulatory developments in the United States, Ireland, and France. PMID:2569146

  4. [Research on abortion in Brazil: gaps and challenges for the public health field].

    PubMed

    Menezes, Greice; Aquino, Estela M L

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of abortion studies produced in the field of public health in Brazil, highlighting current research gaps and challenges. Most studies focus on women admitted to public hospitals for treatment of incomplete abortion, so their scope is limited to abortions presenting complications. Women's profiles, abortion methods, motives, and immediate consequences for women's physical health are also included. However, there remains a need for studies on the following aspects: measuring abortion incidence; investigating cases of post-abortion complications and death; analyzing the relationship between abortion and contraception; investigating the impact of abortion on women's mental health; and incorporating men's perspectives. There is an urgent need for evaluative research on abortion care in public services. Research results should be disseminated widely, so as to help overcome any ideological bias in the current debate on abortion rights in the country. PMID:19684927

  5. Trends in rates of live births and abortions following state restrictions on public funding of abortion.

    PubMed Central

    Korenbrot, C C; Brindis, C; Priddy, F

    1990-01-01

    Abortion rates rose following the expanded legalization of abortion by the Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade. As a result, the impact of the restriction on Federal funding of abortions under the Hyde Amendment in 1977 was not clear. However, abortion rates had plateaued by 1985, when State funding of Medicaid abortions was restricted in Colorado, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania. Analysis of statewide data from the three States indicated that following restrictions on State funding of abortions, the proportion of reported pregnancies resulting in births, rather than in abortions, increased in all three States. In 1985, the first year of State restrictions on the use of public funds for abortion, Colorado, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania recorded 1.9 to 2.4 percent increases in the proportion of reported pregnancies resulting in live births, after years of declining rates. With adjustments for underreporting of abortion, there was an overall 1.2 percent rise in the proportion of pregnancies resulting in live births in those States. Nationally the proportion rose only 0.4 percent. By 1987, the three States had experienced increases above 1984 levels of 1.6 to 5.9 percent in the proportion of reported pregnancies resulting in live births. The experiences of the three States can be used in projecting an expected increase in the proportions of reported pregnancies resulting in live births, rather than in abortions, for similar States. A projection for California, for example, showed that an increase could be expected in the first year of restrictions on the use of public funds for abortion of at least 4,000 births, which could be expected largely to affect women of low income. PMID:2124355

  6. Two Simple Formulas for Evaluating the Lower Bound of the Impact Velocity in Vehicle-pedestrian Accidents.

    PubMed

    Zou, Tiefang; Zhang, Yonggang; Yin, Ruoyu

    2016-07-01

    Formulas for evaluating the lower bound of the impact velocity are valuable in vehicle-pedestrian accident reconstruction. The theory of classical mechanics and four hypotheses were employed to derive formulas; the research results and simulation/accident tests were employed to validate their feasibility. Then, two simple formulas were developed according to the distance between the rest positions of the vehicle and the pedestrian and the flight-phase distance. The results showed that the evaluated results by the two proposed formulas are inferior to the existing results. The influence of a roadside step on the impact velocity, which decreased with an increase in the flight-phase distance and a reduction in the road slope, was evaluated. Based on a real accident, the study concludes that the lower bound can be easily obtained with the proposed formulas, which can be used to determine the evaluated impact velocity during simulations. PMID:27364273

  7. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  8. [Abortion law in Italy].

    PubMed

    Havránek, F

    1979-04-01

    On May 28, 1978, the Italian senate passed a law legalizing abortions. The law, passed against the will of the Christian Democrat party and the Vatican, is the most liberal in Western Europe. Any woman 18 or older is free to seek an abortion at a private or public institution during the first 90 days of pregnancy. Abortions can be sought on health, economic, social, family, or psychological grounds. A woman requests an abortion at a hospital or clinic, or from a physician. If termination is deemed urgent, the procedure may be performed immediately. If a request is denied, a woman may make another request 7 days later. Second trimester abortions are permitted only if grave danger to the woman or deformation of the fetus is suspected. Women under 18 meed the permission of their parents or legal guardians; a court may also grant permission. Passage of the law has facilitated open debate on the legal and medical aspects of abortion. It has also guaranteed women access to abortions. Physicians, who on grounds of conscience feel they can't perform abortions, may register to be exempt from having to perform them. They may not, however, deny a woman care before and after her abortion, and if they perform the procedure even once, their name is removed from the exempt register. Additionally, all physicians are bound to attempt to preserve the life of all women as well as any fetus which shows life outside the womb. PMID:445601

  9. An oil spill accident and its impact on ozone levels in the surrounding coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Kang, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2011-02-01

    An oil spill on the west coast of the Republic of Korea was investigated with regard to its impact on ozone (O 3) concentration levels in the surrounding regions. The accident occurred on December 7, 2007 with the total estimate of 12,500 tons of Iranian Heavy plus Kuwait Export crude oils. The evaporation rates of the volatile hydrocarbon fractions in these crude oils were estimated based on the molar fractions of crude oils and their mass transfer coefficients. Their emission rates parameterized with several key environmental parameters (e.g., wind speed, seawater temperature, and salinity) along with oil type information were then applied in the 3-D chemical transport model. Photochemical production of O 3 in winter just after the accident was relatively insignificant due to very low photochemical activity. For the case/sensitivity study, the photochemical production of O 3 simulated under the hot summer weather conditions was predicted to be significant at the same magnitude of the oil spill. This study confirms that an oil spill, if occurring around coastal regions, can alter O 3 levels to a large extent depending on the meteorological conditions.

  10. The biological impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the pale grass blue butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Hiyama, Atsuki; Nohara, Chiyo; Kinjo, Seira; Taira, Wataru; Gima, Shinichi; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M.

    2012-01-01

    The collapse of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused a massive release of radioactive materials to the environment. A prompt and reliable system for evaluating the biological impacts of this accident on animals has not been available. Here we show that the accident caused physiological and genetic damage to the pale grass blue Zizeeria maha, a common lycaenid butterfly in Japan. We collected the first-voltine adults in the Fukushima area in May 2011, some of which showed relatively mild abnormalities. The F1 offspring from the first-voltine females showed more severe abnormalities, which were inherited by the F2 generation. Adult butterflies collected in September 2011 showed more severe abnormalities than those collected in May. Similar abnormalities were experimentally reproduced in individuals from a non-contaminated area by external and internal low-dose exposures. We conclude that artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant caused physiological and genetic damage to this species. PMID:22880161

  11. [Prevention of abortion].

    PubMed

    Alberti, N; Nègre-Garnier, C

    1994-03-01

    Psychologists and marriage counselors conducting preabortion interviews in a French clinic note that women have emotions concerning abortion apart from the reasons they give for choosing to end their pregnancies. Their experience demonstrates that a pregnancy never occurs by chance, but always at a given moment of existence. An abortion becomes an event in the significant and particular history of each woman undergoing one. Particular circumstances of unemployment, illness, or other adversity become linked in the woman's later recollections of the abortion. Abortions often signify psychic problems of separation or loss, as demonstrated by the considerable number of immigrant women who undergo abortions after having been obliged to leave their native lands, or those who undergo abortions after the death of a child. Women choosing abortion experience anguish and guilt. Fantasies of the aborted child represent the period of mourning that must be surmounted. The psychic labor of the grief process allows a progressive detachment to be achieved. The belief that expanded knowledge and use of contraception would lead to a significant decline in abortion has been belied by experience; the number of abortions has been stable over the years despite ever increasing use of contraceptives of all types. The objective of contraception, a harmonious sexual relationship in which pregnancy does not occur, is itself complex. Choices related to a more or less distant future are made by individuals who are to a greater or lesser extent engaged in the relationship using more or less inconvenient techniques. Statements made by couples themselves perfectly reflect the paradoxes. Objections and resistances to contraceptive use are also prompted by societal norms of sex and reproduction. The couple are influenced in their abortion decision by their own level of maturity and by their family backgrounds. PMID:8009399

  12. Abortion in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Nancy B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored differences between 35 women who had abortions as teenagers and 36 women who had abortions as adults. Respondents reported on their premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and postabortion distress symptoms. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders, drug abuse, and psychotic delusions were significantly…

  13. Access to legal abortion.

    PubMed

    1993-10-01

    Countries are grouped by the nature and extent of access to legal abortion. The categories include abortion on demand, for social reasons, for health reasons, for rape or incest or to save a mother's life, and only to save a mother's life. Abortion on demand is available for about 40% of the world's population and may have restrictions, such as parental consent or approval of state committees or physicians. There are 22 countries in Europe, 12 in the former Soviet Union, four in Asia, four in the Americas, one in the Middle East (Turkey), and one in Africa (Tunisia) which provide access to early abortion on demand. Abortion for social and economic reasons is available to 21% of the world's population in five countries in Asia, three in Europe (Great Britain, Finland, and Hungary), and one in Africa (Zambia). Abortion for health reasons is available to 16% of the world's population located in 21 countries in Africa, eight in the Americas, seven in Asia, five in Europe, and four in the Middle East. Laws governing about 5% of the world's population permit abortion only in the case of rape, incest, or when a mother's life is in danger (Brazil, Mexico, and Sudan). 18% of the world's population is covered by laws which permit an abortion only when a mother's life is in danger; this includes 19 countries in Africa, 11 in the Americas, nine in Asia, seven in the Middle East, and one in Europe (Ireland). PMID:12287145

  14. "Conservative" views of abortion.

    PubMed

    Devine, P E

    1997-01-01

    The introduction to this essay, which presents and defends the "conservative" position on abortion, explains that this position holds that 1) abortion is wrong because it destroys the fetus; 2) the fetus has full personhood from conception (or very near conception); 3) abortion is only justified under special circumstances, such as when the pregnancy poses a threat to the woman's life; and 4) these conclusions should be reflected in law and public policy. Part 2 sets forth the moral foundations for this position. The third part considers the status of the fetus and reviews the various arguments that have been forwarded to resolve the question, such as the species principle, the potentiality principle, the sentience principle, and the conventionalist principle. Part 4 applies the conservative position to problems posed by hard cases, determines that abortion is a form of homicide from two weeks after fertilization (at the latest), reviews circumstances in which various legal definitions of homicide are applicable, argues for the denial of abortion funding by the state, and notes that violent militancy is not the appropriate response to a belief that abortion should be illegal. Section 5 refutes objections to the conservative position based on the fact that some opponents of abortion also oppose contraception, based on feminist ideals, and based on calls for religious freedom in a pluralistic society. In conclusion, the labels applied to the abortion debate are examined, and it is suggested that "communitarian" is the best term for the conservative position. PMID:12348327

  15. Induced abortion: epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Baird, D

    1975-01-01

    Sir Dugald Baird sketches the history of abortion legislation in Great Britain from the beginning of the century. In his views the 1967 Abortion Act has been one of the most important and beneficial pieces of social legislation enacted in Britain in the last 100 years. It has, however, brought problems both of administration in the hospitals and to individual doctors and nurses, particularly when the patients are young single women and even schoolgirls. One of the consequences of the Abortion Act has been a fall in maternal mortality and perinatal mortality rates. Abortion does not seem to be followed by serious emotional sequelae. Nevertheless recent changes in sexual mores have introduced new and serious social problems which are discussed in relation to the role of the doctor in his relationship with patients seeking abortion. PMID:765461

  16. Abortion: a history.

    PubMed

    Hovey, G

    1985-01-01

    This review of abortion history considers sacred and secular practice and traces abortion in the US, the legacy of the 19th century, and the change that occurred in the 20th century. Abortion has been practiced since ancient times, but its legality and availability have been threatened continuously by forces that would denigrate women's fundamental rights. Currently, while efforts to decrease the need for abortion through contraception and education continue, access to abortion remains crucial for the well-being of millions of women. That access will never be secure until profound changes occur in the whole society. Laws that prohibit absolutely the practice of abortion are a relatively recent development. In the early Roman Catholic church, abortion was permitted for male fetuses in the first 40 days of pregnancy and for female fetuses in the first 80-90 days. Not until 1588 did Pope Sixtus V declare all abortion murder, with excommunication as the punishment. Only 3 years later a new pope found the absolute sanction unworkable and again allowed early abortions. 300 years would pass before the Catholic church under Pius IX again declared all abortion murder. This standard, declared in 1869, remains the official position of the church, reaffirmed by the current pope. In 1920 the Soviet Union became the 1st modern state formally to legalize abortion. In the early period after the 1917 revolution, abortion was readily available in state operated facilities. These facilities were closed and abortion made illegal when it became clear that the Soviet Union would have to defend itself against Nazi Germany. After World War II women were encouraged to enter the labor force, and abortion once again became legal. The cases of the Catholic church and the Soviet Union illustrate the same point. Abortion legislation has never been in the hands of women. In the 20th century, state policy has been determined by the rhythms of economic and military expansion, the desire for cheap

  17. Abortion in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Greydanus, D E; Railsback, L D

    1985-09-01

    This article reviews the difficult but complex subject of abortion in adolescents. Methods of abortion are outlined and additional aspects are presented: psychological effects, counseling issues, and legal parameters. It is our conclusion that intense efforts should be aimed at education of youth about sexuality and prevention of pregnancy, utilizing appropriate contraceptive services. When confronted with a youth having an unwanted pregnancy, all legal options need to be carefully explored: delivery, adoption, or abortion. The decision belongs to the youth and important individuals in her environment. Understanding developmental aspects of adolescence will help the clinician deal with the pregnant teenagers. If abortion is selected, a first trimester procedure is best. Finally, physicians are urged to be aware of the specific, ever changing legal dynamics concerning this subject which are present in their states. Abortion is a phenomenon which has become an emotional but undeniably important aspect of adolescent sexuality and adolescent health care, in this country and around the world. PMID:3916607

  18. Development of the simulation system {open_quotes}IMPACT{close_quotes} for analysis of nuclear power plant severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Naitoh, Masanori; Ujita, Hiroshi; Nagumo, Hiroichi

    1997-07-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has initiated a long-term program to develop the simulation system {open_quotes}IMPACT{close_quotes} for analysis of hypothetical severe accidents in nuclear power plants. IMPACT employs advanced methods of physical modeling and numerical computation, and can simulate a wide spectrum of senarios ranging from normal operation to hypothetical, beyond-design-basis-accident events. Designed as a large-scale system of interconnected, hierarchical modules, IMPACT`s distinguishing features include mechanistic models based on first principles and high speed simulation on parallel processing computers. The present plan is a ten-year program starting from 1993, consisting of the initial one-year of preparatory work followed by three technical phases: Phase-1 for development of a prototype system; Phase-2 for completion of the simulation system, incorporating new achievements from basic studies; and Phase-3 for refinement through extensive verification and validation against test results and available real plant data.

  19. Legalized Abortion in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Thomas M.

    1967-01-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing. PMID:6062283

  20. Undue burden of abortion.

    PubMed

    Charo, A

    1992-07-01

    In Planned Parenthood vs. Casey, the US Supreme Court upheld all but 1 provision of Pennsylvania law that further restricts access to abortion. The law has a 24-hour waiting period, parental consent for minors with a judicial bypass, husband notification, and the circumstances of each abortion are to be reported to the state for statistical purposes. The Court overturned the husband notification provision even though it had a bypass procedure. The most important aspect of the decision was the change from the strict scrutiny in which abortion was to be left alone unless the state could show a compelling need to regulate it to an undue burden test in which the state is allowed to regulate abortion so long as it does not place an undue burden on women trying to seek abortion services. The 24-hour waiting period was upheld; however, it was also acknowledged that since 83% of women live in counties without abortion services, this may turn out to be an undue burden and it is open to review at later date when statistical evidence is available. The Opinion was written by Justices O'Connor, Kennedy, and Souter. Chief Justice Rehnquist and Justices Scalia, White, and Thomas dissented saying that the undue burden standard was unprecedented in constitutional law and undefinable in practice. It is likely now that the Court will begin writing abortion policy as it clarifies each specific point of the law rather than ruling on fundamental legal principles. PMID:1351612

  1. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing. PMID:6062283

  2. Abortion: the hidden plague.

    PubMed

    Tuckwell, S

    1974-05-01

    Abortion is called the invisible plague of all countries and cultures in the twentieth century. It is by far the most important method of birth control in the world today. For every 200 babies born there are at least 100 abortions. In the rich world, a woman who wants to end her pregnancy goes to an abortionist, but for millions of poor women, abortion happens spontaneously in their own homes induced by poor nutrition, sheer physical weakness, and too many pregnancies too close together. In countries where abortion is illegal, millions of women die each year as a result of severe illness or the botched handiwork of backyard operators. The most common complications are massive hemorrhaging, perforation of the uterus, laceration, sepsis, and renal failure. The experience of a great many countries shows that simply legalizing abortion can lead to a dramatic drop in death and illness. Relaxation of abortion laws can save lives, money, and misery for mothers and children. Illegal abortion has become a major problem in Africa there are 3 main types of women who enter hospitals with complications after abortions: 1) the teenager who is away from home; 2) the young woman, often educated, working, and with financial responsibilities, who is ambitious for herself, her husband, or her family; and 3) the woman in her thirties, illiterate, a rural worker, married most of her reproductive life, and pregnant most years. The third type of woman may abort because her system is utterly depleted. Such women must be shown that there is a good chance of survival for her children so that she will not have so many. PMID:12307249

  3. Epidemiologic Impact of Rapid Industrialization on Head Injury Based on Traffic Accident Statistics in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chung, You Nam; Park, Young Seok; Min, Kyung Soo; Lee, Mou Seop; Kim, Young Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study is to estimate the incidence trend of head injury and the mortality based on traffic accident statistics and to investigate the impacts of rapid industrialization and economic growth on epidemiology of head injury in Korea over the period 1970–2012 including both pre-industrialized and post-industrialized stages. Methods We collected data of head injury estimated from traffic accident statistics and seven hospital based reports to see incidence trends between 1970 and 2012. We also investigated the population structure and Gross National Income (GNI) per capita of Korea over the same period. The age specific data were investigated from 1992 to 2012. Results The incidence of head injury gradually rose in the 1970s and the 1980s but stabilized until the 1990s with transient rise and then started to decline slowly in the 2000s. The mortality grew until 1991 but gradually declined ever since. However, the old age groups showed rather slight increase in both rates. The degree of decrease in the mortality has been more rapid than the incidence on head injury. Conclusion In Korea during the low income stage, rapid industrialization cause considerable increase in the mortality and the incidence of head injury. During the high income stage, the incidence of head injury gradually declined and the mortality dropped more rapidly than the incidence due to preventive measures and satisfactory medical care. Nevertheless, the old age groups revealed rather slight increase in both rates owing to the large population structure and the declining birth rate. PMID:26962421

  4. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. Methods The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Results The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers’ education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. Conclusion The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this

  5. Abortion in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sedgh, Gilda

    2010-07-01

    Maternal mortality is the second most common cause of death among women in Ghana, and more than one in 10 maternal deaths (11%) are the result of unsafe induced abortions.1 In addition, a substantial proportion of women who survive an unsafe abortion experience complications from the procedure. This suffering is all the more tragic because it is unnecessary: Many women likely turn to unsafe providers or do not obtain adequate postabortion care when it is needed because they are unaware that abortion is legal on fairly broad grounds in Ghana. PMID:20653094

  6. The Columbia Accident Investigation and The NASA Glenn Ballistic Impact Laboratory Contributions Supporting NASA's Return to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.

    2007-01-01

    On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during reentry, resulting in loss of the vehicle and its seven crewmembers. For the next several months, an extensive investigation of the accident ensued involving a nationwide team of experts from NASA, industry, and academia, spanning dozens of technical disciplines. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), a group of experts assembled to conduct an investigation independent of NASA, concluded in August, 2003 that the most likely cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the left wing leading edge Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) thermal protection system initiated by the impact of thermal insulating foam that had separated from the orbiters external fuel tank 81 seconds into the mission's launch. During reentry, this breach allowed superheated air to penetrate behind the leading edge and erode the aluminum structure of left wing, which ultimately led to the breakup of the orbiter. The findings of the CAIB were supported by ballistic impact tests, which simulated the physics of External Tank Foam impact on the RCC wing leading edge material. These tests ranged from fundamental material characterization tests to full-scale Orbiter Wing Leading Edge tests. Following the accident investigation, NASA spent the next 18 months focused on returning the shuttle safely to flight. In order to fully evaluate all potential impact threats from the many debris sources on the Space Shuttle during ascent, NASA instituted a significant impact testing program. The results from these tests led to the validation of high-fidelity computer models, capable of predicting actual or potential Shuttle impact events, were used in the certification of STS-114, NASA s Return to Flight Mission, as safe to fly. This presentation will provide a look into the inner workings of the Space Shuttle and a behind the scenes perspective on the impact analysis and testing done for the Columbia Accident Investigation and

  7. Space shuttle three main engine return to launch site abort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. F.; Bown, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    A Return-to-Launch-Site (RTLS) abort with three Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) operational was examined. The results are trajectories and main engine cutoff conditions that are approximately the same as for a two SSME case. Requiring the three SSME solution to match the two SSME abort eliminates additional crew training and is accomplished with negligible software impact.

  8. [Interregional project concerning abortion].

    PubMed

    Jourdain, A; Pierotti, D; Vinclair, M

    1979-01-01

    The law legalizing abortion in France was passed in 1975. To group information of a social and medical nature and to publish reports on their activities, a questionnaire was designed to be filled by physicians and nurses working in centers and hospitals performing abortion. There were 19,000 abortions performed in 1976, and 30,000 are expected to be performed in 1979. The questionnaire contains 80 questions gathering information on socieconomic data, on medical history, on the procedure of the intervention, and on the follow-up visit. A study done on 5700 questionnaires filled between 1976 and 1977 show that most abortion seekers belong to the middle class, and that pregnancy was due in 20% of cases to pill failure, and in 34% of cases to failure of behavioral methods, or to lack of contraception. 88% of patients declared themselves satisfied with the procedure. PMID:12309432

  9. Induced abortion in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hull, T H; Sarwono, S W; Widyantoro, N

    1993-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most difficult sociomedical problems facing the Indonesian government. While well-known in traditional society, the practice was discouraged by all Indonesian religious groups, and forbidden by the Dutch colonial authorities. Although abortion was technically illegal under the criminal code, a judicial interpretation in the early 1970s permitted medical professionals to offer the procedure so long as they were discreet and careful. The numbers of medical abortions carried out in Indonesia rose dramatically, and there was evidence of matching declines in the incidence of morbidity and mortality caused by dangerous illegal procedures. Medical and community groups campaigned for a more liberal abortion law to protect legal practitioners and stamp out illegal traditional practices. Their efforts appeared to bear fruit in the draft Health Law, but when the law was passed by the legislature in late 1992, the issue was again clouded by contradictions and inconsistencies. PMID:8212094

  10. Botswana: abortion "debate" dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mogwe, A

    1992-01-01

    The Penal Code (Amendment) Bill or the abortion bill has the objective of liberalizing the current law on the regulation of abortion. Abortion had been strictly prohibited and carried stiff penalties. Anyone who attempted to assists a woman to procure an abortion could be liable to 7 years' imprisonment. However, medical abortions were distinguished as being medically determined to save the health of the mother. Demands for a reevaluation of the law came from the medical profession, and in response the Minister for Presidential Affairs submitted a bill to Parliament in November, 1990. The expressed government rationale for these proposed amendments was concern about the health of women. In Botswana about 200 women die yearly because of pregnancy. According to the proposed law: an abortion could be carried out within the first 16 weeks of pregnancy if: 1) the pregnancy were a result of rape, incest, or defilement (the impregnation of a girl aged 16 or less, the impregnation of imbeciles or idiots), 2) the physical or mental health of the woman were at risk because of the pregnancy, 3) the child would be born with a serious physical or mental abnormality. The abortion could be carried out only if 2 medical doctors approved it. The amendments fall far short of increasing women's control over their bodies. The Botswana Christian Council issued a statement early in the public debate. While it did not oppose the bill in its entirety, clear concern was expressed concerning the apparent right of determining who lives and who dies depending on the handicap of the child. This rather liberal position was challenged by the Roman Catholic Church which interpreted abortion as the murder of God-given life. The bill was nevertheless passed by Parliament in September 1991, and the President signed it on October 11, 1991. PMID:12288837

  11. Protest Motherhood: Pregnancy Decision-Making Behavior and Attitudes Towards Abortion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesney-Lind, Meda

    The document describes research on womens' attitudes toward abortion and their decision-making when pregnant leading to either birth or abortion. The objective was "to explore how womens' perceptions of the option of legal abortion have affected their pregnancy decision-making behavior" and to note the impact of their particular choices on their…

  12. Potential radiological impacts of upper-bound operational accidents during proposed waste disposal alternatives for Hanford defense waste

    SciTech Connect

    Mishima, J.; Sutter, S.L.; Hawley, K.A.; Jenkins, C.E.; Napier, B.A.

    1986-02-01

    The Geologic Disposal Alternative, the In-Place Stabilization and Disposal Alternative, and the Reference Disposal Alternative are being evaluated for disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic, and tank wastes. Environmental impacts associated with disposal of these wastes according to the alternatives listed above include potential doses to the downwind population from operation during the application of the handling and processing techniques comprising each disposal alternative. Scenarios for operational accident and abnormal operational events are postulated, on the basis of the currently available information, for the application of the techniques employed for each waste class for each disposal alternative. From these scenarios, an upper-bound airborne release of radioactive material was postulated for each waste class and disposal alternative. Potential downwind radiologic impacts were calculated from these upper-bound events. In all three alternatives, the single postulated event with the largest calculated radiologic impact for any waste class is an explosion of a mixture of ferri/ferro cyanide precipitates during the mechanical retrieval or microwave drying of the salt cake in single shell waste tanks. The anticipated downwind dose (70-year dose commitment) to the maximally exposed individual is 3 rem with a total population dose of 7000 man-rem. The same individual would receive 7 rem from natural background radiation during the same time period, and the same population would receive 3,000,000 man-rem. Radiological impacts to the public from all other postulated accidents would be less than that from this accident; furthermore, the radiological impacts resulting from this accident would be less than one-half that from the natural background radiation dose.

  13. Current technology for abortion.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, P G

    1978-12-01

    This discussion focuses on the presently available technology of abortion induction techniques, which, though recent scientific interest has been in abortifacient agents, still primarily consists of some variation on the ancient technique of forcible cervical dilatation and pregnancy extraction in the first trimester. With the advent of legal abortions in the United States, technology and expertise that will lower the already low rate of abortion-associated complications are of paramount importance. That abortion may be preferable to contraception as a fertility control measure is argued from the following 3 drawbacks of present means of contraception: 1) they are preventitive and must be used in advance of need; 2) they fail more frequently than is usually thought (e.g., 4% for birth control pills, 5% for IUDs, and from 17-21% for more conventional methods); and 3) they are associated, though rarely, with potentially fatal side effects such as heart attack, stroke, or infection (some also raise the incidence of pathological pregnancies). The article devotes itself to an overview of complications of induced abortions (the mortality for legal abortions is 1/100,000 vs. maternal mortality of 10/100,000 in the United States), and to discussions of appropriate evacuation procedures per gestational age. Instruments and techniques for menstrual regulation (uterine aspiration during first trimester), are discussed. Procedures and instrumentation required for standard vacuum aspiration are covered. Use of analgesics and anesthetics during abortion procedures comprises one topic, with especial focus on the use of curettage for midtrimester terminations. Midtrimester terminations by amnioinfusions of abortifacients (saline, urea, and prostaglandins, e.g.) are analyzed. And, in addition to discussing sequelae for each particular abortion type, a section is devoted to the sequelae of induced abortion for subsequent pregnancy. Though 100% effectiveness has not been achieved yet

  14. Unsafe abortion and abortion care in Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Kinaro, Joyce; Ali, Tag Elsir Mohamed; Schlangen, Rhonda; Mack, Jessica

    2009-11-01

    Unsafe abortion in Sudan results in significant morbidity and mortality. This study of treatment for complications of unsafe abortion in five hospitals in Khartoum, Sudan, included a review of hospital records and a survey of 726 patients seeking abortion-related care from 27 October 2007 to 31 January 2008, an interview of a provider of post-abortion care and focus group discussions with community leaders. Findings demonstrate enormous unmet need for safe abortion services. Abortion is legally restricted in Sudan to circumstances where the woman's life is at risk or in cases of rape. Post-abortion care is not easily accessible. In a country struggling with poverty, internal displacement, rural dwelling, and a dearth of trained doctors, mid-level providers are not allowed to provide post-abortion care or prescribe contraception. The vast majority of the 726 abortion patients in the five hospitals were treated with dilatation and curettage (D&C), and only 12.3% were discharged with a contraceptive method. Some women waited long hours before treatment was provided; 14.5% of them had to wait for 5-8 hours and 7.3% for 9-12 hours. Mid-level providers should be trained in safe abortion care and post-abortion care to make these services accessible to a wider community in Sudan. Guidelines should be developed on quality of care and should mandate the use of manual vacuum aspiration or misoprostol for medical abortion instead of D&C. PMID:19962640

  15. A compromise on abortion?

    PubMed

    Rhoden, N K

    1989-01-01

    Rhoden's article is one of three on "Abortion: searching for common ground" in this issue of the Hastings Center Report. Her article, together with those by M. Mahowald and M. Glendon, was prompted by the expectation that the impending U.S. Supreme Court decision in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (3 July 1989) would overturn or restrict Roe v. Wade (1973). Rhoden, an advocate for the pro-choice position, asks whether a compromise leading to an acceptable regulatory policy is possible or desirable among those on opposite sides of the abortion issue. She identifies several reasons why the Roe decision is vulnerable to review, but argues that effective education about sexuality and comprehensive social support of women are better approaches to abortion than restrictive legislation. PMID:2663778

  16. Abortion and human rights.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus. PMID:20303830

  17. [Spontaneous abortion. Etiologic survey. Results].

    PubMed

    Baaklini, N; Anguenot, J L; Boulanger, J C; Vitse, M

    1990-12-01

    The definition of repeated spontaneous abortions is subject to caution. For some, it corresponds to at least three repeated spontaneous abortions with no normal previous pregnancy; for others, it comprises the repeated spontaneous abortions occurring after a normal pregnancy. It is a frequent problem, especially if one tries to give a wider definition. The authors studied the frequency of repeated spontaneous abortions in a continuous series of 14,857 pregnancies which took place between January 1982 and December 1988. In the study of the aetiology of the repeated spontaneous abortions in the various groups of women defined according to the number of previous pregnancies and abortions, they find the classical causes of repeated spontaneous abortions in all the categories: therefore, it seems legitimate to them that a wider definition be given for repeated spontaneous abortions. PMID:2291048

  18. The impact of young drivers' lifestyle on their road traffic accident risk in greater Athens area.

    PubMed

    Chliaoutakis, J E; Darviri, C; Demakakos, P T

    1999-11-01

    Young drivers (18-24) both in Greece and elsewhere appear to have high rates of road traffic accidents. Many factors contribute to the creation of these high road traffic accidents rates. It has been suggested that lifestyle is an important one. The main objective of this study is to find out and clarify the (potential) relationship between young drivers' lifestyle and the road traffic accident risk they face. Moreover, to examine if all the youngsters have the same elevated risk on the road or not. The sample consisted of 241 young Greek drivers of both sexes. The statistical analysis included factor analysis and logistic regression analysis. Through the principal component analysis a ten factor scale was created which included the basic lifestyle traits of young Greek drivers. The logistic regression analysis showed that the young drivers whose dominant lifestyle trait is alcohol consumption or drive without destination have high accident risk, while these whose dominant lifestyle trait is culture, face low accident risk. Furthermore, young drivers who are religious in one way or another seem to have low accident risk. Finally, some preliminary observations on how health promotion should be put into practice are discussed. PMID:10487352

  19. Apollo experience report: Abort planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyle, C. T.; Foggatt, C. E.; Weber, B. D.

    1972-01-01

    Definition of a practical return-to-earth abort capability was required for each phase of an Apollo mission. A description of the basic development of the complex Apollo abort plan is presented. The process by which the return-to-earth abort plan was developed and the constraining factors that must be included in any abort procedure are also discussed. Special emphasis is given to the description of crew warning and escape methods for each mission phase.

  20. Space Shuttle Abort Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.

  1. Orion Abort Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Peggy Sue

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of NASA's Constellation project is to create the new generation of spacecraft for human flight to the International Space Station in low-earth orbit, the lunar surface, as well as for use in future deep-space exploration. One portion of the Constellation program was the development of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) to be used in spaceflight. The Orion spacecraft consists of a crew module, service module, space adapter and launch abort system. The crew module was designed to hold as many as six crew members. The Orion crew exploration vehicle is similar in design to the Apollo space capsules, although larger and more massive. The Flight Test Office is the responsible flight test organization for the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office originally proposed six tests that would demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests were to be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and were similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. The first flight test of the launch abort system was a pad abort (PA-1), that took place on 6 May 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Primary flight test objectives were to demonstrate the capability of the launch abort system to propel the crew module a safe distance away from a launch vehicle during a pad abort, to demonstrate the stability and control characteristics of the vehicle, and to determine the performance of the motors contained within the launch abort system. The focus of the PA-1 flight test was engineering development and data acquisition, not certification. In this presentation, a high level overview of the PA-1 vehicle is given, along with an overview of the Mobile Operations Facility and information on the White Sands tracking sites for radar & optics. Several lessons learned are presented, including detailed information on the lessons learned in the development of wind

  2. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  3. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. PMID:25846035

  4. The impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident on marine biota: retrospective assessment of the first year and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vives I Batlle, Jordi; Aono, Tatsuo; Brown, Justin E; Hosseini, Ali; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Sazykina, Tatiana; Steenhuisen, Frits; Strand, Per

    2014-07-15

    An international study under the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was performed to assess radiological impact of the nuclear accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) on the marine environment. This work constitutes the first international assessment of this type, drawing upon methodologies that incorporate the most up-to-date radioecological models and knowledge. To quantify the radiological impact on marine wildlife, a suite of state-of-the-art approaches to assess exposures to Fukushima derived radionuclides of marine biota, including predictive dynamic transfer modelling, was applied to a comprehensive dataset consisting of over 500 sediment, 6000 seawater and 5000 biota data points representative of the geographically relevant area during the first year after the accident. The dataset covers the period from May 2011 to August 2012. The method used to evaluate the ecological impact consists of comparing dose (rates) to which living species of interest are exposed during a defined period to critical effects values arising from the literature. The assessed doses follow a highly variable pattern and generally do not seem to indicate the potential for effects. A possible exception of a transient nature is the relatively contaminated area in the vicinity of the discharge point, where effects on sensitive endpoints in individual plants and animals might have occurred in the weeks directly following the accident. However, impacts on population integrity would have been unlikely due to the short duration and the limited space area of the initially high exposures. Our understanding of the biological impact of radiation on chronically exposed plants and animals continues to evolve, and still needs to be improved through future studies in the FDNPS marine environment. PMID:24784739

  5. Hazardous waste storage facility accident scenarios for the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Policastro, A.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Marmer, D.; Lazaro, M.; Mueller, C.; Freeman, W.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents the methods for developing accident categories and accident frequencies for internally initiated accidents at hazardous waste storage facilities (HWSFs) at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. This categorization is a necessary first step in evaluating the risk of accidents to workers and the general population at each of the sites. This risk evaluation is part of the process of comparing alternative management strategies in DOE`s Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Such strategies involve regionalization, decentralization, and centralization of waste treatment, storage, and disposal activities. Potential accidents at the HWSFs at the DOE sites are divided into categories of spill alone, spill plus fire, and other event combinations including spill plus fire plus explosion, fire only, spill and explosion, and fire and explosion. One or more accidents are chosen to represent the types of accidents for FY 1992 for 12 DOE sites were studied to determine the most representative set of possible accidents at all DOE sites. Each accident scenario is given a probability of occurrence that is adjusted, depending on the throughput and waste composition that passes through the HWSF at the particular site. The justification for the probabilities chosen is presented.

  6. Alcohol intoxication in road traffic accidents leads to higher impact speed difference, higher ISS and MAIS, and higher preclinical mortality.

    PubMed

    Stübig, Timo; Petri, Maximilian; Zeckey, Christian; Brand, Stephan; Müller, Christian; Otte, Dietmar; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol is one of the most important personal risk factors for serious and fatal injuries, contributing to approximately one third of all deaths from accidents. It is also described that alcohol intoxication leads to a higher mortality in the clinical course. In this study, we hypothesized that alcohol intoxication leads to different accident kinematics, a higher ISS (Injury Severity Score), and higher preclinical mortality compared to sober patients. A technical and medical investigation of alcohol intoxicated road users was performed on the scene of the crash and at the primary admitting hospital. Alcohol testing was performed with either breath alcohol tests or measurement of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in a standard laboratory test. Between 1999 and 2010, 37,635 road traffic accidents were evaluated by the Accident Research Unit. Overall 20,741 patients were injured, 2.3% of the patients were killed. Among the injured patients, 2.2% with negative BAC were killed, compared to 4.6% fatal injuries in patients with a positive BAC (p < 0.0001). Of the patients with a positive BAC, 8.0% were severely injured, compared to 3.6% in the BAC negative group (p < 0.0001). Regarding the relative speed at impact (Δv for motorized drivers, vehicle collision speed for pedestrians and bikers), there was a significant higher difference for BAC positive patients (30 ± 20) compared to the BAC negative patients (25 ± 19, p < 0.0001). Alcohol intoxication in trauma patients leads to higher preclinical mortality, higher impact speed difference, and higher injury severity. The subgroup analysis for different alcohol concentrations shows no difference in ISS, MAIS, and relative speed, but a correlation of increasing age of patients with higher alcohol concentrations. PMID:22819121

  7. [Abortion and conscientious objection].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion. PMID:25815623

  8. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  9. Observations on abortion in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Castle, M A; Likwa, R; Whittaker, M

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the findings of a preliminary investigation of women who sought treatment for abortion from the Gynecological Emergency Ward at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia. Barriers to obtaining legal abortions are identified and the harsh experiences of women seeking treatment for complications of illegally induced abortion are discussed. The data contribute to an understanding of the intensity of abortion for Zambian women and draw attention to the value of small-scale, qualitative research on women's reproductive health care needs. It is suggested that a study be planned at UTH to determine how health care delivery can be improved for women who seek abortion. PMID:2219228

  10. Object-Oriented Bayesian Networks (OOBN) for Aviation Accident Modeling and Technology Portfolio Impact Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Ann T.; Ancel, Ersin; Jones, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    The concern for reducing aviation safety risk is rising as the National Airspace System in the United States transforms to the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The NASA Aviation Safety Program is committed to developing an effective aviation safety technology portfolio to meet the challenges of this transformation and to mitigate relevant safety risks. The paper focuses on the reasoning of selecting Object-Oriented Bayesian Networks (OOBN) as the technique and commercial software for the accident modeling and portfolio assessment. To illustrate the benefits of OOBN in a large and complex aviation accident model, the in-flight Loss-of-Control Accident Framework (LOCAF) constructed as an influence diagram is presented. An OOBN approach not only simplifies construction and maintenance of complex causal networks for the modelers, but also offers a well-organized hierarchical network that is easier for decision makers to exploit the model examining the effectiveness of risk mitigation strategies through technology insertions.

  11. Brazilian obstetrician-gynecologists and abortion: a survey of knowledge, opinions and practices

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Lisa A; García, Sandra G; Díaz, Juan; Yam, Eileen A

    2005-01-01

    Background Abortion laws are extremely restrictive in Brazil. The knowledge, opinions of abortion laws, and abortion practices of obstetrician-gynecologists can have a significant impact on women's access to safe abortion. Methods We conducted a mail-in survey with a 10% random sample of obstetrician-gynecologists affiliated with the Brazilian Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. We documented participants' experiences performing abortion under a range of legal and illegal circumstances, and asked about which abortion techniques they had experience with. We used chi-square tests and crude logistic regression models to determine which sociodemographic, knowledge-related, or practice-related variables were associated with physician opinion. Results Of the 1,500 questionnaires that we mailed out, we received responses from 572 (38%). Less than half (48%) of the respondents reported accurate knowledge about abortion law and 77% thought that the law should be more liberal. One-third of respondents reported having previous experience performing an abortion, and very few of these physicians reported having experience with manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) or with misoprostol with either mifepristone or methotrexate. Physicians that favored liberalization of the law were more likely to have correct knowledge about abortion law, and to be in favor of public funding for abortion services. Conclusion Brazilian obstetrician-gynecologists need more information on abortion laws and on safe, effective abortion procedures. PMID:16288647

  12. Accident of the DC-10 EC-DEG aircraft at Malaga on September 13, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The present analysis of the abortive takeoff-type accident of a DC-10 at Malaga airport gives attention to the velocity profiles of the aircraft from takeoff to ground impact. A fire followed ground impact. Takeoff was initiated by the crew with only 1295 m of runway left beneath the aircraft. On the basis of the data obtained by this analysis, it is recommended that both pilots and other flight crew members be trained to respond to takeoff failures due to causes other than loss of engine power, such as landing gear collapse.

  13. Abortion health services in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Wendy V.; Guilbert, Edith R.; Okpaleke, Christopher; Hayden, Althea S.; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; White, Katharine O’Connell; Jones, Heidi E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the location of Canadian abortion services relative to where reproductive-age women reside, and the characteristics of abortion facilities and providers. Design An international survey was adapted for Canadian relevance. Public sources and professional networks were used to identify facilities. The bilingual survey was distributed by mail and e-mail from July to November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures The number and location of services were compared with the distribution of reproductive-age women by location of residence. Results We identified 94 Canadian facilities providing abortion in 2012, with 48.9% in Quebec. The response rate was 83.0% (78 of 94). Facilities in every jurisdiction with services responded. In Quebec and British Columbia abortion services are nearly equally present in large urban centres and rural locations throughout the provinces; in other Canadian provinces services are chiefly located in large urban areas. No abortion services were identified in Prince Edward Island. Respondents reported provision of 75 650 abortions in 2012 (including 4.0% by medical abortion). Canadian facilities reported minimal or no harassment, in stark contrast to American facilities that responded to the same survey. Conclusion Access to abortion services varies by region across Canada. Services are not equitably distributed in relation to the regions where reproductive-age women reside. British Columbia and Quebec have demonstrated effective strategies to address disparities. Health policy and service improvements have the potential to address current abortion access inequity in Canada. These measures include improved access to mifepristone for medical abortion; provincial policies to support abortion services; routine abortion training within family medicine residency programs; and increasing the scope of practice for nurses and midwives to include abortion

  14. Radioactive impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident on Shenyang in the northeast of China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Erwei; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Qian; Li, Di; Li, Xin; Yao, Shuang; Liu, Ming-hui; Guo, Jun-qiao

    2014-03-01

    Environmental monitoring was carried out in Shenyang in the northeast of China after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident which was caused by the earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. The fission product radionuclide (131)I was detected as present in the atmosphere on the 20th day after the nuclear accident, while the radionuclides (134)Cs and (137)Cs were found in the atmosphere on the 27th day after the accident. The radionuclides (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs continued to be present in the atmosphere for 25, 4 and 6 days, respectively, with maximum concentrations of 4.60 ± 0.2, 0.29 ± 0.06 and 0.42 ± 0.08 mBq m(-3). The contents of fission radionuclides in vegetables, drinking water and milk from Shenyang were below the detection limits. The atmosphere was slightly contaminated in Shenyang due to the Fukushima nuclear accident, but no contamination was detected in vegetables, milk and drinking water. PMID:24487274

  15. Assessment on Integrity of BWR Internals Against Impact Load by Water Hammer Under Conditions of Reactivity Initiated Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Azuma, Mie; Taniguchi, Atsushi; Hotta, Akitoshi; Ohta, Takeshi

    2005-03-15

    The integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) head and reactor internals was assessed by means of fluid and fluid-structural coupled analyses to evaluate the water hammer phenomenon arising from postulated high burnup fuel failure under reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions. The fluid viscosity effect on the water column burst as well as the complex three-dimensional flow paths caused by a core shroud and standpipes were considered in this study. It is shown that fluid viscosity becomes an influential factor to dissipate impacting kinetic energy. Integrity of the RPV head and the shroud head was ensured with a sufficient level of margin even under these excessively conservative RIA conditions.

  16. Abortion: taking the debate seriously.

    PubMed

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Voluntarily induced abortion has been under permanent dispute and legal regulations, because societies invariably condemn extramarital pregnancies. In recent decades, a measure of societal tolerance has led to decriminalize and legalize abortion in accordance with one of two models: a more restricted and conservative model known as therapeutic abortion, and the model that accepts voluntary abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy. Liberalization of abortion aims at ending clandestine abortions and decriminalizes the practice in order to increase reproductive education and accessibility of contraceptive methods, dissuade women from interrupting their pregnancy and, ultimately, make abortion a medically safe procedure within the boundaries of the law, inspired by efforts to reduce the incidence of this practice. The current legal initiative to decriminalize abortion in Chile proposes a notably rigid set of indications which would not resolve the three main objectives that need to be considered: 1) Establish the legal framework of abortion; 2) Contribute to reduce social unrest; 3) Solve the public health issue of clandestine, illegal abortions. Debate must urgently be opened to include alternatives in line with the general tendency to respect women's decision within the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:26057783

  17. Unsafe abortion: the preventable pandemic.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David A; Benson, Janie; Singh, Susheela; Romero, Mariana; Ganatra, Bela; Okonofua, Friday E; Shah, Iqbal H

    2006-11-25

    Ending the silent pandemic of unsafe abortion is an urgent public-health and human-rights imperative. As with other more visible global-health issues, this scourge threatens women throughout the developing world. Every year, about 19-20 million abortions are done by individuals without the requisite skills, or in environments below minimum medical standards, or both. Nearly all unsafe abortions (97%) are in developing countries. An estimated 68 000 women die as a result, and millions more have complications, many permanent. Important causes of death include haemorrhage, infection, and poisoning. Legalisation of abortion on request is a necessary but insufficient step toward improving women's health; in some countries, such as India, where abortion has been legal for decades, access to competent care remains restricted because of other barriers. Access to safe abortion improves women's health, and vice versa, as documented in Romania during the regime of President Nicolae Ceausescu. The availability of modern contraception can reduce but never eliminate the need for abortion. Direct costs of treating abortion complications burden impoverished health care systems, and indirect costs also drain struggling economies. The development of manual vacuum aspiration to empty the uterus, and the use of misoprostol, an oxytocic agent, have improved the care of women. Access to safe, legal abortion is a fundamental right of women, irrespective of where they live. The underlying causes of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion today are not blood loss and infection but, rather, apathy and disdain toward women. PMID:17126724

  18. The Politicization of Abortion and the Evolution of Abortion Counseling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The field of abortion counseling originated in the abortion rights movement of the 1970s. During its evolution to the present day, it has faced significant challenges, primarily arising from the increasing politicization and stigmatization of abortion since legalization. Abortion counseling has been affected not only by the imposition of antiabortion statutes, but also by the changing needs of patients who have come of age in a very different era than when this occupation was first developed. One major innovation—head and heart counseling—departs in significant ways from previous conventions of the field and illustrates the complex and changing political meanings of abortion and therefore the challenges to abortion providers in the years following Roe v Wade. PMID:23153144

  19. Bodies, rights and abortion.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, H V

    1997-06-01

    The issue of abortion is discussed with reference to the claim that people have a right of control over their own bodies. Do people "own" their own bodies? If so, what would be entailed? These questions are discussed in commonsense terms and also in relation to the jurisprudence of Hohfeld, Honore, Munzer and Waldron. It is argued that whether or not women are morally and/or should be legally entitled to have abortions, such entitlements cannot be derived from a general moral entitlement to do what we will with our own bodies since there is no such entitlement. Whether or not we "own" them, we can have rights duties, liabilities, restrictions and disadvantages as well as rights concerning our own bodies. PMID:9220332

  20. Abortion Legalization and Childbearing in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Vázquez, Edith Y; Parrado, Emilio A

    2016-06-01

    In 2007 abortion was legalized in the Federal District of Mexico, making it the largest jurisdiction in Latin America, outside of Cuba, to allow women to have abortions on request during the first trimester of pregnancy. While the implications of the law for women's health and maternal mortality have been investigated, its potential association with fertility behavior has yet to be assessed. We examine metropolitan-area differences in overall and parity-specific childbearing, as well as the age pattern of childbearing between 2000 and 2010 to identify the contribution of abortion legalization to fertility in Mexico. Our statistical specification applies difference-in-difference regression methods that control for concomitant changes in other socioeconomic predictors of fertility to assess the differential influence of the law across age groups. In addition, we account for prior fertility levels and change to better separate the effect of the law from preceding trends. Overall, the evidence suggests a systematic association between abortion legalization and fertility. The law appears to have contributed to lower fertility in Mexico City compared to other metropolitan areas and prior trends. The influence is mostly visible among women aged 20-34 in connection with the transition to first and second child, with limited impact on teenage fertility. There is some evidence that its effect might be diffusing to the Greater Mexico City Metropolitan area. PMID:27285423

  1. Austerity and Abortion in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Lima, Joana Madureira; Reeves, Aaron; Billari, Francesco; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-06-01

    Economic hardship accompanying large recessions can lead families to terminate unplanned pregnancies. To assess whether abortions have risen during the recession, we collected crude abortion data from 2000 to 2012 from Eurostat for countries that had legal abortions and complete data. Declining trends in abortion ratios between 2000 and 2009 have been reversing. Excess abortions between 2010 and 2012 totaled 10.6 abortions per 1000 pregnancies ending in abortion or birth or 6701 additional abortions (95% CI 1190-9240) with stronger effects in younger ages. Economic shocks may increase recourse to abortion. Further research should explore causal pathways and protective factors. PMID:27009038

  2. Austerity and Abortion in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Billari, Francesco; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Economic hardship accompanying large recessions can lead families to terminate unplanned pregnancies. To assess whether abortions have risen during the recession, we collected crude abortion data from 2000 to 2012 from Eurostat for countries that had legal abortions and complete data. Declining trends in abortion ratios between 2000 and 2009 have been reversing. Excess abortions between 2010 and 2012 totaled 10.6 abortions per 1000 pregnancies ending in abortion or birth or 6701 additional abortions (95% CI 1190–9240) with stronger effects in younger ages. Economic shocks may increase recourse to abortion. Further research should explore causal pathways and protective factors. PMID:27009038

  3. Immunologically mediated abortion (IMA).

    PubMed

    Giacomucci, E; Bulletti, C; Polli, V; Prefetto, R A; Flamigni, C

    1994-06-01

    Roughly 20% of all clinical pregnancies evolve into "spontaneous abortions". The causes of spontaneous abortion have been determined in under 60% of the total and comprise genetic, infectious, hormonal and immunological factors. In some cases the immune tolerance mechanism may be impaired and the foetus immunologically rejected (IMA, immunologically mediated abortion). The immunological mechanism implicated depends on the time in which pregnancy loss takes place. During preimplantation and up to the end of implantation (13th day) the cell-mediated immune mechanism (potential alloimmune etiologies) is responsible for early abortion. This mechanism involves immunocompetent decidual cells (eGL, endometrial granulated lymphocytes) already present during pre-decidualization (late luteal phase) and their production of soluble factors or cytokines. Once the implantation process is over, after blastocyst penetration of the stroma and the decidual reaction of uterine tissue, IMA could be caused by cell-mediated and humoral mechanism (anti-paternal cytotoxic antibodies or autoantibody etiology), by the production of paternal anti major histocompatibility complex antibodies, or even by an autoimmune disorder leading to the production of autoantibodies (antiphospholipid antibodies, antinuclear antibodies or polyclonal B cell activation). The diagnostic work-up adopted to select IMA patients is crucial and includes primary (karyotype of both partners, toxo-test, hysterosalpingography, endometrial biopsy, thyroid function tests, serum hprolactin, luteal phase dating) and secondary (full hemochromocytometric test, search for LE cells, lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin, antinuclear antibodies, Rheumatoid factor, blood complement VDRL) investigations. Therapeutical approaches vary. If autoimmune disorders are demonstrated therapies with different combinations of corticosteroids, aspirin and heparin or intravenous immunoglobulin are administered. Otherwise, therapy with paternal

  4. Impact on agriculture in Norway from the Chernobyl accident, 1986-1995

    SciTech Connect

    Tveten, U.; Bergen, T.D.S.; Brynildsen, L.I.; Amundsen, I.

    1996-12-31

    Even now, 10 yr after the Chernobyl accident, the consequences are felt in some Western European countries, particularly in Norway, where considerable yearly economic consequences to Norwegian agriculture are incurred. This paper summarizes these economic consequences year by year over the 10-yr period and describes the various countermeasures adopted to reduce the consequences. The consequences are mainly connected to the production of mutton and reindeer meat.

  5. Impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident on obesity of children in Japan (2008-2014).

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2016-05-01

    This study used prefecture-level panel data from Japan for the period 2008-2014 to investigate the influence of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident on the body mass index (BMI) z-score and obesity rates of children over time. I adopted a difference-in-differences approach and found the following: (1) for the cohort aged 5-7 years in 2010, the BMI z-score and obesity rates in disaster-affected areas were higher than in other areas, although this was not observed for the other cohorts; (2) for the cohort aged 5-7 years in 2010, the influence of the accident persisted even after 3 years; and (3) the differences in the BMI z-score and obesity rate before and after the accident were greater for Fukushima Prefecture than for the other affected areas (Iwate and Miyagi prefectures). I infer that health-conscious parents, whose children had lower BMIs, may have moved from Fukushima, thereby increasing the BMI z-score of the child population living in Fukushima by around 0.05 for the cohort aged 5-7 years. The enforced reduction in physical activity increased the BMI z-score of children living in Fukushima by around 0.19 for that cohort. PMID:26849534

  6. The abortion debate in Australia.

    PubMed

    Read, Christine Margaret

    2006-09-01

    I recently watched a fascinating documentary about the crusade of Dr Bertram Wainer in the 1960s to bring the practice of illegal abortion in Victoria to an end. It documented the profound horror of the backyard abortion that so often ended in infection, sterility or death, and served as a potent reminder of a practice to which we must never return. Of course that cant happen again, abortion is legal now, isnt it? In Victoria in 1969 a Supreme Court judge ruled that an abortion is not unlawful if a doctor believed that: the abortion is necessary to preserve the woman from serious danger to her life or physical or mental health (Menhennit ruling). In Australia today however, abortion law remains conditional, unclear and inconsistent and, except in the ACT, is still part of criminal statutes. PMID:16969440

  7. Legal abortion and public health.

    PubMed

    Tietze, C

    1984-01-01

    Over 15 million abortions have been performed in the US since the process of abortion legalization began in 1967. Consequences of legalization have included a marked reduction of pregnancy-related mortality and the prevention in many cases of the birth of infants with major physical or mental defects. Prenatal diagnosis, backed up by selective abortion, has made procreation a possibility for many couples who might otherwise avoid childbearing. However, the number of abortions performed on the basis of prenatal diagnosis remains small, comprising only about .01% of all legal abortions. In recent months, the pro-choice movement in the US has been handed 2 important victories: the US Supreme Court reaffirmed the 1973 decision legalizing abortion and the US Senate defeated a constitutional amendment intended to reverse this decision. As a result of these victories, contributions to pro-choice groups have declined. Continued vigilance is needed to protect these victories. PMID:12267089

  8. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742

  9. Dworkin and Casey on abortion.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Sarah

    1996-01-01

    This article responds to two important recent treatments of abortion rights. I will mainly discuss Ronald Dworkin's recent writings concerning abortion: his article "Unenumerated rights: whether and how Roe should be overruled," and his book Life's Dominion. In these writings Dworkin presents a novel view of what the constitutional and moral argument surronding abortion is really about. Both debates actually turn, he argues, on the question of how to interpret the widely shared idea that human life is sacred. At the heart of the abortion debate is the essentially religious notion that human life has value which transcends its value to any particular person; abortion is therefore at bottom a religious issue. Dworkin hopes to use this analysis to show that the religion clauses of the First Amendment provide a "textual home" for a woman's right to choose abortion. I wish to scrutinize this suggestion here; I want to probe the precise consequences for abortion rights of such an understanding of their basis. I will argue that the consequences are more radical than Dworkin seems to realize. The other work I will examine here is the important 1992 Supreme Court decision on abortion, Planned Parenthood v. Casey. The controlling opinion in that case, written jointly by Justices Kennedy, O'Connor, and Souter, strongly reaffirmed Roe v. Wade, but also upheld most of the provisions of a Pennsylvania statute that had mandated various restrictions on abortion. The justices' basis for upholding these restictions was their introduction of a new constitutional standard for abortion regulations, an apparently weaker standard than those that had governed previous Supreme Court abortion decisions. I think there is a flaw in Casey's new constitutional test for abortion regulations, and I will explain, when we turn to Casey, what it is and why it bears a close relation to Dworkin's reluctance to carry his argument as far as it seems to go. PMID:11660187

  10. Simplified classification of spontaneous abortions.

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, D I

    1978-01-01

    A simple classification of products of conception aborted in early pregnancy is described. This classification bears a closer relation to the aetiology of the abortions and the timing of the teratological insult in those conceptuses with morphological abnormalities than have previous classifications. It is hoped it may be of value in counselling patients who abort recurrently and also in the assessment of some environmental hazards purported to cause early pregnancy wastage and congenital malformations. Images PMID:564967

  11. Anti-abortion movement.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K

    1985-01-01

    At the same time that American women celebrate the freedoms won thus far for so many Americans, American women must realize they face some of the greatest threats to liberty in recent memory. To understand this movement against American women, it is necessary to first understand the roots of the historic movement for women's rights. Reproductive freedom for many years topped the agenda of the modern women's movement. At a time and in a land where rights were being enriched and liberty prized, choice took a prominent role, specifically, the right to abortion but also generally to repdocuctive freedom and the many underlying issues involved. This is why the various efforts to criminalize abortion effect every citizen, because they pose a serious threat to the constitutional rights of each individual. This is the intellectual view, or the "head" argument. The Constitution states that: "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and no state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US." Each of these clauses expresses the philosophy on which the Constitution was founded -- individual liberty. While there has been some legitimate disagreement over what constitutes an inalienable right, the concept is clear: the government should not become involved in personal philosophical or religious matters, except to permit the freedom of personal philosophical or religious expression. The anti-abortion contignent makes its case by claiming that a fertilized egg is a cona fide person and should, therefore, be guaranteed the Constitution's full roster of protections. In its landmark Roe v. Wade opinion, the Supreme Court held what pro-choice activities have been claiming for years. Since there is no empirical test by which measure

  12. Ambivalence--a logical response to legal abortion: a prospective study among women and men.

    PubMed

    Kero, A; Lalos, A

    2000-06-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate ambivalence in relation to legal abortion by studying emotions, attitudes, motives for abortion and ethical reasoning in a strategic sample of women and men who, 1 year after abortion, expressed both positive and painful feelings in relation to the abortion. The study shows that social perspectives legitimate the decision to have an abortion whilst ethical perspectives complicate the decision. Nearly all women and men described having the abortion as an expression of responsibility. Almost one-half also had parallel feelings of guilt, as they regarded the abortion as a violation of their ethical values. The majority of the sample expressed relief while simultaneously experiencing the termination of the pregnancy as a loss coupled with feelings of grief/emptiness. In spite of the ambivalence, only one woman regretted the abortion. For the vast majority, the impact of the abortion had led to increased maturity and deepened self-knowledge. Thus, ambivalence might be regarded not only as problematic but also as indicating openness to the complexity of the abortion issue. Since incompatible values clash in connection with abortion, experiences of ambivalence become both logical and understandable. PMID:10994180

  13. The Potential of Medical Abortion to Reduce Maternal Mortality in Africa: What Benefits for Tanzania and Ethiopia?

    PubMed Central

    Baggaley, Rebecca F.; Burgin, Joanna; Campbell, Oona M. R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Unsafe abortion is estimated to account for 13% of maternal mortality globally. Medical abortion is a safe alternative. Methods By estimating mortality risks for unsafe and medical abortion and childbirth for Tanzania and Ethiopia, we modelled changes in maternal mortality that are achievable if unsafe abortion were replaced by medical abortion. We selected Ethiopia and Tanzania because of their high maternal mortality ratios (MMRatios) and contrasting situations regarding health care provision and abortion legislation. We focused on misoprostol-only regimens due to the drug's low cost and accessibility. We included the impact of medical abortion on women who would otherwise choose unsafe abortion and on women with unwanted/mistimed pregnancies who would otherwise carry to term. Results Thousands of lives could be saved each year in each country by implementing medical abortion using misoprostol (2122 in Tanzania and 2551 in Ethiopia assuming coverage equals family planning services levels: 56% for Tanzania, 31% for Ethiopia). Changes in MMRatios would be less pronounced because the intervention would also affect national birth rates. Conclusions This is the first analysis of impact of medical abortion provision which takes into account additional potential users other than those currently using unsafe abortion. Thousands of women's lives could be saved, but this may not be reflected in as substantial changes in MMRatios because of medical abortion's demographic impact. Therefore policy makers must be aware of the inability of some traditional measures of maternal mortality to detect the real benefits offered by such an intervention. PMID:20948995

  14. Second trimester abortions in India.

    PubMed

    Dalvie, Suchitra S

    2008-05-01

    This article gives an overview of what is known about second trimester abortions in India, including the reasons why women seek abortions in the second trimester, the influence of abortion law and policy, surgical and medical methods used, both safe and unsafe, availability of services, requirements for second trimester service delivery, and barriers women experience in accessing second trimester services. Based on personal experiences and personal communications from other doctors since 1993, when I began working as an abortion provider, the practical realities of second trimester abortion and case histories of women seeking second trimester abortion are also described. Recommendations include expanding the cadre of service providers to non-allopathic clinicians and trained nurses, introducing second trimester medical abortion into the public health system, replacing ethacridine lactate with mifepristone-misoprostol, values clarification among providers to challenge stigma and poor treatment of women seeking second trimester abortion, and raising awareness that abortion is legal in the second trimester and is mostly not requested for reasons of sex selection. PMID:18772082

  15. [Psychological consequences of induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Schleiss, L; Mygind, K A; Borre, R V; Petersson, B H

    1997-06-01

    One hundred and thirty consecutive women were interviewed about the development of psychological symptoms related to induced abortion two days before and four months after the abortion. Sixty-one (47%) participated in the second interview. Of the 61 women, 52% were psychologically influenced before the abortion to an extent which indicated severe crisis or actual psychiatric illness. Four months after the abortion 13 of these women were still psychologically affected. Furthermore, five women who were not affected before the abortion had developed psychological problems. Among ten of these women (16%) the physiological problems could only be related to the circumstance in connection with the abortion. For a number of women (30%) the abortion had a negative influence on their relationships and their sex lives, whereas other claimed that their relationship had become closer because of their reactions towards the abortions. In spite of these conditions all women indicated that their decision about the abortion had been the correct one under the given circumstances. PMID:9206861

  16. Impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident on background radiation doses measured by control dosimeters in Japan.

    PubMed

    Romanyukha, Alexander; King, David L; Kennemur, Lisa K

    2012-05-01

    After the 9.0 magnitude earthquake and subsequent massive tsunami on 11 March 2011 in Japan, several reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered severe damage. There was immediate participation of U.S. Navy vessels and other United States Department of Defense (DoD) teams that were already in the area at the time of the disaster or arrived shortly thereafter. The correct determination of occupational dose equivalent requires estimation of the background dose component measured by control dosimeters, which is subsequently subtracted from the total dose equivalent measured by personal dosimeters. The purpose of the control dosimeters is to determine the amount of radiation dose equivalent that has accumulated on the dosimeter from background or other non-occupational sources while they are in transit or being stored. Given the release of radioactive material and potential exposure to radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and the process by which the U.S. Navy calculates occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, analysis of pre- and post-event control dosimeters is warranted. Several hundred historical dose records from the Naval Dosimetry Center (NDC) database were analyzed and compared with the post-accident dose equivalent data of control dosimeters. As result, it was shown that the dose contribution of the radiation and released radiological materials from the Fukushima nuclear accident to background radiation doses is less than 0.375 μSv d for shallow and deep photon dose equivalent. There is no measurable effect on neutron background exposure. The latter has at least two important conclusions. First, the NDC can use doses measured by control dosimeters at issuing sites in Japan for determination of personnel dose equivalents; second, the dose data from control dosimeters prior to and after the Fukushima accident may be used to assist in dose reconstruction of non-radiological (non-badged) personnel at these locations

  17. Greasy roads: the impact of bad financial news on road traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Vandoros, Sotiris; Kavetsos, Georgios; Dolan, Paul

    2014-03-01

    We use evidence from a natural experiment in Greece to study the effect of the announcement of austerity measures on road traffic accidents (RTAs). We use daily RTA data from 2010 and 2011, during which a number of austerity measures were announced, including salary and pension cuts and an increase in direct and indirect taxes. We find that controlling for other factors potentially influencing RTAs, the number of RTAs increased significantly on the first two days following the announcements of austerity measures. We put forward some tentative suggestions for why this happens. PMID:24117892

  18. Legal abortion: a painful necessity.

    PubMed

    Kero, A; Högberg, U; Jacobsson, L; Lalos, A

    2001-12-01

    This study was conducted to increase knowledge about the psychosocial background and current living conditions of Swedish women seeking abortion, along with their motives for abortion and their feelings towards pregnancy and abortion. Two hundred and eleven women answered a questionnaire when they consulted the gynaecologist for the first time. The study indicates that legal abortion may be sought by women in many circumstances and is not confined to those in special risk groups. For example, most women in the sample were living in stable relationships with adequate finances. The motives behind a decision to postpone or limit the number of children revealed a wish to have children with the right partner and at the right time in order to combine good parenting with professional career. The study shows that prevailing expectations about lifestyle render abortion a necessity in family planning. One-third of the women had had a previous abortion(s) and 12% had become pregnant in a situation where they had felt pressured or threatened by the man. Two-thirds of the women characterised their initial feelings towards the pregnancy solely in painful words while nearly all the others reported contradictory feelings. Concerning feelings towards the coming abortion, more than half expressed both positive and painful feelings such as anxiety, relief, grief, guilt, anguish, emptiness and responsibility, while one-third expressed only painful feelings. However, almost 70% stated that nothing could change their decision to have an abortion. Thus, this study highlights that contradictory feelings in relation to both pregnancy and the coming abortion are common but are very seldom associated with doubts about the decision to have an abortion. PMID:11710423

  19. Probabilities of Ground Impact Conditions of the New Horizons Spacecraft and RTG for Near Launch Pad Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Brian E.; Frostbutter, Dave A.; Chang, Yale

    2007-01-01

    As part of the Pluto New Horizons mission's safety effort, assessment of accidental ground impacts of the spacecraft (SC) and its components, including the radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG), near the launch pad are of particular interest as they determine the severity of the mechanical insult to the hardware. Two configurations are studied: the SC with RTG joined to the third stage STAR™ 48B solid rocket motor [Launch Vehicle (LV) payload], and the RTG joined to the RTG mounting fixture but separated from the SC after an at-altitude destruct action. The objective of the analyses conducted is to determine the probabilities of impact orientation and average impact velocity of these configurations for a near launch pad accident These are of interest because of the possibility that the STAR 48B solid rocket motor could impact on top of the RTG, and because the RTG/RTG mounting fixture impact orientations probabilities and velocities directly affect the mechanical response of the internal GPHS modules. The probabilities of impact orientation and impact velocity of the LV payload as a function of mission elapsed time at thrust termination are determined using a six degree of freedom motion simulation computer program coupled with a Monte Carlo method. The motion simulation accounts for the LV payload aerodynamic properties, mass properties, and the initial flight conditions (αt, γ, V, q and r). Baseline conditions for position, direction, velocity and angular rates, are obtained from the mission timeline information for the Atlas V 551 launch vehicle. The results from this new and unique approach contributed information to safety assessments for the launch approval process. As the environments associated with the RTG/RTG mounting fixture impact orientations probabilities and velocities were less severe than earlier assumptions, this contributed to a reduction in the estimated risk for the Pluto mission.

  20. Adolescent pregnancy: a study of aborters and non-aborters.

    PubMed

    Kane, F J; Lachenbruch, P A

    1973-10-01

    In a June 1970 through January 1971 study of 99 single girls seeking abortion and 33 single girls choosing to complete the pregnancy, knowledge of and/or access to contraceptives were not the problem. Emotional factors such as guilt over sexual activity, acting-out disorders (rebellious attitude, hippie lifestyle, indifference toward others), or severe reactions to loss of a love relationship contributed to pregnancy in both groups. The girls who became pregnant, especially the ones who chose to complete the pregnancy, viewed pregnancy and motherhood as a source of gratification and self-esteem. Research on motivational factors in adolescent pregnancy is needed to prevent high recidivism. The majority of state abortion laws requiring phychiatric deficiencies for abortions are misguided, since the girls who chose not to abort were more psychiatrically disturbed than the ones who had abortions. PMID:4742821

  1. Abortion and parental responsibility.

    PubMed

    Winston, M E

    1986-01-01

    A theory on the morality of abortion is derived from the presumption that parents have special moral obligations to nurture their immature children. Three alternative models of the acquisition of parental responsibilities are examined: one based on biological relationships, one based on consent, and one based on causal responsibility. Each of the models is examined in terms of its ability to handle cases involving nonstandard methods of procreation, such as surrogate motherhood, artificial insemination by donor, and embryo transfer. It is concluded that the model based on causal responsibility provides the most adequate criterion for the ascription of parental responsibility toward fetuses. PMID:11650732

  2. Impact on ambient dose rate in metropolitan Tokyo from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Van Le, Tan; Arai, Moeko; Saito, Kyoko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    A car-borne survey was made in metropolitan Tokyo, Japan, in December 2014 to estimate external dose. This survey was conducted for all municipalities of Tokyo and the results were compared with measurements done in 2003. The ambient dose rate measured in the whole area of Tokyo in December 2014 was 60 nGy h(-1) (23-142 nGy h(-1)), which was 24% higher than the rate in 2003. Higher dose rates (>70 nGy h(-1)) were observed on the eastern and western ends of Tokyo; furthermore, the contribution ratio from artificial radionuclides ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) to ambient dose rate in eastern Tokyo was twice as high as that of western Tokyo. Based on the measured ambient dose rate, the effective dose rate after the accident was estimated to be 0.45 μSv h(-1) in Tokyo. This value was 22% higher than the value before the accident as of December 2014. PMID:27055250

  3. Denial of abortion in legal settings

    PubMed Central

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePiñeres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-01-01

    Background Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. Methods In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic characteristics of legal abortion seekers, as well as the frequency and reasons that women are denied abortion care. Results The proportion of women denied abortion services and the reasons for which they were denied varied widely by country. In Colombia, 2% of women surveyed did not receive the abortions they were seeking; in South Africa, 45% of women did not receive abortions on the day they were seeking abortion services. In both Tunisia and Nepal, 26% of women were denied their wanted abortions. Conclusions The denial of legal abortion services may have serious consequences for women's health and wellbeing. Additional evidence on the risk factors for presenting later in pregnancy, predictors of seeking unsafe illegal abortion, and the health consequences of illegal abortion and childbirth after an unwanted pregnancy is needed. Such data would assist the development of programmes and policies aimed at increasing access to and utilisation of safe abortion services where abortion is legal, and harm reduction models for women who are unable to access legal abortion services. PMID:25511805

  4. Partner violence and abortion characteristics.

    PubMed

    Colarossi, Lisa; Dean, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study using randomly selected medical charts of women reporting a history of partner violence and women with no history of partner violence at the time of a family planning or abortion appointment (n = 6,564 per group). We analyzed lifetime history of partner violence for odds of lifetime history of abortion and miscarriage number, and birth control problems. To more closely match timing, we analyzed a subsample of 2,186 women reporting current violence versus not at the time of an abortion appointment for differences in gestational age, medical versus surgical method choice, and return for follow-up visit. After adjusting for years at risk and demographic characteristics, women with a past history of partner violence were not more likely to have ever had one abortion, but they were more likely to have had problems with birth control, repeat abortions, and miscarriages than women with no history of violence. Women with current partner violence were also more likely to be receiving an abortion at a later gestational age. We found no differences between the groups in return for abortion follow-up visit or choice of surgical versus medication abortion. Findings support screening for the influence of partner violence on reproductive health and related safety planning. PMID:24580133

  5. Second-Trimester Abortion Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... carrying a pregnancy to term – the risk for women having an abortion increases with gestation. xiv Qualitative evidence suggests the abortion referral process – connecting a pregnant woman with the right provider – is patchy. xv In short, a woman ...

  6. Sex Guilt in Abortion Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Meg

    1977-01-01

    A measure of sex guilt was administered to clients of a university problem pregnancy counseling service who were planning to have abortions and to a group of sexually active nonpregnant university coeds. Sex guilt was found to be significantly higher for the abortion patients than for the nonpregnant group. (Author)

  7. Abortion: epidemiology, safety, and technique.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, P D

    1992-08-01

    In 1991, the abortion literature was characterized by articles relating to 1) epidemiologic issues in abortion care, 2) advances in knowledge and experience with medical abortifacients such as mifepristone (RU 486), and 3) cervical ripening prior to abortion with the use of both mifepristone and prostaglandins. Technical methods of achieving termination of pregnancy continue to be similar in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Europe, although induction-abortion times are generally slower in Europe than in the United States. Surgically, dilatation and evacuation procedures continue to be more common in the United States than in other countries. The effectiveness of mifepristone is undisputed, and the recommended dose for early first-trimester termination is being compared with lower dose alternative regimens. There is additional evidence that at least in the short term, the negative psychological sequelae of abortion are infrequent and are inconsequential as a public health issue. PMID:1504270

  8. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong. PMID:25012846

  9. Teenage pregnancies and abortion.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, J E

    1984-01-01

    The issue of abortion, except when it is rendered moot because the fetus endangers the life of the mother, is not really a medical issue. The physician's role is to help patients achieve and maintain their maximum potential for physical, mental, and social well-being. To accomplish this, the physician must acquire a constantly evolving database of scientific knowledge, must evaluate this information in a critical and ethical manner, and must be prepared to apply what is learned. In the realm of applied ethics, no particular religion, profession, culture, class, or sex should be thought of as having all the answers in the realm of applied ethics. This physician's actions are predicated on the belief that, to a large extent, ethical precepts reflect the broader social and economic issues of the period in which they are articulated. If this is the case, then in today's world the population explosion, the postindustrial society, the women's rights movement, inequality of access, and the ability to perform prenatal diagnosis are all factors which have molded the approach to the issue of abortion. Only the last 3 of these can in any way be considered as medical. When considering the role of a physician in dealing with the issue of abortion in the adolescent, this individual relies on the concept articulated by the World Health Association (WHA): promoting the physical, emotional, and social well-being of one's patients. Each year in the US over 1 million 15-19 year olds become pregnant, resulting in over 600,000 births. Most of these pregnancies are unintentional, yet approximately 90% of the infants are kept in the home by mothers who are ill prepared to be parents. What is most disturbing is that the pregnancy rate for the younger mother, 16 years or under, is accounting for an ever increasing percentage of the total. Studies at the Adolescent Health Center of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City as well as national studies suggest that the younger teens are more

  10. Abortion politics in the United States, 1972-1994: from single issue to ideology.

    PubMed

    Hout, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses issues of legal abortion and women's rights in the US. Abortion has been a political issue since the 1970s in the US. Following the Supreme Court's decision in the case of Roe vs. Wade, conservatives and liberals were divided based on their stand on abortion laws. Moreover, gender affects the range of opinions. Gender gap in abortion attitudes is most evident among conservatives. Conservative and extremely conservative women are against legal abortion more strongly than men with those same political views. Liberal and extremely liberal women have about the same amount of support for legal abortion as liberal men do. Labor force participation, marriage, education, and religion have impact on women and men's attitudes toward abortion; yet none of these explain the politicization of abortion. The change in support for legal abortion by political views and time period (1974-93) is shown in this paper. Women's rights are at the core when issues on abortion are to be discussed; the circumstances of the pregnancy and not the fetus become the focus. Although some women¿s groups support this stand, it faces a continuing debate with pro-life groups. The prevailing ideologies attempt to accommodate the new ideas expressed by the movement, while some of its stronger views are tempered in order to win a measure of political success. PMID:12349270

  11. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Herpesviral abortion in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Smith, K C

    1997-05-01

    Abortion or neonatal disease may follow infection with several alpha, beta and gamma-herpesviruses. The alpha-herpesvirus, equid herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), causes single or epizootic abortions or neonatal deaths in equids, and the closely related virus EHV-4 causes sporadic equine abortions. In cattle, the alpha-herpesviruses, bovine herpesvirus-1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus) and bovine herpesvirus-5 (bovine encephalitis virus), and a gamma-herpesvirus, bovine herpesvirus-4, have all been implicated as causes of abortion. In pigs, suid herpesvirus-1 (SHV-1: pseudorabies virus), an alpha-herpesvirus, and SHV-2 (porcine cytomegalovirus), a beta-herpesvirus, each cause abortion or neonatal piglet losses. Caprine herpesvirus-1, canine herpesvirus and feline herpesvirus-1, all alpha-herpesviruses, cause abortions or neonatal deaths in goats, dogs and cats, respectively. This review discusses the pathogenesis, pathology and laboratory diagnosis of these herpesviral abortions and neonatal diseases, with an emphasis on experimental studies of each disease. Alternative reviews covering other aspects of each infection, such as the genetic and antigenic structure of the viruses, host immune responses and approaches to vaccination and disease control are indicated at appropriate points in the text. PMID:9232116

  13. Republic of Ireland: abortion controversy.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The problems associated with illegal abortion dominate public discussion in Ireland. While abortion is illegal in Ireland, the Supreme Court directed in 1992 that Irish women can go to Britain for abortions when their lives are thought to be at risk. Abortion was a constant feature during the Irish Presidential election campaign in October, while a dispute about the future of a 13-year-old girl's pregnancy dominated the headlines in November. The presidential election on October 30 resulted in a victory for one of the two openly anti-choice candidates, Mary McAleese, a lawyer from Northern Ireland. With a voter turnout of 47.6%, McAleese polled 45.2% of the votes cast. Although the president may refuse to sign bills which have been passed by parliament, McAleese has said that she will sign whatever bill is placed before her, even if it liberalizes abortion law in the republic. As for the case of the 13-year-old pregnant girl, she was taken into the care of Irish health authority officials once the case was reported to the police. However, the health board, as a state agency, is prevented by Irish law from helping anyone travel abroad for abortion. The girl was eventually given leave in a judgement by a High Court Judicial Review on November 28 to travel to England for an abortion. PMID:12321445

  14. Medically indigent women seeking abortion prior to legalization: New York City, 1969-1970.

    PubMed

    Belsky, J E

    1992-01-01

    If the efforts now underway to limit access to abortion services in the United States are successful, their greatest impact will be on women who lack the funds to obtain abortions elsewhere. There is little published information, however, about the experience of medically indigent women who sought abortions under the old, restrictive state laws. This article details the psychiatric evaluation of 199 women requesting a therapeutic abortion at a large municipal hospital in New York City under a restrictive abortion law. Thirty-nine percent had tried to abort the pregnancy. Fifty-seven percent had concrete evidence of serious psychiatric disorder. Forty-eight percent had been traumatized by severe family disruption, gross emotional deprivation or abuse during childhood. Seventy-nine percent lacked emotional support from the man responsible for the pregnancy, and the majority were experiencing overwhelming stress from the interplay of multiple problems exacerbated by their unwanted pregnancy. PMID:1628716

  15. Investigating social consequences of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Malawi: the role of stigma.

    PubMed

    Levandowski, Brooke A; Kalilani-Phiri, Linda; Kachale, Fannie; Awah, Paschal; Kangaude, Godfrey; Mhango, Chisale

    2012-09-01

    Malawian women in all sectors of society are suffering from social implications of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion. Unwanted pregnancies occur among women who have limited access to family planning and safe abortion. A legally restrictive setting for safe abortion services leads many women to unsafe abortion, which has consequences for them and their families. In-depth interviews were conducted with 485 Malawian stakeholders belonging to different political and social structures. Interviewees identified the impact of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion to be the greatest on young women. Premarital and extramarital pregnancies were highly stigmatized; stigma directly related to abortion was also found. Community-level discussions need to focus on reduction of stigma. PMID:22920622

  16. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  17. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  18. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  19. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  20. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  1. Induced abortion and contraception use

    PubMed Central

    du Prey, Beatrice; Talavlikar, Rachel; Mangat, Rupinder; Freiheit, Elizabeth A.; Drummond, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine what proportion of women seeking induced abortion in the Calgary census metropolitan area were immigrants. Design For 2 months, eligible women were asked to complete a questionnaire. Women who refused were asked to provide their country of birth (COB) to assess for selection bias. Setting Two abortion clinics in Calgary, Alta. Participants Women presenting at or less than 15 weeks’ gestational age for induced abortion for maternal indications. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of women seeking induced abortion services who were immigrants. Secondary outcomes compared socioeconomic characteristics and contraception use between immigrant and Canadian-born women. Results A total of 752 women either completed a questionnaire (78.6%) or provided their COB (21.4%). Overall, 28.9% of women living in the Calgary census metropolitan area who completed the questionnaire were immigrants, less than the 31.2% background proportion of immigrant women of childbearing age. However, 46.0% of women who provided only COB were immigrants. When these data were combined, 34.2% of women presenting for induced abortion identified as immigrant, a proportion not significantly different from the background proportion (P = .127). Immigrant women presenting for induced abortion tended to be older, more educated, married with children, and have increased parity. They were similar to Canadian-born women in number of previous abortions, income status, and employment status. Conclusion This study suggests that immigrant women in Calgary are not presenting for induced abortion in disproportionately higher numbers, which differs from existing European literature. This is likely owing to differing socioeconomic characteristics among the immigrant women in our study from what have been previously described in the literature (typically lower socioeconomic status). Much still needs to be explored with regard to factors influencing the use of

  2. New German abortion law agreed.

    PubMed

    Karcher, H L

    1995-07-15

    The German Bundestag has passed a compromise abortion law that makes an abortion performed within the first three months of pregnancy an unlawful but unpunishable act if the woman has sought independent counseling first. Article 218 of the German penal code, which was established in 1871 under Otto von Bismarck, had allowed abortions for certain medical or ethical reasons. After the end of the first world war, the Social Democrats tried to legalize all abortions performed in the first three months of pregnancy, but failed. In 1974, abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks was declared legal and unpunishable under the social liberal coalition government of chancellor Willy Brandt; however, the same year, the German Federal Constitution Court in Karlsruhe ruled the bill was incompatible with article 2 of the constitution, which guarantees the right to life and freedom from bodily harm to everyone, including the unborn. The highest German court also ruled that a pregnant woman had to seek a second opinion from an independent doctor before undergoing an abortion. A new, extended article 218, which included a clause giving social indications, was passed by the Bundestag. When Germany was unified, East Germans agreed to be governed by all West German laws, except article 218. The Bundestag was given 2 years to revise the article; however, in 1993, the Federal Constitution Court rejected a version legalizing abortion in the first 3 months of the pregnancy if the woman sought counsel from an independent physician, and suggested the recent compromise passed by the Bundestag, the lower house of the German parliament. The upper house, the Bundesrat, where the Social Democrats are in the majority, still has to pass it. Under the bill passed by the Bundestag, national health insurance will pay for an abortion if the monthly income of the woman seeking the abortion falls under a certain limit. PMID:7613423

  3. Thermochemistry of Ruthenium Oxyhydroxide Species and Their Impact on Volatile Speciations in Severe Nuclear Accident Conditions.

    PubMed

    Miradji, Faoulat; Virot, François; Souvi, Sidi; Cantrel, Laurent; Louis, Florent; Vallet, Valérie

    2016-02-01

    Literature thermodynamic data of ruthenium oxyhydroxides reveal large uncertainties in some of the standard enthalpies of formation, motivating the use of high-level relativistic correlated quantum chemical methods to reduce the level of discrepancies. Reaction energies leading to the formation of all possible oxyhydroxide species RuOx(OH)y(H2O)z have been calculated for a series of reactions combining DFT (TPSSh-5%HF) geometries and partition functions, CCSD(T) energies extrapolated to the complete basis set limits. The highly accurate ab initio thermodynamic data were used as input data of thermodynamic equilibrium computations to derive the speciation of gaseous ruthenium species in the temperature, pressure and concentration conditions of severe nuclear accidents occurring in pressurized water reactors. At temperatures lower than 1000 K, gaseous ruthenium tetraoxide is the dominating species, between 1000 and 2000 K ruthenium trioxide becomes preponderant, whereas at higher temperatures gaseous ruthenium oxide, dioxide and even Ru in gaseous phase are formed. Although earlier studies predicted the formation of oxyhydroxides in significant quantities, the use of highly accurate ab initio thermodynamic data for ruthenium gaseous species leads to a more reliable inventory of gaseous ruthenium species in which gaseous oxyhydroxide ruthenium molecules are formed only in negligible amounts. PMID:26789932

  4. The impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island on the behavior and well-being of nuclear workers: Part II: job tension, psychophysiological symptoms, and indices of distress.

    PubMed

    Kasl, S V; Chisholm, R F; Eskenazi, B

    1981-05-01

    TMI workers experienced much greater job tension and lower occupational self-esteem (supervisors only). At the time of the accident, TMI workers reported experiencing more periods of anger, extreme worry and extreme upset, and more psychophysiological symptoms. Six months after the accident, some persistence of these feelings and symptoms was evident. Demoralization was greater primarily among TMI non-supervisory workers. The impact of the accident was not greater among TMI workers living closer to the plant. Presence of a preschool child at home enhanced the impact of the accident, but primarily among TMI supervisors. PMID:7212136

  5. Impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island on the behavior and well-being of nuclear workers. Part II. Job tension, psychophysiological symptoms, and indices of distress

    SciTech Connect

    Kasl, S.V.; Chisholm, R.F.; Eskenazi, B.

    1981-05-01

    Three Mile Island (TMI) workers experienced much greater job tension and lower occupational self-esteem (supervisors only) in comparison with workers interviewed at the Peach Bottom Plant. At the time of the accident, TMI workers reported experiencing more periods of anger, extreme worrry and extreme upset, and more psychophysiological symptoms. Six months after the accident, some persistence of these feelings and symptoms was evident. Demoralization was greater primarily among TMI non-supervisory workers. The impact of the accident was not greater among TMI workers living closer to the plant. Presence of a preschool child at home enhanced the impact of the accident, but primarily among TMI supervisors. 39 references, 17 tables.

  6. A model for the release, dispersion and environmental impact of a postulated reactor accident from a submerged commercial nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertch, Timothy Creston

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear power plants are inherently suitable for submerged applications and could provide power to the shore power grid or support future underwater applications. The technology exists today and the construction of a submerged commercial nuclear power plant may become desirable. A submerged reactor is safer to humans because the infinite supply of water for heat removal, particulate retention in the water column, sedimentation to the ocean floor and inherent shielding of the aquatic environment would significantly mitigate the effects of a reactor accident. A better understanding of reactor operation in this new environment is required to quantify the radioecological impact and to determine the suitability of this concept. The impact of release to the environment from a severe reactor accident is a new aspect of the field of marine radioecology. Current efforts have been centered on radioecological impacts of nuclear waste disposal, nuclear weapons testing fallout and shore nuclear plant discharges. This dissertation examines the environmental impact of a severe reactor accident in a submerged commercial nuclear power plant, modeling a postulated site on the Atlantic continental shelf adjacent to the United States. This effort models the effects of geography, decay, particle transport/dispersion, bioaccumulation and elimination with associated dose commitment. The use of a source term equivalent to the release from Chernobyl allows comparison between the impacts of that accident and the postulated submerged commercial reactor plant accident. All input parameters are evaluated using sensitivity analysis. The effect of the release on marine biota is determined. Study of the pathways to humans from gaseous radionuclides, consumption of contaminated marine biota and direct exposure as contaminated water reaches the shoreline is conducted. The model developed by this effort predicts a significant mitigation of the radioecological impact of the reactor accident release

  7. Launch Abort System Pathfinder Arrival

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Orion Launch Abort System, or LAS, pathfinder returned home to NASA Langley on Oct. 18 on its way to NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The hardware was built at Langley and was used in preparation f...

  8. The Development of Instruments to Measure Attitudes toward Abortion and Knowledge of Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1976-01-01

    This study developed an abortion attitude scale and abortion knowledge inventory that may be utilized by health educators, counselors, and researchers for assessing attitudes toward abortion and knowledge about it. (SK)

  9. Participation of nurses in abortions.

    PubMed

    Neustatter, P L

    1980-11-29

    Doctors for a Woman's Choice on Abortion would agree with 1 point in Lord Denning's ruling on the role of nurses in abortions induced by (PGS) prostaglandins (November 15, p. 1091). The nurse should not be doing a doctor's job, as Lord Denning indicated, and we sympathize with any nurse who is doing so (though the 1967 Abortion Act allows any nurse to abstain, on grounds of conscience). However, the ruling that nurses are not legally covered to participate in any way with the "procuring of a miscarriage" (using terminology of the 1861 Offenses against the Persons Act upon which the ruling is based) does not require a radical change in the practice of late abortions (constituting only 7% of the terminations) or any change in the law. PG abortion can be done without a nurse. With the extraamniotic technique, a very cheap pump can be used to give subsequent doses of the PG (a function normally performed by a nurse) through the catheter left inserted through the cervix after the 1st dose has been given by the doctor. Alternatively, the intraamniotic method can be used, where PG is instilled into the amniotic sac via a needle passed through the abdominal wall. This normally requires only 1 dose, given by the doctor. Rarely are subsequent doses needed; however they could be given by the doctor with very little addition to his or her workload. While the fact that PG abortion can be done without nurses is not realized, late abortion will be restricted, a situation which is entirely deplorable. Also deplorable are the comments of an antiabortion nature made by Lord Denning, over and above the legal ruling in his jurisdiction to make. His ruling, furthermore, seems to have been sufficiently confused for the Department of Health to withdraw its circular on abortion and await an interpretation before issuing another. PMID:6107800

  10. Paris court attacks abortion law.

    PubMed

    Dorozynski, A

    1995-07-15

    A Paris court last week challenged a 1993 law that makes it a criminal offense to obstruct abortions. The court acquitted nine anti-abortion protestors who had broken into the maternity ward of the public hospital Pitie-Salpetriere last November and prayed at the entrance of a ward where patients are admitted for abortions. The judges ruled that the protestors had not interfered with abortions being carried out because none were taking place at the time of the demonstration; furthermore, the judges stated, because the fetus could be considered a person (child), the protestors were protected by other laws which give immunity to those breaking a law in order to protect another person's life, or to defend a child that had been abandoned. The court continued to say that a fetus should be protected, whether or not it was considered a person, because it was definitely more than nothing. The Syndicat de la Magistrature, the association of French magistrates, believes the tribunal has denied the right to abortion guaranteed in the 1975 law. Veronique Neietz, who drafted the 1993 law, was "scandalized" by the decision and believes the decision of the court was made in retribution for a recent parliamentary decision to exclude anti-abortion protestors from the general amnesty given after presidential elections to minor offenders. During the same week of this court decision, two tribunals, in Lyons and in Bourg-en-Bresse, sentenced 45 anti-abortionists to suspended prison terms with fines. PMID:7613424

  11. Induced abortion as a risk factor for perinatal complications: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Bracken, M. B.

    1978-01-01

    Past and continuing studies of the influence of a prior induced abortion on subsequent perinatal complications are reviewed. Many definitive conclusions are precluded because of design problems in the extant studies and these methodological issues, therefore, form the focus for the current review. The available studies do suggest that abortion by vacuum aspiration is not a risk factor for complications of subsequent pregnancies, labor, delivery, or of newborns. Abortion by dilatation and curettage, however, may increase the risk of subsequent spontaneous abortion, low birth weight, and prematurity but these findings need to be confirmed. The impact of other abortion techniques or perinatal complications has not been studied. The more common design problems in the extant literature include: (1) failure to control for confounding maternal factors; (2) problems in reliability of reporting previous abortion; and (3) nonspecific measurement of abortion techniques. Since approximately three-quarters of all abortions performed annually in the United States are on young never-married women who may eventually wish to bear children, further rigorous research to define the risks of induced abortion is urgently required. PMID:373267

  12. Crew Exploration Vehicle Ascent Abort Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B., Jr.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Proud, Ryan W.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Kenyon, Paul R.; Burt, Richard; McFarland, Mike

    2007-01-01

    One of the primary design drivers for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is to ensure crew safety. Aborts during the critical ascent flight phase require the design and operation of CEV systems to escape from the Crew Launch Vehicle and return the crew safely to the Earth. To accomplish this requirement of continuous abort coverage, CEV ascent abort modes are being designed and analyzed to accommodate the velocity, altitude, atmospheric, and vehicle configuration changes that occur during ascent. The analysis involves an evaluation of the feasibility and survivability of each abort mode and an assessment of the abort mode coverage. These studies and design trades are being conducted so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle abort requirements, design, and operation. This paper presents an overview of the CEV, driving requirements for abort scenarios, and an overview of current ascent abort modes. Example analysis results are then discussed. Finally, future areas for abort analysis are addressed.

  13. Abortion restrictions may undermine welfare reform.

    PubMed

    1999-02-01

    Results from a study conducted by Pennsylvania State University's Population Research Institute indicate that more restrictive abortion laws in the US may have led to an increase in the number of single mothers, even given new welfare reform laws which make unmarried childbearing more costly. Study findings are based upon county rates of female-headed families from the 1980 and 1990 censuses, excluding those in Alaska and Hawaii. By making unmarried childbearing more costly, welfare reform has sparked a demand for abortion, while at the same time abortion laws have restricted access to abortion. An increasing number of unmarried women on welfare have therefore chosen childbearing over abortion. The study found a decline in the number of abortions in counties where abortion laws had become more strict. That states can now require abortion providers to notify the parents of minors who have abortions, to restrict Medicaid funding for abortions, and to establish 24-hour waiting periods has made abortion either a difficult or impossible option for some women. These restrictive abortion laws and geographic barriers to abortion have discouraged women from undergoing the procedure, increasing the number of female-headed families and single mothers. The public policy goal of reducing unmarried childbearing and female-headed families is being undermined by the growing geographic and legal barriers designed to discourage abortion. PMID:12348920

  14. Repeat abortions in New York City, 2010.

    PubMed

    Toprani, Amita; Cadwell, Betsy L; Li, Wenhui; Sackoff, Judith; Greene, Carolyn; Begier, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to describe factors associated with the number of past abortions obtained by New York City (NYC) abortion patients in 2010. We calculated rates of first and repeat abortion by age, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood-level poverty and the mean number of self-reported past abortions by age, race/ethnicity, neighborhood-level poverty, number of living children, education, payment method, marital status, and nativity. We used negative binomial regression to predict number of past abortions by patient characteristics. Of the 76,614 abortions reported for NYC residents in 2010, 57% were repeat abortions. Repeat abortions comprised >50% of total abortions among the majority of sociodemographic groups we examined. Overall, mean number of past abortions was 1.3. Mean number of past abortions was higher for women aged 30-34 years (1.77), women with ≥5 children (2.50), and black non-Hispanic women (1.52). After multivariable regression, age, race/ethnicity, and number of children were the strongest predictors of number of past abortions. This analysis demonstrates that, although socioeconomic disparities exist, all abortion patients are at high risk for repeat unintended pregnancy and abortion. PMID:25779755

  15. [Sexual violence in Congo-Kinshasa: necessity of decriminalizing abortion].

    PubMed

    Kalonda, J C Omba

    2012-01-01

    The sexual violence's committed in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are from their scales and consequences on women, real public health, politico-legal, and socio-economical challenges. More than a million of women have been victims of sexual violence on a period of less than fifteen years. Systematic rapes of women were used as war weapon by different groups involved in the Congolese war. Sexual violence against women has impacted public health by spreading sexually transmissible diseases including HIV/AIDS, causing unwanted pregnancies, leading to the gynaecological complications of rape-related injuries, and inflicting psychological trauma on the victims. Despite high level of unwanted pregnancies observed, the Congolese law is very restrictive and interdict induced abortion. This paper presents three arguments which plead in favour of legalizing abortion in DRC: 1) a restrictive law on abortion forces women to use unsafe abortion and increase incidence of injuries and maternal mortality ; 2) DRC has ratified the universal Declaration of human rights, the African union charter, and has than to promote equality between sexes, in this is included women reproductive rights; 3) an unwanted birth is an additional financial charge for a woman, a factor increasing poverty and psychologically unacceptable in case of rape. From the politico-legal point of view, ending rape impunity and decriminalizing abortion are recommended. Decriminalizing abortion give women choice and save victims and pregnant women from risks related to the pregnancy, a childbirth, or an eventual unsafe abortion. These risks increase the maternal mortality already high in DRC (between 950 and 3000 for 100000 live births). PMID:23167138

  16. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    PubMed

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited. PMID:6913282

  17. House subcmte. tightens abortion language.

    PubMed

    1978-05-10

    Medicaid would help pay for abortion in fewer circumstances under the fiscal 1979 Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW), appropriations bill approved May 4, 1978, by the House HEW Appropriations Subcommittee than it did in 1978. The new language would permit the funding only if the mother's life would be endangered if the pregnancy were carried to term. Current law permits abortion payments for this reason; if pregnancy results from rape or incest, or if the birth would cause the mother severe and long-lasting physical damage. Behind the scenes pressure probably will be applied to resolve the issue quickly this year since all House members are up for reelection and do not want to have such a sensitive issue intruding on their campaigns. 1 strategy being discussed is the inclusion of riders that would directly or indirectly provide federal funds for abortions in other appropriation measures such as funding for the Defense Department and federal employees health benefits. The House will have to contend with Senator Brooke (R-Massachusetts) ranking minority member on the Senate HEW Appropriations Subcommittee, who is determined to stand firm in favor of liberal abortion funding. With only minimal opposition for his Senate seat this year, Senate staffers say Brooke is not concerned with the possibility of abortion becoming a major campaign issue. It was Brooke who forced the House's hand last year and obtained a more relaxed abortion curb, much to the chagrin of the Carter Administration. The White House, with the President's popularity at a low ebb, would prefer not to be put in a position of taking sides publicly although it prefers the strict curbs. Carter is currently deciding which House members to assist during the campaign and such a no-win issue would only serve to complicate matters. He will have enough of a problem reconciling health spending increases without the added burden of abortion. PMID:12335662

  18. Contraception and abortion in two Vietnamese communes.

    PubMed Central

    Gorbach, P M; Hoa, D T; Nhan, V Q; Tsui, A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The authors examined factors predicting abortion use in two communes in northern Vietnam. METHODS: A survey of 504 rural and 523 urban women of childbearing age was conducted. RESULTS: For the 13.6% of urban and 19% of rural commune women having had an abortion in the previous year, logistic regression analyses demonstrated that use of an intrauterine device reduced the likelihood of subsequent abortion in both communes. Traditional method use in the rural commune, however, increased women's likelihood of a subsequent abortion. CONCLUSIONS: Contraceptive use in these 2 communes affected abortion more than sociodemographic factors. Traditional method use by rural women is a risk for abortion. PMID:9551014

  19. Impact of metals on the environment due to technical accident at Aurul Baia Mare, Romania.

    PubMed

    Michnea, A; Gherheş, I

    2001-01-01

    The S.C. Aurul S.A. is a joint venture company owned by the Esmeralda from Australia and the "Remin" National Company of Precious and Non-ferrous Metals in Romania, established in 1992. The design concept was to transport the mining waste away from the city, while the gold and silver in the tailings could be recovered, using efficient and modern technology that was not available at the time the dam was established. On 30 January, 2000, at 22.00, the dam burst and released 100,000 cubic meters of tailing pulp, heavily contaminated with cyanide and cyanide complexes, especially with copper, into the Lapus and Somes tributaries of the river Tisa. The paper deals with the impact of metals on the environment associated with their presence in surface waters, river sediments and soils. PMID:11764854

  20. Relative risk impacts of facility accidents in DOE`s Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, C.

    1994-12-31

    The Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is formulating an integrated national program to manage the treatment, storage, and disposal of existing and future wastes at DOE sites. As part of this process, a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) is being prepared. A principal focus of the EM PEIS is the evaluation of strategies for remediating DOE sites and facilities to ensure the protection of human health and environment. A specific objective of DOE in implementing an integrated waste management program is to {open_quotes}reduce or eliminate risks to human health and safety and to the environment for environmental restoration and waste operation activities.{close_quotes} The EM PEIS calls for separate evaluations of the risk impacts for managing six different waste types: greater-than-Class-C low-level, hazardous, high-level, low-level mixed, low-level, and transuranic. For each waste type, four categorical strategies have been devised for consolidating wastes for treatment and storage: (a) no action, where existing sites will generally store and treat their own wastes consistent with approved plans, (b) decentralization, (c) regionalization, and (d) centralization. The last three alternatives refer to the degree of consolidation and affect the number of sites that will be used to treat, store, and dispose of a given waste type. Each consolidation strategy has associated siting options, and each option involves existing facilities, facilities in the design phase, and new facilities. Each siting option also implies unique inventories of waste to be stored and treated at each site and associated facilities. Finally, a number of treatment technologies and storage and disposal options for each waste type are to be evaluated for each alternative.

  1. Accident investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laynor, William G. Bud

    1987-01-01

    The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has attributed wind shear as a cause or contributing factor in 15 accidents involving transport-categroy airplanes since 1970. Nine of these were nonfatal; but the other six accounted for 440 lives. Five of the fatal accidents and seven of the nonfatal accidents involved encounters with convective downbursts or microbursts. Of other accidents, two which were nonfatal were encounters with a frontal system shear, and one which was fatal was the result of a terrain induced wind shear. These accidents are discussed with reference to helping the aircraft to avoid the wind shear or if impossible to help the pilot to get through the wind shear.

  2. Contraception and abortion: Fruits of the same rotten tree?

    PubMed Central

    Newton, William

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to show how contraception, when generally accepted in a society, helps to bring about a radical change in social perceptions of sexual intercourse, human life, the human person, science, and morality in general. On account of this, contraception helps to ingrain abortion and other anti-life practices into the culture that accepts it and, therefore, in no sense can be considered as a panacea for abortion. Particular attention is given to the thought of John Paul II on this matter who noted that “despite their differences of nature and moral gravity, contraception and abortion are often closely connected, as fruits of the same tree” (Evangelium vitae, n. 13). Lay summary: The article considers the connection between contraception and abortion and defends Pope John Paul II's claim that “despite their differences of nature and moral gravity, contraception and abortion are often closely connected, as fruits of the same tree.” The thesis is that contraception is a “game-changer” in the sense that it changes the way we think about some very fundamental realities such as attitudes to sex, to life, to science, to the human person, and to morality. Any one of these changes would have a significant impact on a society in terms of promoting a culture of death: together they are devastating. PMID:25999612

  3. Contraception and abortion: Fruits of the same rotten tree?

    PubMed

    Newton, William

    2015-05-01

    This article seeks to show how contraception, when generally accepted in a society, helps to bring about a radical change in social perceptions of sexual intercourse, human life, the human person, science, and morality in general. On account of this, contraception helps to ingrain abortion and other anti-life practices into the culture that accepts it and, therefore, in no sense can be considered as a panacea for abortion. Particular attention is given to the thought of John Paul II on this matter who noted that "despite their differences of nature and moral gravity, contraception and abortion are often closely connected, as fruits of the same tree" (Evangelium vitae, n. 13). Lay summary: The article considers the connection between contraception and abortion and defends Pope John Paul II's claim that "despite their differences of nature and moral gravity, contraception and abortion are often closely connected, as fruits of the same tree." The thesis is that contraception is a "game-changer" in the sense that it changes the way we think about some very fundamental realities such as attitudes to sex, to life, to science, to the human person, and to morality. Any one of these changes would have a significant impact on a society in terms of promoting a culture of death: together they are devastating. PMID:25999612

  4. Contextual determinants of induced abortion: a panel analysis.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Marrón, Mar; Díaz-Fernández, Montserrat; Méndez-Rodríguez, Paz

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Analyze the contextual and individual characteristics that explain the differences in the induced abortion rate, temporally and territorially. METHODS We conducted an econometric analysis with panel data of the influence of public investment in health and per capita income on induced abortion as well as a measurement of the effect of social and economic factors related to the labor market and reproduction: female employment, immigration, adolescent fertility and marriage rate. The empirical exercise was conducted with a sample of 22 countries in Europe for the 2001-2009 period. RESULTS The great territorial variability of induced abortion was the result of contextual and individual socioeconomic factors. Higher levels of national income and investments in public health reduce its incidence. The following sociodemographic characteristics were also significant regressors of induced abortion: female employment, civil status, migration, and adolescent fertility. CONCLUSIONS Induced abortion responds to sociodemographic patterns, in which the characteristics of each country are essential. The individual and contextual socioeconomic inequalities impact significantly on its incidence. Further research on the relationship between economic growth, labor market, institutions and social norms is required to better understand its transnational variability and to reduce its incidence. PMID:27007684

  5. Contextual determinants of induced abortion: a panel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Llorente-Marrón, Mar; Díaz-Fernández, Montserrat; Méndez-Rodríguez, Paz

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Analyze the contextual and individual characteristics that explain the differences in the induced abortion rate, temporally and territorially. METHODS We conducted an econometric analysis with panel data of the influence of public investment in health and per capita income on induced abortion as well as a measurement of the effect of social and economic factors related to the labor market and reproduction: female employment, immigration, adolescent fertility and marriage rate. The empirical exercise was conducted with a sample of 22 countries in Europe for the 2001-2009 period. RESULTS The great territorial variability of induced abortion was the result of contextual and individual socioeconomic factors. Higher levels of national income and investments in public health reduce its incidence. The following sociodemographic characteristics were also significant regressors of induced abortion: female employment, civil status, migration, and adolescent fertility. CONCLUSIONS Induced abortion responds to sociodemographic patterns, in which the characteristics of each country are essential. The individual and contextual socioeconomic inequalities impact significantly on its incidence. Further research on the relationship between economic growth, labor market, institutions and social norms is required to better understand its transnational variability and to reduce its incidence. PMID:27007684

  6. "If a woman has even one daughter, I refuse to perform the abortion": Sex determination and safe abortion in India.

    PubMed

    Potdar, Pritam; Barua, Alka; Dalvie, Suchitra; Pawar, Anand

    2015-05-01

    In India, safe abortion services are sought mainly in the private sector for reasons of privacy, confidentiality, and the absence of delays and coercion to use contraception. In recent years, the declining sex ratio has received much attention, and implementation of the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act (2003) has become stringent. However, rather than targeting sex determination, many inspection visits target abortion services. This has led to many private medical practitioners facing negative media publicity, defamation and criminal charges. As a result, they have started turning women away not only in the second trimester but also in the first. Samyak, a Pune-based, non-governmental organization, came across a number of cases of refusal of abortion services during its work and decided to explore the experiences of private medical practitioners with the regulatory mechanisms and what happened to the women. The study showed that as a fallout from the manner of implementation of the PCPNDT Act, safe abortion services were either difficult for women to access or outright denied to them. There is an urgent need to recognize this impact of the current regulatory environment, which is forcing women towards illegal and unsafe abortions. PMID:26278839

  7. Safe abortion information hotlines: An effective strategy for increasing women's access to safe abortions in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Drovetta, Raquel Irene

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the implementation of five Safe Abortion Information Hotlines (SAIH), a strategy developed by feminist collectives in a growing number of countries where abortion is legally restricted and unsafe. These hotlines have a range of goals and take different forms, but they all offer information by telephone to women about how to terminate a pregnancy using misoprostol. The paper is based on a qualitative study carried out in 2012-2014 of the structure, goals and experiences of hotlines in five Latin American countries: Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. The methodology included participatory observation of activities of the SAIH, and in-depth interviews with feminist activists who offer these services and with 14 women who used information provided by these hotlines to induce their own abortions. The findings are also based on a review of materials obtained from the five hotline collectives involved: documents and reports, social media posts, and details of public demonstrations and statements. These hotlines have had a positive impact on access to safe abortions for women whom they help. Providing these services requires knowledge and information skills, but little infrastructure. They have the potential to reduce the risk to women's health and lives of unsafe abortion, and should be promoted as part of public health policy, not only in Latin America but also other countries. Additionally, they promote women's autonomy and right to decide whether to continue or terminate a pregnancy. PMID:26278832

  8. The Road to Pad Abort 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces, N.M., engineers and technicians are preparing for the Pad Abort 1 flight test. The Launch Abort System is a sophisticated new rocket tower designed t...

  9. Risks of Serious Injuries and Fatalities of Cyclists Associated with Impact Velocities of Cars in Car-Cyclist Accidents in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Oikawa, Shoko

    2015-11-01

    The main purpose of this study is to define the relationship between the car impact velocity and serious injury risk or fatality risk of cyclists. The authors investigated the risks of serious injuries and fatalities of cyclists using vehicle-cyclist accident data from the database of the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) in Japan. The vehicle types considered are sedans, mini vans, box vans, light passenger cars and light cargo vans. The results revealed that a 10-km/h decrease in the impact velocity could reduce the severe injury risk and fatality risk for impact velocities of 40 km/h or higher. Specifically, when the impact velocity was less than or equal to 30 km/h, the serious injury risks were less than 21% and the fatality risks were less than or equal to 1% for the above listed vehicle types. Therefore, if the Collision Damage Mitigation Braking System (CDMBS) equipped vehicles can perform its functions effectively so as to reduce the impact velocities, then cyclist injuries will likely be significantly reduced. Another purpose of this study is to assess the effect of wearing a helmet for protection of the cyclist's head. Impact experiment results showed that the measured head injury criterion (HIC) with helmets are lower than that of head-form impactor without a helmet, reducing the HIC by 57%. PMID:26660752

  10. Abortion counseling and the school counselor.

    PubMed

    Duncan, J A; Moffett, C F

    1974-01-01

    The Supreme Court decision of January 22, 1973, legalizing abortion now requires school counselors to examine both their personal and professional positions on abortion information and abortion counseling. To date a review of school counseling literature reveals a failure to deal with abortion as a counseling issue. Also, schools have failed to develop official policies regarding abortion counseling and the distribution of abortion information. The counselors who have provided abortion information to date have done so at the request of a student or parent rather than by making the information generally available. A study in 1973 in Virginia, however, revealed that Virginia counselor educators believed that there was a need for counselors in training to be exposed to abortion information as part of their formal training experience. Generally, today's present exposure to abortion information makes it impossible for counselors to continue to ignore a growing demand for both abortion information and counseling. School counselors must deal with the following questions: 1) What course of action should school counselors take when a pregnant young seeks counseling on alternatives to pregnancy continuation? 2) What is the counselor's professional role in abortion counseling with respect to his or her personal feelings and beliefs? 3) What kind of training if any should school counselors receive regarding abortion counseling? 4) Is there a need for in-service training on abortion counseling for school counselors? 5) Should various professional organizations develop materials that would assist their members in providing abortion counseling? 6) Should institutions such as schools, churches, and community agencies establish policies concerning abortion counseling? Although the answers are not simple, the school counselors and their professional organizations must begin to develop the answers in order to provide good counseling services to young women exercising their right to

  11. Procured abortion in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anate, M; Awoyemi, O; Oyawoye, O; Petu, O

    1995-06-01

    A prospective study of the maternal mortality and morbidity and other related social problems among 144 cases of procured abortion in Ilorin, Nigeria over a 24-month period is presented. A mortality rate of 90.3 per thousand procured abortions was recorded. Genital sepsis, haemorrhagic anaemia, gut injury, uterine perforation and vesico vaginal fistulae (VVF) were encountered. Poor referral system, late presentation, poor blood transfusion services and inadequate availability of drugs had adverse effects on the patients. The implications (the menace and frequency) of these and possible measures like improving the literacy level, the moral standards, contraceptive practice and family life education (sex education) are discussed. PMID:7498012

  12. Review: Abortion care in Ghana: A critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody R

    2015-01-01

    The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research. A total of four (4) databases were searched with the keywords “Ghana and abortion” and hand review of reference lists was conducted. All abstracts were reviewed. The final include sample was 39 articles. Abortion-related complications represent a large component of admissions to gynecological wards in hospitals in Ghana as well as a large contributor to maternal mortality. Almost half of the included studies were hospital-based, mainly chart reviews. This review has identified gaps in the literature including: interviewing women who have sought unsafe abortions and with healthcare providers who may act as gatekeepers to women wishing to access safe abortion services. PMID:25438507

  13. U.S. adults' pornography viewing and support for abortion: a three-wave panel study.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Robert S; Wright, Paul J; McKinley, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Pornography consumption may affect judgments on a wide range of sexual and reproductive topics. The present study hypothesized that the consistent images projected in pornography affect sexual scripts related to abortion judgments. National, three-wave longitudinal data gathered from U.S. adults were employed to examine associations between earlier pornography consumption and subsequent support for abortion. The findings suggested that prior pornography consumption may lead to later support for abortion. This study provides additional evidence of pornography's socializing impact, particularly for the older White segment of the population, and adds to knowledge about what environmental factors influence judgments about abortion. Mechanisms that may explain how pornography viewing shapes support for abortion are discussed. PMID:25010599

  14. Impact of reducing sodium void worth on the severe accident response of metallic-fueled sodium-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wigeland, R.A.; Turski, R.B.; Pizzica, P.A.

    1994-03-01

    Analyses have performed on the severe accident response of four 90 MWth reactor cores, all designed using the metallic fuel of the Integrated Fast Reactor (IFR) concept. The four core designs have different sodium void worth, in the range of {minus}3$ to 5$. The purpose of the investigation is to determine the improvement in safety, as measured by the severe accident consequences, that can be achieved from a reduction in the sodium void worth for reactor cores designed using the IFR concept.

  15. Abortion, Moral Maturity and Civic Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Maggie Jones; Hall, Megan Williams

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to rhetoric, moral reasonings scholarship, and journalism scholarship by examining public rhetoric on abortion and American popular media coverage (1940s to 1990s). Finds that the feminine means of moral reasoning has emerged into the foreground of discourse on abortion. Compares emergence of a common-ground rhetoric on abortion with a…

  16. Objective versus Subjective Responses to Abortion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, James M.

    1979-01-01

    Measured psychological sequelae to induced abortion among women pregnant out of wedlock, using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and questions specific to willingness to repeat abortion under similar circumstances. Analyses indicated no relation between objective and subjective indicators. Affectivity after induced abortion had…

  17. Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

  18. Orientation toward Abortion: Guilt or Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allgeier, A.R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Students (N=118) were classified as pro-choice, anti-abortion, or mixed on the basis of their responses to 10 fictitious case histories of women who requested abortion. Attitudinal differences are discussed in the context of the public controversy over abortion. (Author/CM)

  19. [Is a sociology of abortion possible?].

    PubMed

    Isambert, F A

    1982-01-01

    Abortion is a thorny problem whose study is problematic because it is a source of social and juridical discord, of moral incertitude, of medical and psychiatric confusion, and of personal anguish. The question arises of whether a single perspective can be found which allows comprehension of the entire phenomenon. This work uses published sources to examine the abortion debate, beginning with the varying views of abortion expressed in the struggles to liberalize abortion legislation in France, Europe, and the US. 4 particular views of abortion were identified in the Paris press; the traditional religious view, which condemns abortion because the fetus is regarded as fully human from conception; the view of abortion as a means of fertility regulation; the view of abortion as a cause of public health problems that could be alleviated through legalization and medical control; and the view that abortion allows women to control their own bodies. The law is obliged to reconcile these diverse positions. Abortion legislation in different countries ranges along a continuum from severe to lenient, but regional variations are also evident. Abortion trials in the US and France shortly before liberalization of the laws of either country showed striking similarities but also notable differences due largely to dissimilarities in the social structures of the 2 countries. The relations between the individual and the state, morality, and the law, as reflected in the abortion debate, rested on inverse bases in the 2 countries. The typically American doctrine of privacy occupied a prominent place in the American legislation, while the French was more concerned with the humanitarian goal of reducing health damage from illegal abortions. Tension and ambiguity nevertheless unavoidably characterize the abortion regulations in the 2 countries. Abortion as an institution is a controlled and practical compromise between 2 poles, those giving primacy to individual interests, as in the US, and

  20. Decision making by single women seeking abortion.

    PubMed

    Quinn, M

    1980-01-01

    30 single women attending the Auckland Medical Aid Center (AMAC) for an abortion during a 3-week period in May 1977 were interviewed about the factors leading up to the pregnancy, the impact of the pregnancy on their relationships with relevant others, and the process of obtaining an abortion. The prospective subjects were divided into 2 age groups, 16-20 and 21-25 years and 2 residence groups, Auckland city area or beyond this area. The proportion of the sample selected from each category was intended to approximate proportions as reported for all AMAC clientele. Of the 30 women interviewed, half were aged less than 20 years and half were more than 20. 24 of the women were European and the remainder Polynesian. 3 women had previously been married, in 2 cases resulting in children. 3 women had given birth; 2 of these women were solo parents while 1 woman had had her child adopted. All those who had either married or given birth were in the 21-25 year age group. In 20 cases the women had decided on abortion either before pregnancy even occurred or as soon as it was confirmed. This along with the fact that only 2 women in this sample actually made the decision to seek an abortion after arriving at the clinic suggests that counseling directed at helping women decide the future of the pregnancy after arrival at the hospital is largely superfluous. Other major problems of the women which caused considerable stress included obtaining a doctor's referral to AMAC, the physical difficulties in getting to AMAC, changes the pregnancy precipitated in relationships between women and those they confided in. 2/3 of the younger group made little or no use of contraception. None gave ignorance as a reason for nonuse. Women in the older age group tended to use more sophisticated techniques, such as oral contraception (OC), IUD, or diaphragm; the younger women relied on condoms or used nothing at all. In addition to the 7 women who had never used contraception, a further 12 women

  1. RU-486: the "abortion pill".

    PubMed

    Herranz, G

    1991-05-23

    A report sent by the Vatican to bishops' conferences throughout the world calls RU-486, the so-called abortion pill currently available in France, "a new, serious threat to human life." The report was developed at the Vatican's request by Gonzalo Herranz, a Spanish bioethicist. A cover letter to bishops' conferences from Cardinal Alfonso Lopez Trujillo, president of the Pontifical Council for the Family, suggested that the report be used "to resist the introduction of the abortion pill RU-486 into your country." Related to TU-486 and to new terminology some use to characterize its non-surgical approach to abortion is an intention "to amoralize and thereby place the transmission of human life into an ethically neutral terrain and reduce it to pure biology," says the report. The report discusses possible future uses of RU-486 as a contraceptive, stating: "Women would no longer have to worry themselves about whether they have conceived or not. Each month they would proceed to clean out their uterus chemically." The report refers to RU-486 as "a technical step forward in an area that did not need it." It says, "The abortion pill favors a woman's privacy and secret, but it condemns her to solitude." The English text from the Vatican follows. PMID:16145821

  2. Unintended pregnancy and abortion in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Rubina

    2013-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy is common in Uganda, leading to high levels of unplanned births, unsafe abortions, and maternal injury and death. Because most pregnancies that end in abortion are unwanted, nearly all ill health and mortality resulting from unsafe abortion is preventable. This report summarizes evidence on the context and consequences of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Uganda, points out gaps in knowledge, and highlights steps that can be taken to reduce levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion, and, in turn, the high level of maternal mortality. PMID:23550324

  3. Family planning is reducing abortions.

    PubMed

    Clinton, H R

    1997-01-01

    This news brief presents the US President's wife's statement on the association between use of family planning and a decline in abortions worldwide. Hillary Rodham Clinton attended the Sixth Conference of Wives of Heads of State and Government of the Americas held in La Paz, Bolivia. The conference was suitably located in Bolivia, a country with the highest rates of maternal mortality in South America. Bolivia has responded by launching a national family planning campaign coordinated between government, nongovernmental, and medical organizations. Half of Bolivian women experience pregnancy and childbirth without the support of trained medical staff. Mortality from abortion complications account for about half of all maternal deaths in Bolivia. Voluntary family planning workers teach women about the benefits of child spacing, breast feeding, nutrition, prenatal and postpartum care, and safe deliveries. Bolivia has succeeded in increasing its contraceptive use rates and decreasing the number of safe and unsafe abortions. Bolivia's program effort was supported by USAID. USAID provided technical assistance and funds for the establishment of a network of primary health care clinics. Mrs. Clinton visited one such clinic in a poor neighborhood in La Paz, which in its first six months of operation provided 2200 consultations, delivered 200 babies, registered 700 new family planning users, and immunized 2500 children. Clinics such as this one will be affected by the US Congress's harsh cuts in aid, which reduce funding by 35% and delay program funding by 9 months. These US government cuts in foreign aid are expected to result in an additional 1.6 million abortions, over 8000 maternal deaths, and 134,000 infant deaths in developing countries. An investment in population assistance represents a sensible, cost-effective, and long-term strategy for improving women's health, strengthening families, and reducing abortion. PMID:12293000

  4. Post-abortion syndrome: creating an affliction.

    PubMed

    Dadlez, E M; Andrews, William L

    2010-11-01

    The contention that abortion harms women constitutes a new strategy employed by the pro-life movement to supplement arguments about fetal rights. David C. Reardon is a prominent promoter of this strategy. Post-abortion syndrome purports to establish that abortion psychologically harms women and, indeed, can harm persons associated with women who have abortions. Thus, harms that abortion is alleged to produce are multiplied. Claims of repression are employed to complicate efforts to disprove the existence of psychological harm and causal antecedents of trauma are only selectively investigated. We argue that there is no such thing as post-abortion syndrome and that the psychological harms Reardon and others claim abortion inflicts on women can usually be ascribed to different causes. We question the evidence accumulated by Reardon and his analysis of data accumulated by others. Most importantly, we question whether the conclusions Reardon has drawn follow from the evidence he cites. PMID:19594725

  5. Abortion returns to haunt US presidential campaign.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, D S

    2000-04-01

    The abortion issue has infested national politics since 1973, now it returns to haunt the US presidential election politics. However, rather than serving as a customary rallying cause for Republicans, it is now a millstone around the neck of their candidate, Governor George Bush, who seeks a broad ideological span of voters to win his candidacy. Bush expressed strong anti-abortion sentiments to attract the die-hard right-to-life vote in the hard-fought primary campaign. For many years, the anti-abortion language in the US remains strident, however, it is clear that most voters support, or at least tolerate, the availability of abortion services. In his presidential campaign, Bush shied away from endorsing a constitutional amendment to ban abortion, and declared his opposition to any exceptions to an abortion ban. He is now on the record with numerous anti-abortion declarations, and holds endorsements from the pro-life camp. PMID:10791389

  6. Abortion counseling: to benefit maternal health.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, T N

    1989-01-01

    This Note examines how both the law and the health care profession neglect women's needs for abortion counseling before, during and after an abortion. Part I analyzes the health care profession's view of counseling, the psychological effects of abortion and how counseling both positively and negatively influences those effects. Part II reviews Supreme Court cases and state law regarding abortion counseling, critizing both the Court's narrow view of counseling and the states' failure to use the legislative process to create laws which benefit maternal health. Part III recommends an expanded role for abortion counseling, in which the counselor can provide emotional support from before the day of an abortion until a woman emotionally recovers from an abortion. This expanded role would be state-mandated, but would remain within constitutional boundaries by providing flexibility for counselors to give individual treatment while respecting a woman's privacy. PMID:2699161

  7. [Induced abortion--a historical outline].

    PubMed

    Glenc, F

    1974-11-11

    An historical review of the use of induced abortion is presented, beginning with early eras. The Chinese were the 1st to record the practice of induced abortion, with this operation being administered to royal concubines recorded at 500-515 B.C. Induced abortion was not used in ancient Greece, either for criminal or ethical reason. However, the ancient Greeks did utilize compulsory abortion for serious economic indications, as a means of controlling natural growth. Greek medical, gyneoclogigcal instruments for adminsitering abortions were described by Hippocrates. The Greek moral attitudes on abortion were largely adopted by the Romans, which were later altered by the appearance of Christianity and new ethical ideas. These ideas dominated European attitudes, along with the Church of Rome, limiting induced abortion to cases where the life of the mother was threatened. This attitude has existed until the present century, when these moral ideas are being challanged seriously for the 1st time in modern history. PMID:4610534

  8. Serum lipoperoxides in induced and spontaneous abortions.

    PubMed

    Sane, A S; Chokshi, S A; Mishra, V V; Barad, D P; Shah, V C; Nagpal, S

    1991-01-01

    Abortion, primarily as a measure of population control, certainly continues to be an emotional, frustrating and stressful event. In continuation of our work on stressful situations in the female life span and biochemical parameters, serum lipid peroxide levels in terms of malondialdehyde (nmol/ml) have been determined in females undergoing abortion [suction curettage (n = 30), Emcredil-induced abortion (n = 30) and spontaneous abortion (n = 40)] and were compared with appropriate gestational controls. Irrespective of the type of abortion, the serum lipid peroxide levels before abortion [mean malondialdehyde concentrations (nmol/ml): suction curettage 2.67, Emcredil-induced abortion 3.22, and spontaneous abortion 3.49] were found to be significantly elevated in comparison with those after abortion (suction curettage 1.91, Emcredil 1.97 and spontaneous abortion 1.95), indicating a maximum at peak time of stress and a minimum at the end of stress. The levels of serum lipid peroxide encountered before abortion were found to be significantly elevated in case of Emcredil-induced abortion and spontaneous abortion when compared with controls (second trimester mean levels 1.82 and first trimester 2.4) whereas the levels before suction curettage were found to be nonsignificant in comparison with controls, indicating a lesser degree of stress. It is felt that monitoring of serum lipid peroxide levels in serum and tissues (placenta), backed by scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase, can be more helpful for corroborating safety and the risk of free radical toxicity in pregnancy and abortion. PMID:2071057

  9. Unsafe abortion and postabortion care - an overview.

    PubMed

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-07-01

    Forty per cent of the world's women are living in countries with restrictive abortion laws, which prohibit abortion or only allow abortion to protect a woman's life or her physical or mental health. In countries where abortion is restricted, women have to resort to clandestine interventions to have an unwanted pregnancy terminated. As a consequence, high rates of unsafe abortion are seen, such as in Sub-Saharan Africa where unsafe abortion occurs at rates of 18-39 per 1 000 women. The circumstances under which women obtain unsafe abortion vary and depend on traditional methods known and types of providers present. Health professionals are prone to use instrumental procedures to induce the abortion, whereas traditional providers often make a brew of herbs to be drunk in one or more doses. In countries with restrictive abortion laws, high rates of maternal death must be expected, and globally an estimated 66 500 women die every year as a result of unsafe abortions. In addition, a far larger number of women experience short- and long-term health consequences. To address the harmful health consequences of unsafe abortion, a postabortion care model has been developed and implemented with success in many countries where women do not have legal access to abortion. Postabortion care focuses on treatment of incomplete abortion and provision of postabortion contraceptive services. To enhance women's access to postabortion care, focus is increasingly being placed on upgrading midlevel providers to provide emergency treatment as well as implementing misoprostol as a treatment strategy for complications after unsafe abortion. PMID:21542813

  10. Departure phase aborts for manned Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissel, Adam F.

    NASA goals are set on resumption of human activity on the Moon and extending manned missions to Mars. Abort options are key elements of any system designed to safeguard human lives and stated requirements stipulate the provision of an abort capability throughout the mission. The present investigation will focus on the formulation and analysis of possible abort modes during the Earth departure phase of manned Mars interplanetary transfers. Though of short duration, the departure phase encompasses a mission timeline where failures have frequently become manifest in historical manned spacecraft necessitating the inclusion of a departure phase abort capability. Investigated abort modes included aborts to atmospheric entry, and to Earth or Moon orbit. Considered interplanetary trajectory types included conjunction, opposition, and free-return trajectory classes. All abort modes were analyzed for aborts initiated at multiple points along each of these possible departure trajectories across all launch opportunities of the fifteen-year Earth-Mars inertial period. The consistently low departure velocities of the conjunction trajectories facilitated the greatest abort capability. An analysis of Mars transportation architectures was performed to determine the amount of available delta V inherent in each candidate architecture for executing departure aborts. Results indicate that a delta V of at least 4 km/s is required to achieve a continuous departure phase entry abort capability with abort flights less than three weeks duration for all transfer opportunity years. Less demanding transfer years have a corresponding increase in capability. The Earth orbit abort mode does not become widely achievable until more than 6 km/s delta V is provided; a capacity not manifest in any considered architecture. Optimization of the Moon abort mode resulted in slight departure date shifts to achieve improved lunar alignments. The Moon abort mode is only widely achievable for conjunction

  11. Methodology and computational framework used for the US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement accident analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, C.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Huttenga, A.; Jackson, R.; TenBrook, W.; Russell, J. |

    1994-02-01

    A methodology, computational framework, and integrated PC-based database have been developed to assess the risks of facility accidents in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. The methodology includes the following interrelated elements: (1) screening of storage and treatment processes and related waste inventories to determine risk-dominant facilities across the DOE complex, (2) development and frequency estimation of the risk-dominant sequences of accidents, and (3) determination of the evolution of and final compositions of radiological or chemically hazardous source terms predicted to be released as a function of the storage inventory or treatment process throughput. The computational framework automates these elements to provide source term input for the second part of the analysis which includes (1) development or integration of existing site-specific demographics and meteorological data and calculation of attendant unit-risk factors and (2) assessment of the radiological or toxicological consequences of accident releases to the general public and to the occupational work force.

  12. Abort Options for Potential Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, P. V.; Striepe, S. A.; Powell, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    Mars trajectory design options were examined that would accommodate a premature termination of a nominal manned opposition class mission for opportunities between 2010 and 2025. A successful abort must provide a safe return to Earth in the shortest possible time consistent with mission constraints. In this study, aborts that provided a minimum increase in the initial vehicle mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) were identified by locating direct transfer nominal missions and nominal missions including an outbound or inbound Venus swing-by that minimized IMLEO. The ease with which these missions could be aborted while meeting propulsion and time constraints was investigated by examining free return (unpowered) and powered aborts. Further reductions in trip time were made to some aborts by the addition or removal of an inbound Venus swing-by. The results show that, although few free return aborts met the specified constraints, 85% of each nominal mission could be aborted as a powered abort without an increase in propellant. Also, in many cases, the addition or removal of a Venus swing-by increased the number of abort opportunities or decreased the total trip time during an abort.

  13. Is Induced Abortion Really Declining in Armenia?

    PubMed

    Jilozian, Ann; Agadjanian, Victor

    2016-06-01

    As in other post-Soviet settings, induced abortion has been widely used in Armenia. However, recent national survey data point to a substantial drop in abortion rates with no commensurate increase in modern contraceptive prevalence and no change in fertility levels. We use data from in-depth interviews with women of reproductive age and health providers in rural Armenia to explore possible underreporting of both contraceptive use and abortion. While we find no evidence that women understate their use of modern contraception, the analysis suggests that induced abortion might indeed be underreported. The potential for underreporting is particularly high for sex-selective abortions, for which there is growing public backlash, and medical abortion, a practice that is typically self-administered outside any professional supervision. Possible underreporting of induced abortion calls for refinement of both abortion registration and relevant survey instruments. Better measurement of abortion dynamics is necessary for successful promotion of effective modern contraceptive methods and reduction of unsafe abortion practices. PMID:27285426

  14. Induced abortion: a world review, 1990.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, S K

    1990-01-01

    The worldwide trend toward liberalization of abortion laws has continued in the last four years with changes in Canada, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Hungary, Romania, the Soviet Union and Vietnam. Forty percent of the world's population now lives in countries where induced abortion is permitted on request, and 25 percent lives where it is allowed only if the woman's life is in danger. In 1987, an estimated 26 to 31 million legal abortions and 10 to 22 million clandestine abortions were performed worldwide. Legal abortion rates ranged from a high of at least 112 abortions per 1,000 women of reproductive age in the Soviet Union to a low of five per 1,000 in the Netherlands. In recent years, abortion rates have been increasing in Czechoslovakia, England and Wales, New Zealand and Sweden and declining in China, France, Iceland, Italy, Japan and the Netherlands. In most Western European and English-speaking countries, about half of abortions are obtained by young, unmarried women seeking to delay a first birth, while in Eastern Europe and the developing countries, abortion is most common among married women with two or more children. Mortality from legal abortion averages 0.6 deaths per 100,000 procedures in developed countries with data. Abortion services are increasingly being provided outside of hospitals, and for those performed in hospitals, overnight stays are becoming less common. National health insurance covers abortions needed to preserve the health of a pregnant woman in all developed countries except the United States, where Medicaid and federal insurance programs do not cover abortion unless the woman's life is in danger. PMID:2347411

  15. The Incidence of Abortion in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bankole, Akinrinola; Adewole, Isaac F.; Hussain, Rubina; Awolude, Olutosin; Singh, Susheela; Akinyemi, Joshua O.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT Because of Nigeria’s low contraceptive prevalence, a substantial number of women have unintended pregnancies, many of which are resolved through clandestine abortion, despite the country’s restrictive abortion law. Up-to-date estimates of abortion incidence are needed. METHODS A widely used indirect methodology was used to estimate the incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in Nigeria in 2012. Data on provision of abortion and postabortion care were collected from a nationally representative sample of 772 health facilities, and estimates of the likelihood that women who have unsafe abortions experience complications and obtain treatment were collected from 194 health care professionals with a broad understanding of the abortion context in Nigeria. RESULTS An estimated 1.25 million induced abortions occurred in Nigeria in 2012, equivalent to a rate of 33 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–49. The estimated unintended pregnancy rate was 59 per 1,000 women aged 15–49. Fifty-six percent of unintended pregnancies were resolved by abortion. About 212,000 women were treated for complications of unsafe abortion, representing a treatment rate of 5.6 per 1,000 women of reproductive age, and an additional 285,000 experienced serious health consequences but did not receive the treatment they needed. CONCLUSION Levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion continue to be high in Nigeria. Improvements in access to contraceptive services and in the provision of safe abortion and postabortion care services (as permitted by law) may help reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:26871725

  16. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.; AHRENS,L.; III FLILLER,R.; GASSNER,D.; MCINTYRE,G.T.; MICHNOFF,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.

    2002-06-03

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  17. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.

    2011-12-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  18. A Scoping Analysis Of The Impact Of SiC Cladding On Late-Phase Accident Progression Involving Core–Concrete Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.

    2015-11-01

    The overall objective of the current work is to carry out a scoping analysis to determine the impact of ATF on late phase accident progression; in particular, the molten core-concrete interaction portion of the sequence that occurs after the core debris fails the reactor vessel and relocates into containment. This additional study augments previous work by including kinetic effects that govern chemical reaction rates during core-concrete interaction. The specific ATF considered as part of this study is SiC-clad UO2.

  19. RHIC Abort Kicker Prefire Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Y.; Perlstein, S.

    2014-07-07

    In an attempt to discover any pattern to prefire events, abort prefire kicker data from 2007 to the present day have been recorded. With the 2014 operations concluding, this comprises 8 years of prefire data. Any activities that the Pulsed Power Group did to decrease prefire occurrences were recorded as well, but some information may be missing. The following information is a compilation of the research to date.

  20. Expectant Fathers, Abortion, and Embryos.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Dara E

    2015-01-01

    One thread of abortion criticism, arguing that gender equality requires that men be allowed to terminate legal parental status and obligations, has reinforced the stereotype of men as uninterested in fatherhood. As courts facing disputes over stored pre-embryos weigh the equities of allowing implantation of the pre-embryos, this same gender stereotype has been increasingly incorporated into a legal balancing test, leading to troubling implications for ART and family law. PMID:26242955

  1. [Request for abortion during the 2d pregnancy trimester].

    PubMed

    Treffers, P E; Van den Berg, G R; Jager-van Gelder, P A; Van Oenen, J J

    1976-12-18

    156 women, 12-20 weeks pregnant, applied for abortion at the Wilhelmo Clinic in Amsterdam; 102 abortions were granted. The 156 late-abortion seekers were compared with 282 early-abortion seekers and 490 pregnant women. The late-abortion seekers were significantly younger (P .05). A significantly greater number of women over 30 applied for early abortion (P .001). Unmarried or divorced women were more likely to apply to abortion (P .001). Nulliparae applied more frequently for late abortion, compared to early-abortion seekers (P .001). Women with only one child were more likely to be in the pregnancy group (p .05), with 2 children in the early-abortion group (p .001). Women from Surinam and the Antilles were more likely to be in the early abortion group (p .001). Of the late-abortion seekers, 9 had medical indications. Many had psychosocial problems; 91 had problems with partner relations. In 24 cases the delay in seeking abortion was due to a doctor. An ambivalent attitude toward the abortion existed in 22 of the patients. 83% of the late-abortion seekers and 11.3% of the early-abortion seekers had previously had an abortion. The contraceptive use of the late-abortion seekers was not regular. 1.3% of the late-abortion seekers and 9.9% of the early-abortion seekers were using IUDs at the time of conception. PMID:1012384

  2. From unwanted pregnancy to safe abortion: Sharing information about abortion in Asia through animation.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Shweta; Dalvie, Suchitra

    2015-05-01

    Although unsafe abortion continues to be a leading cause of maternal mortality in many countries in Asia, the right to safe abortion remains highly stigmatized across the region. The Asia Safe Abortion Partnership, a regional network advocating for safe abortion, produced an animated short film entitled From Unwanted Pregnancy to Safe Abortion to show in conferences, schools and meetings in order to share knowledge about the barriers to safe abortion in Asia and to facilitate conversations on the right to safe abortion. This paper describes the making of this film, its objectives, content, dissemination and how it has been used. Our experience highlights the advantages of using animated films in addressing highly politicized and sensitive issues like abortion. Animation helped to create powerful advocacy material that does not homogenize the experiences of women across a diverse region, and at the same time emphasize the need for joint activities that express solidarity. PMID:26278840

  3. Abortion in Sri Lanka: The Double Standard

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

  4. Abortion in Sri Lanka: the double standard.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramya

    2013-03-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

  5. The abortion decision: reasons and ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Allanson, S; Astbury, J

    1995-09-01

    Self-in-relation theory and pilot data responses to an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet by 20 women attending an abortion-providing clinic challenge previous formulations of the abortion decision. Pilot data suggest that: women may make an abortion decision based primarily on pragmatics, a belief in their right to choose and knowledge of the safety and simplicity of the procedure. A discrepancy may exist for a significant minority of women between their abstract beliefs/knowledge and the personal meaning for them of the pregnancy, abortion and its safety. Important links may exist between maternal attachment and anxiety about the safety of the abortion procedure. Ramifications for counselling and future research are discussed. PMID:8528379

  6. Abortion checks at German-Dutch border.

    PubMed

    Von Baross, J

    1991-05-01

    The commentary on West German abortion law, particularly in illegal abortion in the Netherlands, finds the law restrictive and in violation of the dignity and rights of women. The Max-Planck Institute in 1990 published a study that found that a main point of prosecution between 1976 and 1986, as reported by Der Spiegal, was in border crossings from the Netherlands. It is estimated that 10,000 annually have abortions abroad, and 6,000 to 7,000 in the Netherlands. The procedure was for an official to stop a young person and query about drugs; later the woman would admit to an abortion, and be forced into a medical examination. The German Penal Code Section 218 stipulates abortion only for certain reasons testified to by a doctor other than the one performing the abortion. Counseling on available social assistance must be completed 3 days prior to the abortion. Many counseling offices are church related and opposed to abortions. Many doctors refuse legally to certify, and access to abortion is limited. The required hospital stay is 3-4 nights with no day care facilities. Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 allows prosecution for uncounseled illegal abortion. Abortion law reform is anticipated by the end of 1992 in the Bundestag due to the Treaty or the Unification of Germany. The Treaty states that the rights of the unborn child must be protected and that pregnant women relieve their distress in a way compatible with the Constitution, but improved over legal regulations from either West or East Germany, which permits abortion on request within 12 weeks of conception without counseling. It is hoped that the law will be liberalized and Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 will be abolished. PMID:12343177

  7. Scoping assessments of ATF impact on late-stage accident progression including molten core-concrete interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, M. T.; Leibowitz, L.; Terrani, K. A.; Robb, K. R.

    2014-05-01

    Simple scoping models that can be used to evaluate ATF performance under severe accident conditions have been developed. The methodology provides a fundamental technical basis (a.k.a. metric) based on the thermodynamic boundary for evaluating performance relative to that of traditional Zr-based claddings. The initial focus in this study was on UO2 fuel with the advanced claddings 310 SS, D9, FeCrAl, and SiC. The evaluation considered only energy release with concurrent combustible gas production from fuel-cladding-coolant interactions and, separately, molten core-concrete interactions at high temperatures. Other important phenomenological effects that can influence the rate and extent of cladding decomposition (e.g., eutectic interactions, degradation of other core constituents) were not addressed. For the cladding types addressed, potential combustible gas production under both in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions was similar to that for Zr. However, exothermic energy release from cladding oxidation was substantially less for iron-based alloys (by at least a factor of 4), and modestly less (by ∼20%) for SiC. Data on SiC-clad UO2 fuel performance under severe accident conditions are sparse in the literature; thus, assumptions on the nature of the cladding decomposition process were made in order to perform this initial screening evaluation. Experimental data for this system under severe accident conditions is needed for a proper evaluation and comparison to iron-based claddings.

  8. Abortion induced with methotrexate and misoprostol.

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, E R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the outcome and side effects of a new drug protocol to induce abortion. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: An urban primary care practice. PATIENTS: One hundred consecutive patients who requested elective termination of pregnancies of less than 8 weeks' gestation. INTERVENTION: Subjects received methotrexate (50 mg/m2 body surface area, administered intramuscularly) and, 3 days afterward, misoprostol (800 micrograms, given vaginally). OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of abortions induced within 24 hours and within 10 days of misoprostol administration, number of surgical aspirations conducted because of incomplete abortion, mean amount of bleeding and pain and the number of women who, if faced with the same situation, said they would again choose a drug-induced abortion over a surgical one. RESULTS: Abortion occurred within 24 hours of misoprostol administration among 48 women and within 10 days among 69 women. In total, 89 women had an abortion without surgical aspiration. Of these women, 71 said they would choose a drug-induced abortion if faced with the choice again. CONCLUSION: Abortion induced with methotrexate and misoprostol appears to be a feasible alternative to surgical abortion and deserves further study. PMID:8548705

  9. Medical abortion in Australia: a short history.

    PubMed

    Baird, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Surgical abortion has been provided liberally in Australia since the early 1970s, mainly in privately owned specialist clinics. The introduction of medical abortion, however, was deliberately obstructed and consequently significantly delayed when compared to similar countries. Mifepristone was approved for commercial import only in 2012 and listed as a government subsidised medicine in 2013. Despite optimism from those who seek to improve women's access to abortion, the increased availability of medical abortion has not yet addressed the disadvantage experienced by poor and non-metropolitan women. After telling the story of medical abortion in Australia, this paper considers the context through which it has become available since 2013. It argues that the integration of medical abortion into primary health care, which would locate abortion provision in new settings and expand women's access, has been constrained by the stigma attached to abortion, overly cautious institutionalised frameworks, and the lack of public health responsibility for abortion services. The paper draws on documentary sources and oral history interviews conducted in 2013 and 2015. PMID:26719008

  10. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Allahbedashti, Neda

    2014-02-01

    Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas) as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA) and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA. PMID:24338232

  11. Women's perceptions of first trimester spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Wall-Haas, C L

    1985-01-01

    Fifteen to twenty percent of all pregnancies end in spontaneous abortion. For many women, this loss is nearly the equivalent of the loss of a real baby. To explore the complexity of women's responses to spontaneous abortion, nine women were given a questionnaire to complete regarding experiences and behaviors at the time of the miscarriage. The data revealed that each woman was affected, to some degree, by her experience with a spontaneous abortion. A comprehensive psychologic approach to this special client is needed to help more effectively the woman who aborts in the first trimester cope with the very real loss of an infant. PMID:3844461

  12. The male partner involved in legal abortion.

    PubMed

    Kero, A; Lalos, A; Högberg, U; Jacobsson, L

    1999-10-01

    This study comprises 75 men who have been involved in legal abortion. The men answered a questionnaire concerning living conditions and attitudes about pregnancy and abortion. Most men were found to be in stable relationships with good finances. More than half clearly stated that they wanted the woman to have an abortion while 20 stressed that they submitted themselves to their partner's decision. Only one man wanted the woman to complete the pregnancy. Apart from wanting children within functioning family units, the motivation for abortion revealed that the desire to have children depended on the ability to provide qualitatively good parenting. More than half the men had discussed with their partner what to do in event of pregnancy and half had decided to have an abortion if a pregnancy occurred. More than half expressed ambivalent feelings about the coming abortion, using words such as anxiety, responsibility, guilt, relief and grief. In spite of these contradictory feelings, prevailing expectations concerning lifestyle make abortion an acceptable form of birth control. A deeper understanding of the complexity of legal abortion makes it necessary to accept the role of paradox, which the ambivalence reflects. Obviously, men must constitute a target group in efforts to prevent abortions. PMID:10528006

  13. The abortion battle: the Canadian scene.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, P

    1994-01-01

    In January 1988 the Supreme Court of Canada struck down the country's archaic abortion law on the ground that it imposed arbitrary delays and unfair disparities in access to abortion across the country. Since then, the conservative government of Canada has made a few attempts to introduce a new abortion policy, but it did not get passed in the parliament because the revised bills failed to protect women's right to 'life, liberty, and security of the person' within the meaning of the Canadian Charter. Canada has been without an abortion law for over four years and there has been a wide range of provincial policies and confusion in the country. Despite the legal vacuum, Canadian women are not frenziedly having abortions. However, the militancy of the anti-abortion groups has steadily intensified with continued assault on a woman's right to make reproductive choices. Since no law, short of banning abortions altogether, is going to satisfy abortion opponents, the abortion battle will rage on in Canada. PMID:8065237

  14. Husbands' involvement in abortion in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Johansson, A; Nga, N T; Huy, T Q; Dat, D D; Holmgren, K

    1998-12-01

    This study analyzes the involvement of men in abortion in Vietnam, where induced abortion is legal and abortion rates are among the highest in the world. Twenty men were interviewed in 1996 about the role they played in their wives' abortions and about their feelings and ethical views concerning the procedure. The results showed that both husbands and wives considered the husband to be the main decisionmaker regarding family size, which included the decision to have an abortion, but that, in fact, some women had undergone an abortion without consulting their husbands in advance. Parents and in-laws were usually not consulted; the couples thought they might object to the decision on moral grounds. Respondents' ethical perspectives on abortion are discussed. When faced with an unwanted pregnancy, the husbands adopted an ethics of care and responsibility toward family and children, although some felt that abortion was immoral. The study highlights the importance of understanding husbands' perspectives on their responsibilities and rights in reproductive decisionmaking and their ethical and other concerns related to abortion. PMID:9919633

  15. Abortion Decision and Ambivalence: Insights via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allanson, Susie

    2007-01-01

    Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…

  16. Trans-oceanic transport of 137Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident and impact of hypothetical Fukushima-like events of future nuclear plants in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wai, Ka-Ming; Yu, Peter K N

    2015-03-01

    A Lagrangian model was adopted to assess the potential impact of (137)Cs released from hypothetical Fukushima-like accidents occurring on three potential nuclear power plant sites in Southern China in the near future (planned within 10 years) in four different seasons. The maximum surface (0-500 m) (137)Cs air concentrations would be reached 10 Bq m(-3) near the source, comparable to the Fukushima case. In January, Southeast Asian countries would be mostly affected by the radioactive plume due to the effects of winter monsoon. In April, the impact would be mainly on Southern and Northern China. Debris of radioactive plume (~1 mBq m(-3)) would carry out long-range transport to North America. The area of influence would be the smallest in July due to the frequent and intense wet removal events by trough of low pressure and tropical cyclone. The maximum worst-case areas of influence were 2382000, 2327000, 517000 and 1395000 km(2) in January, April, July and October, respectively. Prior to the above calculations, the model was employed to simulate the trans-oceanic transport of (137)Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident. Observed and modeled (137)Cs concentrations were comparable. Sensitivity runs were performed to optimize the wet scavenging parameterization. The adoption of higher-resolution (1° × 1°) meteorological fields improved the prediction. The computed large-scale plume transport pattern over the Pacific Ocean was compared with that reported in the literature. PMID:25474170

  17. Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access

    MedlinePlus

    Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access June 2008 Approximately one-fifth (19%) of the 6. ... occurring annually in the U.S. end in induced abortion. 1 While abortion is one of the most ...

  18. Incidence of Induced Abortion and Post-Abortion Care in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, Sarah C.; Kimaro, Godfather; Muganyizi, Projestine; Philbin, Jesse; Kahwa, Amos; Ngadaya, Esther; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2015-01-01

    Background Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and unsafe abortion is one of its leading causes. Yet little is known about its incidence. Objectives To provide the first ever estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion in Tanzania, at the national level and for each of the 8 geopolitical zones (7 in Mainland plus Zanzibar). Methods A nationally representative survey of health facilities was conducted to determine the number of induced abortion complications treated in facilities. A survey of experts on abortion was conducted to estimate the likelihood of women experiencing complications and obtaining treatment. These surveys were complemented with population and fertility data to obtain abortion numbers, rates and ratios, using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. Results In Tanzania, women obtained just over 405,000 induced abortions in 2013, for a national rate of 36 abortions per 1,000 women age 15–49 and a ratio of 21 abortions per 100 live births. For each woman treated in a facility for induced abortion complications, 6 times as many women had an abortion but did not receive care. Abortion rates vary widely by zone, from 10.7 in Zanzibar to 50.7 in the Lake zone. Conclusions The abortion rate is similar to that of other countries in the region. Variations by zone are explained mainly by differences in fertility and contraceptive prevalence. Measures to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated maternal mortality include expanding access to post-abortion care and contraceptive services to prevent unintended pregnancies. PMID:26361246

  19. Induced abortion as an independent risk factor for breast cancer: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Brind, J; Chinchilli, V M; Severs, W B; Summy-Long, J

    1996-01-01

    : The results support the inclusion of induced abortion among significant independent risk factors for breast cancer, regardless of parity or timing of abortion relative to the first term pregnancy. Although the increase in risk was relatively low, the high incidence of both breast cancer and induced abortion suggest a substantial impact of thousands of excess cases per year currently, and a potentially much greater impact in the next century, as the first cohort of women exposed to legal induced abortion continues to age. PMID:8944853

  20. The abortion debate in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rees, H

    1991-01-01

    Before 1975 abortion was illegal in South Africa unless the life of the mother was at risk. The Abortion and Sterilization Act (ASA) of 1975 broadened the scope of legal abortion. The act allows abortion to save the life of the mother, in cases of severe fetal deformity, in cases or rape or incest, or if the woman is mentally incompetent. The procedure to get the abortion includes finding a doctor to recommend the procedure, then finding 2 other doctors to claim, in good faith, that abortion is indicated. At least 1 of these doctors must have been practicing for 4 years and neither can participate in the procedure. The operation must take place in a state controlled institution or an institution specifically designed for abortion. This law is currently not serving the needs of the women of South Africa, even among the women who are legally entitled to have an abortion. Annually only 40% of those that apply for abortion are approved and over 70% of the approved procedures are performed on psychological grounds. It is estimated that there are 200,000-300,000 illegal abortions every year. At Baragwanath there are 15,000 patients admitted for infection related to abortion every year. The ASA has failed to stop illegal abortion and failed to meet the needs of society. The abortion law should be liberalized for a variety of reasons. Women do not have adequate access to contraceptives in South Africa. This results in the birth of many unwanted children which are more likely to be abused and abandoned. Even if contraceptives were universally available, they all have associated failure rates. Since it is assumed that a women using contraceptives does not want to become pregnant, abortion needs to be available as a backup to contraceptives. Since South Africa is a patriarchal society, women must be given control over their reproduction if they are to achieve equal status. Thus for the reasons of preventing unwanted and unwanted and abused children, backing up contraceptives

  1. Shuttle Abort Flight Management (SAFM) - Application Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Howard; Straube, Tim; Madsen, Jennifer; Ricard, Mike

    2002-01-01

    One of the most demanding tasks that must be performed by the Space Shuttle flight crew is the process of determining whether, when and where to abort the vehicle should engine or system failures occur during ascent or entry. Current Shuttle abort procedures involve paging through complicated paper checklists to decide on the type of abort and where to abort. Additional checklists then lead the crew through a series of actions to execute the desired abort. This process is even more difficult and time consuming in the absence of ground communications since the ground flight controllers have the analysis tools and information that is currently not available in the Shuttle cockpit. Crew workload specifically abort procedures will be greatly simplified with the implementation of the Space Shuttle Cockpit Avionics Upgrade (CAU) project. The intent of CAU is to maximize crew situational awareness and reduce flight workload thru enhanced controls and displays, and onboard abort assessment and determination capability. SAFM was developed to help satisfy the CAU objectives by providing the crew with dynamic information about the capability of the vehicle to perform a variety of abort options during ascent and entry. This paper- presents an overview of the SAFM application. As shown in Figure 1, SAFM processes the vehicle navigation state and other guidance information to provide the CAU displays with evaluations of abort options, as well as landing site recommendations. This is accomplished by three main SAFM components: the Sequencer Executive, the Powered Flight Function, and the Glided Flight Function, The Sequencer Executive dispatches the Powered and Glided Flight Functions to evaluate the vehicle's capability to execute the current mission (or current abort), as well as more than IS hypothetical abort options or scenarios. Scenarios are sequenced and evaluated throughout powered and glided flight. Abort scenarios evaluated include Abort to Orbit (ATO), Transatlantic

  2. J-2X Abort System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, Louis M.; Butas, John P.; Aguilar, Robert B.; Sowers, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    The J-2X is an expendable liquid hydrogen (LH2)/liquid oxygen (LOX) gas generator cycle rocket engine that is currently being designed as the primary upper stage propulsion element for the new NASA Ares vehicle family. The J-2X engine will contain abort logic that functions as an integral component of the Ares vehicle abort system. This system is responsible for detecting and responding to conditions indicative of impending Loss of Mission (LOM), Loss of Vehicle (LOV), and/or catastrophic Loss of Crew (LOC) failure events. As an earth orbit ascent phase engine, the J-2X is a high power density propulsion element with non-negligible risk of fast propagation rate failures that can quickly lead to LOM, LOV, and/or LOC events. Aggressive reliability requirements for manned Ares missions and the risk of fast propagating J-2X failures dictate the need for on-engine abort condition monitoring and autonomous response capability as well as traditional abort agents such as the vehicle computer, flight crew, and ground control not located on the engine. This paper describes the baseline J-2X abort subsystem concept of operations, as well as the development process for this subsystem. A strategy that leverages heritage system experience and responds to an evolving engine design as well as J-2X specific test data to support abort system development is described. The utilization of performance and failure simulation models to support abort system sensor selection, failure detectability and discrimination studies, decision threshold definition, and abort system performance verification and validation is outlined. The basis for abort false positive and false negative performance constraints is described. Development challenges associated with information shortfalls in the design cycle, abort condition coverage and response assessment, engine-vehicle interface definition, and abort system performance verification and validation are also discussed.

  3. Irish women who seek abortions in England.

    PubMed

    Francome, C

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, 4158 women from Ireland and 1766 from Northern Ireland traveled to England for abortions. This situation has been ignored by Irish authorities. The 1992 case of the 14-year old seeking an abortion in England finally caught legal attention. This study attempts to help define who these abortion seekers are. Questionnaires from 200 Irish abortion seeking women attending private Marie Stopes clinics in London and the British Pregnancy Advisory Services clinic in Liverpool between September 1988 and December 1990 were analyzed. Findings pertain to demographic characteristics, characteristics of first intercourse, family discussion of sexual activity, and contraceptive use. From this limited sample, it appears that Irish women are sexually reserved and without access to modern methods of birth control and abortion. Sex is associated with shame and guilt. 23% had intercourse before the age of 18 years and 42% after the age of 20. 76% were single and 16% were currently married. 95% were Catholic; 33% had been to church the preceding Sunday and 68% within the past month. Basic information about menstruation is also limited and procedures such as dilatation and curettage may be performed selectively. 28% of married women were uninformed about menstruation prior to its onset. Only 24% had been using birth control around the time of pregnancy. The reason for nonuse was frequently the unexpectedness of intercourse. 62% of adults and 66% of women believe in legalizing abortion in Ireland. British groups have tried to break through the abortion information ban by sending telephone numbers of abortion clinics to Irish firms for distribution to employees. On November 25, 1992, in the general election, there was approval of constitutional amendments guaranteeing the right to travel for abortions and to receive information on abortion access. The amendment to allow abortion to save the life of the mother was not accepted. PMID:1483530

  4. Midtrimester abortion: techniques and complications.

    PubMed

    LaFerla, J J

    1983-06-01

    Midtrimester abortion may be accomplished by a variety of techniques, alone or in combination. Comprehensive care of patients who require or request pregnancy termination in the second trimester must include careful assessment of medical and psychological conditions. Special attention needs to be paid to gestational age, and for many cases ultrasonography should be part of the evaluation. With the variety of techniques and combinations available, physicians can now individualize patient care to minimize morbidity and mortality while improving patient comfort and well being. PMID:6413116

  5. STS-1 operational flight profile. Volume 6: Abort analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The abort analysis for the cycle 3 Operational Flight Profile (OFP) for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) is defined, superseding the abort analysis previously presented. Included are the flight description, abort analysis summary, flight design groundrules and constraints, initialization information, general abort description and results, abort solid rocket booster and external tank separation and disposal results, abort monitoring displays and discussion on both ground and onboard trajectory monitoring, abort initialization load summary for the onboard computer, list of the key abort powered flight dispersion analysis.

  6. Factors associated with abortion-seeking and obtaining a safe abortion in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Aparna; Juarez, Fatima; Bankole, Akinrinola; Singh, Susheela

    2012-12-01

    Although Ghana's abortion law is fairly liberal, unsafe abortion and its consequences remain among the largest contributors to maternal mortality in the country. This study analyzes data from the 2007 Ghana Maternal Health Survey to identify the sociodemographic profiles of women who seek to induce abortion and those who are able to obtain safe abortion services. We hypothesize that women who have access to safe abortion will not be distributed randomly across different social groups in Ghana; rather, access will be influenced by social and economic factors. The results confirm this hypothesis and reveal that the women who are most vulnerable to unsafe abortions are younger, poorer, and lack partner support. The study concludes with policy recommendations for improving access to safe abortion for all subgroups of women, especially the most vulnerable. PMID:23239247

  7. Impact of Fukushima-derived radiocesium in the western North Pacific Ocean about ten months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Aoyama, Michio; Hamajima, Yasunori; Murata, Akihiko; Kawano, Takeshi

    2015-02-01

    We measured vertical distributions of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) at stations along the 149°E meridian in the western North Pacific during winter 2012, about ten months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident. The Fukushima-derived (134)Cs activity concentration and water-column inventory were largest in the transition region between 35 and 40°N approximately due to the directed discharge of the contaminated water from the FNPP1. The bomb-derived (137)Cs activity concentration just before the FNPP1 accident was derived from the excess (137)Cs activity concentration relative to the (134)Cs activity concentration. The water-column inventory of the bomb-derived (137)Cs was largest in the subtropical region south of 35°N, which implies that the Fukushima-derived (134)Cs will also be transported from the transition region to the subtropical region in the coming decades. Mean values of the water-column inventories decay-corrected for the Fukushima-derived (134)Cs and the bomb-derived (137)Cs were estimated to be 1020 ± 80 and 820 ± 120 Bq m(-2), respectively, suggesting that in winter 2012 the impact of the FNPP1 accident in the western North Pacific Ocean was nearly the same as that of nuclear weapons testing. Relationship between the water-column inventory and the activity concentration in surface water for the radiocesium is essential information for future evaluation of the total amount of Fukushima-derived radiocesium released into the North Pacific Ocean. PMID:25461523

  8. Induced Abortion: An Ethical Conundrum for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millner, Vaughn S.; Hanks, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most controversial moral issues in American culture, but counselor value struggles regarding abortion are seldom addressed in counseling literature. This article considers the conflictual nature of the ethical principles of autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence as they can occur within the…

  9. Safe abortion: a right for refugees?

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Aimee

    2002-05-01

    Thanks to initiatives since 1994, most reproductive health programmes for refugee women now include family planning and safe delivery care. Emergency contraception and post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortion are recommended, but provision of these services has lagged behind, while services for women who wish to terminate an unwanted pregnancy are almost non-existent. Given conditions in refugee settings, including high levels of sexual violence, unwanted pregnancies are of particular concern. Yet the extent of need for abortion services among refugee women remains undocumented. UNFPA estimates that 25-50% of maternal deaths in refugee settings are due to complications of unsafe abortion. Barriers to providing abortion services may include internal and external political pressure, legal restrictions, or the religious affiliation of service providers. Women too may be pressured to continue pregnancies and are often unable to express their needs or assert their rights. Abortion advocacy efforts should highlight the specific needs of refugee women and encourage provision of services where abortion is legally indicated, especially in cases of rape or incest, and risk to a woman's physical and mental health. Implementation of existing guidelines on reducing the occurrence and consequences of sexual violence in refugee settings is also important. Including refugee women in international campaigns for expanded access to safe abortion is critical in addressing the specific needs of this population. PMID:12369319

  10. Complexifying Commodification, Consumption, ART, and Abortion.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2015-01-01

    This commentary on Madeira's paper complicates the relationships between commodification, consumption, abortion, and assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) she draws in two ways. First, I examine under what conditions the commodification of ARTs, gametes, and surrogacy lead to patients becoming consumers. Second, I show that there are some stark difference between applying commodification critiques to ART versus abortion. PMID:26242952

  11. Comment: unethical ethics investment boycotts and abortion.

    PubMed

    Furedi, A

    1998-01-01

    Ethical investment funds have traditionally boycotted the arms industry, companies known to pollute the environment, and those involved in animal research. However, recent newspaper reports suggest that some investment funds plan to also boycott hospitals and pharmaceutical companies involved in abortion-related activities. Ethical Financial, anti-abortion independent financial advisors, are encouraging a boycott of investment in private hospitals and manufacturers of equipment involved in abortions, and pharmaceutical firms which produce postcoital contraception or conduct embryo research. Ethical Financial claims that Family Assurance has agreed to invest along anti-abortion lines, Aberdeen Investment is already boycotting companies linked to abortion, and Hendersons ethical fund plans to follow suit. There is speculation that Standard Life, the largest mutual insurer in Europe, will also refuse to invest in abortion-related concerns when it launches its ethical fund in the spring. Managers of ethical funds should, however, understand that, contrary to the claims of the anti-choice lobby, there is extensive public support for legal abortion, emergency contraception, and embryo research. Individuals and institutions which contribute to the development of reproductive health care services are working to alleviate the distress of unwanted pregnancy and infertility, laudable humanitarian goals which should be encouraged. Those who try to restrict the development of abortion methods and services simply show contempt for women, treating them as people devoid of conscience who are incapable of making moral choices. PMID:12321439

  12. Abortion: The Viewpoint of Potential Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamrick, Michael H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A college survey showed strong support by a majority for legalized abortion, governmental support of abortion and family planning services, voluntary sterilization, and sex education and birth control information and/or services in the schools. Important differences of opinion among subgroups were, however, indicated. (Author/MJB)

  13. [Abortion: an ethical or political issue?].

    PubMed

    Divay, Sophie

    2015-12-01

    Forty years after the decriminalisation of abortion, what is society's view of this hard-fought right of women? Do they finally have the freedom to control their own bodies? The sociological view put forward here questions the professional positioning of caregivers faced with women requesting an elective abortion. PMID:26654494

  14. Group A Streptococcus Endometritis following Medical Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Kernéis, Solen

    2014-01-01

    Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol. PMID:24829245

  15. Minors' Competence to Consent to Abortion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews psychological evidence regarding minors' competence to consent to abortion. Covers the following topics: (1) the source and nature of advice regarding the abortion decision; (2) conformity to peer and parent advice; (3) the developmental tasks of adolescence; and (4) reasoning skills. (Author/LHW)

  16. Adolescents and Abortion: Choice in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Rebecca

    This publication seeks to explain the many facets of adolescent abortion: teenagers' need for access to safe abortion; the need for confidentiality in order to ensure safety; the real intent and effect of parental involvement laws; and the roles of parents and the state in safeguarding the health of pregnant teenagers. The first section looks at…

  17. Induced Abortions and Unintended Pregnancies in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Sathar, Zeba; Singh, Susheela; Rashida, Gul; Shah, Zakir; Niazi, Rehan

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, unmet need for family planning has remained high in Pakistan and gains in contraceptive prevalence have been small. Drawing upon data from a 2012 national study on postabortion-care complications and a methodology developed by the Guttmacher Institute for estimating abortion incidence, we estimate that there were 2.2 million abortions in Pakistan in 2012, an annual abortion rate of 50 per 1,000 women. A previous study estimated an abortion rate of 27 per 1,000 women in 2002. After taking into consideration the earlier study’s underestimation of abortion incidence, we conclude that the abortion rate has likely increased substantially between 2002 and 2012. Varying contraceptive-use patterns and abortion rates are found among the provinces, with higher abortion rates in Baluchistan and Sindh than in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab. This suggests that strategies for coping with the otherwise uniformly high unintended pregnancy rates will differ among provinces. The need for an accelerated and fortified family planning program is greater than ever, as is the need to implement strategies to improve the quality and coverage of postabortion services. PMID:25469930

  18. Muslim women having abortions in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, Ellen; Najafi, Roya; Soheil, Naghma; Kamani, Alya

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To improve understanding of the attitudes, beliefs, and experiences of Muslim patients presenting for abortion. Design Exploratory study in which participants completed questionnaires about their attitudes, beliefs, and experiences. Setting Two urban, free-standing abortion clinics. Participants Fifty-three self-identified Muslim patients presenting for abortion. Main outcome measures Women’s background, beliefs, and attitudes toward their religion and toward abortion; levels of anxiety, depression, and guilt, scored on a scale of 0 to 10; and degree of pro-choice or anti-choice attitude toward abortion, assessed by having respondents identify under which circumstances a woman should be able to have an abortion. Results The 53 women in this study were a diverse group, aged 17 to 47 years, born in 17 different countries, with a range of beliefs and attitudes toward abortion. As found in previous studies, women who were less pro-choice (identified fewer acceptable reasons to have an abortion) had higher anxiety and guilt scores than more pro-choice women did: 6.9 versus 4.9 (P = .01) and 6.9 versus 3.6 (P = .004), respectively. Women who said they strongly agreed that abortion was against Islamic principles also had higher anxiety and guilt scores: 9.3 versus 5.9 (P = .03) and 9.5 versus 5.3 (P = .03), respectively. Conclusion Canadian Muslim women presenting for abortion come from many countries and schools of Islam. The group of Muslim women that we surveyed was so diverse that no generalizations can be made about them. Their attitudes toward abortion ranged from being completely pro-choice to believing abortion is wrong unless it is done to save a woman’s life. Many said they found their religion to be a source of comfort as well as a source of guilt, turning to prayer and meditation to cope with their feelings about the abortion. It is important that physicians caring for Muslim women understand that their patients come from a variety of

  19. [Words and definition of early abortion].

    PubMed

    Takahama, K; Hoshiai, H; Yajima, A

    1989-04-01

    Early abortion traditionally referred to abortion within 12 weeks of gestational age, but it is necessary to divide it into 3 stages: ultra early abortion for the one within 5 weeks of gestational age; very early abortion for the one within 8 weeks; early abortion for the one between 8 and 12 weeks. Progress and development in them are of IVF-ET and GIFT necessitated redefining pregnancy and resulted in great number of terms related to early pregnancy and abortion, which are not standardized and sometimes confusing. In connection with IVF-ET research, the following 3 stages of early pregnancy are recognized by Japanese doctors. Biochemical pregnancy is when plasma level of beta HCG is above norm. Early clinical pregnancy is when the Gestational sac is detected by ultrasonography but the heat beat of fetus is not yet confirmed. Established clinical pregnancy is when the heart beat of the fetus is confirmed via ultrasonography. Early abortion is divided into 2 stages: subclinical abortion (menstrual abortion), which is menstrual like fetus wastage in biomedical pregnancy, and clinical abortion in which a blighted ovum is detected by ultrasonic examination. Classification above is simple and easy but it heavily relies on measurement methods, results of which often fluctuate and are subject to change. It seems desirable to classify early abortion according to gestational age (GS). GS may be detected as early as 4 weeks, is above 10 mm in the maximum diameter at 5 weeks, and is detected in all cases at 6 weeks. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test by 1000 IU/1 sees positive response in almost all cases at 6 weeks, while HCG by 200 IU/1 sees the same at 5 weeks. The heart beat of the fetus is believed to commence at 4 weeks but it is not detected by ultrasonography at the earliest till the end of 5 weeks and in all cases till 8 weeks. The classification of ultra early abortion, very early abortion and early abortion, is based on above findings. PMID:12158570

  20. Estimates of the Incidence of Induced Abortion And Consequences of Unsafe Abortion in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Sedgh, Gilda; Sylla, Amadou Hassane; Philbin, Jesse; Keogh, Sarah; Ndiaye, Salif

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT Abortion is highly restricted by law in Senegal. Although women seek care for abortion complications, no national estimate of abortion incidence exists. METHODS Data on postabortion care and abortion in Senegal were collected in 2013 using surveys of a nationally representative sample of 168 health facilities that provide postabortion care and of 110 professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Indirect estimation techniques were applied to the data to estimate the incidence of induced abortion in the country. Abortion rates and ratios were calculated for the nation and separately for the Dakar region and the rest of the country. The distribution of pregnancies by planning status and by outcome was estimated. RESULTS In 2012, an estimated 51,500 induced abortions were performed in Senegal, and 16,700 (32%) resulted in complications that were treated at health facilities. The estimated abortion rate was 17 per 1,000 women aged 15–44 and the abortion ratio was 10 per 100 live births. The rate was higher in Dakar (21 per 1,000) than in the rest of the country (16 per 1,000). Poor women were far more likely to experience abortion complications, and less likely to receive treatment for complications, than nonpoor women. About 31% of pregnancies were unintended, and 24% of unintended pregnancies (8% of all pregnancies) ended in abortion. CONCLUSIONS Unsafe abortion exacts a heavy toll on women in Senegal. Reducing the barriers to effective contraceptive use and ensuring access to postabortion care without the risk of legal consequences may reduce the incidence of and complications from unsafe abortion. PMID:25856233

  1. Restrictive abortion laws, antiabortion attitudes and women's contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Medoff, Marshall H

    2012-01-01

    This study empirically examines the public and social policy question: Do state restrictive abortion laws affect the likelihood that women use more highly effective contraceptive methods? Using contraceptive use data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2002 survey, the empirical results show that Medicaid Funding Restrictions, Informed Consent Laws, and Two-Visit Laws have no significant impact on adult women's (ages 18-44, 18-24, 25-34, 35-44) use of highly effective contraceptive methods. A state's antiabortion attitudes, which likely contribute to the enactment of restrictive abortion laws in a state, are a major factor in inducing greater use of highly effective contraceptive methods by adult women at-risk of an unintended pregnancy. The empirical findings remain robust for various population subgroups of adult women (i.e., married, single, employed, unemployed, with children, no children and college educated). PMID:23017704

  2. Subchorionic hematoma in threatened abortion: Sonographic evaluation and significance.

    PubMed

    Al Nuaim, L; Chowdhury, N; Adelusi, B

    1996-11-01

    In a study of 92 women with subchorionic hematoma evaluated with sonographic scan in King Khalid University Hospital, it was found that the mean ages and live births of patients who carried their pregnancies to viability were higher when compared with the patients who aborted. There was a statistically significant association between the gestational age at diagnosis of subchorionic hematoma and the size of the hematoma. There was, however, no statistically significant association found between the gestational age at diagnosis, size and site of the hematoma and the outcome of pregnancy. It was concluded that subchorionic hematoma which appear either in the second trimester, or are larger, or located in the lower uterine segment, may be associated with higher rates of abortion or preterm deliveries. Nevertheless, there is no statistically significant impact of these on the outcome of pregnancy. PMID:17429250

  3. [Therapeutic abortion, unjustified absence in health policy].

    PubMed

    Chávez-Alvarado, Susana

    2013-07-01

    Although abortion for health reasons is not considered a crime in Peru, the State does not allow its inclusion in public policy, thus violating women's right to terminate a pregnancy when it affects their health. When examining the article in the Criminal Code which decriminalizes this type of abortion, provisions are identified which protect women and set the conditions to offer this type of service. This document sets the debate about the arguments used by the Peruvian State for not approving a therapeutic abortion protocol which would regulate the provision and financing of therapeutic abortion in public services, and explains why this obligation should be complied with, based on the conceptual framework of "health exception" In addition, it presents two cases brought before the judicial court in which the Peruvian State was found guilty of violating the human rights of two adolescents to whom a therapeutic abortion was denied. PMID:24100828

  4. [Scope of the indications for abortion].

    PubMed

    Martella, E

    1976-09-01

    Legalization of abortion in Italy generates never ending discussions. The problem should have been solved years ago with a national campaign for family planning, with the setting up of well organized family centers, and with contraception available and free to all. If it seems right and proper to perform abortion under certain circumstances, it does not seem proper to take into consideration socioeconomic conditions, and certainly not abortion on request; a new life must not be wasted because a woman does not feel like having a new child. Abortion, on the other hand, is certainly to be considered in case of danger for the mother, in case of fetal abnormalities, or when the pregnancy is result of incest or of rape. Abortion for psychological reasons is very valid if the reasons are real, evident, and have been thoroughly evaluated. PMID:1012595

  5. Achieving transparency in implementing abortion laws.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J; Erdman, J N; Dickens, B M

    2007-11-01

    National and international courts and tribunals are increasingly ruling that although states may aim to deter unlawful abortion by criminal penalties, they bear a parallel duty to inform physicians and patients of when abortion is lawful. The fear is that women are unjustly denied safe medical procedures to which they are legally entitled, because without such information physicians are deterred from involvement. With particular attention to the European Court of Human Rights, the UN Human Rights Committee, the Constitutional Court of Colombia, the Northern Ireland Court of Appeal, and the US Supreme Court, decisions are explained that show the responsibility of states to make rights to legal abortion transparent. Litigants are persuading judges to apply rights to reproductive health and human rights to require states' explanations of when abortion is lawful, and governments are increasingly inspired to publicize regulations or guidelines on when abortion will attract neither police nor prosecutors' scrutiny. PMID:17889879

  6. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion

    PubMed Central

    Urquia, Marcelo L.; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O’Campo, Patricia J.; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H.; Henry, David A.; Ray, Joel G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. Methods: We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Results: Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75–2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26–2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44–3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02–7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. Interpretation: High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. PMID:27067818

  7. [Induced abortion: a vulnerable public health problem].

    PubMed

    Requena, M

    1991-03-01

    Induced abortion is an urgent public health problem that can be controlled if it is approached in its true complexity and with a social and humanist perspective. Induced abortion has been discussed in Chile since the last century, but not always openly. Abortion is not just an individual and collective medical problem, it is also an ethical, religious, legal, demographic, political, and psychological problem. Above all it is a problem of human rights. In the past 60 years, more than 50 countries representing 76% of the world population have liberalized their abortion legislation. Around 980 million women have some degrees of access of legal abortion. The magnitude of illegal abortion is difficult to determine because of the desire of women to hide their experiences. Estimates of the incidence of abortion in Chile made some 25 years ago are no longer valid because of the numerous social changes in the intervening years. The number of abortions in Chile in 1987 was estimated using an indirect residual method at 195,441, of which 90%, or 175,897, were induced. By this estimate, 38.8% of pregnancies in Chile end in abortion. Data on hospitalizations for complications of induced abortion show an increase from 13.9/1000 fertile aged women in 1940 to 29.1 in 1965. By 1987, with increased contraceptive usage, the rate declined to 10.5 abortions per 1000 fertile aged women. The cost of hospitalization for abortion complications in 1987, despite the decline, was still estimated at US $4.3 million, a large sum in an era of declining health resources. The problem of induced abortion can be analyzed by placing it in the context of elements affecting the desire to control fertility. 4 complexes of variables are involved: those affecting the supply of contraceptive, the demand for contraceptives, the various costs of fertility control measure, and alternatives to fertility control for satisfying various needs. The analysis is further complicated when efforts are made to

  8. In Chile, therapeutic abortion still a crime. September 28: Latin American Day for Decriminalization of Abortion.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    In September 1993, a two-day symposium on abortion legalization was held in Chile, where abortion, which had been legal since the 1930s, was banned by the outgoing military junta in 1989. Organizers of the symposium labeled the ban "a law to punish and to be flaunted," and, indeed, each year approximately 200,000 Chilean women resort to abortion and more than 30,000 are hospitalized for abortion complications. It has been estimated that one woman has died of abortion complications in Chile each week for the past five years. Legislation proposed in 1991 to reinstate therapeutic abortion has stalled because of broad spectrum political opposition, pressure from the Roman Catholic Church, and upcoming elections. In this politically hostile climate, 43% of respondents in a poll said abortion should be permitted in certain cases, 3% said it should be available to all women, and nearly 53% upheld the ban. Research on public support for abortion has indicated that opinions about abortion depend upon the phrasing of the questions and that women's attitudes towards abortion are shaped by their experiences and those of their relatives and friends rather than by legal or religious prohibitions. PMID:12179718

  9. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lamina, Mustafa Adelaja

    2015-01-01

    Background. Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. Method. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. Results. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. Conclusion. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high. PMID:26078881

  10. Little impact of tsunami-stricken nuclear accident on awareness of radiation dose of cardiac computed tomography: A questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the increased use of cardiac computed tomography (CT), radiation dose remains a major issue, although physicians are trying to reduce the substantial risks associated with use of this diagnostic tool. This study was performed to investigate recognition of the level of radiation exposure from cardiac CT and the differences in the level of awareness of radiation before and after the Fukushima nuclear plant accident. Methods We asked 30 physicians who were undergoing training in internal medicine to determine the equivalent doses of radiation for common radiological examinations when a normal chest X-ray is accepted as one unit; questions about the absolute radiation dose of cardiac CT data were also asked. Results According to the results, 86.6% of respondents believed the exposure to be 1 mSv at most, and 93.3% thought that the exposure was less than that of 100 chest X-rays. This finding indicates that their perceptions were far lower than the actual amounts. Even after the occurrence of such a large nuclear disaster in Fukushima, there were no significant differences in the same subjects’ overall awareness of radiation amounts. Conclusions Even after such a major social issue as the Fukushima nuclear accident, the level of awareness of the accurate radiation amount used in 64-channel multidetector CT (MDCT) by clinical physicians who order this test was not satisfactory. Thus, there is a need for the development of effective continuing education programs to improve awareness of radiation from ionizing radiation devices, including cardiac CT, and emphasis on risk-benefit evaluation based on accurate knowledge during medical training. PMID:23631688

  11. Liberalized abortion in Oregon: effects on fertility, prematurity, fetal death, and infant death.

    PubMed Central

    Quick, J D

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of Oregon Vital Statistics data from 1965 to 1975 was conducted to assess the impact of Oregon's 1969 abortion legislation, which substantially increased the number of reported medically induced abortions. This increase was associated with a slight increase in the age-adjusted 1970 fertility rate and there was no decrease in births to women in the age groups obtaining proportionately the most abortions. A significant and persistent 11 per cent reduction in premature births to women over age 20 (p less than .001) and a 22 per cent reduction in spontaneous fetal deaths (p less than .05) were associated with liberalized abortion. Decreases in neonatal and postneonatal infant mortality were observed, but were indistinguishable from an ongoing trend toward improved infant health. A gradual 25 per cent decline in the age-adjusted fertility rate occurred between 1969 and 1975, but the increase in the number of reported abortions could account for only one-fourth of this decrease. A seven-fold increase in the use of family planning clinics between 1970 and 1973 and more liberalized laws regarding provision of family planning service appeared to account for a much higher proportion of the decreased fertility than did liberalized abortion. PMID:568892

  12. [Post-abortion contraception: effects of contraception services and reproductive intention].

    PubMed

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela

    2016-02-01

    Contraceptive counseling and the supply of contraceptive methods are part of post-abortion care and positively influence the subsequent use of contraceptive methods. Studies showing such evidence have been conducted predominantly in countries with no legal restrictions on abortion and with adequate care for women that terminate a pregnancy. However, little is known about contraceptive practices in contexts where abortion is illegal, as in Brazil, in which post-abortion contraceptive care is inadequate. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of contraceptive care on male condom use and oral and injectable contraceptives in the six months post-abortion, considering reproductive intention. The results showed that contraceptive care only has a positive effect on the use of oral contraceptives in the first six months post-abortion, as long as the woman had a medical consultation in the same month in which she received information on contraception. One or the other intervention alone had no significant impact. PMID:26910252

  13. State family planning and abortion expenditures: their effect on public health.

    PubMed Central

    Meier, K J; McFarlane, D R

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study examines whether state family planning expenditures and abortion funding for Medicaid-eligible women might reduce the number of low-birthweight babies, babies with late or no prenatal care, and premature births, as well as the rates of infant and neonatal mortality. METHODS. Using a pooled time-series analysis from 1982 to 1988 with the 50 states as units of analysis, this study assessed the impact of family planning expenditures and abortion funding on several public health outcomes while controlling for other important variables and statistical problems inherent in pooled time-series studies. RESULTS. States that funded abortions had a significantly higher rate of abortions and significantly lower rates of teen pregnancy, low-birthweight babies, premature births, and births with late or no prenatal care. States that had higher expenditures for family planning had significantly fewer abortions, low-birthweight babies, births with late or no prenatal care, infant deaths, and neonatal deaths. CONCLUSIONS. Funding abortions for Medicaid-eligible women and increasing the level of expenditures for family planning are associated with major differences in infant and maternal health in the United States. PMID:8092373

  14. The Chornobyl Accident: A Comprehensive Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Poyarkov, Victor A.; Vargo, George J.; George J. Vargo

    2000-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive of the April 1986 Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and its short and long-term effects in the fourteen years since the accident. Chapters include: cause and description of the accident; the Shelter constructed to contain the remains the destroyed reactor, radioactive wastes arising from the accident, environmental contamination, individual and collective radiation doses, societal aspects, economic impact and conclusions. Appendices on radiological units, the medical consequences of the accident, and a list of acronym and abbreviations are included.

  15. Crew Exploration Vehicle Ascent Abort Coverage Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abadie, Marc J.; Berndt, Jon S.; Burke, Laura M.; Falck, Robert D.; Gowan, John W., Jr.; Madsen, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    An important element in the design of NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is the consideration given to crew safety during various ascent phase failure scenarios. To help ensure crew safety during this critical and dynamic flight phase, the CEV requirements specify that an abort capability must be continuously available from lift-off through orbit insertion. To address this requirement, various CEV ascent abort modes are analyzed using 3-DOF (Degree Of Freedom) and 6-DOF simulations. The analysis involves an evaluation of the feasibility and survivability of each abort mode and an assessment of the abort mode coverage using the current baseline vehicle design. Factors such as abort system performance, crew load limits, thermal environments, crew recovery, and vehicle element disposal are investigated to determine if the current vehicle requirements are appropriate and achievable. Sensitivity studies and design trades are also completed so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle design. An overview of the CEV ascent abort modes is presented along with the driving requirements for abort scenarios. The results of the analysis completed as part of the requirements validation process are then discussed. Finally, the conclusions of the study are presented, and future analysis tasks are recommended.

  16. Legal abortion in Italy: 1980-1981.

    PubMed

    Tosi, S L; Grandolfo, M E; Spinelli, A; O'Reilly, K R; Hogue, C J

    1985-01-01

    In 1980 and 1981, there were 446,430 legal abortions performed in Italy. There were about 345 legal abortions per 1,000 live births in 1980 and 363 in 1981. About 1.6 percent of women aged 15-49 obtained abortions in both years. An analysis of the characteristics of Italian women who obtained abortions indicates that most were married (about 70 percent), aged 18-36 (74 percent), had had less than a high school education (74 percent) and had had at least one previous live birth (70-75 percent). In 1981, 88 percent of abortions were obtained in public hospitals; 58 percent were carried out at eight or fewer weeks of gestation; and 78 percent were performed under general anesthesia. Only 20 percent were performed without an overnight stay in the hospital; and over 40 percent of women were hospitalized for two days or longer. Infection after the abortion was reported in only 0.03 percent of cases in 1981, and hemorrhage was reported in only 0.27 percent. In 1981, between 43 percent and 84 percent of gynecologists (depending on the region of the country) declined to perform abortions on grounds of conscience. PMID:3872230

  17. Bills to decriminalize abortion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The National Congress in Brazil is currently considering 9 abortion bills, 2 of which were introduced by women. In this interview, the women senators--Jandira Feghall of the Communist Party and Eva Blay of the Social Democrat Party--discuss the likely outcome of the abortion debate. Although the Roman Catholic Church has announced its intentions to oppose any liberalization of the abortion law, there are divisions within the Church as evidenced by the existence of groups such as Catholics for a Free Choice. Both senators agree that decriminalization of abortion will depend upon the societal response and an effort must be made to reach the many people who are confused and undecided about the issue. Although the present debate fits within the broader current debate on population policies, it has been the insistence of the feminist movement that put abortion reform on the agenda. Blay's bill calls for the legalization of abortion on demand until the 12th week of pregnancy and in cases of rape or risk to the woman's life after that point. A controversial aspect of Feghall's bill is the inclusion of maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection as a condition for abortion. Feghall notes that this is an option rather than a requirement, but she will eliminate this condition if it engenders discrimination against HIV-infected women. PMID:12318722

  18. Abortion: women's demands. Report from Piriapolis.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A

    1993-01-01

    On November 26-28, 1992, the Latin American and Caribbean Women's Health Network convened a meeting in Uruguay entitled, "Abortion in Latin America: Perspectives and Strategies." The first session was devoted to discussion of a paper that argues that a feminist ethic must be developed to counteract the dominant patriarchal ethic, which fails to improve women's lives. The next session covered the World Bank's concerns about the economic consequences of illegal abortion. The third session included descriptions of the experiences of the coordinator of the Sao Paulo Municipal Women's Health Program and of the new Argentine National Women's Health Network. Debate and discussion were generated by the next speaker, who presented a legislative proposal for the decriminalization of abortion in Latin America and noted that restrictive policies, which have failed to reduce abortion rates, will be difficult to change. It was proposed that regional campaigns be launched to legalize abortion as a first step in achieving reproductive rights for women. After a review of abortion-related activities in the region during the past year, participants composed a five-year plan of action in the areas of research, data centralization, petition campaigns, and publication of a review of abortion legislation. Finally, it was proposed that a counselor training course in sexual and reproductive rights be developed. PMID:12179717

  19. Emotional Sequelae of Abortion: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemkau, Jeanne Parr

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes literature on normative reactions to abortion and factors that increase risk of negative emotional sequelae. Discusses characteristics of woman, social support and cultural milieu around the abortion, the medical environment and abortion procedure itself, and events subsequent to abortion which may cause conflict. Discusses implications…

  20. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  1. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  2. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  3. The abortion debate: measuring gestational age.

    PubMed

    Santee, B; Henshaw, S K

    1992-01-01

    Abortion statistics are flawed by the lack of consistency in reporting gestational age. Several methods are generally used, and the number of abortions occurring before 12 weeks changes considerably depending upon the method used to determine gestational age. Pregnancy can be measured from the beginning of last menstruation or from fertilization, which is 14 days after the 1st day of the last menstrual period. Neither method accurately records pregnancy as determined by specialists in embryology and fetal development. Pregnancy actually begins with implantation, which begins 6-7 days after fertilization and ends 10-14 days later. Completion of fertilization and implantation occurs as much as 28 days after the 1st day of the last menstrual period. A report of an 8-week pregnancy is actually 6 weeks from fertilization and 4-5 weeks from implantation. The Centers for Disease Control and other abortion data collecting agencies use the 1st day of the last menstrual period. Statistics generally show that 50% of abortions occur before 8 weeks of gestation and 90% by 12 weeks. When gestation is considered at fertilization, 78% of abortions occur under 9 weeks, while 52% of abortions under 9 weeks are performed with data beginning at the 1st day of the last menstrual period. For abortions occurring under 12 weeks, 95% beginning at fertilization and 90% occur at the 1st day of the last menstrual period. 2/1000 vs. 5/1000 abortions occur under 20 weeks for data beginning at fertilization vs. at the onset of the last period. It is important to report abortion data accurately and to specify the method used to determine the gestational time period. PMID:1526273

  4. Radical surgery in septic abortion.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, P; Ghosh, M; Ghosh, S

    1979-08-01

    At R.G. Kar Medical College Hospital, Calcutta, 10 cases of septic abortion from 1975-1977 were studied. Hysterectomies were preformed on 4 cases due to emergency situations including traumatised uterine fundus and perforated cervix, and on 6 cases after conservative treatment. Upon performing laparotomy in 9 cases, a uterine rent was detected; in 1 case there was a perforation in the posterior wall of the cervix, and in 5 cases mechanical obstructions due to internal adhesions to the uterine rent were found. 4 patients died primarily because of the patients seeking help too late. It is suggested that under high risk circumstances, laparotomy is advantageous to conservative medical management since bowel injuries and mechanical obstructions can only be detected by laparotomy. Radical surgery, however, should be undertaken before the patients general condition deteriorates to the point that the patient cannot tolerate surgical intervention. PMID:12336028

  5. How technology is reframing the abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Callahan, D

    1986-02-01

    Since the 1973 Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion, medical and scientific developments have focused greater public and professional attention on the status of the fetus. Their cumulative effect may influence legal, social, and moral thought and set the stage for a change in public opinion and a challenge to legalized abortion. There is as yet no inexorable convergence of medical data and legal opinion that would undermine the rational of Roe v. Wade. But the prochoice movement must find room for an open airing of the moral questions if abortion is to remain what it should be--a legally acceptable act. PMID:3514547

  6. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    SciTech Connect

    Uythoven, Jan; Boccardi, Andrea; Bravin, Enrico; Goddard, Brennan; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry; Höfle, Wolfgang; Jacquet, Delphine; Kain, Verena; Mazzoni, Stefano; Meddahi, Malika; Valuch, Daniel; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana

    2014-07-01

    To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  7. The Marquis de Sade and induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Farr, A D

    1980-03-01

    In 1795 the Marquis de Sade published his La Philosophic dans le boudoir, in which he proposed the use of induced abortion for social reasons and as a means of population control. It is from this time that medical and social acceptance of abortion can be dated, although previously the subject had not been discussed in public in modern times. It is suggested that it was largely due to de Sade's writing that induced abortion received the impetus which resulted in its subsequent spread in western society. PMID:6990001

  8. Public opinion about abortion-related stigma among Mexican Catholics and implications for unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    McMurtrie, Stephanie M; García, Sandra G; Wilson, Kate S; Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Fawcett, Gillian M

    2012-09-01

    A nationally representative survey was conducted among 3000 Catholics in Mexico during 2009 and 2010. Respondents were presented with a hypothetical situation about a young woman who decided to have an abortion and were asked their personal opinion of her. On the basis of a stigma index, it was found that the majority (61%) had stigmatizing attitudes about abortion; however, 81% believed that abortion should be legal in at least some circumstances. Respondents were significantly more likely to stigmatize abortion if they disagreed with the Mexico City law legalizing the procedure (odds ratio 1.66; 95% CI, 1.30-2.11) and believed that abortion should be prohibited in all cases (odds ratio 3.13; 95% CI, 2.28-4.30). Such stigma can lead women to seek unsafe abortions to avoid judgment by society. PMID:22920621

  9. Factors associated with immediate abortion complications.

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, L E; McMain-Klein, M; Colodny, N; Fellows, G F; Lamont, J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with increased risk of immediate complications from induced abortion. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a provincial database. SETTING: All Ontario general hospitals in which abortions are performed and all free-standing abortion clinics in Ontario. POPULATION: Women in Ontario aged 15 to 44 years who underwent an induced abortion in the province (without concurrent sterilization) between Jan. 1, 1992, and Dec. 31, 1993. OUTCOME MEASURES: Recording of complications at the time of the procedure, gestational age, type of procedure, place of abortion (hospital or clinic), and patient's age, parity and history of previous abortion (spontaneous or induced). RESULTS: During the study period 83 469 abortions were performed that met our inclusion criteria. Immediate complications were reported in 571 cases (0.7%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that, after other variables were controlled for, the patient's age, parity and history of previous abortions (spontaneous or induced) were not significant risk factors for immediate complications; however, gestational age, method of abortion and place of abortion were significant risk factors (p < 0.001). The odds ratio (OR) for having a complication from abortion was 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 1.63) between 9 and 12 weeks, compared with having one after abortion at 9 weeks or earlier, and increased to 3.3 (95% CI 2.23 to 5.00) after abortion between 17 and 20 weeks. Compared with surgical dilatation and curettage (D&C), instillation of saline and instillation of prostaglandins were more likely to be associated with immediate complications (OR 24.0, 95% CI 13.22 to 43.70, and OR 11.7, 95% CI 6.43 to 21.18, respectively), whereas both suction D&C and insertion of a laminaria tent were less likely to be associated with immediate complications (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.67, and OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.52, respectively). Compared with women who had an abortion

  10. Radiological impact of the nuclear power plant accident on freshwater fish in Fukushima: An overview of monitoring results.

    PubMed

    Wada, Toshihiro; Tomiya, Atsushi; Enomoto, Masahiro; Sato, Toshiyuki; Morishita, Daigo; Izumi, Shigehiko; Niizeki, Kouji; Suzuki, Shunji; Morita, Takami; Kawata, Gyo

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide ((131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs) concentrations of monitored freshwater fish species collected from different habitats (rivers, lakes, and culture ponds) in Fukushima Prefecture during March 2011-December 2014 (total 16 species, n = 2692) were analyzed to present a detailed description of radionuclide contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, and to elucidate species-specific spatiotemporal declining trends of (137)Cs concentration for their respective habitats. Low concentrations of (131)I (≤24 Bq kg(-1)-wet) were detected from only 11 samples collected during March-June 2011, demonstrating that (131)I transferred to freshwater fish were not intense. In river and lake fishes, a more gradual decrease and higher radiocesium ((134)Cs, (137)Cs) concentrations were observed than in culture pond fishes, which strongly implied that radiocesium in freshwater fish species was mainly bioaccumulated through the food web in the wild. During 2011-2014, percentages above the Japanese regulatory limit of 100 Bq kg(-1)-wet for radiocesium in river and lake fish (14.0% and 39.6%, respectively) were higher than in monitored marine fish (9.9%), indicating longer-term contamination of freshwater fish species, especially in lakes. Higher radiocesium concentrations (maximum 18.7 kBq kg(-1)-wet in Oncorhynchus masou) were found in the northwestern areas from the FDNPP with higher deposition. However, radiocesium contamination levels were regarded as 1-2 orders of magnitude less than those after the Chernobyl accident. Lagged increase of (137)Cs concentration and longer ecological half-lives (Teco: 1.2-2.6 y in the central part of Fukushima Prefecture) were observed in carnivorous salmonids (O. masou, Salvelinus leucomaenis), whereas a rapid increase and decrease of (137)Cs concentration and shorter Teco (0.99 and 0.69 y) were found in herbivorous and planktivorous osmerids (Plecoglossus altivelis, Hypomesus nipponensis) with

  11. Transport aircraft accident dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

  12. Commercial Crew Program: Launch Abort Systems

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's work in the next generation of launch abort systems (LAS) is significantly different from past programs. Instead of designing a specific system for a given spacecraft or rocket, engineers ar...

  13. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone levels normally change throughout ... the development of breast cancer. Important Information about Breast Cancer Risk Factors At present, the factors known to ...

  14. Clandestine abortion in Latin America: provider perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, K; Strickler, J

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of in-depth interviews with ten clandestine abortion providers in urban Latin America. Three related issues are addressed: how abortion providers come to this line of work; their major difficulties; and their sources of job satisfaction. A variety of paths bring health professionals to the practice of abortion; common elements are a sense of calling, a desire to help women, personal experience with abortion, and a commitment to political change. Providers describe difficulties that include a lack of medical support, the need for secrecy, and threats of violence, extortion, and prosecution. In spite of difficulties, all providers report a great deal of fulfillment in their work, based on their satisfaction in saving women's lives, maintaining supportive relationships with colleagues, and empowering women. PMID:10374808

  15. Launch Abort System Flight Test Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy; Bosworth, John T.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is an overview of the Launch Abort System (LAS) for the Constellation Program. The purpose of the paper is to review the planned tests for the LAS. The program will evaluate the performance of the crew escape functions of the Launch Abort System (LAS) specifically: the ability of the LAS to separate from the crew module, to gather flight test data for future design and implementation and to reduce system development risks.

  16. Catholicism and abortion since Roe v. Wade.

    PubMed

    Hisel, L M

    1998-01-01

    This document summarizes a sample of significant activities and events undertaken by Roman Catholics in response to the US Supreme Court's Roe vs. Wade decision legalizing induced abortion. The summaries begin with the 1966 creation of the National Right to Life Committee and cover opposition of Catholic bishops to the Roe decision, the organization of the National Committee for a Human Life Amendment (NCHLA), the mock investiture of a female pope by Catholics for a Free Choice, dismissal of a pro-life priest from the Jesuits, excommunication of various women because of their work with pro-choice agencies or ones that provided abortion services, meetings of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) with presidential candidates, NCHLA lobbying for the Hyde Amendment, open letters and advertisements published by CFC, the effort of Abortion Rights Mobilization to strip the Catholic church of its tax-exempt status, the Vatican order for all priests to leave political office, actions taken by nuns to support the pro-choice position, the proposal of the "seamless garment" argument under the principle of the "consistent ethic of life," initiation of the post-abortion reconciliation project, the actions of Catholic politicians, the filing of amicus curiae briefs, support of bishops for Operation Rescue, forums on abortion conducted by an Archbishop, the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion, targeting by bishops of pro-choice candidates for sanctions and excommunication, testimony and lobbying in opposition of the Freedom of Choice Act, false accusations about the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development leveled by bishops, lobbying by bishops in support of a ban on late-term abortions, lobbying to increase the access of low-income women to abortion, and consideration by the bishops of reinstituting "meatless Fridays" to express Catholic opposition to "attacks on human life and dignity." PMID:12178893

  17. South African parliament approves sweeping abortion reform.

    PubMed

    1996-11-22

    South Africa's National Assembly voted 209 to 87 for passage of the "Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act" on October 30; it was passed in the Senate, 49 to 21 (20 abstentions), on November 5. The African National Congress strongly supported the Act, while the National Party opposed it. Under the law, abortions during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy may to be performed by physicians or trained midwives. From week 13 through week 20, a physician, in consultation with the mother, may terminate the pregnancy after determining that continuing the pregnancy would threaten the woman's health (physical or mental) or circumstances (social or economic), or that the fetus is at substantial risk of suffering severe physical or mental abnormalities. Abortion is permitted after 20 weeks if two doctors (or midwives) decide continuing the pregnancy would endanger the mother's life or result in injury or severe malformation of the fetus. Only the pregnant woman's consent is required. Although an abortion provider must advise a young client to consult with parents, guardian, family members, or friends before the procedure, she is not required to comply. All women are to be informed of their rights under the Act; criminal penalties (up to 10 years) are mandated for unauthorized abortion providers, for persons who prevent a lawful abortion, or for those who obstruct access to an abortion facility. The new statute repeals the more restrictive Abortion and Sterilization Act of 1975, which permitted abortion only in cases of maternal life or health endangerment, severe fetal abnormality, rape, incest, or mental incapacity. PMID:12292092

  18. The Bad Mother: Stigma, Abortion and Surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Stigma taints individuals with a spoiled identity and loss of status or discrimination. This article is the first to examine the stigma attached to abortion and surrogacy and consider how law may stigmatize women for failing to conform to social expectations about maternal roles. Courts should consider evidence of stigma when evaluating laws regulating abortion or surrogacy to determine whether these laws are based on impermissible gender stereotyping. PMID:26242937

  19. The psychiatric consequences of spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Friedman, T; Gath, D

    1989-12-01

    Sixty-seven women were interviewed four weeks after spontaneous abortion. As determined by the Present State Examination, 32 of these women were psychiatric cases. This rate is four times higher than in the general population of women. In each case the diagnosis was depressive disorder, a finding confirmed by scores on three depression rating scales. Many women showed typical features of grief. Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with a history of previous spontaneous abortion, and less so with childlessness. PMID:2620207

  20. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following appendices: Severe accident data; truck accident data; railroad accident data; highway survey data and bridge column properties; structural analysis; thermal analysis; probability estimation techniques; and benchmarking for computer codes used in impact analysis. (LN)

  1. Modeling secondary accidents identified by traffic shock waves.

    PubMed

    Junhua, Wang; Boya, Liu; Lanfang, Zhang; Ragland, David R

    2016-02-01

    The high potential for occurrence and the negative consequences of secondary accidents make them an issue of great concern affecting freeway safety. Using accident records from a three-year period together with California interstate freeway loop data, a dynamic method for more accurate classification based on the traffic shock wave detecting method was used to identify secondary accidents. Spatio-temporal gaps between the primary and secondary accident were proven be fit via a mixture of Weibull and normal distribution. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate major factors contributing to secondary accident occurrence. Traffic shock wave speed and volume at the occurrence of a primary accident were explicitly considered in the model, as a secondary accident is defined as an accident that occurs within the spatio-temporal impact scope of the primary accident. Results show that the shock waves originating in the wake of a primary accident have a more significant impact on the likelihood of a secondary accident occurrence than the effects of traffic volume. Primary accidents with long durations can significantly increase the possibility of secondary accidents. Unsafe speed and weather are other factors contributing to secondary crash occurrence. It is strongly suggested that when police or rescue personnel arrive at the scene of an accident, they should not suddenly block, decrease, or unblock the traffic flow, but instead endeavor to control traffic in a smooth and controlled manner. Also it is important to reduce accident processing time to reduce the risk of secondary accident. PMID:26687540

  2. Abortion and anxiety: what's the relationship?

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Julia Renee; Russo, Nancy F

    2008-07-01

    Using data from the United States National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), we conducted secondary data analyses to examine the relationship of abortion, including multiple abortions, to anxiety after first pregnancy outcome in two studies. First, when analyzing the NSFG, we found that pre-pregnancy anxiety symptoms, rape history, age at first pregnancy outcome (abortion vs. delivery), race, marital status, income, education, subsequent abortions, and subsequent deliveries accounted for a significant association initially found between first pregnancy outcome and experiencing subsequent anxiety symptoms. We then tested the relationship of abortion to clinically diagnosed generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and social anxiety disorder, using NCS data. Contrary to findings from our analyses of the NSFG, in the NCS analyses we did not find a significant relationship between first pregnancy outcome and subsequent rates of GAD, social anxiety, or PTSD. However, multiple abortions were found to be associated with much higher rates of PTSD and social anxiety; this relationship was largely explained by pre-pregnancy mental health disorders and their association with higher rates of violence. Researchers and clinicians need to learn more about the relations of violence exposure, mental health, and pregnancy outcome to avoid attributing poor mental health solely to pregnancy outcomes. PMID:18468755

  3. The abortion debate in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Faced with a situation in which an estimated 60,000 illegal abortions (a major cause of maternal mortality) were performed annually, the Dominican Republic has adopted a new Health Code which contains a chapter dedicated to maternal health. Included in the new code are cases in which abortion is allowed: 1) when 2 specialists affirm that the pregnancy or childbirth constitutes a risk to the mother's health or life; 2) if the medical history of the parents and 2 doctors confirm the likelihood of the baby being born seriously disabled or deformed; or 3) if the mother's mental health is put in jeopardy by continuing the pregnancy. Despite the disapproval of church representatives, the legalization of abortion was unanimously approved by the Congress. The debate which surrounded the process was increased by a petition signed by more than 260 women decrying the lack of input that women had in the decision-making process. Women's action groups have been trying to widen the context in which the political discussion is taking place to stress the importance of viewing abortion from a reproductive rights perspective. The women's groups wish to prevent a situation in which the discussion surrounding the issue will be limited to legislators and church leaders. The women have pointed out that women should make the decisions about their lives and their bodies. In the meantime, the president of the Congress predicts that illegal abortion will continue in the Dominican Republic regardless of the current provisions for legal abortion. PMID:12286344

  4. Unsafe abortion - the current global scenario.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2010-08-01

    Unsafe abortion is prevalent in many developing countries, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and South and Southeast Asia, where abortion laws are more restrictive, the unmet need for contraception high and the status of women in society low. The main interventions for reducing the prevalence of unsafe abortion are known: better and more widely available family planning services, comprehensive sex education, improved access to safe abortion and high-quality post-abortion care, including contraceptive counselling and on-site services. Although these proposals have been included in statements and recommendations drawn up at several international conferences and adopted by the vast majority of nations, they have either been inadequately implemented or not implemented at all in the countries in which the need is greatest. A well-coordinated effort by both national and international organisations and agencies is required to put these recommendations into practice; however, the most important factor determining the success of such efforts is the commitment of governments towards preventing unsafe abortion and reducing its prevalence and consequences. PMID:20227350

  5. Abortion issue goes to US courts.

    PubMed

    Charatan, F B

    1995-04-22

    The antiabortion groups and their lawyers have added a new weapon to their arsenal against physicians who perform abortions in the US: malpractice lawsuits. The nonprofit educational organization Life Dynamics generates material for personal injury lawyers and is participating in 80 cases. It has assembled 642 lawyers and 500 physicians in its abortion malpractice program. Life Dynamics calls for persons to support lawsuits to increase malpractice insurance rates of abortionists, thereby forcing them out of business. Its 2-day 1994 seminar in Texas addressed abortion injuries, an alleged link between abortion and breast cancer, and abortion as a likely source of post-traumatic stress disorder. A lawyer and general counsel of the Arizona Right-to-Life has filed two lawsuits against a Phoenix physician who performs abortion. The trial judge dismissed both cases and fined the lawyer for frivolous lawsuits. An appeal overturned the fines. The lawyer has three more lawsuits on the docket. The physician had complained to the Arizona Bar Association about the lawyer. Even though the physician's insurance company did not pay any claims, its underwriters deemed him an actuarial risk, thereby making him essentially uninsurable. Local medical associations have failed to take a position on the lawyer's legal misconduct because they do not want to alienate some members. The Planned Parenthood Federation of America agreed that the lawsuits brought against the Phoenix physician were fraudulent and that they do not aim to protect women but to revoke their right to choose. PMID:7728049

  6. The problems of therapeutic abortion and infanticide.

    PubMed

    Humphries, S V

    1978-04-01

    Medical professionals need to revaluate current ethical standards which permit the killing of a normal fetus but require the use of heroic efforts to save the life of a severely deformed or mentally handicapped child once that child is born. The ethical issues involved in both abortion and infanticide are similar. Direct objections to both of these practices refer to the person killed and indirect objections refer to the side effects experienced by the family and society. Direct objections are irrelevant in abortion since the fetus is not aware that it is being killed and are also irrelevant in infanticide until the child is old enough to become aware of death. Indirect objections to abortion include: 1) guilt experienced by the mother and the abortion provider; 2) decline in maternal feeling in the society as a whole; and 3) the use of medical personnel and facilitates to provide unnecessary services. Advantages associated with abortion are that it: 1) reduces the number of unwanted children; 2) reduces the number of abnormal children; and 3) provides a safe and inexpensive form of contraception. Indirect objects to to infanticide are similar to those noted for abortion. The advantage of infanticide is that it avoids the on-going distress of parents who must live with and support a severe handicapped child. PMID:657265

  7. Abortion politics and the production of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lisa H

    2013-08-01

    It is common to think of scientific research and the knowledge it generates as neutral and value free. Indeed, the scientific method is designed to produce "objective" data. However, there are always values built into science, as historians of science and technology have shown over and over. The relevant question is not how to rid science of values but, instead, to ask which values and whose values belong? Currently, antiabortion values consistently determine US research policy. Abortion research is declared illegitimate in covert and overt ways, at the level of individual researchers and research policy broadly. Most importantly, federal policy impedes conduct of both basic and clinical research in abortion. However, it is not just research in abortion that is deemed "illegitimate;" research in infertility and in vitro fertilization is as well. Federal funding of any reproductive health research agenda that would pose more than minimal risk to a fetus or embryo is banned. This leaves unanswered scientific questions about abortion, infertility, miscarriage and contraception among other areas. Since moral ground is occupied not just by abortion opponents but also by people who support abortion rights, there is at the very least a competing moral claim to consider changing federal research funding policy. Women and families deserve access to knowledge across the spectrum of reproductive health issues, whether they seek to end or start a pregnancy. Thus, research funding is an issue of reproductive justice. PMID:23815965

  8. [Abortion in Paraguay: some disconcerting data].

    PubMed

    1981-05-01

    A study conducted in 1979 on 3800 Paraguayan women in fertile age revealed that 30.7% had abortions, that the frequency of abortion was 14.5/100 pregnancies, and that the highest incidence was to be found among unmarried women or among those living in consensual unions. 35% of women seeking abortion had more than elementary school education, as compared to 26% of illiterate women, 36.4% lived in urban areas, 45% lived in consensual union, as opposed to 27% who were married, 40% had parity between 4 and 7, and about 40% were aged between 30-44. Another study conducted in 1971 in 5 Paraguayan cities showed that among women aged 15-49 only 26.7% used an effective method of contraception, 22.1% used an ineffective one, and 51.2% used no contraception. In the 1st group of women the number of live births and of induced abortions was smaller than in the other groups, with about 2356 births averted and 2834 fetal deaths averted. It appears that effective contraception prevents induced abortion rather than decreasing natality; the same study shows that with an observed fertility rate of 114.5/1000 without contraception, and a fertility rate of 113.8/1000 with contraception the difference is only -0.6%, while with an observed rate of induced abortion of 18.5/1000 without contraception, and a rate of 16.7/1000 with contraception, the variation is -9.7%. PMID:12311399

  9. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    PubMed

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve. PMID:7716799

  10. From abortion to contraception: Tbilisi, 1990.

    PubMed

    David, H P

    1991-01-01

    Hoping to provide women other choice besides abortion as a way to regulate fertility, 220 experts from 27 mostly European countries met in Tbilisi, Georgia, USSR to discuss ways of increasing access to modern contraceptives. Held last October, the conference was sponsored by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the World Health Organization European Regional Office (WHO/EURO), the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Europe, and the Zhordania Institute of Human Reproduction, Tbilisi. The meeting produced the Tbilisi Declaration, which -- among other things -- recognizes that unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions pose a serious health and social problem. Criminalization, the experts agreed, does little to reduce the number of abortions, and only increases the number of unsafe operations. The Tbilisi Declaration also affirms women's right to decide freely on the number and spacing of children, their right to reproductive health, their right to self-determination in their sexual and reproductive lives, and the right of every child to be a wanted child. The participants addressed the high incidents of abortion in some European countries -- particularly the Soviet Union. With the highest rate of abortion in Europe, the Soviet Union recorded 6 million legal abortions in 1988, and estimates that another 6 million were performed illegally. Nonetheless, perestroika has begun to facilitate access to contraceptives. Participants also discussed new methods of early pregnancy termination, RU486 and menstrual regulation procedures (MR), neither of which is readily available. Increasing access to these methods would help reduce suffering and unnecessary deaths. PMID:12283600

  11. The impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island on the behavior and well-being of nuclear workers. Part I. Perceptions and evaluations, behavioral responses, and work-related attitudes and feelings

    SciTech Connect

    Kasl, S.V.; Chisholm, R.F.; Eskenazi, B.

    1981-05-01

    In order to assess the impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI), telephone interviews were conducted six months later with 324 nuclear workers assigned to TMI and 298 workers assigned to a comparison plant at Peach Bottom (PB). Examination of PB-TMI differences, stratified by supervisory status, revealed that: (1) TMI workers reported greater exposure to radiation at the time of the accident and felt that their health had been thereby endangered; (2) TMI workers experienced more uncertainty and conflict at the time of the accident; (3) coping responses such as seeing a doctor, taking drugs, and increasing alcohol consumption were quite infrequent; (4) leaving the area was more common; however, over 40% of TMI workers wished to leave but did not do so because of work obligations; and (5) TMI workers reported much lower job satisfaction and much greater uncertainty about thier job future. 139 references, 8 tables.

  12. The impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island on the behavior and well-being of nuclear workers; Part I: perceptions and evaluations, behavioral responses, and work-related attitudes and feelings.

    PubMed

    Kasl, S V; Chisholm, R F; Eskenazi, B

    1981-05-01

    In order to assess the impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI), telephone interviews were conducted six months later with 324 nuclear workers assigned to TMI and 298 workers assigned to a comparison plant at Peach Bottom (PB). Examination of PB-TMI differences, stratified by supervisory status, revealed the following: Part I: TMI workers reported greater exposure to radiation at the time of the accident and felt that their health had been thereby endangered. TMI workers experienced more uncertainty and conflict at the time of the accident. Coping responses such as seeing a doctor, taking drugs, and increasing alcohol consumption were quite infrequent. Leaving the area was more common; however, over 40 per cent of TMI workers wished to leave but did not do so because of work obligations. TMI workers reported much lower job satisfaction and much greater uncertainty about their job future. PMID:7212135

  13. Maternal Near-Miss Due to Unsafe Abortion and Associated Short-Term Health and Socio-Economic Consequences in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Prada, Elena; Bankole, Akinrinola; Oladapo, Olufemi T.; Awolude, Olutosin A.; Adewole, Isaac F.; Onda, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about maternal near-miss (MNM) due to unsafe abortion in Nigeria. We used the WHO criteria to identify near-miss events and the proportion due to unsafe abortion among women of childbearing age in eight large secondary and tertiary hospitals across the six geo-political zones. We also explored the characteristics of women with these events, delays in seeking care and the short-term socioeconomic and health impacts on women and their families. Between July 2011 and January 2012, 137 MNM cases were identified of which 13 or 9.5% were due to unsafe abortions. Severe bleeding, pain and fever were the most common immediate abortion complications. On average, treatment of MNM due to abortion costs six times more than induced abortion procedures. Unsafe abortion and delays in care seeking are important contributors to MNM. Programs to prevent unsafe abortion and delays in seeking postabortion care are urgently needed to reduce abortion related MNM in Nigeria. PMID:26506658

  14. Maternal Near-Miss Due to Unsafe Abortion and Associated Short-Term Health and Socio-Economic Consequences in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Prada, Elena; Bankole, Akinrinola; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Awolude, Olutosin A; Adewole, Isaac F; Onda, Tsuyoshi

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about maternal near-miss (MNM) due to unsafe abortion in Nigeria. We used the WHO criteria to identify near-miss events and the proportion due to unsafe abortion among women of childbearing age in eight large secondary and tertiary hospitals across the six geo-political zones. We also explored the characteristics of women with these events, delays in seeking care and the short-term socioeconomic and health impacts on women and their families. Between July 2011 and January 2012, 137 MNM cases were identified of which 13 or 9.5% were due to unsafe abortions. Severe bleeding, pain and fever were the most common immediate abortion complications. On average, treatment of MNM due to abortion costs six times more than induced abortion procedures. Unsafe abortion and delays in care seeking are important contributors to MNM. Programs to prevent unsafe abortion and delays in seeking postabortion care are urgently needed to reduce abortion related MNM in Nigeria. PMID:26506658

  15. Estimates of illegal abortions in Israel, 1980-83.

    PubMed

    Sabatello, E F

    1990-04-01

    Since the legalization of abortion in Israel in the late 1970s, only aggregate information on legal abortions has been available. A brief history of the public debate and relevant legislation concerning induced abortions in Israel is presented in the first part of this report. The second part presents estimates of the extent of illegal abortions in Israel during the years 1980-83. These estimates were obtained through standardization based on data for selected countries where the abortion law is similar to or more liberal than that in Israel, the system of abortion registration is more reliable and detailed, and the prevailing contraceptive habits and attitudes of women are known. Estimates indicate that: a) the total number of abortions in Israel is about half that quoted by the media from nonscientific sources, and b) the annual number of illegal abortions constitutes between 25 and 30% of the estimated total number of abortions. PMID:2347687

  16. Midtrimester abortion by ethacridine lactate.

    PubMed

    Goswami, B K; Raha, A; Gupta, A; Mukherjee, K

    1982-07-01

    This article discusses a clinical trial with the abortifacient agent ethacridine lactate as it was used for midtrimester abortion in Calcutta during the period January-July 1980. Results are then compared with intraamniotic hypertonic saline. 130 subjects were divided into 2 groups--Group 1 (60 women) were terminated with ethacridine lactate and group 2 (70 women) were terminated with saline. In cases where the patient complained of pain, analgesia was administered. In both groups, the largest concentration of women fell in the age groups 16-20 and 21-25. Similarly, single women were the largest representation in both groups although the saline group included more widows. Ethacridine lactate can be administered earlier in the 2nd trimester than saline. With it, expulsion occurred within 36 hours in 56.6% of the cases as compared with 22.9% in group 2. Both groups required the same amount of assistance with oxytocin. In group 1, there were only 3 cases (5%) of minor complications whereas in group 2, 19 cases (27.1%) developed complications. This alone strongly recommends ethacridine lactate as the preferred abortifacient. The success rate was 98%. Thus, ethacridine lactate appears to be a safe and effective agent for pregnancy termination during the 2nd trimester. PMID:7142727

  17. Radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Saenger, E L

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity. PMID:3526994

  18. Radiation accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity.

  19. [Glimpses from the history of abortion].

    PubMed

    Holmdahl, B

    1992-05-01

    For a long time in human history, global population growth was checked by infant mortality, which ranged from 30-50% and did not start sinking until the beginning of the 1800s in the west. Child murder in the west was prohibited by law around the 1100-1200s, but it continued secretly. Among private people, induced abortion was allowed. In the holy scripts of Hinduism and Brahminism, abortion was prohibited. Hippocrates wrote that doctors should not give women abortifacient. The church father Augustinus stated that it was not within human power to discern when the soul entered the body, a circumstance that forbid abortion. A church meeting in 305 A.D. distanced itself from abortion, and this has been the stand of the Catholic Church ever since. In Sweden, exposing a child to the elements was practiced until the end of the 1200s, when it became prohibited. Protestants punished child murder by death. During 1759-78, 217 women were executed for child-killing. From the 1400s, church law punished abortion, and later, capital and punishment was meted out for it, but a distinction was made if the fetus was alive or stillborn. The law in 1734 punished abortion by the death of all concerned. The death penalty was abolished in 1864. In 1896, Anna Linholm reported to the policy in Uppsala that a midwife had been practicing clandestine abortions. Some of her patients were admitted to hospital for hemorrhaging. She was sentenced to hard labor. During 1851-1903, a total of 1408 abortions were reported to the health service. 90% of these became known because of death caused by obduction. Phosphorus was used for abortion in 1271 cases, arsenic in 62, and mechanical aids in 8 cases. About 1//2 of all female suicides at the end of the 1800s was performed by pregnant women who ate phosphorus. Almost all were unmarried, and 56% carried it out after the 5th month of pregnancy. In 1901, phosphorus was prohibited in Swedish homes. In 1875, free abortions became available. However, the

  20. Women's Private Conversations about Abortion: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Herold, Stephanie; Kimport, Katrina; Cockrill, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Abortion is a relatively frequent experience, yet public discourse about abortion is contentious and stigmatizing. Little literature is available on private conversations about abortion, which may be distinct from public discourse. We explored private discourse by documenting the nature of women's discussions about abortion with peers in a book club. We recruited thirteen women's book clubs in nine states. Participants (n = 119) read the book Choice: True Stories of Birth, Contraception, Infertility, Adoption, Single Parenthood, & Abortion, and participated in a book club meeting, which we audio-recorded and transcribed. Data collection occurred between April 2012 and April 2013. In contrast to public discourse of abortion, private discourse was nuanced and included disclosures of multiple kinds of experiences with abortion. Participants disclosed having abortions, considering abortion as an option for past or future pregnancies, and supporting others through an abortion. Distinguishing between public and private discourse enabled us to identify that an "abortion experience" could include personal decisions, hypothetical decisions, or connection with someone having an abortion. The book club atmosphere provided a rare opportunity for participants to explore their relationship to abortion. More research is needed to understand the role of private discourse in reducing abortion stigma. PMID:26086582

  1. A simplified method for differential staining of aborted and non-aborted pollen grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to use chemical staining to discriminate aborted from non-aborted pollen grains has well-known practical applications in agriculture. A commonly used technique for assessing pollen vitality, Alexander’s stain, uses chloral hydrate, phenol and mercuric chloride, all of which are highly to...

  2. Family Planning Evaluation. Abortion Surveillance Report--Legal Abortions, United States, Annual Summary, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This report summarizes abortion information received by the Center for Disease Control from collaborators in state health departments, hospitals, and other pertinent sources. While it is intended primarily for use by the above sources, it may also interest those responsible for family planning evaluation and hospital abortion planning. Information…

  3. Latin American women's experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted.

    PubMed

    Zamberlin, Nina; Romero, Mariana; Ramos, Silvina

    2012-01-01

    Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used.Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades.This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women's experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal.Women's personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support.Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and the

  4. Latin American women’s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades. This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women’s experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal. Women’s personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support. Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and

  5. Speech, privacy, and the power of the purse: lessons from the abortion "gag rule" case.

    PubMed

    Wing, K R

    1992-01-01

    In Rust v. Sullivan, 59 U.S.L.W. 4451 (1991), the US Supreme Court ruled that neither the privacy interests of family planning clients nor the 1st Amendment interests of their counselors prevented the government from banning all discussion of abortions in federally funded family planning clinics. In doing so, the Court also reaffirmed its view that the state and federal legislatures have virtually unlimited discretion in limiting or conditioning social welfare programs, a view having even greater long-term implications for American health policy than the implications of Rust for the constitutional protection of abortion. Rust upheld the Department of Health and Human Services' 1988 directive prohibiting the use of any funds from Title X of the Public Health Service Act (authorizing family planning programs) in programs where abortion is a method of family planning. This means that a clinician may lawfully respond to a client's inquiry about abortion only with a denial that abortion is an option. Thus, while allowing women the constitutional protection to chose an abortion, the Court has allowed the legislature to freely use the power of the purse to discourage or prevent the choice of abortion. Rust's greatest impact may well be in its acceptance of the enormous power wielded by the government over funded activities, especially in health policy. Justice Rehnquist believes there is not constitutional right to health, welfare, or any other government benefit; the legislative branches of the government cannot be required by judicial interpretation of the Constitution to provide any particular benefit or service to anyone. Even when the government chooses to fund a particular benefit, it is free to condition that benefit with virtually no judicially enforceable limits on that discretion. PMID:1619248

  6. Abortion funding: legal and moral questions.

    PubMed

    Altman, A

    1978-04-01

    M. Segers and G. Annas' (Hastings Center Report, August 1977) criticisms of the U.S. Supreme Court's recent abortion decisions are thought to be unpersuasive. Any sound argument against the Court's decision must avoid the conclusion that the government, either state or federal, is constitutionally required to finance any activity which is constitutionally protected if the person wishing to engage in the activity is unable to finance the activity. The argument given by Segers does not avoid this implausible conclusion. She contends that the lack of legislation providing for the public financing of elective abortions "plainly discriminates against a social class, since a right guaranteed to the rich is denied in practice to the poor." Annas' reasoning is considered better, for he implies that the failure publicly to finance elective abortion constitutes unconstitutional interference with the indigent woman's right to an abortion, citing the Doe v. Bolton ruling which struck down the Georgia law requiring the concurrence of 2 physicians before an abortion lawfully could be performed. Of the 3 articles in the Report for August, it is felt that Annas' comes closest to recognizing the true nature of the constitutional issue raised by these abortion cases, but even his argument eventually moves into viewing the issue as one of "the rich" vs. "the poor." Possibly there is an issue here of social justice which can be viewed in terms of "the rich" vs. "the poor," and the demands of justice might categorically require the financing of all abortions for the indigent so that they can exercise this important legal right. However, the Constitution is not a document that incorporates all of the principles of social justice and does not impose such a requirement. PMID:649373

  7. [Conscientious objection in the matter of abortion].

    PubMed

    Serrano Gil, A; García Casado, M L

    1992-03-01

    The issue of conscientious objection in Spain has been used by pro-choice groups against objecting health personnel as one of the obstacles to the implementation of the abortion law, a misnomer. At present objection is massive in the public sector; 95% of abortions are carried out in private clinics with highly lucrative returns; abortion tourism has decreased; and false objection has proliferated in the public sector when the objector performs abortions in the private sector for high fees. The legal framework for conscientious objection is absent in Spain. Neither Article 417 of the Penal Code depenalizing abortion, nor the Ministerial Decree of July 31, 1985, nor the Royal Decree of November 21, 1986 recognize such a concept. However, the ruling of the Constitutional Court on April 11, 1985 confirmed that such objection can be exercised with independence. Some authors refer to the applicability of Law No. 48 of December 16, 1984 that regulates conscientious objection in military service to health personnel. The future law concerning the fundamental right of ideological and religious liberty embodied in Article 16.1 of the Constitution has to be revised. A draft bill was submitted in the Congress or Representatives concerning this issue on May 3, 1985 that recognizes the right of medical personnel to object to abortion without career repercussions. Another draft bill was introduced on April 17, 1985 that would allow the nonparticipation of medical personnel in the interruption of pregnancy, however, they would be prohibited from practicing such in the private hospitals. Neither of these proposed bills became law. Professional groups either object unequivocally, or do not object at all, or object on an ethical level but do not object to therapeutic abortion. The resolution of this issue has to be by consensus and not by imposition. PMID:1565971

  8. Fostering Informed Choice: Alleviating the Trauma of Genetic Abortions.

    PubMed

    Asbury, Bret D

    2015-01-01

    Each year, thousands of pregnant women learn of fetal abnormalities through prenatal genetic analysis. This discovery--made after a woman has initially declined to exercise her right to abort an unwanted pregnancy—raises the difficult and heart-wrenching question of whether to terminate on genetic grounds. Women considering a genetic abortion rely on information and support from health care providers to assist them in making their choice. Though intended to be objective and nondirective, the support women receive frequently provides them within complete and incomprehensible information having the effect of encouraging them to abort genetically anomalous fetuses. As a result, genetic terminations--which cause severe and long-standing psychological impacts such as pathological grief, depression and post-traumatic stress—are often the result of something other than a fully informed choice.Congress and eleven states have recognized the importance of better informing choice by passing legislation aimed at providing clearer and more balanced information to expectant mothers learning of fetal genetic abnormalities. But existing legislative remedies do not adequately address this problem, and this inadequacy will become more pronounced in future years as increases in access to prenatal genetic analysis further stretch the capabilities of the available support services.This Article describes the unique characteristics of terminations for a fetal abnormality, their troubling and persistent psychological impacts,and the reasons why they will become more common in future years. It then offers proposals for how to reconfigure the prenatal genetic counseling landscape in order to reduce the incidence of genetic terminations based on incomplete or misleading information, thereby alleviating their distinct psychological costs. Its overall objective is to ensure that women learning of prenatal genetic abnormalities have access to complete and comprehensible information prior to

  9. Ground based impact testing of Orbiter thermal protection system materials in support of the Columbia accident investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Justin Hamilton

    On January 16, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102) was launched for a nominal 16-day mission of microgravity research. Fifteen days and 20 hours after launch, and just 16 minutes before its scheduled landing, the OV-102 vehicle disintegrated during its descent. The entire crew was lost. Film and video cameras located around the launch complex captured images of the vehicle during its ascent. Of note were data that showed a piece of debris strike the port wing at approximately 82 sec after lift-off (T+82). As resulting analysis would show, the source of the debris was the left bipod ramp of the Shuttle external tank. This foam debris struck the Orbiter leading edge at sufficient velocity to breech the thermal protection system (TPS). During reentry at the end of the mission, the hot plasma impinged inside the Orbiter wing and aerodynamic forces ultimately failed the wing structure. This thesis documents the activities conducted to evaluate the effects of foam impact on Orbiter TPS. These efforts were focused on, to the greatest extent practical, replicating the impact event during the STS-107 mission ascent. This thesis fully documents the test program development, methodology, results, analysis, and conclusions to the degree that future investigators can reproduce the tests and understand the basis for decisions made during the development of the tests.

  10. Abortion attitudes among nurses and social workers.

    PubMed

    Hendershot, G E; Grimm, J W

    1974-05-01

    A survey of attitudes toward abortion was conducted among nurses and social workers in Tennessee. It was found that, even when relevant background characteristics were similar, social workers were more liberal toward abortion than nurses. It is suggested that the difference may result from differences in goals and types of client contact within the 2 professions. Because social workers aim at helping clients "cope" with many problematic situations and nurses aim at preserving patients' health, social work involves contact with a greater part of clients' lives than nursing. Nurses tend to view abortion as a medical procedure while social workers may consider it an appropriate procedure for various social, economic, and psychological reasons. Social workers see clients in normal life situations but nurses see them under specialized medical conditions in clinics or hospitals. It is more likely that social workers would understand the benefit an abortion could provide to a client. It is speculated that, in the future, social workers will refer poor clients to clinics or hospitals for abortions they feel are necessary and nurses will discourage or turn away many of these clients. PMID:4818082

  11. Abortion in Brazil: legislation, reality and options.

    PubMed

    Guedes, A C

    2000-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Brazil except when performed to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. This paper gives a brief history of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary efforts to change abortion-related legislation in Brazil in the past 60 years, the contents of some of the 53 bills that have been tabled in that time, the non-governmental stakeholders involved and the debate itself in recent decades. The authorities in Brazil have never assumed full public responsibility for reproductive health care or family planning, let alone legal abortion; the ambivalence of the medical profession is an important obstacle. Most politicians avoid getting involved in the abortion debate, but the majority of bills in the 1990s have favoured less restrictive legislation. Incremental legislative and health service changes could help to improve the situation for women. Advocacy is probably the most important action, to promote an environment conducive to change. Clandestine abortion is a serious public health problem in Brazil, and the inadequacy of family planning services is one of the causes of this problem. The solutions should be made a priority for the Brazilian public health system. PMID:11424252

  12. Conservative management of spontaneous abortions. Women's experiences.

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, E.; Janssen, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe women's experiences with expectant management of spontaneous abortions. DESIGN: Descriptive survey using questionnaires with fixed-choice and open-ended questions. The latter were analyzed for themes, using qualitative methods. SETTING: Urban and suburban private primary care family practices. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of family practice patients (59 of 80 eligible) pregnant for less than 12 weeks who had spontaneous abortions without surgery. Response rate was 84.7%; 50 questionnaires were received from the 59 women. METHOD: Women were asked about their physical experiences, including amount of pain and bleeding; emotional effects; their satisfaction with medical care; and their suggestions for improving care. MAIN FINDINGS: The mean worst pain experienced during a spontaneous abortion on an 11-point scale was 5.9. Bleeding varied, but was often very heavy. Satisfaction rate was 92.9% with family physician care and 84.6% with hospital care. Women described the emotional effect of "natural" spontaneous abortions and made recommendations for improving care. CONCLUSIONS: A better understanding of the physical and emotional experiences of the women in this study might help physicians better prepare and support patients coping with expectant management of spontaneous abortions. PMID:10540695

  13. Use of a virtual learning environment for training in maxillofacial emergencies: impact on the knowledge and attitudes of staff in accident and emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Elledge, Ross; McAleer, Sean; Thakar, Meera; Begum, Fathema; Singhota, Sanjeet; Grew, Nicholas

    2016-02-01

    Many graduates will take up junior roles in accident and emergency (A&E) departments to which a large proportion of patients present with facial injuries caused by interpersonal violence. However, it is widely recognised that undergraduates and postgraduates have few opportunities for training in oral and maxillofacial surgery. We aimed to assess the impact of a specifically designed maxillofacial emergencies virtual learning environment (VLE) on the knowledge and confidence of junior doctors in two A&E departments. They were given free access to the VLE for one month, and were asked to complete multiple choice questions and to rate their confidence to deal with 10 common situations on visual analogue scales (VAS) at baseline and one month after training. A total of 29 doctors agreed to pilot the website, 21 (72%) completed both sets of questions, and 18 (62%) completed both VAS assessments. The mean (SD) multiple choice score improved from 10 (2.52) to 13 (3.56) out of a maximum of 20 (p=0.004) and the mean (SD) VAS improved from 29.2 (19.2) mm to 45.7 (16.6) mm out of a maximum of 100 mm (p=0.007). This was a small pilot study with limited numbers, but it showed improvements in the knowledge of maxillofacial emergencies and in confidence, although the latter remained low. Further work is needed to examine how these brief educational interventions affect the attitudes of frontline staff to maxillofacial emergencies. PMID:26725011

  14. "The health exception": a means of expanding access to legal abortion.

    PubMed

    González Vélez, Ana Cristina

    2012-12-01

    In most Latin American countries, abortion is not illegal if there is a risk to the life or health of the woman. This article discusses the process of expanding the interpretation of this "health exception" to mean that even the possibility of harm to health should make an abortion legal--which then becomes a mechanism for expanding women's right of access to safe abortion services. The article reports on an assessment of the impact of disseminating information on this interpretation of risk to health in Latin America, and how a regional process of debate and training of health service providers in 2009-10 has influenced the views and practice of health professionals in Argentina, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. The training included human rights arguments for applying the health exception in a comprehensive manner. All the respondents recognized the importance of interpreting risk to health as far more than the risk of death. Data from two clinics in Colombia also show an important increase in the number of women who had a legal abortion following this training. Dissemination of information and training on the health exception must continue--to protect women's right to health, reduce mortality and morbidity among those with unwanted pregnancies and encourage timely access to safe abortion services. PMID:23245405

  15. [Motives and circumstances surrounding induced abortion among women living with HIV in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Villela, Wilza Vieira; Barbosa, Regina Maria; Portella, Ana Paula; de Oliveira, Luzia Aparecida

    2012-07-01

    The impact of HIV/AIDS infection on the decision of women living with HIV/AIDS to interrupt a pregnancy remains an understudied topic. In an effort to understand the influence of HIV/AIDS diagnosis on abortion practices, a qualitative study was carried out in seven Brazilian municipalities with women living with HIV/AIDS who reported inducing an abortion at some point in their lives. This study presents the analysis of interviews with thirty women who became pregnant after diagnosis. The results show that for some women, infection was the primary motive for terminating their pregnancy, while for others, the motives for abortion were predominantly related to life circumstances. The decision to abort due to HIV infection is not the same for all women. It is related to the timing of the diagnosis and other aspects of the woman's life during her pregnancy, such as the relationship with her partner, her job and family support. The results suggest the need for more attention from health services to the reproductive decisions of women living with HIV/Aids; the incorporation of men into sexual and reproductive health prevention actions; and a deeper discussion of the illegality of abortion in Brazil and its harmful consequences for women, men, and children. PMID:22872332

  16. Safety improvement issues for mission aborts of future space transportation systems.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, M; Wächter, M; Sachs, G

    2006-01-01

    Two-stage winged space access vehicles consisting of a carrier stage with airbreathing turbo/ram jet engines and a rocket propelled orbital stage which may significantly reduce space transport costs and have additional advantages offer a great potential for mission safety improvements. Formulating the nominal mission and abort scenarios caused by engine malfunctions as an optimal control problem allows full exploitation of safety capabilities. The shaping of the nominal mission has a significant impact on the prospective safety. For this purpose, most relevant mission aborts are considered together with the nominal mission, treating them as an optimization problem of branched trajectories where the branching point is not fixed. The applied procedure yields a safety improved nominal trajectory, showing the feasibility of the included mission aborts with minimum payload penalty. The other mission aborts can be separately treated, with the initial condition given by the state of the nominal trajectory at the time when a failure occurs. A mission abort plan is set up, covering all emergency scenarios. PMID:16480117

  17. Access to abortion services: abortions performed by mid-level practitioners.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, E A

    1993-01-01

    Because the number of physicians available to perform abortions in the US is dwindling, certified nurse-midwives, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants should be trained and permitted to perform abortions. Roadblocks to this change are the fact that the Supreme Court would likely allow states to prevent mid-level practitioners from performing abortions in the name of protecting the health of the mother. Also, existing statutes would probably not be interpreted by courts to allow mid-level practitioners to perform abortions. However, physician assistants have been performing abortions in Vermont since 1975, and a 1981-82 comparative study affirmed that physician assistants are well-equipped to perform abortions (of 2458 procedures, the complication rate/1000 was 27.4 for physician assistants and 30.8 for physicians). However, controversy surrounds the provision of abortion by these physician assistants in Vermont, since the relevant statute suggests that abortion is illegal unless performed by a physician. However, the statute has not been changed since Roe vs. Wade and is likely unconstitutional. Court cases in Missouri and Tennessee suggest that courts may be willing to include abortion within the scope of progressive nursing practice acts, but a recent similar case in Massachusetts resulted in a narrow interpretation of nursing practice statutes. Because the definition of professional nursing varies with each state statute, it will be a formidable task to convince every jurisdiction to include abortion as a permissible mid-level practice. Even in Vermont, the nursing practice statute defines in an exclusive list what services the professional nurse may perform (whereas the physician assistant regulations limit their scope of practice only to that delegated by a supervising physician). States could, of course, pass statutes which include abortion as a permissible practice for the mid-level practitioner. However, specific legislation would provide a clear

  18. [Abortion as it is described to us].

    PubMed

    Six-Quivy, M; Macaigne, M; Playoust, D; Zylberberg, G

    1980-01-01

    The French law legalizing abortion provided for a meeting between patient and social counselor prior to the intervention. Aim of this provision was to allow a women to see more clearly into herself, and to allow a social worker to help the patient make a personal and wise decision. Most women come to this encounter with feelings of guilt, anxiety, and depression; most of them want abortion because they know they can have one, and medical reasons for abortion are practacally nonexistant. The emotional situation of the couple, more than their socioeconomic condition, does have a great importance in making a final decision. A discussion can sometimes help, but the responsibility of the decision is with the women's alone. PMID:7401902

  19. The abortion ethos: pervasive but not persuasive.

    PubMed

    Andrusko, D

    1989-01-01

    The history of the past 16 years has borne out pro-life predictions that abortion would be the precursor of an even wider assault on helpless people. The unborn initially were the victim of choice because they were, in 1973, outside our customary line of moral vision. But as a dress rehearsal for a pattern of discretionary killing what was most significant about abortion was its explicit rejection of the Declaration of Independence's principle holding that our right to life is "inalienable." Abortion taught us that the lives of some are alienable and raised the question, why not the lives of others? Contrary to stereotype, the pro-life movement is a classic reform movement, inbued with a fierce belief in the inherent worth and equality of mankind. PMID:10294688

  20. Diagnostic categorization of post-abortion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gómez Lavín, C; Zapata García, R

    2005-01-01

    Some psychopathological characteristics are frequently observed in women who have voluntarily aborted. However, some resistance currently remains to their recognition as a differentiated nosological category, known as Post-Abortion Syndrome (PAS). We tried to assign a diagnostic category to women with PAS by determining the extent by which they fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of international classifications. Criteria for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were met in the ten PAS cases studied. In addition, patients also showed other non-specific symptoms such as repeated and persistent dreams and nightmares related with the abortion, intense feelings of guilt and the "need to repair". PAS should be considered as an additional type of PTSD. It also has some specific characteristics that could help to understand the patient's life experience and to establish a psychotherapeutic intervention. PMID:15999304

  1. Self-ownership, abortion and infanticide.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, E F; Paul, J

    1979-01-01

    Doctors have been placed in an anomalous position by abortion laws which sanction the termination of a fetus while in a woman's womb, yet call it murder when a physician attempts to end the life of a fetus which has somehow survived such a procedure. This predicament, the doctors' dilemma, can be resolved by adopting a strategy which posits the right to ownership of one's own body for human beings. Such an approach will generate a consistent policy prescription, one that sanctions the right of all pregnant women to abortions, yet grants the fetus, after it becomes viable as a potentially independent person, a right to its own body. The doctors' dilemma is surmounted, then, by requiring that abortions of viable fetuses be performed in a manner that will produce a live delivery. Hence, infanticide and termination of viable fetuses are proscribed. PMID:490573

  2. Global perspective of legal abortion - Trends analysis and accessibility.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jenny E; Seif, Mourad W

    2010-08-01

    There are significant variations in the legalisation, restrictions and legal abortion rates worldwide. This undoubtedly influences the provision and accessibility to abortion services. Although there have been changes to the laws in several countries over the last decade, this has not yet been translated into practice in the provision of safe abortion in these countries. In countries where abortions are permitted without restriction; the majority of abortions are carried out by trained practitioners in approved facilities. In contrast, in countries where restrictions are imposed, the majority of abortions performed are considered to be unsafe and therefore associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This article discusses the most recent data available regarding worldwide legal abortion rates, trends over the last ten years and issues related to specific regions which may influence the provision of safe abortion services in the future. PMID:20462800

  3. International developments in abortion laws: 1977-88.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1988-01-01

    During the period between 1977 and the first quarter of 1988, 35 countries liberalized their abortion laws and four countries limited grounds for the procedure. Most legislation has extended abortion eligibility through traditional indications such as danger to maternal health or fetal handicap, but a number of other indications have been created such as adolescence, advanced maternal age, family circumstances, and AIDS or HIV infection. A number of countries have redesigned their abortion laws as part of a comprehensive package to facilitate access to and delivery of contraception, voluntary sterilization, and abortion services. Abortion litigation has increased and stimulated the liberalization of abortion provisions and the support of women's autonomous choice within the law. In Canada, the entire criminal prohibition of abortion was held unconstitutional for violating women's integrity and security. In contrast, Latin American and other constitutional developments may limit legal abortion to instances of danger to women's lives. PMID:3048126

  4. Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159500.html Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows Brazil, Ecuador have seen ... News) -- Fears over birth defects from mosquito-borne Zika may be driving up abortion rates in Latin ...

  5. Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159500.html Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows ... from mosquito-borne Zika may be driving up abortion rates in Latin American countries affected by the ...

  6. Their Right to an Abortion, Your Right to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share Their Right to an Abortion, Your Right to Know Page Content Article Body ... a handful of states grant minors access to abortion without their parents’ knowledge or permission. The majority ...

  7. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  8. Catholic options in the abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Maguire, D C

    1990-01-01

    The little-known Roman Catholic theological doctrine of probabilism, an ethical system explicated in all manuals of moral theology, is explained using as an example the dilemma of abortion. Probabilism is based on the notion that a doubtful moral obligation may not be imposed as though it were certain. "Ubi dubium, ibi libertas," means where there is doubt, there is freedom. There are 2 types of moral probability, intrinsic probability, where the individual, without the help of moral theologians, perceives the inapplicability of a particular moral teaching; and extrinsic probability, which involves reliance on the findings of 5 or 6 reputable moral theologians, who may hold a liberal view. Probabilism implies a reasonable doubt, and one's reasons must be cogent, but not necessarily conclusive. Today's abortion debate is an example of a respectable debate, where the liberal view has been endorsed by a number of reputable religious or other humanitarian bodies that in some cases abortion is not always immoral. Other examples in history are the view once taught by the church that taking interest on loans was immoral, that depriving slaves and women of civil rights on non-Catholics of religious or political freedom was moral. For today's legislators, there is a precedent throughout theological history for the state permitting an evil: both St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas wrote that prostitution, although evil, should not be outlawed, because worse evils would occur with prohibition. Legislators who personally find abortion always immoral can support a Roe V. Wade decision because 1) it does not require anyone to have an abortion, and 2) the abortion debate, among Catholics, and non-Catholics is not settled. PMID:12178838

  9. Portugal takes step back on abortion legalization.

    PubMed

    1998-07-01

    According to international press reports, a law that would have allowed Portuguese women abortions through the 10th week of pregnancy and into the 16th week if their physical or mental health was at risk has been rescinded after a referendum to determine the statute's future was voided because of low voter turnout. Passed in February, the law was a liberalization of Portugal's strict anti-abortion laws, which ban all abortions except for narrowly defined medical reasons or in the case of rape (and those are permitted only until the 12th week of pregnancy). Because the issue is such a controversial one, politicians had turned to a national referendum asking Portuguese voters to overturn or ratify the new law. The referendum was the first in the country since the end of its right-wing dictatorship in 1974, and 50% participation was required. Only 31.5% of the country's 8.5 million eligible voters went to the polls on June 28. Of those voting, 50.9% voted against the liberalized new legislation. Sunny weather and World Cup soccer matches were both pointed to as reasons for the low turnout. Officials estimate there are some 20,000 illegal abortions annually in Portugal. Abortion-rights activists in the mostly Roman-Catholic country say hospitals see roughly 10,000 women a year suffering from complications from illegal abortions, and that at least 800 women die each year from the procedure. In the next day's Diario de Noticias, a daily paper in Portugal, the entire front page was filled with a giant question mark. "What now, lawmakers?" the headline read. PMID:12293809

  10. Misoprostol and illegal abortion in Fortaleza, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coêlho, H L; Teixeira, A C; Santos, A P; Forte, E B; Morais, S M; La Vecchia, C; Tognoni, G; Herxheimer, A

    1993-05-15

    Misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analogue indicated for ulcer treatment, has been widely used as an abortifacient by women in Brazil, where abortion is legal only in cases of rape or incest, or to save the woman's life. Because misoprostol is an inefficient abortifacient, many women who use it have incomplete abortions and need uterine evacuation. We reviewed the records of women admitted to the main obstetric hospital of Fortaleza, capital of Ceará state, Brazil, between January, 1990, and July, 1992, for uterine evacuation after induced abortion. The number of incomplete abortions induced by misoprostol increased substantially during the first half of 1990, and declined thereafter. Of the 593 cases in 1991, 75% were related to misoprostol, 10% to the use of other specified drugs, and 6% to unspecified drugs. For the remaining 9% the procedure used was not recorded; these included 3% in whom abortion had been induced by a clandestine abortionist. The number of uterine evacuations per month fell from 89 in August, 1990, to 62 in July, 1991, when sales of misoprostol in Ceará state were suspended. The fall continued after the sale of misoprostol ceased, to about 20 cases in December, 1991; numbers remained around this level until June, 1992, sustained by clandestine sales. The lack of access to contraception is the main reason for the large numbers of unplanned pregnancies and is a major public health issue for Brazilian women. The prohibition of abortion creates a void in which misuse of medicines is one extra complication, mainly because of the poor control of drug marketing. PMID:8098403

  11. Nurses and care of women seeking abortions, 1971 to 2011.

    PubMed

    McLemore, Monica; Levi, Amy

    2011-01-01

    In its first issue in 1972, JOGNN published a review article reporting surveillance data about abortions in the United States (Bourne, Kahn, Conger, & Tyler, 1972). This historical article predated Roe v. Wade, the U.S. Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion. Since this landmark decision, numerous articles have addressed nurses' role in abortion care. We review current literature on nurses and abortion care and use thematic categories to highlight areas of investigation. PMID:22273447

  12. Human rights dynamics of abortion law reform.

    PubMed

    Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M

    2003-02-01

    The legal approach to abortion is evolving from criminal prohibition towards accommodation as a life-preserving and health-preserving option, particularly in light of data on maternal mortality and morbidity. Modern momentum for liberalization comes from international adoption of the concept of reproductive health, and wider recognition that the resort to safe and dignified healthcare is a major human right. Respect for women's reproductive self-determination legitimizes abortion as a choice when family planning services have failed, been inaccessible, or been denied by rape. Recognition of women's rights of equal citizenship with men requires that their choices for self-determination be legally respected, not criminalized. PMID:15719517

  13. A comment on Tooley's Abortion and Infanticide.

    PubMed

    Tushnet, Mark; Seidman, Louis Michael

    1986-01-01

    Tushnet and Seidman attempt to show that, even if Michael Tooley is correct that fetuses have no right to life, others may have a right to their continued existence. Rights-bearing third parties with an interest in the fetus might be biological fathers, prospective adoptive parents, or even society as a whole. Criteria for assessing the legitimacy of claims of interest must be developed and then balanced against the claims of those who support abortion. The authors also discuss principles of bodily autonomy, the destruction as well as the removal of the fetus, and the question of whether legislation prohibiting abortion is mandatory, permissible, or optional. PMID:11653692

  14. RHIC ABORT KICKER WITH REDUCED COUPLING IMPEDANCE.

    SciTech Connect

    HAHN,H.; DAVINO,D.

    2002-06-02

    Kicker magnets typically represent the most important contributors to the transverse impedance budget of accelerators and storage rings. Methods of reducing the impedance value of the SNS extraction kicker presently under construction and, in view of a future performance upgrade, that of the RHIC abort kicker have been thoroughly studied at this laboratory. In this paper, the investigation of a potential improvement from using ferrite different from the BNL standard CMD5005 is reported. Permeability measurements of several ferrite types have been performed. Measurements on two kicker magnets using CMD5005 and C2050 suggest that the impedance of a magnet without external resistive damping, such as the RHIC abort kicker, would benefit.

  15. [Religion, morality and politics: the abortion debate].

    PubMed

    Ladriere, P

    1982-01-01

    The views of morality enunciated by the Protestant and Catholic churches in the process of France's abortion law revision are examined through an analysis of the testimony of each church and its moral theologians during hearings held from July-November 1973 by the Commission of Cultural, Family, and Social Affairs of the National Assembly concerning the proposed abortion legislation. The offical Catholic Church position, which restated a neoscholastic philosophy with its theory of human nature, natural law, natural right, and natural morality, was opposed by 2 priests who participated as members of other organizations. The moral principles behind the official Catholic position included the sacred and absolute principle of respect for life, the beginning of human life at conception, and the responsibility to protect the fetus as a human being. Internal Catholic challenges to the official position appeared to rest principally on the question of when life begins but also touched on the inappropriateness of viewing unwanted pregnancy as a punishment for sexual activity, the constant recourse to authority of the church, and the reluctance to reexamine questions on new evidence. Faced with the likely replacement of abortion law consistent with Catholic morality by 1 seriously at variance, the French Church and state while justifying their organized opposition to any change. The right of the church to impose its views on the legislature and on society, the view of the cultural context of abortion as a degradation of public attitudes expressed in rejection of children, the necessary connections between sexuality and fertility, the necessity for women to be able to control their fertility if they were to participate fully in society, the debased conditions in which thousands of illegal abortions occurred or the exaggeration of such conditions were other issues. Proposed legislation on abortion was opposed by the official Catholic position, which instead called for a vaguely

  16. The Global Politics of Abortion. Worldwatch Paper 97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Jodi L.

    Locating the issue of abortion in a global public policy context, with the array of public health, human rights, and social questions that are implicated, is the aim of this paper. Abortion laws around the world have been liberalized since the 1950s, with a resultant decrease in abortion-related mortality among women. The proportion of the world's…

  17. The Effect of Religious Membership on Teen Abortion Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomal, Annette

    2001-01-01

    Studied abortion rates among teenagers in 1,024 counties in 18 states that report abortion numbers. Results show that counties with high levels of religious membership were more likely to be in a state with a parental involvement law for teenage abortions. Both religious membership level and a parental involvement law were negatively related to…

  18. Abortion: an attitude study of professional staff at Ramathibodi Hospital.

    PubMed

    Phuapradit, W; Sirivongs, B; Chaturachinda, K

    1986-01-01

    This survey investigated attitudes toward abortion held by 627 medical professionals at the Ramathibodi Hospital in Bangkok in 1980-81. 96% of respondents were either physicians or graduate nurses. The majority were male, 20-30 years of age, single, and Buddhist. 69% of respondents favored making the current Thai abortion law, which restricts abortion, more liberal and an additional 17% favored abortion legalization; only 7% felt that abortion should be further restricted or prohibited. Approval of abortion was widespread for indications such as rape, incest, threat to maternal health, mental illness, and likelihood of fetal abnormalities. Conversely, under 50% of health professionals approved of abortion for indications such as single marital status, high or low maternal age, or child spacing. Sex, age, medical school education, and experience in performing induced abortion had a significant influence on approval rates for indications for abortion. Women, for example, were more conservative than men on indications such as sterilization failure and maternal age; young respondents and physicians tended to be more approving of abortion in cases of contraceptive failure. 62% of respondents indicated a willingness to perform abortions if the law were liberalized and 32% indicated that methods of induced abortion should be taught to medical students. PMID:3958655

  19. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  20. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  1. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed...

  2. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  3. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed...

  4. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed...

  5. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed...

  6. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed...

  7. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  8. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  9. How Attitudes Toward Abortion are Changing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elise F.; Westoff, Charles F.

    1978-01-01

    Data were obtained from the 1975 National Fertility Study concerning the acceptability of abortion, based largely on reinterviews with respondents from the 1970 sample. Using these data, aggregate trends over time and patterns of change for individuals have been analyzed. (BB)

  10. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  11. [Putting decriminalization of abortion to a refendum].

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    Surveys conducted in Mexico by GIRE in 1992, 1994, and 1995 reveal that over 80% of the national population believes only a woman or a woman and her partner should make abortion decisions. Neither the government, the Church, nor physicians should intervene. Public opinion and the documented social and public health consequences of illegal abortion demonstrate the obsolescence of laws penalizing abortion. Mexico does not have a direct means of converting the opinions of the population into votes and laws. In place of referendums, committees of specialists have been convened; they are limited in number and ability to represent diverse groups, and oriented above all to the losses and gains of political and parliamentary disputes. The electoral reform of 1995-96 was a good example of the question under debate getting lost in partisan maneuvering. The Federal District and four states have initiated development of the referendum process, but the procedures have been too cumbersome and the results disappointing. In the current day, opinions are often formed not by following a rational process, but by bombardment with advertising appealing to irrational emotions. The democratic effects of referendum should be furthered by guaranteeing fair and exhaustive exposure of all points of view before the vote is held. GIRE recommends that a referendum on decriminalization of abortion should be preceded by a period of at least two years for public debate and reflection, and that the Federal Electoral Institute should organize the debate and the referendum. PMID:12349540

  12. Psychological Factors That Predict Reaction to Abortion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, D. T.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated demographic and psychological factors related to reactions to legal abortions in 62 females in an urban southern community. Results suggest that the social context and the degree of support from a series of significant persons rather than demographic variables were most predictive of a positive reaction. (Author)

  13. Debate: Should Abortion Be Available on Request?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Bernard; Lawrence, George

    1971-01-01

    Two physicians debate whether abortions should be available on request regardless of medical indications. The crux of the issue is whether the fetus should be considered body tissue over which the woman has complete control or whether society has an interest in the embryo and should protect it. (Author/BY)

  14. Improvement in Capsule Abort Performance Using Supersonic Aerodynamic Interaction by Fences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Hiroto; Wang, Yunpeng; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Katsunori; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    The space transportation system will need advanced abort systems to secure crew against serious accidents. Here this study deals with the capsule-type space transportation systems with a Launch Abort System (LAS). This system is composed of a conic capsule as a Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) and a cylindrical rocket as a Service Module (SM), and the capsule is moved away from the rocket by supersonic aerodynamic interactions in an emergency. We propose a method to improve the performance of the LAV by installing fences at the edges of surfaces on the rocket and capsule sides. Their effects were investigated by experimental measurements and numerical simulations. Experimental results show that the fences on the rocket and capsule surfaces increase the aerodynamic thrust force on the capsule by 70% in a certain clearance between the capsule and rocket. Computational results show the detailed flow fields where the centripetal flow near the surface on the rocket side is induced by the fence on the rocket side and the centrifugal flow near the surface on the capsule side is blocked by the fence on the capsule side. These results can confirm favorable effects of the fences on the performance of the LAS.

  15. [Social hygiene aspects of abortion in Odessa].

    PubMed

    Zakharchenko, E M; Popov, V E

    1988-02-01

    The birth rate is a major concern in contemporary society today. Socialist countries having the material wherewithal and cultural wealth to maintain their populations have a genuine interest in population growth and maternity is therefore encouraged. The decision to have children lies with each individual family and does not involve society directly, except for the significant number of women who regulate their family size by having an abortion. In connection with the severity of such an intervention, a study of social and hygienic aspects of induced abortion was conducted in Odessa. The information was gathered anonymously among women who came to the gynecological department of a city hospital. 6.1% of the women were under age 20 and this figure may increase in the future. In the U.S. that figure already constitutes 1/3 of all abortions. 47.5% said they had had 3 previous abortions. 13.4% had no children, and 48.8% had 1 child. None of the women with no children thought of that as being the ideal. As reason for the abortion 31.7% gave irregular housing and living conditions, 12.2% unsatisfactory material well-being, 17.1% health reasons, 7.3% enough children already in the family, and 7.3% sickness of children and husband. In 24.4% of cases the husband was indifferent, and in 35.4% insisted on, and in 40.1% was against the woman having an abortion. 60% were thus probably poorly informed about the harmfulness of the operation. 39% of women did not use any contraception. Only 20% had received any information regarding contraceptives. Only 1/3 of obstetricians regularly instruct their patients about the use of contraceptives. Half of the nurses do not touch upon the subject due to lack of time and since instruction in birth control methods is not considered obligatory. Nevertheless it is important for women's health that during clinical examinations risk factors of abortion and the purposefulness of contraception are pointed out. PMID:3367727

  16. Catholics and abortion: authority vs. dissent.

    PubMed

    Ruether, R R

    1985-01-01

    A paid advertisement, appearing in "The New York Times" on October 4, 1984 under the sponsorship of a group called Catholics for a Free Choice, contended that there is more than 1 legitimate, i.e., theologically and ethically defensible, viewpoint on abortion within the Roman Catholic tradition. The advertisement called for a dialogue on abortion among Catholics; a dialogue that would acknowledge this situation of pluralism, not only in regard to practice (Catholics have about the same proportion of abortions as Protestants in the US) but in regard to the ethical state of the question. The ad explicitly asked for the cessation of institutional sanctions against those with dissenting positions on abortion. In the months following the ad's appearance, its admonition that dissenters should not be penalized has not been heeded. The chief initiative in this repression has come from the Vatican. In early December 1984 there arrived in the mailboxes of the religious superiors or bishops of the 4 priests and brothers and most of the 24 nuns who signed the statement a letter from the head of the Vatican's Sacred Congregation for Religious and Secular Institutes. This letter, dated November 30, 1984, stated that the position taken in "The New York Times" advertisement was "in contradiction to the teachings of the Church" and that the ad's signers were "seriously lacking in religious submission to the mind of the Magisterium." Any signer who declined to make a public retraction was to be warned by the superior with an explicit threat of dismissal from his/her religious community. The 2 priests and the 2 brothers made "pro forma" statements of retraction. None of the nuns who signed was willing to do so. When the nun-signers, through their religious superiors, indicated that they would not retract the statement nor would the superiors threaten them with dismissal, the Sacred Congregation appeared to back off. To date, none of the nuns has fully complied with the request to

  17. Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Ascent Abort Coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Mark B.; Evans, Bryan M.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Falck, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to maintain continuous abort capability from lift off through destination arrival. This requirement is driven by the desire to provide the capability to safely return the crew to Earth after failure scenarios during the various phases of the mission. This paper addresses abort trajectory design considerations, concept of operations and guidance algorithm prototypes for the portion of the ascent trajectory following nominal jettison of the Launch Abort System (LAS) until safe orbit insertion. Factors such as abort system performance, crew load limits, natural environments, crew recovery, and vehicle element disposal were investigated to determine how to achieve continuous vehicle abort capability.

  18. Visualising abortion: emotion discourse and fetal imagery in a contemporary abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Nick; Zeedyk, Suzanne; Raitt, Fiona

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a recent UK anti-abortion campaign in which the use of fetal imagery--especially images of fetal remains--was a prominent issue. A striking feature of the texts produced by the group behind the campaign was the emphasis given to the emotions of those viewing such imagery. Traditionally, social scientific analyses of mass communication have problematised references to emotion and viewed them as being of significance because of their power to subvert the rational appraisal of message content. However, we argue that emotion discourse may be analysed from a different perspective. As the categorisation of the fetus is a social choice and contested, it follows that all protagonists in the abortion debate (whether pro- or anti-abortion) are faced with the task of constructing the fetus as a particular entity rather than another, and that they must seek to portray their preferred categorisation as objective and driven by an 'out-there' reality. Following this logic, we show how the emotional experience of viewing fetal imagery was represented so as to ground an anti-abortion construction of the fetus as objective. We also show how the arguments of the (pro-abortion) opposition were construed as totally discrepant with such emotions and so were invalidated as deceitful distortions of reality. The wider significance of this analysis for social scientific analyses of the abortion debate is discussed. PMID:15893054

  19. Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights of Women: implications for access to abortion at the regional level.

    PubMed

    Ngwena, Charles G

    2010-08-01

    Article 14(2)(c) of the Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights of Women enjoins States Parties to take appropriate measures "to protect the reproductive rights of women by authorising medical abortion in cases of sexual assault, rape, incest, and where continued pregnancy endangers the mental and physical health of the mother or the life of the mother or the foetus." This paper considers the implications of Article 14 for access to safe, legal abortion. It is submitted that Article 14 has the potential to impact positively on regional abortion law, policy, and practice in 3 main areas. First, it takes forward the global consensus on combating abortion as a major public health danger. Second, it provides African countries with not just an incentive, but also an imperative for reforming abortion laws in a transparent manner. Third, if implemented in the context of a treaty that centers on the equality and non-discrimination of women, Article 14 has the potential to contribute toward transforming access to abortion from a crime and punishment model to a reproductive health model. PMID:20546748

  20. The Role of the Nonpneumatic Antishock Garment in Reducing Blood Loss and Mortality Associated with Post-Abortion Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Manandhar, Shila; El Ayadi, Alison M; Butrick, Elizabeth; Hosang, Robert; Miller, Suellen

    2015-09-01

    Maternal mortality attributable to post-abortion hemorrhage is often associated with delays in reaching or receiving definitive care. The nonpneumatic antishock garment (NASG), a low-technology first-aid device, has been shown to decrease blood loss and mortality among women experiencing hypovolemic shock secondary to obstetric hemorrhage etiologies. Women experiencing post-abortion hemorrhage face longer delays in receiving definitive treatment as a result of abortion-related stigma and lack of access to quality abortion care; thus the NASG has the potential to make an even greater impact within this population. We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in Egypt, Nigeria, Zambia, and Zimbabwe in NASG trials, limiting our analytic sample to women who experienced post-abortion hemorrhage (n = 953). Blood loss significantly decreased when the NASG was added to standard hemorrhage management during the intervention phase, and there was a large, although not statistically significant, 52 percent decrease in mortality during the NASG phase. The results indicate that adding the NASG to post-abortion care among women experiencing severe hemorrhage and hypovolemic shock would decrease blood loss and mortality. PMID:26347091

  1. Herbal infusions used for induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Ciganda, Carmen; Laborde, Amalia

    2003-01-01

    Plants and herbs have been used to induce abortions but there is very little published information describing the commonly used ones. The purpose of this report is to describe the herbal products used to induce abortions, and to enhance awareness and understanding of their toxic effects. A descriptive retrospective survey was conducted on the calls received by the Montevideo Poison Centre between 1986 and 1999 concerning the ingestion of herbal infusions with abortive intent. A total of 86 cases involving 30 different plant species were identified. The species most frequently involved were ruda (Ruta chalepensis/graveolens), cola de quirquincho (Lycopodium saururus), parsley (Petroselinum hortense), and an over-the-counter herbal product named Carachipita. The components of Carachipita are pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), yerba de la perdiz (Margiricarpus pinnatus), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and guaycuri (Statice brasiliensis). Abortion occurred in 23 cases after the ingestion of parsley, ruda, Carachipita, celery, Cedron, francisco alvarez, floripon, espina colorada. Out of the 23 cases, 15 involved the only the ingestion of plants, 4 cases used injected drugs (presumably hormones), and in 4 cases there was associated self-inflicted instrumental manipulation. Multiple organ system failure occurred in those patients who had ingested ruda (alone or in combination with parsley or fennel), Carachipita, arnica, or bardana. Deaths occurred in one case of Carachipita ingestion and in 4 cases of ruda ingestion (2 cases of ruda alone, 2 cases of ruda with parsley and fennel). Self-inflicted instrumental manipulations were found in 4 of the patients with multiple organ system failure and in one of those who died. The results of this report are not conclusive, but it appears that the ingestion of plants to induce abortion involves the risk of severe morbidity and mortality. PMID:12807304

  2. iWitness pollution map: crowdsourcing petrochemical accident research.

    PubMed

    Bera, Risha; Hrybyk, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Community members living near any one of Louisiana's 160 chemical plants or refineries have always said that accidents occurring in these petrochemical facilities significantly impact their health and safety. This article reviews the iWitness Pollution Map tool and Rapid Response Team (RRT) approach led by the Louisiana Bucket Brigade, an environmental nonprofit group, and their effectiveness in documenting these health and safety impacts during petrochemical accidents. Analysis of a January 2013 RRT deployment in Chalmette, LA, showed increased documentation of current petrochemical accidents and suggested increased preparedness to report future accidents. The RRT model encourages government response and enforcement agencies to integrate with organized community groups to fully document the impacts during ongoing accidents, lead a more timely response to the accident, and prevent future accidents from occurring. PMID:24135064

  3. House committees refuse to limit health plan abortion coverage.

    PubMed

    1994-06-24

    Anti-choice efforts to eliminate and/or restrict abortion coverage in US health care reform proposals were overwhelmingly rejected by Congressional committees on June 22 and 23, 1994. The committees rejected Kentucky Republican Representative Jim Bunning's amendment to remove abortion services except in cases of life endangerment, rape, or incest; Wisconsin Democrat Gerald Kleczka's attempt to let health plans opt out of providing abortion coverage; Pennsylvania Republican Rick Santorum's attempt to prevent the health plan from preempting state constitutional laws and regulations on abortion; amendments by Pennsylvania Democrat Ron Klink to drop abortion coverage except in cases of life endangerment, rape, or incest, and to guarantee against the plan overturning state regulations on abortion; and an amendment by Wisconsin Republican Steve Gunderson to allow plans to single out abortion from the guaranteed benefits package and offer plans without that coverage as well as to allow self-insured businesses to opt out of abortion coverage. Moreover, a final proposal to move abortion services into an optional benefit category was withdrawn and the House Education and Labor Committee refused to endorse abortion restrictions in its version of Clinton's HR 3600 health care proposal. The Senate Labor and Human Resources Committee previously defeated restrictions on abortion coverage. PMID:12345512

  4. Abortion in Europe, 1920-91: a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    David, H P

    1992-01-01

    This article grew out of a keynote address prepared for the conference, "From Abortion to Contraception: Public Health Approaches to Reducing Unwanted Pregnancy and Abortion Through Improved Family Planning Services," held in Tbilisi, Georgia, USSR in October 1990. The article reviews the legal, religious, and medical situation of induced abortion in Europe in historical perspective, and considers access to abortion services, attitudes of health professionals, abortion incidence, morbidity and mortality, the new antiprogestins, the characteristics of abortion seekers, late abortions, postabortion psychological reactions, effects of denied abortion, and repeat abortion. Special attention is focused on the changes occurring in Romania, Albania, and the former Soviet Union, plus the effects of the new conservatism elsewhere in the formerly socialist countries of central and eastern Europe, particularly Poland. Abortion is a social reality that can no more be legislated out of existence than the controversy surrounding it can be stilled. No matter how effective family planning services and practices become, there will always be a need for access to safe abortion services. PMID:1557791

  5. Eliminating the phrase "elective abortion": why language matters.

    PubMed

    Janiak, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2016-02-01

    The phrase "elective abortion" is often used to describe induced abortions performed for reasons other than a direct, immediate threat to maternal physical health. We argue that the term "elective abortion" is variably defined, misrepresents the complexity and multiplicity of indications for abortion and perpetuates stigma. In practice, restricting access to abortion at the legal, regulatory or institutional level based on subjective perceptions of patient need constrains health care providers' ability to act according to their best clinical judgments and limits patient access to care. The phrase "elective abortion" should be eliminated from scientific and medical discourse to prevent further damage to the public understanding of the variety of indications for which women require expeditious and equitable access to induced abortion. PMID:26480889

  6. Estimates of demand for abortion among Soviet immigrants in Israel.

    PubMed

    Sabatello, E F

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, more than 185,000 Soviet Jews emigrated to Israel, increasing Israel's population by 4 percent; 148,000 more arrived in 1991. Given the fertility and abortion patterns prevailing among Soviet women in their native country, this article inquires about the short-range expected increase in abortion demand in Israel engendered by this large migratory inflow. Estimation techniques based on the abortion experience of an earlier wave of Soviet-born immigrants in Israel reveal that the increase in requests for abortion brought about by the 1990 immigrants may reach up to 14 percent, and as high as 24 percent for the combined immigration waves of 1990 and 1991. The expanded demand for abortions in Israel engendered by the new Soviet immigrants necessitates an expansion of both family planning services and of the medical committees entitled to grant a legal abortion. A failure in these fields would benefit illegal abortion. PMID:1412599

  7. Understanding abortion via different scholarly methodologies: book review essay.

    PubMed

    Erde, Edmund L

    1986-01-01

    Erde review three works that in his opinion have made important contributions to the abortion debate: Abortion Policy: An Evaluation of the Consequences For Maternal and Infant Health, by Jerome S. Legge, Jr. (Albany: State University of New York Press; 1985); Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood, by Kristen Luker (Berkeley: University of California Press; 1984); and Abortion: Moral and Legal Perspective, edited by J.L. Garfield and P. Hennessey (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press; 1984). A later issue of the Journal of Medical Humanities and Bioethics will carry Erde's review of two additional scholarly books on abortion: Abortion: Understanding the Differences, edited by Sidney Callahan and Daniel Callahan (New York: Plenum Press; 1984), and Abortion and the Status of the Fetus, edited by William B. Bondeson, H.T. Engelhardt, Jr., S.F. Spicker, and D.H. Winship (Boston: D. Reidel; 1983). PMID:11655806

  8. Women's stories of abortion in southern Gabon, Africa.

    PubMed

    Hess, Rosanna F

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons women in rural, southern Gabon, Africa, chose to terminate their pregnancies, the methods used to induce abortions, and postabortion effects experienced by these women. Abortion is illegal in this country. A descriptive qualitative design guided the methodology for this study. Five women with a history of induced abortion were interviewed in-depth for their abortion story. Reasons cited for an abortion included lack of financial and partner support. Abortion methods included oral, rectal, and vaginal concoctions of leaves, bark, and water and over-the-counter medications, including misoprostol. Affects were physical, spiritual, and relational. Health care professionals need to provide women with guidance for appropriate contraceptive usage. Abortion after-care of women with physical and spiritual needs is important. Future research is suggested on the use of misoprostol in Gabon to understand its affects on women's reproductive health. PMID:17202528

  9. [Induced abortions in the Third Reich. Legal basis and provision].

    PubMed

    Link, G

    2000-01-01

    This article analyses, after introductory comments on the legal situation in the German Empire and the Weimar Republic, the legal basis for induced abortions during National Socialist rule in Germany. During this period the first legal definition for eugenically and medically indicated abortions was established. At the same time the prohibition of induced abortions outside these criteria was controlled more strictly and violations were punished more severely. This concerned abortions mainly for social reasons. The intention was to legalize abortion for those deemed "less worthy" while, at the same time, to minimise the number of abortions of those considered as "more valuable" to society. The main thrust of this policy was to increase the birth rate of "valuable" citizens. The second part of this paper focuses on eugenic and medical abortions at the University of Freiburg's Maternity Hospital. PMID:11050762

  10. Physician provision of abortion before Roe v. Wade.

    PubMed

    Joffe, C

    1991-01-01

    With the possibility of the Supreme Court overturning the landmark Roe v. Wade (1973) case legalizing abortion, a review of abortion practices pre-Roe is instructive. Abortion became criminalized in the US around 1870, yet many abortions were performed. While estimates for the yearly number of pre-Roe illegal abortions roughly resemble today's number of legal abortions, the difference between legal and illegal abortion rests in the difference between the large number of women who died or were injured then, and the very few women who now die from illegal abortions. Along with the self-induced abortion, different categories of providers performed illegal abortions: physicians, nonphysicians, nurses, midwives, and lay people; all with varying skill, experience, and motives. While there were "butchers" and sexual exploiters, there were also competent, beloved physicians. There were the financially motivated physicians providing abortions full time, and the occasional providers acting with a sense of conscience, risking successful practices and jail. Within this "conscience" group of 44 interviewees gathered through personal networks, ads, etc., abortions were: performed outside of hospitals, reducing the risk of discovery, but creating greater medical risks; begun outside of a hospital with the intrusion into the uterus of an object, provoking a "spontaneous abortion" (miscarriage) needing completion by D and C (dilation and curettage) within a hospital, but only a limited number of such patients could be referred before arousing suspicion; and in a hospital under disguised circumstances, a very tricky undertaking with severe limitations, available only a few times before risking detection. Avoidance and lack of training by today's physicians and the well organized antiabortion groups will undoubtedly make illegal abortions even more difficult to engage in than the pre-Roe days. PMID:12317573

  11. Biblical views on abortion: an Episcopal perspective.

    PubMed

    Wilson-kastner, P; Blair, B

    1985-01-01

    Much scholarly work has been done to determine the biblical and traditional attitudes about abortion. One must ask what was said and why, what was its context, and inquire about what was not said as well. This discussion identifies some of the conclusions reached in scholarly literature. The word "abortion" is not mentioned in the Bible, but much in the Bible speaks to the issue. The most obvious passage is from Exodus 21:22-25. This part of the Covenant Code legislates the case of a pregnant woman who becomes involved in a brawl between 2 men and has a miscarriage. A distinction is then made between the penalty that is to be exacted for the loss of the fetus and injury to the woman. For the fetus, a fine is paid as determined by the husband and the judges. However, if the woman is injured or dies, "lex talionis" is applied -- life for life, eye for eye, etc. The story has somewhat limited application to the current abortion debate since it deals with accidental and not willful pregnancy termination. Even so, the distinction made between the woman and the fetus is important. The woman is valued as a person under the convenant; the fetus is valued as property. Its status is certainly inferior to that of the woman. This passage gives no support to the parity argument that gives equal religious and moral worth to woman and fetus. The bibilical portrait of person does not begin with an explanation of conception but with a portrayal of the creation of Adam and Eve. Thus, the biblical portrait of a person is that of a complex, many-sided creature with the god-like ability and responsibility to make choices. The fetus does not meet those criteria. When considering the issue of abortion, the one who unquestionably fits this portrait of personhood is the pregnant woman. The abortion question focuses on the personhood of the woman, who in turn considers the potential personhood of the fetus in terms of the multiple dimensions of her own history and the future. In biblical

  12. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  13. The long-term impact of a man-made disaster: An examination of a small town in the aftermath of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Reactor Accident.

    PubMed

    Goldsteen, R; Schorr, J K

    1982-03-01

    This paper explores the long-term effects of a nuclear accident on residents' perceptions of their physical and mental health, their trust of public officials, and their attitudes toward the future risks of nuclear power generation In their community. We find that in the period after the accident at Three Mile Island that there are constant or Increasing levels of distress reported by community residents. We conclude that the effects of a technological disaster may often be more enduring than those natural disaster and that greater research efforts should be made to Investigate the long-term consequences of man-made catastrophies of all types. PMID:20958512

  14. Designing an Experimental "Accident"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picker, Lester

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experimental "accident" that resulted in much student learning, seeks help in the identification of nematodes, and suggests biology teachers introduce similar accidents into their teaching to stimulate student interest. (PEB)

  15. Abortion law across Australia--A review of nine jurisdictions.

    PubMed

    de Costa, Caroline; Douglas, Heather; Hamblin, Julie; Ramsay, Philippa; Shircore, Mandy

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the current legal status of abortion in Australia and its implications. Australian abortion law has been a matter for the states since before Federation. In the years since Federation there have been significant reforms and changes in the abortion laws of some jurisdictions, although not all. Across Australia there are now nine sets of laws, state and Commonwealth, concerned with abortion. The test of a lawful abortion varies greatly across jurisdictions. In a number of states and territories, it is necessary to establish a serious risk to the physical or mental health of the woman if the pregnancy was to continue. In some cases, the certification of two doctors is required, particularly for abortions at later gestations. There are also physical restrictions on access, such as in South Australia and the Northern Territory where abortion must take place in a hospital. Only in the ACT has abortion been removed from the criminal law altogether. Variations in the law and restrictions arising from these are not consistent with the aims and provision of the universal, accessible health care system aspired to in Australia. There is an urgent need for overall reform and the introduction of uniformity to Australia's abortion laws, including removal of abortion from the criminal law. PMID:25871844

  16. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

    2015-02-01

    Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes. PMID:25715152

  17. Will Congress keep the two-tier system of abortion?

    PubMed

    Goodman, E

    1994-08-16

    Comments were made about the US legislative agenda to provide universal health insurance coverage and basic health care which must cover the most controversial procedure, abortion. Compromises have been offered that would deny abortion to any women receiving a government subsidy, that would allow employers to opt out of coverage, that would allow a nurse or doctor to opt out of performing an abortion, and that would allow women to refuse abortion insurance coverage. Neither prochoice nor prolife groups have cooperated in reducing the demand for abortion. Over the past several years, the debate has evolved to the point where prolife groups are trying to make abortion impossible, not just illegal, by murdering doctors and escorts and blocking clinic entrances. A CNN poll revealed in the beginning of August 1994 that 8% agreed that force was justifiable for preventing abortion, and 3% agreed that killing a doctor was justifiable. Members of Congress have attempted to create a neutral or safety zone to no avail. This has created the illusion of peace, but the abortion war rages on. Health care reform must address this controversial question and move in one direction or another. The present system perpetrates a double standard because the financially comfortable are covered for abortion care, and the poor under Medicaid are denied abortion coverage. PMID:12289883

  18. [On the question of the illegality of abortion].

    PubMed

    Salton, J A

    1985-08-01

    The illegality of abortion in Brazil is questioned more and more. It would seem obvious that the prohibition of abortion would result in a decrease in the number of abortions, but upon closer observation, the opposite is true. Abortion related legislation in Brazil is among the most severe in the world. Both the physician and the patient are equally punishable, but this did not stop Brazilian women from having 3.5 million abortions/year. Countries with less severe laws have a much lower abortion rate. There have been extreme physiological and social consequences in Brazil as a result of abortion's illegality. The woman is not only a criminal, she is also a sinner in the eyes of the Church. In most cases, especially in low-income areas, abortion can lead to complications and death. Although there are no statistical data on the number of deaths due to illegal abortion, they would no doubt be alarming. An unwanted, unterminated pregnancy can have disastrous effects upon the mother, the child, and their relationship. These negative effects have been well documented. Prohibition will keep abortion out of the mainstream of national debate and aggravate the situation. A person's sexuality cannot be suppressed and considered evil. In lower income levels, unwanted pregnancy should not be a punishment for being poor. The legalization movement will grow, as it has in developed nations. The members of the Brazilian Society for Scientific Progress must remain active in the debate, because they cannot ignore something of such national importance. PMID:12314816

  19. The Relationship between Neutralization Techniques and Induced Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Kalateh Sadati, Ahmad; Tabei, Seyed Ziaaddin; Salehzadeh, Hamzeh; Rahnavard, Farnaz; Namavar Jahromi, Bahia; Hemmati, Soroor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Induced abortion is not only a serious threat for women’s health, but also a controversial topic for its ethical and moral problems. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between neutralization techniques and attempting to commit abortion in married women with unintended pregnancy. Methods: After in-depth interviews with some women who had attempted abortion, neutralization themes were gathered. Next, to analyze the data quantitatively, a questionnaire was created including demographic and psychosocial variables specifically related to neutralization. The participants were divided into two groups (abortion and control) of unintended pregnancy and were then compared. Results: Analysis of psychosocial variables revealed a significant difference in the two groups at neutralization, showing that neutralization in the control group (56.97±10.24) was higher than that in the abortion group (44.19±12.44). To evaluate the findings more accurately, we examined the causal factors behind the behaviors of the abortion group. Binary logistic regression showed that among psychosocial factors, neutralization significantly affected abortion (95% CI=1.07-1.35). Conclusion: Despite the network of many factors affecting induced abortion, neutralization plays an important role in reinforcing the tendency to attempt abortion. Furthermore, the decline of religious beliefs, as a result of the secular context of the modern world, seems to have an important role in neutralizing induced abortion. PMID:25349851

  20. Immunologic testing and immunotherapy in recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, J A; Faulk, W P; Nichols-Johnson, V R; Taylor, C G

    1986-02-01

    One hundred sixty-one couples with clinical histories of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortions were analyzed in part for human leukocyte antigens, antibodies to paternal lymphocytes, and mixed lymphocyte culture reactions. All sera with antipaternal antibodies were investigated on a cell panel and absorbed with various tissues and heparin to help define antigenic specificities, and the couples were categorized as primary or secondary aborters. Primary but not secondary aborters were found to share more human leukocyte antigens with their mates than did 103 control fertile couples. Lymphocytotoxins were rarely identified in primary but were commonly present in secondary aborter sera. Results of mixed lymphocyte culture reactions with primary aborting couples showed an intrinsic cellular inability for the wives to recognize their husbands' cells. Secondary aborting couples' mixed lymphocyte culture reactions also were depressed but as a result of an inhibiting substance in the wives' sera. Thirty-three primary aborting women were treated by immunotherapy with leukocyte infusions as a prophylactic source of trophoblast-lymphocyte cross reactive antigen stimulation to immunologically protect their pregnancies. Eighty-nine percent of primary aborting patients delivered successfully. Six secondary aborting women were treated with heparin therapy; two of these delivered normal infants, two are pregnant, and two have aborted. Clinical implications for immunologic testing and immunotherapy in pregnancy failures are discussed. PMID:2935759

  1. Exploring the pathways of unsafe abortion in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sushanta K; Andersen, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 40 years after enactment of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act of 1971, unsafe abortion continues to be a neglected women's health issue in India. This prospective study of women presenting for post-abortion care in 10 selected hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India, aimed to understand the incidence, types and severity of post-abortion complications, probable causes of complications and consequences to women in terms of hospitalisation and incurred costs. Among 1565 women presenting for induced abortion-related services between July and November 2007, 381 women with post-abortion complications consented to participate. Data reveal a high prevalence of post-abortion complications (29%). Approximately half of women originally attempted to induce abortion at home using medication, home-made concoctions or traditional methods. Ninety percent sought care from either qualified (37%) or unqualified providers. More than half of the women were hospitalised as a result of post-abortion complications. This study suggests that supporting access to safely induced abortion services and improving community awareness on legal aspects, safe methods and approved providers are all necessary to reduce morbidity associated with unsafe abortion. PMID:22888792

  2. Estimating abortion incidence in Burkina Faso using two methodologies.

    PubMed

    Sedgh, Gilda; Rossier, Clémentine; Kaboré, Idrissa; Bankole, Akinrinola; Mikulich, Meridith

    2011-09-01

    Abortion is illegal in Burkina Faso except in cases of incest, rape, fetal defect, or when the woman's life or physical health is endangered. As a result, abortion procedures are often conducted illegally and unsafely and measuring incidence proves difficult. We estimate incidence of abortion and associated morbidity using two methodologies. The first is the Abortion Incidence Complications Method (AICM), which uses information on women hospitalized for abortion-related complications as well as health professionals' assessments of the proportion of women who seek treatment for complications from unsafe abortions. The second is the Anonymous Third Party Reporting (ATPR) method, which entails surveying women about their confidantes' abortions. We conclude that the AICM yields a more accurate result. We estimate that 87,200 abortion procedures were carried out in 2008, representing 25 for every 1,000 women aged 15-49. More than one in four procedures resulted in complications treated at a health facility. The abortion rate estimated using the ATPR approach was 72 percent of that estimated with the AICM. The ATPR method yields information on the characteristics of the women who have abortions as well as the providers and methods they use. PMID:21972666

  3. Ugandan opinion-leaders' knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ann M; Kibombo, Richard; Cats-Baril, Deva

    2014-10-01

    While laws in Uganda surrounding abortion remain contradictory, a frequent interpretation of the law is that abortion is only allowed to save the woman's life. Nevertheless abortion occurs frequently under unsafe conditions at a rate of 54 abortions per 1000 women of reproductive age annually, taking a large toll on women's health. There are an estimated 148,500 women in Uganda who experience abortion complications annually. Understanding opinion leaders' knowledge and perceptions about unsafe abortion is critical to identifying ways to address this public health issue. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 41 policy-makers, cultural leaders, local politicians and leaders within the health care sector in 2009-10 at the national as well as district (Bushenyi, Kamuli and Lira) level to explore their knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion and the potential for policy to address this issue. Only half of the sample knew the current law regulating abortion in Uganda. Respondents understood that the result of the current abortion restrictions included long-term health complications, unwanted children and maternal death. Perceived consequences of increasing access to safe abortion included improved health as well as overuse of abortion, marital conflict and less reliance on preventive behaviour. Opinion leaders expressed the most support for legalization of abortion in cases of rape when the perpetrator was unknown. Understanding opinion leaders' perspectives on this politically sensitive topic provides insight into the policy context of abortion laws, drivers behind maintaining the status quo, and ways to improve provision under the law: increase education among providers and opinion leaders. PMID:24064047

  4. Efforts underway to impose harsh regulations on abortion providers.

    PubMed

    Sollom, T

    1996-09-01

    Legislators or regulators in Mississippi, South Carolina, and Missouri have imposed burdensome and unnecessary clinic requirements on abortion providers. In each case, the legislators or regulators designed the requirements to make abortions more difficult to obtain. Mississippi, a state with only two licensed abortion clinics, already had restrictive abortion laws. In August 1996, it implemented stringent regulations on private physicians who provide abortion services in their offices. Some requirements include purchasing specific equipment, widening hallways, and hiring more staff. Several physicians have filed a lawsuit to stop enforcement of the regulations because they make the provision of abortion services so cumbersome and expensive as to discourage physicians from offering abortions. Antiabortion groups testified before the legislature that the Department of Health had been negligent in monitoring private practices for compliance with Mississippi's many abortion laws, particularly counseling requirements. The Republican governor signed the legislation in March 1996. In July 1996, a federal judge prohibited the South Carolina Department of Health from enforcing a new regulation making physicians who perform as few as five abortions a month to meet strict specifications for their office (e.g., disclosure of patient records and medical agreements). The regulation was a response to a 1995 law targeting private physicians who perform abortions in their offices. The judge held that the substantial changes in terms of privacy and expense could bring an undue burden on women seeking abortions. The state denied that the regulation would close clinics or would increase costs so much as to make abortions inaccessible. In September 1996, the House did not override the Democratic governor's veto of a bill that would have required all facilities where abortions are done to be licensed and undergo annual inspections and that would have required all physicians to have

  5. Cross-analysis of hazmat road accidents using multiple databases.

    PubMed

    Trépanier, Martin; Leroux, Marie-Hélène; de Marcellis-Warin, Nathalie

    2009-11-01

    Road selection for hazardous materials transportation relies heavily on risk analysis. With risk being generally expressed as a product of the probability of occurrence and the expected consequence, one will understand that risk analysis is data intensive. However, various authors have noticed the lack of statistical reliability of hazmat accident databases due to the systematic underreporting of such events. Also, official accident databases alone are not always providing all the information required (economical impact, road conditions, etc.). In this paper, we attempt to integrate many data sources to analyze hazmat accidents in the province of Quebec, Canada. Databases on dangerous goods accidents, road accidents and work accidents were cross-analyzed. Results show that accidents can hardly be matched and that these databases suffer from underreporting. Police records seem to have better coverage than official records maintained by hazmat authorities. Serious accidents are missing from government's official databases (some involving deaths or major spills) even though their declaration is mandatory. PMID:19819367

  6. [Abortion: legal, deontological and ethical framework].

    PubMed

    Canário, Catarina; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Ricou, Miguel

    2011-12-01

    Pregnancy interruption before fetal viability limit is inherent to a multidisciplinary reflection, due to the conflicts involved. Portuguese laws have been altered along time in the way of women's health protection, allowing the needed information and support towards a free, informed and enlightened decision. Deontological determinants about health professionals towards abortion indicate the practice accordingly the law. Nevertheless, it is safeguarded their right to consciousness objection. Ethical discussion about abortion, in its different ways, includes the concern about the value of intrauterine human life, and also the respect for individual autonomy. Even though the debate about intrauterine human life moral status is viewed from different theories and points of view, it is concluded that different perspectives about this matter are acceptable, in an interpersonal diversity valorization point of view. PMID:22863486

  7. [A glossary for discussion about abortion].

    PubMed

    Astete A, Carmen; Beca I, Juan Pablo; Lecaros U, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Abortion and its diverse possible legal regulations is one of the major and toughest social controversies. This debate is even more problematic due to biases, prejudgments, different ideologies, beliefs, religious doctrines and political pressures. Chile has recently begun a new national discussion with an evident confusion, both in juridical and clinical terminology, which makes very difficult to achieve the necessary plural debate for a social and political consensus. The authors structured an academic collaborative project to create a glossary as a contribution for a discussion based on clearly defined notions about the different terms used in the abortion debate. Twenty-two concepts were selected and their definitions were reviewed and discussed by more than 50 different specialists. The final version of this glossary in Spanish language is presented. PMID:25694291

  8. [Contraception and abortion: an update in 2015].

    PubMed

    Chung, D; Ferro Luzzi, E; Bettoli Musy, L; Narring, F

    2015-09-23

    Family doctors can play an important role in preventing unplanned pregnancies. This article addresses the different contraceptives methods available in Switzerland, which are classified in 2 groups and recommends using the GATHER approach (Greet, Ask, Tell, Help, Explain, Return) to promote compliance. LARC (long acting reversible contraceptives) can be recommended to any woman who needs a reliable birth control method. These contraceptives require minimum effort for high efficiency. Further explanation regarding the use of an emergency contraception must be provided when short action contraceptives are chosen. Switzerland's abortion rate is one of the lowest in the world. Medical abortion tends to be more and more prominent. Under certain circumstances, it can be self-administered at home. PMID:26591787

  9. Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) Propulsion on Pad Abort 1 (PA-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides a concise overview of the highly successful Orion Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) flight test, and the three rocket motors that contributed to this success. The primary purpose of the Orion PA-1 flight was to help certify the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS), which can be utilized in the unlikely event of an emergency on the launchpad or during mission vehicle ascent. The PA-1 test was the first fully integrated flight test of the Orion LAS, one of the primary systems within the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The Orion MPCV is part of the architecture within the Space Launch System (SLS), which is being designed to transport astronauts beyond low-Earth orbit for future exploration missions. Had the Orion PA-1 flight abort occurred during launch preparations for a real human spaceflight mission, the PA-1 LAS would have saved the lives of the crew. The PA-1 flight test was largely successful due to the three solid rocket motors of the LAS: the Attitude Control Motor (ACM); the Jettison Motor (JM); and the Abort Motor (AM). All three rocket motors successfully performed their required functions during the Orion PA-1 flight test, flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, culminating in a successful demonstration of an abort capability from the launchpad.

  10. Radiological Studies for the LCLS Beam Abort System

    SciTech Connect

    Santana Leitner, M.; Vollaire, J.; Mao, X.S.

    2008-03-25

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a pioneer hard x-ray free electron laser is currently under construction at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It is expected that by 2009 LCLS will deliver laser pulses of unprecedented brightness and short length, which will be used in several forefront research applications. This ambitious project encompasses major design challenges to the radiation protection like the numerous sources and the number of surveyed objects. In order to sort those, the showers from various loss sources have been tracked along a detailed model covering 1/2 mile of LCLS accelerator by means of the Monte Carlo intra nuclear cascade codes FLUKA and MARS15. This article covers the FLUKA studies of heat load; prompt and residual dose and environmental impact for the LCLS beam abort system.

  11. [Elective abortions, a right to defend].

    PubMed

    Zaccabri, Annie

    2015-12-01

    Every year in France, almost 210 000 women request a termination of an unwanted pregnancy. Two thirds of them were however using a form of contraception, hence the importance, for caregivers, of encouraging women to find the method which works best for them. The right to abortion is the fruit of a long fight for a woman's right to control her own body. It is a right which must be protected. PMID:26654493

  12. Launch, Entry and Abort, Intravehicular Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    Senior spacesuit expert, will present information about Launch, Entry and Abort (LEA) spacesuits - part of an overall vehicle crew escape and survival system. These LEA spacesuits are worn during the launch and reentry to enhance crew survival. The U.S. has traditionally called these spacesuits Intravehicular Activity (IVA) spacesuits. The Russians refer to this type of spacesuit as "Rescue Suits." Thomas will discuss the success of the LEA suits and the consequences of eliminating their use or providing inadequate systems.

  13. CONTINUOUS ABORT GAP CLEANING AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.FLILLER,R.III.FU,W.MICHNOFF,R.

    2004-07-05

    Since the RHIC Au-Au run in the year 2001 the 200 MHz cavity system was used at storage and a 28 MHz system during injection and acceleration. The rebucketing procedure potentially causes a higher debunching rate of heavy ion beams in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam can easily account for more than 50% of the total beam intensity. This effect is even stronger with the achieved high intensities of the RHIC Au-Au run in 2004. A beam abort at the presence of a lot of debunched beam bears the risk of magnet quenching and experimental detector damage due to uncontrolled beam losses. Thus it is desirable to avoid any accumulation of debunched beam from the beginning of each store, in particular to anticipate cases of unscheduled beam aborts due to a system failure. A combination of a fast transverse kickers and the new 2-stage copper collimator system are used to clean the abort gap continuously throughout the store with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. This report gives. an overview of the new gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  14. US poised to outlaw late abortion technique.

    PubMed

    Bozalis, D

    1995-11-18

    The House of Representatives passed a bill, by a two-thirds majority (288-139), prohibiting late (at 19-20 weeks gestation) abortion using intrauterine cranial decompression. The bill now awaits judgment from the Senate Judiciary Committee for hearings. If the bill becomes law, physicians performing the procedure could face up to two years in prison. Chris Smith, Republican cochairman of the House Pro-Life Caucus, who introduced the bill in the House, described the vote as historic. During his emotional speech, the procedure was described in order to desanitize a form of abortion that he called barbaric torture. Patricia Schroeder, Colorado House Representative, argued that the wording of the bill allowed the procedure only when it was the only possible way of saving the mother's life; the woman's health and future fertility were, in effect, set aside. There is no exception clause for when the woman's life or health is endangered. Schroeder fears women will be forced to choose more dangerous methods of abortion and believes more discussion is required regarding health risks and a more precise definition of when the procedure may be used. She is joined by the California Medical Association, the American Medical Women's Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, and the American Medical Association. PMID:7496271

  15. Endogenous Candida endophthalmitis after induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Chen, S J; Chung, Y M; Liu, J H

    1998-06-01

    Reported, in this article, are the cases of two young women who developed endogenous Candida endophthalmitis after induced abortion. Both women experienced transient fever, chills, and abdominal pain after the abortion and were given antibiotics. The diagnosis of endophthalmitis was established on the basis of typical fundus appearance, positive vaginal culture, and (in one case) positive vitreous culture. In the first woman, who received vitrectomy and intravitreal amphotericin B injection, the affected eye had a best corrected visual acuity of 20/200. In the second woman, who was given systemic corticosteroid treatment before the correct diagnosis was reached, recurrent retinal detachment developed and the best corrected visual acuity was counting fingers. It appears that Candida organisms harbored in the genital tract are directly inoculated into the venous system during induced abortion. Once in the blood, if sufficient fungal load is present, Candida albicans tends to localize in the choroid and to spread toward the retina and vitreous cavity. The immunosuppressive effect of corticosteroids further increases the risk of endophthalmitis. PMID:9645729

  16. An analysis of aircraft accidents involving fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucha, G. V.; Robertson, M. A.; Schooley, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    All U. S. Air Carrier accidents between 1963 and 1974 were studied to assess the extent of total personnel and aircraft damage which occurred in accidents and in accidents involving fire. Published accident reports and NTSB investigators' factual backup files were the primary sources of data. Although it was frequently not possible to assess the relative extent of fire-caused damage versus impact damage using the available data, the study established upper and lower bounds for deaths and damage due specifically to fire. In 12 years there were 122 accidents which involved airframe fires. Eighty-seven percent of the fires occurred after impact, and fuel leakage from ruptured tanks or severed lines was the most frequently cited cause. A cost analysis was performed for 300 serious accidents, including 92 serious accidents which involved fire. Personal injury costs were outside the scope of the cost analysis, but data on personnel injury judgements as well as settlements received from the CAB are included for reference.

  17. Medical Emergency Exceptions in State Abortion Statutes: The Statistical Record.

    PubMed

    Linton, Paul Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to determine, first, whether emergency exceptions in statutes regulating abortion have been abused and, second, whether the standard used in such an exception--subjective or objective--makes a difference in the reported incidence of such emergencies. A review of the statistical data supports two conclusions. First, physicians who perform abortions and have complied with state reporting requirements have not relied upon the medical emergency exceptions in state abortion statutes to evade the requirements of those statutes. Second, the use of an objective standard for evaluating medical emergencies ("reasonable medical judgment") has not been associated with fewer reported emergencies (per number of abortions performed) than the use of a subjective standard ("good faith clinical judgment"). Both of these conclusions may be relevant in drafting other abortion statutes including prohibitions (e.g., post-viability abortions). PMID:27323547

  18. U.S. tries to defuse abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Struck, D

    1994-09-01

    In an apparent attempt to defuse acrimony at the International Conference on Population and Development, underway in Cairo, the US delegation is softening its stance on abortion decriminalization. US Vice President Al Gore, the head of the delegation, has stated, "The United States does not seek to establish a new international right to abortion, and we do not believe that abortion should be encouraged as a method of family planning." The Vatican and Muslim fundamentalists remain concerned, however, that the Cairo gathering represents an opportunity for the US to impose its abortion rights agenda on other countries. The draft prepared for presentation to the conference makes no explicit mention of legal abortion. Rather, it advocates safe motherhood, complete reproductive health care, and fertility control-- phrases the Vatican insists mask an intent to promote the use of abortion for family planning. PMID:12318927

  19. 25 years later, US abortion war still drags on.

    PubMed

    Rovner, J

    1998-01-31

    In the 25 years since the US Supreme Court's landmark Roe vs. Wade decision legalizing abortion, activists on both sides of the issue have drawn further apart as they have vied for the support of the majority of US voters who express ambivalence towards the law. These voters believe that abortion may be murder but that it must be legal. The Roe vs. Wade anniversary has sparked new legislative priorities on both sides. Abortion-rights activists will seek legislation that attempts to decrease the need for abortion by increasing funding for family planning services in the US and abroad, supporting funding for contraceptive research, and requiring health insurers to pay for contraceptives. Abortion opponents will continue to press for "partial birth" abortion bans and will support efforts to make it a federal crime for an adult to transport a minor across state lines to evade state parental notification or consent laws. PMID:9652629

  20. Measuring abortion-related mortality: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Gerdts, Caitlin; Tunçalp, Ozge; Johnston, Heidi; Ganatra, Bela

    2015-01-01

    Two recent efforts to quantify the causes of maternal deaths on a global scale generated divergent estimates of abortion-related mortality. Such discrepancies in estimates of abortion-related mortality present an important opportunity to explore unique challenges and opportunities associated with the generation and interpretation of abortion-related mortality estimates. While innovations in primary data collection and estimation methodologies are much needed, at the very least, studies that seek to measure maternal deaths due to abortion should endeavor to improve transparency, acknowledge limitations of data, and contextualize results. As we move towards sustainable development goals beyond 2015, the need for valid and reliable estimates of abortion-related mortality has never been more pressing. The post-MDG development agenda that aims to improve global health, reduce health inequities, and increase accountability, requires new and novel approaches be tested to improve measurement and estimation of abortion-related mortality, as well as incidence, safety and morbidity. PMID:26377189

  1. Spontaneous abortions by occupation and social class in Finland.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, K; Niemi, M L; Saloniemi, I; Vainio, H; Hemminki, E

    1980-06-01

    A hospital discharge registry covering all general hospitals in Finland was used in the study of spontaneous abortions. Spontaneous abortions were analysed by the women's occupation and socio-economic class for 1973-75 inclusive. The risk of spontaneous abortion increased from social class 1 to 4 by about 50%. The occupational groups with an increased frequency of spontaneous abortions included industrial and construction work, agriculture, forestry and fishing, sales, transport and communication, services, and students and trainees. Decreased frequency of spontaneous abortions was noted among housewives, and in managerial and clerical occupations. The results suggest that socio-economic factors contribute to the rate of spontaneous abortions analogous to their known adverse effects on pre-term birth, birth weight and perinatal mortality. PMID:7409966

  2. Full-Envelope Launch Abort System Performance Analysis Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubuchon, Vanessa V.

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of a new dispersion methodology is described, which dis-perses abort initiation altitude or time along with all other Launch Abort System (LAS) parameters during Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast, the standard methodology assumes that an abort initiation condition is held constant (e.g., aborts initiated at altitude for Mach 1, altitude for maximum dynamic pressure, etc.) while dispersing other LAS parameters. The standard method results in large gaps in performance information due to the discrete nature of initiation conditions, while the full-envelope dispersion method provides a significantly more comprehensive assessment of LAS abort performance for the full launch vehicle ascent flight envelope and identifies performance "pinch-points" that may occur at flight conditions outside of those contained in the discrete set. The new method has significantly increased the fidelity of LAS abort simulations and confidence in the results.

  3. Stewardship challenges abortion: A proposed means to mitigate abortion's social divisiveness.

    PubMed

    Tardiff, Robert G

    2015-08-01

    Since 1973 the legislated constitutional right to abortion has produced a political dichotomy (anti-abortion versus pro-abortion) within the United States, even while witnessing a gradual decline in the rate of abortions. A third paradigm, moral stewardship, is advanced as an effective means to ameliorate this social divisiveness. Incorporating the concept of stewardship into deliberations of pregnancy termination would require recognition, through fact-based education programs, of the life circumstances that prompt the consideration to terminate a pregnancy. Based on collective responsibility, policies, and programs are needed to foster social justice for parents and for the offspring brought to term, without creating excessive burdens on women faced with an unwanted pregnancy. Moral stewardship is perceived as humanitarian to family and community and advantageous to society overall. It also offers a serious opportunity to reshape our society from divisiveness to inclusiveness, and to guide science policy judgment that enhances and strengthens social justice. Lay summary: Differing opinions over the ethics of human abortion have been legion since Roe v. Wade (1973). The disputes between pro- and anti-abortion factions have segregated society with few improvements in social justice. This study offers an alternative approach, one capable of social assimilation and justice for unwanted offspring and pregnant mothers bearing them. It promotes moral stewardship toward the unborn whose humanity and personhood are recognized genetically and supported philosophically by long-standing ethical principles. Stewardship incorporates all people at all levels of society based on collective responsibility, supported by government policies, yet not restricting a mother's choices for the future of her unborn offspring. PMID:26912934

  4. Stewardship challenges abortion: A proposed means to mitigate abortion's social divisiveness

    PubMed Central

    Tardiff, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1973 the legislated constitutional right to abortion has produced a political dichotomy (anti-abortion versus pro-abortion) within the United States, even while witnessing a gradual decline in the rate of abortions. A third paradigm, moral stewardship, is advanced as an effective means to ameliorate this social divisiveness. Incorporating the concept of stewardship into deliberations of pregnancy termination would require recognition, through fact-based education programs, of the life circumstances that prompt the consideration to terminate a pregnancy. Based on collective responsibility, policies, and programs are needed to foster social justice for parents and for the offspring brought to term, without creating excessive burdens on women faced with an unwanted pregnancy. Moral stewardship is perceived as humanitarian to family and community and advantageous to society overall. It also offers a serious opportunity to reshape our society from divisiveness to inclusiveness, and to guide science policy judgment that enhances and strengthens social justice. Lay summary: Differing opinions over the ethics of human abortion have been legion since Roe v. Wade (1973). The disputes between pro- and anti-abortion factions have segregated society with few improvements in social justice. This study offers an alternative approach, one capable of social assimilation and justice for unwanted offspring and pregnant mothers bearing them. It promotes moral stewardship toward the unborn whose humanity and personhood are recognized genetically and supported philosophically by long-standing ethical principles. Stewardship incorporates all people at all levels of society based on collective responsibility, supported by government policies, yet not restricting a mother's choices for the future of her unborn offspring. PMID:26912934

  5. Comprehensive Analysis of Two Downburst-Related Aircraft Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, J.; Parks, E. K.; Bach, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    Although downbursts have been identified as the major cause of a number of aircraft takeoff and landing accidents, only the 1985 Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) and the more recent (July 1994) Charlotte, North Carolina, landing accidents provided sufficient onboard recorded data to perform a comprehensive analysis of the downburst phenomenon. The first step in the present analysis was the determination of the downburst wind components. Once the wind components and their gradients were determined, the degrading effect of the wind environment on the airplane's performance was calculated. This wind-shear-induced aircraft performance degradation, sometimes called the F-factor, was broken down into two components F(sub 1) and F(sub 2), representing the effect of the horizontal wind gradient and the vertical wind velocity, respectively. In both the DFW and Charlotte cases, F(sub 1) was found to be the dominant causal factor of the accident. Next, the aircraft in the two cases were mathematically modeled using the longitudinal equations of motion and the appropriate aerodynamic parameters. Based on the aircraft model and the determined winds, the aircraft response to the recorded pilot inputs showed good agreement with the onboard recordings. Finally, various landing abort strategies were studied. It was concluded that the most acceptable landing abort strategy from both an analytical and pilot's standpoint was to hold constant nose-up pitch attitude while operating at maximum engine thrust.

  6. Contraceptive use among women admitted with abortion in Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Ojwang', S B; Omuga, B

    1991-03-01

    In this study, a total of 519 patients were interviewed. 82.5% had incomplete abortion. The implication of abortion especially when induced is emphasised. Economic implications that are contributed by the youth are stressed. 83.6% of the patients had not used any contraception. The role of contraception in preventing unwanted pregnancy and therefore induced abortion is stressed. The role of the physician in providing contraception and appropriate contraceptive knowledge is discussed. PMID:2070755

  7. A case of Candida guilliermondii abortion in an Arab mare

    PubMed Central

    Stefanetti, Valentina; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Lepri, Elvio; Coletti, Mauro; Casagrande Proietti, Patrizia; Agnetti, Francesco; Crotti, Silvia; Pitzurra, Lucia; Del Sero, Andrea; Passamonti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Ascending infections of equine uterus frequently result in placentitis and abortions; most of these infections are bacterial and are less commonly due to fungi. This report describes an abortion case in an Arab mare due to Candida guilliermondii that was diagnosed via cytological, histological, cultural and biomolecular assays. The histological lesions found were severe necrotizing placentitis associated with fetal pneumonia. To our knowledge this is the first case of C. guilliermondii abortion reported in equine species. PMID:24707460

  8. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M. A. H.; Hinckley, J. E.

    1998-01-15

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  9. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimus, M. A. H.; Hinckley, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of 238Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  10. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1998-12-31

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the convertor housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  12. Fake abortion clinics: the threat to reproductive self-determination.

    PubMed

    Mertus, J A

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of "fake abortion clinics" poses a great threat to women's ability to make free and informed procreative decisions. Such clinics intentionally deceive pregnant women into believing that they provide a full range of women's health services when, in reality, they provide only a pregnancy test, accompanied by intense anti-abortion propaganda. Because fake abortion clinics threaten women's interests in "privacy" and decisional autonomy, state attorneys general should challenge them under deceptive business practice statutes. Successful challenges can be brought without violating anti-abortion groups' First Amendment rights. PMID:2309498

  13. [Decriminalization of abortion: a common purpose in Latin America].

    PubMed

    1993-12-01

    In the conviction that abortion is a fundamental right of women and that its illegal practice constitutes a serious threat to life, several Latin American women's groups have united to work for decriminalization. The groups have been attempting to increase public awareness of the consequences of illegal abortion. Official silence on the topic appears to deny the existence of a problem. Proposals in the different Latin American countries are adapted to their political and legal circumstances. In Argentina, a campaign has been underway for nearly two years to collect signatures for a petition for a law concerning contraception and abortion. The National Network for Women's Health and other groups have held regional and national workshops on the issue. In Bolivia, radio and television programs have been broadcast in Spanish and indigenous languages on the right to choose, reproductive health, and sex education. Abortion was debated in Brazil during the process of constitutional reform, but it remains illegal. Illegal abortion continues to be a reality and women's groups are lobbying for decriminalization. Abortion is considered a crime in Colombia's penal code. Attempts to legalize abortion have been rejected by the legislature without debate. The practice of abortion under the circumstances has become a lucrative business whose lack of regulation has resulted in a growing number of maternal deaths. Attempts are underway in Costa Rica to legalize abortion in cases of rape or incest. Studies show that illegal abortion is the third most important cause of maternal death. A bill to legalize abortion is under study in Chile's Parliament but has not been approved. Abortion is illegal but common in Ecuador. Efforts are underway in Mexico and Nicaragua to encourage debate on abortion. Peru's Health Commission was recently prevented from classifying abortion for any reason other than grave congenital anomaly as homicide. Abortion has been legal in Puerto Rico since 1974, but

  14. Unsafe abortion in 2008: global and regional levels and trends.

    PubMed

    Shah, Iqbal; Ahman, Elisabeth

    2010-11-01

    Despite the availability of safe and highly effective methods of abortion, unsafe abortions continue to be widespread, nearly all in developing countries. The latest estimates from the World Health Organization put the figure at 21.6 million unsafe abortions worldwide in 2008, up from 19.7 million in 2003, a rise due almost entirely to the increasing number of women of reproductive age globally. No substantial decline was found in the unsafe abortion rate globally or by major region; the unsafe abortion rate of 14 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years globally remained the same from 2003 to 2008. Modest reductions in unsafe abortion rates were found in 2008 as compared to 2003 in most sub-regions, however. The upward changes in rates in Middle Africa, Western Asia and Central America were due to better coverage and more reliable information in 2008 than in 2003. Eastern and Middle Africa showed the highest rates of unsafe abortion among all sub-regions. Some 47,000 women per year are estimated to lose their lives from the complications of unsafe abortion, almost all of which could have been prevented through better access to sexuality education, fertility awareness, contraception and especially safe abortion services. PMID:21111353

  15. Single and repeated elective abortions in Japan: a psychosocial study.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, T; Toda, M A; Shima, S; Sugawara, M

    1998-09-01

    Despite its social, legal and medical importance, termination of pregnancy (TOP) (induced abortion) has rarely been the focus of psychosocial research. Of a total of 1329 women who consecutively attended the antenatal clinic of a general hospital in Japan, 635 were expecting their first baby. Of these 635 women, 103 (16.2%) had experienced TOP once previously (first aborters), while 47 (7.4%) had experienced TOP two or more times (repeated aborters). Discriminant function analysis was performed using psychosocial variables found to be significantly associated with either first abortion or repeated abortion in bivariate analyses. This revealed that both first and repeated aborters could be predicted by smoking habits and an unwanted current pregnancy while the repeated aborters appear to differ from first aborters in having a longer pre-marital dating period, non-arranged marriages, smoking habits, early maternal loss experience or a low level of maternal care during childhood. These findings suggest that both the frequency of abortion and its repetition have psychosocial origins. PMID:9844843

  16. DOD/NASA system impact analysis (study 2.1). Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Results of the tug turnaround cost study and the space transportation system (STS) abort modes and effects study are presented for DOD/NASA system impact analysis. Cost estimates are given for tug turnabout; and vehicle description, abort assessment, and abort performance capability are given for the STS.

  17. Health-related quality of life and social support among women treated for abortion complications in western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While the impact of abortion complications on clinical outcomes and healthcare costs has been reported, we found no reports of their impact on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), nor the role of social support in moderating such outcomes. In this study, we performed an assessment of the relationship between abortion complications, HRQoL and social support among women in Uganda. Methods We interviewed women who were discharged after treatment for abortion complications and, as a comparison, women visiting a regional referral hospital for routine obstetric care. We administered the EuroQol instrument and the Social Support Questionnaire Short-Form, and collected demographic and socioeconomic data. We performed descriptive analyses using t-tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and chi-square tests, and multivariable linear regressions with interaction effects to examine the associations between abortion complications, EQ-5D utility scores and social support. Results Our study included 139 women (70 with abortion complications, and 69 receiving routine obstetric care). In four out of the 5 dimensions of the EQ-5D, a larger proportion of women with abortion complications reported “some or severe” problems than women receiving routine obstetric care (self-care: 42% v 24%, p=0.033; usual activities: 49% v 16%, p<0.001; pain/discomfort: 68% v 25%, p<0.001; and anxiety/depression: 60% v 22%, p<0.001). After adjusting for age, social support, wealth tertile, employment status, marital status, and HIV status, women with abortion complications had a 0.12 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.18, p < 0.001) lower mean EQ-5D utility score than those receiving routine obstetric care. An analysis of the modifying effect of social support showed that a one-unit higher average number of people providing social support was associated with larger mean difference in EQ-5D utility score when comparing the two groups, while a one unit higher average satisfaction score with social support was

  18. Are all abortions equal? Should there be exceptions to the criminalization of abortion for rape and incest?

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Politics, public discourse, and legislation restricting abortion has settled on a moderate orthodoxy: restrict abortion, but leave exceptions for pregnancies that result from rape and incest. I challenge that consensus and suggest it may be much harder to defend than those who support the compromise think. From both Pro-Life and Pro-Choice perspectives, there are good reasons to treat all abortions as equal. PMID:25846041

  19. Marriage, Abortion, or Unwed Motherhood? How Women Evaluate Alternative Solutions to Premarital Pregnancies in Japan and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertog, Ekaterina; Iwasawa, Miho

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that to understand the very low incidence of outside-of-marriage childbearing in contemporary Japan one needs to take into account perceptions of all possible solutions to a premarital pregnancy: marriage, abortion, and childbearing outside wedlock. To demonstrate the particular impact of these perceptions in…

  20. Abortion, metaphysics and morality: a review of Francis Beckwith's defending life: a moral and legal case against abortion choice.

    PubMed

    Nobis, Nathan

    2011-06-01

    In Defending Life: A Moral and Legal Case Against Abortion Choice (2007) and an earlier article in this journal, "Defending Abortion Philosophically"(2006), Francis Beckwith argues that fetuses are, from conception, prima facie wrong to kill. His arguments are based on what he calls a "metaphysics of the human person" known as "The Substance View." I argue that Beckwith's metaphysics does not support his abortion ethic: Moral, not metaphysical, claims that are part of this Substance View are the foundation of the argument, and Beckwith inadequately defends these moral claims. Thus, Beckwith's arguments do not provide strong support for what he calls the "pro-life" view of abortion. PMID:21597083

  1. Effects of price and availability on abortion demand.

    PubMed

    Gohmann, S F; Ohsfeldt, R L

    1993-10-01

    This study explained the variation in US state abortion demand due to the price of services, the net of insurance cost of birth services, the ability to pay, contraceptive use, individual attitudes regarding abortion, and government policy affecting cost of benefits of terminating an unintended pregnancy or of carrying to birth. The empirical model uses pooled data from 48 states for 1982, 1984, 1985, and 1987. Prices are deflated to 1977 dollars. Another two-staged least squares model is based on cross-sectional state level data for 1985. The dependent variable is the log of abortion per 1000 pregnancies. Other variables pertain to income, education, labor force, family planning, tax, aid to families with dependent children, religion, and abortion-related measures. The results of the cross-sectional analysis are consistent with Medoff's and Garbacz's findings. The estimated coefficient of per capita income is positive with a point elasticity ranging from 0.62 to 1.0. The model with the most complete specifications has an abortion price elasticity range from -0.75 to -1.3 and is statistically significant when religion measures are excluded. The Hausman test shows the pro-choice variable significantly correlated with the error term. The net price of birth services is not statistically significant. Catholic religion and no religion are only significant when the abortion provider variable is excluded. The suggestion is that the effect of Catholicism is ambiguous. In the pooled analysis, the fixed effects model is used to control for abortion attitudes and other unobserved factors. Abortion demand includes abortion per 1000 pregnancies, the ratio of abortions to pregnancies, and the logarithm of abortions per 1000 pregnancies. Higher income is associated with a higher abortion rate and elasticities of 0.76 and 0.35 and is associated with a higher pregnancy rate. The abortion ratio is found to be elastic with respect to price, and price elasticities are sensitive to

  2. Effects of Abortion Legalization in Nepal, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Jillian T.; Puri, Mahesh; Blum, Maya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rana, Ashma; Gurung, Geeta; Pradhan, Neelam; Regmi, Kiran; Malla, Kasturi; Sharma, Sudha; Grossman, Daniel; Bajracharya, Lata; Satyal, Indira; Acharya, Shridhar; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Darney, Philip D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. Methods We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001–2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001–2003), early implementation (2004–2006), and later implementation (2007–2010). Results 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85). Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75). Conclusion Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women’s health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance

  3. Traumatic Brain Injury Related to Motor Vehicle Accidents in Guinea: Impact of Treatment Delay, Access to Healthcare, and Patient's Financial Capacity on Length of Hospital Stay and In-hospital Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Béavogui, Kézély; Koïvogui, Akoï; Loua, Tokpagnan Oscar; Baldé, Ramata; Diallo, Boubacar; Diallo, Aminata Rougui; Béavogui, Zézé; Goumou, Koué; Guilavogui, Vamala; Sylla, N’famara; Chughtai, Morad; Qureshi, Adnan I.; Diallo, Aissatou Taran; Camara, Naby Daouda

    2015-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury related to road traffic accidents poses a major challenge in resource-poor settings within Guinea. Objective To analyze the impact of treatment delay, access to healthcare, and patient's financial capacity on duration of hospital stay and in-hospital mortality. Methodology Data from patients with traumatic brain injury secondary to motor vehicle accident admitted to a reference hospital (public or private) in Guinea during 2009 were analyzed. The association between various factors (treatment delay, access to healthcare, and patient's financial capacity) and prolonged hospital stay (>21 days) and in-hospital mortality were analyzed using two multivariate logistic regression models. Results The mean (±standard deviation) duration of hospital stay was 8.0 (±8.1) days. The risk of prolonged hospital stay increased by 60% when the time interval between accident and hospital arrival was greater than 12 hours compared with those in whom the time interval was less than 6 hours (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0–2.6, p = 0.03). Compared with patients with low-financial capacity, patients with medium-financial capacity (adjusted OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4–0.8, p = 0.001) and those with high capacity (adjusted OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4–0.9, p = 0.02) were less likely to have a prolonged hospital stay. The risk of in-hospital mortality was 2.6 times higher in patients with time interval between accident and hospital arrival greater than 12 hours compared with those in whom the time interval was less than 6 hours (adjusted OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.1–6.2 p = 0.03). In-hospital mortality was not related to patient’s financial capacity. Conclusion Prolonged hospital stay and higher in-hospital mortality was associated with longer time interval between accident and hospital arrival. This delay is attributed to inadequate condition of intercity roads and lack of emergency medical services. PMID:26576213

  4. [Prevention of habitual abortion by buffycoat transfusions].

    PubMed

    Neumeyer, H; Kuhn, W; Götze, O; Hinney, B

    1985-01-01

    From an immunological point of view the product of pregnancy may be regarded as a haplo-different allotransplant. A system possibly closely linked to the HLA-region is postulated to lead to the immunological recognition of the fetus by the mother and, paradoxically, to a take of the "transplant". The postulated system apparently codes for antigens present on both trophoblast and adult lymphocytes (TLX = trophoblast-lymphocyte-crossreacting). The prevention of rejection is thought to be effected by blocking factors (BF) present in the serum or plasma of the mother. There may be different kinds of BF: a specific BF (detectable only in an autologous assay system), appearing late in pregnancy, which inhibits several lymphocyte-dependent reactions (e.g. production of MIF, MLC). This BF has been identified as an IgG-class antibody. a nonspecific BF, appearing early in pregnancy which inhibits the MLC in vitro. c) may be a third BF, also specific, which is found only in plasma but not in serum. All described BF-activities were absent in women with habitual abortions. HLA-identity or partial identity could imply TLX-identity. The consequence of such an identity could be: non-detection of the trophoblast by the immune system of the mother, no production of BF, abortion. However several investigators could not find any HLA-identity of the partners with habitual abortions. A protective effect on the fetus has been seen when pregnant women were immunised with adult leukocytes, using either buffycoats from various HLA-different but bloodgroup-compatible donors or isolated leukocytes from the spouse.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4072314

  5. Italy: abortion and nationalized health care.

    PubMed

    Mori, M

    1984-12-01

    Most of the recent public and scholarly interest in Italy concerning bioethical issues has centered on abortion, general reform of the health care system, and deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill. Medical decisions are thought to concern technical rather than moral issues, and are generally left to physicians. Although ethics is a formal part of the medical curriculum only in Catholic universities, physicians have recently shown more of an interest in bioethical issues, as have philosophers. At present, however, the author is aware of only one non-Catholic institution that is devoted to the study of ethical questions in medicine. PMID:6511373

  6. Cervical dilation in second-trimester abortion.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Jennifer L; Fox, Michelle C

    2009-06-01

    Dilation and evacuation, the most common method performed for second-trimester abortion in the United States, requires sufficient cervical dilation to reduce the risk of complications such as cervical laceration or uterine perforation. The cervix may be prepared with osmotic dilators such as laminaria, Lamicel, or Dilapan-S, or with pharmacologic agents such as misoprostol. Dilapan-S and Lamicel achieve their maximum dilation faster than laminaria, making same-day procedures possible. Misoprostol has limited data supporting its use in this setting. Decisions regarding which method is best are clinician-dependent, and factors such as gestational age and time allowed for preparation should be considered. PMID:19407523

  7. Medical Evidence and Expertise in Abortion Jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Aziza

    2015-01-01

    For another thing, the division of medical opinion about the matter at most means uncertainty, a factor that signals the presence of risk, not its absence. That division here involves highly qualified knowledgeable experts on both sides of the issue.--Stenberg v. Carhart, 2000. While we find no reliable data to measure the phenomenon, it seems unexceptionable to conclude some women come to regret their choice to abort the infant life they once created and sustained.--Gonzales v. Carhart, 2007. PMID:26237984

  8. [Abortion: a public health or a family planning problem].

    PubMed

    Aguayo Hernandez, J R

    1991-01-01

    This work discusses various views of abortion and presents data on the legal aspects and incidence of abortion in Mexico as a contribution to a more productive dialogue on the problems of abortion. It is very difficult to deter women who have decided to seek an abortion, regardless of whether the procedure is legal or even safe. In the state of Sinaloa, Mexico, an abortion has not been punishable since 1939 if it caused by "imprudence", if the woman is a victim of rape, or if the woman's life is endangered by pregnancy. The penal codes of most Mexican states and the Federal District contain similar provisions. In October 1990, the state of Chiapas decriminalized abortion for most indications in the 1st 90 days of pregnancy on the basis that the fertility and growth rates were too high, many children were in situations of extreme poverty, and the widespread practice of illegal abortion led to high rates of maternal morbidity and mortality. The decree legalizing abortion in Chiapas was suspended in early 1991 by the Congress of Chiapas and is currently under further study by the National Commission on Human Rights. UNICEF estimates that in 1990, some 100,000 illegal abortions occurred daily in the world. 150,000-200,000 women may die each year as a result of illegal abortions. Today some 300 million couples throughout the world do not want more children but lack access to family planning. UNICEF estimates that the world rate of population growth would decline by 30% if all couples not desiring children practiced effective contraception. A large number of illegal abortions are believed to occur annually in Mexico. Abortions in Mexico are most common among married women of lower or lower middle class who already have children and who wish to avoid the economic hardships of a new baby. Perhaps because of their illegality, abortions represent a significant expense for a household. Unsafe abortions may cause serious health and fertility problems for women. The Mexican

  9. Scaling-up a public health innovation: a comparative study of post-abortion care in Bolivia and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Billings, Deborah L; Crane, Barbara B; Benson, Janie; Solo, Julie; Fetters, Tamara

    2007-06-01

    Post-abortion care (PAC), an innovation for treating women with complications of unsafe abortion, has been introduced in public health systems around the world since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). This article analyzes the process of scaling-up two of the three key elements of the original PAC model: providing prompt clinical treatment to women with abortion complications and offering post-abortion contraceptive counseling and methods in Bolivia and Mexico. The conceptual framework developed from this comparative analysis includes the environmental context for PAC scale-up; the major influences on start-up, expansion, and institutionalization of PAC; and the health, financial, and social impacts of institutionalization. Start-up in both Bolivia and Mexico was facilitated by innovative leaders or catalyzers who were committed to introducing PAC services into public health care settings, collaboration between international organizations and public health institutions, and financial resources. Important processes for successful PAC expansion included strengthening political commitment to PAC services through research, advocacy, and partnerships; improving health system capacity through training, supervision, and development of service guidelines; and facilitating health system access to essential technologies. Institutionalization of PAC has been more successful in Bolivia than Mexico, as measured by a series of proposed indicators. The positive health and financial impacts of PAC institutionalization have been partially measured in Bolivia and Mexico. Other hypotheses--that scaling-up PAC will significantly reduce maternal mortality and morbidity, decrease abortion-related stigma, and prepare the way for efforts to reform restrictive abortion laws and policies--have yet to be tested. PMID:17408826

  10. Learning lessons from Natech accidents - the eNATECH accident database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krausmann, Elisabeth; Girgin, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    When natural hazards impact industrial facilities that house or process hazardous materials, fires, explosions and toxic releases can occur. This type of accident is commonly referred to as Natech accident. In order to prevent the recurrence of accidents or to better mitigate their consequences, lessons-learned type studies using available accident data are usually carried out. Through post-accident analysis, conclusions can be drawn on the most common damage and failure modes and hazmat release paths, particularly vulnerable storage and process equipment, and the hazardous materials most commonly involved in these types of accidents. These analyses also lend themselves to identifying technical and organisational risk-reduction measures that require improvement or are missing. Industrial accident databases are commonly used for retrieving sets of Natech accident case histories for further analysis. These databases contain accident data from the open literature, government authorities or in-company sources. The quality of reported information is not uniform and exhibits different levels of detail and accuracy. This is due to the difficulty of finding qualified information sources, especially in situations where accident reporting by the industry or by authorities is not compulsory, e.g. when spill quantities are below the reporting threshold. Data collection has then to rely on voluntary record keeping often by non-experts. The level of detail is particularly non-uniform for Natech accident data depending on whether the consequences of the Natech event were major or minor, and whether comprehensive information was available for reporting. In addition to the reporting bias towards high-consequence events, industrial accident databases frequently lack information on the severity of the triggering natural hazard, as well as on failure modes that led to the hazmat release. This makes it difficult to reconstruct the dynamics of the accident and renders the development of

  11. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  12. Medicine and abortion law: complicating the reforming profession.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Sheelagh; Thomson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The complicated intra-professional rivalries that have contributed to the current contours of abortion law and service provision have been subject to limited academic engagement. In this article, we address this gap. We examine how the competing interests of different specialisms played out in abortion law reform from the early twentieth-century, through to the enactment of the Abortion Act 1967, and the formation of the structures of abortion provision in the early 1970s. We demonstrate how professional interests significantly shaped the landscape of abortion law in England, Scotland, and Wales. Our analysis addresses two distinct and yet related fields where professional interests were negotiated or asserted in the journey to law reform. Both debates align with earlier analysis that has linked abortion law reform with the market development of the medical profession. We argue that these two axes of debate, both dominated by professional interests, interacted to help shape law's treatment of abortion, and continue to influence the provision of abortion services today. PMID:25995361

  13. The American abortion debate: culture war or normal discourse?

    PubMed

    Dillon, M

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigates whether James Hunter's culture war thesis is an apt characterization of the American abortion debate. The author focuses on three arguments central to Hunter's analysis: 1) that the abortion debate involves two paradigmatically opposed world views; 2) that debate about abortion, since it involves moral discourse, is structurally different than other political debates; and 3) that the new alignments in abortion politics are culturally significant. Examining existing research in each of these three domains, the author finds that the debate over abortion is more complex than suggested by Hunter. World views of pro-life and pro-choice activists, for example, share a commitment to some overlapping values; the argumentative structure of abortion discourse has a pattern rather similar to that of political debate more generally, and new alignments on abortion, such as that between the Catholic Church and the Southern Baptist Convention, do not displace historically embedded differences in symbolic resources and cultural orientation. As suggested by the author, it may be more helpful, therefore, to think of the abortion debate as an ongoing public conversation about America's cultural tradition and how it should be variously expressed in contemporary laws and practices. PMID:12320388

  14. Abortion in Young Women and Subsequent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Ridder, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The extent to which abortion has harmful consequences for mental health remains controversial. We aimed to examine the linkages between having an abortion and mental health outcomes over the interval from age 15-25 years. Methods: Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 25-year longitudinal study…

  15. Abortion a business hurdle for nation's Catholic hospitals.

    PubMed

    Burda, D

    1989-08-25

    Abortion is the foremost moral issue for 626 Catholic hospitals nationwide since church teachings prohibit the performance of elective abortions. This and the fact that Catholic hospitals can not do voluntary sterilizations can hinder their ability to get managed care contracts. In some cases a hospital will not join a network because abortions and sterilizations are done in other hospitals in the network. In other cases they have been in plans where abortions are performed in other contract facilities; this does not violate the Catholic church policy since the abortions are not performed in their facility. When a Catholic and secular hospital plan a merger, Catholic ideals seem to take precedence. A Catholic hospital that went bankrupt in Philadelphia, was turned over to investors, and was under no obligation to follow the Catholic church's directives, but did not perform abortions anyway. In Washington state there are merger talks going on between a secular facility and the Franciscan Health System. The cessation of abortion and sterilization services appear to be outweighed by the financial benefits. Besides, these procedures can be performed through other providers in the area. In Michigan similar merger talks may fail because of the abortion issue. The government justice system is investigating and is likely to challenge any merger there. PMID:10294510

  16. Recommendations for abortion surveys using the ballot-box technique.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Marcelo; Diniz, Debora

    2012-07-01

    The article lists recommendations for dealing with methodological aspects of an abortion survey and makes suggestions for testing and validating the survey questionnaire. The recommendations are based on the experience of the Brazilian Abortion Survey (PNA), a random sample household survey that used the ballot-box technique and covered adult women in all urban areas of the country. PMID:22872333

  17. Mourning and Guilt among Greek Women Having Repeated Abortions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naziri, D.; Tzavaras, A.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted clinical study concerning bereavement process of Greek women after abortion. Found strong identificatory tendencies on both mother and father images. Argues that, in cases of repeated abortion, mourning and guilt do not only refer to murdered and lost "person-fetus" but principally to death and loss of object of ambiguous desire.…

  18. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  19. Commercial availability of misoprostol and induced abortion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, S H

    1998-12-01

    In Brazil, abortion is only permitted to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. The principal effect of legal restrictions is not to make induced abortion practice less prevalent but to force poor women to resort to abortions performed under unhygienic conditions or attempt self-induced abortion. Within this context, misoprostol, a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1, was introduced in the country in 1986. Purchased over the counter in pharmacies, misoprostol has became a popular abortifacient method among Brazilian women. By 1990, about 70% of women hospitalized with abortion-related diagnoses reported use of the drug. In 1991, the Ministry of Health restricted the sale of misoprostol, and in some states its use was totally banned. While the proportion of abortions induced with misoprostol has decreased, the drug continues to be sold on the black market at an inflated value. Research indicates that women have acquired more experience with the drug over time, resulting in lower doses and more effective administration. Several studies show that the rate and severity of complications are significantly less among women who used misoprostol compared with women who used invasive methods. Research also suggests that about half of the women have complete abortion with misoprostol, but seek medical care as soon as they have vaginal bleeding. The experience of Brazilian women with misoprostol is an example of how women when faced with unwanted pregnancy will resort to illegal abortion whatever the costs are to their health. PMID:10075223

  20. Making legal abortion available in Brazil: partnerships in practice.

    PubMed

    Villela, W V; Araújo, M J

    2000-11-01

    This article describes the participation of feminist groups who work in the area of women's reproductive health and rights in campaigns for the provision of legal abortion in public hospitals in Brazil. Brazilian criminal law permits therapeutic abortion in cases where pregnancy is the result of rape or poses a serious risk to the life of the woman. Today, as a result of the combined efforts of feminists, health professionals and policymakers, more than 20 hospitals in Brazil are officially permitted to perform therapeutic abortions within the existing law. A model programme has also been developed to train service providers to do legal abortions, where the agreement of a hospital board can be obtained. This training has also improved care for illegally obtained, incomplete abortions in those hospitals but not in hospitals where doctors have not been trained. Problems with lack of access and concerns about the lack of public acceptance of abortion remain. Women not only need the right to abortion but also more services and health professionals who are trained to perform abortions across the whole country. PMID:11424253

  1. Abortion-Related Services: Value Clarification through "Difficult Dialogues" Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpeli, Moliehi Rosemary; Botma, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Midwives play a pivotal role in women's health in the face of increased deaths related to backyard abortions. Since the commencement in South Africa of the Name of the Act No. 92 of 1996 that allows abortion services, there has been a moral divide among healthcare workers in South Africa. This article reflects the opinions of preregistration…

  2. Day of Launch Profile Selection for Pad Abort Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Ryan J.

    2010-01-01

    A day of launch selection approach that involves choosing from an array of pitch profiles of varying loft was analyzed with the purpose of reducing the risk of a land landing failure during a pad abort. It was determined that selecting from three pitch profiles can reduce the number of waterline abort performance requirement failures approximately in half without compromising other performance metrics.

  3. Abort-once-around entry corridor analysis program document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyle, H. C.

    1975-01-01

    The abort once around entry target corridor analysis program (ABECAP) was studied. The allowable range of flight path angles at entry interface for acceptable entry trajectories from a shuttle abort once around (AOA) situation was established. The solutions thus determined may be shown as corridor plots of entry interface flight path angle versus range from entry interface (EI) to the target.

  4. Grief and Elective Abortion: Breaking the Emotional Bond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppers, Larry G.

    1988-01-01

    Used maternal-infant bonding as theoretical framework to examine grief and elective abortion in 80 women who terminated their pregnancies either by vacuum aspiration, dilitation and evacuation, or intrauterine induction. Found grief associated with elective abortion to be symptomatically similar to grief experienced following involuntary…

  5. Psychiatric history of women who have had an abortion.

    PubMed

    van Ditzhuijzen, Jenneke; ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; van Nijnatten, Carolus H C J; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2013-11-01

    Prior research has focused primarily on the mental health consequences of abortion; little is known about mental health before abortion. In this study, the psychiatric history of women who have had an abortion is investigated. 325 Women who recently had an abortion were compared with 1902 women from the population-based Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-2). Lifetime prevalence estimates of various mental disorders were measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. Compared to the reference sample, women in the abortion sample were three times more likely to report a history of any mental disorder (OR = 3.06, 95% CI = 2.36-3.98). The highest odds were found for conduct disorder (OR = 6.97, 95% CI = 4.41-11.01) and drug dependence (OR = 4.96, 95% CI = 2.55-9.66). Similar results were found for lifetime-minus-last-year prevalence estimates and for women who had first-time abortions only. The results support the notion that psychiatric history may explain associations that have been found between abortion and mental health. Psychiatric history should therefore be taken into account when investigating the mental health consequences of abortion. PMID:23941742

  6. Accident mortality among children

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, S.; Albrecht, R. M.; Grab, B.

    1956-01-01

    The authors present statistics on mortality from accidents, with special reference to those relating to the age-group 1-19 years. For a number of countries figures are given for the proportional mortality from accidents (the number of accident deaths expressed as a percentage of the number of deaths from all causes) and for the specific death-rates, per 100 000 population, from all causes of death, from selected causes, from all causes of accidents, and from various types of accident. From these figures it appears that, in most countries, accidents are becoming relatively increasingly prominent as a cause of death in childhood, primarily because of the conquest of other causes of death—such as infectious and parasitic diseases, which formerly took a heavy toll of children and adolescents—but also to some extent because the death-rate from motor-vehicle accidents is rising and cancelling out the reduction in the rate for other causes of accidental death. In the authors' opinion, further epidemiological investigations into accident causation are required for the purpose of devising quicker and more effective methods of accident prevention. PMID:13383361

  7. Understanding why women seek abortions in the US

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current political climate with regards to abortion in the US, along with the economic recession may be affecting women’s reasons for seeking abortion, warranting a new investigation into the reasons why women seek abortion. Methods Data for this study were drawn from baseline quantitative and qualitative data from the Turnaway Study, an ongoing, five-year, longitudinal study evaluating the health and socioeconomic consequences of receiving or being denied an abortion in the US. While the study has followed women for over two full years, it relies on the baseline data which were collected from 2008 through the end of 2010. The sample included 954 women from 30 abortion facilities across the US who responded to two open ended questions regarding the reasons why they wanted to terminate their pregnancy approximately one week after seeking an abortion. Results Women’s reasons for seeking an abortion fell into 11 broad themes. The predominant themes identified as reasons for seeking abortion included financial reasons (40%), timing (36%), partner related reasons (31%), and the need to focus on other children (29%). Most women reported multiple reasons for seeking an abortion crossing over several themes (64%). Using mixed effects multivariate logistic regression analyses, we identified the social and demographic predictors of the predominant themes women gave for seeking an abortion. Conclusions Study findings demonstrate that the reasons women seek abortion are complex and interrelated, similar to those found in previous studies. While some women stated only one factor that contributed to their desire to terminate their pregnancies, others pointed to a myriad of factors that, cumulatively, resulted in their seeking abortion. As indicated by the differences we observed among women’s reasons by individual characteristics, women seek abortion for reasons related to their circumstances, including their socioeconomic status, age, health, parity and

  8. Full trisomy 5 in a sample of spontaneous abortion and arias stella reaction

    PubMed Central

    Čulić, Vida; Lozić, Bernarda; Kuzmić-Prusac, Ivana; Mijaljica, Goran; Pavelić, Jasminka

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Historically, 50% of spontaneously expelled abortuses have been thought to be chromosomally abnormal; about 60% are trisomies. In general, trisomy 16 is the most frequent chromosomal abnormality, followed by trisomy 21 and trisomy 22. So far only 1 case of a female fetus with multiple congenital malformations associated with full trisomy 5 has been described. Case Report We present a case of de novo full trisomy 5 in a spontaneous abortion sample. A young couple with normal constitutional karyotype experienced the second spontaneous abortion at 9 weeks of gestation, with the cytogenetic formula 47,XX,+5 in all analyzed cells. Conclusions The routine cytogenetic analysis of miscarriages is still an uncommon practice, but it can have a great impact on the management of couples with repeated pregnancy wastage. Besides of the obvious cost benefit for health care, such analysis would help the physician to decide about future patient management, as well as planning the genetic counseling. PMID:21959617

  9. Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

    1999-01-01

    The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

  10. Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

    1999-11-01

    The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

  11. Stumbling on status: abortion, stem cells, and faulty reasoning.

    PubMed

    Lebacqz, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Common arguments from the abortion debate have set the stage for the debate on stem cell research. Unfortunately, those arguments demonstrate flawed reasoning-jumping to unfounded conclusions, using value laden language rather than careful argument, and ignoring morally relevant aspects of the situation. The influence of flawed abortion arguments on the stem cell debate results in failures of moral reasoning and in lack of attention to important morally relevant differences between abortion and human embryonic stem cells. Among those differences are whose interests are at stake and the difference between an embryo in and out of the womb. Stem cell research differs from abortion in morally relevant ways and should be freed from the abortion debate and its flawed reasoning. PMID:22209889

  12. Abortion Law Around the World: Progress and Pushback

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There is a global trend toward the liberalization of abortion laws driven by women’s rights, public health, and human rights advocates. This trend reflects the recognition of women’s access to legal abortion services as a matter of women’s rights and self-determination and an understanding of the dire public health implications of criminalizing abortion. Nonetheless, legal strategies to introduce barriers that impede access to legal abortion services, such as mandatory waiting periods, biased counseling requirements, and the unregulated practice of conscientious objection, are emerging in response to this trend. These barriers stigmatize and demean women and compromise their health. Public health evidence and human rights guarantees provide a compelling rationale for challenging abortion bans and these restrictions. PMID:23409915

  13. Social and psychological consequences of abortion in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Chavoshi, Meimanat; Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal; Glazebrook, Diana; McDonald, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Iran has had replacement fertility since 2000. Upholding a small family size has led some couples to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Abortion is, however, permitted only on medical grounds in Iran. Using data from the Iran Low Fertility Survey, this study assessed sociodemographic correlates of abortion among a random sample of 5526 ever-married women aged 15-54 years, and used in-depth interviews to explore reasons for and psychological consequences of abortion among 40 women who had experienced an unintended pregnancy. Although social and economic concerns were the main reasons cited for seeking abortion, women experienced anxiety and depression when seeking pregnancy termination and thereafter. Social stigmatization arose from a belief that abortion is sinful and that misfortune experienced thereafter is punishment. Inadequate knowledge and misunderstanding of relevant Sharia laws discouraged women from seeking care when they experienced complications. Iran's reproductive health policies should be revised to integrate pre- and postabortion counseling. PMID:22920623

  14. Conscientious objection and induced abortion in Europe.

    PubMed

    Heino, Anna; Gissler, Mika; Apter, Dan; Fiala, Christian

    2013-08-01

    The issue of conscientious objection (CO) arises in healthcare when doctors and nurses refuse to have any involvement in the provision of treatment of certain patients due to their religious or moral beliefs. Most commonly CO is invoked when it comes to induced abortion. Of the EU member states where induced abortion is legal, invoking CO is granted by law in 21 countries. The same applies to the non-EU countries Norway and Switzerland. CO is not legally granted in the EU member states Sweden, Finland, Bulgaria and the Czech Republic. The Icelandic legislation provides no right to CO either. European examples prove that the recommendation that CO should not prevent women from accessing services fails in a number of cases. CO puts women in an unequal position depending on their place of residence, socio-economic status and income. CO should not be presented as a question that relates only to health professionals and their rights. CO mainly concerns women as it has very real consequences for their reproductive health and rights. European countries should assess the laws governing CO and its effects on women's rights. CO should not be used as a subtle method for limiting the legal right to healthcare. PMID:23848269

  15. Making legal abortion accessible in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal; Leocádio, Elcylene; Andalaft, Jorge

    2002-05-01

    Abortion is legal in Brazil if it is the only means to save the woman's life or if the pregnancy is the result of rape. Although this has been the law for over 60 years, it has almost never been applied until recent years. In the past five years, the number of hospitals providing care to women victims of sexual violence has increased from 4 to 63, of which 40 are currently providing legal abortions. This paper describes a sensitization project and advocacy work carried out from within the obstetric and gynaecology establishment which has succeeded in motivating many key individuals and hospital staff to provide services for pregnancy termination in cases of rape. The dialogue between medical leaders and women's rights advocates and the emphasis on comprehensive care of women who have suffered sexual violence are key elements in the success of this initiative. The support of medical professionals, the organization and strength of the women's health and rights movement, the political support at federal, state and city government levels, including from the Federal Ministry of Health, and ongoing advocacy within the medical establishment have all been important elements in making the provision of services a reality. PMID:12369314

  16. The PEP-II abort kicker system

    SciTech Connect

    Lamare, J de; Donaldson, A.; Kulikov, A. Lipari, J.

    1997-07-01

    The PEP-II project has two storage rings. The HER (High Energy Ring) has up to 1.48 A of electron beam at 9 GeV, and the LER (Low Energy Ring) has up to 2.14 A of positron beam at 3.1 GeV. To protect the HER and LER beam lines in the event of a ring component failure, each ring has an abort kicker system which directs the beam into a dump when a failure is detected. Due to the high current of the beams, the beam kick is tapered from 100% to 80% in 7.33 uS (the beam transit time around the time). This taper distributes the energy evenly across the window which separates the ring from the beam dump such that the window is not damaged. The abort kicker trigger is synchronized with the ion clearing gap of the beam allowing for the kicker field to rise from 0-80% in 370 nS. This report discusses the design of the system controls, interlocks, power supplies, and modulator.

  17. Surrogate Motherhood and Abortion for Fetal Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ruth; van Zyl, Liezl

    2015-10-01

    A diagnosis of fetal abnormality presents parents with a difficult - even tragic - moral dilemma. Where this diagnosis is made in the context of surrogate motherhood there is an added difficulty, namely that it is not obvious who should be involved in making decisions about abortion, for the person who would normally have the right to decide - the pregnant woman - does not intend to raise the child. This raises the question: To what extent, if at all, should the intended parents be involved in decision-making? In commercial surrogacy it is thought that as part of the contractual agreement the intended parents acquire the right to make this decision. By contrast, in altruistic surrogacy the pregnant woman retains the right to make these decisions, but the intended parents are free to decide not to adopt the child. We argue that both these strategies are morally unsound, and that the problems encountered serve to highlight more fundamental defects within the commercial and altruistic models, as well as in the legal and institutional frameworks that support them. We argue in favour of the professional model, which acknowledges the rights and responsibilities of both parties and provides a legal and institutional framework that supports good decision-making. In particular, the professional model acknowledges the surrogate's right to decide whether to undergo an abortion, and the intended parents' obligation to accept legal custody of the child. While not solving all the problems that arise in surrogacy, the model provides a framework that supports good decision-making. PMID:25688455

  18. A country divided: the German debate over abortion.

    PubMed

    Glover, J

    1992-02-01

    When the Berlin Wall crumbled on November 9, 1989, few Germans could foresee the coming dramatic changes. But by 1992 Germany faced deep internal divisions as it attempted to merge 2 very different societies. One such division was over abortion. In the West, women had access to abortion services only when they met very specific criteria. In the East, access to abortion within the first trimester had been unhindered since 1972. As agreed to under unification treaty terms, the Federal Republic had until the end of 1992 to design and enact new legislation that would create a legal basis for abortion within united Germany. Under West Germany's criminal code, abortion was allowed only 1) when the physical health of the mother was in danger; 2) when abnormalities in the fetus existed; 3) in cases of rape or incest; or 4) if serious social, psychological, or economic factors made the raising of a child difficult. In the primarily Catholic southern and southwestern portions of West Germany, state governments strictly regulated the use of the social indicator clause. In East Germany abortion costs were covered by social security, and the government guaranteed access to abortion services. The widespread use of contraception kept abortion levels comparatively low to moderate in the East (350 per 1000 births). During the 1970s, as population growth rates in the East shrank to negative levels, a pronatalist policy extended maternity leaves in 1976, and women rearing 2 or more children at home received 90% of their salaries for 1 year. In the West, changes in women's status and levels of income and education have led to a decrease in the size of families. All 5 parties have reform proposals ranging from the further restriction of abortion to the complete removal of existing restrictions. A sizable majority of Germans support a liberalization of the West German criminal codes regarding abortion. PMID:12284783

  19. Pine needle abortion in cattle update: Metabolite detection in sera and fetal fluids from abortion case samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle abortions associated with consumption of pine needles during late gestation are a serious poisonous plant problem in the Western US. Most cases of abortion have been associated with consumption of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and the causative agent was identified as the labdane diterpen...

  20. Czech Republic 20 years after Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Rosina, Jozef; Kvasnák, Eugen; Suta, Daniel; Kostrhun, Tomás; Drábová, Dana

    2008-01-01

    The territory of the Czech Republic was contaminated as a result of the breakdown in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The Czech population received low doses of ionising radiation which, though it could not cause a deterministic impact, could have had stochastic effects expressed in the years following the accident. Twenty years after the accident is a long enough time to assess its stochastic effects, primarily tumours and genetic impairment. The moderate amount of radioactive fallout received by the Czech population in 1986 increased thyroid cancer in the following years; on the other hand, no obvious genetic impact was found. PMID:18375464