Science.gov

Sample records for abort kicker power

  1. RHIC Abort Kicker Prefire Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Y.; Perlstein, S.

    2014-07-07

    In an attempt to discover any pattern to prefire events, abort prefire kicker data from 2007 to the present day have been recorded. With the 2014 operations concluding, this comprises 8 years of prefire data. Any activities that the Pulsed Power Group did to decrease prefire occurrences were recorded as well, but some information may be missing. The following information is a compilation of the research to date.

  2. RHIC ABORT KICKER WITH REDUCED COUPLING IMPEDANCE.

    SciTech Connect

    HAHN,H.; DAVINO,D.

    2002-06-02

    Kicker magnets typically represent the most important contributors to the transverse impedance budget of accelerators and storage rings. Methods of reducing the impedance value of the SNS extraction kicker presently under construction and, in view of a future performance upgrade, that of the RHIC abort kicker have been thoroughly studied at this laboratory. In this paper, the investigation of a potential improvement from using ferrite different from the BNL standard CMD5005 is reported. Permeability measurements of several ferrite types have been performed. Measurements on two kicker magnets using CMD5005 and C2050 suggest that the impedance of a magnet without external resistive damping, such as the RHIC abort kicker, would benefit.

  3. The PEP-II abort kicker system

    SciTech Connect

    Lamare, J de; Donaldson, A.; Kulikov, A. Lipari, J.

    1997-07-01

    The PEP-II project has two storage rings. The HER (High Energy Ring) has up to 1.48 A of electron beam at 9 GeV, and the LER (Low Energy Ring) has up to 2.14 A of positron beam at 3.1 GeV. To protect the HER and LER beam lines in the event of a ring component failure, each ring has an abort kicker system which directs the beam into a dump when a failure is detected. Due to the high current of the beams, the beam kick is tapered from 100% to 80% in 7.33 uS (the beam transit time around the time). This taper distributes the energy evenly across the window which separates the ring from the beam dump such that the window is not damaged. The abort kicker trigger is synchronized with the ion clearing gap of the beam allowing for the kicker field to rise from 0-80% in 370 nS. This report discusses the design of the system controls, interlocks, power supplies, and modulator.

  4. THE RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    HAHN,H.

    1999-03-29

    THE ENERGY STORED IN THE RHIC BEAM IS ABOUT 200 KJ PER RING AT DESIGN ENERGY AND INTENSITY. TO PREVENT QUENCHING OF THE SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS OR MATERIAL DAMAGE, THE BEAM WILL BE SAFELY DISPOSED OF BY AN INTERNAL BEAM ABORT SYSTEM, WHICH INCLUDES THE KICKER MAGNETS, THE PULSED POWER SUPPLIES, AND THE DUMP ABSORBER. DISPOSAL OF HEAVY IONS, SUCH AS GOLD, IMPOSES DESIGN CONSTRAINTS MORE SEVERE THAN THOSE FOR PROTON BEAMS OF EQUAL INTENSITY. IN ORDER TO MINIMIZE THE THERMAL SHOCK IN THE CARBON-FIBER DUMP BLOCK, THE BUNCHES MUST BE LATERALLY DISPERSED.

  5. Spiral kicker for the beam abort system

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A brief study was carried out to determine the feasibility of a special kicker to produce a damped spiral beam at the beam dump for the beam abort system. There appears to be no problem with realizing this concept at a reasonably low cost.

  6. Comparison of the Window-Frame RHIC-abort kicker with C-type Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas, N.; Hahn, H.; Meng, W.; Severance, Michael; McMahan, Brandon

    2014-08-26

    The high intensity proton bunches (~2.5x1011 p/bunch ) circulating in RHIC increase the temperature of the ferrite-made RHIC-abort-kickers above the Curie point; as a result, the kickers cannot provide the required field to abort the beam at the beam dump. A team of experts in the CAD department worked on modifying the design of the window-frame RHIC-abort kicker to minimize the hysteresis losses responsible for the increase of the ferrite’s temperature. In this technical note we report some results from the study of two possible modifications of the window-frame RHIC-abort kicker, and we compare these results with those of a propose C-type RHIC-abort kicker. We also include an Appendix where we describe a method which may further reduce the hysteresis losses of the window-frame kicker.

  7. Analysis of beam loss induced abort kicker instability

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang W.; Sandberg, J.; Ahrens, L.; Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mi, J.; Pai, C.; Tan, Y.

    2012-05-20

    Through more than a decade of operation, we have noticed the phenomena of beam loss induced kicker instability in the RHIC beam abort systems. In this study, we analyze the short term beam loss before abort kicker pre-fire events and operation conditions before capacitor failures. Beam loss has caused capacitor failures and elevated radiation level concentrated at failed end of capacitor has been observed. We are interested in beam loss induced radiation and heat dissipation in large oil filled capacitors and beam triggered thyratron conduction. We hope the analysis result would lead to better protection of the abort systems and improved stability of the RHIC operation.

  8. Design of fast kickers for the ISABELLE beam abort system

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocky, R.J.; Montemurro, P.A.; Baron, J.

    1981-01-01

    The ISA beam abort (extraction) system must be highly efficient, in the sense of producing minimum beam loss, and reliable to prevent serious damage to accelerator components by the circulating high-energy beams. Since the stored beams will be debunched, the low-loss requirement can be met only with ultra-thin extraction septa and/or fast-acting kickers. This paper examines the design of the ISA extraction kickers subject to a set of extraction channel constraints and a given maximum working voltage. Expressions are derived for determining system parameters for both a lumped parameter magnet and a delay-line magnet. Using these relationships, design parameters are worked out for several possible system configurations. The paper also describes the construction of a full-scale prototype module of the kicker and summarizes the preliminary test results obtained with the module.

  9. Design and test of the RHIC CMD10 abort kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Drees, A.; Fischer, W.; Mi, J.; Meng, W.; Montag, C.; Pai, C.; Sandberg, J.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. E.; Zhang, W.

    2015-05-03

    In recent RHIC operational runs, planned and unplanned pre-fire triggered beam aborts have been observed that resulted in quenches of SC main ring magnets, indicating a weakened magnet kick strength due to beam-induced ferrite heating. An improvement program was initiated to reduce the longitudinal coupling impedance with changes to the ferrite material and the eddy-current strip geometry. Results of the impedance measurements and of magnet heating tests with CMD10 ferrite up to 190°C are reported. All 10 abort kickers in the tunnel have been modified and were provided with a cooling system for the RUN 15.

  10. GAS DISCHARGE SWITCH EVALUATION FOR RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER APPLICATION.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; SHELDRAKE,R.; PIRRIE,C.

    2002-06-30

    A gas discharge switch EEV HX3002 is being evaluated at Brookhaven National Laboratory as a possible candidate of RHIC Beam Abort Kicker modulator main switch. At higher beam energy and higher beam intensity, the switch stability becomes very crucial. The hollow anode thyratron used in the existing system is not rated for long reverse current conduction. The reverse voltage arcing caused thyratron hold-off voltage de-rating has been the main limitation of the system operation. To improve the system reliability, a new type of gas discharge switch has been suggested by Marconi Applied Technology for its reverse conducting capability.

  11. ADVANCEMENT OF THE RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.AHRENS,L.MI,J.OERTER,B.SANDBERG,J.WARBURTON,D.

    2003-05-12

    As one of the most critical system for RHIC operation, the beam abort kicker system has to be highly available, reliable, and stable for the entire operating range. Along with the RHIC commission and operation, consistent efforts have been spend to cope with immediate issues as well as inherited design issues. Major design changes have been implemented to achieve the higher operating voltage, longer high voltage hold-off time, fast retriggering and redundant triggering, and improved system protection, etc. Recent system test has demonstrated for the first time that both blue ring and yellow ring beam abort systems have achieved more than 24 hours hold off time at desired operating voltage. In this paper, we report break down, thyratron reverse arcing, and to build a fast re-trigger system to reduce beam spreading in event of premature discharge.

  12. Measurement and simulation of the RHIC abort kicker longitudinal impedence

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu,N.P.; Hahn,H.; Choi, E.

    2009-09-01

    In face of the new upgrades for RHIC the longitudinal impedance of the machine plays an important role in setting the threshold for instabilities and the efficacy of some systems. In this paper we describe the measurement of the longitudinal impedance of the abort kicker for RHIC as well as computer simulations of the structure. The impedance measurement was done by the S{sub 21} wire method covering the frequency range from 9 kHz to 2.5 GHz. We observed a sharp resonance peak around 10 MHz and a broader peak around 20 MHz in both, the real and imaginary part, of the Z/n. These two peaks account for a maximum imaginary longitudinal impedance of j15 {Omega}, a value an order of magnitude larger than the estimated value of j0.2 {Omega}, which indicates that the kicker is one of the main sources of longitudinal impedance in the machine. A computer model was constructed for simulations in the CST MWS program. Results for the magnet input and the also the beam impedance are compared to the measurements. A more detail study of the system properties and possible changes to reduce the coupling impedance are presented.

  13. AN ENGINEERING SOLUTION TO THE RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER UPGRADE.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.ROSER,T.SANDBERG,J.TAN,Y.ET AL.

    2004-05-23

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is the world largest superconducting accelerator for nuclear energy research. Particle beams traveling in opposite directions in two accelerator rings, Blue and Yellow, collide at six interaction regions to create phenomena of the early universe. There are more than 1700 superconducting magnets and very sophisticate and delicate large detectors inside the RHIC tunnel. With high beam intensity and ultra high beam energy, an inadvertent loss of beam can result severe damage to the superconducting magnets and detectors. Beam abort kickers are used to remove beam safely from the ring. The large inductive load, high current capability, short beam gap, and high reliability are the challenging issues of this system design. With high intensity and high momentum beam operation, it is desirable to have all high voltage modulators located outside of RHIC tunnel. However, to generate 22 kA output current per modulator with fast rise time, a conventional low impedance PFN and matched transmission cable design can push the operation voltage easily into 100 kV range. The large quantity of high voltage pulse transmission cables required by conventional design is another difficult issue. Therefore, the existing system has all ten high voltage modulators located inside RHIC tunnel. More than a hundred plastic packaged mineral oil filled high voltage capacitors raise serious concerns of fire and smoking threats. Other issues, such as kicker misfire, device availability in the future, and inaccessibility during operation, also demand an engineering solution for the future upgrade. In this paper, we investigate an unconventional approach to meet the technical challenges of RHIC beam abort system. The proposed design has all modulators outside of the RHIC tunnel. It will transmit output pulse through high voltage cables. The modulators will utilize solid-state switches, and operate at a maximum voltage in 30 to

  14. Design of kicker magnet and power supply unit for synchrotron beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ju

    1991-03-01

    To inject beams from the positron accumulator ring (PAR) into the synchrotron, a pulsed kicker magnet is used. The specifications of this kicker magnet and the power supply unit are listed and discussed in this report.

  15. Development of a Fast High-Power Pulser and ILC DR Injection/Extraction Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, A.; /SLAC

    2007-10-16

    Kicker is an efficient HOM power extractor. Peak HOM voltage and average power at the feeder may be sufficient to act on the kicker pulser. Feeder imperfections (real cable, feedthroughs, kicker electrodes, loads) is one source of residual energy between bunches. HOM spectrum is broad.

  16. CONSTRUCTION AND POWER TEST OF THE EXTRACTION KICKER MAGNET FOR SNS ACCUMULATOR RING.

    SciTech Connect

    PAI, C.; HAHN, H.; HSEUH, H.; LEE, Y.; MENG, W.; MI,J.; SANDBERG, J.; TODD, R.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    Two extraction kicker magnet assemblies that contain seven individual pulsed magnet modules each will kick the proton beam vertically out of the SNS accumulator ring into the aperture of the extraction Lambertson septum magnet. The proton beam then travels to the 1.4 MW SNS target assembly. The 14 kicker magnets and major components of the kicker assembly have been fabricated in BNL. The inner surfaces of the kicker magnets were coated with TiN to reduce the secondary electron yield. All 14 PFN power supplies have been built, tested and delivered to OWL. Before final installation, a partial assembly of the kicker system with three kicker magnets was assembled to test the functions of each critical component in the system. In this paper we report the progress of the construction of the kicker components, the TIN coating of the magnets, the installation procedure of the magnets and the full power test of the kicker with the PFN power supply.

  17. Kickers and power supplies for the Fermilab Tevatron I antiproton source

    SciTech Connect

    Castellano, T.; Bartoszek, L.; Tilles, E.; Petter, J.; McCarthy, J.

    1985-05-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Source Accumulator and Debuncher rings require 5 kickers in total. These range in design from conventional ferrite delay line type magnets, with ceramic beam tubes to mechanically complex shuttered kickers situated entirely in the Accumulator Ring's 10/sup -10/ torr vacuum. Power supplies are thyratron switched pulse forming networks that produce microsecond width pulses of several kiloamps with less than 30 nanoseconds rise and fall times. Kicker and power supply design requirements for field strength, vacuum, rise and fall time, timing and magnetic shielding of the stacked beam in the accumulator by the eddy current shutter will be discussed. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. A Pulsed Modulator Power Supply for the g-2 Muon Storage Ring Injection Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Mi,J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Morse, W. M.; Pai, C.; Pappas, G.; Sanders, R.; Semertzidis, Y.

    1999-03-29

    This paper describes the pulse modulator power supplies used to drive the kicker magnets that inject the muon beam into the g-2 storage ring that has been built at Brookhaven. Three modulators built into coaxial structures consisting of a series circuit of an energy storage capacitor, damping resistor and a fast thyratron switch are used to energize three magnets that kick the beam into the proper orbit. A 100 kV charging power supply is used to charge the capacitor to 95 kV. the damping resistor shapes the magnet current waveform to a 450 nanosecond half-sine to match the injection requirements. this paper discusses the modulator design, construction and operation.

  19. A PULSED MODULATOR POWER SUPPLY FOR THE G-2 MUON STORAGE RING INJECTION KICKER.

    SciTech Connect

    MI,J.LEE,Y.Y.MORSE,W.M.PAI,C.I.PAPPAS,G.C.SANDERS,Y.SEMERTIZIDIS,Y.,ET AL.

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes the pulse modulator power supplies used to drive the kicker magnets that inject the muon beam into the 8-2 storage ring that has been built at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three modulators built into coaxial structures consisting of a series circuit of an energy storage capacitor, a damping resistor and a fast thyratron switch are used to energize three magnets that kick the beam into the proper orbit. A 100 kV charging power supply is used to charge the capacitor to 95kV. The damping resistor shapes the magnet current waveform to a 450 nanosecond half-sine to match the injection requirements. This paper discusses the modulator design, construction and operation.

  20. Recycler short kicker beam impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, Jim; Fellenz, Brian; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    Measured longitudinal and calculated transverse beam impedance is presented for the short kicker magnets being installed in the Fermilab Recycler. Fermi drawing number ME-457159. The longitudinal impedance was measured with a stretched wire and the Panofsky equation was used to estimate the transverse impedance. The impedance of 3319 meters (the Recycler circumference) of stainless vacuum pipe is provided for comparison. Although measurements where done to 3GHz, impedance was negligible above 30MHz. The beam power lost to the kicker impedance is shown for a range of bunch lengths. The measurements are for one kicker assuming a rotation frequency of 90KHz. Seven of these kickers are being installed.

  1. A real time status monitor for transistor bank driver power limit resistor in boost injection kicker power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, J.; Tan, Y.; Zhang, W.

    2011-03-28

    For years suffering of Booster Injection Kicker transistor bank driver regulator troubleshooting, a new real time monitor system has been developed. A simple and floating circuit has been designed and tested. This circuit monitor system can monitor the driver regulator power limit resistor status in real time and warn machine operator if the power limit resistor changes values. This paper will mainly introduce the power supply and the new designed monitoring system. This real time resistor monitor circuit shows a useful method to monitor some critical parts in the booster pulse power supply. After two years accelerator operation, it shows that this monitor works well. Previously, we spent a lot of time in booster machine trouble shooting. We will reinstall all 4 PCB into Euro Card Standard Chassis when the power supply system will be updated.

  2. 1400, +/- 900V PEAK PULSE SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLIES FOR SNS INJECTION KICKERS.

    SciTech Connect

    LAMBIASE,R.ENG,W.SANDBERG,J.DEWAN,S.HOLMES,R.RUST,K.ZENG,J.

    2004-03-10

    This paper describes simulation and experimental results for a 1400A, {+-} 900V peak rated, switch mode power supply for SNS Injection Kicker Magnets. For each magnet (13 m{Omega}, 160{micro}H), the power supply must supply controlled pulses at 60 Hz repetition rate. The pulse current must rise from zero to maximum in less than 1 millisec in a controlled manner, flat top for up to 2 millisec, and should fall in a controlled manner to less than 4A within 500{micro}s. The low current performance during fall time is the biggest challenge in this power supply. The simulation results show that to meet the controlled fall of the current and the current ripple requirements, voltage loop bandwidth of at least 10 kHz and switching frequency of at least 100 kHz are required. To achieve high power high frequency switching with IGBT switches, a series connected topology with three phase shifted (O{sup o}, 60{sup o} & 120{sup o}) converters each with 40 kHz switching frequency (IGBT at 20kHz), has been achieved. In this paper, the circuit topology, relevant system specifications and experimental results that meet the requirements of the power supply are described in detail. A unique six pulse SCR rectifier circuit with capacitor storage has been implemented to achieve minimum pulse width to meet required performance during current fall time below 50A due to the very narrow pulse width and non-linearity from IGBT turn-on/off times.

  3. Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most healthcare providers advise counseling.

  4. SPEAR 3 INJECTION KICKER

    SciTech Connect

    Armett, Donald W.

    2002-08-20

    The design of the SPEAR 3 injection kicker system is presented. This system will include three kicker magnets and their associated pulsers. The magnet design is based on the DELTA kicker magnets, which present a low RF impedance to the beam, and are relatively straight-forward to construct. The pulsers use cascaded IGBT stages that are based on the modulator pulsers developed by a SLAC/LLNL collaboration for the NLC. Design considerations and the results of prototype tests will be discussed.

  5. Abortion.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    The Alan Guttmacher Institute's State Reproductive Health Monitor "Legislative Proposals and Actions" provides US legislative information on abortion. The listing contains information on pending bills: the state, the identifying legislative number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and when available the bill's status. The bills cover: 1) clinic licensing, e.g., requiring outpatient health care facilities in which abortions are performed, to have malpractice liability insurance; 2) comprehensive statues, which require parental notification before minor may obtain abortions, mandate abortion counseling to all women 24 hours before the abortion can be performed and prohibit disciplining or discharging a state employee for refusing to provide abortion counseling; 3) fetal personhood and rights, e.g. providing that life is vested in each person at fertilization; 4) fetal research and remains; 5) gender of fetus, which regulate abortions relative to sex selection in pregnancies; 6) harassment regulation; 7) informed consent and waiting periods detailing the risks and alternatives to abortion, and the 24-hour waiting period; 8) insurance coverage, e.g., eliminating language banning the coverage of abortions for state workers, and prohibiting disclosure by a health insurance carrier to the employer of a claimant that the claimant had a surgical abortion; 9) legality of abortion, urging Congress to reject he Freedom of Choice Act; 10) parental consent and notification; 11) postviability requirements; 12) public funding; 13) reporting requirements; 14) reproductive rights, and 15) spousal and paternal consent and notification.

  6. [Abortion].

    PubMed

    Dourlen-rollier, A M

    1971-01-01

    The historical and current (1969) abortion laws in France as well as those in other Western countries are analyzed. France has had a series of punitive abortion codes since the Napoleonic Code of 1810 prescribing solitary confinement for the woman. The reforms of 1920 and 1923 made provocation of abortion or contraceptional propaganda a "crime" (felony), later a "delit" (misdemeanor), called for trial before magistr ate instead of jury, but resulted in only about 200 convictions a year. The decree of 1939 extended the misdemeanor to women who aborted even if they were not pregnant, and provided for professional licenses such as that of surgeon or pharmacist to be suspended. The law of 1942 made abortion a social crime and increased the maximum penalty to capital punishment, which was exercised in 2 cases. About 4000 per year were convicted from 1942-1944. Now the law still applies to all who intend to abort, whether or not pregnant or successful, but punishemnt is limited to 1-5 years imprisonment, and 72,000 francs fine, or suspension of medical practice for 5 years. About 500 have been convicted per year. Since 1955 legal abortion has been available (to about 130 women over 4 years) if it is the only means to save the woman's life. Although pregnancy tests are controlled, the population desregards the law by resorting to clandestine abortion. The wealthy travel to Switzerland (where 68% of legal abortions are done on French women) or to England. Numbers are estimated by the French government at 250,000-300,000 per year, or 1 for every 2 live births, but by hospital statistics at 400,000-1,000,000 per year. The rest of the review covers abortion laws in Scandinavian, Central European, and individual US states as of 1969.

  7. High Current and High Power Fast Kicker System Conceptual Design and Technology Overview for DeeMe Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    deflectors , instrumentation and controls, and a set of pulse transmission cables if generators were located outside beam enclosure such as...design by evaluating requirement and main parameters. There are several types of kicker deflectors , such as parallel plate strip-lines, parallel wires... deflector for higher deflection efficiency within limited longitudinal space. The real estate space at beam line is precious. Therefore, the design

  8. Kicker thyratron experience from SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.R.; Cassel, R.L.; Mattison, T.S. ); Reginato, L.L. )

    1991-05-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has five fast kickers for the damping ring injectors, extractors, and the electron extractor for the positron target that use multi-gap Deuterium-filled thyratrons. The thyratrons operate with 30 to 70 kV anode voltages and 1 to 5 kA currents, to deliver pulses to kicker magnets with {approx} 30 ns rise times, up to {approx} 150 ns pulse widths, at 120 Hz. Operating and lifetime experience with several types of thyratrons and support electronics are discussed. Floating driver and power supply electronics were replaced by a ferrite choke isolator to allow grounding of the cathode support electronics with a commensurate increase in operating reliability. The construction of a 100 ns Blumlein enabled detailed measurements of the switching times for all SLC thyratrons under similar conditions. In the final focus area, the kickers dump the SLC beams after the e{sup +} e{sup {minus}} collisions. These thyratrons function with 15 kV anode voltages and up to 2 kA currents to produce 1/2 sine pulses with {approx} 300 ns rise times, {approx} 550 ns FWHM, at 120 Hz. Operating experience with these thyratrons will also be presented. 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. Abortion.

    PubMed

    Somerville, A C

    1977-08-24

    A survey of 886 adults over 16 was conducted regarding abortion in Papanui, New Zealand. Only 7.79% thought a person should never have an abortion under any circumstances, 16.70% thought the decision to have an abortion should be decided by a panel of two doctors, a social worker, and a statutory committee set up by the government. 44.4% thought the decision should be between a woman and the doctor of her choice. 20.54% thought the decision should be made solely by the woman concerned. The respondants had thought about the question. Other surveys in different electorates reflected similar views. It is hoped that people's opinions will influence legislators to enact more liberal abortion laws.

  10. [Abortion].

    PubMed

    Nunes, J P

    1998-01-01

    Abortion is the interruption of a dynamic process in a final and irreversible form. The legalization of abortion is applied to human ontogenesis, that is, the development of the human being. However, the embryo that is growing in the uterus is not a human being because a human being is a complex organism with differentiated systems, its own identity and intrinsic autonomy in its process of development. There are basically four levels of the analysis of the problem of abortion: 1) fundamental emotional arguments; 2) profound ignorance of technical and scientific facts; 3) rational positions obfuscated by the dramatic intensity of everyday situations; and 4) the conjunction of deliberated position where culpability is avoided with solidarity for all subjects of the process with a socially oriented view. The phenomenon of abortion from an epidemiological point of view summons the facts with which it is associated: poverty, illiteracy, shortage or lack of community health resources, absence of centers for adolescents, degradation of the environment, and precariousness of employment.

  11. Longitudinal and transverse feedback kickers for the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Corlett, J.N.; Johnson, J.; Lambertson, G.; Voelker, F.

    1994-06-01

    We describe the development of electromagnetic kickers for coupled-bunch feedback systems at the ALS. Transverse kickers are of a stripline design with one kicker per plane, operating in the baseband, 10 kHz to 250 MHz. Longitudinal lockers are of a coaxial design with electrodes paired in series operating over the band 1.00 to 1.25 GHz. Operating-band measurements and parasitic impedance measurements are presented. Power levels from beam induced signals are presented. Fabrication techniques are discussed.

  12. The RHIC Injection Kicker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, H.; Tuozzolo, J. E.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    Beam transfer from the AGS to RHIC is performed in single-bunch mode. Close spacing of the bunches in the collider requires an injection kicker with a rise time of <95 nsec, suggesting adoption of a travelling wave solution. The required vertical kick of 0.186 T.m is provided by 4 units, each 1.12 m long with a 48.4× 48.4 mm aperture and operated at 1.6 kA. The kicker is constructed as a ``C'' cross section magnet, in which ferrite and high-permittivity ( ~ 100) dielectric sections alternate. The dielectric blocks provide the capacity necessary for the nominally 25 Ohm characteristic impedance of the travelling wave structure, but impose the practical limit on the peak voltage, and thus current, achievable. Computer studies to minimize local electric field enhancements resulted in a configuration capable of holding >50 kV, with adequate safety margin over the nominal 40 kV. Tests indicated the possibility of lowering the nominal voltage by operating mismatched into 20 Ohm terminations without degrading the pulse shape. In this paper, the experience gained in the fabrication of the four kicker units for the ``Sextant Test'' and the results from various single-unit tests and operation in beam are reported.

  13. The RHIC injection kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    Beam transfer from the AGS to RHIC is performed in single-bunch mode. Close spacing of the bunches in the collider requires an injection kicker with a rise time of <90 nsec, suggesting adoption of a travelling wave structure. The required vertical kick of 0.186 t{center_dot}m is provided by 4 magnets, each 1.12 m long with a 48.4 x 48.4 mm aperture and operated at 1.6 kA. The kicker is constructed as a {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} cross section magnet, in which ferrite and high-permittivity dielectric sections alternate. The dielectric blocks provide the capacity necessary for the nominally 25 {Omega} characteristic impedance of the travelling wave structure, but impose the practical limit on the peak voltage, and thus current, achievable. Computer studies to minimize local electric field enhancements resulted in a configuration capable of holding {approximately} 50 kV, with adequate safety margin over the nominal 40 kV. Equivalent circuit analysis indicated the possibility of lowering the nominal voltage by operating mismatched into 20 {Omega} terminations without degrading the pulse shape. In this paper, the experience gained in the fabrication of the production units and the results from various single-unit tests and operation of four kickers with beam in the {open_quotes}Sextant Test{close_quotes} are reported.

  14. MI Gap Clearing Kicker Magnet Design Review

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Chris; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    .) A rough cost/benefit analysis showed that increasing the number of empty buckets to 3 decreased the kicker system cost by {approx}30%. This could be done while not extending the running time since this is only a 1% reduction in protons per pulse, hence the rise and fall time are now 57 ns. Additionally, the {+-}1% tolerance would have required a fast correction kicker while {+-}3% could be achieved without this kicker. The loosened tolerance was based on experience on wide band damping systems in the MI. A higher power wideband damping system is a better use of the resources as it can be used to correct for multiple sources of emittance growth. Finally, with the use of this system for MI instead of Recycler, the required strength grew from 1.2 mrad to 1.7 mrad. The final requirements for this kicker are listed.

  15. SNS EXTRACTION FAST KICKER SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; LAMBIASE,R.; LEE,Y.Y.; LOCKEY,R.; MI,J.; NEHRING,T.; PAI,C.; TSOUPAS,N.; TUOZZOLO,J.; WARBURTON,D.; WEI,J.; RUST,K.; CUTLER,R.

    2003-06-15

    The SNS Extraction Fast Kicker System is a very high power, high repetition rate pulsed power system. It was design and developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This system will consist of fourteen identical high voltage, high current modulators, and their auxiliary control and charging systems. The modulators will drive fourteen extraction magnet sections located inside of the SNS accumulator ring. The required kicker field rise time is 200 ns, a pulse flattop of 700 ns, a pulse repetition rate of 60 pulse-per-second. A 2500 Ampere per modulator output is required to reach the extraction kicker magnetic field strength. This design features a Blumlein Pulse-Forming-Network based topology, a low beam impedance termination, a fast current switching thyratron, and low inductance capacitor banks. It has a maximum charging voltage of 50kV, an open circuit output of 100kV, and a designed maximum pulsed current output of 4kA per modulator. The overall system output will be multiple GVA with 60 Pulse-per-second repetition rate. A prototype modulator has been successfully built and tested well above the SNS requirement. The modulator system production is in progress.

  16. Overview of high voltage dielectric material for traveling wave kicker magnet application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang,; Sandberg,; Tuozzolo,; Cassel,

    2002-06-01

    Pulsed high power fast kickers are being used to change beam trajectories in particle accelerators. The fast rise and fall time of pulse waveform demands a transmission line structure for the kicker deflector design. The ideal design will be parallel metal plates. However, it uses very long straight sections to achieve the required deflection. In accelerators with constrained straight sections, high permeability materials such as ferrite have to be used to gain deflection efficiency. The transmission line kicker magnet is also referred as traveling wave kicker magnet. Its construction is based on distributed 1-C cells along the longitudinal direction. The magnetic cells and capacitive cells are interleaved to simulate the characteristic impedance of a transmission line to minimize pulse reflection, and provide adequate frequency bandwidth to transmit the kicker pulse with fast rise and fall time. The magnetic cells are usually made of ferrite ceramics, but the capacitive cells have been made with different materials. For traveling wave kickers with higher impedance, the parallel plate vacuum capacitor has been used in CERN and KEK design. Others have used ceramic capacitors, printed circuit boards, and high permittivity ceramics as the capacitive cell. The high dielectric material has the advantage of compactness for low impedance kicker magnet construction. It continues to be very attractive for future kicker magnet applications. The high voltage phenomena associated with high dielectric ceramic materials have been widely reported in many industrial application areas.

  17. The power dynamics perpetuating unsafe abortion in Africa: a feminist perspective.

    PubMed

    Braam, Tamara; Hessini, Leila

    2004-04-01

    Tens of thousands of African women die every year because societies and governments either ignore the issue of unsafe abortion or actively refuse to address it. This paper explores the issue of abortion from a feminist perspective, centrally arguing that finding appropriate strategies to reclaim women's power at an individual and social level is a central lever for developing effective strategies to increase women's access to safe abortion services. The paper emphasises the central role of patriarchy in shaping the ways power plays itself out in individual relationships, and at social, economic and political levels. The ideology of male superiority denies abortion as an important issue of status and frames the morality, legality and socio-cultural attitudes towards abortion. Patriarchy sculpts unequal gender power relationships and takes power away from women in making decisions about their bodies. Other forms of power such as economic inequality, discourse and power within relationships are also explored. Recommended solutions to shifting the power dynamics around the issue include a combination of public health, rights-based, legal reform and social justice approaches.

  18. Research and development of RHIC injection kicker upgrade with nano second FID pulse generator

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang W.; Sandberg, J.; Hahn, H.; Fischer, W.; Liaw, C.J.; Pai, C.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2012-05-20

    Our recent effort to test a 50 kV, 1 kA, 50 ns pulse width, 10 ns pulse rise time FID pulse generator with a 250 ft transmission cable, resistive load, and existing RHIC injection kicker magnet has produced unparalleled results. This is the very first attempt to drive a high strength fast kicker magnet with a nano second high pulsed power (50 MVA) generator for large accelerator and colliders. The technology is impressive. We report here the result and future plan of RHIC Injection kicker upgrade.

  19. A waveguide overloaded cavity kicker for the HLS II longitudinal feedback system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wu-Bin; Zhou, Ze-Ran; Sun, Bao-Gen; Wu, Fang-Fang; Xu, Wei; Lu, Ping; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2014-03-01

    In the upgrade project of Hefei Light Source (HLS II), a new digital longitudinal bunch-by-bunch feedback system will be developed to suppress the coupled bunch instabilities in the storage ring effectively. We design a new waveguide overloaded cavity longitudinal feedback kicker as the feedback actuator. The beam pipe of the kicker is a racetrack shape so as to avoid a transition part to the octagonal vacuum chamber. The central frequency and the bandwidth of the kicker have been simulated and optimized to achieve design goals by the HFSS code. A higher shunt impedance can be obtained by using a nose cone to reduce the feedback power requirement. Before the kicker cavity was installed in the storage ring, a variety of measurements were carried out to check its performance. All these results of simulation and measurement are presented.

  20. Modeling Powered Aerodynamics for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Aerodynamic Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Robinson, Philip E.; Wilson, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Modeling the aerodynamics of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) has presented many technical challenges to the developers of the Orion aerodynamic database. During a launch abort event, the aerodynamic environment around the LAV is very complex as multiple solid rocket plumes interact with each other and the vehicle. It is further complicated by vehicle separation events such as between the LAV and the launch vehicle stack or between the launch abort tower and the crew module. The aerodynamic database for the LAV was developed mainly from wind tunnel tests involving powered jet simulations of the rocket exhaust plumes, supported by computational fluid dynamic simulations. However, limitations in both methods have made it difficult to properly capture the aerodynamics of the LAV in experimental and numerical simulations. These limitations have also influenced decisions regarding the modeling and structure of the aerodynamic database for the LAV and led to compromises and creative solutions. Two database modeling approaches are presented in this paper (incremental aerodynamics and total aerodynamics), with examples showing strengths and weaknesses of each approach. In addition, the unique problems presented to the database developers by the large data space required for modeling a launch abort event illustrate the complexities of working with multi-dimensional data.

  1. LHC Kicker Beam-Impedance Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Lambertson, G.R.

    1998-10-01

    Longitudinal and transverse beam impedances are calculated for the injection kickers designed for use in the CERN large hadron col- Iider. These combine the contributions of a ceramic beam tube with conducting stripes and a traveling-wave kicker magnet. The results show peak impedances of 1300 ohm longitudinal and 8 Mfl/m trans- verse for four units per ring.

  2. An overview of high voltage dielectric material for traveling wave kicker magnet application

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Zhang et al.

    2002-08-19

    Pulsed high power fast kickers are being used to change beam trajectories in particle accelerators. The fast rise and fall time of pulse waveform demands a transmission line structure for the kicker deflector design. The ideal design will be parallel metal plates. However, it uses very long straight sections to achieve the required deflection. In accelerators with constrained straight sections, high permeability materials such as ferrite have to be used to gain deflection efficiency. The transmission line kicker magnet is also referred as traveling wave kicker magnet. Its construction is based on distributed L-C cells along the longitudinal direction. The magnetic cells and capacitive cells are interleaved to simulate the characteristic impedance of a transmission line to minimize pulse reflection, and provide adequate frequency bandwidth to transmit the kicker pulse with fast rise and fall time. The magnetic cells are usually made of ferrite ceramics, but the capacitive cells have been made with different materials. For traveling wave kickers with higher impedance, the parallel plate vacuum capacitor has been used in CERN and KEK design. Others have used ceramic capacitors, printed circuit boards, and high permittivity ceramics as the capacitive cell. The high dielectric material has the advantage of compactness for low impedance kicker magnet construction. It continues to be very attractive for future kicker magnet applications. The high voltage phenomena associated with high dielectric ceramic materials have been widely reported in many industrial application areas. Their implication in the traveling wave magnet application has to be well understood. In this presentation, the areas requiring further quantitative study will be outlined.

  3. AN OVERVIEW OF HIGH VOLTAGE DIELECTRIC MATERIAL FOR TRAVELING WAVE KICKER MAGNET APPLICATION.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; TUOZZOLO,J.; CASSEL,R.; DUCIMETIERE,L.; JENSEN,C.; BARNES,M.; WAIT,G.; WANG,J.

    2002-06-30

    Pulsed high power fast kickers are being used to change beam trajectories in particle accelerators. The fast rise and fall time of pulse waveform demands a transmission line structure for the kicker deflector design. The ideal design will be parallel metal plates. However, it uses very long straight sections to achieve the required deflection. In accelerators with constrained straight sections, high permeability materials such as ferrite have to be used to gain deflection efficiency. The transmission line kicker magnet is also referred as traveling wave kicker magnet. Its construction is based on distributed 1-C cells along the longitudinal direction. The magnetic cells and capacitive cells are interleaved to simulate the characteristic impedance of a transmission line to minimize pulse reflection, and provide adequate frequency bandwidth to transmit the kicker pulse with fast rise and fall time. The magnetic cells are usually made of ferrite ceramics, but the capacitive cells have been made with different materials. For traveling wave kickers with higher impedance, the parallel plate vacuum capacitor has been used in CERN and KEK design. Others have used ceramic capacitors, printed circuit boards, and high permittivity ceramics as the capacitive cell. The high dielectric material has the advantage of compactness for low impedance kicker magnet construction. It continues to be very attractive for future kicker magnet applications. The high voltage phenomena associated with high dielectric ceramic materials have been widely reported in many industrial application areas. Their implication in the traveling wave magnet application has to be well understood. In this presentation, the areas requiring further quantitative study will be outlined.

  4. The A0 abort system for the Tevatron upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.

    1989-03-01

    The installation of electrostatic separator modules at B48 and C17 in the Tevatron necessitates changes to the Tevatron abort system. There will no longer be room for either the proton or antiproton kicker magnets used in the present system. The kickers at C17 will be permanently removed. The kickers at B48 will be temporarily removed for collider operation and will be replaced for fixed target operation. The existing proton abort system will remain unchanged during fixed target operation. This note describes a proposed abort system for operation in the collider mode for 22 on 22 bunches and provides details of specifications for the required components. In certain cases, for example in the case of the pulsers for the magnets and the absorber assembly, system components are designed with the option of upgrading to 44 on 44 bunch operation in mind. 8 refs., 14 figs.

  5. Resonant Kicker System Development at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Beukers, Tony; Krzaszczak, John; Larrus, Marc; Lira, Antonio de; /SLAC

    2009-04-27

    The design and installation of the Linear Coherent Light Source [1] at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has included the development of a kicker system for selective beam bunch dumping. The kicker is based on an LC resonant topology formed by the 50 uF energy storage capacitor and the 64 uH air core magnet load which has a sinusoidal pulse period of 400us. The maximum magnet current is 500 A. The circuit is weakly damped, allowing most of the magnet energy to be recovered in the energy storage capacitor. The kicker runs at a repetition rate of 120Hz. A PLC-based control system provides remote control and monitoring of the kicker via EPICS protocol. Fast timing and interlock signals are converted by discrete peak-detect and sample-hold circuits into DC signals that can be processed by the PLC. The design and experimental characterization of the system are presented.

  6. Induced Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Induced Abortion Home For Patients Search FAQs Induced Abortion Page ... Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced Abortion Special Procedures What is an induced abortion? What ...

  7. Abortion in the United States' Bible Belt: organizing for power and empowerment.

    PubMed

    Castle, Mary Ann

    2011-01-05

    Over the last 30 years, conservative power in the United States, financed and organized by Christian fundamentalist sects, the Catholic Church, and conservative corporate and political leadership, has become more threatening and potentially destabilizing of progressive democratic principles and practices. Powerful interlocking political, financial and social forces are arrayed against women in many Southern and Western states. They are having destructive effects on women's ability to control their fertility and maintain bodily integrity and health. Poor women and women of color are disproportionately affected by restrictions on abortion services. Strategically developed interventions must be initiated and managed at every level in these localities. It is urgent to coordinate and empower individuals, multiple organizations and communities to engender effective changes in attitudes, norms, behavior and policies that will enable women to obtain reproductive health services, including abortion care. This paper describes contextual factors that continue to decimate U.S. women's right to health and, then, describes a community organizing-social action project in a number of US' states aimed at reversing the erosion of women's right to have or not to have children.

  8. Abortion in the United States' bible belt: organizing for power and empowerment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, conservative power in the United States, financed and organized by Christian fundamentalist sects, the Catholic Church, and conservative corporate and political leadership, has become more threatening and potentially destabilizing of progressive democratic principles and practices. Powerful interlocking political, financial and social forces are arrayed against women in many Southern and Western states. They are having destructive effects on women's ability to control their fertility and maintain bodily integrity and health. Poor women and women of color are disproportionately affected by restrictions on abortion services. Strategically developed interventions must be initiated and managed at every level in these localities. It is urgent to coordinate and empower individuals, multiple organizations and communities to engender effective changes in attitudes, norms, behavior and policies that will enable women to obtain reproductive health services, including abortion care. This paper describes contextual factors that continue to decimate U.S. women's right to health and, then, describes a community organizing-social action project in a number of US' states aimed at reversing the erosion of women's right to have or not to have children. PMID:21208420

  9. Beam transport experiment with a new kicker control system on the HIRFL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Yu; Zhou, De-Tai; Luo, Jin-Fu; Zhang, Jian-Chuan; Zhou, Wen-Xiong; Ni, Fa-Fu; Yin, Jun; Yin, Jia; Yuan, You-Jin; Shang-Guan, Jing-Bin

    2016-04-01

    A kicker control system is used for beam extraction and injection between two cooling storage rings (CSRs) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To meet the requirements of special physics experiments, the kicker controller has been upgraded, with a new controller designed based on ARM+DSP+FPGA technology and monolithic circuit architecture, which can achieve a precision time delay of 2.5 ns. In September 2014, the new kicker control system was installed in the kicker field, and the test experiment using the system was completed. In addition, a pre-trigger signal was provided by the controller, which was designed to synchronize the beam diagnostic system and physics experiments. Experimental results indicate that the phenomena of “missed kick” and “inefficient kick” were not observed, and the multichannel trigger signal delay could be adjusted individually for kick power supplies in digitization; thus, the beam transport efficiency was improved compared with that of the original system. The fast extraction and injection experiment was successfully completed based on the new kicker control systems for HIRFL. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (U1232123)

  10. Stripline kicker for integrable optics test accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Antipov, Sergey A.; Didenko, Alexander; Lebedev, Valeri; Valishev, Alexander

    2016-06-30

    We present a design of a stripline kicker for Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA). For its experimental program IOTA needs two full-aperture kickers, capable to create an arbitrary controllable kick in 2D. For that reason their strengths are variable in a wide range of amplitudes up to 16 mrad, and the pulse length 100 ns is less than a revolution period for electrons. In addition, the kicker should have a physical aperture of 40 mm for a proposed operation with proton beam, and an outer size of 70 mm to fit inside existing quadrupole magnets to save space in the ring. Computer simulations using CST Microwave Studio show high field uniformity and wave impedance close to 50 {\\Omega}.

  11. Some calculations for the RHIC kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Claus, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper starts with a brief discussion of the design of the RHIC injection kicker magnets which calls for longitudinal and capacitive sections of the same order as the aperture, not much larger nor much smaller. This makes accurate analytical prediction of their behavior very difficult. In order to gain at least some qualitative insight of that behavior, the author preformed calculations which are based on the actual dimensions of the kickers but which neglect the end effects of the individual sections. The effects of the sectionalization are therefore exaggerated relative to reality in the results.

  12. Very fast kicker for accelerator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grishanov, B.I.; Podgorny, F.V.; Ruemmler, J.; Shiltsev, V.D.

    1996-11-01

    We describe a very fast counter traveling wave kicker with a full pulse width of about 7 ns. Successful test experiment has been done with hi-tech semiconductor technology FET pulse generator with a MHz- range repetition rates and maximum kick strength of the order of 3 G{center_dot}m. Further. increase of the strength seems to be quite possible with the FET pursers, that makes the kicker to be very useful tool for bunch-by-bunch injection/extraction and other accelerator applications.

  13. Conceptualising abortion stigma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuradha; Hessini, Leila; Mitchell, Ellen M H

    2009-08-01

    Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies upon power disparities and inequalities for its formation. In this paper, we identify social and political processes that favour the emergence, perpetuation and normalisation of abortion stigma. We hypothesise that abortion transgresses three cherished 'feminine' ideals: perpetual fecundity; the inevitability of motherhood; and instinctive nurturing. We offer examples of how abortion stigma is generated through popular and medical discourses, government and political structures, institutions, communities and via personal interactions. Finally, we propose a research agenda to reveal, measure and map the diverse manifestations of abortion stigma and its impact on women's health.

  14. Abortion - surgical

    MedlinePlus

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  15. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.; AHRENS,L.; III FLILLER,R.; GASSNER,D.; MCINTYRE,G.T.; MICHNOFF,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.

    2002-06-03

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  16. Tevatron anti-proton injection kicker waveform analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, B.; Finley, D.; /Fermilab

    1996-08-01

    This note describes the measurements of the waveform of the Tevatron antiproton injection kicker using the 150 Gev proton beam. This new horizontal kicker was installed at D48 during the summer of 1995 shutdown. These measurements were taken in two sessions [1] starting on October 10 and October 18, 1995. The measurements use the Tevatron BPM and flying wire systems. This note is a companion to the Tevatron proton injection kicker note published recently [2]. The design specifications for the kicker are given in Dinkel et al. [3].

  17. Precision fast kickers for kiloampere electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G.J.; Chen, Y.J.; Weir, J.T.

    1999-10-06

    These kickers will be used to make fast dipoles and quadrupoles which are driven by sharp risetime pulsers to provide precision beam manipulations for high current kA electron beams. This technology will be used on the 2nd axis of the DARHT linac at LANL. It will be used to provide 4 micropulses of pulse width 20 to 120 nsec. selected from a 2 {micro}sec., 2kA, 20MeV macropulse. The fast pulsers will have amplitude modulation capability to compensate for beam-induced steering effects and other slow beam centroid motion to within the bandwidth of the kicker system. Scaling laws derived from theory will be presented along with extensive experimental data obtained on the test bed ETA-II.

  18. NuMI proton kicker extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, C.C.; Krafczyk, G.A.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    This system extracts up to 9.6 {micro}s of 120 GeV beam every 1.87 seconds for the NuMI beamline neutrino experiments. A pulse forming network consisting of two continuous wound coils and 68 capacitors was designed and built to drive three kicker magnets. The field stability requirement is better than {+-} 1% with a field rise time of 1.52 {micro}s. New kicker magnets were built based on the successful traveling wave magnets built for the Main Injector. Two of these magnets are in series which places a serious constraint on the rise time of the pulser. A forced cooling system using Fluorinert{reg_sign} was designed for the magnet termination resistors to maintain the field flatness and amplitude stability.

  19. REDUCING BEAM COUPLING IMPEDANCES IN SNS RING EXTRACTION KICKERS

    SciTech Connect

    S.S. KURENNOY; D. DAVINO; Y. LEE

    2001-06-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Accumulator ring extraction system [1] includes 14 modules of window-frame ferrite pulsing kicker magnets with the rise time of about 200 ns. Their contribution to the beam coupling impedances is a serious concern. The kicker impedances, as well as its deflecting magnetic field versus time, are studied using detailed 3-D MAFIA modeling. Various design options, external circuit resistances, and a range of ferrite permeabilities are explored. A kicker module with wide conductor windings around the ferrite behind the kicker current sheet suggests a significant reduction of the kicker transverse and longitudinal coupling impedances. This design provides a good extraction field performance, as demonstrated by electromagnetic simulations. Results of measurements for a small model are also presented.

  20. REDUCING BEAM COUPLING IMPEDANCES IN SNS RING EXTRACTION KICKERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, S.; Davino, D.; Lee, Y. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Accumulator ring extraction system includes 14 modules of windowframe ferrite pulsing kicker magnets with the rise time of about 200 ns. Their contribution to the beam coupling impedances is a serious concern. The kicker impedances, as well as its deflecting magnetic field versus time, are studied using detailed 3-D MAFIA modeling. Various design options, external circuit resistances, and a range of ferrite permeabilities are explored. A kicker module with wide conductor windings around the ferrite behind the kicker current sheet suggests a significant reduction of the kicker transverse and longitudinal coupling impedances. This design provides a good extraction field performance, as demonstrated by electromagnetic simulations. Results of measurements for a small model are also presented.

  1. Equivalent circuit analysis of the RHIC injection kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Ratti, A.

    1997-07-01

    The RHIC injection kicker is built as a traveling wave structure in order to assure the required 95 nsec risetime in the deflection strength. The kicker is constructed from 14 cells, each 7.5 cm long, with alternating ferrite and high-permittivity dielectric sections. The cell structure permits an analysis of the electrical properties of the kicker using lumped L, C, and R circuit elements. Their values are obtained directly from impedance measurements of the full-length kicker, the inductance and shunt capacitance values by measuring the input impedance at 1 MHz with the output shorted and open, respectively. A lossy series resonance circuit in each cell is found to reproduce the measured input impedance of the terminated kicker up to {approximately}100 MHz. The validity of the equivalent circuit was confirmed by comparing the measured output current pulse shape time with that computed by the P-Spice program.

  2. Development of an abort gap monitor for high-energy proton rings

    SciTech Connect

    Beche, Jean-Francois; Byrd, John; De Santis, Stefano; Denes, Peter; Placidi, Massimo; Turner, William; Zolotorev, Max

    2004-05-03

    The fill pattern in proton synchrotrons usually features an empty gap, longer than the abort kicker raise time, for machine protection. This gap is referred to as the ''abort gap'' and any particles, which may accumulate in it due to injection errors and diffusion between RF buckets, would be lost inside the ring, rather than in the beam dump, during the kicker firing. In large proton rings, due to the high energies involved, it is vital to monitor the build up of charges in the abort gap with a high sensitivity. We present a study of an abort gap monitor based on a photomultiplier with a gated microchannel plate, which would allow for detecting low charge densities by monitoring the synchrotron radiation emitted. We show results of beam test experiments at the Advanced Light Source using a Hamamatsu 5916U MCP-PMT and compare them to the specifications for the Large Hadron Collider

  3. Discretionary Power: Challenges to the Use of Student Fees for Abortion Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Annette

    1991-01-01

    Although religious beliefs of college students opposing abortion may be sincere, they must yield to the institution's need to decide what programs will serve the entire student body's needs. When the Supreme Court rules on a challenge to allocation of mandatory student fees, it will apply principles of religious freedom. (MSE)

  4. Induced abortion.

    PubMed

    2017-04-10

    Abortion is common. Data on abortion rates are inexact but can be used to explore trends. Globally, the estimated rate in the period 2010-2014 was 35 abortions per 1000 women (aged 15-44 years), five points less than the rate of 40 for the period 1990-1994. Abortion laws vary around the world but are generally more restrictive in developing countries. Restrictive laws do not necessarily deter women from seeking abortion but often lead to unsafe practice with significant mortality and morbidity. While a legal framework for abortion is a prerequisite for availability, many laws, which are not evidence based, restrict availability and delay access. Abortion should be available in the interests of public health and any legal framework should be as permissive as possible in order to promote access. In the absence of legal access, harm reduction strategies are needed to reduce abortion-related mortality and morbidity. Abortion can be performed surgically (in the first trimester, by manual or electric vacuum aspiration) or with medication: both are safe and effective. Cervical priming facilitates surgery and reduces the risk of incomplete abortion. Diagnosis of incomplete abortion should be made on clinical grounds, not by ultrasound. Septic abortion is a common cause of maternal death almost always following unsafe abortion and thus largely preventable. While routine follow-up after abortion is unnecessary, all women should be offered a contraceptive method immediately after the abortion. This, together with improved education and other interventions, may succeed in reducing unintended pregnancy.

  5. [Induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Bouwhuis-Lely, J

    1978-02-28

    A summary of an article which describes how persons form attitudes toward abortion is presented. 3 parameters play roles in the formation of attitudes toward abortion. One such parameter is the decision for which cases abortion is to be allowed. A second parameter is the person's conception of when life commences. A third parameter is formed by unconscious or non-reasoned attitudes which relate to abortion. A model depicts the interaction of these parameters to form opinions about abortion ranging from "abortion is murder" to "liberalize abortion." This leads to the consideration of more general ethical problems. Arguments for and against abortion are listed, as well as improtant statistics concerning abortion from 1975.

  6. LHC Abort Gap Cleaning Studies During Luminosity Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Bartmann, W.; Boccardi, A.; Bracco, C.; Bravin, E.; Goddard, B.; Hofle, W.; Jacquet, D.; Jeff, A.; Kain, V.; Meddahi, M.; /CERN

    2012-05-11

    The presence of significant intensities of un-bunched beam is a potentially serious issue in the LHC. Procedures using damper kickers for cleaning both the Abort Gap (AG) and the buckets targeted for injection, are currently in operation at flat bottom. Recent observations of relatively high population of the AG during physics runs brought up the need for AG cleaning during luminosity operation. In this paper the results of experimental studies performed in October 2011 are presented.

  7. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePlus

    ... an undesired pregnancy. The medicine helps remove the fetus and placenta from the mother's womb (uterus). There are different types of medical abortions: Therapeutic medical abortion is done because the woman ...

  8. Stripline design for the extraction kicker of Compact Linear Collider damping rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belver-Aguilar, C.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Toral, F.; Barnes, M. J.

    2014-07-01

    In the framework of the design study of future linear colliders, the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) aims for electron-positron collisions with high luminosity at a nominal center-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. To achieve the luminosity requirements, predamping rings (PDRs) and damping rings (DRs) are required: they reduce the beam emittance before the beam is accelerated in the main linac. Several kicker systems are needed to inject and extract the beam from the PDRs and DRs. In order to achieve both low beam coupling impedance and reasonable broadband impedance matching to the electrical circuit, striplines have been chosen for the kicker elements. In this paper, we present the complete design of the striplines for the DR extraction kicker, since it is the most challenging from the field homogeneity point of view. The excellent field homogeneity required, as well as a good transmission of the high voltage pulse through the electrodes, has been achieved by choosing a novel electrode shape. With this new geometry, it has been possible to benefit from all the advantages that the most common shapes introduce separately. Furthermore, a detailed study of the different operating modes of a stripline kicker allowed the beam coupling impedance to be reduced at low frequencies: this cannot be achieved by tapering the electrodes. The optimum design of the striplines and their components has been based on studies of impedance matching, field homogeneity, power transmission, beam coupling impedance, and manufacturing tolerances. Finally, new ideas for further improvement of the performance of future striplines are reported.

  9. Mechanical design of ceramic beam tube braze joints for NOvA kicker magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ader, C.R.; Reilly, R.E.; Wilson, J.H.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    The NO?A Experiment will construct a detector optimized for electron neutrino detection in the existing NuMI neutrino beam. The NuMI beam line is capable of operating at 400 kW of primary beam power and the upgrade will allow up to 700 kW. Ceramic beam tubes are utilized in numerous kicker magnets in different accelerator rings at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Kovar flanges are brazed onto each beam tube end, since kovar and high alumina ceramic have similar expansion curves. The tube, kovar flange, end piece, and braze foil alloy brazing material are stacked in the furnace and then brazed. The most challenging aspect of fabricating kicker magnets in recent years have been making hermetic vacuum seals on the braze joints between the ceramic and flange. Numerous process variables can influence the robustness of conventional metal/ceramic brazing processes. The ceramic-filler metal interface is normally the weak layer when failure does not occur within the ceramic. Differences between active brazing filler metal and the moly-manganese process will be discussed along with the applicable results of these techniques used for Fermilab production kicker tubes.

  10. Accelerator Fast Kicker R&D with Ultra Compact 50MVA Nano-Second FID Pulse Generator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    overall length of magnet or deflector . This demands a faster kicker system. To inject a 24 GeV beam into RHIC, the rise time of the kicker...kicker magnet or deflector length. In order to maintaining the same overall strength, six kicker modules, instead of four, will be used with shorter...individual kicker magnets or deflector length. This reduces the electrical pulse rise time constraint. The main parameters of injection kicker

  11. Status of the SLC damping ring kicker systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, T.; Cassel, R.; Donaldson, A.; Gough, D.; Gross, G.; Harvey, A.; Hutchinson, D.; Nguyen, M.

    1991-05-01

    The damping ring kickers for the SLAC Linear Collider must meet extreme requirements on rise and fall time, flatness, time and amplitude jitter and drift, voltage, repetition rate, and reliability. After several generations of improvements to the pulsers, magnets, and controls, and evolution in the understanding of the requirements, the kicker systems are no longer a serious constraint on SLC performance. Implications for future linear colliders are discussed. 14 refs.

  12. Development of an abort gap monitor for the large hadroncollider

    SciTech Connect

    Beche, J.-F.; Byrd, J.; De Santis, S.; Placidi, M.; Turner, W.; Zolotorev, M.

    2004-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), presently under construction at CERN, requires monitoring the parasitic charge in the 3.3ms long gap in the machine fill structure. This gap, referred to as the abort gap, corresponds to the raise time of the abort kickers magnets. Any circulating particle present in the abort gap at the time of the kickers firing is lost inside the ring, rather than in the beam dump, and can potentially damage a number of the LHC components. CERN specifications indicate a linear density of 6 x 106 protons over a 100 ns interval as the maximum charge safely allowed to accumulate in the abort gap at 7 TeV. We present a study of an abort gap monitor, based on a photomultiplier tube with a gated microchannel plate, which would allow for detecting such low charge densities by monitoring the synchrotron radiation emitted in the dedicated diagnostics port. We show results of beam test experiments at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) using a Hamamatsu 5961U MCP-PMT, which indicate that such an instrument has the required sensitivity to meet LHC specifications.

  13. Septic abortion.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, P G; Grimes, D A

    1994-08-04

    Abortion-related deaths, which account for 47% of total maternal mortality in the world, result primarily from sepsis and are widespread in developing countries where abortion is illegal or inaccessible. Septic abortion offers opportunities for prevention on the primary, secondary, and tertiary level of medial care. Primary prevention of septic abortion encompasses the provision of effective contraception, provision of safe and legal abortion in cases of contraceptive failure, and appropriate medical management of abortion. Secondary prevention involves the prompt diagnosis of endometriosis and effective treatment to avert more serious infection. The diagnosis of septic abortion should be considered when women of reproductive age present to health facilities with vaginal bleeding, lower abdominal pain, and fever. Tertiary prevention is aimed at avoiding the serious complications of postabortal infection, including hysterectomy and death. Women with high fever, pelvic peritonitis, and tachycardia should undergo uterine evacuation and parental antibiotic therapy. Supportive care for cardiovascular system and other organs may be essential. The medical technology needed to avert serious complications and deaths from septic abortion is available. Lacking is a political commitment on the part of many governments and health care agencies to address this avoidable contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality.

  14. First Operation of the Abort Gap Monitor for LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Lefevre, Thibaut; Bart Pedersen, Stephane; Boccardi, Andrea; Bravin, Enrico; Goldblatt, A.; Jeff, Adam; Roncarolo, Federico; Fisher, Alan; /SLAC

    2012-07-06

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) beam-dump system relies on extraction kickers that need 3 microseconds to rise to their nominal field. Since particles transiting the kickers during the rise will not be dumped properly, the proton population in this interval must always remain below quench and damage limits. A specific monitor to measure the particle population of this gap has been designed based on the detection of synchrotron radiation using a gated photomultiplier. Since the quench and damage limits change with the beam energy, the acceptable population in the abort gap and the settings of the monitor must adapt accordingly. This paper presents the design of the monitor, the calibration procedure and the detector performance with beam.

  15. Control System for the LLNL Kicker Pulse Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J A; Anaya, R M; Cook, E G; Lee, B S; Hawkins, S A

    2002-06-18

    A solid-state high voltage pulse generator with multi-pulse burst capability, very fast rise and fall times, pulse width agility, and amplitude modulation capability for use with high speed electron beam kickers has been designed and tested at LLNL. A control system calculates a desired waveform to be applied to the kicker based on measured electron beam displacement then adjusts the pulse generators to provide the desired waveform. This paper presents the design of the control system and measure performance data from operation on the ETA-11 accelerator at LLNL.

  16. STS-1 operational flight profile. Volume 6: Abort analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The abort analysis for the cycle 3 Operational Flight Profile (OFP) for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) is defined, superseding the abort analysis previously presented. Included are the flight description, abort analysis summary, flight design groundrules and constraints, initialization information, general abort description and results, abort solid rocket booster and external tank separation and disposal results, abort monitoring displays and discussion on both ground and onboard trajectory monitoring, abort initialization load summary for the onboard computer, list of the key abort powered flight dispersion analysis.

  17. Harmonic Resonant Kicker Design for the MEIC Electron Circular Cooler Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.

    2015-09-01

    Bunched-beam electron cooling of the high-energy ion beam emittance may be a crucial technology for the proposed Medium energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC) to achieve its design luminosity. A critical component is a fast kicker system in the Circular Ring (CR) that periodically switches electron bunches in and out of the ring from and to the driver Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). Compared to a conventional strip-line type kicker, a quarter-wave resonator (QWR)-based deflecting structure has a much higher shunt impedance and so requires much less RF power. The cavity has been designed to resonate simultaneously at many harmonic modes that are integer multiples of the fundamental mode. In this way the resulting waveform will kick only a subset of the circulating bunches. In this paper, analytical shunt impedance optimization, the electromagnetic simulations of this type of cavity, as well as tuner and coupler concept designs to produce 5 odd and 5 even harmonics of 47.63MHz will be presented, in order to kick every 10th bunch in a 476.3 MHz bunch train.

  18. Abortion ethics.

    PubMed

    Fromer, M J

    1982-04-01

    Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view

  19. CONTINUOUS ABORT GAP CLEANING AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.FLILLER,R.III.FU,W.MICHNOFF,R.

    2004-07-05

    Since the RHIC Au-Au run in the year 2001 the 200 MHz cavity system was used at storage and a 28 MHz system during injection and acceleration. The rebucketing procedure potentially causes a higher debunching rate of heavy ion beams in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam can easily account for more than 50% of the total beam intensity. This effect is even stronger with the achieved high intensities of the RHIC Au-Au run in 2004. A beam abort at the presence of a lot of debunched beam bears the risk of magnet quenching and experimental detector damage due to uncontrolled beam losses. Thus it is desirable to avoid any accumulation of debunched beam from the beginning of each store, in particular to anticipate cases of unscheduled beam aborts due to a system failure. A combination of a fast transverse kickers and the new 2-stage copper collimator system are used to clean the abort gap continuously throughout the store with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. This report gives. an overview of the new gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  20. RF Modeling of a Helical Kicker for Fast Chopping

    SciTech Connect

    Awida, Mohamed; Chen, Alex; Khabiboulline, Timergali; Saewert, Gregory; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav

    2015-06-01

    High intensity proton particle accelerators that supports several simultaneous physics experiments requires sharing the beam. A bunch by bunch beam chopper system located after the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) is required in this case to structure the beam in the proper bunch format required by the several experiments. The unused beam will need to be kicked out of the beam path and is disposed in a beam dumb. In this paper, we report on the RF modeling results of a proposed helical kicker. Two beam kickers constitutes the proposed chopper. The beam sequence is formed by kicking in or out the beam bunches from the streamline. The chopper was developed for Project X Injection Experiment (PXIE).

  1. Solid-State Kicker Pulser for DARHT-2

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, E G; Lee, B S; Hawkins, S A; Allen, F V; Hickman, B C; Sullivan, J S; Brooksby, C A

    2001-06-07

    To replace a hard tube design, a solid-state kicker pulser for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility (DARHT-2) has been designed and tested. This kicker modulator uses multiple solid-state modules stacked in an inductive-adder configuration where the energy is switched into each section of the adder by a parallel array of MOSFETs. The modulator features very fast rise and fall times, pulse width agility and a high pulse-repetition rate in burst mode. The modulator can drive a 50{Omega} load with voltages up to 20 kV and can be easily configured for either positive or negative polarity. The presentation will include test and operational data.

  2. Dynamic devices: A primer on pickups and kickers

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, D.A.; Lambertson, G.R.

    1991-11-01

    A charged-particle beam generates electromagnetic fields which in turn interact with the beam's surroundings. These interactions can produce fields which act back on the beam itself, or, if the surroundings'' are of suitably designed form (e.g., sensing electrodes with electrical connection to the outside world''), can provide information on various properties of the beam; such electrodes are generally known as pickups. Similarly, charged- particle beams respond to the presence of externally imposed electromagnetic fields; devices used to generate such fields are generally known as kickers. As we shall show, the behavior of an electrode system when it functions as a pickup is intimately related to its behavior as a kicker. A number of papers on pickup behavior have appeared in recent years in most of which the primary emphasis has been on beam instrumentation; there have also been several workshops on the subject. There have been several papers which have treated both pickup and kicker behavior of a particular electrode system, but this has been done in the context of discussing a specialized application, such as a stochastic cooling system. The approach in the present paper is similar to that of earlier works by one of the authors, which is to provide a unified treatment of pickup and kicker behavior, and, it is hoped, to give the reader an understanding which is both general and fundamental enough to make the above references easily accessible to him. As implied by the revised title, we have done the re-writing with the non-expert in mind. We have made the introduction both lengthier and more detailed, and done the same with much of the explanatory material and discussion.

  3. Dynamic devices: A primer on pickups and kickers

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, D.A.; Lambertson, G.R.

    1991-11-01

    A charged-particle beam generates electromagnetic fields which in turn interact with the beam`s surroundings. These interactions can produce fields which act back on the beam itself, or, if the ``surroundings`` are of suitably designed form (e.g., sensing electrodes with electrical connection to the ``outside world``), can provide information on various properties of the beam; such electrodes are generally known as pickups. Similarly, charged- particle beams respond to the presence of externally imposed electromagnetic fields; devices used to generate such fields are generally known as kickers. As we shall show, the behavior of an electrode system when it functions as a pickup is intimately related to its behavior as a kicker. A number of papers on pickup behavior have appeared in recent years in most of which the primary emphasis has been on beam instrumentation; there have also been several workshops on the subject. There have been several papers which have treated both pickup and kicker behavior of a particular electrode system, but this has been done in the context of discussing a specialized application, such as a stochastic cooling system. The approach in the present paper is similar to that of earlier works by one of the authors, which is to provide a unified treatment of pickup and kicker behavior, and, it is hoped, to give the reader an understanding which is both general and fundamental enough to make the above references easily accessible to him. As implied by the revised title, we have done the re-writing with the non-expert in mind. We have made the introduction both lengthier and more detailed, and done the same with much of the explanatory material and discussion.

  4. The Booster to AGS beam transfer fast kicker systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Bunicci, J.; Soukas, A.V.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1992-08-01

    The Brookhaven AGS Booster has a very successful commissioning period in June 1991. The third phase of that commissioning was a beam extraction test. The Booster extraction fast kicker (F3) deflected a 1.2 GeV proton beam from the Booster circulating orbit into the extraction septum aperture, partially down the extraction line to a temporary beam stop. Now, the Booster is committed to the AGS operations program for both heavy ion and proton beams. Thus, the Booster extraction and the corresponding AGS injection systems must operate routinely up to a pulse repetition frequency of 7.5 Hertz, and up to a beam energy of 1.5 Gev. The injection fast kicker is located in the A5 section of the AGS ring and is used to deflect the proton or heavy ion beam into its final AGS closed orbit. A distinctive feature of the AGS injection fast kicker modulators is the tail-bitting function required for proton beam injection. This enables the system to produce a fast current fall time to go along with the high current pulse amplitude with a fast rise time. The AGS injection fast kicker system has three pulse modulators, and each modulator consists of two thyratrons. The main PFN thyratrons switch on the current, and the tail bitting thyratrons are used to force the magnet current to decrease rapidly. Two digital pulse delay generators are used to align the main thyratrons and the tail bitting thyratrons respectively. The system has been tested and installed. The final commissioning of the Booster to AGS beam transfer line and injection is currently being undertaken. In this article, the system design, realization techniques and performance data will be presented.

  5. Some fast beam kicker magnet systems at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Bulos, F.; Cassel, R.L.; Donaldson, A.R.; Genova, L.F.; Grant, J.A.; Mihalka, A.M.; Sukiennick, B.A.; Tomlin, W.T.; Veldhuizen, F.T.; Walz, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider requires very fast rise and fall times from its kicker magnets. The damping rings and positron source need either one or two bunches deflected from two or three that are separated in time by about 59 ns. The final focus region kicker magnets need a rise time of less than 700 ns and each one deflects only one bunch. This paper discusses the design and characteristics of a thyratron-switched, castor-oil-filled, coaxial, Blumlein line used for one bunch kicking. It discharges a 118 ns (at the base), 50 kV, 3 kA pulse into a 33 cm long, ferrite-loaded, kicker magnet of rectangular coaxial-line geometry, which in turn is terminated by a matched load. Reference is made to a Fermilab (FNAL) designed magnet and a dual-thyratron pulsar that will deflect two serial bunches in or out of the electron ring. Also, a brief description of the final focus magnet is given. Work is continuing on the various subsystem components to decrease the pulse rise and fall time, flattop ripple and jitter and to reduce some of the sources of noise and hv breakdown.

  6. From unwanted pregnancy to safe abortion: Sharing information about abortion in Asia through animation.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Shweta; Dalvie, Suchitra

    2015-05-01

    Although unsafe abortion continues to be a leading cause of maternal mortality in many countries in Asia, the right to safe abortion remains highly stigmatized across the region. The Asia Safe Abortion Partnership, a regional network advocating for safe abortion, produced an animated short film entitled From Unwanted Pregnancy to Safe Abortion to show in conferences, schools and meetings in order to share knowledge about the barriers to safe abortion in Asia and to facilitate conversations on the right to safe abortion. This paper describes the making of this film, its objectives, content, dissemination and how it has been used. Our experience highlights the advantages of using animated films in addressing highly politicized and sensitive issues like abortion. Animation helped to create powerful advocacy material that does not homogenize the experiences of women across a diverse region, and at the same time emphasize the need for joint activities that express solidarity.

  7. Upgrade of the beam transport lines and the beam-abort system and development of a tune compensator in KEKB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Naoko; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Mimashi, Toshihiro; Nakayama, Hisayoshi; Sakamoto, Yutaka; Satoh, Kotaro; Takasaki, Seiji; Tawada, Masafumi

    2013-03-01

    The KEKB collider achieved a maximum peak luminosity of 2.1×1034 cm-2 s-1 and an integrated luminosity of 1 ab-1 in its ten-year operation. Behind these glorious records there have been uncountable improvements in every subsystem. This paper describes the improvements in the beam transport line, injection kickers, septum magnets, the beam-abort system, and a newly developed pulsed-quadrupole system in detail.

  8. Abort Options for Potential Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, P. V.; Striepe, S. A.; Powell, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    Mars trajectory design options were examined that would accommodate a premature termination of a nominal manned opposition class mission for opportunities between 2010 and 2025. A successful abort must provide a safe return to Earth in the shortest possible time consistent with mission constraints. In this study, aborts that provided a minimum increase in the initial vehicle mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) were identified by locating direct transfer nominal missions and nominal missions including an outbound or inbound Venus swing-by that minimized IMLEO. The ease with which these missions could be aborted while meeting propulsion and time constraints was investigated by examining free return (unpowered) and powered aborts. Further reductions in trip time were made to some aborts by the addition or removal of an inbound Venus swing-by. The results show that, although few free return aborts met the specified constraints, 85% of each nominal mission could be aborted as a powered abort without an increase in propellant. Also, in many cases, the addition or removal of a Venus swing-by increased the number of abort opportunities or decreased the total trip time during an abort.

  9. An IGBT Driven Slotted Beam Pipe Kicker for SPEAR III Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, Richard

    2002-08-21

    The SPEAR III injection kicker system is composed of three kicker magnets, K1, K2, and K3. These magnets, along with the power modulators to drive them constitute an injection system which will be used to deflect an incoming electron beam with an energy of 3.3 GeV by an angle of 2.5 mrad for K1 and K3, and 1 mrad for K2. The pulse shape of the magnetic field in the three magnets must be matched in order to preserve a closed orbit. The pulse duration is required to be less than 780 ns, with rise and fall times of less than 375 ns, and a pulse repetition frequency of 10 Hz. The aperture of all three magnets is 60 x 34 mm in an 8 inch vacuum vessel. The magnetic length is 1.2 m for K1 and K3, and 0.6 m for K2 [1]. The magnet design employs a slotted beam pipe which is shorted at one end. A solid state IGBT based, induction type of modulator drives the magnets. Modulators for K1 and K3 consist of eight 4.5 kV, 600 A IGBTs, and eight Finemet magnet cores with four 22.5 Ohm output cables to drive 2381 A into the magnets. The modulator for K2 uses four IGBTs and cores, and 8 output cables to produce a 2619 A pulse. Cables of length greater than one half the pulse width must be used in order to avoid reflections from the shorted magnet. The design charge voltage for the modulators is 20 kV for K1 and K3. This paper describes the magnet and modulator design, as and presents test data from a prototype system.

  10. Operational experience with SLC damping ring kicker magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, T.; Cassel, R.; Donaldson, A.; Gross, G.; Harvey, A.

    1991-05-01

    The damping ring kickers for the SLAC Linear Collider must provide 7 mrad kicks to 1.2 GeV beams with 60 nsec rise and fall times and fit in a 50 cm length around a 21 mm diameter ceramic beam pipe. This requires that they operate at up to 40 KV. The construction and operation of two types of quasi-coaxial ferrite magnet potted with RTV silicone rubber is discussed. Production yield has been improved by changes in RTV degassing, transfer, and cure. Operation lifetime is dominated by voltage, radiation, and thermal cycling. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Epidemiology of abortion.

    PubMed

    Tyler C

    1976-06-01

    This brief summary presents information on the epidemiology of abortion requested by IPPF. In 1975, 8% of the world's population lived in areas where the law prohibits abortion completely, and 27% lived in areas where abortions are severely restricted. Over 2 years, 40,000 hospitalizations for abortion complications were reported in such countries, with 168 deaths. 21% of women hospitalized for a diagnosis related to abortion died. In Latin America, hospitalization and death because of illegal abortion led to epidemiological studies. In Chile, surveys indicate that 1/4 women has had an abortion. Colombia data state that 10 women die/week from abortion complications. Bangladesh identified 31 abortion deaths. When related to live births occurring in the area from which the deaths were reported, the abortion mortality ratio was 19/1000,000 live births. Data from Romania showed that before 1966, when abortion was legal, there were fewer than 100 reported deaths. After 1966, when abortion was restricted, crude birth rate increased from 15-40/1000 total population. During the following 4 years, the birth rate dropped until it was below 25, but concomitant deaths due to abortion increased. In 1965, 64 abortion-related deaths occurred, whereas by 1971, abortion-related deaths increased to 364. In North America abortion deaths and number of illegal abortions decreased dramatically after 1973, when abortion became legal in the U.S. In 1972, illegal abortions led to the deaths of 41 women, but in 1974 only 5 such deaths occurred. If women with unplanned or unwanted pregnancies all underwent abortion within the 1st 8 weeks of pregnancy, 90% of the deaths due to legal abortion could be prevented.

  12. Unsafe abortion in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Biddlecom, Ann

    2008-11-01

    Though pregnancy termination is highly restricted in Kenya, induced abortion remains common. Illegal abortion is often unsafe, putting women at risk of death or severe complications. In eastern Africa as a whole, an estimated 14% of all pregnancies end in abortion, and nearly one in five maternal deaths are due to unsafe abortion.

  13. Shuttle Abort Flight Management (SAFM) - Application Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Howard; Straube, Tim; Madsen, Jennifer; Ricard, Mike

    2002-01-01

    One of the most demanding tasks that must be performed by the Space Shuttle flight crew is the process of determining whether, when and where to abort the vehicle should engine or system failures occur during ascent or entry. Current Shuttle abort procedures involve paging through complicated paper checklists to decide on the type of abort and where to abort. Additional checklists then lead the crew through a series of actions to execute the desired abort. This process is even more difficult and time consuming in the absence of ground communications since the ground flight controllers have the analysis tools and information that is currently not available in the Shuttle cockpit. Crew workload specifically abort procedures will be greatly simplified with the implementation of the Space Shuttle Cockpit Avionics Upgrade (CAU) project. The intent of CAU is to maximize crew situational awareness and reduce flight workload thru enhanced controls and displays, and onboard abort assessment and determination capability. SAFM was developed to help satisfy the CAU objectives by providing the crew with dynamic information about the capability of the vehicle to perform a variety of abort options during ascent and entry. This paper- presents an overview of the SAFM application. As shown in Figure 1, SAFM processes the vehicle navigation state and other guidance information to provide the CAU displays with evaluations of abort options, as well as landing site recommendations. This is accomplished by three main SAFM components: the Sequencer Executive, the Powered Flight Function, and the Glided Flight Function, The Sequencer Executive dispatches the Powered and Glided Flight Functions to evaluate the vehicle's capability to execute the current mission (or current abort), as well as more than IS hypothetical abort options or scenarios. Scenarios are sequenced and evaluated throughout powered and glided flight. Abort scenarios evaluated include Abort to Orbit (ATO), Transatlantic

  14. Design Considerations of Fast Kicker Systems for High Intensity Proton Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W; Sandberg, J; Parson, W M; Walstrom, P; Murray, M M; Cook, E; Hartouni, E

    2001-06-12

    In this paper, we discuss the specific issues related to the design of the Fast Kicker Systems for high intensity proton accelerators. To address these issues in the preliminary design stage can be critical since the fast kicker systems affect the machine lattice structure and overall design parameters. Main topics include system architecture, design strategy, beam current coupling, grounding, end user cost vs. system cost, reliability, redundancy and flexibility. Operating experience with the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron injection and extraction kicker systems at Brookhaven National Laboratory and their future upgrade is presented. Additionally, new conceptual designs of the extraction kicker for the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge and the Advanced Hydrotest Facility at Los Alamos are discussed.

  15. In situ baking method for degassing of a kicker magnet in accelerator beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiya, Junichiro Ogiwara, Norio; Yanagibashi, Toru; Kinsho, Michikazu; Yasuda, Yuichi

    2016-03-15

    In this study, the authors propose a new in situ degassing method by which only kicker magnets in the accelerator beam line are baked out without raising the temperature of the vacuum chamber to prevent unwanted thermal expansion of the chamber. By simply installing the heater and thermal radiation shield plates between the kicker magnet and the chamber wall, most of the heat flux from the heater directs toward the kicker magnet. The result of the verification test showed that each part of the kicker magnet was heated to above the target temperature with a small rise in the vacuum chamber temperature. A graphite heater was selected in this application to bake-out the kicker magnet in the beam line to ensure reliability and easy maintainability of the heater. The vacuum characteristics of graphite were suitable for heater operation in the beam line. A preliminary heat-up test conducted in the accelerator beam line also showed that each part of the kicker magnet was successfully heated and that thermal expansion of the chamber was negligibly small.

  16. Fast and reliable kicker magnets for the SLC damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, T.S.; Cassel, R.L.; Donaldson, A.R.; Gross, G.

    1995-06-01

    The design, construction, and operation of a kicker magnet with superior electromagnetic performance and greatly improved radiation tolerance is described. A short flux return of high mu ferrite improves the field strength and linearity with current, and novel metallic field-confining structures minimize the inductance. An 8-cell structure with capacitance integrated into each cell makes the magnet a nearly perfect transmission line. The capacitor dielectric is 1 cm thick alumina-loaded epoxy, processed to eliminate air voids, and cast in a multiple step procedure developed to circumvent epoxy shrinkage. The magnet operates with pulses of up to 40 kV and 3.2 kA at 120 Hz, with magnet transit times of less than 35 nsec and field rise and fall times of less than 60 nsec.

  17. Abortion and psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Stotland, Nada L

    2003-03-01

    The subject of abortion is fraught with politics, emotions, and misinformation. A widespread practice reaching far back in history, abortion is again in the news. Psychiatry sits at the intersection of the religious, ethical, psychological, sociological, medical, and legal facets of the abortion issue. Although the religions that forbid abortion are more prominent in the media, many religions have more liberal approaches. While the basic right to abortion has been upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court, several limitations have been permitted, including parental notification or consent (with the possibility of judicial bypass) for minors, waiting periods, and mandatory provision of certain, sometimes biased, information. Before the Roe v. Wade decision legalizing abortion in 1973, many women were maimed or killed by illegal abortions, and psychiatrists were sometimes asked to certify that abortions were justified on psychiatric grounds. Currently, there are active attempts to convince the public and women considering abortion that abortion frequently has negative psychiatric consequences. This assertion is not borne out by the literature: the vast majority of women tolerate abortion without psychiatric sequelae. The psychiatric outcome of abortion is best when patients are able to make autonomous, supported decisions. Psychiatrists need to know the medical and psychiatric facts about abortion. Psychiatrists can then help patients prevent unwanted pregnancies, make informed decisions consonant with their own values and circumstances when they become pregnant, and find appropriate social and medical resources whatever their decisions may be.

  18. Post abortion contraception.

    PubMed

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp, Helena Kallner

    2015-11-01

    A safe induced abortion has no impact on future fertility. Ovulation may resume as early as 8 days after the abortion. There is no difference in return to fertility after medical or surgical abortion. Most women resume sexual activity soon after an abortion. Contraceptive counseling and provision should therefore be an integrated part of the abortion services to help women avoid another unintended pregnancy and risk, in many cases an unsafe, abortion. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods that includes implants and intrauterine contraception have been shown to be the most effective contraceptive methods to help women prevent unintended pregnancy following an abortion. However, starting any method is better than starting no method at all. This Special Report will give a short guide to available methods and when they can be started after an induced abortion.

  19. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  20. Abortions: A National Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, James A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses general attitudes towards unwanted pregnancies and abortions, the methods that students have resorted to in order to abort themselves, and the mental state of college women, who become pregnant with children they don't want. (RK)

  1. Legal abortion in Europe.

    PubMed

    1978-01-01

    Abortion on medical and eugenic grounds has been legal in most European countries for several years. In Austria, abortions are performed following obligatory counseling, and physicians can abstain conscientiously from performing them. In Denmark, first trimester abortion is performed on request for women over age 17. Abortion has been legal in Finland since 1950; the abortion rate reached its peak in 1973, and has been declining since then. First trimester abortion is legal in France, but a woman seeking admission to a hospital must present a physician's certificate, a counselor's certificate, and her own written consent. Delays in the processing of the application are not unusual and the whole procedure can be lengthy and discouraging. First trimester abortion was legalized in the German Democratic Republic in 1972, and in 1973 in the Federal Republic of Germany, where 79% of abortions are requested on grave social grounds. Applications for abortions are seldom refused in Hungary, where the abortion rate reached 81.1/1000 women in 1971. Abortion on request is expected to be legalized shortly in Norway, while it prevails in Poland, where 98% of abortions are performed for social indications. In Sweden, abortion is performed only in public hospitals, and contraceptive advice and fitting is free. The availability of abortion in the United Kingdom is limited by the restrictive attitude of some National Health Service physicians, and nearly all abortions on nonresidents (32% in 1973) are performed on private premises. In Yugoslavia, abortion is the constitutional right of every woman, but only the Republic of Slovenia has, so far, legislated fertility regulation as a whole, and termination of pregnancy can be performed only with the approval of a special committee.

  2. Abortion among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  3. Abortion in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sedgh, Gilda; Ball, Haley

    2008-09-01

    Each year in Indonesia, millions of women become pregnant unintentionally, and many choose to end their pregnancies, despite the fact that abortion is generally illegal. Like their counterparts in many developing countries where abortion is stigmatized and highly restricted, Indonesian women often seek clandestine procedures performed by untrained providers, and resort to methods that include ingesting unsafe substances and undergoing harmful abortive massage. Though reliable evidence does not exist, researchers estimate that about two million induced abortions occur each year in the country and that deaths from unsafe abortion represent 14-16% of all maternal deaths in Southeast Asia. Preventing unsafe abortion is imperative if Indonesia is to achieve the fifth Millennium Development Goal of improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality. Current Indonesian abortion law is based on a national health bill passed in 1992. Though the language on abortion was vague, it is generally accepted that the law allows abortion only if the woman provides confirmation from a doctor that her pregnancy is life-threatening, a letter of consent from her husband or a family member, a positive pregnancy test result and a statement guaranteeing that she will practice contraception afterwards. This report presents what is currently known about abortion in Indonesia. The findings are derived primarily from small-scale, urban, clinic-based studies of women's experiences with abortion. Some studies included women in rural areas and those who sought abortions outside of clinics, but none were nationally representative. Although these studies do not give a full picture of who is obtaining abortions in Indonesia or what their experiences are, the evidence suggests that abortion is a common occurrence in the country and that the conditions under which abortion takes place are often unsafe.

  4. IMMEDIATE MENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE AND FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT ON MOTHERS EXPERIENCING MISCARRIAGE, ABORTION, AND STILLBIRTH: THE FUKUSHIMA HEALTH MANAGEMENT SURVEY

    PubMed Central

    YOSHIDA-KOMIYA, HIROMI; GOTO, AYA; YASUMURA, SEIJI; FUJIMORI, KEIYA; ABE, MASAFUMI; FOR THE PREGNANCY AND BIRTH SURVEY GROUP OF THE FUKUSHIMA HEALTH MANAGEMENT SURVEY

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The Fukushima Pregnancy and Birth Survey was launched to monitor pregnant mothers’ health after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. Several lines of investigations have indicated that a disaster impacts maternal mental health with childbirth. However, there is no research regarding mental health of mothers with fetal loss after a disaster. In this report, we focus on those women immediately after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima NPP accident and discuss their support needs. Materials and Methods: Data regarding 61 miscarriages, 5 abortions, and 22 stillbirths were analyzed among the women who were pregnant at the time of the accident in the present study. We used a two-item case-finding instrument for depression screening, and compared the childbirth group with the fetal loss groups. We also analyzed mothers’ opinions written as free-form text. Results: Among the three fetal loss groups, the proportion of positive depression screens was significantly higher in the miscarriage and stillbirth group than in the childbirth group. Mothers’ opinions were grouped into six categories, with pregnancy-related items being most common, especially in the miscarriage and stillbirth groups. Conclusion: A higher proportion of Fukushima mothers with fetal loss, especially those with miscarriage and stillbirth, had depressive symptoms compared to those who experienced childbirth. Health care providers need to pay close attention to this vulnerable group and respond to their concerns regarding the effects on their fertility. PMID:26063510

  5. Abortion, infanticide and moral context.

    PubMed

    Porter, Lindsey

    2013-05-01

    In 'After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?', Giubilini and Minerva argue that infanticide should be permitted for the same reasons as abortion. In particular, they argue that infanticide should be permitted even for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be best interests) of the newborn. They claim that abortion is permissible for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be interests) of the fetus because fetuses lack a right to life. They argue that newborns also lack a right to life, and they conclude that therefore, the same reasons that justify abortion can justify infanticide. This conclusion does not follow. The lack of a right to life is not decisive. Furthermore, the justificatory power of a given reason is a function of moral context. Generalisations about reasons across dissimilar moral contexts are invalid. However, a similar conclusion does follow-that fetus-killing and newborn-killing are morally identical in identical moral contexts-but this conclusion is trivial, since fetuses and newborns are never in identical moral contexts.

  6. Kicker field simulation and measurement for the muon g-2 experiment at FNAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Seung Pyo; Kim, Young Im; Choi, Jihoon; Semertzidis, Yannis; muon g-2 experiment Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In the Muon g-2 experiment, muon beam is injected to the storage ring in a slightly tilted orbit whose center is 77 mm away from the center of the ring. The kicker is needed to send the muon beam to the central orbit. The magnetic kicker is designed for the experiment and about 0.1 Tm field integral is needed. The peak current pulse is 4200 A to make this field integral. This strong kicker pulse could make unwanted eddy current occur. This eddy current could spoil the main magnetic field of the storage ring. This could be a critical threat to the precision of experiment. The kicker field simulation has done using OPERA to estimate the effects. Also the kicker field should be measured based on Faraday effect. The measurement has tested in the lab before install the experiment area. In this presentation, the simulation and measurement results will be discussed. This work was supported by IBS-R017-D1-2016-a00.

  7. Ascent abort capability for the HL-20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naftel, J. C.; Talay, T. A.

    1993-10-01

    The HL-20 has been designed with the capability for rescue of the crew during all phases of powered ascent from on the launch pad until orbital injection. A launch-escape system, consisting of solid rocket motors located on the adapter between the HL-20 and the launch vehicle, provides the thrust that propels the HL-20 to a safe distance from a malfunctioning launch vehicle. After these launch-escape motors have burned out, the adapter is jettisoned and the HL-20 executes one of four abort modes. In three abort modes - return-to-launch-site, transatlantic-abort-landing, and abort-to-orbit - not only is the crew rescued, but the HL-20 is recovered intact. In the ocean-landing-by-parachute abort mode, which occurs in between the return-to-launch-site and the transatlantic-abort-landing modes, the crew is rescued, but the HL-20 would likely sustain damage from the ocean landing. This paper describes the launch-escape system and the four abort modes for an ascent on a Titan III launch vehicle.

  8. Ascent abort capability for the HL-20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naftel, J. C.; Talay, T. A.

    1993-01-01

    The HL-20 has been designed with the capability for rescue of the crew during all phases of powered ascent from on the launch pad until orbital injection. A launch-escape system, consisting of solid rocket motors located on the adapter between the HL-20 and the launch vehicle, provides the thrust that propels the HL-20 to a safe distance from a malfunctioning launch vehicle. After these launch-escape motors have burned out, the adapter is jettisoned and the HL-20 executes one of four abort modes. In three abort modes - return-to-launch-site, transatlantic-abort-landing, and abort-to-orbit - not only is the crew rescued, but the HL-20 is recovered intact. In the ocean-landing-by-parachute abort mode, which occurs in between the return-to-launch-site and the transatlantic-abort-landing modes, the crew is rescued, but the HL-20 would likely sustain damage from the ocean landing. This paper describes the launch-escape system and the four abort modes for an ascent on a Titan III launch vehicle.

  9. Protecting LHC components against radiation resulting from an unsynchronized beam abort

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolai V. Mokhov et al.

    2001-06-26

    The effect of possible accidental beam loss in the LHC on the IP5 and IP6 insertion elements is studied via realistic Monte Carlo simulations. The scenario studied is beam loss due to unsynchronized abort at an accidental prefire of one of the abort kicker modules. Simulations show that this beam loss would result in severe heating of the IP5 and IP6 superconducting (SC) quadrupoles. Contrary to the previous considerations with a stationary set of collimators in IP5, collimators in IP6 close to the cause are proposed: a movable collimator upstream of the Q4 quadrupole and a stationary one upstream of the extraction septumMSD. The calculated temperature rise in the optimal set of collimators is quite acceptable. All SC magnets are protected by these collimators against damage.

  10. Eliminating the Spot Dilution Due to Kicker Switching in DARHT-II

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y-J; Chambers, F W; Paul, A C; Watson, A; Weir, J T

    2003-05-06

    To produce four short x-ray pulses for radiography, the second-axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility (DARHT-II) will use a fast kicker to select current pulses out of the 2-ms duration beam provided by the accelerator. Beam motion during the kicker voltage switching could lead to dilution of the time integrated beam spot and make the spot elliptical. A large elliptical x-ray source produced by those beams would degrade the resolution and make radiographic analysis difficult. We have developed a tuning strategy to eliminate the spot size dilution, and tested the strategy successfully on ETA-II with the DARHT-II kicker hardware.

  11. BEAM DYNAMICS ANALYSIS FOR THE ULTRA-FAST KICKER IN CIRCULAR COOLER RING OF JLEIC

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Shaoheng

    2016-05-01

    An ultra-fast kicker system consisting of four quarter wavelength resonator based deflecting cavities was developed that simultaneously resonates at 10 subharmonic modes of the 476.3MHz bunch repetition frequency. Thus every 10th bunch in the bunch train will experience a transverse kick while all the other bunches are undisturbed. This fast kicker is being developed for the Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) based electron Circular Cooler Ring (CCR) in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC, previously MEIC). The electron bunches can be reused 10-30 turns thus the beam current in the ERL can be reduced to 1/10 - 1/30 (150mA - 50mA) of the cooling bunch current (1.5A). In this paper, several methods to synthesize such a kicker waveform and the comparison made by the beam dynamics tracking in Elegant will be discussed.

  12. Abortion in early America.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Z

    1979-01-01

    This piece describes abortion practices in use from the 1600s to the 19th century among the inhabitants of North America. The abortive techniques of women from different ethnic and racial groups as found in historical literature are revealed. Thus, the point is made that abortion is not simply a "now issue" that effects select women. Instead, it is demonstrated that it is a widespread practice as solidly rooted in our past as it is in the present.

  13. [Umberto Eco and abortion].

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    The Cardinal of Milan and the linguist and writer Umberto Eco maintained a correspondence in the mid-1990s in connection with the Italian magazine ¿Liberal¿. One of the issues discussed was the conflict between belief in the value of human life and existing abortion legislation. Umberto Eco stated that he would do all in his power to dissuade a woman pregnant with his child from having an abortion, regardless of the personal cost to the parents, because the birth of a child is a miracle. He would not, however, feel capable of imposing his ethical position on anyone else. Terrible moments occur in which women have a right to make autonomous decisions concerning their bodies, their feelings, their futures. Those who disagree cite the right to life, a rather vague concept about which even atheists can be enthusiastic. The moment at which a new human being is formed has been brought to the center of Catholic theology, despite its uncertainty; the beginning of a new life may always need to be understood as a process whose end result is the newborn. Only the mother should decide at what moment the process may be interrupted. The cardinal¿s response distinguished between psychic and physical life, on the one hand, and life participating in the life of God on the other. The threshold is the moment of conception, reflecting a continuity of identity. The new being is worthy of respect. Any violation of the affection and care owed to the being can only be experienced as a profound suffering and painful laceration that may never heal. The response of Eco is unknown.

  14. The ethics of abortion.

    PubMed

    Mabry, H P

    1972-01-01

    3 papers giving the Hindu, Catholic and Protestant views on abortion, presented at a seminar for physicians at the Christian Medical College, Vellore, India, January 1972, are summarized. S. THANDAVESWARA stated that the traditional Hindu position, based on the ethical code, Dharma Shastras, prohibits abortion because the practice could prevent rebirth of a specific human life that is in the process of becoming liberated (moksa). Yet an institution, the Parishads, exists to reconsider such matters, and if its membership were not committed to conservative priorities, it could conceivably approve of abortion for the mothers' physical or mental health if she freely chose an abortion. O. DIJKSTRA stated the traditional Catholic view that "direct" abortion is always murder, but "indirect" abortion may be allowed as in removing a cancerous pregnant uterus. He expanded on the phenomenologic interpretation of some liberal theologians, whose views are not yet accepted officially, that the human self emerges irreversibily at nidation, before which abortion could be permitted. The author gave a Protestant position based on Biblical and sociologic sources. He disputed the Catholic's view that human life begins at nidation, and maintained that mere life is only one value to be weighed against love and justice for the fetus, mother, family and society. Love and justice require a choice of contraceptives, safe abortion for all economic classes, safe gestation for future pregnancies, and a resonable hope for a good life for the fetus, its family and society.

  15. "Conservative" views of abortion.

    PubMed

    Devine, P E

    1997-01-01

    The introduction to this essay, which presents and defends the "conservative" position on abortion, explains that this position holds that 1) abortion is wrong because it destroys the fetus; 2) the fetus has full personhood from conception (or very near conception); 3) abortion is only justified under special circumstances, such as when the pregnancy poses a threat to the woman's life; and 4) these conclusions should be reflected in law and public policy. Part 2 sets forth the moral foundations for this position. The third part considers the status of the fetus and reviews the various arguments that have been forwarded to resolve the question, such as the species principle, the potentiality principle, the sentience principle, and the conventionalist principle. Part 4 applies the conservative position to problems posed by hard cases, determines that abortion is a form of homicide from two weeks after fertilization (at the latest), reviews circumstances in which various legal definitions of homicide are applicable, argues for the denial of abortion funding by the state, and notes that violent militancy is not the appropriate response to a belief that abortion should be illegal. Section 5 refutes objections to the conservative position based on the fact that some opponents of abortion also oppose contraception, based on feminist ideals, and based on calls for religious freedom in a pluralistic society. In conclusion, the labels applied to the abortion debate are examined, and it is suggested that "communitarian" is the best term for the conservative position.

  16. CMA abortion survey.

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Responses to the question as to whether abortions should be performed at the woman's request during the first trimester of pregnancy were evenly divided. There was support for abortion on socioeconomic grounds, during the first trimester, from 61.5% of the respondents. Termination of pregnancy beyond the first trimester was supported by a majority of the respondents only in cases in which the woman's life is in danger (73.9%) or in which there is evidence of a severe physical abnormality in the fetus (70.6%) or in cases in which the woman's physical health is in danger (55.5%). Those who said they would not support abortion under any circumstances constitute, at most, 5.1% of the respondents. Support for the maintenance or the elimination of therapeutic abortion committees was addressed in two questions and in both cases the respondents were evenly divided. The responses to these two questions were compared and found to be logically consistent. Only physicians should perform abortions, and they should be performed in hospitals with the woman either as an inpatient or, during the first trimester, as an outpatient. The performance of first-trimester abortions in provincially approved abortion clinics was supported by 47.3% of the respondents. Of the 885 respondents who wished to see some amendment to the Criminal Code, 409 stated that the term "health" as used in the Criminal Code relative to the legal grounds for therapeutic abortion should be defined. PMID:6861064

  17. Abortion in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Greydanus, D E; Railsback, L D

    1985-09-01

    This article reviews the difficult but complex subject of abortion in adolescents. Methods of abortion are outlined and additional aspects are presented: psychological effects, counseling issues, and legal parameters. It is our conclusion that intense efforts should be aimed at education of youth about sexuality and prevention of pregnancy, utilizing appropriate contraceptive services. When confronted with a youth having an unwanted pregnancy, all legal options need to be carefully explored: delivery, adoption, or abortion. The decision belongs to the youth and important individuals in her environment. Understanding developmental aspects of adolescence will help the clinician deal with the pregnant teenagers. If abortion is selected, a first trimester procedure is best. Finally, physicians are urged to be aware of the specific, ever changing legal dynamics concerning this subject which are present in their states. Abortion is a phenomenon which has become an emotional but undeniably important aspect of adolescent sexuality and adolescent health care, in this country and around the world.

  18. The Power of the Pill for the Next Generation: Oral Contraception’s Effects on Fertility, Abortion, and Maternal & Child Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Hungerman, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers how oral contraception’s diffusion to young unmarried women affected the number and parental characteristics of children born to these women. In the short-term, pill access caused declines in fertility and increases in both the share of children born with low birthweight and the share born to poor households. In the long-term, access led to negligible changes in fertility while increasing the share of children with college-educated mothers and decreasing the share with divorced mothers. The short-term effects appear to be driven by upwardly-mobile women opting out of early childbearing while the long-term effects appear to be driven by a retiming of births to later ages. These effects differ from those of abortion legalization, although we find suggestive evidence that pill diffusion lowered abortions. Our results suggest that abortion and the pill are on average used for different purposes by different women, but on the margin some women substitute from abortion towards the pill when both are available. JELNo. I0, J13, N12. PMID:22389533

  19. Changing attitudes toward abortion.

    PubMed

    Potts, M

    1979-11-01

    "Individual and social attitudes toward abortion are unstable," the author notes, as he reviews the history of such attitudes in the United States and Britain. In both countries abortion was legal in 1800, but had become illegal by 1900, largely due to changing attitudes within the medical profession, including the desire to protect the profession against the activities of non-physicians. In the U.S., religious groups took little interset in the issue until late in the 19th century. Today, years after the legalization of abortion in Britain (1967) and the U.S. (1974), there is a chance that public attitudes will be influenced for a second time by a vocal few, again restricting legal access to abortion. The commercial success of MDs who specialize in abortions is a complicating factor, making it easier for opposition groups to recruit supporters. The abortion debate concerns unprovable interpretations of observable facts; it is an exercise in religious toleration. The most important role of physicians is to help establish a liberal and civilized framework within which colleagues of different persuasions can make free and objective choices regarding the delivery of abortion services.

  20. Abortion, ethics, and biology.

    PubMed

    Wind, J

    1978-01-01

    An argument is made for applying the principles of evolutionary biology to abortion behavior, based on the idea that long-lasting behavior (including ethical behavior) has a positive selective value which theoretically can be translated into population numbers. The approach verges on utilitarianism; it is argued that such an approach could reduce or avoid the emotionality and subjectivity of arguments for and against induced abortion. Actual application of evolutionary biology principles is limited by the rudimentary present state of behavioral science.

  1. Legal abortion mortality.

    PubMed

    Kestelman, P

    1978-04-01

    Statistics on legal abortion in Britain between 1968-1974 are presented. There was a mortality rate of 10+ or -2 per 100,000 abortions: 27+ or -11 in 1968-1969, 12+ or -4 in 1970-1972, and 6+ or -3 in 1973-1974. Legal abortion mortality increased from 4+ or -3 when performed at gestation under 9 weeks to 5+ or -2 at 9-12 weeks, 13+ or -7 at 13-16 weeks, and 62+ or -33 at 17 weeks and over. The ratio was 11+ or -6 for women under 20 years of age, increasing to 5+ or -3 at age 20-29, 10+ or -6 at age 30-39, and 23+ or -19 at age 40 and over. The parity had little influence on abortion mortality, but the technique used had a great influence. Hysterotomy, hypertonic saline, and abortifacient paste were the most dangerous, in increasing order, with mortality rates of 39+ or -30, 106+ or -75, and 152+ or -89, respectively. The rates for aspiration and curretage were 4+ or -2 and 4+ or -3, respectively. There was a higher mortality risk with abortion with sterilization. The main causes of legal abortion mortality were infection, pulmonary embolism, and complications of general anesthesia. The high incidence of mortality associated with legal abortion in Britain is partially caused by: 1) high incidence of concurrent sterilization, 2) former use of dangerous techniques, 3) significant incidence of second trimester abortion, 4) routine use of general anesthesia, and 5) previous ill health of some of the women.

  2. Moderate views of abortion.

    PubMed

    Sumner, L W

    1997-01-01

    This essay offers a moderate view of abortion that imposes a time limit for unrestricted abortion and specific indications for later abortions. The introduction notes that the discussion will provide a defense for this policy based on a moral analysis but that other options for moderates, especially options provided by freestanding views (the defense of which does not rest on any prior commitment about the morality of abortion), will also be considered. The next section considers the moral status of the fetus grounded in a criterion of moral standing that stipulates the necessary characteristics to achieve moral standing. This discussion concludes that a fetus acquires moral standing only when it becomes sentient. Section 3 moves the argument from ethics to politics to prove that a moderate policy must place no limitations on abortion before the time the fetus becomes sentient because before that time the fetus has no interest for the state to protect. The final section notes that some pro-choice advocates may be happier with the moderate policy proposed than with its controversial defense based on the moral status of the fetus and that another defense of a moderate policy could be based on a finding that the ethical issue can not be decided and that no view about abortion ethics is more reasonable than any other. The essay concludes that the ethical debate is ultimately unavoidable.

  3. Design and Testing of a Fast, 50 kV Solid-State Kicker Pulser

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, E G; Hickman, B C; Lee, B S; Hawkins, S A; Gower, E J; Allen, F V; Walstrom, P L

    2002-06-24

    The ability to extract particle beam bunches from a ring accelerator in arbitrary order can greatly extend an accelerator's capabilities and applications. A prototype solid-state kicker pulser capable of generating asynchronous bursts of 50 kV pulses has been designed and tested into a 50{Omega} load. The pulser features fast rise and fall times and is capable of generating an arbitrary pattern of pulses with a maximum burst frequency exceeding 5 MHz If required, the pulse-width of each pulse in the burst is independently adjustable. This kicker modulator uses multiple solid-state modules stacked in an inductive-adder configuration where the energy is switched into each section of the adder by a parallel array of MOSFETs. Test data, capabilities, and limitations of the prototype pulser are described.

  4. Modeling of an inductive adder kicker pulser for DARHT-II

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L; Caporaso, G J; Cook, E G

    2000-09-25

    An all solid-state kicker pulser for a high current induction accelerator (the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility DARHT-2) has been designed and fabricated. This kicker pulser uses multiple solid state modulators stacked in an inductive-adder configuration. Each modulator is comprised of multiple metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) which quickly switch the energy storage capacitors across a magnetic induction core. Metglas is used as the core material to minimize loss. Voltage from each modulator is inductively added by a voltage summing stalk and delivered to a 50 ohm output cable. A lumped element circuit model of the inductive adder has been developed to optimize the performance of the pulser. Results for several stalk geometries will be compared with experimental data.

  5. Measurement of the coupling impedances of the kickers in the SIS and ESR at GSI.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blell, U.

    1997-05-01

    At high particle intensities coherent transverse beam oscillations may be excited due to the coupling of the beam to individual accelerators structures. The characteristic values to describe these beam instabilities are the longitudinal- and transverse coupling impedances. One reason for this beam instability is the inductive interaction between the beam and the kicker magnets. The type of the magnet, e.g. window-frame magnet or C-magnet, and its external electrical network are the most important quantities to identify the coupling impedances below the cut-off frequency of the beam pipe. For the kicker modules in the SIS and ESR accelerators at GSI the mathematical basis, theory and measured results will be presented.

  6. Oral contraception following abortion

    PubMed Central

    Che, Yan; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Linan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oral contraceptives (OCs) following induced abortion offer a reliable method to avoid repeated abortion. However, limited data exist supporting the effective use of OCs postabortion. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis in the present study reported immediate administration of OCs or combined OCs postabortion may reduce vaginal bleeding time and amount, shorten the menstruation recovery period, increase endometrial thickness 2 to 3 weeks after abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. A total of 8 major authorized Chinese and English databases were screened from January 1960 to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials in which patients had undergone medical or surgical abortions were included. Chinese studies that met the inclusion criteria were divided into 3 groups: administration of OC postmedical abortion (group I; n = 1712), administration of OC postsurgical abortion (group II; n = 8788), and administration of OC in combination with traditional Chinese medicine postsurgical abortion (group III; n = 19,707). In total, 119 of 6160 publications were included in this analysis. Significant difference was observed in group I for vaginal bleeding time (P = 0.0001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.03), and menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001) compared with the control groups. Group II demonstrated a significant difference in vaginal bleeding time (P < 0.00001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.0002), menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001), and endometrial thickness at 2 (P = 0.003) and 3 (P < 0.00001) weeks postabortion compared with the control group. Similarly, a significant difference was observed in group III for reducing vaginal bleeding time (P < 0.00001) and the amount of vaginal bleeding (P < 0.00001), shortening the menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001), and increasing endometrial thickness 2 and 3 weeks after surgical abortion (P < 0

  7. [Artificial abortion; reasons and management].

    PubMed

    Drogendijk, A C

    1976-05-01

    Various ethical and practical aspects concerning induced abortion are discussed. Arguments against abortion can be enumerated on many levels. The unborn fetus has a worth of its own, but it also has a value for the parents and the society as a whole. Guilt feelings can occur in women who undergo induced abortion, and the possibility of complications of the operation must be taken into consideration. Abortion can also cause stress in the physician who performs it and in the partner of the abortion patient. The costs of abortion are paid by society through insurance costs. Abortion can damage the ethical conscience of the abortion patient, the physician who performs the operation, and in the society which allows it. Ethical considerations involved with abortion are also expounded. Induced abortion is a process whereby life is weighed against other considerations. Ethical conscience involves the ability to differentiate between degrees of possible communication, which would differentiate the life of the embryo from that of a retarded child, for example. Guilt feelings are rooted in ethical considerations. The capability for independent existence is the principle ethical boundary involved in determining when abortion is to be permitted. Eugenic abortion is a separate ethical consideration. A schema of practical guidelines for considerations and indications for performing abortions is presented.

  8. Legal abortion in Georgia, 1980.

    PubMed

    Spitz, A M; Oberle, M; Zaro, S M

    1984-02-01

    According to data reported to the Georgia Department of Human Resources (DHR), the number of induced abortions performedin Georgia in 1980 decreased for the 1st time since 1968 when the state legalized abortion. To verify this reported decrease, the DHR data were compared with statistics obtained by the Alan Guttmacher Institute in a 1980 survey of abortion providers in Georgia. Since the AGI contacts providers directly, its statistics are considered a more accurate reflection of abortions performed. According to the DHR, the number of abortions dropped from 36,579 in 1979 to 33,288 in 1980, a 9% decrease, and the abortion rate fell from 26.6/1000 women ages 15-44 years to 23.9/1000. AGI data indicated a drop from 38,760 abortions in 1979 to 37,890 in 1980, a 2% decrease. Since both sources noted a similar trend despite differences in data collection methods, the 1980 decline in abortion procedures in Georgia is considered to represent a true decline rather than s statistical artifact. The sociodemographic characteristics of women obtaining abortions in Georgia in 1980 were also analyzed on the basis of DHR data. Although the number of abortions in Georgia performed on Georgia residents increased 2.5% from 1979-80 to 90.7%, the abortion ratio for residents decreased from 367.7 to 327.4 abortions/1000 live births. There was little change in the age, race, or marital status distribution of women receiving abortions. The ratio for white women was 317 abortions/1000 live births and that for blacks was 342/1000. The abortion ratio for unmarried women (1166/1000) was 13 times that for married women (88/1000). The number of repeat abortions decreased form 34% in 1979 to 29% in 1980. Moreover, 93% of women obtaining abortions did so in the 1st 12 weeks of gestation compared with 89% in 1979. The percentage of abortions performed in clinics increased from 66.5% in 1979 to 75.3% in 1980, with suction curettage accounting for 85% of all abortions in the 1st 12 weeks of

  9. The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

  10. Unsafe abortion and abortion care in Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Kinaro, Joyce; Ali, Tag Elsir Mohamed; Schlangen, Rhonda; Mack, Jessica

    2009-11-01

    Unsafe abortion in Sudan results in significant morbidity and mortality. This study of treatment for complications of unsafe abortion in five hospitals in Khartoum, Sudan, included a review of hospital records and a survey of 726 patients seeking abortion-related care from 27 October 2007 to 31 January 2008, an interview of a provider of post-abortion care and focus group discussions with community leaders. Findings demonstrate enormous unmet need for safe abortion services. Abortion is legally restricted in Sudan to circumstances where the woman's life is at risk or in cases of rape. Post-abortion care is not easily accessible. In a country struggling with poverty, internal displacement, rural dwelling, and a dearth of trained doctors, mid-level providers are not allowed to provide post-abortion care or prescribe contraception. The vast majority of the 726 abortion patients in the five hospitals were treated with dilatation and curettage (D&C), and only 12.3% were discharged with a contraceptive method. Some women waited long hours before treatment was provided; 14.5% of them had to wait for 5-8 hours and 7.3% for 9-12 hours. Mid-level providers should be trained in safe abortion care and post-abortion care to make these services accessible to a wider community in Sudan. Guidelines should be developed on quality of care and should mandate the use of manual vacuum aspiration or misoprostol for medical abortion instead of D&C.

  11. Design and optimization of a longitudinal feedback kicker cavity for the HLS-II storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Z. Wu, W.; He, Duo-Hui; K. Wu, Y.

    2013-03-01

    In the Hefei Light Source (HLS) storage ring, multibunch operation is used to obtain a high luminosity. Multibunch instabilities can severely limit light source performance with a variety of negative impacts, including beam loss, low injection efficiency, and overall degradation of the beam quality. Instabilities of a multibunch beam can be mitigated using certain techniques including increasing natural damping (operating at a higher energy), lowering the beam current, and increasing Landau damping. However, these methods are not adequate to stabilize a multibunch electron beam at a low energy and with a high current. In order to combat beam instabilities in the HLS storage ring, active feedback systems including a longitudinal feedback system (LFB) and a transverse feedback system (TFB) will be developed as part of the HLS upgrade project, the HLS- II storage ring project. As a key component of the longitudinal bunch-by-bunch feedback system, an LFB kicker cavity with a wide bandwidth and high shunt impedance is required. In this paper we report our work on the design of the LFB kicker cavity for the HLS- II storage ring and present the new tuning and optimization techniques developed in designing this high performance LFB kicker.

  12. Abortion and human rights.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus.

  13. Monitoring Abortive Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Lilian M.

    2009-01-01

    Abortive initiation, when first discovered, was an enigmatic phenomenon, but fully three decades hence, it has been shown to be an integral step in the transcript initiation process intimately tied to the promoter escape reaction undergone by RNA polymerase at the initiation-elongation transition. A detailed understanding of abortive initiation-promoter escape has brought within reach a full description of the transcription initiation mechanism. This enormous progress was the result of convergent biochemical, genetic, and biophysical investigations propelled by parallel advances in quantitation technology. This chapter discusses the knowledge gained through the biochemical approach and a high-resolution method that yields quantitative and qualitative information regarding abortive initiation-promoter escape at a promoter. PMID:18948204

  14. [Abortion and crime].

    PubMed

    Citoni, Guido

    2011-01-01

    In this article we address the issue, with a tentative empirical application to the Italian data, of the relationship, very debated mainly in north America, between abortion legalization and reduction of crime rates of youth. The rationale of this relationship is that there is a causal factor at work: the more unwanted pregnancies aborted, the less unwanted children breeding their criminal attitude in an hostile/deprived family environment. Many methodological and empirical criticisms have been raised against the proof of the existence of such a relationship: our attempt to test if this link is valid for Italy cannot endorse its existence. The data we used made necessary some assumptions and the reliability of official estimates of crime rates was debatable (probably downward biased). We conclude that, at least for Italy, the suggested relationship is unproven: other reasons for the need of legal abortion have been and should be put forward.

  15. Space Shuttle Abort Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.

  16. Orion Abort Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Peggy Sue

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of NASA's Constellation project is to create the new generation of spacecraft for human flight to the International Space Station in low-earth orbit, the lunar surface, as well as for use in future deep-space exploration. One portion of the Constellation program was the development of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) to be used in spaceflight. The Orion spacecraft consists of a crew module, service module, space adapter and launch abort system. The crew module was designed to hold as many as six crew members. The Orion crew exploration vehicle is similar in design to the Apollo space capsules, although larger and more massive. The Flight Test Office is the responsible flight test organization for the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office originally proposed six tests that would demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests were to be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and were similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. The first flight test of the launch abort system was a pad abort (PA-1), that took place on 6 May 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Primary flight test objectives were to demonstrate the capability of the launch abort system to propel the crew module a safe distance away from a launch vehicle during a pad abort, to demonstrate the stability and control characteristics of the vehicle, and to determine the performance of the motors contained within the launch abort system. The focus of the PA-1 flight test was engineering development and data acquisition, not certification. In this presentation, a high level overview of the PA-1 vehicle is given, along with an overview of the Mobile Operations Facility and information on the White Sands tracking sites for radar & optics. Several lessons learned are presented, including detailed information on the lessons learned in the development of wind

  17. Service provider perspectives on post-abortion contraception in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Fan; Puri, Mahesh; Rocca, Corinne H; Blum, Maya; Henderson, Jillian T

    2016-01-01

    The government of Nepal has articulated a commitment to the provision of post-abortion contraception since the implementation of a legal safe abortion policy in 2004. Despite this, gaps in services remain. This study examined the perspectives of abortion service providers and administrators regarding strengths and shortcomings of post-abortion contraceptive service provision. In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 abortion providers and administrators at four major health facilities that provide legal abortion in Nepal. Facility factors perceived to impact post-abortion contraceptive services included on-site availability of contraceptive supplies, dedicated and well-trained staff and adequate infrastructure. Cultural norms emerged as influencing contraceptive demand by patients, including method use being unacceptable for women whose husbands migrate and limited decision-making power among women. Service providers described their personal views on appropriate childbearing and the use of specific contraceptive methods that influenced counselling. Findings suggest that improvements to a facility's infrastructure and training to address provider biases and misinformation may improve post-abortion family planning uptake. Adapting services to be sensitive to cultural expectations and norms may help address some barriers to contraceptive use. More research is needed to determine how to best meet the contraceptive needs of women who have infrequent sexual activity or who may face stigma for using family planning, including adolescents, unmarried women and women whose husbands migrate.

  18. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading.

  19. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  20. [Abortion and conscientious objection].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion.

  1. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  2. Abortion and contraceptive failure.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Persona, marketed by Unipath, is a new method of natural family planning which has been on the market since 1996. It works by measuring the hormone levels in a woman's urine and letting her know when she is not fertile and may have sex without using a barrier method of contraception. The British Pregnancy Advisory Service (BPAS) found that their surveyed clients who reported using Persona had 188 abortions in 3 months and concluded that there was a need for better information and more advice for couples who plan to use the method. The other major non-NHS abortion provider, Marie Stopes International, reported similar findings, with about 60 women per month visiting their clinics for abortions after having used the method. The BPAS survey also showed that 43% of the women who had an abortion after using Persona were aged 24 years or younger even though Persona is intended for use by women aged 25-40 years in stable relationships. A similar proportion also reported having sex on days when the method told them that they were most fertile. These latter women were not asked if they used another method of contraception on fertile days. An additional 13% reported ignoring the instructions to wait for 3 natural periods after terminating pill use before beginning to use Persona.

  3. Attitudes toward abortion in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Awah, Paschal; Pearson, Erin

    2012-09-01

    Despite Zambia's relatively progressive abortion law, women continue to seek unsafe, illegal abortions. Four domains of abortion attitudes - support for legalization, immorality, rights, and access to services - were measured in 4 communities. A total of 668 people were interviewed. Associations among the 4 domains were inconsistent with expectations. The belief that abortion is immoral was widespread, but was not associated with lack of support for legalization. Instead, it was associated with belief that women need access to safe services. These findings suggest that increasing awareness about abortion law in Zambia may be important for encouraging more favorable attitudes.

  4. Silences: Irish women and abortion.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, R

    1995-01-01

    Notably absent from the public debate on abortion in Ireland have been the voices of women who have experienced induced abortion. Interviews with six acquaintances of the author who underwent abortion identified four themes underlying women's post-abortion silence. First, women fear public condemnation and personal rejection. Second, women are concerned that any emotional ambivalence they express about the abortion experience will be misconstrued as anti-abortion sentiment. Third, women worry that speaking out about their experience would be upsetting to friends and family. Fourth, women report frustration about the lack of a suitable public forum for voicing the complexities inherent in the abortion issue. The women's perception that their experience did not fit neatly with the rhetoric of either pro- or anti-abortion groups caused them to feel alienated from a political discourse that tends to depersonalize abortion. Although none of the women regretted the abortion decision, they continued to struggle with unresolved conflicts over taking responsibility for ending some form of life. A cycle has been created in which women do not feel safe to discuss their personal experiences until a more favorable political climate exists, yet the public perception of abortion is unlikely to change until more women's voices are heard. Feminist leaders are urged to address this dilemma.

  5. Swedish students' attitudes toward abortion.

    PubMed

    Lindell, M E; Olsson, H M

    1993-01-01

    The Swedish abortion legislation of 1975 gave women the right to make a decision about abortion before the end of the 18th week of pregnancy. The number of abortions is rising in Sweden as a chosen method of birth control. The attitudes of students toward abortion were studied in 1986-1987. A questionnaire containing items on how sex education is taught, the anatomy and physiology of reproduction, contraceptives, sexually transmitted diseases, and legal abortion was answered by 421 high school students. Results pertaining to the students' attitudes toward abortion are reported. Two thirds of the students believed that the decision about an abortion should be made by the man and woman together. Nearly all respondents believed that abortion should not be considered a method of birth control. These results may be considered a guide for interventions to prevent the need for abortion. One fourth of all pregnancies in Sweden terminate in abortion. The students in the present study thought of abortion as a solution. Authors studying samples with different cultural backgrounds have reported similar attitudes.

  6. Investigation of the skin depth effect of a metallic coating on a ceramic beampipe inside a kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.

    1985-07-01

    Inside a kicker magnet, metallic beampipe cannot be used because it will screen off the rapid rising of the kicker's magnetic field. When a ceramic beampipe is used, one usually coats the inside with a thin layer of metal so as to carry at least part of the beam's image current and to prevent static charge buildup. The purpose of this article is to investigate whether such a coating will alter the risetime constant of the magnetic field significantly, whether such a coating can withstand the strong transient current induced by the fast rising magnetic field, and whether the back magnetic field generated by this transient current is strong enough to upset the designed risetime of the kicker.

  7. Abortion: taking the debate seriously.

    PubMed

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2015-05-19

    Voluntarily induced abortion has been under permanent dispute and legal regulations, because societies invariably condemn extramarital pregnancies. In recent decades, a measure of societal tolerance has led to decriminalize and legalize abortion in accordance with one of two models: a more restricted and conservative model known as therapeutic abortion, and the model that accepts voluntary abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy. Liberalization of abortion aims at ending clandestine abortions and decriminalizes the practice in order to increase reproductive education and accessibility of contraceptive methods, dissuade women from interrupting their pregnancy and, ultimately, make abortion a medically safe procedure within the boundaries of the law, inspired by efforts to reduce the incidence of this practice. The current legal initiative to decriminalize abortion in Chile proposes a notably rigid set of indications which would not resolve the three main objectives that need to be considered: 1) Establish the legal framework of abortion; 2) Contribute to reduce social unrest; 3) Solve the public health issue of clandestine, illegal abortions. Debate must urgently be opened to include alternatives in line with the general tendency to respect women's decision within the first trimester of pregnancy.

  8. Maternal mortality and unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Fawcus, Susan R

    2008-06-01

    Unsafe abortions refer to terminations of unintended pregnancies by persons lacking the necessary skills, or in an environment lacking the minimum medical standards, or both. Globally, unsafe abortions account for 67,900 maternal deaths annually (13% of total maternal mortality) and contribute to significant morbidity among women, especially in under-resourced settings. The determinants of unsafe abortion include restrictive abortion legislation, lack of female empowerment, poor social support, inadequate contraceptive services and poor health-service infrastructure. Deaths from unsafe abortion are preventable by addressing the above determinants and by the provision of safe, accessible abortion care. This includes safe medical or surgical methods for termination of pregnancy and management of incomplete abortion by skilled personnel. The service must also include provision of emergency medical or surgical care in women with severe abortion complications. Developing appropriate services at the primary level of care with a functioning referral system and the inclusion of post abortion contraceptive care with counseling are essential facets of abortion care.

  9. Religion and attitudes toward abortion and abortion policy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the association between religion and attitudes toward the practice of abortion and abortion policy in Brazil. Drawing upon data from the 2002 Brazilian Social Research Survey (BSRS), we test a number of hypotheses with regard to the role of religion on opposition to the practice of abortion and its legalization. Findings indicate that frequently attending Pentecostals demonstrate the strongest opposition to the practice of abortion and both frequently attending Pentecostals and Catholics demonstrate the strongest opposition to its legalization. Additional religious factors, such as a commitment to biblical literalism, were also found to be significantly associated with opposition to both abortion issues. Ultimately, the findings have implications for the future of public policy on abortion and other contentious social issues in Brazil.

  10. The politicization of abortion and the evolution of abortion counseling.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Carole

    2013-01-01

    The field of abortion counseling originated in the abortion rights movement of the 1970s. During its evolution to the present day, it has faced significant challenges, primarily arising from the increasing politicization and stigmatization of abortion since legalization. Abortion counseling has been affected not only by the imposition of antiabortion statutes, but also by the changing needs of patients who have come of age in a very different era than when this occupation was first developed. One major innovation--head and heart counseling--departs in significant ways from previous conventions of the field and illustrates the complex and changing political meanings of abortion and therefore the challenges to abortion providers in the years following Roe v Wade.

  11. Bodies, rights and abortion.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, H V

    1997-06-01

    The issue of abortion is discussed with reference to the claim that people have a right of control over their own bodies. Do people "own" their own bodies? If so, what would be entailed? These questions are discussed in commonsense terms and also in relation to the jurisprudence of Hohfeld, Honore, Munzer and Waldron. It is argued that whether or not women are morally and/or should be legally entitled to have abortions, such entitlements cannot be derived from a general moral entitlement to do what we will with our own bodies since there is no such entitlement. Whether or not we "own" them, we can have rights duties, liabilities, restrictions and disadvantages as well as rights concerning our own bodies.

  12. Public funding of abortions and abortion counseling for poor women.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R B

    1997-01-01

    This essay seeks to reveal the weakness in arguments against public funding of abortions and abortion counseling in the US based on economic, ethico-religious, anti-racist, and logical-consistency objections and to show that public funding of abortion is strongly supported by appeals to basic human rights, to freedom of speech, to informed consent, to protection from great harm, to justice, and to equal protection under the law. The first part of the article presents the case against public funding with detailed considerations of the economic argument, the ethico/religious argument, the argument that such funding supports racist genocide or eugenic quality control, and arguments that a logical inconsistency exists between the principles used to justify the legalization of abortions and arguments for public funding. The second part of the article presents the case for public funding by discussing the spending of public funds on morally offensive programs, arguments for public funding of abortion counseling for the poor, and arguments for public funding of abortions for the poor. It is concluded that it is morally unacceptable and rationally unjustifiable to refuse to expend public funds for abortions for low income women, because after all most money for legal abortions for the poor comes from welfare payments made to women. If conservative forces want to insure that no public funds pay for abortions, they must stop all welfare payments to pregnant women.

  13. Design of the 0.5 - 1 GHz Planar Recycler Pickup and Kicker Antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Deibele, C.; /Fermilab

    1999-01-01

    The stochastic cooling system in the Recycler ring at Fermilab required the addition of a 0.5-1 GHz cooling system. This requirement dictated the design of a new antenna for this band of the system. The design problem is defined, method of design is illustrated, and the measurement data are reported. The Recycler is a storage ring comprised of mostly permanent magnets located in the tunnel of the Main Injector at Fermilab. The goal for the construction of the Recycler is to collect and store unused antiprotons from collisions in the Tevatron for use in future collisions in the Tevatron. It will both stochastically and electron cool these unused antiprotons before another collision experiment is possible in the Tevatron. By reusing the antiprotons the luminosity of the experiment can be increased faster. The Recycler will use three bands for its stochastic cooling system. It will reuse the existing designs from the Antiproton Source for the 1-2 GHz and 2-4 GHz systems, and it requires a new design for an additional lower frequency band for the 0.5-1 GHz system. Since the existing designs were fabricated using a microstrip topology it was desired that the new design use a similar topology so that the vacuum tank designs and supporting hardware be identical for all three bands. A primary difference between the design of the pickups/kickers of the Antiproton Source and the Recycler is a different aperture in the machine itself. The Recycler has a bigger aperture and consequently reusing the designs for the existing Antiproton Source pickups/kickers is not electrically optimal but is cost efficient. Measurements will be shown later in this paper for the design of the 0.5-1 GHz system showing the effect of the aperture on the antenna performance. A mockup of the Recycler tank was manufactured for designing and testing the 0.5-1 GHz pickups/kickers. The design procedure was an iterative process and required both a constant dialogue and also a strong relationship with a

  14. Development of an Adder-Topology ILC Damping Ring Kicker Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Tao; Burkhart, Craig; /SLAC

    2009-05-08

    The ILC damping ring injection and extraction kickers will require high availability modulators that can deliver {+-}5 kV pulses into 50 {Omega} with a 2 ns flattop ({approx}1 ns rise and fall time) at up to 6 MHz. An effort is underway at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory to meet these requirements using a transmission line adder topology to combine the output of an array of {approx}1 kV modules. The modules employ an ultra-fast hybrid MOSFET/driver that can switch 33 A in 1.2 ns. Experimental results for a scale adder structure are presented.

  15. Adolescent Determinants of Abortion Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Julianna; Kreitzer, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The stability of abortion opinions suggests that pre-adult factors influence these attitudes more than contemporaneous political events. Surprisingly, however, we know little about the origins of abortion opinions, no doubt because the majority of research focuses on cross-sectional analyses of patterns across cohorts. We use a developmental model that links familial and contextual factors during adolescence to abortion attitudes years later when respondents are between 21 and 38 years old. Findings show that religious adherence and maternal gender role values are significant predictors of adult abortion opinions, even after controlling for contemporaneous religious adherence and the respondents’ own views on gender roles. Adolescent religious adherence matters more than religious denomination for adult abortion attitudes. The results have important implications for future trends in abortion attitudes in light of declining religiosity among Americans. PMID:27257307

  16. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma.

  17. The abortion debate in Australia.

    PubMed

    Read, Christine Margaret

    2006-09-01

    I recently watched a fascinating documentary about the crusade of Dr Bertram Wainer in the 1960s to bring the practice of illegal abortion in Victoria to an end. It documented the profound horror of the backyard abortion that so often ended in infection, sterility or death, and served as a potent reminder of a practice to which we must never return. Of course that cant happen again, abortion is legal now, isnt it? In Victoria in 1969 a Supreme Court judge ruled that an abortion is not unlawful if a doctor believed that: the abortion is necessary to preserve the woman from serious danger to her life or physical or mental health (Menhennit ruling). In Australia today however, abortion law remains conditional, unclear and inconsistent and, except in the ACT, is still part of criminal statutes.

  18. Brazilians have different views on when abortion should be legal, but most do not agree with imprisoning women for abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Aníbal; Duarte, Graciana Alves; de Sousa, Maria Helena; Soares Camargo, Rodrigo Paupério; Pacagnella, Rodolfo Carvalho

    2013-11-01

    Unsafe abortions remain a major public health problem in countries with very restrictive abortion laws. In Brazil, parliamentarians - who have the power to change the law - are influenced by "public opinion", often obtained through surveys and opinion polls. This paper presents the findings from two studies. One was carried out in February-December 2010 among 1,660 public servants and the other in February-July 2011 with 874 medical students from three medical schools, both in São Paulo State, Brazil. Both groups of respondents were asked two sets of questions to obtain their opinion about abortion: 1) under which circumstances abortion should be permitted by law, and 2) whether or not women in general and women they knew who had had an abortion should be punished with prison, as Brazilian law mandates. The differences in their answers were enormous: the majority of respondents were against putting women who have had abortions in prison. Almost 60% of civil servants and 25% of medical students knew at least one woman who had had an illegal abortion; 85% of medical students and 83% of civil servants thought this person(s) should not be jailed. Brazilian parliamentarians who are currently reviewing a reform in the Penal Code need to have this information urgently.

  19. Abortion: a national security issue.

    PubMed

    Mumford, S D

    1982-04-15

    The national security implications of abortion have not been addressed in a public forum but could come to be the single most important facet of the abortion debate. Abortion has been and will continue to be an essential variable in fertility control. Any serious effort at population growth control in the next few decades will have to recognize the role abortion has in birth rate decline. At this time an estimated 40-50 million abortions are performed worldwide each year; 1/2 of them are illegal. In the absence of abortion, annual growth would approach approximately 120 million. Growth of this magnitude would probably place intolerable strains on the economics and environments of some nations. To recognize the role of abortion in fertility control is to emphasize the inescapable need for abortion as 1 element in any comprehensive family planning service. Excessive population growth leads to chronic unemployment and the frustration of the goals of hundreds of millions of people. While this new threat to the security of individual nations and ultimately to global security has not been widely acknowledged, it is beginning to gain the attention of people of different professions and distinctive political persuasions. In many ways, rampant population growth is an even more dangerous and subtle threat to the world than thermonuclear war, for it is intrinsically less subject to rational safeguards and less amenable to organized control. Possibly the greatest and most pervasive problem is the declining ability to meet human needs in the areas of food, raw material, and resources, counterpoised against what are clearly rising expectations of growing populations. The following facts cannot be disputed: world population is a threat to the security of all nations, including the U.S.; abortion is essential to any effective population growth control effort; abortion is a national security issue; and as the availability of legal abortion in the U.S. goes, so goes the availability

  20. Abortion in a just society.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M E

    1993-01-01

    A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.

  1. Psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, M

    1984-03-01

    An attempt is made to identify and document the problems of comparative evaluation of the more recent studies of psychiatric morbidity after abortion and to determine the current consensus so that when the results of the joint RCGP/RCOG study of the sequelae of induced abortion become available they can be viewed in a more informed context. The legalization of abortion has provided more opportunities for studies of subsequent morbidity. New laws have contributed to the changing attitudes of society, and the increasing acceptability of the operation has probably influenced the occurrence of psychiatric sequelae. The complexity of measuring psychiatric sequelae is evident from the many terms used to describe symptomatology and behavioral patterns and from the number of assessment techniques involved. Numerous techniques have been used to quantify psychiatric sequelae. Several authors conclude that few psychiatric problems follow an induced abortion, but many studies were deficient in methodology, material, or length of follow-up. A British study in 1975 reported a favorable outcome for a "representative sample" of 50 National Health Service patients: 68% of these patients had an absence of or only mild feelings of guilt, loss, or self reproach and considered abortion as the best solution to their problem. The 32% who had an adverse outcome reported moderate to severe feelings of guilt, regret, loss, and self reproach, and there was evidence of mental illness. In most of these cases the adverse outcome was related to the patient's environment since the abortion. A follow-up study of 126 women, which compared the overall reaction to therapeutic abortion between women with a history of previous mild psychiatric illness and those without reported that a significantly different emotional reaction could not be demonstrated between the 2 groups. In a survey among women seeking an abortion 271 who were referred for a psychiatric opinion regarding terminations of pregnancy

  2. Psychosocial aspects of induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Stotland, N L

    1997-09-01

    US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation.

  3. Abortion Liberalization in World Society, 1960-2009.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Elizabeth H; Kim, Minzee; Longhofer, Wesley

    2015-11-01

    Controversy sets abortion apart from other issues studied by world society theorists, who consider the tendency for policies institutionalized at the global level to diffuse across very different countries. The authors conduct an event history analysis of the spread (however limited) of abortion liberalization policies from 1960 to 2009. After identifying three dominant frames (a women's rights frame, a medical frame, and a religious, natural family frame), the authors find that indicators of a scientific, medical frame show consistent association with liberalization of policies specifying acceptable grounds for abortion. Women's leadership roles have a stronger and more consistent liberalizing effect than do countries' links to a global women's rights discourse. Somewhat different patterns emerge around the likelihood of adopting an additional policy, controlling for first policy adoption. Even as support for women's autonomy has grown globally, with respect to abortion liberalization, persistent, powerful frames compete at the global level, preventing robust policy diffusion.

  4. Abortion Liberalization in World Society, 1960-2009

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Elizabeth H.; Kim, Minzee; Longhofer, Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Controversy sets abortion apart from other issues studied by world society theorists, who consider the tendency for policies institutionalized at the global level to diffuse across very different countries. We conduct an event history analysis of the spread (however limited) of abortion liberalization policies from 1960 to 2009. After identifying three dominant frames (a women's rights frame, a medical frame, and a religious, natural family frame), we find that indicators of a scientific, medical frame show consistent association with liberalization of policies specifying acceptable grounds for abortion. Women's leadership roleshave a stronger and more consistent liberalizing effect than do countries' links to a global women's rights discourse. Somewhat different patterns emerge around the likelihood of adopting an additional policy, controlling for first policy adoption. Even as support for women's autonomy has grown globally, with respect to abortion liberalization, persistent, powerful frames compete at the global level, preventing robust policy diffusion. PMID:26900619

  5. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop In ... cancer risk, including studies of induced and spontaneous abortions. They concluded that having an abortion or miscarriage ...

  6. Presumptive Toxoplasma gondii abortion in a sheep

    PubMed Central

    Weissmann, Judith

    2003-01-01

    A primiparous ewe aborted in mid-gestation. Toxoplasma gondii was suspected as the cause of abortion and a presumptive diagnosis of T. gondii abortion was based on histological lesions of the placenta. PMID:12715986

  7. Denial of abortion in legal settings

    PubMed Central

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePiñeres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-01-01

    Background Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. Methods In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic characteristics of legal abortion seekers, as well as the frequency and reasons that women are denied abortion care. Results The proportion of women denied abortion services and the reasons for which they were denied varied widely by country. In Colombia, 2% of women surveyed did not receive the abortions they were seeking; in South Africa, 45% of women did not receive abortions on the day they were seeking abortion services. In both Tunisia and Nepal, 26% of women were denied their wanted abortions. Conclusions The denial of legal abortion services may have serious consequences for women's health and wellbeing. Additional evidence on the risk factors for presenting later in pregnancy, predictors of seeking unsafe illegal abortion, and the health consequences of illegal abortion and childbirth after an unwanted pregnancy is needed. Such data would assist the development of programmes and policies aimed at increasing access to and utilisation of safe abortion services where abortion is legal, and harm reduction models for women who are unable to access legal abortion services. PMID:25511805

  8. Abortion Information: A Guidance Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolleat, Patricia L.

    1975-01-01

    A number of questions relating to providing abortion information to teenagers can be raised from legal, ethical and philosophical standpoints. The purpose of this article is to examine abortion information-giving from the perspective of counseling and guidance theory and practice. (Author)

  9. Reducing unsafe abortion in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sudhinaraset, May

    2008-01-01

    Abortion is illegal in Nigeria except to save a woman's life. It is also common, and most procedures are performed under unsafe, clandestine conditions. In 1996, an estimated 610,000 abortions occurred (25 per 1,000 women of childbearing age), of which 142,000 resulted in complications severe enough to require hospitalization. The number of abortions is estimated to have risen to 760,000 in 2006. Unsafe abortions are a major reason Nigeria's maternal mortality rate--1,100 deaths per 100,000 live births--is one the world's highest. According to conservative estimates, more than 3,000 women die annually in Nigeria as a result of unsafe abortion.

  10. [Induced abortion: a world perspective].

    PubMed

    Henshaw, S K

    1987-01-01

    This article presents current estimates of the number, rate, and proportion of abortions for all countries which make such data available. 76% of the world's population lives in countries where induced abortion is legal at least for health reasons. Abortion is legal in almost all developed countries. Most developing countries have some laws against abortion, but it is permitted at least for health reasons in the countries of 67% of the developing world's population. The other 33%--over 1 billion persons--reside mainly in subSaharan Africa, Latin America, and the most orthodox Muslim countries. By the beginning of the 20th century, abortion had been made illegal in most of the world, with rules in Africa, Asia, and Latin America similar to those in Europe and North America. Abortion legislation began to change first in a few industrialized countries prior to World War II and in Japan in 1948. Socialist European countries made abortion legal in the first trimester in the 1950s, and most of the industrialized world followed suit in the 1960s and 1970s. The worldwide trend toward relaxed abortion restrictions continues today, with governments giving varying reasons for the changes. Nearly 33 million legal abortions are estimated to be performed annually in the world, with 14 million of them in China and 11 million in the USSR. The estimated total rises to 40-60 million when illegal abortions added. On a worldwide basis some 37-55 abortions are estimated to occur for each 1000 women aged 15-44 years. There are probably 24-32 abortions per 100 pregnancies. The USSR has the highest abortion rate among developed countries, 181/1000 women aged 15-44, followed by Rumania with 91/1000, many of them illegal. The large number of abortions in some countries is due to scarcity of modern contraception. Among developing countries, China apparently has the highest rate, 62/1000 women aged 15-44. Cuba's rate is 59/1000. It is very difficult to calculate abortion rates in countries

  11. Psychological and social aspects of induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Handy, J A

    1982-02-01

    The literature concerning psychosocial aspects of induced abortion is reviewed. Key areas discussed are: the legal context of abortion in Britain, psychological characteristics of abortion-seekers, pre- and post-abortion contraceptive use, pre- and post-abortion counselling, the actual abortion and the effects of termination versus refused abortion. Women seeking termination are found to demonstrate more psychological disturbance than other women, however this is probably temporary and related to the short-term stresses of abortion. Inadequate contraception is frequent prior to abortion but improves afterwards. Few women find the decision to terminate easy and most welcome opportunities for non-judgemental counselling. Although some women experience adverse psychological sequelae after abortion the great majority do not. In contrast, refused abortion often results in psychological distress for the mother and an impoverished environment for the ensuing offspring.

  12. Teenage pregnancies and abortion.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, J E

    1984-01-01

    The issue of abortion, except when it is rendered moot because the fetus endangers the life of the mother, is not really a medical issue. The physician's role is to help patients achieve and maintain their maximum potential for physical, mental, and social well-being. To accomplish this, the physician must acquire a constantly evolving database of scientific knowledge, must evaluate this information in a critical and ethical manner, and must be prepared to apply what is learned. In the realm of applied ethics, no particular religion, profession, culture, class, or sex should be thought of as having all the answers in the realm of applied ethics. This physician's actions are predicated on the belief that, to a large extent, ethical precepts reflect the broader social and economic issues of the period in which they are articulated. If this is the case, then in today's world the population explosion, the postindustrial society, the women's rights movement, inequality of access, and the ability to perform prenatal diagnosis are all factors which have molded the approach to the issue of abortion. Only the last 3 of these can in any way be considered as medical. When considering the role of a physician in dealing with the issue of abortion in the adolescent, this individual relies on the concept articulated by the World Health Association (WHA): promoting the physical, emotional, and social well-being of one's patients. Each year in the US over 1 million 15-19 year olds become pregnant, resulting in over 600,000 births. Most of these pregnancies are unintentional, yet approximately 90% of the infants are kept in the home by mothers who are ill prepared to be parents. What is most disturbing is that the pregnancy rate for the younger mother, 16 years or under, is accounting for an ever increasing percentage of the total. Studies at the Adolescent Health Center of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City as well as national studies suggest that the younger teens are more

  13. Reducing abortion: the Danish experience.

    PubMed

    Risor, H

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, 20,830 legal abortions were performed in Denmark. 2,845 involved women below the age of 20, and 532 involved women terminating pregnancy after the 12th week. Danish law permits all of its female citizens to have an abortion free-of-charge before the 12th week of pregnancy. After the 12th week, the abortion must be applied for through a committee of 3 members, and all counties in Denmark have a committee. It is felt in Denmark that a woman has a right to an abortion if she decides to have one. It she makes that choice, doctors and nurses are supportive. Since 1970, sex education has been mandatory in Danish schools. Teachers often collaborate closely with school doctors and nurses in this education. All counties are required to have at least 1 clinic that provides contraceptive counselling. It was recently found that the lowest number of pregnancies among teenaged girls was found in a county in Jutland where all 9th grade students visit the county clinic to learn about contraceptives, pregnancy, and abortion. Within 1 year after Copenhagen had adopted this practice, the number of abortions among teenagers declined by 20%. One fourth of all pharmacies also collaborate with schools to promote sex education, instructing students about contraceptives and pregnancy tests. The Danish Family Planning Association has produced a film on abortion, and plans to produce videos on abortion for use in schools. The organization also holds training programs for health care personnel on contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. By means of the practices described above, it is hoped that the number of abortions and unwanted pregnancies in Denmark will be reduced.

  14. The impact of family planning programmes on incidence of abortion.

    PubMed

    Terao, T

    1966-01-01

    The family planning movement in Japan began when the total number of births in 1947-1949 reached 8 million and the birthrate reached 34 per 1000. This, combined with declining mortality, led to obvious population pressure. As a result of family planning efforts, birthrates fell below 20 per 1000 in 1955 and since 1960 have remained at 17-18 per 1000. Birth control is not new to Japan. It was only 100 years ago that abortion and infanticide were forbidden by law. Moral and religious objections to induced abortion and contraception were not powerful. In 1950 the Eugenic Protection Law was passed and induced abortions increased rapidly, reaching a maximum of 1,170,000 in 1955. Few were done for hereditary diseases. Family planning developed as a reaction to this unforseen widespread practice of induced abortion. Since then efforts to replace induced abortion by contraception have been pursued by the government's Population Problems Council and many nongovernmental voluntary groups. Induced abortions decreased to 843,000 in 1965 and birthrates fell from 19.4 to 18.5 in the same 1955-1965 period. Although total population increased by 9 million, the number of births increased by only 90,000 in these 10 years.

  15. The road to moderation: the significance of Webster for legislation restricting abortion.

    PubMed

    Wardle, L D

    1989-01-01

    They only certain outcomes of the Webster decision is that state legislatures will be stimulated to enact more legislation regulating abortion. However it is unlikely that the worst prochoice fears will be realized. A return to the 19th century abortion prohibition era is very unlikely because of trends in Western societal attitudes and laws. Since 1973 and the Roe decision there have been more than 300 bills or acts enacted by state legislatures that regulate abortion. Whether it is criminal prohibitions, licensing requirements, zoning restrictions, parental participation, spousal participation, informed consent, health and sanitation regulations, post viability regulations, laws protecting the right of health care workers not to participate in abortion, public funding restrictions, or regulations of fetal experimentation, abortion regulations have definitely been wide spread. The democratic process is going to produce a moderate position on abortion as a result of the Webster decision for 7 reasons: (1) the period before Roe was a time when abortion legislation was in a trend towards moderation. In 1962 abortion prohibitions were in place in all states. In 1967 4 states adopted an abortion reform position that allowed for abortion in the hard cases: (1) maternal health, (2) fetal defect, (3) rape/incest. Over the next 5 years 9 more states followed and 3 others went even farther by allowing unrestricted abortion during early pregnancy. (2) public opinion is consistent and strong in favoring abortion restrictions except for the hard cases. (3) the trend towards moderation in abortion regulations is closely related to other legal trends toward moderation. No fault divorce was a move towards moderation. The abortion experience in Western Europe was towards moderation. (5) Medical technological developments are putting the power of abortion in the hands of women. Abortificant drugs that can be used without medical assistance give women greater freedom. (6) The

  16. [Intellectual honesty in abortion problems].

    PubMed

    Werner, M

    1991-04-03

    A pastor comments on the recent ruling by the Swedish Department of Health and Social Affairs that the remains of an abortion should be "treated respectfully"--cremated or buried in a cemetery. This decision results from recognition on the part of the government and the medical establishment that a growing segment of public opinion agrees that the fetus is a human being. The new rules mean, though, that a fetus becomes human only upon its death. Logically, an abortion that is respectfully performed ought not to be performed at all. This is the fundamental problem with abortion, and no amount of arbitrary boundary drawing at various levels of supposed capability for survival at the 12th, the 18th, or the 24th week of pregnancy will alter the fact. It is necessary to face the problem with complete intellectual honesty and say that a fetus is a human being no matter what its age, but that voluntary abortion is also a social necessity. Only then can society find another abortion policy, one that recognizes that late abortions are hard to distinguish from births. The Swedish abortion policy must reflect honest facts, rather than etiological legends, preconceived ideas for which arguments must be found afterward.

  17. Abortion remains a live issue.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, R H

    1991-01-01

    Europe is experiencing the same conflict over abortion that the US is having. In Germany the unification has resulted in not 1, but 2 abortion laws. Each law apples to the old borders, but a new law is to be formulated by 1992. The most restrictive abortion laws are in Ireland where there is total prohibition. The most permissive laws are in the Netherlands where it is available on demand until the 24th week. France, Belgium, Spain, Italy have all relaxed their laws to some degree; however, there is no common European position on abortion. Eastern European countries have seen abortion banned, to increase the population to survive a war with the West, to having it become the primary form of birth control decades later. In Poland, as well as many other Eastern European countries, abortion is beginning to become illegal again as independence allows the freedom of the citizens to choose their own laws and rights. The development of new drugs, such as RU486 or mifepristone, has also influenced a change in abortion policy. Currently it is legal in France and Great Britain.

  18. Unsafe abortion: an avoidable tragedy.

    PubMed

    Van Look, Paul F A; Cottingham, Jane C

    2002-04-01

    An estimated 60 000-70 000 women die annually from complications of unsafe abortion and hundreds of thousands more suffer long-term consequences which include chronic pelvic pain and infertility. The reasons for the continuing high incidence of unwanted pregnancy leading to unsafe abortion include lack of access to, or misuse of and misinformation about, effective contraceptive methods, coerced sex which prohibits women from protecting themselves, and contraceptive failure. Unsafe abortion is closely associated with restrictive legal environments and administrative and policy barriers hampering access to existing services. Vacuum aspiration and medical methods combining mifepristone and a prostaglandin for early abortion are simple and safe. For second trimester abortion, the main choices are repeat doses of prostaglandin with or without prior mifepristone, and dilatation and evacuation by experienced providers. Strategies for preventing unsafe abortion include: upgrading providers' skills; further development of medical methods for pregnancy termination and their introduction into national programmes; improving the quality of contraceptive and abortion services; and improving partner communication.

  19. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  20. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  1. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  2. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  3. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  4. Fathers and abortion.

    PubMed

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-08-01

    I argue that it is possible for prospective mothers to wrong prospective fathers by bearing their child; and that lifting paternal liability for child support does not correct the wrong inflicted to fathers. It is therefore sometimes wrong for prospective mothers to bear a child, or so I argue here. I show that my argument for considering the legitimate interests of prospective fathers is not a unique exception to an obvious right to procreate. It is, rather, part of a growing consensus that procreation can be morally problematic and that generally talking of rights in this context might not be warranted. Finally, I argue that giving up a right to procreate does not imply nor suggest giving up on women's absolute right to abort, which I defend.

  5. Abortion-seeking behaviour among Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Bankole, Akinrinola; Sedgh, Gilda; Oye-Adeniran, Boniface A; Adewole, Isaac F; Hussain, Rubina; Singh, Susheela

    2008-03-01

    This study used data from a community-based survey to examine women's experiences of abortion in Nigeria. Fourteen percent of respondents reported that they had ever tried to terminate a pregnancy, and 10% had obtained an abortion. The majority of women who sought an abortion did so early in the pregnancy. Forty-two percent of women who obtained an abortion used the services of a non-professional provider, a quarter experienced complications and 9% sought treatment for complications from their abortions. Roughly half of the women who obtained an abortion used a method other than D&C or MVA. The abortion prevalence and conditions under which women sought abortions varied by women's socio-demographic characteristics. Because abortion is illegal in Nigeria except to save the woman's life, many women take significant risks to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Reducing the incidence of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion can significantly impact the reproductive health of women in Nigeria.

  6. Effects of providing advance cues during a soccer penalty kick on the kicker's rate of success.

    PubMed

    Núñez, F Javier; Oño, Antonio; Raya, Antonio; Bilbao, Alfonso

    2010-12-01

    The effect of explicitly providing goalkeeper's movement advanced cue to the kicker during a real penalty kick task was assessed. 32 expert soccer players (M age= 23.2 yr.), who were divided into four groups: an experimental group, a discovery group, a placebo group, and a control group, participated. Rate of success in the task was assessed, as well as goals, decision times, and ball flight times. Providing an advance cue significantly improved the players' rate of success relative to players without the advance cue; this difference was still present after 1 and 7 days without training. The experimental group adapted better to the time range within which the response could be effective, while the discovery group showed adaptations. Explicit instructions about the advance cues available from goalkeepers' actions before the dive during practice can improve penalty kick performance.

  7. Illegal abortion in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Viel, B

    1982-08-01

    In Latin American countries abortion on demand is legal only in Cuba and must be performed there in hospitals within the 1st 12 weeks of pregnancy. After the 1st trimester, it can be performed only for medical reasons. With regard to the other 18 Latin American countries, abortion is illegal in 2 of them even for saving the life of the pregnant women. In 9 countries therapeutic abortion is permitted only to save the woman's life. It is allowed in 4 countries in the case of severe disease that will be aggravated if the pregnancy continues. In the 3 remaining countries, in addition to medical reasons, it is legal if pregnancy is the consequence of incest or rape. Despite the law, induced abortion is often performed. The complications of illegal abortion are reviewed along with mortality and morbidity and abortions in adolescents. In Colombia in 1974, 58,717 women were hospitalized for complications of abortion. 42,160 women were hospitalized in Chile in 1974 with the same diagnosis. As Colombia and Chile both have family planning programs and effecive contraceptives are easily obtained, the rate could be even higher in those countries without programs or contraceptive availability. From surveys conducted in these 2 countries, it may be concluded that only 1 out of 3 induced abortions is complicated and requires hospitalization. The hospitalization for complications of abortion/1000 women of fertile age in Colombia and Chile suggests that there is an annual average of 15 hospitalized cases/1000 women of fertile age throughout Latin America. Presuming reasonable accuracy for these surveys, the rate of induced abortion in the entire continent can be estimated to be at least 45/1000 women of fertile age. From this, without considering Cuba, a conservative estimate of 3.4 million illegal induced abortions are performed annually in Latin America. It seems that illegal abortions are performed at an even higher rate than that observed in countries where abortion is legal and

  8. Launch Abort System Pathfinder Arrival

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Orion Launch Abort System, or LAS, pathfinder returned home to NASA Langley on Oct. 18 on its way to NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The hardware was built at Langley and was used in preparation f...

  9. Abortion and the human animal.

    PubMed

    Tollefsen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    I discuss three topics. First, there is a philosophical connecting thread between several recent trends in the abortion discussion, namely, the issue of our animal nature, and physical embodiment. The philosophical name given to the position that you and I are essentially human animals is "animalism." In Section II of this paper, I argue that animalism provides a unifying theme to recent discussions of abortion. In Section III, I discuss what we do not find among recent trends in the abortion discussion, namely "the right to privacy." I suggest some reasons why the right to privacy is conspicuous by its absence. Finally, I address Patrick Lee's claim that the evil of abortion involves "the moral deterioration that the act brings to those who are complicit in it, and to the culture that fosters it."

  10. The Development of Instruments to Measure Attitudes toward Abortion and Knowledge of Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1976-01-01

    This study developed an abortion attitude scale and abortion knowledge inventory that may be utilized by health educators, counselors, and researchers for assessing attitudes toward abortion and knowledge about it. (SK)

  11. Congenital abnormalities and selective abortion.

    PubMed

    Seller, M J

    1976-09-01

    The technique of amniocentesis, by which an abnormal fetus can be detected in utero, has brought a technological advance in medical science but attendant medical and moral problems. Dr Seller describes those congenital disabilities which can be detected in the fetus before birth, for which the "remedy" is selective abortion. She then discusses the arguments for and against selective abortion, for the issue is not simple, even in the strictly genetic sense of attempting to ensure a population free of congenital abnormality.

  12. TEN RILLINGTON PLACE AND THE CHANGING POLITICS OF ABORTION IN MODERN BRITAIN.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma L; Pemberton, Neil

    2014-12-01

    This article addresses the social, cultural, and political history of backstreet abortion in post-war Britain, focusing on the murders of Beryl Evans and her daughter Geraldine, at Ten Rillington Place in 1949. It shows how the commonplace connection of John Christie to abortion and Beryl Evan's death was not a given in the wider public, legal, political, and forensic imagination of the time, reflecting the multi-layered and shifting meanings of abortion from the date of the original trials in the late 1940s and 1950s, through the subsequent judicial and literary reinvestigations of the case in the 1960s, to its cinematic interpretation in the 1970s. Exploring the language of abortion used in these different contexts, the article reveals changes in the gendering of abortionists, the increasing power and presence of abortion activists and other social reformers, the changing representation of working-class women and men, and the increasing critique of the practice of backstreet abortion. The case is also made for a kind of societal blind spot on abortion at the time of both the Evans and Christie trials; in particular, a reluctance to come to terms with the concept of the male abortionist, which distorted the criminal investigations and the trials themselves. Only when public acceptance for legalizing abortion grew in the more liberal climate of the 1960s and beyond did a revisionist understanding of the murder of Beryl Evans, in which abortion came to be positioned as a central element, gain a sustained hearing.

  13. The epidemiology of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Abouzahr, C

    1994-12-01

    Data on unsafe abortions, defined as those provided by persons lacking the necessary skills in an environment failing to meet medical standards, are scarce given the legal and ethical implications of reporting such procedures. However, the World Health Organization estimates that 20 million unsafe abortions occur each year, 90% of them in developing countries under conditions of illegality. The rate is 8/1000 women of reproductive age in more developed countries compared with 17/1000 in less developed countries; the highest rate (47/1000) exists in Latin America. Worldwide, there are an estimated 70,000 unsafe abortion-related deaths each year; again, the risk of mortality is at least 15 times higher in developing than developed countries. In addition, about 20-30% of unsafe abortions result in reproductive tract infections, many of which produce infertility. Of concern is the increase in unsafe abortion among unmarried adolescents who lack access to fertility control services. Urged is a reframing of the abortion issue on the basis of a commitment to women's reproductive health and well-being.

  14. Contraception and abortion in Romania.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B R; Horga, M; Andronache, L

    1993-04-03

    After the downfall of the Ceausescu regime in December, 1989, the new Government of Romania abolished the law that prohibited abortions on request. Subsequently, the rate of legally induced abortions increased significantly while the rate of maternal mortality declined dramatically. Despite the large number of women who request induced abortions, most women and gynaecologists say that they would prefer to prevent unwanted pregnancies through the use of modern contraception. In this paper we examine factors that contribute to the disparity between women's desire to use modern contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies and their practice of having induced abortions to prevent unwanted births. The results show that women (and suggest that men) need a wide choice of dependably available high-quality contraceptives; they need to be able to obtain information, counselling, and methods from a wide range of sources/health-care providers; both women's and men's perceptions about, and use of, modern contraception could be positively affected through sexual education started in secondary school; and, to reduce repeat abortions, women's post-abortion family-planning needs must not be neglected.

  15. Mens' attitudes about abortion in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ann M; Jagwe-Wadda, Gabriel; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2011-01-01

    Abortion is illegal in Uganda except to save the life of the woman. Nevertheless, the practice is quite common: about 300,000 induced abortions occur annually among Ugandan women aged 15-49 (Singh et al., 2005) and a large proportion of these women require treatment for post-abortion complications. In the male-dominant culture of Uganda, where men control most of the financial resources, men play a critical part in determining whether women receive a safe abortion, or appropriate treatment if they experience abortion complications. This study examines men's roles in determining women's access to a safer abortion and post-abortion care. It draws on in-depth interviews carried out in 2003 with 61 women aged 18-60 and 21 men aged 20-50 from Kampala and Mbarara, Uganda. Respondents' descriptions of men's involvement in women's abortion care agreed that men's stated attitudes about abortion often prevented women from involving them in either the abortion or post-abortion care. Most men believe that if a woman is having an abortion, it must be because she is pregnant with another man's child, although this does not correspond with women's reasons for having an abortion--a critical disjuncture revealed by the data between men's perceptions of, and women's realities regarding, reasons for seeking an abortion. If the woman does experience post-abortion complications, the prevailing attitude among men in the sample was that they cannot support a woman in such a situation seeking care because if it had been his child, she would not have had a covert abortion. Since money is critical to accessing appropriate care, without men's support, women seeking an abortion may not be able to access safer abortion options and if they experience complications, they may delay care-seeking or may not obtain care at all. Barriers to involving men in abortion decision-making endanger women's health and possibly their lives.

  16. Virtue theory and abortion.

    PubMed

    Hursthouse, Rosalind

    1991-01-01

    The sort of ethical theory derived from Aristotle, variously described as virtue ethics, virtue-based ethics, or neo-Aristotelianism, is becoming better known, and is now quite widely recognized as at least a possible rival to deontological and utilitarian theories. With recognition has come criticism, of varying quality. In this article I shall discuss nine separate criticisms that I have frequently encountered, most of which seem to me to betray an inadequate grasp either of the structure of virtue theory or of what would be involved in thinking about a real moral issue in its terms. In the first half I aim particularly to secure an understanding that will reveal that many of these criticisms are simply misplaced, and to articulate what I take to be the major criticism of virtue theory. I reject this criticism, but do not claim that it is necessarily misplaced. In the second half I aim to deepen that understanding and highlight the issues raised by the criticisms by illustrating what the theory looks like when it is applied to a particular issue, in this case, abortion.

  17. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    PubMed

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited.

  18. Polish parliament liberalizes abortion law.

    PubMed

    1996-11-22

    On October 24, the Sejm (Poland's lower house of parliament) voted 228 to 195 (with 16 abstentions) to amend Poland's March 1993 ban on abortions. The amendment legalizes abortion until the 12th week of pregnancy for women who face financial hardship or difficult personal circumstances. Client counseling by a doctor who will not perform the abortion and a 3-day wait are required. Abortions will be permitted in licensed private clinics, as well as in public hospitals. Anyone performing an illegal abortion can receive 2 years' imprisonment. The government will subsidize contraceptive pills, and a sex education curriculum will be developed for schools. Abortion had been legal and widely available under communist rule; however, a Catholic-aligned government limited abortion to cases where a woman's life or health was endangered, where the pregnancy resulted from rape or incest, or where the fetus had a severe anomaly. The Catholic Church opposed the new measure, and the Senat (Poland's upper house), on October 3, had voted 40 to 52 (with 2 abstentions) against the amendment. Although the Sejm had previously voted 208 to 61 (with 15 abstentions) in favor of the amendment, 120 of those opposed to the measure, primarily members of the Polish Peasants Party (part of Poland's ruling coalition), had walked out in protest just before an August tally. The Democratic Left Alliance, the other coalition partner, supports the amendment. The most recent vote in the Sejm overturns the Senat veto; however, before the law can go into effect in 1997, it must be signed by President Aleksandr Kwasniewski (a supporter) after a review by Poland's conservative constitutional tribunal.

  19. House subcmte. tightens abortion language.

    PubMed

    1978-05-10

    Medicaid would help pay for abortion in fewer circumstances under the fiscal 1979 Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW), appropriations bill approved May 4, 1978, by the House HEW Appropriations Subcommittee than it did in 1978. The new language would permit the funding only if the mother's life would be endangered if the pregnancy were carried to term. Current law permits abortion payments for this reason; if pregnancy results from rape or incest, or if the birth would cause the mother severe and long-lasting physical damage. Behind the scenes pressure probably will be applied to resolve the issue quickly this year since all House members are up for reelection and do not want to have such a sensitive issue intruding on their campaigns. 1 strategy being discussed is the inclusion of riders that would directly or indirectly provide federal funds for abortions in other appropriation measures such as funding for the Defense Department and federal employees health benefits. The House will have to contend with Senator Brooke (R-Massachusetts) ranking minority member on the Senate HEW Appropriations Subcommittee, who is determined to stand firm in favor of liberal abortion funding. With only minimal opposition for his Senate seat this year, Senate staffers say Brooke is not concerned with the possibility of abortion becoming a major campaign issue. It was Brooke who forced the House's hand last year and obtained a more relaxed abortion curb, much to the chagrin of the Carter Administration. The White House, with the President's popularity at a low ebb, would prefer not to be put in a position of taking sides publicly although it prefers the strict curbs. Carter is currently deciding which House members to assist during the campaign and such a no-win issue would only serve to complicate matters. He will have enough of a problem reconciling health spending increases without the added burden of abortion.

  20. [Induced abortion in China: problems and interventions].

    PubMed

    Wu, Shang-chun; Qiu, Hong-yan

    2010-10-01

    Pooled literatures showed that the induced abortion in China faces many problems:the number of induced abortion remains large; most cases are young and nulliparity women; the frequency of abortion is high; and the interval between one and another abortion is short. Health promotion strategies should be applied to address these problems. It is important to increase the population's awareness of contraception,especially among nulliparity and migrant populations. Routine and effective contraceptive methods should be recommended and emphasized during induced abortion and delivery to lower the rate of induced abortion.

  1. Health professionals' attitudes toward abortion.

    PubMed

    Hudson Rosen, R A et

    1974-01-01

    The attitudes toward abortion of students and faculty in 3 health related fields--nursing, medicine, and social work--are examined and compared with the views of the population at large. The relation of religious affiliation to attitude toward abortion is also examined. The data was obtained via questionnaire in 47 nursing, 11 medical, and 15 social work schools in the fall and winter of 1971. 7 attitudinal items provided the focus of attention. 5 dealt with conditions under which an abortion should be performed; 2 dealt with the willingness of the respondent to help a client get an abortion. Nursing students and faculty had the most conservative attitude, followed by medical personnel and social workers. The nursing faculty's opinions were most like those of the general public; the medical and social work students and faculty generally mirrored respondents with some college education. Catholic health professionals were even less in favor of abortion than Catholics at large, even those with only a grade-school education. Catholic students, however, were more favorably disposed than Catholic faculty, indicating a more liberal trend in the Catholic Church.

  2. Abortion: articulating a moral view.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    2000-01-01

    This article talks about the position on abortion held by Catholics for a Free Choice (CFFC). The discussion is based on an electronic mail message sent in response to a question on a Church reform listserve discussion group. CFCC believes that abortion is a serious matter that requires reflection, including dialogue with partners and trusted advisors. In a Catholic theological context and in the realm of morality, respect for women's right to abortion should be based on these facts: 1) there is no firm position within the Catholic Church on when the fetus becomes a person; 2) the principle of probabilism in Roman Catholicism holds that where the Church cannot speak definitively on a matter of fact, the consciences of individual Catholics must be primary and respected; and 3) the absolute prohibition on abortion by the Church is not infallible. For CFFC, a central value in this complex matter is the recognition that women are competent, capable moral agents who must be recognized as having the moral and legal right to make the decision about whether or not to have an abortion with minimal state intervention.

  3. Abortion laws into action: implementing legal reform.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, A J

    1997-01-01

    The worldwide trend towards liberalizing abortion laws has resulted in reduced abortion-related mortality in areas where legal abortion is accessible. In countries considering abortion reform, policy-makers and health care providers have a responsibility to ensure that provisions of any new law can be met. Preparations underway to prepare for South Africa's new abortion law can serve as a guideline for such action. A new abortion law calls for policy changes that may include 1) developing new standards, protocols, and guidelines for abortion care services; 2) ensuring provision of adequate trained staff willing to provide abortions; 3) streamlining administrative regulations to avoid delays; 4) establishing regulations and mechanisms for drug and equipment supply and distribution; 5) restructuring the health system to accommodate provision of abortion services; 6) allocating funds for new abortion services; and 7) reviewing and revising security measures. In addition, health professionals will require training in abortion provision, staff will need information updates about aspects of the legislation, and administrators and providers in a position to impede provision of services must be made aware of the affect of unsafe abortion on maternal health. Researchers should document the effect of the new law on women's health, the provision of reproductive health services, and the community. IEC (information, education, communication) activities will be required to inform the public about the new law and services, establish sex education programs in schools and health facilities, and mobilize family planning organizations and programs to help reduce the incidence of repeat abortions.

  4. Abortion under Greek law: parental consent for a minor's abortion.

    PubMed

    Mavroforou, Anna; Giannoukas, Athanasios; Michalodimitrakis, Emmanuel

    2003-01-01

    As medical abortion becomes more widely used and available in Greece, several issues are emerging and require clarification. Health care providers often face a dilemma when dealing with an adolescent requesting abortion. Parents' consent is mandatory before delivering any kind of treatment to minors. However, as it appears in the case presented here, the circumstances are not always straightforward. A critical review of the Greek legal framework in relation to the current social context is attempted through an interesting case aiming to elicit potential defects of the law that should be addressed by the legislator.

  5. The Road to Pad Abort 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces, N.M., engineers and technicians are preparing for the Pad Abort 1 flight test. The Launch Abort System is a sophisticated new rocket tower designed t...

  6. Safe abortion: WHO technical and policy guidance.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M; Horga, M

    2004-07-01

    In 2003, the World Health Organization published its well referenced handbook Safe Abortion: Technical and Policy Guidance for Health Systems to address the estimated almost 20 million induced abortions each year that are unsafe, imposing a burden of approximately 67 thousand deaths annually. It is a global injustice that 95% of unsafe abortions occur in developing countries. The focus of guidance is on abortion procedures that are lawful within the countries in which they occur, noting that in almost all countries, the law permits abortion to save a woman's life. The guidance treats unsafe abortion as a public health challenge, and responds to the problem through strategies concerning improved clinical care for women undergoing procedures, and the appropriate placement of necessary services. Legal and policy considerations are explored, and annexes present guidance to further reading, international consensus documents on safe abortion, and on manual vacuum aspiration and post-abortion contraception.

  7. Abortion Counseling and the School Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Jack A.; Moffett, Catherine F.

    1974-01-01

    Abortion counseling is now legally within the purview of the school counselor. It is therefore essential that counselors determine their role in abortion counseling, the kind of training necessary, and whether professional organizations should develop counseling guidelines. (RP)

  8. Abortions in Texas Dropped Dramatically After Restrictions

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163136.html Abortions in Texas Dropped Dramatically After Restrictions Greater travel ... later declared unconstitutional -- that increased travel distances to abortion clinics in the state seems to have led ...

  9. Whose Choice? Teaching Films About Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gledhill, Christine

    1977-01-01

    Examines a film entitled "Whose Choice?" which chronicles the struggle to protect and extend existing abortion rights through the campaigns set in motion by the James White Abortion (Amendment) Bill (1975). (MH)

  10. Abortions: Does It Affect Subsequent Pregnancies?

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Getting pregnant Could an abortion increase the risk of problems in a subsequent pregnancy? Answers from Roger W. Harms, M.D. Generally, abortion isn't thought to cause fertility issues or ...

  11. [Some features of abortion in young women].

    PubMed

    Pasquini, L

    1980-01-01

    The author examines aspects of abortion in Italy through the examination of data on 1,400 women under 25 years of age who were hospitalized for delivery or abortion in a Bologna hospital in 1976-1977. In particular, the author analyzes the data by characteristics including age of mother, marital status, place of residence, and profession or occupation in order to examine the extent to which induced abortions are included in the totals reported as spontaneous abortions. (SUMMARY IN ENG, FRE)

  12. Improving abortion care in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Bradley, J; Sikazwe, N; Healy, J

    1991-01-01

    In this commentary, the impact of the introduction of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) for incomplete abortion patients and for early uterine evacuation is discussed for the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. This 3-year training and service delivery program was begun in 1988 after it was clear that 15% of maternal deaths were due to illegally induced abortion. The prior procedure of dilation and curettage (D and C) required use of the main operating room and general anesthesia, which resulted in severe congestion and treatment delays. As a result of the new MVA procedure, congestion has decreased substantially, treatment is safer and more timely, and the staff's ability to provide abortions has increased. Family planning counseling is provided to postabortion patients in a more thorough fashion, and the savings in time has improved the quality of patient-staff interactions. Specifically, the patient flow has improved from a 12-hour wait to a 4-6 hour wait and rarely requires overnight hospitalization. The demand for the main operating room had decreased which frees space, time, and commodities for other gynecological treatment. The shorter procedure and release time means a minimal loss of earnings and productivity, and allows for greater privacy in explaining absences to families, schools, or employers. The improved quality of are is reflected in the figures for number treated, i.e., in 1989, 74% were treated with MVA for incomplete abortion 12 weeks and pregnancy termination 8 weeks compared with 26% treated with D and C. In 1990, the figures were 86% with MVA and 14% with D and C. The likelihood of complications from hemorrhage and sepsis have also been reduced. The MVA procedure is also less traumatic for the patient. The increased access to safe legal abortion services is reflected in the ratio of induced to incomplete abortions between 1988-1990 (1:25 to 1:5). Family planning counseling is provided by a full-time counselor who counsels preabortion

  13. Induced abortion in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Rogo, K O

    1993-06-01

    Unsafe abortions and their complications are a major cause of maternal mortality. Hospital based studies from most African countries confirm that up to 50% of maternal deaths are due to abortion. This paper reviews problem of induced abortion in sub-Saharan Africa. Issues of prevalence and prevention are addressed while acknowledging the need to review the legal regimes operating in these countries.

  14. Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

  15. Women Who Seek Abortions: A Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Alma T.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    When New York State's abortion laws were liberalized in 1970, there was a sharp rise in the number of clinic patients who requested abortions. Because social workers at Mount Sinai Medical Center believed that abortion still is an emotional risk for many women, a study was conducted to determine which patients needed intensive counseling. (Author)

  16. Abortion as Fatherhood Lost: Problems and Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shostak, Arthur B.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on emotions of males when a near-fatherhood experience ends in a legal abortion. A sizeable minority of males find their abortion experience more frustrating, trying, and emotionally costly than public and academic neglect of this subject would suggest. Options are suggested to help males deal with abortion's aspects. (Author)

  17. Recent experience in the fabrication and brazing of ceramic beam tubes for kicker magnets at FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Ader, C.R.; Jensen, C.; Reilly, R.; Snee, D.; Wilson, J.H.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    Ceramic beam tubes are utilized in numerous kicker magnets in different accelerator rings at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Kovar flanges are brazed onto each beam tube end, since kovar and high alumina ceramic have similar expansion curves. The tube, kovar flange, end piece, and braze foil (titanium/incusil) alloy brazing material are stacked in the furnace and then brazed in the furnace at 1000 C. The ceramic specified is 99.8% Alumina, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, a strong recrystallized high-alumina fabricated by slip casting. Recent experience at Fermilab with the fabrication and brazing of these tubes has brought to light numerous problems including tube breakage and cracking and also the difficulty of brazing the tube to produce a leak-tight joint. These problems may be due to the ceramic quality, voids in the ceramic, thinness of the wall, and micro-cracks in the ends which make it difficult to braze because it cannot fill tiny surface cracks which are caused by grain pullout during the cutting process. Solutions which are being investigated include lapping the ends of the tubes before brazing to eliminate the micro-cracks and also metallization of the tubes.

  18. Multiple harmonic frequencies resonant cavity design and half-scale prototype measurements for a fast kicker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Shaoheng; Guo, Jiquan

    2016-12-01

    Quarter wavelength resonator (QWR) based deflecting cavities with the capability of supporting multiple odd-harmonic modes have been developed for an ultrafast periodic kicker system in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC, formerly MEIC). Previous work on the kicking pulse synthesis and the transverse beam dynamics tracking simulations show that a flat-top kicking pulse can be generated with minimal emittance growth during injection and circulation of the cooling electron bunches. This flat-top kicking pulse can be obtained when a DC component and 10 harmonic modes with appropriate amplitude and phase are combined together. To support 10 such harmonic modes, four QWR cavities are used with 5, 3, 1, and 1 modes, respectively. In the multiple-mode cavities, several slightly tapered segments of the inner conductor are introduced to tune the higher order deflecting modes to be harmonic, and stub tuners are used to fine tune each frequency to compensate for potential errors. In this paper, we summarize the electromagnetic design of the five-mode cavity, including the geometry optimization to get high transverse shunt impedance, the frequency tuning and sensitivity analysis, and the single loop coupler design for coupling to all of the harmonic modes. In particular we report on the design and fabrication of a half-scale copper prototype of this proof-of-principle five-odd-mode cavity, as well as the rf bench measurements. Finally, we demonstrate mode superposition in this cavity experimentally, which illustrates the kicking pulse generation concept.

  19. Position measurements for the isotope production facility and the switchyard kicker upgrade projects

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J. D.; Barr, D. S.; O'Hara, J. F.; Shurter, R. B.; Stettler, M. W.; Martinez, D. G.

    2003-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is installing two beam lines to both improve operational tuning and provide new capabilities within the facility. The Isotope Production Facility (IPF) will provide isotopes for medical purposes by using the H' beam spur at 100 MeV and the Switchyard Kicker Upgrade (SYK) will allow the LANSCE 800-MeV H beam to be rapidly switched between various beam lines within the facility. The beam position measurements for both of these beam lines uses a standard micro-stripline beam position monitor (BPM) with both a 50-mm and 75-mm radius. The cable plant is unique in that it unambiguously provides a method of verifying the operation of the complete position measurement. The processing electronics module uses a log ratio technique with error corrections such that it has a dynamic range of -12 dBm to -85 dBm with errors less than 0.15 dB within this range. This paper will describe the primary components of these measurement systems and provide initial data of their operation.

  20. Design, analysis and measurement of very fast kicker magnets at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, J.N.; Bowden, G.B.; Bulos, F.; Cassel, R.L.; Donaldson, A.R.; Harvey, A.; Kulikov, A.V.; Nguyen, M.N.; Odian, A.; Price, V.G.

    1989-03-01

    Recent experience with SLC has shown that very fast, ferrite-loaded, transmission-line, beam-kicker magnets can cause significant and undesirable distortion of a 1.5-2.5 kA, 20-4- kV pulse as it travels through the magnet. In general, there is a net lengthening of the pulse, with increases in its rise and fall times, a decrease in amplitude, and an unsymmetrical rounding of the flattop. In this partially tutorial treatise, a number of practical design considerations are discussed in terms of equivalent circuits, magnet circuit dispersion and dissipation, undesired circuit shunting and coupling, high-voltage breakdown problems and high-order-mode losses that lead to beam tube heating. These effects are linked to the properties of the materials, the presence of radiation and realizable magnet topologies. Measurements and calculations of some of these characteristics for several magnet designs are reviewed. The results presented come from a truly eclectic effort. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  1. A fast "kicker" using a two-channel rectangular dielectric wakefield accelerator structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Thomas C.; Shchelkunov, Sergey V.; Sotnikov, Gennadij V.; Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2017-03-01

    A method is proposed to select and eject bunches of electrons or positrons from a high energy train of charged bunches, based on proven dielectric wakefield accelerator technology. The kicker structure, consisting of a pair of adjacent rectangular dielectric-lined waveguides, permits the coupling of the wakefield that is generated from a train of low-energy (˜6 MeV) "drive bunches" moving in one waveguide to the adjacent waveguide where a portion of a train of high energy "witness bunches" needs to be diverted. A very fast response time (˜1 ns) for bunch deflection is estimated, and a structure as short as 10-30 cm would suffice to impart to the diverted bunches a transverse kick of an interest to high-energy accelerator application, e.g. 150 keV/c. The witness bunch width must be less than 0.2 - 0.3 mm to have an emittance dilution that makes the deflected bunch suitable for e.g. FEL applications.

  2. Selective abortion after prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Schubert-Lehnhardt, V

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the main arguments in Europe against selective abortion after prenatal diagnoses and against using prenatal diagnoses as a whole from an ethical point of view. The different experiences from the Eastern and the Western parts of Germany are used as examples. The paper suggests that using ethics could promote multicultural experiences and different strategies of decision-making.

  3. Estimating the efficacy of medical abortion.

    PubMed

    Trussell, J; Ellertson, C

    1999-09-01

    Comparisons of the efficacy of different regimens of medical abortion are difficult because of the widely varying protocols (even for testing identical regimens), divergent definitions of success and failure, and lack of a standard method of analysis. In this article we review the current efficacy literature on medical abortion, highlighting some of the most important differences in the way that efficacy has been analyzed. We then propose a standard conceptual approach and the accompanying statistical methods for analyzing clinical trials of medical abortion and to explain how clinical investigators can implement this approach. Our review reveals that research on the efficacy of medical abortion has closely followed the conceptual model used for analysis of surgical abortion. The problem, however, is that, whereas surgical abortion is a discrete event occurring in the space of a few minutes or less, medical abortion is a process typically lasting from several days to several weeks. In this process, two events may occur that are not possible with surgical abortion. First, the woman can opt out of the process before a fair determination of efficacy can be made. Second, the process of medical abortion allows time for surgical interventions that may be convenient for the clinician but not strictly necessary from a medical perspective. Another difference from surgical abortions is that, for medical abortions, different medical abortion protocols specify different waiting periods, giving the drugs less time to work in some studies than in others before a determination of efficacy is made. We argue that, when analyzing efficacy of medical abortion, researchers should abandon their close reliance on the analogy to surgical abortion. In fact, medical abortion is more appropriately analyzed by life table procedures developed for the study of another fertility regulation technology; contraception. As with medical abortion, a woman initiating use of a contraceptive method can

  4. Free abortion has come to stay.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    In Sweden abortion has been free and on demand since 1975. The philosophy behind this law is that the pregnant women is the best judge of whether she should have an abortion. Any attempt to change the legal status of abortion should be strongly fought. Criminalizing abortion has never amounted to any good in any country that has tried it. A critical aspect of abortion is that it must be prevented with effective sexual education and free access to contraception. This is the best way to avoid unwanted pregnancies and thus abortion. Still even in Sweden 25% of all pregnancies end in abortion. Planned parenthood is essential in a country with a high standard of living in order to maintain an adequate level of births. Many countries with high standards of living have very low births rates because they do not offer parental leave, short working hours, or day care.

  5. Post-abortion syndrome: creating an affliction.

    PubMed

    Dadlez, E M; Andrews, William L

    2010-11-01

    The contention that abortion harms women constitutes a new strategy employed by the pro-life movement to supplement arguments about fetal rights. David C. Reardon is a prominent promoter of this strategy. Post-abortion syndrome purports to establish that abortion psychologically harms women and, indeed, can harm persons associated with women who have abortions. Thus, harms that abortion is alleged to produce are multiplied. Claims of repression are employed to complicate efforts to disprove the existence of psychological harm and causal antecedents of trauma are only selectively investigated. We argue that there is no such thing as post-abortion syndrome and that the psychological harms Reardon and others claim abortion inflicts on women can usually be ascribed to different causes. We question the evidence accumulated by Reardon and his analysis of data accumulated by others. Most importantly, we question whether the conclusions Reardon has drawn follow from the evidence he cites.

  6. Abortion counseling: to benefit maternal health.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, T N

    1989-01-01

    This Note examines how both the law and the health care profession neglect women's needs for abortion counseling before, during and after an abortion. Part I analyzes the health care profession's view of counseling, the psychological effects of abortion and how counseling both positively and negatively influences those effects. Part II reviews Supreme Court cases and state law regarding abortion counseling, critizing both the Court's narrow view of counseling and the states' failure to use the legislative process to create laws which benefit maternal health. Part III recommends an expanded role for abortion counseling, in which the counselor can provide emotional support from before the day of an abortion until a woman emotionally recovers from an abortion. This expanded role would be state-mandated, but would remain within constitutional boundaries by providing flexibility for counselors to give individual treatment while respecting a woman's privacy.

  7. Induced abortion and contraception in Italy.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, A; Grandolfo, M E

    1991-09-01

    This article discusses the legal and epidemiologic status of abortion in Italy, and its relationship to fertility and contraception. Enacted in May 1978, Italy's abortion law allows the operation to be performed during the 1st 90 days of gestation for a broad range of health, social, and psychological reasons. Women under 18 must receive written permission from a parent, guardian, or judge in order to undergo an abortion. The operation is free of charge. Health workers who object to abortion because of religious or moral reasons are exempt from participating. Regional differences exist concerning the availability of abortion, easy to procure in some places and difficult to obtain in others. After an initial increase following legalization, the abortion rate was 13.5/1000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 309/1000 live births -- an intermediate rate and ratio compared to other countries. By the time the Abortion Act of 1978 was adopted, Italy already had one of the lowest fertility levels in Europe. Thus, the legalization of abortion has had no impact on fertility trends. Contrary to initial fears that the legalization of abortion would make abortion a method of family planning, 80% of the women who sought an abortion in 1983-88 were using birth control at the time (withdrawal being the most common method used by this group). In fact, most women who undergo abortions are married, between the ages of 25-34, and with at least one child. Evidence indicates widespread ignorance concerning reproduction. In a 1989 survey, only 65% of women could identify the fertile period of the menstrual cycle. Italy has no sex education in schools or national family planning programs. Compared to most of Europe, Italy still has low levels of reliable contraceptive usage. This points to the need to guarantee the availability of abortion.

  8. The Influence of Family and Significant Others on Women's Decisions to Obtain an Abortion: A Study of a Northwest Louisiana Abortion Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Bertina Loutrice

    2011-01-01

    This study researched whether family members and significant others influence a woman's decision to obtain an abortion. Influence is defined by Merriam-Webster (2011) as the power or capacity of causing an effect in indirect or intangible ways; power exerted over the minds or behaviors of others. The theoretical framework that will be used in…

  9. [Therapeutic abortion: a difficult choice].

    PubMed

    Gratton-Jacob, F

    1981-01-01

    Because the primary responsibility for the care and raising of children still falls on women, they should be able to decide freely whether or not to have children. Although many women who do not initially desire their pregnancies turn out to be adequate mothers, studies have shown that unwanted children suffer disproportionately from a variety of emotional and behavioral disorders. Studies have also found that large numbers of women seeking abortions failed to use any contraception while others used less effective methods, sometimes because of lack of knowledge. Even the most reliable contraceptive methods are liable to occasional failures. According to some authors, undesired pregnancy many reflect a struggle of adolescents with authoritarian parents, the search of a lonely person for something to love or possess, a proof of femininity, an expression of conflict with the partner or an attempt to force a marriage, or ambivalence among middle-aged women at the prospect of becoming more independent when their children enter school. Women may obtain abortions at accredited hospitals in the Province of Quebec upon decision of a committee of 3 physicians that continuation of the pregnancy would result in danger to the life or health of the patient. In 1970 some 100-150,000 illegal abortions occurred, resulting in hospitalization of 20,000 women for complications. In 1972, 4 French-speaking hospitals performed 136 of the 2919 therapeutic abortions sought in the Province of Quebec. In recent years the number has increased. Reasons for obtaining an abortion are usually social or economic: poor relationship with the father, sufficient number of children already born, age of the preceding infant, economic difficulties, mother's age, or effect of pregnancy on work. Many adolescents refuse to tell their parents of their pregnancy for fear of their reaction, but others enjoy considerable parental support. A study of about 5000 French speaking adolescents conducted in 1977

  10. Abortion incidence and postabortion care in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Basinga, Paulin; Moore, Ann M; Singh, Susheela D; Carlin, Elizabeth E; Birungi, Francine; Ngabo, Fidele

    2012-03-01

    Abortion is illegal in Rwanda except when necessary to protect a woman's physical health or to save her life. Many women in Rwanda obtain unsafe abortions, and some experience health complications as a result. To estimate the incidence of induced abortion, we conducted a national sample survey of health facilities that provide postabortion care and a purposive sample survey of key informants knowledgeable about abortion conditions. We found that more than 16,700 women received care for complications resulting from induced abortion in Rwanda in 2009, or 7 per 1,000 women aged 15-44. Approximately 40 percent of abortions are estimated to lead to complications requiring treatment, but about a third of those who experienced a complication did not obtain treatment. Nationally, the estimated induced abortion rate is 25 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44, or approximately 60,000 abortions annually. An urgent need exists in Rwanda to address unmet need for contraception, to strengthen family planning services, to broaden access to legal abortion, and to improve postabortion care.

  11. Is Induced Abortion Really Declining in Armenia?

    PubMed

    Jilozian, Ann; Agadjanian, Victor

    2016-06-01

    As in other post-Soviet settings, induced abortion has been widely used in Armenia. However, recent national survey data point to a substantial drop in abortion rates with no commensurate increase in modern contraceptive prevalence and no change in fertility levels. We use data from in-depth interviews with women of reproductive age and health providers in rural Armenia to explore possible underreporting of both contraceptive use and abortion. While we find no evidence that women understate their use of modern contraception, the analysis suggests that induced abortion might indeed be underreported. The potential for underreporting is particularly high for sex-selective abortions, for which there is growing public backlash, and medical abortion, a practice that is typically self-administered outside any professional supervision. Possible underreporting of induced abortion calls for refinement of both abortion registration and relevant survey instruments. Better measurement of abortion dynamics is necessary for successful promotion of effective modern contraceptive methods and reduction of unsafe abortion practices.

  12. The Incidence of Abortion in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bankole, Akinrinola; Adewole, Isaac F.; Hussain, Rubina; Awolude, Olutosin; Singh, Susheela; Akinyemi, Joshua O.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT Because of Nigeria’s low contraceptive prevalence, a substantial number of women have unintended pregnancies, many of which are resolved through clandestine abortion, despite the country’s restrictive abortion law. Up-to-date estimates of abortion incidence are needed. METHODS A widely used indirect methodology was used to estimate the incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in Nigeria in 2012. Data on provision of abortion and postabortion care were collected from a nationally representative sample of 772 health facilities, and estimates of the likelihood that women who have unsafe abortions experience complications and obtain treatment were collected from 194 health care professionals with a broad understanding of the abortion context in Nigeria. RESULTS An estimated 1.25 million induced abortions occurred in Nigeria in 2012, equivalent to a rate of 33 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–49. The estimated unintended pregnancy rate was 59 per 1,000 women aged 15–49. Fifty-six percent of unintended pregnancies were resolved by abortion. About 212,000 women were treated for complications of unsafe abortion, representing a treatment rate of 5.6 per 1,000 women of reproductive age, and an additional 285,000 experienced serious health consequences but did not receive the treatment they needed. CONCLUSION Levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion continue to be high in Nigeria. Improvements in access to contraceptive services and in the provision of safe abortion and postabortion care services (as permitted by law) may help reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:26871725

  13. Attitude towards induced abortion in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, R

    1979-01-01

    In practice the Bangladesh law, allowing abortion only to save the life of the mother, is essentially obsolete. The government has recognized the role of abortion in curing rapid population growth, and it is believed that the attitude towards abortion in Bangladesh is at least not unfavorable. The attempt was made to determine whether this belief is corroborated by the available facts. Data from the Bangladesh Fertility Survey provides a unique framework for discussion of current attitude towards and prevalence of abortion in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Fertility Survey (BFS) was conducted on a nationally representative sample of 6513 ever-married women under age 50. An overwhelming majority of Bangladeshi women (over 88%) approved of abortion if the woman had conceived as a result of rape and premarital sex. Danger to mother's life (53% approving) was a more acceptable basis for abortion than danger of a malformed child (30%). Abortion on economic grounds was acceptable to only 17% of women. Urban women held more liberal views on abortion than rural residents. Educated couples were found to be more approving of abortion than the less educated. Women with parity 4 or more viewed abortion more favorably than those with lower parity. This was more pronounced among women under the age of 30. The most conservative approval of abortion was expressed by the older women who had a parity of less than 4. Women with the most liberal views on abortion were also contracepting and relying on efficient contraceptive methods. Wider support for abortion was expressed by currently married, fecund, nonpregnant women who were currently using contraception, and this support was more pronounced among women aged 30 and older.

  14. Is "abortion culture" fading in the former Soviet Union? Views about abortion and contraception in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Agadjanian, Victor

    2002-09-01

    The Soviet legacy of widespread reliance on induced abortion is of critical importance to reproductive trends and policies in post-Soviet nations, especially as they strive to substitute contraception for abortion. Using data from two Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1995 and 1999, this study analyzes and compares trends in abortion and contraception, women's attitudes toward abortion, and their perceptions of problems associated with abortion and contraception in Kazakhstan. Despite an overall decline in abortion and an increase in contraceptive use since Kazakhstan's independence in 1991, abortion has remained a prominent part of the country's reproductive culture and practices. This study shows how abortion-related views reflect the long-standing ethnocultural differences between the indigenous Kazakhs and Kazakhstan's residents of European roots, as the latter continue to have significantly higher levels of abortion. The study, however, also reveals the internal diversity among Kazakhs with respect to abortion experiences and views, stemming from decades of the Soviet sociocultural influence in Kazakhstan. In addition, the analysis points to some generational differences in views concerning abortion and contraception. Finally, the study demonstrates parallels in attitudes toward abortion and toward contraception, thereby questioning straightforward assumptions about the replacement of abortion with contraception.

  15. Accounting for abortion: Accomplishing transnational reproductive governance through post-abortion care in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Suh, Siri

    2017-03-13

    Reproductive governance operates through calculating demographic statistics that offer selective truths about reproductive practices, bodies, and subjectivities. Post-abortion care, a global reproductive health intervention, represents a transnational reproductive regime that establishes motherhood as women's primary legitimate reproductive status. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Senegal between 2010 and 2011, I illustrate how post-abortion care accomplishes reproductive governance in a context where abortion is prohibited altogether and the US is the primary bilateral donor of population aid. Reproductive governance unfolds in hospital gynecological wards and the national health information system through the mobilization and interpretation of post-abortion care data. Although health workers search women's bodies and behavior for signs of illegal abortion, they minimize police intervention in the hospital by classifying most post-abortion care cases as miscarriage. Health authorities deploy this account of post-abortion care to align the intervention with national and global maternal health policies that valorize motherhood. Although post-abortion care offers life-saving care to women with complications of illegal abortion, it institutionalizes abortion stigma by scrutinizing women's bodies and masking induced abortion within and beyond the hospital. Post-abortion care reinforces reproductive inequities by withholding safe, affordable obstetric care from women until after they have resorted to unsafe abortion.

  16. False Framings: The Co-opting of Sex-Selection by the Anti-Abortion Movement.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Jesudason and Weitz's article examines two public policy debates in California, where both sides of the debate used similar language that had the potential to be detrimental to women. Specifically, they show how anti-abortion crusaders in California used similar language to describe why women's rights should be curtailed as pro-choice advocates use when fighting for more choice and privacy for women's reproductive decisions. This commentary builds upon their article by demonstrating the harm that such co-opting causes to women's rights using the example of sex selective abortion. By examining the legislative history of state and national bills to ban sex-selective abortion, this commentary demonstrates how the anti-abortion lobby has adopted the language of pro-choice advocates quite effectively. Although the framing of this issue as being "woman-protective" is strategic and insincere, such political framing is powerful, as Jesudason and Weitz have noted. Anti-abortion activists have convinced lawmakers in many states that sex-selective abortion is a dire issue in their state and that they must restrict it in order to protect women. In fact, there is no evidence that sex selective abortion is a problem in the United States, yet these frames have been very effective in weakening women's privacy rights. Whenever woman-protective framings are invoked for self-serving purposes, women's rights advocates must work hard to uncover the truth behind these discourses to prevent successful legislative efforts that curtail women's reproductive freedom.

  17. Salmonella dublin abortion in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, M.

    1973-01-01

    The somatic and flagellar serum agglutinin titre were determined in paired samples obtained from seventy-seven cases of bovine abortion associated with Salmonella dublin infection. The cases could be divided into four serological groups with an active infection being demonstrated in most cases. The serum agglutination test was shown to be a relatively specific diagnostic test but was of more limited value in the retrospective identification of convalescent cases. PMID:4518345

  18. Canine and feline abortion diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Schlafer, D H

    2008-08-01

    Knowledge of the causes of canine or feline pregnancy loss is limited and the success rate for making a definitive diagnosis is disappointingly low. Although these facts are discouraging, there are some things that can be done to improve success rates. This paper will address limitations and explore ways for improvement. For abortions caused by microbial infections, there are many reasons why it may not possible to identify the agents. "Non-infectious" causes are much more difficult to diagnose, and their relative importance is unknown. These include endocrine failure, underlying endometrial disease, genetic abnormalities, nutritional deficiencies, and toxicosis from drugs or environmental sources. Genetic abnormalities are a major cause of human pregnancy loss, yet we have little specific information about genetic diseases leading to abortion in animals. This paper addresses ways clinicians and diagnosticians can work together to improve diagnostic success. Necropsy techniques for fetal and placental examination and sampling are briefly reviewed. It is hoped that this series of papers will stimulate discussion on the causes and pathogenesis of pregnancy failure, and focus attention on areas where abortion diagnostics can be improved.

  19. Differential Impact of Abortion on Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Wanda; Reardon, David

    1992-01-01

    Compared adolescent and adult reactions to abortion among 252 women. Compared to adults, adolescents were significantly more likely to be dissatisfied with choice of abortion and with services received, to have abortions later in gestational period, to feel forced by circumstances to have abortion, to report being misinformed at time of abortion,…

  20. Incidence of induced abortion in Malawi, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Mhango, Chisale; Philbin, Jesse; Chimwaza, Wanangwa; Chipeta, Effie; Msusa, Ausbert

    2017-01-01

    Background In Malawi, abortion is legal only if performed to save a woman’s life; other attempts to procure an abortion are punishable by 7–14 years imprisonment. Most induced abortions in Malawi are performed under unsafe conditions, contributing to Malawi’s high maternal mortality ratio. Malawians are currently debating whether to provide additional exceptions under which an abortion may be legally obtained. An estimated 67,300 induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2009 (equivalent to 23 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–44), but changes since 2009, including dramatic increases in contraceptive prevalence, may have impacted abortion rates. Methods We conducted a nationally representative survey of health facilities to estimate the number of cases of post-abortion care, as well as a survey of knowledgeable informants to estimate the probability of needing and obtaining post-abortion care following induced abortion. These data were combined with national population and fertility data to determine current estimates of induced abortion and unintended pregnancy in Malawi using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. Results We estimate that approximately 141,044 (95% CI: 121,161–160,928) induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2015, translating to a national rate of 38 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–49 (95% CI: 32 to 43); which varied by geographical zone (range: 28–61). We estimate that 53% of pregnancies in Malawi are unintended, and that 30% of unintended pregnancies end in abortion. Given the challenges of estimating induced abortion, and the assumptions required for calculation, results should be viewed as approximate estimates, rather than exact measures. Conclusions The estimated abortion rate in 2015 is higher than in 2009 (potentially due to methodological differences), but similar to recent estimates from nearby countries including Tanzania (36), Uganda (39), and regional estimates in Eastern and Southern Africa (34–35). Over

  1. Abortion, personal freedom, and public policy.

    PubMed

    Adamek, R J

    1977-01-01

    Various arguments against abortion are discussed. Lack of consensus concerning the moment of personhood leaves the question in the realm of value judgments which could, in the future, lead to discrimination. A woman has the right to protect her body against a conception; once conception occurs, the fetus also possesses rights. Legal abortion has been shown by various studies to be more risky than childbirth for the mother: 1) studies showing higher mortality rates for legal abortion, 2) studies showing increased risk of future pregnancy-related and other health disorders, and 3) studies indicating that illegal abortion rises with a rise in legal abortions. The social problems which are aggravated by unwanted pregnancies should be solved instead of eliminating the unwanted child. Legalized abortion does not even solve the problem of population control.

  2. Abortion: a rights and health issue.

    PubMed

    This document reports on and summarizes a paper written by Dr. Aurora Perez. The paper, entitled "The Ambiguities and Ambivalence on Abortion Issues in the Philippines," has tackled abortion from a different perspective, treating it as an issue of public health and human rights. It is a public health issue because the prevalence of abortion is a negative reflection of women's access to effective contraception. It is a human rights issue in the context of sexual violence, and Perez has urged a policy that allows therapeutic abortion as a human right of raped women. She also emphasized that maternal death was high in the Philippines because Filipino women were seeking abortion services under unsafe conditions. Perez cited a study, conducted in 1985-86, which showed that 24% of maternal deaths were due to induced abortions.

  3. Abortion in Sri Lanka: the double standard.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramya

    2013-03-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required.

  4. Doubts about a classic defence of abortion.

    PubMed

    Difford, Jo

    2011-01-01

    Professor Judith Jarvis Thomson's seminal paper "A defence of abortion" published in 1971 has formed part of higher education syllabi for decades. In the paper Thomson criticizes one of the fundamental arguments against abortion, that is, the right of the foetus to life by denying that the foetus is a person. This article argues that her thought experiments do not compare to the reality of abortion and focuses on the influence of the paper on arguments concerning personhood.

  5. Abortion checks at German-Dutch border.

    PubMed

    Von Baross, J

    1991-05-01

    The commentary on West German abortion law, particularly in illegal abortion in the Netherlands, finds the law restrictive and in violation of the dignity and rights of women. The Max-Planck Institute in 1990 published a study that found that a main point of prosecution between 1976 and 1986, as reported by Der Spiegal, was in border crossings from the Netherlands. It is estimated that 10,000 annually have abortions abroad, and 6,000 to 7,000 in the Netherlands. The procedure was for an official to stop a young person and query about drugs; later the woman would admit to an abortion, and be forced into a medical examination. The German Penal Code Section 218 stipulates abortion only for certain reasons testified to by a doctor other than the one performing the abortion. Counseling on available social assistance must be completed 3 days prior to the abortion. Many counseling offices are church related and opposed to abortions. Many doctors refuse legally to certify, and access to abortion is limited. The required hospital stay is 3-4 nights with no day care facilities. Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 allows prosecution for uncounseled illegal abortion. Abortion law reform is anticipated by the end of 1992 in the Bundestag due to the Treaty or the Unification of Germany. The Treaty states that the rights of the unborn child must be protected and that pregnant women relieve their distress in a way compatible with the Constitution, but improved over legal regulations from either West or East Germany, which permits abortion on request within 12 weeks of conception without counseling. It is hoped that the law will be liberalized and Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 will be abolished.

  6. Medical abortion in Australia: a short history.

    PubMed

    Baird, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Surgical abortion has been provided liberally in Australia since the early 1970s, mainly in privately owned specialist clinics. The introduction of medical abortion, however, was deliberately obstructed and consequently significantly delayed when compared to similar countries. Mifepristone was approved for commercial import only in 2012 and listed as a government subsidised medicine in 2013. Despite optimism from those who seek to improve women's access to abortion, the increased availability of medical abortion has not yet addressed the disadvantage experienced by poor and non-metropolitan women. After telling the story of medical abortion in Australia, this paper considers the context through which it has become available since 2013. It argues that the integration of medical abortion into primary health care, which would locate abortion provision in new settings and expand women's access, has been constrained by the stigma attached to abortion, overly cautious institutionalised frameworks, and the lack of public health responsibility for abortion services. The paper draws on documentary sources and oral history interviews conducted in 2013 and 2015.

  7. Attitudes towards abortion in the Danish population.

    PubMed

    Norup, Michael

    1997-10-01

    This article reports the results of a survey, by mailed questionnaire, of the attitudes among a sample of the Danish population towards abortion for social and genetic reasons. Of 1080 questionnaires sent to a random sample of persons between 18 and 45 years, 731 (68%) were completed and returned. A great majority of the respondents were liberal towards early abortion both for social reasons and in case of minor disease. In contrast, there was controversy about late abortions for social reasons and in the case of Down syndrome. Further there was strong reluctance to accept late abortion in case of minor disease. An analysis of the response patterns showed that most of the respondents had gradualist views on abortion, i.e. they would allow all early abortions, but only abortions for some reasons later in pregnancy. It was also found that the number who would find an early abortion acceptable in general was much higher than the number who would accept it in their own case. These findings suggest that a great part of the resistance towards abortion does not rest on a concern for the rights and interests for the fetus. Instead it may be explained on a view according to which fetal life is ascribed intrinsic moral value.

  8. The abortion battle: the Canadian scene.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, P

    1994-01-01

    In January 1988 the Supreme Court of Canada struck down the country's archaic abortion law on the ground that it imposed arbitrary delays and unfair disparities in access to abortion across the country. Since then, the conservative government of Canada has made a few attempts to introduce a new abortion policy, but it did not get passed in the parliament because the revised bills failed to protect women's right to 'life, liberty, and security of the person' within the meaning of the Canadian Charter. Canada has been without an abortion law for over four years and there has been a wide range of provincial policies and confusion in the country. Despite the legal vacuum, Canadian women are not frenziedly having abortions. However, the militancy of the anti-abortion groups has steadily intensified with continued assault on a woman's right to make reproductive choices. Since no law, short of banning abortions altogether, is going to satisfy abortion opponents, the abortion battle will rage on in Canada.

  9. Husbands' involvement in abortion in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Johansson, A; Nga, N T; Huy, T Q; Dat, D D; Holmgren, K

    1998-12-01

    This study analyzes the involvement of men in abortion in Vietnam, where induced abortion is legal and abortion rates are among the highest in the world. Twenty men were interviewed in 1996 about the role they played in their wives' abortions and about their feelings and ethical views concerning the procedure. The results showed that both husbands and wives considered the husband to be the main decisionmaker regarding family size, which included the decision to have an abortion, but that, in fact, some women had undergone an abortion without consulting their husbands in advance. Parents and in-laws were usually not consulted; the couples thought they might object to the decision on moral grounds. Respondents' ethical perspectives on abortion are discussed. When faced with an unwanted pregnancy, the husbands adopted an ethics of care and responsibility toward family and children, although some felt that abortion was immoral. The study highlights the importance of understanding husbands' perspectives on their responsibilities and rights in reproductive decisionmaking and their ethical and other concerns related to abortion.

  10. The abortion issue in the 1984 elections.

    PubMed

    Granberg, D

    1987-01-01

    In the 1984 election, Ronald Reagan, the Republican presidential incumbent and an opponent of legal abortion, defeated Walter Mondale, a prochoice Democrat, by a wide margin. Despite Reagan's sweep of 49 states, however, conservatives lost a little ground in the Senate, where four of the seven new senators elected take a prochoice position on abortion. On the other hand, antiabortion forces registered some gains in the House of Representatives. The voting groups were more divided over the abortion issue in 1984 than they had been in 1980: In 1980, Reagan voters and Carter voters did not differ significantly in their attitudes toward abortion, but in 1984, Reagan voters were significantly more likely to be opposed to abortion than were Mondale voters. Nevertheless, only a small minority of voters considered abortion to be a major national issue, and the two voter groups were far more divided on several other issues than they were on abortion. There was no antiabortion consensus among the electorate as a whole, or among Reagan voters in particular. The level of approval for legalized abortion has, in fact, remained quite stable since 1973, and a popular base in favor of banning abortion seems to be lacking.

  11. Abortion Decision and Ambivalence: Insights via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allanson, Susie

    2007-01-01

    Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…

  12. ACOG Committee opinion no. 612: Abortion training and education.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Access to safe abortion hinges upon the availability of trained abortion providers. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports education for students in health care fields as well as clinical training for residents and advanced practice clinicians in abortion care in order to increase the availability of trained abortion providers. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports the expansion of abortion education and an increase in the number and types of trained abortion providers in order to ensure women's access to safe abortions. Integrated medical education and universal opt-out training policies help to lessen the stigma of abortion provision and improve access by increasing the number of abortion providers. This Committee Opinion reviews the current status of abortion education, describes initiatives to ensure the availability of appropriate and up-to-date abortion training, and recommends efforts for integrating and improving abortion education in medical schools, residency programs, and advanced practice clinician training programs.

  13. Incidence of Induced Abortion and Post-Abortion Care in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, Sarah C.; Kimaro, Godfather; Muganyizi, Projestine; Philbin, Jesse; Kahwa, Amos; Ngadaya, Esther; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2015-01-01

    Background Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and unsafe abortion is one of its leading causes. Yet little is known about its incidence. Objectives To provide the first ever estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion in Tanzania, at the national level and for each of the 8 geopolitical zones (7 in Mainland plus Zanzibar). Methods A nationally representative survey of health facilities was conducted to determine the number of induced abortion complications treated in facilities. A survey of experts on abortion was conducted to estimate the likelihood of women experiencing complications and obtaining treatment. These surveys were complemented with population and fertility data to obtain abortion numbers, rates and ratios, using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. Results In Tanzania, women obtained just over 405,000 induced abortions in 2013, for a national rate of 36 abortions per 1,000 women age 15–49 and a ratio of 21 abortions per 100 live births. For each woman treated in a facility for induced abortion complications, 6 times as many women had an abortion but did not receive care. Abortion rates vary widely by zone, from 10.7 in Zanzibar to 50.7 in the Lake zone. Conclusions The abortion rate is similar to that of other countries in the region. Variations by zone are explained mainly by differences in fertility and contraceptive prevalence. Measures to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated maternal mortality include expanding access to post-abortion care and contraceptive services to prevent unintended pregnancies. PMID:26361246

  14. [Abortion: an ethical or political issue?].

    PubMed

    Divay, Sophie

    2015-12-01

    Forty years after the decriminalisation of abortion, what is society's view of this hard-fought right of women? Do they finally have the freedom to control their own bodies? The sociological view put forward here questions the professional positioning of caregivers faced with women requesting an elective abortion.

  15. Opposition to legal abortion: challenges and questions.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the Roman Catholic Church's arguments against abortion rights suggests that its opposition is grounded more in outmoded views regarding women's roles than in concern for protecting fetal life. The 1st argument raised by Catholics and other anti-abortion forces is that abortion represents the unjustifiable destruction of a human life. A 2nd argument focuses on the status of the fetus as a person from the moment of conception, making abortion murder. A 3rd equates the fetus's potential for personhood with the pregnant woman's actual personhood. Despite the vehement sentiments expressed by Catholic leaders against abortion, the majority of Catholics support legal abortion. The assignment of personhood status to the fetus is contraindicated by actual practice in the Church, where aborted or miscarried products of early pregnancy are not baptized. Also, the Church does not forbid the taking of human life in war or to preserve political freedom. Finally, in countries such as Poland where abortion has been made illegal through religious pressure, there have been drastic cuts in health care and child care programs.

  16. Abortion: taking on the hard questions.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    1999-01-01

    This article answers several questions relating to the moral issue of abortion, the value of life, and the rights of women. Women all over the world have been having abortions, legal or illegal, since time immemorial for reasons which are difficult to document. While legal and safe abortions do not compromise the physical and psychological health of the woman, more than ten thousand women suffer and die from complications of illegal abortions especially in countries where women are denied of their reproductive rights. Though abortion remained illegal in many countries such as Brazil and Latin America, legal restrictions do little to reduce the incidence of abortion. Meanwhile, the question on when the fetus has life is viewed differently by the scientific, medical, legal and religious communities. But even with the conviction that abortion involves taking the life of a person, it is indeed a responsibility to respect the views of other religions. Finally, although the decision to have abortion should belong to the couple, the last word should belong to the woman.

  17. Social Worker's Role in Teenage Abortions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Lillian Pike

    1979-01-01

    An adolescent's request for an abortion raises many ethical and practical issues. The social worker must help the girl weigh the various alternatives, resolve the abortion crisis to her own satisfaction, and view the experience as one episode in her growth toward adulthood. (Author)

  18. Comment: unethical ethics investment boycotts and abortion.

    PubMed

    Furedi, A

    1998-01-01

    Ethical investment funds have traditionally boycotted the arms industry, companies known to pollute the environment, and those involved in animal research. However, recent newspaper reports suggest that some investment funds plan to also boycott hospitals and pharmaceutical companies involved in abortion-related activities. Ethical Financial, anti-abortion independent financial advisors, are encouraging a boycott of investment in private hospitals and manufacturers of equipment involved in abortions, and pharmaceutical firms which produce postcoital contraception or conduct embryo research. Ethical Financial claims that Family Assurance has agreed to invest along anti-abortion lines, Aberdeen Investment is already boycotting companies linked to abortion, and Hendersons ethical fund plans to follow suit. There is speculation that Standard Life, the largest mutual insurer in Europe, will also refuse to invest in abortion-related concerns when it launches its ethical fund in the spring. Managers of ethical funds should, however, understand that, contrary to the claims of the anti-choice lobby, there is extensive public support for legal abortion, emergency contraception, and embryo research. Individuals and institutions which contribute to the development of reproductive health care services are working to alleviate the distress of unwanted pregnancy and infertility, laudable humanitarian goals which should be encouraged. Those who try to restrict the development of abortion methods and services simply show contempt for women, treating them as people devoid of conscience who are incapable of making moral choices.

  19. Violence against abortion increases in US clinics.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J

    1994-08-13

    In the US, violence against abortion clinics is escalating. In July 1994, a doctor who performed abortions and one of his escorts was gunned down outside of an abortion clinic. In March of 1993, another doctor was killed outside of a clinic. That killing prompted passage of a federal law designed to protect abortion providers and clinics from violence. In addition to the individuals murdered, the number of violent incidents against abortion clinics increased four-fold to 250 in 1993. Some elderly physicians feel compelled to continue to perform the procedure instead of retiring because there are no young practitioners to replace them. These physicians note that the young practitioners have no experience with the deaths and illness which resulted from illegal abortions and have not been properly trained by their medical schools. The US Attorney General has dispatched federal marshalls to guard abortion clinics, and local police are increasing their protection of clinics. Abortion protestors say that the new federal law will cause some formerly peaceful protestors to resort to violence.

  20. Abortion: The Viewpoint of Potential Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamrick, Michael H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A college survey showed strong support by a majority for legalized abortion, governmental support of abortion and family planning services, voluntary sterilization, and sex education and birth control information and/or services in the schools. Important differences of opinion among subgroups were, however, indicated. (Author/MJB)

  1. [A note on induced abortion in Italy].

    PubMed

    Cagiano De Azevedo, R

    1980-01-01

    The adoption of a recent law on abortion (1978) makes available in Italy new statistics at both the national and regional levels. Following the official source of ISTAT, the abortion rate/100 livebirths in 1979 was about 28%, about 40% in the northern part of Italy, and only 16% in Mezzogiorno. This abortion rate, as an average data at the national level, corresponds to a normal position among similar rates in western countries; closer to EEC member states. But the regional variability seems a very interesting new aspect of the Italian tryptic (north, center, south) largely presented in many demographic indicators. 3 factors are presented as a possible explication of this variability: a real different attitude of women and couples towards abortion from cultural, religious, and political points of view; the coexistence of legal and illegal abortion despite the adoption of a new liberal law; and the very important disequilibrium in the distribution of structures and medical services available to assure abortions in different parts of the country. Some other demographic points related to abortion are also presented here, particularly in connection with age structure of women and their marital status. Future trends in abortion with subsequent effects on fertility are also discussed at the end of this article. The arguments follow 2 alternatives presented in Italy by the National Committee on Population and the Committee of Demographic Studies. (author's modified)

  2. Induced Abortion: An Ethical Conundrum for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millner, Vaughn S.; Hanks, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most controversial moral issues in American culture, but counselor value struggles regarding abortion are seldom addressed in counseling literature. This article considers the conflictual nature of the ethical principles of autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence as they can occur within the…

  3. Abortion and nursing: a legal update.

    PubMed

    Horsley, J

    1992-12-01

    Almost 2 decades after the Supreme Court's landmark decision in Roe v. Wade, nurses' refusal to assist in abortions is still in question. There are about 1.6 million abortions a year. If Congress passes the Freedom of Choice Act, American women will be guaranteed continued access to abortion. But the effect of new regulations on 2 million nurses is the issue. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 protects those who refuse to participate in abortions because of their religious beliefs. Several states have also enacted laws giving the right to health care workers to refuse to participate on ethical grounds. In Florida a staffer at an ambulatory care center was demoted after refusing to assist in an abortion. The appeals court ruled in the nurse's favor, stating that she should have been given a different assignment. Nurses who oppose abortion are advised by attorneys not to accept jobs where they are likely to be expected to assist in them. A New York City nurse refused to assist in an abortion and was reassigned to an administrative position, which she contested. The arbitrator restored her to her original position indicating that if the Freedom of Choice Act is passed it will not eliminate a nurse's right not to assist. In 1988 the so-called gag rule was issued barring caregivers at 4000 federally funded family planning clinics serving nearly 5 million women/year from recommending abortion to patients.

  4. Adolescents and Abortion: Choice in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Rebecca

    This publication seeks to explain the many facets of adolescent abortion: teenagers' need for access to safe abortion; the need for confidentiality in order to ensure safety; the real intent and effect of parental involvement laws; and the roles of parents and the state in safeguarding the health of pregnant teenagers. The first section looks at…

  5. Fetal pain, abortion, viability, and the Constitution.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn; Sayeed, Sadath

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, the Nebraska state legislature passed a new abortion restricting law asserting a new, compelling state interest in preventing fetal pain. In this article, we review existing constitutional abortion doctrine and note difficulties presented by persistent legal attention to a socially derived viability construct. We then offer a substantive biological, ethical, and legal critique of the new fetal pain rationale.

  6. Safe abortion: a right for refugees?

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Aimee

    2002-05-01

    Thanks to initiatives since 1994, most reproductive health programmes for refugee women now include family planning and safe delivery care. Emergency contraception and post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortion are recommended, but provision of these services has lagged behind, while services for women who wish to terminate an unwanted pregnancy are almost non-existent. Given conditions in refugee settings, including high levels of sexual violence, unwanted pregnancies are of particular concern. Yet the extent of need for abortion services among refugee women remains undocumented. UNFPA estimates that 25-50% of maternal deaths in refugee settings are due to complications of unsafe abortion. Barriers to providing abortion services may include internal and external political pressure, legal restrictions, or the religious affiliation of service providers. Women too may be pressured to continue pregnancies and are often unable to express their needs or assert their rights. Abortion advocacy efforts should highlight the specific needs of refugee women and encourage provision of services where abortion is legally indicated, especially in cases of rape or incest, and risk to a woman's physical and mental health. Implementation of existing guidelines on reducing the occurrence and consequences of sexual violence in refugee settings is also important. Including refugee women in international campaigns for expanded access to safe abortion is critical in addressing the specific needs of this population.

  7. Men and talk about legal abortion in South Africa: equality, support and rights discourses undermining reproductive 'choice'.

    PubMed

    Macleod, Catriona Ida; Hansjee, Jateen

    2013-01-01

    Discursive constructions of abortion are embedded in the social and gendered power relations of a particular socio-historical space. As part of research on public discourses concerning abortion in South Africa where there has been a radical liberalisation of abortion legislation, we collected data from male group discussions about a vignette concerning abortion, and newspaper articles written by men about abortion. Our analysis revealed how discourses of equality, support and rights may be used by men to subtly undermine women's reproductive right to 'choose' an abortion. Within an Equal Partnership discourse, abortion, paired with the assumption of foetal personhood, was equated with violating an equal heterosexual partnership and a man's patriarchal duty to protect a child. A New Man discourse, which positions men as supportive of women, was paired with the assumption of men as rational and women as irrational in decision-making, to allow for the possibility of men dissuading women from terminating a pregnancy. A Rights discourse was invoked to suggest that abortion violates men's paternal rights.

  8. Estimates of the Incidence of Induced Abortion And Consequences of Unsafe Abortion in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Sedgh, Gilda; Sylla, Amadou Hassane; Philbin, Jesse; Keogh, Sarah; Ndiaye, Salif

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT Abortion is highly restricted by law in Senegal. Although women seek care for abortion complications, no national estimate of abortion incidence exists. METHODS Data on postabortion care and abortion in Senegal were collected in 2013 using surveys of a nationally representative sample of 168 health facilities that provide postabortion care and of 110 professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Indirect estimation techniques were applied to the data to estimate the incidence of induced abortion in the country. Abortion rates and ratios were calculated for the nation and separately for the Dakar region and the rest of the country. The distribution of pregnancies by planning status and by outcome was estimated. RESULTS In 2012, an estimated 51,500 induced abortions were performed in Senegal, and 16,700 (32%) resulted in complications that were treated at health facilities. The estimated abortion rate was 17 per 1,000 women aged 15–44 and the abortion ratio was 10 per 100 live births. The rate was higher in Dakar (21 per 1,000) than in the rest of the country (16 per 1,000). Poor women were far more likely to experience abortion complications, and less likely to receive treatment for complications, than nonpoor women. About 31% of pregnancies were unintended, and 24% of unintended pregnancies (8% of all pregnancies) ended in abortion. CONCLUSIONS Unsafe abortion exacts a heavy toll on women in Senegal. Reducing the barriers to effective contraceptive use and ensuring access to postabortion care without the risk of legal consequences may reduce the incidence of and complications from unsafe abortion. PMID:25856233

  9. The unmet need for safe abortion in Turkey: a role for medical abortion and training of medical students.

    PubMed

    Mihciokur, Sare; Akin, Ayse; Dogan, Bahar Guciz; Ozvaris, Sevkat Bahar

    2015-02-01

    Abortion has been legal and safe in Turkey since 1983, but the unmet need for safe abortion services remains high. Many medical practitioners believe that the introduction of medical abortion would address this. However, since 2012 there has been political opposition to the provision of abortion services. The government has been threatening to restrict the law, and following an administrative change in booking of appointments, some hospital clinics that provided family planning and abortion services had to stop providing abortions. Thus, the availability of safe abortion depends not only on permissive legislation but also political support and the ability of health professionals to provide it. We conducted a study among university medical school students in three provinces on their knowledge of abortion and abortion methods, to try to understand their future practice intentions. Pre-tested, structured, self-administered questionnaires were answered by 209 final-year medical students. The students' level of knowledge of abortion and abortion methods was very low. More than three-quarters had heard of surgical abortion, but only 56% mentioned medical abortion. Although nearly 90% supported making abortion services available in Turkey, their willingness to provide surgical abortion (16%) or medical abortion (15%) was low, due to lack of knowledge. Abortion care, including medical abortion, needs to be included in the medical school curriculum in order to safeguard this women's health service.

  10. [Therapeutic abortion, unjustified absence in health policy].

    PubMed

    Chávez-Alvarado, Susana

    2013-07-01

    Although abortion for health reasons is not considered a crime in Peru, the State does not allow its inclusion in public policy, thus violating women's right to terminate a pregnancy when it affects their health. When examining the article in the Criminal Code which decriminalizes this type of abortion, provisions are identified which protect women and set the conditions to offer this type of service. This document sets the debate about the arguments used by the Peruvian State for not approving a therapeutic abortion protocol which would regulate the provision and financing of therapeutic abortion in public services, and explains why this obligation should be complied with, based on the conceptual framework of "health exception" In addition, it presents two cases brought before the judicial court in which the Peruvian State was found guilty of violating the human rights of two adolescents to whom a therapeutic abortion was denied.

  11. [Scope of the indications for abortion].

    PubMed

    Martella, E

    1976-09-01

    Legalization of abortion in Italy generates never ending discussions. The problem should have been solved years ago with a national campaign for family planning, with the setting up of well organized family centers, and with contraception available and free to all. If it seems right and proper to perform abortion under certain circumstances, it does not seem proper to take into consideration socioeconomic conditions, and certainly not abortion on request; a new life must not be wasted because a woman does not feel like having a new child. Abortion, on the other hand, is certainly to be considered in case of danger for the mother, in case of fetal abnormalities, or when the pregnancy is result of incest or of rape. Abortion for psychological reasons is very valid if the reasons are real, evident, and have been thoroughly evaluated.

  12. Achieving transparency in implementing abortion laws.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J; Erdman, J N; Dickens, B M

    2007-11-01

    National and international courts and tribunals are increasingly ruling that although states may aim to deter unlawful abortion by criminal penalties, they bear a parallel duty to inform physicians and patients of when abortion is lawful. The fear is that women are unjustly denied safe medical procedures to which they are legally entitled, because without such information physicians are deterred from involvement. With particular attention to the European Court of Human Rights, the UN Human Rights Committee, the Constitutional Court of Colombia, the Northern Ireland Court of Appeal, and the US Supreme Court, decisions are explained that show the responsibility of states to make rights to legal abortion transparent. Litigants are persuading judges to apply rights to reproductive health and human rights to require states' explanations of when abortion is lawful, and governments are increasingly inspired to publicize regulations or guidelines on when abortion will attract neither police nor prosecutors' scrutiny.

  13. [Pathomorphological research on chlamydial abortion in sheep].

    PubMed

    Neĭkov, P; Genchev, G G

    1987-01-01

    Serologic and morphologic studies were carried out with ewes and aborted fetuses, respectively, with regard to the Chlamydial infection in the flocks of some farms. The complement-fixation test was employed to examine a total of 656 blood serum samples. It was found that 20.2 per cent of these contained Chlamydial antibodies. Abortions were established with 6 to 8 per cent of the sheep in each flock. Material was sampled from 35 aborted fetuses. Featuring in the gross lesions of the fetal placenta in Chlamydial abortions were the wheat-bran type of whitish coatings on the surface. Characteristic histologic findings were desquamation, necroses, lympho-leukocytic infiltrations, and the partial deposits of calcium salts. Definite diagnostic value with the aborted fetuses were shown to have the lympho-histiocytic proliferations in the liver, adrenal glands, kidneys, lungs as well as the reticuloendothelial hyperplasia with the presence of gigantic cells of Langhans type in the mesenterial lymph nodes.

  14. Representations of the subject 'woman' and the politics of abortion: an analysis of South African newspaper articles from 1978 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Macleod, Catriona Ida; Feltham-King, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    A key element in cultural and gender power relations surrounding abortion is how women who undergo an abortion are represented in public talk. We analyse how women were named and positioned, and the attendant constructions of abortion, in South African newspaper articles on abortion from 1978 to 2005, a period during which there were radical political and legislative shifts. The name 'woman' was the most frequently used (70% of articles) followed by 'girl/teenager/child' (25%), 'mother' (25%), 'patient' (11%) and 'minor' (6%). The subject positionings enabled by these names were dynamic and complex and were interwoven with the localised, historical politics of abortion. The 'innocent mother' and the bifurcated 'patient' (woman/foetus) positionings were invoked in earlier epochs to promote abortion under medical conditions. The 'dangerous mother' and woman as 'patient' positionings were used more frequently under liberal abortion legislation to oppose and to advocate for abortion, respectively. The positioning of the 'girl/teenager/child' as dependent and vulnerable was used in contradictory ways, both to oppose abortion and to argue for a liberalisation of restrictive legislation, depending on the attendant construction of abortion. The neutral naming of 'woman' was, at times, linked to the liberal imaginary of 'choice'.

  15. Medical abortion: the hidden revolution.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Phil

    2015-07-01

    While the medical abortion (MA) drugs, mifepristone and misoprostol, have radically altered reproductive health practices around the world, there has been little field research on the sales and use of these drugs, especially in developing countries. This leaves the family planning community with many unanswered questions. While good profiles of contraceptive use are available for many countries and we have good technical data on the MA drugs' efficacy, dosages and regimens such as home dosage of misoprostol versus clinic dosage, we have very little information about the quantities of MA drugs sold, how they are used, where they are used, and, in the case of misoprostol, for what purposes. Sales data are available from one excellent commercial survey and from social marketing sales of mifepristone and misoprostol and these are presented. Acknowledging the sensitivity of the issue, especially in countries where abortion is severely restricted, the author makes a plea for careful additional research to shed light on an important and growing part of the international reproductive health picture.

  16. Early and late abortion methods.

    PubMed

    van Lith, D A; Wittman, R; Keith, L G

    1984-12-01

    This chapter provides a detailed description of 1st and 2nd trimester abortion techniques. In general, low morbidity is facilitated by preoperative diagnosis and evaluation, operator skill, sterile technique, avoidance of trauma, completeness of evacuation, and postoperative care. The 1st trimester technique used by the authors involves predilatation with laminaria, paracervical and intracervical blocks (anesthetic solution, 1% lignocaine with adrenaline), dilatation with either the Hawkin Ambler type or half-sized Pratt dilator, and evacuation with the van Lith or Karman type suction cannula. For 2nd trimester pregnancy termination, the authors use aspirotomy, a technique that combines the classic dilatation and evacuation method with suction curettage. An ergometrine maleate preparation is administered at the start of the procedure to produce sustained contraction of the uterine wall, decrease the chance of perforation, and accelerate the emptying process. Adrenaline in 1% lignocaine is used as a local anesthetic solution. A specially designed crushing forceps decreases the cervical dilatation required. Also presented is a technique for late 2nd trimester (16-20 weeks gestation) abortion that involves prostaglandins or the Finks dilatation and evacuation technique. The complication rate in the authors' unit for 3500 2nd trimester terminations was less than 0.5% but rose after 17 weeks of gestation.

  17. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion

    PubMed Central

    Urquia, Marcelo L.; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O’Campo, Patricia J.; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H.; Henry, David A.; Ray, Joel G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. Methods: We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Results: Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75–2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26–2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44–3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02–7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. Interpretation: High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. PMID:27067818

  18. [Therapeutical abortion in New York (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Aubeny, E; Brunerie, J; Missey-kolb, H

    1982-02-01

    Induced abortion has been legal in New York State since 1970. In 1978 there were 1,540,000 legal abortions in the U.S.; more than half of the abortions take place within the 8th week of pregnancy; 75% of abortions are done on an outpatient basis, most of them not in large hospitals, but in free standing clinics. 30% of abortions are done under general anesthesia and require about 3 hours of hospitalization. 70% are done under local anesthesia, usually paracervical block, and require about 2 hours of hospitalization. Most women requesting abortions are between 19-24, nulliparous, and between the 7-10 week of gestation. Dilatation is usually done with Pratt dilators and evacuation by curettage. Between 1972-78 a total of 6,311,000 abortions were performed within the 1st 12 weeks; the mortality rate was 0.8/100,000. Probability of mortality is not only minimal between the 1st-8th week, but is the same whether the abortion is done in a hospital or an outpatient clinic. Rates of serious complications range from 0.3% for the 1st 6 weeks to 0.8% from the 11-12th week. Rates for serious and minor complications taken together are 7.8%. Serious complications occur more frequently in patients under total anesthesia, especially cervical laceration and hemorrhage. Induced abortion does not increase the risk of secondary sterility. Between the 12th-17th week, abortion is usually done by dilatation and evacuation, and after the 17th week by drug infusion.

  19. [Discipline or liberalization of abortion? Proposal for the Fortuna law: its function and applicability in Italy].

    PubMed

    Fossati, S

    1973-06-01

    It is impossible to eliminate abortion, and therefore it must be evaluated in all its medical, moral, religious, as well as, unfortunately, convenience aspects. From a religious viewpoint, abortion is inadmissible; there are, however, social, emotional and psychological problems. Many countries have solved the problem of abortion more or less satisfactorily. Conditions in Italy, however, are rather special, as a resllt of a range of factors, not least of which is a powerful religious pressure which conditions many expressions of private and social life. The physician involved in this problem is confronted with very difficult decisions from the viewpoint of conscienc e, morality, and professional ethics. Abortion requests cannot be granted unconditionally and abortions of convenience must be drastically rejected. On the other hand, in many cases humane considerations demand a solution, and in very exceptional cases abortion is appropriate. But it is impossible to draw up a document to codify rigidly invidual cases, and the physician must rely on his own scientific knowledge, perhaps supported by that of a competent colleague, and on his professional cons cience. A thorough program of prevention of damaging or dangerous pregnancies is recommended, by means of health and sex education. Knowledge of both pharmaceutical and mechanical contraceptives must be popularized at all levels.

  20. Can the Danish abortion rate be changed?

    PubMed

    Lawson, C

    1990-06-01

    Topics of interest to women were discussed at a 1-day conference. 85% of the participants were women. The theme was, "Can the abortion rate be changed?" The number of abortions rose from 19,919 in 1985 to 21,199 in 1988, a rate of 6%. The previous 8 years had shown a steady decrease from 25,662 in 1977. This was especially pronounced in women under 25. The birth rate climbed 10% at the same time. With the exception of Ireland, free access to abortion is the rule in the majority of the countries of Europe. Prenatal diagnosis (PD)--chorionic villus biopsies and amniocentesis--was begun in 1970 in Denmark. Investigation of placental biopsies was begun in 1983. The number of diagnoses rose sharply after this. From 1980-1988 the number of legally induced abortions was between 20,000 and 23,000. The number of spontaneous abortions rose from 8000 to over 9000. There were approximately 70 abortions because of PD. This figure reached 133 in 1980. Women aged 35 and above have made increasing use of PD. After PD was brought about, the number of legal abortions dropped. 42% of pregnant women over 35 carried to term;l 46% chose legal abortion. In the 40-year age group, the figures were 23% and 60%, respectively. Data on 140 abortion seekers (AS) (ages 16-21) in Denmark (73.6% replied) were compared to 201 sexually active youngsters who were not pregnant. The abortion seekers showed no difference from those not pregnant. However, more among the AS had started sexual intercourse with the 1st 2 years after menarche; they had had many different sexual partners. 73.9% of the AS used contraception at 1st intercourse, compared to 82.1% of those not pregnant. In the abortion-seeking group, about 1/3 became pregnant despite the use of contraception (generally a condom). 44% had most recently used a pill. In 1973, a law was passed permitting abortion before the end of the 12th week of pregnancy. In the last 17 years, abortions have become more frequent among young career women. The

  1. Hindsight and the abortion experience: what abortion means to women years later.

    PubMed

    Avalos, L

    1999-01-01

    This article provides views on abortion by demonstrating women's retrospective accounts of their abortion experiences. Women's accounts of their abortion experiences are socially constructed both at the time of the abortion and in subsequent years in their lives. Some women reflect on their past abortion as the right decision; however, some also feel varying degrees of pain, grief, and loss. Many view their abortions as mistakes. Profiles of four women are presented in this article to provide several critical points on a continuum pertaining to study participants' retrospective satisfaction with an abortion experience. Based on the profiles, various emotional reactions are possible to occur after abortion and those retrospective interpretations of the experience change as personal growth and circumstances prompt women to reflect about the original experience. It was also documented that the satisfied group in the study was the one composed of women still involved with the partner with whom they became pregnant. With an open conversation on the emotional effects of abortion, women will be able to help inform and transform politicized abortion debates.

  2. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lamina, Mustafa Adelaja

    2015-01-01

    Background. Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. Method. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. Results. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. Conclusion. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high. PMID:26078881

  3. Double trisomy in spontaneous abortions.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K S

    1997-12-01

    Cytogenetic data on products of conception from spontaneous abortions studied over a 10-year period have been reviewed for double trisomies. A total of 3034 spontaneous abortions were karyotyped between 1986 and 1997. Twenty-two cases with double trisomy, one case with triple trisomy, and a case with a trisomy and monosomy were found. The tissues studied were mostly sac, villi, or placenta. The gestational age ranged from 6 to 11 weeks and the mean age was 8.2 +/- 1.7 (SD) weeks. The mean maternal age in years was 35.9 +/- 5.3. Of the twenty-two cases, four were mosaics. All but two of the cases involved autosomal aneuploidies. The double trisomies included chromosomes 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, and 22. The chromosomes that were trisomic in more than one double trisomy case were numbers 16 (8 cases), 8 (5 cases), 15 (4 cases), 2, 13, and 21 (3 cases each), and 5, 7, 14, 18, 20, 22, and X (2 cases). The triple trisomy involved chromosomes 18, 21, and X. The monosomy and trisomy case was a mosaic, with a monosomy 21 in all cells and some cells also with a trisomy 5. The double trisomies cited for the first time in this study were 4/13, 5/16, 8/14, 8/15, 14/21, 15/20, and 7/12. The pooled mean maternal age for double trisomy cases (34.1 +/- 5.7 years) was higher than that for single trisomy cases (31 +/- 6.1 years). The difference was statistically significant at P = < 0.001. The pooled mean gestational age of spontaneous abortions was lower for double trisomy (8.7 +/- 2.2 weeks) than for reported single trisomy cases (10.1 +/- 2.9 weeks). This difference is also statistically significant at P = < 0.001. The sex ratio among double trisomies was 15 females to 13 males. This difference was not statistically significant from the expected 1:1.

  4. [Medical and social implications of abortion].

    PubMed

    Radu, A; Capra, G

    1988-01-01

    In the course of the evolution of human society the problem or idea of interrupting a pregnancy has been faced many times. Romania has adopted a mixed solution to the termination of pregnancy allowing abortions for medical, eugenic, and social reasons. The 1936 penal code allowed only medical abortion, but recent regulations have offered differing solutions. The old regulation not allowing termination of pregnancy or restricting it was in force with minor modifications until 1957. In 1966 a decree was issued that allowed women with 4 children an abortion for special reasons as determined by an abortion committee, but still therapeutic and strictly medical causes predominated. In 1985 a new regulation of medical law prohibited termination of normal pregnancy up to 28 weeks of gestation and infractions were punishable by law. Illegal induced abortion represents an antisocial manifestation that jeopardizes human relationships in society. Induced abortion occurs often in disintegrated family situations. The social implications of the phenomenon of birth are manyfold. Medical intervention is difficult because of the mutilating effect of abortion. The motives are a matter of reflection for physicians and jurists alike.

  5. University abortion programs: one year later.

    PubMed

    Burkman, R T; King, T M; Burnett, L S; Atienza, M F

    1974-05-01

    A survey of 86 university abortion programs was carried out in December 1973, a year after the Supreme Court decision on abortion. In comparing the results of the questionnaires used in the survey, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Maryland, and New York are considered separately as established states because of their prior liberalized abortion laws, and the other states are referred to as new states. At least 52% of all centers where abortions are performed have less than 500 procedures annually. 31.6% of the new states and 50% of the established states perform menstrual extraction. 65% of all centers providing abortion services have investigative programs. No significant differences exist between the centers of new and established states. It appears that significant numbers of physicians are not exposed to the management of abortions. Less than 1/3 of university programs provide educational experience for outside physicians. It was made evident by the survey that many university departments have not made elective abortion an integral part of the service and educational responsibilities of obstetrics and gynecology.

  6. SOCIOECONOMIC VARIATIONS IN INDUCED ABORTION IN TURKEY.

    PubMed

    Ankara, Hasan Giray

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the levels of, and socioeconomic variations in, income-related inequality in induced abortion among Turkish women. The study included 15,480 ever-married women of reproductive age (15-49) from the 2003 and 2008 waves of the Turkish Demographic and Health Survey. The measured inequalities in abortion levels and their changes over time were decomposed into the percentage contributions of selected socioeconomic factors using ordinary least square analysis and concentration indices were calculated. The inequalities and their first difference (difference in inequalities between 2003 and 2008) were decomposed using the approaches of Wagstaff et al. (2003). Higher socioeconomic characteristics (such as higher levels of wealth and education and better neighbourhood) were found to be associated with higher rates of abortion. Inequality analyses indicated that although deprived women become more familiar with abortion over time, abortion was still more concentrated among affluent women in the 2008 survey. The decomposition analyses suggested that wealth, age, education and level of regional development were the most important contributors to income-related inequality in abortion. Therefore policies that (i) increase the level of wealth and education of deprived women, (ii) develop deprived regions of Turkey, (iii) improve knowledge about family planning and, especially (iv) enhance the accessibility of family planning services for deprived and/or rural women, may be beneficial for reducing socioeconomic variations in abortion in the country.

  7. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  8. The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

  9. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  10. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  11. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  12. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  13. Emotional Sequelae of Abortion: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemkau, Jeanne Parr

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes literature on normative reactions to abortion and factors that increase risk of negative emotional sequelae. Discusses characteristics of woman, social support and cultural milieu around the abortion, the medical environment and abortion procedure itself, and events subsequent to abortion which may cause conflict. Discusses implications…

  14. Feelings of Well-Being Before and After an Abortion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hittner, Amy

    1987-01-01

    Examined feelings of well-being in 217 women who had abortions. Results suggest that, compared to women who have not had abortions, those who choose abortion feel more negatively. Of women choosing abortion, those who are already mothers are most likely to be depressed and lonely, followed by those from lower educational and socioeconomic…

  15. Induced abortion in Brazilian married women.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, B

    1964-01-01

    A survey of 1734 married women in Brazil was conducted to determine the incidence of abortion. The results show that 159, or 9.2% stated that they had had at least 1 induced abortion, either within marriage or when they were single. Mean age of women with a history of induced abortion was 35.05 years, compared with 34.38 years for women who had had live births but not abortion, and 32.58 for women who had had neither live-birth nor abortion. When age at marriage, rather than age at interview was considered, the incidence of abortion was apparently greater among those marrying at earlier ages, although consideration should also be given to the fact that the chances of live births are also inversely related to age at marriage. Generally, married women with a history of abortion desired no more children compared with other married women; they were more likely to have had experimented with various contraceptive measures in the past; more likely to be currently practicing contraception; and were more ready to accept the contraceptive pill if it had been available. The lower the social status (either of the wife's father/husband) and the 'darker' the informant's skin color, the greater the tendency to use coitus interruptus; the safe period; and other methods. Also, the lower the social status and the darker the skin, the less likely was the informant ever to have used contraceptive devices. It was concluded that in consideration of the variables considered, the differences between wives with and without a history of abortion were generally not great. Any significant differences noted were attributed to variations in economic security. Widespread knowledge and practice of contraception, as well as economic development and higher average income, will reduce the induced abortion rate in Brazil.

  16. Abortion, church and politics in Poland.

    PubMed

    Jankowska, H

    1992-01-01

    In early 1991 the abortion debate in Poland entered its new stage. The prolife and prochoice options had already clashed in the early 1930s over a new penal code and backstreet abortions. According to the code of 1932, induced abortion was allowed in cases of rape, incest, or for medical indications. Abortion was legalized in 1956, but subsequently it came under attack from Catholic circles, and by 1989 the Unborn Child Protection Bill was drafted which criminalized abortion. Only 11% of Polish women use modern contraceptives. The less efficient methods are the most prevalent: the natural method (Ogino-Knaus calendar), 35% of couples; coitus interruptus, 34%; condoms, 15%; oral contraceptives 7%; chemical spermicides, 2.5%; and the IUD 2%. According to size of Catholic Church estimate there are 600,000 abortions yearly. In contrast, official statistics indicate that the number of abortions is decreasing: 137,950 in 1980; 105,300 in 1988; 80,100 in 1989; 59,400 in 1990. In January 1991 the Constitutional Tribunal dismissed the motion of the Polish Feminist Association against the restrictive regulations of the Ministry of Health concerning abortion. After a parliamentary stalemate on the Unborn Child Protection Bill a commission consisting of 46 persona (1.2 of them women, 20 persons from the prochoice and 24 from the prolife lobby) continued the debate on the bill. Public opinion polls conducted by independent groups in November 1990 showed that about 60% of citizens were against the Senate's draft. Since then interest in the abortion issue has dwindled, and only 200 women and men took part in a prochoice demonstration in front of the parliament on January 25, 1991. In the spring of 1989 and in September 1990 thousands had participated in similar demonstrations. The prevailing attitude is that if the antiabortion bill is passed nothing can be done.

  17. The deprivation argument against abortion.

    PubMed

    Stretton, Dean

    2004-04-01

    The most plausible pro-life argument claims that abortion is seriously wrong because it deprives the foetus of something valuable. This paper examines two recent versions of this argument. Don Marquis's version takes the valuable thing to be a 'future like ours', a future containing valuable experiences and activities. Jim Stone's version takes the valuable thing to be a future containing conscious goods, which it is the foetus's biological nature to make itself have. I give three grounds for rejecting these arguments. First, they lead to unacceptable inequalities in the wrongness of killing. Second, they lead to counterintuitive results in a range of imaginary cases. Third, they ignore the role of psychological connectedness in determining the magnitude or seriousness of deprivation-based harms: because the foetus is only weakly psychologically connected to its own future, it cannot be seriously harmed by being deprived of that future.

  18. The Epidemiology of Abortion And Its Prevention in Chile.

    PubMed

    Koch, Elard

    2015-01-01

    Mortality by abortion has continuously decreased over the past fifty years in Chile. In fact, maternal death as a result of an induced abortion has become an exceptionally rare phenomenon in epidemiological terms (a risk of 1 in 4 million pregnant women of fertile age or 0.4 per 100,000 life births for abortion of any type, excluding ectopic pregnancy). After abortion became illegal in 1989, deaths related to abortion continued to decrease from 10.8 to 0.39 per 100,000 live births. This scientific fact challenges the common notion that less permissive abortion laws lead to greater mortality associated with abortion.

  19. The impact of state-level restrictions on abortion.

    PubMed

    Meier, K J; Haider-Markel, D P; Stanislawski, A J; McFarlane, D R

    1996-08-01

    This research examines 23 different laws passed by state governments in an effort to restrict the number of abortions. It assesses both laws passed and laws actually enforced after the Supreme Court permitted states to restrict access to abortion in 1989. None of the policy actions by state governments has had a significant impact on the incidence of abortion from 1982 to 1992. Abortion rates continue to reflect past abortion rates, the number of abortion providers, whether the state funds abortions for Medicaid-eligible women, urbanism, and racial composition of the population. Recent restrictive policies have not affected these trends.

  20. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    SciTech Connect

    Uythoven, Jan; Boccardi, Andrea; Bravin, Enrico; Goddard, Brennan; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry; Höfle, Wolfgang; Jacquet, Delphine; Kain, Verena; Mazzoni, Stefano; Meddahi, Malika; Valuch, Daniel; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana

    2014-07-01

    To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  1. Karyotypes of 1142 couples with recurrent abortion.

    PubMed

    Portnoï, M F; Joye, N; van den Akker, J; Morlier, G; Taillemite, J L

    1988-07-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed on 1142 couples with recurrent pregnancy loss. The frequency of major chromosomal abnormalities per couple was 4.8%. Among 771 couples who had only abortions, the rate of rearrangement did not correlate with the number of abortions. The highest incidence of cytogenetic abnormalities (6.6%) was found in 256 couples with abortion and a normal child. With regard to pregnancy outcome, no unbalanced fetal karyotype was found in prenatal diagnoses, and 40 normal children were born. The risk of unbalanced fetal karyotype is therefore low, but probably high enough for these couples to be offered the possibility of a prenatal diagnosis.

  2. Selective abortion in Brazil: the anencephaly case.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora

    2007-08-01

    This paper discusses the Brazilian Supreme Court ruling on the case of anencephaly. In Brazil, abortion is a crime against the life of a fetus, and selective abortion of non-viable fetuses is prohibited. Following a paradigmatic case discussed by the Brazilian Supreme Court in 2004, the use of abortion was authorized in the case of a fetus with anencephaly. The objective of this paper is to analyze the ethical arguments of the case, in particular the strategy of avoiding the moral status of the fetus, the cornerstone thesis of the Catholic Church.

  3. Public opinion about abortion-related stigma among Mexican Catholics and implications for unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    McMurtrie, Stephanie M; García, Sandra G; Wilson, Kate S; Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Fawcett, Gillian M

    2012-09-01

    A nationally representative survey was conducted among 3000 Catholics in Mexico during 2009 and 2010. Respondents were presented with a hypothetical situation about a young woman who decided to have an abortion and were asked their personal opinion of her. On the basis of a stigma index, it was found that the majority (61%) had stigmatizing attitudes about abortion; however, 81% believed that abortion should be legal in at least some circumstances. Respondents were significantly more likely to stigmatize abortion if they disagreed with the Mexico City law legalizing the procedure (odds ratio 1.66; 95% CI, 1.30-2.11) and believed that abortion should be prohibited in all cases (odds ratio 3.13; 95% CI, 2.28-4.30). Such stigma can lead women to seek unsafe abortions to avoid judgment by society.

  4. Factors associated with immediate abortion complications.

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, L E; McMain-Klein, M; Colodny, N; Fellows, G F; Lamont, J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with increased risk of immediate complications from induced abortion. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a provincial database. SETTING: All Ontario general hospitals in which abortions are performed and all free-standing abortion clinics in Ontario. POPULATION: Women in Ontario aged 15 to 44 years who underwent an induced abortion in the province (without concurrent sterilization) between Jan. 1, 1992, and Dec. 31, 1993. OUTCOME MEASURES: Recording of complications at the time of the procedure, gestational age, type of procedure, place of abortion (hospital or clinic), and patient's age, parity and history of previous abortion (spontaneous or induced). RESULTS: During the study period 83 469 abortions were performed that met our inclusion criteria. Immediate complications were reported in 571 cases (0.7%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that, after other variables were controlled for, the patient's age, parity and history of previous abortions (spontaneous or induced) were not significant risk factors for immediate complications; however, gestational age, method of abortion and place of abortion were significant risk factors (p < 0.001). The odds ratio (OR) for having a complication from abortion was 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 1.63) between 9 and 12 weeks, compared with having one after abortion at 9 weeks or earlier, and increased to 3.3 (95% CI 2.23 to 5.00) after abortion between 17 and 20 weeks. Compared with surgical dilatation and curettage (D&C), instillation of saline and instillation of prostaglandins were more likely to be associated with immediate complications (OR 24.0, 95% CI 13.22 to 43.70, and OR 11.7, 95% CI 6.43 to 21.18, respectively), whereas both suction D&C and insertion of a laminaria tent were less likely to be associated with immediate complications (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.67, and OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.52, respectively). Compared with women who had an abortion

  5. Knowledge and perception of the Nigerian Abortion Law by abortion seekers in south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adinma, E D; Adinma, J I B; Ugboaja, J; Iwuoha, C; Akiode, A; Oji, E; Okoh, M

    2011-11-01

    One in four pregnancies worldwide is voluntarily terminated. Approximately 20 million terminations are performed under unsafe conditions, mostly in developing countries with restrictive abortion laws. A total of 100 consecutive abortion-seekers were interviewed, to ascertain their knowledge and perceptions on the Nigerian Abortion Law. The majority (55.0%) of the respondents were students. Most of them (97%) had at least secondary education and the majority (62.0%) were within the 20-24 years age range. Only 31.0% of the women interviewed were aware of the Nigerian Abortion Law. While 16% perceived the law as being restrictive, 2% opined that' it was alright'; 1% perceived it as very restrictive and 12% had no opinion on the abortion law. Knowledge of the abortion law had no significant relationship with either the educational level of the respondent or the number of previous pregnancy terminations and overall demand for abortion services. It is necessary to ensure a wide dissemination of the abortion law and its provisions to the Nigerian public, in order to arm them with the necessary information to participate actively in debates on abortion law reforms.

  6. Abortion Providers' Experiences with Medicaid Abortion Coverage Policies: A Qualitative Multistate Study

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Amanda; Blanchard, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the implementation of state Medicaid abortion policies and the impact of these policies on abortion clients and abortion providers. Data Source From 2007 to 2010, in-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of 70 abortion-providing facilities in 15 states. Study Design In-depth interviews focused on abortion providers' perceptions regarding Medicaid and their experiences working with Medicaid and securing reimbursement in cases that should receive federal funding: rape, incest, and life endangerment. Data Extraction Data were transcribed verbatim before being coded. Principal Findings In two study states, abortion providers reported that 97 percent of submitted claims for qualifying cases were funded. Success receiving reimbursement was attributed to streamlined electronic billing procedures, timely claims processing, and responsive Medicaid staff. Abortion providers in the other 13 states reported reimbursement for 36 percent of qualifying cases. Providers reported difficulties obtaining reimbursement due to unclear rejections of qualifying claims, complex billing procedures, lack of knowledgeable Medicaid staff with whom billing problems could be discussed, and low and slow reimbursement rates. Conclusions Poor state-level implementation of Medicaid coverage of abortion policies creates barriers for women seeking abortion. Efforts to ensure policies are implemented appropriately would improve women's health. PMID:22742741

  7. "Abortion--it is my own body": women's narratives about influences on their abortion decisions in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Oduro, Georgina Yaa; Otsin, Mercy Nana Akua

    2014-01-01

    Globally, abortion has emerged as a critical determinant of maternal morbidity and mortality. The Ghana government amended the country's abortion law in 1985 to promote safe abortion. This article discusses the findings of a qualitative study that explored the decision-making experiences of 28 female abortion seekers aged between 15 and 30 years in Ghana. Key findings from the study are that individuals claimed autonomy in their abortion decisions; underlying the abortion decisions were pragmatic concerns such as economic difficulties, child spacing, and fear of parental reaction. In conclusion, we examine the health implications of Ghanaian women's abortion decisions.

  8. Adolescent knowledge and attitudes about abortion.

    PubMed

    Stone, R; Waszak, C

    1992-01-01

    A focus-group study of adolescents from cities across the United States revealed that they lacked accurate knowledge about abortion and the laws governing it. Most expressed erroneous beliefs about abortion, describing it as medically dangerous, emotionally damaging and widely illegal. The study also revealed that antiabortion views, conservative morality and religious beliefs were the primary sources of these adolescents' attitudes toward abortion. In general, the participants in the study said they were personally opposed to abortion, but supported its continued legality as a woman's choice. Although most of the teenagers expressed positive feelings toward parents, they did not feel that mandatory parental involvement would be helpful, and in some cases could cause harm.

  9. [Abortion counseling: strategies for interdisciplinary service].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Chan; Gau, Meei-Ling; Tsai, Yieh-Loong; Huang, Chun-Liang

    2007-04-01

    Abortion has long been an issue of concern for professional groups in many fields, such as medicine, nursing, religion, feminist rights, psychology, and social work. Although these groups hold differing views on abortion as well as eugenics health care law revision, they share a consensus that counseling services should be provided for abortion in order that women are sufficiently informed to make a sound decision on whether or not to have an abortion. Thus, this paper discusses in detail counseling service in terms of background, workflow and approaches, and interdisciplinary integration, as well as offers suggestions for future development. Hopefully, this can serve as a reference for concerned about women's reproductive health and obstetrics service quality.

  10. Commercial Crew Program: Launch Abort Systems

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's work in the next generation of launch abort systems (LAS) is significantly different from past programs. Instead of designing a specific system for a given spacecraft or rocket, engineers ar...

  11. Constitutional developments in Latin American abortion law.

    PubMed

    Bergallo, Paola; Ramón Michel, Agustina

    2016-11-01

    For most of the 20th Century, restrictive abortion laws were in place in continental Latin America. In recent years, reforms have caused a liberalizing shift, supported by constitutional decisions of the countries' high courts. The present article offers an overview of the turn toward more liberal rules and the resolution of abortion disputes by reference to national constitutions. For such purpose, the main legal changes of abortion laws in the last decade are first surveyed. Landmark decisions of the high courts of Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, and Mexico are then analyzed. It is shown that courts have accepted the need to balance interests and competing rights to ground less restrictive laws. In doing so, they have articulated limits to protection of fetal interests, and basic ideas of women's dignity, autonomy, and equality. The process of constitutionalization has only just begun. Constitutional judgments are not the last word, but they are important contributions in reinforcing the legality of abortion.

  12. Estimating induced abortion rates: a review.

    PubMed

    Rossier, Clémentine

    2003-06-01

    Legal abortions are authorized medical procedures, and as such, they are or can be recorded at the health facility where they are performed. The incidence of illegal, often unsafe, induced abortion has to be estimated, however. In the literature, no fewer than eight methods have been used to estimate the frequency of induced abortion: the "illegal abortion provider survey," the "complications statistics" approach, the "mortality statistics" approach, self-reporting techniques, prospective studies, the "residual" method, anonymous third party reports, and experts' estimates. This article describes the methodological requirements of each of these methods and discusses their biases. Empirical records for each method are reviewed, with particular attention paid to the contexts in which the method has been employed successfully. Finally, the choice of an appropriate method of estimation is discussed, depending on the context in which it is to be applied and on the goal of the estimation effort.

  13. The Bad Mother: Stigma, Abortion and Surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Stigma taints individuals with a spoiled identity and loss of status or discrimination. This article is the first to examine the stigma attached to abortion and surrogacy and consider how law may stigmatize women for failing to conform to social expectations about maternal roles. Courts should consider evidence of stigma when evaluating laws regulating abortion or surrogacy to determine whether these laws are based on impermissible gender stereotyping.

  14. Catholicism and abortion since Roe v. Wade.

    PubMed

    Hisel, L M

    1998-01-01

    This document summarizes a sample of significant activities and events undertaken by Roman Catholics in response to the US Supreme Court's Roe vs. Wade decision legalizing induced abortion. The summaries begin with the 1966 creation of the National Right to Life Committee and cover opposition of Catholic bishops to the Roe decision, the organization of the National Committee for a Human Life Amendment (NCHLA), the mock investiture of a female pope by Catholics for a Free Choice, dismissal of a pro-life priest from the Jesuits, excommunication of various women because of their work with pro-choice agencies or ones that provided abortion services, meetings of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) with presidential candidates, NCHLA lobbying for the Hyde Amendment, open letters and advertisements published by CFC, the effort of Abortion Rights Mobilization to strip the Catholic church of its tax-exempt status, the Vatican order for all priests to leave political office, actions taken by nuns to support the pro-choice position, the proposal of the "seamless garment" argument under the principle of the "consistent ethic of life," initiation of the post-abortion reconciliation project, the actions of Catholic politicians, the filing of amicus curiae briefs, support of bishops for Operation Rescue, forums on abortion conducted by an Archbishop, the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion, targeting by bishops of pro-choice candidates for sanctions and excommunication, testimony and lobbying in opposition of the Freedom of Choice Act, false accusations about the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development leveled by bishops, lobbying by bishops in support of a ban on late-term abortions, lobbying to increase the access of low-income women to abortion, and consideration by the bishops of reinstituting "meatless Fridays" to express Catholic opposition to "attacks on human life and dignity."

  15. South African parliament approves sweeping abortion reform.

    PubMed

    1996-11-22

    South Africa's National Assembly voted 209 to 87 for passage of the "Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act" on October 30; it was passed in the Senate, 49 to 21 (20 abstentions), on November 5. The African National Congress strongly supported the Act, while the National Party opposed it. Under the law, abortions during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy may to be performed by physicians or trained midwives. From week 13 through week 20, a physician, in consultation with the mother, may terminate the pregnancy after determining that continuing the pregnancy would threaten the woman's health (physical or mental) or circumstances (social or economic), or that the fetus is at substantial risk of suffering severe physical or mental abnormalities. Abortion is permitted after 20 weeks if two doctors (or midwives) decide continuing the pregnancy would endanger the mother's life or result in injury or severe malformation of the fetus. Only the pregnant woman's consent is required. Although an abortion provider must advise a young client to consult with parents, guardian, family members, or friends before the procedure, she is not required to comply. All women are to be informed of their rights under the Act; criminal penalties (up to 10 years) are mandated for unauthorized abortion providers, for persons who prevent a lawful abortion, or for those who obstruct access to an abortion facility. The new statute repeals the more restrictive Abortion and Sterilization Act of 1975, which permitted abortion only in cases of maternal life or health endangerment, severe fetal abnormality, rape, incest, or mental incapacity.

  16. Experimental transmission of epizootic bovine abortion (foothill abortion).

    PubMed

    Stott, Jeffrey L; Blanchard, Myra T; Anderson, Mark; Maas, John; Walker, Richard L; Kennedy, Peter C; Norman, Ben B; BonDurant, Robert H; Oliver, Michael N; Hanks, Donald; Hall, Mark R

    2002-08-25

    Advances in defining the biology of epizootic bovine abortion (EBA), including identification of the etiologic agent, have been hampered by the inability to reproduce the disease with confidence. Experimental reproduction of EBA, by feeding the tick vector Ornithodoros coriaceus on susceptible pregnant heifers, is not reliable. The primary objectives of this study were to identify specific tissue(s) obtained from EBA-infected fetuses that could transmit the disease, and then utilize such an infectious challenge system to better define the pathogen, host immunity and geographic distribution of the agent. Described here is the ability to routinely reproduce EBA following inoculation of cryopreserved suspensions of homogenized thymus into susceptible pregnant heifers. This challenge system permitted experiments demonstrating the agent was non-filterable, inactivated upon sonication and susceptible to antibiotics. These findings suggest a prokaryotic microbe and represent a major advance in EBA research. Additional experiments demonstrated that inoculation of the cryopreserved EBA-infectious tissue into heifers, prior to breeding, conferred immunity. Furthermore, such immunized heifers were resistant to challenge with heterologous sources of infectious tissue, suggesting monovalent vaccine development might be feasible. Lastly, challenge studies employing animals from Central Nevada, an area considered free of EBA, demonstrated partial immunity, suggesting the pathogen, and possibly the disease, enjoy a broader distribution than previously thought.

  17. Abortion politics and the production of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lisa H

    2013-08-01

    It is common to think of scientific research and the knowledge it generates as neutral and value free. Indeed, the scientific method is designed to produce "objective" data. However, there are always values built into science, as historians of science and technology have shown over and over. The relevant question is not how to rid science of values but, instead, to ask which values and whose values belong? Currently, antiabortion values consistently determine US research policy. Abortion research is declared illegitimate in covert and overt ways, at the level of individual researchers and research policy broadly. Most importantly, federal policy impedes conduct of both basic and clinical research in abortion. However, it is not just research in abortion that is deemed "illegitimate;" research in infertility and in vitro fertilization is as well. Federal funding of any reproductive health research agenda that would pose more than minimal risk to a fetus or embryo is banned. This leaves unanswered scientific questions about abortion, infertility, miscarriage and contraception among other areas. Since moral ground is occupied not just by abortion opponents but also by people who support abortion rights, there is at the very least a competing moral claim to consider changing federal research funding policy. Women and families deserve access to knowledge across the spectrum of reproductive health issues, whether they seek to end or start a pregnancy. Thus, research funding is an issue of reproductive justice.

  18. [Factors influencing the decision to seek abortion].

    PubMed

    af Geijerstam, G

    1980-02-13

    In 1974, a law was passed in Sweden allowing abortion on demand. Studies are now being undertaken to determine the effect of this law in 3 important areas: abortion counselling, abortion frequency, and possible means of psychological assistance for those who undergo abortions. Abortion must be studied as it affects the entire reproductive chain, in which there are 4 main links: frequency of sexual intercourse, physiological fertility, motivation to have children, and measures taken for birth control. In an agricultural society, children have a value as part of the work force and for retirement security; in a modern society, children have a much more abstract value. The reproductive chain is also affected by the increasing number of unmarried couples living together. There is a need to interview individuals and families to determine "fertility choice behavior", which can help to illuminate motivations for becoming pregnant or seeking abortion. These studies could help determine the perceived advantages and disadvantages of having children and what factors influence "fertility choice behavior".

  19. Abortion and anxiety: what's the relationship?

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Julia Renee; Russo, Nancy F

    2008-07-01

    Using data from the United States National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), we conducted secondary data analyses to examine the relationship of abortion, including multiple abortions, to anxiety after first pregnancy outcome in two studies. First, when analyzing the NSFG, we found that pre-pregnancy anxiety symptoms, rape history, age at first pregnancy outcome (abortion vs. delivery), race, marital status, income, education, subsequent abortions, and subsequent deliveries accounted for a significant association initially found between first pregnancy outcome and experiencing subsequent anxiety symptoms. We then tested the relationship of abortion to clinically diagnosed generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and social anxiety disorder, using NCS data. Contrary to findings from our analyses of the NSFG, in the NCS analyses we did not find a significant relationship between first pregnancy outcome and subsequent rates of GAD, social anxiety, or PTSD. However, multiple abortions were found to be associated with much higher rates of PTSD and social anxiety; this relationship was largely explained by pre-pregnancy mental health disorders and their association with higher rates of violence. Researchers and clinicians need to learn more about the relations of violence exposure, mental health, and pregnancy outcome to avoid attributing poor mental health solely to pregnancy outcomes.

  20. Shaping legal abortion provision in Ghana: using policy theory to understand provider-related obstacles to policy implementation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    provider values and attitudes (not just resource constraints) modify providers’ implementation of policy; moreover their power of modification is constrained by organisational hierarchies and mid-level managers. We also revealed differing responses of ‘front line workers’ regarding the pressures they face; whilst midwives are seen globally as providers of safe-abortion services, in Ghana the midwife cadre displays more negative attitudes towards them than doctors. These findings allow the identification of recommendations for evidence-based practice. PMID:23829555

  1. Life Ownership Orientation and Attitudes toward Abortion, Suicide, Doctor-Assisted Suicide, and Capital Punishment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Kaplan, Kalman J.

    1994-01-01

    Examined life ownership orientation (extent to which one believes that God, individual, or society has power over one's life) among 117 college students who completed Life Ownership Orientation Questionnaire (LOOQ). Found LOOQ scores demonstrated higher predictive validity with regard to attitudes toward abortion, suicide, doctor-assisted suicide,…

  2. Rhetorical Strategies for a Culture War: Abortion in the 1992 Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Richard B.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the general strategies of Bill Clinton and George Bush in the 1992 presidential campaign regarding the abortion issue among the complex of family values appeals and in the context of the "culture war." Analyzes the rhetorical power of the dead fetus image shown in campaign advertising. Speculates on the influence of the abortion…

  3. Freedom of conscience, professional responsibility, and access to abortion.

    PubMed

    Dresser, R S

    1994-01-01

    The current shortage of US physicians willing to perform induced abortions has created a conflict between women's legal right to access to pregnancy termination and physicians' right to refuse participation in a procedure they regard as morally objectionable. According to a 1993 survey, 84% of US counties (housing 30% of women of reproductive age) had no abortion provider. This situation has been exacerbated by a trend to isolate abortion from other medical procedures; in 1992, only 12% of residency programs in obstetrics and gynecology routinely offered training on first-trimester abortion. Also contributing to physician reluctance to become abortion providers have been the violence, death threats, property damage, and harassment of abortion seekers perpetrated by anti-abortion groups. To ameliorate the abortion access crisis, without intruding on the religious convictions of individual physicians, there must be greater collaboration between professional and community groups. Local community officials and pro-choice supporters are urged to use their influence to protect abortion providers from harassment. Professional organizations should provide both symbolic and practical support, e.g. increased status and remuneration, to physicians who commit to the hardship of abortion provision. Older physicians, most aware of the threat to women's health posed by any erosion of abortion rights, should educate their younger colleagues about the importance of safe abortion. Finally, training on abortion techniques should be integrated into the medical school curriculum and rotations should be established at local abortion clinics.

  4. Abortion and public health: Time for another look.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, Stephen A

    2016-02-01

    Four decades after Roe v. Wade, abortion remains highly contentious, pitting a woman's right to choose against a fetal claim to life. Public health implications are staggering: the US annual total of more than one million induced abortions equals nearly half the number of registered deaths from all causes. Sentiment regarding abortion is roughly evenly split among the general public, yet fundamental debate about abortion is largely absent in the public health community, which is predominantly supportive of its wide availability. Absence of substantive debate on abortion separates the public health community from the public we serve, jeopardizing the trust placed in us. Traditional public health values-support for vulnerable groups and opposition to the politicization of science-together with the principle of reciprocity weigh against abortion. Were aborted lives counted as are other human lives, induced abortion would be acknowledged as the largest single preventable cause of loss of human life. Lay Summary: Four decades after Roe v. Wade, abortion remains highly divisive. Public sentiment regarding abortion is roughly evenly split, yet fundamental debate is largely absent in the public health community, which supports abortion's wide availability. Absence of substantive debate separates the public health community from the public it serves. Traditional public health values-support for vulnerable populations and opposition to politicization of science-and the principle of reciprocity ("the Golden Rule") weigh against abortion. Were aborted lives counted as are other human lives, induced abortion would be acknowledged as the largest single preventable cause of loss of human life.

  5. Lower income Hindu women's attitude towards abortion: a case study in urban India.

    PubMed

    Madhok, Bindu; Raj, Selva J

    2004-01-01

    After a brief discussion of Hindu views on abortion as reflected in classical Hindu philosophical and religious texts, this article examines, from an interdisciplinary perspective, current social attitudes towards abortion among lower-income Hindu women in Calcutta and attempts to identify the reasons for the striking disparity between traditional and modern Hindu views. Does Hindu dharma have the regulatory power it wielded in the past? What accounts for the changing face of mores in urban centers like Calcutta? These and related issues are the focus of this essay.

  6. A simplified method for differential staining of aborted and non-aborted pollen grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to use chemical staining to discriminate aborted from non-aborted pollen grains has well-known practical applications in agriculture. A commonly used technique for assessing pollen vitality, Alexander’s stain, uses chloral hydrate, phenol and mercuric chloride, all of which are highly to...

  7. Medical Students’ Attitudes toward Abortion Education: Malaysian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tey, Nai-peng; Yew, Siew-yong; Low, Wah-yun; Su’ut, Lela; Renjhen, Prachi; Huang, M. S. L.; Tong, Wen-ting; Lai, Siow-li

    2012-01-01

    Background Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students’ attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. Methods and Results A survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward abortion among medical students was conducted in two public universities and a private university in Malaysia in 2011. A total of 1,060 students returned the completed questionnaires. The survey covered about 90% of medical students in Years 1, 3, and 5 in the three universities. About 90% of the students wanted more training on the general knowledge and legal aspects of abortion, and pre-and post-abortion counseling. Overall, 75.9% and 81.0% of the students were in favor of including in medical education the training on surgical abortion techniques and medical abortion, respectively. Only 2.4% and 1.7% were opposed to the inclusion of training of these two methods in the curriculum. The remaining respondents were neutral in their stand. Desire for more abortion education was associated with students’ pro-choice index, their intention to provide abortion services in future practice, and year of study. However, students’ attitudes toward abortion were not significantly associated with gender, type of university, or ethnicity. Conclusions Most students wanted more training on abortion. Some students also expressed their intention to provide abortion counseling and services in their future practice. Their desire for more training on abortion should be taken into account in the new curriculum. Abortion education is an important step towards making available safe abortion services to enable women to exercise their reproductive rights. PMID:23300600

  8. Latin American women's experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted.

    PubMed

    Zamberlin, Nina; Romero, Mariana; Ramos, Silvina

    2012-12-22

    Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used.Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades.This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women's experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal.Women's personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support.Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and the

  9. Latin American women’s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades. This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women’s experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal. Women’s personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support. Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and

  10. High Levels of Post-Abortion Complication in a Setting Where Abortion Service Is Not Legalized

    PubMed Central

    Melese, Tadele; Habte, Dereje; Tsima, Billy M.; Mogobe, Keitshokile Dintle; Chabaesele, Kesegofetse; Rankgoane, Goabaone; Keakabetse, Tshiamo R.; Masweu, Mabole; Mokotedi, Mosidi; Motana, Mpho; Moreri-Ntshabele, Badani

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality due to abortion complications stands among the three leading causes of maternal death in Botswana where there is a restrictive abortion law. This study aimed at assessing the patterns and determinants of post-abortion complications. Methods A retrospective institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals from January to August 2014. Data were extracted from patients’ records with regards to their socio-demographic variables, abortion complications and length of hospital stay. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were employed. Result A total of 619 patients’ records were reviewed with a mean (SD) age of 27.12 (5.97) years. The majority of abortions (95.5%) were reported to be spontaneous and 3.9% of the abortions were induced by the patient. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as their first visit to the hospitals and one third were referrals from other health facilities. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as a result of incomplete abortion followed by inevitable abortion (16.8%). Offensive vaginal discharge (17.9%), tender uterus (11.3%), septic shock (3.9%) and pelvic peritonitis (2.4%) were among the physical findings recorded on admission. Clinically detectable anaemia evidenced by pallor was found to be the leading major complication in 193 (31.2%) of the cases followed by hypovolemic and septic shock 65 (10.5%). There were a total of 9 abortion related deaths with a case fatality rate of 1.5%. Self-induced abortion and delayed uterine evacuation of more than six hours were found to have significant association with post-abortion complications (p-values of 0.018 and 0.035 respectively). Conclusion Abortion related complications and deaths are high in our setting where abortion is illegal. Mechanisms need to be devised in the health facilities to evacuate the uterus in good time whenever it is indicated and to be equipped to handle the fatal complications. There is an indication for

  11. Induction of fetal demise before abortion.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, Justin; Drey, Eleanor

    2010-06-01

    For decades, the induction of fetal demise has been used before both surgical and medical second-trimester abortion. Intracardiac potassium chloride and intrafetal or intra-amniotic digoxin injections are the pharmacologic agents used most often to induce fetal demise. In the last several years, induction of fetal demise has become more common before second-trimester abortion. The only randomized, placebo-controlled trial of induced fetal demise before surgical abortion used a 1 mg injection of intra-amniotic digoxin before surgical abortion at 20-23 weeks' gestation and found no difference in procedure duration, difficulty, estimated blood loss, pain scores or complications between groups. Inducing demise before induction terminations at near viable gestational ages to avoid signs of life at delivery is practiced widely. The role of inducing demise before dilation and evacuation (D&E) remains unclear, except for legal considerations in the United States when an intact delivery is intended. There is a discrepancy between the one published randomized trial that used 1 mg intra-amniotic digoxin that showed no improvement in D&E outcomes and observational studies using different routes, doses and pre-abortion intervals that have made claims for its use. Additional randomized trials might provide clearer evidence upon which to make further recommendations about any role of inducing demise before surgical abortion. At the current time, the Society of Family Planning recommends that pharmacokinetic studies followed by randomized controlled trials be conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of feticidal agents to improve abortion safety.

  12. The development of instruments to measure attitudes toward abortion and knowledge of abortion.

    PubMed

    Snegroff, S

    1976-05-01

    An abortion-attitude scale and an abortion knowledge inventory that may be used by health educators, counselors, and researchers in order to assess attitudes toward abortion, knowledge of abortion, and to determine the relationship between these 2 factors was developed. The information obtained can be used to assist in the development of educati onal programs and curricula and to aid counselors in becoming more helpf ul to the students. The instruments were constructed from a sample of undergraduate students at Brooklyn College of the City University of New York. All students were from randomly selected classes and participated voluntarily. The instruments were completed during the summer of 1973. The Abortion-Attitude Scale is a 5-point summated rating scale designed to determine each subject's positive or negative attitude toward abortion as a birth control method. The Abortion-Knowledge Inventory has a 4-option multiple choice format, designed to determine each subject's knowledge about abortion. The mean attitude score for the final administration to 527 students was 116.6 which falls almost halfway between 90 (undecided) and 150 (fully in favor), indicating a generally liberal attitude. The mean knowledge scores for the 527 students was 16.1 which is equal to a percentage score of 54%. In order to determine the relationship between attitudes toward and knowledge of abortion as birth control, scores on the 2 scales were correlated. The results indicate a moderate and statistically significant relationship. It appears that with more knowledge about abortion the students tended to have more favorable attitudes.

  13. Against the law: Irish women and abortion.

    PubMed

    1995-02-01

    In both the Republic of Ireland and the North of Ireland, it is impossible to obtain a legal abortion unless the life of the mother would otherwise be lost. Thus, an estimated 10-12,000 women travel from Ireland to England each year to have an abortion. These women can receive support from the Irish Women's Abortion Support Group (IWASG) which is made up of volunteer women who are Irish or of Irish descent. The IWASG provides accommodations, emotional and practical support, and information about how to obtain an abortion in the UK. It makes appointments, negotiates fees, and monitors services offered. The group can also provide financial assistance to women in need. IWASG liaises with pro-choice groups in Ireland, such as the underground Women's Information Network (WIN), which has branches in Dublin, Galway, and Cork. WIN provides confidential, nondirective counseling to women in need. Abortion is a very difficult choice for Irish women because of the legal strictures and because of the guilt which often results from government and religious propaganda. The prospect of finding their way around London is often as daunting to the Irish women as the procedure itself, and many of the women travel to England absolutely alone with no one at home even aware of what they are doing. IWASG is seeking new members to help them support these women. For information, write IWASG, 52 Featherstone Street, London ECIY 8RT.

  14. Evidence for Parachlamydia in bovine abortion.

    PubMed

    Ruhl, Silke; Casson, Nicola; Kaiser, Carmen; Thoma, Ruedi; Pospischil, Andreas; Greub, Gilbert; Borel, Nicole

    2009-03-16

    Bovine abortion of unknown infectious aetiology still remains a major economic problem. In this study, we focused on a new possible abortigenic agent called Parachlamydia acanthamoebae. Retrospective samples (n=235) taken from late-term abortions in cattle were investigated by real-time diagnostic PCR for Chlamydiaceae and Parachlamydia spp., respectively. Histological sections of cases positive by real-time PCR for any Chlamydia-related agent were further examined by immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies. Chlamydophila abortus was detected only in three cases (1.3%) by real-time PCR and ArrayTube Microarray playing a less important role in bovine abortion compared to the situation in small ruminants in Switzerland. By real-time PCR as many as 43 of 235 (18.3%) cases turned out to be positive for Parachlamydia. The presence of Parachlamydia within placental lesions was confirmed in 35 cases (81.4%) by immunohistochemistry. The main histopathological feature in parachlamydial abortion was purulent to necrotizing placentitis (25/43). Parachlamydia should be considered as a new abortigenic agent in Swiss cattle. Since Parachlamydia may be involved in lower respiratory tract infections in humans, bovine abortion material should be handled with care given the possible zoonotic risk.

  15. Abortion in Brazil: legislation, reality and options.

    PubMed

    Guedes, A C

    2000-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Brazil except when performed to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. This paper gives a brief history of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary efforts to change abortion-related legislation in Brazil in the past 60 years, the contents of some of the 53 bills that have been tabled in that time, the non-governmental stakeholders involved and the debate itself in recent decades. The authorities in Brazil have never assumed full public responsibility for reproductive health care or family planning, let alone legal abortion; the ambivalence of the medical profession is an important obstacle. Most politicians avoid getting involved in the abortion debate, but the majority of bills in the 1990s have favoured less restrictive legislation. Incremental legislative and health service changes could help to improve the situation for women. Advocacy is probably the most important action, to promote an environment conducive to change. Clandestine abortion is a serious public health problem in Brazil, and the inadequacy of family planning services is one of the causes of this problem. The solutions should be made a priority for the Brazilian public health system.

  16. Conservative management of spontaneous abortions. Women's experiences.

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, E.; Janssen, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe women's experiences with expectant management of spontaneous abortions. DESIGN: Descriptive survey using questionnaires with fixed-choice and open-ended questions. The latter were analyzed for themes, using qualitative methods. SETTING: Urban and suburban private primary care family practices. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of family practice patients (59 of 80 eligible) pregnant for less than 12 weeks who had spontaneous abortions without surgery. Response rate was 84.7%; 50 questionnaires were received from the 59 women. METHOD: Women were asked about their physical experiences, including amount of pain and bleeding; emotional effects; their satisfaction with medical care; and their suggestions for improving care. MAIN FINDINGS: The mean worst pain experienced during a spontaneous abortion on an 11-point scale was 5.9. Bleeding varied, but was often very heavy. Satisfaction rate was 92.9% with family physician care and 84.6% with hospital care. Women described the emotional effect of "natural" spontaneous abortions and made recommendations for improving care. CONCLUSIONS: A better understanding of the physical and emotional experiences of the women in this study might help physicians better prepare and support patients coping with expectant management of spontaneous abortions. PMID:10540695

  17. A critical appraisal of laws on second trimester abortion.

    PubMed

    Berer, Marge

    2008-05-01

    There will always be women who need abortions after 12 weeks of pregnancy, and their reasons are often compelling. Although second trimester abortions carry relatively more risks than first trimester abortions, abortion is still very safe throughout the second trimester if done in safe conditions. This paper is about law and policy on second trimester abortions, which are allowed on more restrictive grounds than first trimester abortions in most countries, if at all. It focuses on countries where most or at least some second trimester abortions are allowed, including in Europe, where many women are still forced to travel for second trimester abortions, and countries in the developing world, where most second trimester abortions remain unsafe. The need for second trimester abortion should be met in a safe, timely and sympathetic manner. Abortion should be legal at the woman's request up to 24 weeks and on therapeutic grounds after that, and no other barriers or hurdles should be imposed on women seeking second trimester abortion. In-depth, country-based research is needed, to bring out the facts on second trimester abortion, as evidence of why it should be treated as a legitimate form of women's health care and supported in public health policy.

  18. Restricted access to abortion in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland: exploring abortion tourism and barriers to legal reform.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Fiona; O'Dowd, Kellie

    2014-01-01

    Access to abortion remains a controversial issue worldwide. In Ireland, both north and south, legal restrictions have resulted in thousands of women travelling to England and Wales and further afield to obtain abortions in the last decade alone, while others purchase the 'abortion pill' from Internet sources. This paper considers the socio-legal context in both jurisdictions, the data on those travelling to access abortion and the barriers to legal reform. It argues that moral conservatism in Ireland, north and south, has contributed to the restricted access to abortion, impacting on the experience of thousands of women, resulting in these individuals becoming 'abortion tourists'.

  19. Knowledge and perception of abortion and the abortion law in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Martin, Cedriann J; Hyacenth, Glennis; Suite, Lynette Seebaran

    2007-05-01

    As for most of its Caribbean neighbours, Trinidad and Tobago's leading cause of maternal morbidity is unsafe abortion. Yet activism to introduce public policy and legislation that effectively address this aspect of women's reproductive rights and health has been met with public outcry. With almost hysterical opposition coming from certain religious quarters, there is the unsubstantiated impression that Trinidadians are overwhelmingly opposed to abortion law reform. A national survey was therefore carried out of people's knowledge and views on the current abortion law in Trinidad and Tobago. The survey found that although almost half of respondents had an unfavourable perception of abortion, more than half of them were in favour of broadening the legal grounds for accessing terminations. Incest, rape and danger to a woman's life were cited as the most significant circumstances under which abortions should be permitted. The vast majority of respondents agreed that voting on abortion law reform by members of the legislature should not be based on personal beliefs. The findings demonstrate that there is not the degree of opposition to abortion law reform that is widely assumed. On the other hand, given the wide variance of views and perceptions, we argue that public health concerns and human rights should always trump public opinion.

  20. Constructing abortion as a social problem: “Sex selection” and the British abortion debate

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Between February 2012 and March 2015, the claim that sex selection abortion was taking place in Britain and that action needed to be taken to stop it dominated debate in Britain about abortion. Situating an analysis in sociological and social psychological approaches to the construction of social problems, particularly those considering “feminised” re-framings of anti-abortion arguments, this paper presents an account of this debate. Based on analysis of media coverage, Parliamentary debate and official documents, we focus on claims about grounds (evidence) made to sustain the case that sex selection abortion is a British social problem and highlight how abortion was problematised in new ways. Perhaps most notable, we argue, was the level of largely unchallenged vilification of abortion doctors and providers, on the grounds that they are both law violators and participants in acts of discrimination and violence against women, especially those of Asian heritage. We draw attention to the role of claims made by feminists in the media and in Parliament about “gendercide” as part of this process and argue that those supportive of access to abortion need to critically assess both this aspect of the events and also consider arguments about the problems of “medical power” in the light of what took place. PMID:28367000

  1. Student Nurses View an Abortion Client: Attitude and Context Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Edward H.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two studies of the relationship between student nurses' attitudes and patient perception with regard to abortion. Results indicate that the student nurses' judgments were related to their prevailing attitude toward abortion and to their religiosity. (Author/MA)

  2. Eliciting qualitative information about induced abortion: lessons from Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Obtaining reliable information about induced abortion is notoriously difficult, especially where abortion is illegal. This article describes methods used in a study of illegal induced abortion among village women in Northeast Thailand. A variety of methods were used to gather in-depth qualitative data on abortion experiences including a randomized interview survey on reproductive health, in-depth interviews with women who had experienced an induced abortion in the last two years, and the use of vignettes in focus group discussions with men and women. The survey provided a broad overview of the extent of the experience of abortion. In-depth interviews through social networks proved more successful for obtaining reliable accounts of abortions and suggest that survey results were underestimates. Focus groups discussed the situational ethics involved in abortion decisions. Within an appropriate context and study design, it is possible to obtain highly sensitive information while respecting the privacy of informants.

  3. Physician opinions concerning legal abortion in Bogotá, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Stanhope, Kaitlyn; Rochat, Roger; Fink, Lauren; Richardson, Kalie; Brack, Chelsey; Comeau, Dawn

    2017-01-19

    Since the decriminalisation of abortion in 2006, women in Colombia have continued to seek clandestine abortions, endangering their health and contributing to maternal mortality and morbidity. The goal of this study was to explore physicians' opinions towards and knowledge about legal abortion in Bogotá, Colombia, and key barriers to the legal abortion access. We conducted 13 key informant interviews followed by a survey with a probability sample of 49 doctors working in public hospitals in Bogotá. Interview and survey data showed lack of technical experience in the provision of abortion and nuanced opinions towards its practice. Key informants described ignorance and lack of abortion training in medical schools as key barriers to provision. In the survey, 16/49 respondents had performed an abortion, 24/49 had referred a woman for an abortion and only 33/49 showed correct knowledge of the law.

  4. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  5. International developments in abortion laws: 1977-88.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1988-01-01

    During the period between 1977 and the first quarter of 1988, 35 countries liberalized their abortion laws and four countries limited grounds for the procedure. Most legislation has extended abortion eligibility through traditional indications such as danger to maternal health or fetal handicap, but a number of other indications have been created such as adolescence, advanced maternal age, family circumstances, and AIDS or HIV infection. A number of countries have redesigned their abortion laws as part of a comprehensive package to facilitate access to and delivery of contraception, voluntary sterilization, and abortion services. Abortion litigation has increased and stimulated the liberalization of abortion provisions and the support of women's autonomous choice within the law. In Canada, the entire criminal prohibition of abortion was held unconstitutional for violating women's integrity and security. In contrast, Latin American and other constitutional developments may limit legal abortion to instances of danger to women's lives. PMID:3048126

  6. [Adolescent abortions experience and care needs].

    PubMed

    de Faria, Ester Correa Rodrigues; Domingos, Selisvane Ribeiro da Fonseca; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Ferreira, Leidiane Maria Gomes

    2012-09-01

    This is a qualitative research based on the social phenomenology approach, performed in 2010 with eight adolescents who experienced abortion and were assisted in a philanthropic hospital institution in the state of Minas Gerais. This research aimed at understanding the experience and care needs regarding adolescents in an abortion situation. The results show that the pregnancy impact led to the fear of non acceptance by the family and at the same time, the feeling of happiness for the possibility of being a mother. The abortion experience was marked by suffering and the care provided was considered satisfactory, being highlighted the need for more attention and information. The adolescents plan to continue their studies and have in mind the possibility of a new pregnancy. The planning of preventive actions aimed at this audience, and the development of new scientific investigations that include the perspective of family members and health professionals begin to emerge.

  7. Ethical considerations on methods used in abortions.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Eike-Henner W

    2015-03-01

    There is a fundamental inconsistency in Western society's treatment of non-human animals on the one hand, and of human foetuses on the other. While most Western countries allow the butchering of animals and their use in experimentation, this must occur under carefully controlled conditions that are intended to minimize their pain and suffering as much as possible. At the same time, most Western countries permit various abortion methods without similar concerns for the developing fetus. The only criteria for deciding which abortion method is used centre in the stage of the pregnancy, the size of the fetus, the health of the pregnant woman and the physician's preference. This is out of step with the underlying ethos of animal cruelty legislation, cannot be justified ethically and should be rectified by adjusting abortion methods to the capacity of the fetus to experience nociception and/or pain.

  8. Algerian abortion controversy highlights rape of war victims.

    PubMed

    Chelala, C

    1998-05-09

    This brief article highlights the change in Islamic practices to allow abortion for women raped during war situations in Algeria. The Islamic Supreme Council on April 12, 1998, issued an edict (fatwa) that allowed abortions for women attacked by Islamic extremists. This changes the prior prohibition of abortion, except in cases where the mother's life is in danger. The day after the edict, the newspapers Le Matin and La Tribune denied the existence of the edict, because the President's council did not request the change in Islamic law. The newspaper Al Khabar published the April 12, 1998, news of the edict and drew attention to the fate of over 1000 women and young girls raped during attacks. An estimated 70,000 people have been reported killed since 1992. The war was precipitated when the army nullified national elections that would have given the Islamic party political power. The Algerian Family Solidarity Ministry reports that as many as 1600 women, mostly aged 13-20 years, have been abducted and raped since 1994, by bands from the Armed Islamic Group. Figures are considered underestimates. Many women were able to escape from captors, but many of these women were pregnant. The stigma is so strong that many of these women will not be accepted home by their own families. In addition to those women who survived being raped, an estimated 2000 raped women were killed by their captors. The abductions have declined, but are still ongoing, especially around Algiers and near the Moroccan and Tunisian borders. The terrorists consider the act a "temporary marriage." Amnesty International and others have criticized the recent UN Human Rights Commission for not taking action in Algeria.

  9. Catholic options in the abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Maguire, D C

    1990-01-01

    The little-known Roman Catholic theological doctrine of probabilism, an ethical system explicated in all manuals of moral theology, is explained using as an example the dilemma of abortion. Probabilism is based on the notion that a doubtful moral obligation may not be imposed as though it were certain. "Ubi dubium, ibi libertas," means where there is doubt, there is freedom. There are 2 types of moral probability, intrinsic probability, where the individual, without the help of moral theologians, perceives the inapplicability of a particular moral teaching; and extrinsic probability, which involves reliance on the findings of 5 or 6 reputable moral theologians, who may hold a liberal view. Probabilism implies a reasonable doubt, and one's reasons must be cogent, but not necessarily conclusive. Today's abortion debate is an example of a respectable debate, where the liberal view has been endorsed by a number of reputable religious or other humanitarian bodies that in some cases abortion is not always immoral. Other examples in history are the view once taught by the church that taking interest on loans was immoral, that depriving slaves and women of civil rights on non-Catholics of religious or political freedom was moral. For today's legislators, there is a precedent throughout theological history for the state permitting an evil: both St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas wrote that prostitution, although evil, should not be outlawed, because worse evils would occur with prohibition. Legislators who personally find abortion always immoral can support a Roe V. Wade decision because 1) it does not require anyone to have an abortion, and 2) the abortion debate, among Catholics, and non-Catholics is not settled.

  10. Human rights dynamics of abortion law reform.

    PubMed

    Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M

    2003-02-01

    The legal approach to abortion is evolving from criminal prohibition towards accommodation as a life-preserving and health-preserving option, particularly in light of data on maternal mortality and morbidity. Modern momentum for liberalization comes from international adoption of the concept of reproductive health, and wider recognition that the resort to safe and dignified healthcare is a major human right. Respect for women's reproductive self-determination legitimizes abortion as a choice when family planning services have failed, been inaccessible, or been denied by rape. Recognition of women's rights of equal citizenship with men requires that their choices for self-determination be legally respected, not criminalized.

  11. Manufacturing mental illness (and lawful abortion): doctors' attitudes to abortion law and practice in new South Wales and Queensland.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Heather; Black, Kirsten; de Costa, Caroline

    2013-03-01

    Around one-quarter of Australian women will have an abortion during their lifetime but access is affected by the way health care providers interpret the law about abortion. In Queensland and New South Wales abortion is a criminal offence although it is defensible in certain circumstances. Drawing on interviews with 22 doctors who provide abortion services to women in New South Wales and Queensland, this article examines doctors' responses to two common scenarios in which women may request an abortion. The two scenarios discussed in this article are a request for a first trimester abortion in circumstances where the woman does not feel ready to have a baby; and a request for abortion in the second trimester where the fetus has been diagnosed with an abnormality. This article explores doctors' understanding of the law related to the provision of abortion in these two States and their views about the effect of the law on their practice.

  12. [Results of a discussion prior to induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Audibert, C

    1979-02-01

    Counseling abortion seekers can be a very difficult task. Some patients can be very knowledgeable about contraception and abortion techniques, and only need reassurance. Most patients, however, need not only explanation about the abortion procedure, but total information about the various contraceptive methods. Attitude, patience, understanding and sympathy of the counseling personnel are just as important as their professional training.

  13. The Psychosocial Factors of the Abortion Experience: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shusterman, Lisa Roseman

    1976-01-01

    Due to faulty methodology no general statements can be made about psychosocial factors for women receiving illegal abortions. Women receiving therapeutic abortions experienced favorable psychological consequences more often than negative consequences. New abortion patients are mostly young, unmarried women who are not in a social position to care…

  14. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  15. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed...

  16. The Effect of Religious Membership on Teen Abortion Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomal, Annette

    2001-01-01

    Studied abortion rates among teenagers in 1,024 counties in 18 states that report abortion numbers. Results show that counties with high levels of religious membership were more likely to be in a state with a parental involvement law for teenage abortions. Both religious membership level and a parental involvement law were negatively related to…

  17. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed...

  18. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed...

  19. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed...

  20. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed...

  1. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  2. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  3. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  4. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  5. The Global Politics of Abortion. Worldwatch Paper 97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Jodi L.

    Locating the issue of abortion in a global public policy context, with the array of public health, human rights, and social questions that are implicated, is the aim of this paper. Abortion laws around the world have been liberalized since the 1950s, with a resultant decrease in abortion-related mortality among women. The proportion of the world's…

  6. [Abortion level in 5 species of Cestrum L. (Solanaceae)].

    PubMed

    Castro Laportte, M; Ruíz Zapata, T

    2001-01-01

    We studied the fitness and abortion levels in five species of genus Cestrum L. (Solanaceae) present in a cloud forest of Parque Nacional Henri Pittier, Venezuela. The seed set is variable and the abortion is higher at flowers-fruits and ovule levels, while the S/O ratio is low. We discuss the possible causes of abortion and seed set in these species.

  7. Aerodynamic Testing of the Orion Launch Abort Tower Separation with Jettison Motor Jet Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, Matthew N.; Chan, David T.; Niskey, Charles J.; Wilson, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    The aerodynamic database for the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) was developed largely from wind tunnel tests involving powered jet simulations of the rocket exhaust plumes, supported by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The LAS contains three solid rocket motors used in various phases of an abort to provide propulsion, steering, and Launch Abort Tower (LAT) jettison from the Crew Module (CM). This paper describes a pair of wind tunnel experiments performed at transonic and supersonic speeds to determine the aerodynamic effects due to proximity and jet interactions during LAT jettison from the CM at the end of an abort. The tests were run using two different scale models at angles of attack from 150deg to 200deg , sideslip angles from -10deg to +10deg , and a range of powered thrust levels from the jettison motors to match various jet simulation parameters with flight values. Separation movements between the CM and LAT included axial and vertical translations as well as relative pitch angle between the two bodies. The paper details aspects of the model design, nozzle scaling methodology, instrumentation, testing procedures, and data reduction. Sample data are shown to highlight trends seen in the results.

  8. Estimates of the rate of illegal abortion and the effects of eliminating therapeutic abortion, Alberta 1973-74.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, S A; Krótki, K J

    1979-01-01

    Data from the Growth of Alberta Family Study were used to estimate the illegal abortion rate for the residents of Edmonton, Alberta and to assess the potential impact of eliminating therapeutic abortion on the birth rate and on the illegal abortion rate. The study population consisted of 938 women, aged 18-54. The women were divided into 3 groups, and sensitive abortion data was elicited from each group using different data collection techniques. One group was asked about abortion in the traditional interview mode. Another group was asked to mail in their responses to abortion answers anonymously, and the remaining group was questioned about abortion using the (RRT) randomized response technique. The use of the RRT allowed the respondent to answer yes or no questions without the interviewer being aware that the respondent was responding to sensitive abortion questions. The RRT elicited information on a greater number of abortions than the other 2 techniques. According to calculations based on the RRT elicited information, the illegal abortion rate in Edmonton was 22.4/100 conceptions surviving the 1st 4 weeks of gestation. In view of the controversy surrounding the current abortion law, an effort was made to assess the effects of eliminating therapeutic abortions. A method, previously developed by Tietze for calculating the impact of abortion laws on the birth rate in New York, was applied to the Alberta data. The conclusion was reached that if therapeutic abortions were eliminated, the effect on the birth rate would be negligible and the illegal abortion rate would increase by 12%. The estimated illegal abortion rates and other major study results were presented in tabular form.

  9. Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Attitude Control Motor Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Paschal, Keith B.; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Foley, Robert; Mayfield, David; Cross, Jared

    2011-01-01

    Current Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) configurations use an eight-jet, solid-fueled Attitude Control Motor (ACM) to provide required vehicle control for all proposed abort trajectories. Due to the forward position of the ACM on the LAV, it is necessary to assess the effects of jet-interactions (JI) between the various ACM nozzle plumes and the external flow along the outside surfaces of the vehicle. These JI-induced changes in flight control characteristics must be accounted for in developing ACM operations and LAV flight characteristics. A test program to generate jet interaction aerodynamic increment data for multiple LAV configurations was conducted in the NASA Ames and NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels from August 2007 through December 2009. Using cold air as the simulant gas, powered subscale models were used to generate interaction data at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic test conditions. This paper presents an overview of the complete ACM JI experimental test program for Orion LAV configurations, highlighting ACM system modeling, nozzle scaling assumptions, experimental test techniques, and data reduction methodologies. Lessons learned are discussed, and sample jet interaction data are shown. These data, in conjunction with computational predictions, were used to create the ACM JI increments for all relevant flight databases.

  10. Attitudes to abortion in the era of reform: evidence from the Abortion Law Reform Association correspondence.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma L

    2011-01-01

    This article examines letters sent by members of the general public to the Abortion Law Reform Association (ALRA) in the decade immediately before the 1967 Abortion Act. It shows how a voluntary organisation, in their aim of supporting a specific cause of unclear legality, called forth correspondence from those in need. In detailing the personal predicaments of those facing an unwanted pregnancy, this body of correspondence was readily deployed by ALRA in their efforts to mobilise support for abortion law reform, thus exercising a political function. A close examination of the content of the letters and the epistolary strategies adopted by their writers reveals that as much as they were a lobbying tool for changes in abortion law, these letters were discursively shaped by debates surrounding that very reform.

  11. Expansion of Safe Abortion Services in Nepal Through Auxiliary Nurse‐Midwife Provision of Medical Abortion, 2011‐2013

    PubMed Central

    Basnett, Indira; Shrestha, Dirgha Raj; Shrestha, Meena Kumari; Shah, Mukta; Aryal, Shilu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The termination of unwanted pregnancies up to 12 weeks’ gestation became legal in Nepal in 2002. Many interventions have taken place to expand access to comprehensive abortion care services. However, comprehensive abortion care services remain out of reach for women in rural and remote areas. This article describes a training and support strategy to train auxiliary nurse‐midwives (ANMs), already certified as skilled birth attendants, as medical abortion providers and expand geographic access to safe abortion care to the community level in Nepal. Methods This was a descriptive program evaluation. Sites and trainees were selected using standardized assessment tools to determine minimum facility requirements and willingness to provide medical abortion after training. Training was evaluated via posttests and observational checklists. Service statistics were collected through the government's facility logbook for safe abortion services (HMIS‐11). Results By the end of June 2014, medical abortion service had been expanded to 25 districts through 463 listed ANMs at 290 listed primary‐level facilities and served 25,187 women. Providers report a high level of confidence in their medical abortion skills and considerable clinical knowledge and capacity in medical abortion. Discussion The Nepali experience demonstrates that safe induced abortion care can be provided by ANMs, even in remote primary‐level health facilities. Post‐training support for providers is critical in helping ANMs handle potential barriers to medical abortion service provision and build lasting capacity in medical abortion. PMID:26860072

  12. Debate: Should Abortion Be Available on Request?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Bernard; Lawrence, George

    1971-01-01

    Two physicians debate whether abortions should be available on request regardless of medical indications. The crux of the issue is whether the fetus should be considered body tissue over which the woman has complete control or whether society has an interest in the embryo and should protect it. (Author/BY)

  13. Is there a 'new ethics of abortion'?

    PubMed

    Gillon, R

    2001-10-01

    This paper argues that the central issue in the abortion debate has not changed since 1967 when the English parliament enacted the Abortion Act. That central issue concerns the moral status of the human fetus. The debate here is not, it is argued, primarily a moral debate, but rather a metaphysical debate and/or a theological debate--though one with massive moral implications. It concerns the nature and attributes that an entity requires to have "full moral standing" or "moral inviolability" including a "right to life". It concerns the question when, in its development from newly fertilised ovum to unequivocally mature, autonomous morally inviolable person does a human being acquire that nature and those attributes, and thus a "right to life". The paper briefly reviews standard answers to these questions, outlining some problems associated with each. Finally there is a brief discussion of one way in which the abortion debate has changed since 1967--notably in the increasingly vociferous claim, especially from disability rights sectors, that abortion on grounds of fetal abnormality implies contempt for and rejection of disabled people--a claim that is rebutted.

  14. Women with Disabilities: Abortion and Liberation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Alison

    1987-01-01

    The paper argues that the women's movement has failed to adequately take account of women with disabilities. By supporting women's right to abortions for handicapped fetuses, the movement denies disabled women an identity as equal human beings worthy of respect. (JDD)

  15. Regulations prohibiting abortion counseling held unconstitutional.

    PubMed

    Rymer, T A

    1990-01-01

    A federal appellate court for Massachusetts has ruled that regulations prohibiting counseling or referrals for abortion services violate the constitutional right to reproductive choice. The regulations in question were promulgated under Title X of the US Public Health Service Act. The regulations required pregnant women to be furnished with a list of providers who supported the welfare of the mother and the fetus, thus making the decision to abort more difficult and intruding upon pre- existing physician-patient relationships. The regulations further imposed substantial costs and delays on women who chose to abort through their endorsement of the withholding of requested information. In finding these regulations unconstitutional, the Court noted that they went beyond a mere refusal to fund abortion and interfered with the decision making process by dictating the information a woman was entitled to receive. On the basis of general principles that govern the provision of health services and the physician-patient relationship, the American Medical Association supported the position that the Title X regulations were unconstitutional. The Association noted in its brief that physicians must be free to reveal to their patients all the relevant facts patients need to make an informed decision about medical treatment, even if the physician does not personally plan to provide such treatment.

  16. Evaluation of stated motives for legal abortion.

    PubMed

    Törnbom, M; Ingelhammar, E; Lilja, H; Möller, A; Svanberg, B

    1994-03-01

    In a study of 404 women (simple random sample), 20-29 years of age, 201 (group A) applying for abortion and 203 (group B) continuing their pregnancies, the women were given a questionnaire and in addition were interviewed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the spontaneous personal motives of women for abortion at a time when age is not supposed to be a common reason. The results showed that more than half of the women expressed that a bad relationship with the partner in one way or another was a motive for the abortion. Other important motives included characteristics of the women and their partners, mainly immaturity, work/studies and unsuitable life situation for having a child. Less common motives seemed to be economy, dwelling and medical and health factors. It is obvious that women in this study wanted to have a stable relationship to the child's father before they dared or wanted to have a child. Social networks in modern society seem to be too weak. The women do not want to face social and emotional problems as lonely mothers. Political decisions in the society, for example with parental benefit according to your income discourage women from continuing their pregnancies during their studies. It also seems important for the woman to feel mature enough to have a child. The provision and encouragement of methods for safer sex may be a possible way by which to reduce the number of abortions.

  17. Psychological factors that predict reaction to abortion.

    PubMed

    Moseley, D T; Follingstad, D R; Harley, H; Heckel, R V

    1981-04-01

    Investigated demographic and psychological factors related to positive or negative reactions to legal abortions performed during the first trimester of pregnancy in 62 females in an urban southern community. Results suggest that the social context and the degree of support from a series of significant persons rather than demographic variables were most predictive of a positive reaction.

  18. Lymphoedema - distichiasis syndrome with recurrent abortions.

    PubMed

    Sardesai, Vidyadhar R; Mhatre, Madhulika A; Patil, Rohan M

    2012-01-01

    Lymphoedema-distichiasis syndrome, a type of familial lymphoedema praecox, is a rare, primary lymphoedema of pubertal onset associated with distichiasis and other associations including congenital heart disease, ptosis, varicose veins, cleft palate, and spinal extradural cysts. We report a case of familial lymphoedema with associated distichiasis, atrial septal defect, varicose veins, and recurrent abortions in a 29-year-old female.

  19. Association between Nutritional Status with Spontaneous Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Rahimeh; Ziaei, Saeideh; Parsay, Sosan

    2017-01-01

    Background Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. We aimed to investigate a possible link between nutrient deficiencies and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Materials and Methods This case-control study included the case group (n=331) experiencing a spontaneous abortion before 14 weeks of pregnancy and the control group (n=331) who were healthy pregnant women over 14 weeks of pregnancy. The participants filled out Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), in which they reported their frequency of consumption for a given serving of each food item during the past three months, on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. The reported frequency for each food item was converted to a daily intake. Then, consumption of nutrients was compared between the two groups. Results There are significant differences between the two groups regarding consumed servings/day of vegetables, bread and cereal, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, beans, fats, oils and dairy products (P=0.012, P<0.001, P=0.004, P<0.001, P=0.019, respectively). There are significant differences between the two groups in all micronutrient including folic acid, iron, vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and zinc (P<0.001). Conclusion Poor nutrientions may be correlated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion. PMID:28042413

  20. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  1. Women's hidden transcripts about abortion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nations, M K; Misago, C; Fonseca, W; Correia, L L; Campbell, O M

    1997-06-01

    Two folk medical conditions, "delayed" (atrasada) and "suspended" (suspendida) menstruation, are described as perceived by poor Brazilian women in Northeast Brazil. Culturally prescribed methods to "regulate" these conditions and provoke menstrual bleeding are also described, including ingesting herbal remedies, patent drugs, and modern pharmaceuticals. The ingestion of such self-administered remedies is facilitated by the cognitive ambiguity, euphemisms, folklore, etc., which surround conception and gestation. The authors argue that the ethnomedical conditions of "delayed" and "suspended" menstruation and subsequent menstrual regulation are part of the "hidden reproductive transcript" of poor and powerless Brazilian women. Through popular culture, they voice their collective dissent to the official, public opinion about the illegality and immorality of induced abortion and the chronic lack of family planning services in Northeast Brazil. While many health professionals consider women's explanations of menstrual regulation as a "cover-up" for self-induced abortions, such popular justifications may represent either an unconscious or artful manipulation of hegemonic, anti-abortion ideology expressed in prudent, unobtrusive and veiled ways. The development of safer abortion alternatives should consider women's hidden reproductive transcripts.

  2. CFD Study of the Hydrocarbon Boost Low-Pressure Inducer and Kicker in the Presence of a Circumferential Groove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Results are presented of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study done in support of Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) sub-scale water flow experiments of the Hydrocarbon Boost (HCB) Oxidizer Turbopump (OTP) being developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and Aerojet. A circumferential groove may be added to the pump to reduce synchronous cavitation and subsequent bearing loads at a minimal performance cost. However, the energy may reappear as high order cavitation (HOC) that spans a relatively large frequency range. Thus, HOC may have implications for the full-scale OTP inducer in terms of reduced structural margin at higher mode frequencies. Simulations using the LOCI/Stream CFD program were conducted in order to explore the fluid dynamical impact of the groove on the low-pressure inducer and kicker. It was found that the circumferential groove has minimal head performance impact, but causes back-flowing high-swirl fluid to interact with the nearly-axial incoming fluid just above the inducer blades. The high-shear interface between the fluids is Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable, resulting in trains of low pressure regions or 'pearls' forming near the upstream edge of the groove. When the static pressure in these regions becomes low enough and they get cut by the blade leading edge, HOC is thought to occur. Although further work is required, the numerical models indicate that HOC will occur in the runbox of the AFRL/Aerojet HCB OTP. Comparisons to the ongoing water flow experiments will be discussed, as well as possible designs that may mitigate HOC while continuing to reduce synchronous cavitation. December 2011 MSS/LPS/SPS Joint Subcommittee Meeting ABSTRACT SUBMITTAL FORM

  3. Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Ascent Abort Coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Mark B.; Evans, Bryan M.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Falck, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to maintain continuous abort capability from lift off through destination arrival. This requirement is driven by the desire to provide the capability to safely return the crew to Earth after failure scenarios during the various phases of the mission. This paper addresses abort trajectory design considerations, concept of operations and guidance algorithm prototypes for the portion of the ascent trajectory following nominal jettison of the Launch Abort System (LAS) until safe orbit insertion. Factors such as abort system performance, crew load limits, natural environments, crew recovery, and vehicle element disposal were investigated to determine how to achieve continuous vehicle abort capability.

  4. Most deaths related to abortion occur in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Ciment, J

    1999-06-05

    A new publication of the World Health Organization, "Abortion in the Developing World," reports that 40% of the 50 million abortions performed each year are unsafe, and 90% of these medically perilous procedures occur in developing countries. Although the 30 million abortions performed annually in developing countries represent 60% of the global total, they account for 95% of abortion-related deaths. Abortion was illegal in 94% of the developing countries included in the WHO study. Unexpectedly, the proportion of women who were using contraception when they experienced an unintended pregnancy was similar in countries with strong family planning programs and those with weak or nonexistent programs.

  5. Misoprostol and the politics of abortion in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramya

    2012-12-01

    Misoprostol, a WHO essential medicine indicated for labour induction, management of miscarriage and post-partum haemorrhage, as well as for induced abortion and treatment of post-abortion complications, came up for registration in Sri Lanka in December 2010. The decision on registration was postponed, indefinitely. This has wide-ranging implications, as misoprostol is widely available and used, including by health professionals in Sri Lanka, without guidance or training in its use. This paper attempts to situate the failure to register misoprostol within the broader context of unsafe abortion, drawing on data from interviews with physicians and health policymakers in Sri Lanka. It demonstrates how personal opposition to abortion infiltrates policy decisions and prevents the issue of unsafe abortion being resolved. Any move to reform abortion law and policy in Sri Lanka will require a concerted effort, spearheaded by civil society. Women and communities affected by the consequences of unsafe abortion need to be involved in these efforts. Regardless of the law, women will access abortion services if they need them, and providers will provide them. Decriminalizing abortion and registering abortion medications will make provision of abortion services safer, less expensive and more equitable.

  6. TRAP laws and the invisible labor of US abortion providers

    PubMed Central

    Mercier, Rebecca J; Buchbinder, Mara; Bryant, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Targeted Regulations of Abortion Providers (TRAP laws) are proliferating in the United States and have increased barriers to abortion access. In order to comply with these laws, abortion providers make significant changes to facilities and clinical practices. In this article, we draw attention to an often unacknowledged area of public health threat: how providers adapt to increasing regulation, and the resultant strains on the abortion provider workforce. Current US legal standards for abortion regulations have led to an increase in laws that target abortion providers. We describe recent research with abortion providers in North Carolina to illustrate how providers adapt to new regulations, and how compliance with regulation leads to increased workload and increased financial and emotional burdens on providers. We use the concept of invisible labor to highlight the critical work undertaken by abortion providers not only to comply with regulations, but also to minimize the burden that new laws impose on patients. This labor provides a crucial bridge in the preservation of abortion access. The impact of TRAP laws on abortion providers should be included in the consideration of the public health impact of abortion laws. PMID:27570376

  7. Abortion within and around the law in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Pheterson, Gail; Azize, Yamila

    2008-03-01

    Small island exigencies and a legacy of colonial jurisprudence set the stage for this three-year study in 2001-2003 of abortion practice on several islands of the northeast Caribbean: St. Martin, St. Maarten, Anguilla, Antigua and St Kitts. Based on in-depth interviews with 26 physicians, 16 of whom were performing abortions, it found that licensed physicians are routinely providing abortions in contravention of the law, and that those services, tolerated by governments and legitimised by European norms, are clearly the mainstay of abortion care on these islands. Medical abortion was being used both under medical supervision and through self-medication. Women travelled to find anonymous services, and also to access a particular method, provider or facility. Sometimes they settled for a less acceptable method if they could not afford a more comfortable one. Significantly, legality was not the main determinant of choice. Most abortion providers accepted the current situation as satisfactory. However, our findings suggest that restrictive laws were hindering access to services and compromising quality of care. Whereas doctors may have the liberty and knowledge to practise illegal abortions, women have no legal right to these services. Interviews suggest that an increasing number of women are self-inducing misoprostol abortions to avoid doctors, high fees and public stigma. The Caribbean Initiative on Abortion and Contraception is organising meetings, training providers and creating a public forum to advocate decriminalisation of abortion and enhance abortion care.

  8. Abortion in the framework of family planning in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Karro, H

    1997-01-01

    A post-independence (1992-93) decree issued by the Estonian Ministry of Social Affairs permits abortion on request up to 12 weeks of gestation and, on medical grounds, up to 20 weeks. According to reports received by the Estonian Medical Statistical Bureau, the 1994 abortion rate was 53.8/1000 women of reproductive age. Among women under 20 years of age, the abortion rate declined from 55.5/1000 in 1992 to 41.5/1000 in 1994. Only mini-abortions and abortions performed for medical reasons are free of charge; women with health insurance pay 50% of the cost of most procedures. Funds from abortion fees are used to subsidize contraception for full-time students, women in the first postpartum year, and women who had an induced abortion in the past three months. All other women must pay the full price of contraception. In 1994, only 234 out of every 1000 fertile women were using effective forms of contraception (IUDs and hormonal methods). However, the birth rate has been declining rapidly since 1990 and the rate of natural increase became negative in 1993 (-4.0). The fact that abortion but not contraception is subsidized has facilitated reliance on abortion as a family planning method. Recommended, to reduce the abortion rate and improve the family planning situation in Estonia, are improved contraceptive counseling, including pre- and post-abortion services, and school-based sex education.

  9. TRAP laws and the invisible labor of US abortion providers.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Rebecca J; Buchbinder, Mara; Bryant, Amy

    Targeted Regulations of Abortion Providers (TRAP laws) are proliferating in the United States and have increased barriers to abortion access. In order to comply with these laws, abortion providers make significant changes to facilities and clinical practices. In this article, we draw attention to an often unacknowledged area of public health threat: how providers adapt to increasing regulation, and the resultant strains on the abortion provider workforce. Current US legal standards for abortion regulations have led to an increase in laws that target abortion providers. We describe recent research with abortion providers in North Carolina to illustrate how providers adapt to new regulations, and how compliance with regulation leads to increased workload and increased financial and emotional burdens on providers. We use the concept of invisible labor to highlight the critical work undertaken by abortion providers not only to comply with regulations, but also to minimize the burden that new laws impose on patients. This labor provides a crucial bridge in the preservation of abortion access. The impact of TRAP laws on abortion providers should be included in the consideration of the public health impact of abortion laws.

  10. The ethics of abortions for fetuses with congenital abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Jotkowitz, Alan; Zivotofsky, Ari Z

    2010-10-01

    Abortion remains a highly contentious moral issue, with the debate usually framed as a battle between the fetus's right to life and the woman's right to choose. Often overlooked in this debate is the impact of the concurrent legalization of abortion and the development of new prenatal screening tests on the birth prevalence of many inherited diseases. Most proponents of abortion support abortion for fetuses with severe congenital diseases, but there has unfortunately been, in our opinion, too little debate over the moral appropriateness of abortion for much less severe congenital conditions such as Down's syndrome, deafness, and dwarfism. Due to scientific advances, we are looking at a future in which prenatal diagnosis will be safer and more accurate, raising the specter, and the concomitant ethical concerns, of wholesale abortions. Herein, we present a reframing of the abortion debate that better encompasses these conditions and offers a more nuanced position.

  11. Ethics of abortion: the arguments for and against.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kiera; Chaloner, Chris

    In England, Scotland and Wales legislation has facilitated the process of procuring an abortion to the point at which, in 2007, it appears to have been effectively assimilated into contemporary life. However, despite the legal acceptance of abortion it remains an ethically contentious subject. Arguments in favour of, or in opposition to, abortion can arouse vociferous and, on occasions, extreme reactions. At the heart of the abortion debate lie questions concerning rights, autonomy and the way in which society views disability (if a pregnancy is terminated for this reason alone). It is important that health professionals comprehend the basis of the abortion debate, from the perspective of their profession, society as a whole and the individual woman who may have had or is considering an abortion or has been affected by the subject in some way. This article examines some of the key ethical issues concerning abortion.

  12. Women's stories of abortion in southern Gabon, Africa.

    PubMed

    Hess, Rosanna F

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons women in rural, southern Gabon, Africa, chose to terminate their pregnancies, the methods used to induce abortions, and postabortion effects experienced by these women. Abortion is illegal in this country. A descriptive qualitative design guided the methodology for this study. Five women with a history of induced abortion were interviewed in-depth for their abortion story. Reasons cited for an abortion included lack of financial and partner support. Abortion methods included oral, rectal, and vaginal concoctions of leaves, bark, and water and over-the-counter medications, including misoprostol. Affects were physical, spiritual, and relational. Health care professionals need to provide women with guidance for appropriate contraceptive usage. Abortion after-care of women with physical and spiritual needs is important. Future research is suggested on the use of misoprostol in Gabon to understand its affects on women's reproductive health.

  13. Influence of past reproductive performance on risk of spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed Central

    Regan, L.; Braude, P. R.; Trembath, P. L.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the incidence of spontaneous abortion in a population of women in order to establish their risk of spontaneous abortion and the obstetric factors predisposing to it. DESIGN--Prospective study of women recruited by radio and poster appeal and from hospital outpatient clinics. SETTING--English provincial community. PATIENTS--630 Women from the general population intending to become pregnant. INTERVENTIONS--The viability of the pregnancy was assessed by abdominal ultrasonography before completion of the eighth week, and the assessment was repeated if vaginal bleeding occurred. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Spontaneous abortion or live births in women with or without a previous history of spontaneous abortion. RESULTS--The overall incidence of clinically recognisable spontaneous abortion before 20 weeks of gestation was 12% (50/407 pregnancies). The risk of spontaneous abortion in each category of patient was classified with respect to the patient's past reproductive performance and found to be influenced greatly by her previous obstetric history. In primigravidas and women with a history of consistently successful pregnancies the incidences of abortion were low (5% (4/87) and 4% (3/73) respectively), whereas women with only unsuccessful histories had a much greater risk of aborting the study pregnancy (24% (24/98)), even when their sole pregnancy had ended in abortion (20% (12/59)). The outcome of the last pregnancy also influenced the outcome of the study pregnancy; only 5% of women (5/95) whose previous pregnancy had been successful aborted, whereas the incidence of loss of pregnancy among women whose last pregnancy had aborted was 19% (40/214). CONCLUSIONS--A knowledge of the patient's reproductive history is essential for the clinical assessment of her risk of spontaneous abortion. As the most important predictive factor for spontaneous abortion is a previous abortion, the outcome of a woman's first pregnancy has profound consequences for all

  14. The story of abortion: issues, controversies and a case for the review of the Nigerian national abortion laws.

    PubMed

    Omo-Aghoja, L O; Omo-Aghoja, V W; Feyi-Waboso, P; Onowhakpor, E A

    2010-12-01

    Abortion continues to be a major public health issue that evokes social, political, legal, cultural and religious sentiments and debates in all societies. This is particularly so in countries with restrictive abortion laws. It is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity. Despite variations in the legal status of abortions in favor of restrictiveness in developing countries compared with developed countries, overall rates are quite higher in the developing countries. This review article therefore, examines the historical perspectives of induced abortion as well as the issues and controversies associated with induced abortion. Also, a review of the Nigeria national abortion law is made. We believe that this is capable of identifying useful interventions for designing programs that will lead to a reduction in the burden of unsafe abortion in developing countries.

  15. [Frequency of abortion and seroprevalence of the principal diseases causing ovine infectious abortion in the area of Rabat (Morocco)].

    PubMed

    Benkirane, A; Jabli, N; Rodolakis, A

    1990-01-01

    A survey was carried out on 23 sheep flocks to estimate the frequency of abortion as well as the prevalence of antibodies against abortive infections. During the visit of each farm, a questionnaire was completed with the collaboration of the owner and blood samples were collected from all aborted ewes and some of those with normal lambing. A rate of 7% abortion was reached in both aborted and normally lambed ewes. Anti-Chlamydia psittaci antibodies were the most frequently detected (14 flocks). Anti-Coxiella burnetii and anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were found in 9 flocks, whereas anti-Brucella and anti-Salmonella abortus ovis were present in only 1 flock each. None of the 5 infections was detected in 2 flocks. Mixed infections were prevalent: 13 flocks were simultaneously infected by at least 2 abortive pathogens. The procedure used does not allow the cause of abortion to be identified in all cases.

  16. Biblical views on abortion: an Episcopal perspective.

    PubMed

    Wilson-kastner, P; Blair, B

    1985-01-01

    Much scholarly work has been done to determine the biblical and traditional attitudes about abortion. One must ask what was said and why, what was its context, and inquire about what was not said as well. This discussion identifies some of the conclusions reached in scholarly literature. The word "abortion" is not mentioned in the Bible, but much in the Bible speaks to the issue. The most obvious passage is from Exodus 21:22-25. This part of the Covenant Code legislates the case of a pregnant woman who becomes involved in a brawl between 2 men and has a miscarriage. A distinction is then made between the penalty that is to be exacted for the loss of the fetus and injury to the woman. For the fetus, a fine is paid as determined by the husband and the judges. However, if the woman is injured or dies, "lex talionis" is applied -- life for life, eye for eye, etc. The story has somewhat limited application to the current abortion debate since it deals with accidental and not willful pregnancy termination. Even so, the distinction made between the woman and the fetus is important. The woman is valued as a person under the convenant; the fetus is valued as property. Its status is certainly inferior to that of the woman. This passage gives no support to the parity argument that gives equal religious and moral worth to woman and fetus. The bibilical portrait of person does not begin with an explanation of conception but with a portrayal of the creation of Adam and Eve. Thus, the biblical portrait of a person is that of a complex, many-sided creature with the god-like ability and responsibility to make choices. The fetus does not meet those criteria. When considering the issue of abortion, the one who unquestionably fits this portrait of personhood is the pregnant woman. The abortion question focuses on the personhood of the woman, who in turn considers the potential personhood of the fetus in terms of the multiple dimensions of her own history and the future. In biblical

  17. Abortion rate lowest in United States since '75.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    The 1995 US abortion rate of 20/1000 women of reproductive age was the lowest recorded since 1975. In the period 1994-95, the birth rate decreased 1.5%, and the abortion rate decreased 4.5%. Part of the explanation for this decline can be found in the demographic make-up of US women of reproductive age. The number of women in this group has grown since 1980, but the percentage in the most fertile younger age group has declined while that in the less fertile older age group grew. The decline in births and abortions is also due to increased contraceptive usage, especially among adolescents responding to the HIV/AIDS threat. The drop in the abortion rate may also be due to the use of Norplant by adolescents who had given birth and wanted to avoid another birth. Adolescents accounted for 26% of abortions in 1985 and only 20% in 1995. More abortions are being provided at high-volume clinics, and the number of small abortion providers is decreasing. High volume clinics are associated with low complication rates, but women may have to travel further to avail themselves of abortion services. Only 12% of family practice programs nationwide offer abortion training to their residents, and this may contribute to a shortage of abortion providers.

  18. Abortion law across Australia--A review of nine jurisdictions.

    PubMed

    de Costa, Caroline; Douglas, Heather; Hamblin, Julie; Ramsay, Philippa; Shircore, Mandy

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the current legal status of abortion in Australia and its implications. Australian abortion law has been a matter for the states since before Federation. In the years since Federation there have been significant reforms and changes in the abortion laws of some jurisdictions, although not all. Across Australia there are now nine sets of laws, state and Commonwealth, concerned with abortion. The test of a lawful abortion varies greatly across jurisdictions. In a number of states and territories, it is necessary to establish a serious risk to the physical or mental health of the woman if the pregnancy was to continue. In some cases, the certification of two doctors is required, particularly for abortions at later gestations. There are also physical restrictions on access, such as in South Australia and the Northern Territory where abortion must take place in a hospital. Only in the ACT has abortion been removed from the criminal law altogether. Variations in the law and restrictions arising from these are not consistent with the aims and provision of the universal, accessible health care system aspired to in Australia. There is an urgent need for overall reform and the introduction of uniformity to Australia's abortion laws, including removal of abortion from the criminal law.

  19. Liberalisation of abortion laws in Nigeria: the undergraduates' perspective.

    PubMed

    Orji, E O; Adeyemi, A B; Esimai, O A

    2003-01-01

    Nothing in the field of health care generates more controversy than does the issue of abortion. The views of 396 undergraduates of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria concerning the liberalisation of abortion laws were investigated in May 2001. Ninety respondents (22.7%) supported the liberalisation of abortion laws in Nigeria because they believed that it would lead to reduction in associated morbidity and mortality, encourage more qualified personnel to perform it, encourage women to request abortion openly and encourage accurate statistics on abortion. However, the majority of the respondents (59.6%) opposed the liberalisation of abortion laws due to the fear that it would increase promiscuity, sexually transmitted diseases and abortion rates. Religious opposition and the belief that liberalisation would not reduce the level of poverty, ignorance and poor reproductive health facilities were the common factors leading to unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Nigeria. Support for the liberalisation of abortion laws shows significant relationship with increasing age (P = 0.001), male sex (P = 0.001) and a science-orientated faculty (P<0.05), but not religion. There is every indication that the issue of abortion is one that will continue to be unresolved for the forseeable future.

  20. The Relationship between Neutralization Techniques and Induced Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Kalateh Sadati, Ahmad; Tabei, Seyed Ziaaddin; Salehzadeh, Hamzeh; Rahnavard, Farnaz; Namavar Jahromi, Bahia; Hemmati, Soroor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Induced abortion is not only a serious threat for women’s health, but also a controversial topic for its ethical and moral problems. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between neutralization techniques and attempting to commit abortion in married women with unintended pregnancy. Methods: After in-depth interviews with some women who had attempted abortion, neutralization themes were gathered. Next, to analyze the data quantitatively, a questionnaire was created including demographic and psychosocial variables specifically related to neutralization. The participants were divided into two groups (abortion and control) of unintended pregnancy and were then compared. Results: Analysis of psychosocial variables revealed a significant difference in the two groups at neutralization, showing that neutralization in the control group (56.97±10.24) was higher than that in the abortion group (44.19±12.44). To evaluate the findings more accurately, we examined the causal factors behind the behaviors of the abortion group. Binary logistic regression showed that among psychosocial factors, neutralization significantly affected abortion (95% CI=1.07-1.35). Conclusion: Despite the network of many factors affecting induced abortion, neutralization plays an important role in reinforcing the tendency to attempt abortion. Furthermore, the decline of religious beliefs, as a result of the secular context of the modern world, seems to have an important role in neutralizing induced abortion. PMID:25349851

  1. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

    2015-02-01

    Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes.

  2. Estimating abortion incidence in Burkina Faso using two methodologies.

    PubMed

    Sedgh, Gilda; Rossier, Clémentine; Kaboré, Idrissa; Bankole, Akinrinola; Mikulich, Meridith

    2011-09-01

    Abortion is illegal in Burkina Faso except in cases of incest, rape, fetal defect, or when the woman's life or physical health is endangered. As a result, abortion procedures are often conducted illegally and unsafely and measuring incidence proves difficult. We estimate incidence of abortion and associated morbidity using two methodologies. The first is the Abortion Incidence Complications Method (AICM), which uses information on women hospitalized for abortion-related complications as well as health professionals' assessments of the proportion of women who seek treatment for complications from unsafe abortions. The second is the Anonymous Third Party Reporting (ATPR) method, which entails surveying women about their confidantes' abortions. We conclude that the AICM yields a more accurate result. We estimate that 87,200 abortion procedures were carried out in 2008, representing 25 for every 1,000 women aged 15-49. More than one in four procedures resulted in complications treated at a health facility. The abortion rate estimated using the ATPR approach was 72 percent of that estimated with the AICM. The ATPR method yields information on the characteristics of the women who have abortions as well as the providers and methods they use.

  3. [Abortion from the legal viewpoint for the physician].

    PubMed

    Hiersche, H D

    1982-06-01

    On February 2, 1975 the Federal Constitutional Court gave the indications for abortion. But the regulations are often misunderstood and are often contravened by mistake. Hence the following explanations are for the assistance of physicians. The sections discussed are sec. 218 (abortion), 218a (indications for abortion), 218b (abortion without advising the woman), 219 (abortion without a physician's order), 219a (wrongful physician's order), 219b (soliciting abortion), 219c (transporting the instruments used for abortion), and 219d (definition). The law recognizes only medical indications for abortion: the purely medical indication, the indication of damage to the fetus, the criminological indication, and the indication from extreme emergency. The law states clearly that no one is compelled to perform an abortion, whatever the consequences for the mother and fetus might be. The law provides for stages of notification: 1) the personal physician must provide in writing a well-grounded indication for abortion; 2) in the absence of a purely medical indication, the woman must at least 3 days before rupture request assistance from a social service agency or a physician with appropriate knowledge and skill; 3) the woman must have explained to her all aspects of abortion, not only the purely medical, but also the arguments of various kinds against it; and 4) the physician who undertakes to do the abortion is responsible for ensuring that all provisions of the law have been satisfied. The law provides that abortion may be done only in a hospital, i.e., a place where special arrangements for it may be made; it cannot be done on an outpatient basis.

  4. Abortion and public health: Time for another look

    PubMed Central

    McCurdy, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Four decades after Roe v. Wade, abortion remains highly contentious, pitting a woman's right to choose against a fetal claim to life. Public health implications are staggering: the US annual total of more than one million induced abortions equals nearly half the number of registered deaths from all causes. Sentiment regarding abortion is roughly evenly split among the general public, yet fundamental debate about abortion is largely absent in the public health community, which is predominantly supportive of its wide availability. Absence of substantive debate on abortion separates the public health community from the public we serve, jeopardizing the trust placed in us. Traditional public health values—support for vulnerable groups and opposition to the politicization of science—together with the principle of reciprocity weigh against abortion. Were aborted lives counted as are other human lives, induced abortion would be acknowledged as the largest single preventable cause of loss of human life. Lay Summary: Four decades after Roe v. Wade, abortion remains highly divisive. Public sentiment regarding abortion is roughly evenly split, yet fundamental debate is largely absent in the public health community, which supports abortion’s wide availability. Absence of substantive debate separates the public health community from the public it serves. Traditional public health values—support for vulnerable populations and opposition to politicization of science—and the principle of reciprocity (“the Golden Rule”) weigh against abortion. Were aborted lives counted as are other human lives, induced abortion would be acknowledged as the largest single preventable cause of loss of human life. PMID:27833179

  5. Efforts underway to impose harsh regulations on abortion providers.

    PubMed

    Sollom, T

    1996-09-01

    Legislators or regulators in Mississippi, South Carolina, and Missouri have imposed burdensome and unnecessary clinic requirements on abortion providers. In each case, the legislators or regulators designed the requirements to make abortions more difficult to obtain. Mississippi, a state with only two licensed abortion clinics, already had restrictive abortion laws. In August 1996, it implemented stringent regulations on private physicians who provide abortion services in their offices. Some requirements include purchasing specific equipment, widening hallways, and hiring more staff. Several physicians have filed a lawsuit to stop enforcement of the regulations because they make the provision of abortion services so cumbersome and expensive as to discourage physicians from offering abortions. Antiabortion groups testified before the legislature that the Department of Health had been negligent in monitoring private practices for compliance with Mississippi's many abortion laws, particularly counseling requirements. The Republican governor signed the legislation in March 1996. In July 1996, a federal judge prohibited the South Carolina Department of Health from enforcing a new regulation making physicians who perform as few as five abortions a month to meet strict specifications for their office (e.g., disclosure of patient records and medical agreements). The regulation was a response to a 1995 law targeting private physicians who perform abortions in their offices. The judge held that the substantial changes in terms of privacy and expense could bring an undue burden on women seeking abortions. The state denied that the regulation would close clinics or would increase costs so much as to make abortions inaccessible. In September 1996, the House did not override the Democratic governor's veto of a bill that would have required all facilities where abortions are done to be licensed and undergo annual inspections and that would have required all physicians to have

  6. Ugandan opinion-leaders' knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ann M; Kibombo, Richard; Cats-Baril, Deva

    2014-10-01

    While laws in Uganda surrounding abortion remain contradictory, a frequent interpretation of the law is that abortion is only allowed to save the woman's life. Nevertheless abortion occurs frequently under unsafe conditions at a rate of 54 abortions per 1000 women of reproductive age annually, taking a large toll on women's health. There are an estimated 148,500 women in Uganda who experience abortion complications annually. Understanding opinion leaders' knowledge and perceptions about unsafe abortion is critical to identifying ways to address this public health issue. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 41 policy-makers, cultural leaders, local politicians and leaders within the health care sector in 2009-10 at the national as well as district (Bushenyi, Kamuli and Lira) level to explore their knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion and the potential for policy to address this issue. Only half of the sample knew the current law regulating abortion in Uganda. Respondents understood that the result of the current abortion restrictions included long-term health complications, unwanted children and maternal death. Perceived consequences of increasing access to safe abortion included improved health as well as overuse of abortion, marital conflict and less reliance on preventive behaviour. Opinion leaders expressed the most support for legalization of abortion in cases of rape when the perpetrator was unknown. Understanding opinion leaders' perspectives on this politically sensitive topic provides insight into the policy context of abortion laws, drivers behind maintaining the status quo, and ways to improve provision under the law: increase education among providers and opinion leaders.

  7. Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) Propulsion on Pad Abort 1 (PA-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides a concise overview of the highly successful Orion Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) flight test, and the three rocket motors that contributed to this success. The primary purpose of the Orion PA-1 flight was to help certify the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS), which can be utilized in the unlikely event of an emergency on the launchpad or during mission vehicle ascent. The PA-1 test was the first fully integrated flight test of the Orion LAS, one of the primary systems within the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The Orion MPCV is part of the architecture within the Space Launch System (SLS), which is being designed to transport astronauts beyond low-Earth orbit for future exploration missions. Had the Orion PA-1 flight abort occurred during launch preparations for a real human spaceflight mission, the PA-1 LAS would have saved the lives of the crew. The PA-1 flight test was largely successful due to the three solid rocket motors of the LAS: the Attitude Control Motor (ACM); the Jettison Motor (JM); and the Abort Motor (AM). All three rocket motors successfully performed their required functions during the Orion PA-1 flight test, flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, culminating in a successful demonstration of an abort capability from the launchpad.

  8. [One year of counseling before legal abortion].

    PubMed

    Gosselin, G

    1976-01-01

    The required interview with a counselor before legal abortion in France can become depressing for the counselor because almost all clients are already committed, interpret it as one more bureaucratic barrier, and in mass appear as numerous cases of failure. Despite this the author tries to be open and nonjudgemental in order to permit free exchange and reconsideration, and to dispense information on contraception and social services. She encountered only 4 reconsiderations in hundreds of interviews.

  9. Illegal abortion in Mexico: client perceptions.

    PubMed Central

    de Weiss, S P; David, H P

    1990-01-01

    An exploratory study of the perceptions of 156 abortion clients in Mexico suggests that perceived quality of service was the main reason for choosing physicians while cost and anonymity were the major reasons for choosing nonphysicians. "Too young" was the most often cited reason for pregnancy termination, followed by economic situation and having too many children already. Cost was, on average, equivalent to three to four weeks minimum wage; physicians' charges were about three times higher than those of nonphysicians. PMID:2343958

  10. [Elective abortions, a right to defend].

    PubMed

    Zaccabri, Annie

    2015-12-01

    Every year in France, almost 210 000 women request a termination of an unwanted pregnancy. Two thirds of them were however using a form of contraception, hence the importance, for caregivers, of encouraging women to find the method which works best for them. The right to abortion is the fruit of a long fight for a woman's right to control her own body. It is a right which must be protected.

  11. A Rehnquistean bed: the abortion issue revisited.

    PubMed

    Maher, V F; Badin, R

    1990-12-01

    Individuals as members of societies are subject to externally imposed norms of behavior (laws). When societal control and regulation adversely impact upon individual autonomy, conflict is frequently the end product. Such issues surround the rights of privacy vis-a-vis the abortion issue. The Supreme Court addressed this issue in the 1988-1989 term. This article critically examines the court's decision and raises questions of individual and professional import.

  12. Abortion care in Ghana: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody R

    2014-09-01

    The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research. A total of four (4) databases were searched with the keywords "Ghana and abortion" and hand review of reference lists was conducted. All abstracts were reviewed. The final include sample was 39 articles. Abortion-related complications represent a large component of admissions to gynecological wards in hospitals in Ghana as well as a large contributor to maternal mortality. Almost half of the included studies were hospital-based, mainly chart reviews. This review has identified gaps in the literature including: interviewing women who have sought unsafe abortions and with healthcare providers who may act as gatekeepers to women wishing to access safe abortion services.

  13. Full-Envelope Launch Abort System Performance Analysis Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubuchon, Vanessa V.

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of a new dispersion methodology is described, which dis-perses abort initiation altitude or time along with all other Launch Abort System (LAS) parameters during Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast, the standard methodology assumes that an abort initiation condition is held constant (e.g., aborts initiated at altitude for Mach 1, altitude for maximum dynamic pressure, etc.) while dispersing other LAS parameters. The standard method results in large gaps in performance information due to the discrete nature of initiation conditions, while the full-envelope dispersion method provides a significantly more comprehensive assessment of LAS abort performance for the full launch vehicle ascent flight envelope and identifies performance "pinch-points" that may occur at flight conditions outside of those contained in the discrete set. The new method has significantly increased the fidelity of LAS abort simulations and confidence in the results.

  14. Early abortion. Update and implications for midwifery practice.

    PubMed

    Narrigan, D

    1998-01-01

    Medical abortion using methotrexate and misoprostol and manual vacuum aspiration are two new methods for pregnancy termination during the first 8 weeks of gestation. Compared to the regimen of mifepristone (RU 486) and misoprostol, both methods offer high rates of complete abortion and acceptability to users. Limitations of the new two-drug regimen compared with mifepristone include a longer time to effect abortion, transient gastrointestinal side effects, and risk of potential teratogenicity from methotrexate's cytotoxicity. Compared to standard surgical abortion, both methods allow women to avoid surgery, are more privately performed, and may be more easily accessible. The safety of first-trimester abortion provided by nurse practitioners and physician assistants has been established. Whether midwives and either new method to their practices depends on several factors. These include obtaining appropriate training, overcoming legal restrictions, and meeting professional and personal challenges inherent in providing early abortion care.

  15. Medical students' attitudes toward abortion and other reproductive health services.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, R A; Robinson, K B; Larson, E H; Dobie, S A

    1999-03-01

    This paper investigated the attitude toward abortion and other reproductive health services of first- and second-year medical students at the Seattle campus of the University of Washington, a large regional primary care-oriented medical school, in 1996-97. A total of 219 (76.6%) students responded. The majority of the students support the availability of a broad range of reproductive health services including abortion; 58.1% felt that first-trimester abortions should be available to patients under most circumstances. Of the 43.4% of students who anticipated a career in family practice, most expected to provide abortions in their future practices. Moreover, older students and women were more likely to support the provision of abortion services. This study concludes that despite the continuing pressure on abortion providers, most first- and second-year medical students at a fairly state-supported medical school intend to incorporate this procedure into their future practices.

  16. Disparities in Abortion Rates: A Public Health Approach

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Lisa H.; Weitz, Tracy A.

    2013-01-01

    Women of lower socioeconomic status and women of color in the United States have higher rates of abortion than women of higher socioeconomic status and White women. Opponents of abortion use these statistics to argue that abortion providers are exploiting women of color and low socioeconomic status, and thus, regulations are needed to protect women. This argument ignores the underlying causes of the disparities. As efforts to restrict abortion will have no effect on these underlying factors, and instead will only result in more women experiencing later abortions or having an unintended childbirth, they are likely to result in worsening health disparities. We provide a review of the causes of abortion disparities and argue for a multifaceted public health approach to address them. PMID:23948010

  17. Late abortion and the European convention for human rights.

    PubMed

    te Braake, T A

    1999-01-01

    National abortion laws usually do not allow abortion when a foetus is independently viable, i.e. from a gestational age of about 24 weeks. Fetal anomalies, which may be a reason to seek abortion, are sometimes detected only in an advanced stage of pregnancy. National legislatures who want to allow 'late' abortion need to account for the protection the fetus may derive from the European Convention for the protection of human rights. As yet it remains unclear to what extent the fetus can in fact derive protection from the Convention, although several national abortion laws have been tested against it by the European Commission. The significance of the reports of the Commission on the question whether national legislation allowing abortion of a viable fetus is in conflict with the Convention, is explored. It is concluded that there is no European legal standard in terms of duration of pregnancy to which national legislatures are committed.

  18. “Prefacing the Script” as an Ethical Response to State-Mandated Abortion Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Lassiter, Dragana; Mercier, Rebecca; Bryant, Amy; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Laws governing abortion provision are proliferating throughout the United States, yet little is known about how these laws affect providers. We investigated the experiences of abortion providers in North Carolina practicing under the 2011 Women’s Right to Know Act, which mandates that women receive counseling with specific, state-prescribed information at least 24 hours prior to an abortion. We focus here on a subset of the data to examine one strategy by which providers worked to minimize moral conflicts generated by the counseling procedure. Drawing on Erving Goffman’s work on language and social interaction, we highlight how providers communicated moral objections and layered meanings through a practice that we call prefacing the script. METHODS We conducted semi-structured interviews with 31 physicians, nurses, physician assistants, and clinic managers who provide abortion care in North Carolina. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using an inductive, iterative analytic approach, which included reading for context, interpretive memo-writing, and focused coding. RESULTS Roughly half of the participants (14/31) reported that they or the clinicians who performed the counseling in their institution routinely prefaced the counseling script with qualifiers, disclaimers, and apologies that clarified their relationship to the state-mandated content. We identified three performative functions of this practice: 1) enacting a frame shift from a medical to a legal interaction, 2) distancing the speaker from the authorial voice of the counseling script, and 3) creating emotional alignment. CONCLUSIONS Prefacing state-mandated abortion counseling scripts constitutes a practical strategy providers use to balance the obligation to comply with state law with personal and professional responsibilities to provide tailored care, emotional support, and serve the patient’s best interests. Our findings suggest that language constitutes a

  19. Stewardship challenges abortion: A proposed means to mitigate abortion's social divisiveness

    PubMed Central

    Tardiff, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1973 the legislated constitutional right to abortion has produced a political dichotomy (anti-abortion versus pro-abortion) within the United States, even while witnessing a gradual decline in the rate of abortions. A third paradigm, moral stewardship, is advanced as an effective means to ameliorate this social divisiveness. Incorporating the concept of stewardship into deliberations of pregnancy termination would require recognition, through fact-based education programs, of the life circumstances that prompt the consideration to terminate a pregnancy. Based on collective responsibility, policies, and programs are needed to foster social justice for parents and for the offspring brought to term, without creating excessive burdens on women faced with an unwanted pregnancy. Moral stewardship is perceived as humanitarian to family and community and advantageous to society overall. It also offers a serious opportunity to reshape our society from divisiveness to inclusiveness, and to guide science policy judgment that enhances and strengthens social justice. Lay summary: Differing opinions over the ethics of human abortion have been legion since Roe v. Wade (1973). The disputes between pro- and anti-abortion factions have segregated society with few improvements in social justice. This study offers an alternative approach, one capable of social assimilation and justice for unwanted offspring and pregnant mothers bearing them. It promotes moral stewardship toward the unborn whose humanity and personhood are recognized genetically and supported philosophically by long-standing ethical principles. Stewardship incorporates all people at all levels of society based on collective responsibility, supported by government policies, yet not restricting a mother's choices for the future of her unborn offspring. PMID:26912934

  20. Stewardship challenges abortion: A proposed means to mitigate abortion's social divisiveness.

    PubMed

    Tardiff, Robert G

    2015-08-01

    Since 1973 the legislated constitutional right to abortion has produced a political dichotomy (anti-abortion versus pro-abortion) within the United States, even while witnessing a gradual decline in the rate of abortions. A third paradigm, moral stewardship, is advanced as an effective means to ameliorate this social divisiveness. Incorporating the concept of stewardship into deliberations of pregnancy termination would require recognition, through fact-based education programs, of the life circumstances that prompt the consideration to terminate a pregnancy. Based on collective responsibility, policies, and programs are needed to foster social justice for parents and for the offspring brought to term, without creating excessive burdens on women faced with an unwanted pregnancy. Moral stewardship is perceived as humanitarian to family and community and advantageous to society overall. It also offers a serious opportunity to reshape our society from divisiveness to inclusiveness, and to guide science policy judgment that enhances and strengthens social justice. Lay summary: Differing opinions over the ethics of human abortion have been legion since Roe v. Wade (1973). The disputes between pro- and anti-abortion factions have segregated society with few improvements in social justice. This study offers an alternative approach, one capable of social assimilation and justice for unwanted offspring and pregnant mothers bearing them. It promotes moral stewardship toward the unborn whose humanity and personhood are recognized genetically and supported philosophically by long-standing ethical principles. Stewardship incorporates all people at all levels of society based on collective responsibility, supported by government policies, yet not restricting a mother's choices for the future of her unborn offspring.

  1. A case of Candida guilliermondii abortion in an Arab mare

    PubMed Central

    Stefanetti, Valentina; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Lepri, Elvio; Coletti, Mauro; Casagrande Proietti, Patrizia; Agnetti, Francesco; Crotti, Silvia; Pitzurra, Lucia; Del Sero, Andrea; Passamonti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Ascending infections of equine uterus frequently result in placentitis and abortions; most of these infections are bacterial and are less commonly due to fungi. This report describes an abortion case in an Arab mare due to Candida guilliermondii that was diagnosed via cytological, histological, cultural and biomolecular assays. The histological lesions found were severe necrotizing placentitis associated with fetal pneumonia. To our knowledge this is the first case of C. guilliermondii abortion reported in equine species. PMID:24707460

  2. Considerations in Launch Vehicle Abort Capability and Failure Tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, N. W., Jr.; Conte, B. A.

    2002-01-01

    operations, the Space Shuttle was designed to incur loss of thrust from one engine at liftoff and return safely to a runway. This is a very unusual capability in space launch vehicles and, if desired, must be designed into the system initially. For some extremely high value payloads on future expendable launch vehicles, this capability may be cost effective as well as for human space flights. Current designers may be inclined to design a "simple" emergency escape pod to resolve this issue. That may neither be the most effective nor the safest way to provide ascent failure tolerance. This paper discusses some real-world issues associated with this capability that the designers of the Space Shuttle did take into account that have become serious issues in real operations. paper discusses the affect of payload mass on abort capability. Issues related to abort modes can also be influence by other aspects of payload mass including center of gravity concerns. In a similar mode, consumables such as on-orbit attitude control propellant is a major factor in abort mode design. multiple engine failures during the powered ascent trajectory and have a happy outcome: landing on a runway. This paper discusses options and post-design fixes to the Space Shuttle to enhance multiple engine out capability. scenarios. include propellant underload on STS-61C, off nominal performance of engine clusters on STS-78 and STS-93, and other flights. Designers of these future human rated vehicles should consider the Space Shuttle experience in designing their systems. About the Authors: N. Wayne Hale, Jr. is currently the Deputy Chief for Shuttle of the NASA/JSC Flight Director Office. In 23 years with NASA at Houston's Johnson Space Center, he has served in the Mission Control Center for 41 Space Shuttle flights including 25 as Entry Flight Director. Mr. Hale received his Bachelor of Science Degree in Mechanical Engineering from Rice University in 1976 and his Master of Science Degree in

  3. Decriminalisation of abortion performed by qualified health practitioners under the Abortion Law Reform Act 2008 (Vic).

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Danuta

    2012-06-01

    In 2008, the Victorian Parliament enacted the Abortion Law Reform Act 2008 (Vic) and amended the Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) to decriminalise terminations of pregnancy while making it a criminal offence for unqualified persons to carry out such procedures. The reform legislation has imposed a civil regulatory regime on the management of abortions, and has stipulated particular statutory duties of care for registered qualified health care practitioners who have conscientious objections to terminations of pregnancy. The background to, and the structure of, this novel statutory regime is examined, with a focus on conscientious objection clauses and liability in the tort of negligence and the tort of breach of statutory duty.

  4. Woman-centered research on access to safe abortion services and implications for behavioral change communication interventions: a cross-sectional study of women in Bihar and Jharkhand, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    transfer information to the women who need this information most. Interpersonal approaches that engage community leaders and influencers may also counteract negative social norms regarding abortion and associated stigma. Collaborative actions of government, NGOs and private partners should capitalize on this potential power of communities to reduce the impact of unsafe abortion on rural women. PMID:22404903

  5. Role of abortion in control of global population growth.

    PubMed

    Mumford, S D; Kessel, E

    1986-03-01

    No nation desirous of reducing its growth rate to 1% or less can expect to do so without the widespread use of abortion. This observational study, based on the experience of 116 of the world's largest countries, supports the contention that abortion is essential to any national population growth control effort. The principal findings are: Except for a few countries with ageing populations and very high contraceptive prevalence rates, developed countries will need to maintain abortion rates generally in the range of 201-500 abortions per 1000 live births if they are to maintain growth rates at levels below 1%. The current rate in the USA is 426 abortions per 1000 live births. Developing countries, on the other hand, are faced with a different and more difficult set of circumstances that require even greater reliance on abortion. No developing nation wanting to reduce its growth to less than 1% can expect to do so without the widespread use of abortion, generally at a rate greater than 500 abortions per 1000 live births. Widespread availability of abortion is a necessary but not sufficient condition to achieve growth rates below 1%. A high contraceptive prevalence is essential as well in order to achieve growth rates below 1%. A high contraceptive prevalence is a necessary but not sufficient condition to achieve population growth rates below 1%. A high rate of abortion (generally 201-500 or more abortions per 1000 live births in the developed and greater than 500 abortions per 1000 live births in the developing countries) is essential to achieve growth rates below 1%. The different and more difficult set of circumstances faced by developing countries that will necessitate even higher abortion rates than developed countries includes a young population with resultant rapidly growing numbers of young fertile women, poor contraceptive use-effectiveness, low prevalence of contraception, and poor or non-existent systems for providing contraceptives. These data show that

  6. Fake abortion clinics: the threat to reproductive self-determination.

    PubMed

    Mertus, J A

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of "fake abortion clinics" poses a great threat to women's ability to make free and informed procreative decisions. Such clinics intentionally deceive pregnant women into believing that they provide a full range of women's health services when, in reality, they provide only a pregnancy test, accompanied by intense anti-abortion propaganda. Because fake abortion clinics threaten women's interests in "privacy" and decisional autonomy, state attorneys general should challenge them under deceptive business practice statutes. Successful challenges can be brought without violating anti-abortion groups' First Amendment rights.

  7. Conscientious objection to abortion provision: Why context matters.

    PubMed

    Harris, Laura Florence; Halpern, Jodi; Prata, Ndola; Chavkin, Wendy; Gerdts, Caitlin

    2016-09-12

    Conscientious objection to abortion - a clinician's refusal to perform abortions because of moral or religious beliefs - is a limited right, intended to protect clinicians' convictions while maintaining abortion access. This paper argues that conscientious objection policies and debates around the world generally do not take into account the social, political, and economic pressures that profoundly influence clinicians who must decide whether to claim objector status. Lack of clarity about abortion policies, high workload, low pay, and stigma towards abortion providers can discourage abortion provision. As the only legal way to refuse to provide abortions that are permitted by law, conscientious objection can become a safety valve for clinicians under pressure and may be claimed by clinicians who do not have moral or religious objections. Social factors including stigma also shape how stakeholders and policy-makers approach conscientious objection. To appropriately limit the scope of conscientious objection and make protection of conscience more meaningful, more information is needed about how conscientious objection is practised. Additionally, abortion trainings should include information about conscientious objection and its limits, reproductive rights, and creating an enabling environment for abortion provision. Policy-makers and all stakeholders should also focus on creating an enabling environment and reducing stigma.

  8. José Barzelatto lecture: Vision on unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2010-04-01

    José Barzelatto first distinguished himself as a leader with a vision in his years as a medical student. Later, principally as Director of the Reproductive Health Program at the World Health Organization and of the Ford Foundation program for women's sexual and reproductive rights, he contributed immensely toward the recognition of women's sexual and reproductive rights as part of their basic human rights. José Barzelatto's vision on abortion reflects his drive to promote social justice and respect individual rights, respect diversity, and promote a social consensus for a peaceful society. He believed that the fetus has moral value and did not accept abortion as a method of fertility control, but understood that abortion is a social phenomenon that cannot be changed with legal or moral condemnation. He accepted that condemning women who abort does not prevent abortion, is unfair, and causes great human suffering at a high social cost. José proposed nine points to form the basis for an overlapping consensus on abortion, on which to base a practical consensus that would allow societies to reduce the number of abortions and minimize their consequences. If we can agree on all or most of those points we would achieve the common objectives of: fewer women confronting the dilemma of how to deal with an unwanted pregnancy; fewer induced abortions; and fewer women suffering the consequences of unsafe abortion.

  9. Abortion and fetal tissue research: some ethical concerns.

    PubMed

    Shorr, A F

    1994-01-01

    Proponents of human fetal tissue research argue that this endeavor is morally separate from abortion. They claim that one's views about the morality of abortion should not effect decisions about the ethics of fetal tissue research and transplantation efforts. In lifting the ban on federal funding for fetal tissue research, President Clinton embraced this logic. However, a careful review of (1) the impact fetal tissue research and transplantation will have on the rate of abortion; (2) the concept of informed consent, and (3) the question of complicity demonstrates that abortion and fetal tissue research are morally connected.

  10. Clear and compelling evidence: the Polish tribunal on abortion rights.

    PubMed

    Girard, Françoise; Nowicka, Wanda

    2002-05-01

    On 25 July 2001 the Polish Federation for Women and Family Planning organised a Tribunal on Abortion Rights in Warsaw, to publicize the negative consequences of the criminalization of abortion in Poland. A panel of Polish and foreign experts heard the testimonials of seven Polish women's experiences under the 1993 "Anti-Abortion Act". Only two of the seven women were able to tell their stories in person. One died in 2001, at the age of 21, of an unsafe abortion. One is legally blind after having carried her last pregnancy to term. One is in prison for infanticide, which in all likelihood was committed by her boyfriend. National and foreign journalists were in attendance, as well as observers from all walks of life--writers, students, mothers, activists, feminists, husbands. The evidence was clear and compelling. Restrictive abortion laws make abortion unsafe by pushing it underground, endanger women's health, create a climate where even those services that are allowed by law-become unavailable, and contravene standards set by international human rights law. The restrictive abortion law in Poland has not increased the number of births; it has only caused women and their families suffering. The Tribunal brought the issue of abortion into the media prior to an election campaign and galvanised Polish and other Eastern European women's groups to become more active in defence of abortion rights.

  11. [Induced abortion among low income women: dimensions of the problem].

    PubMed

    Martins, I R; Costa, S H; Freitas, S R; Pinto, C S

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the practice of abortion, especially induced abortion among low income women. The discussion is based on survey data collected between 1984 and 1985 in seven slum communities (favelas) situated in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Despite restrictive law, induced abortion is extremely frequent. Among married women 21.4 per cent reported experience of induced abortion. Most abortions were performed by physicians, however the quality of care of these procedures can be questioned since almost all induced abortions are illegal there is no possible supervision by health authorities. The incidence of post-abortion complication is very high, especially for those performed by traditional midwifes or by the woman herself. More than 60 per cent of the women were not using contraception at the time of pregnancy. About, 21 per cent reported that they were using the pill. Such a high pill failure rate is inacceptable, and probably was related to incorrect use. This points to the need for a better access to family planning care within the health services. The consequences of the restrictive abortion laws in Brazil are also discussed. Restrictions that in practice prove to have little impact on the practice of induced abortion, appear to be very effective in brooding even more the social-economic inequalities.

  12. Abortion providers, professional identity, and restrictive laws: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Britton, Laura E; Mercier, Rebecca J; Buchbinder, Mara; Bryant, Amy G

    2017-03-01

    Most studies on the impact of restrictive abortion laws have focused on patient-level outcomes. To better understand how such laws affect providers, we conducted a qualitative study of 27 abortion providers working under a restrictive law in North Carolina. Providers derived professional identity from their motivations, values, and experiences of pride related to abortion provision. The law affected their professional identities by perpetuating negative characterizations of their profession, requiring changes to patient care and communication, and creating conflicts between professional values and legal obligations. We conclude that a holistic understanding of the impact of abortion laws should include providers' perspectives.

  13. Miscarriage with a History of Elective Abortion: A Comparison Study of the Miscarriage Experience - Women with a History of Elective Abortion Versus Women Without a History of Elective Abortion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    4 Abortion 11 Comparison of Miscarriage and Abortion 15 Possible effects of abortion on miscarriage 16 Chapter 3: Methodology 20 Design 20 Sample 20...possible effects of a history of elective abortion on the experience of miscarriage will be summarized. Conceptual Framework A review of Watson’s (1979... effect of support from significant others surrounding the experience of abortion . A self-administered questionnaire, which measured support and

  14. Are all abortions equal? Should there be exceptions to the criminalization of abortion for rape and incest?

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Politics, public discourse, and legislation restricting abortion has settled on a moderate orthodoxy: restrict abortion, but leave exceptions for pregnancies that result from rape and incest. I challenge that consensus and suggest it may be much harder to defend than those who support the compromise think. From both Pro-Life and Pro-Choice perspectives, there are good reasons to treat all abortions as equal.

  15. Women’s Experience Obtaining Abortion Care in Texas after Implementation of Restrictive Abortion Laws: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Sarah E.; White, Kari; Hopkins, Kristine; Potter, Joseph E.; Grossman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background In November 2013, Texas implemented three abortion restrictions included in House Bill 2 (HB 2). Within six months, the number of facilities providing abortion decreased by almost half, and the remaining facilities were concentrated in large urban centers. The number of medication abortions decreased by 70% compared to the same period one year prior due to restrictions on this method imposed by HB 2. The purpose of this study was to explore qualitatively the experiences of women who were most affected by the law: those who had to travel farther to reach a facility and those desiring medication abortion. Methods In August and September 2014, we conducted 20 in-depth interviews with women recruited from ten abortion clinics across Texas. The purposive sample included women who obtained or strongly preferred medication abortion or traveled ≥50 miles one way to the clinic. The interview guide focused on women’s experiences with obtaining services following implementation of HB 2, and a thematic analysis was performed. Results Women faced informational, cost and logistical barriers seeking abortion services, and these obstacles were often compounded by poverty. Two women found the process of finding or getting to a clinic so onerous that they considered not having the procedure, although they ultimately had an abortion; another woman decided to continue her pregnancy, in part because of challenges in getting to the clinic. For two women, arranging travel required disclosure to more people than desired. Women who strongly preferred medication abortion were frustrated by the difficulty or inability to obtain their desired method, especially among those who were near or just beyond the gestational age limit. The restricted eligibility criteria for medication abortion and difficulty finding clinics offering the method created substantial access barriers. Conclusions Medication abortion restrictions and clinic closures following HB 2 created substantial

  16. Delivering Medical Abortion at Scale: A Study of the Retail Market for Medical Abortion in Madhya Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Acharya, Rajib; Filippi, Veronique; Ronsmans, Carine

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical abortion (mifepristone and misoprostol) has the potential to contribute to reduced maternal mortality but little is known about the provision or quality of advice for medical abortion through the private retail sector. We examined the availability of medical abortion and the practices of pharmacists in India, where abortion has been legal since 1972. Methods We interviewed 591 pharmacists in 60 local markets in city, town and rural areas of Madhya Pradesh. One month later, we returned to 359 pharmacists with undercover patients who presented themselves unannounced as genuine customers seeking a medical abortion. Results Medical abortion was offered to undercover patients by 256 (71.3%) pharmacists and 24 different brands were identified. Two thirds (68.5%) of pharmacists stated that abortion was illegal in India. Only 106 (38.5%) pharmacists asked clients the timing of the last menstrual period and 38 (13.8%) requested to see a doctor’s prescription – a legal requirement in India. Only 59 (21.5%) pharmacists correctly advised patients on the gestational limit for medical abortion, 97 (35.3%) provided correct information on how many and when to take the tablets in a combination pack, and 78 (28.4%) gave accurate advice on where to seek care in case of complications. Advice on post-abortion family planning was almost nonexistent. Conclusions The retail market for medical abortion is extensive, but the quality of advice given to patients is poor. Although the contribution of medical abortion to women’s health in India is poorly understood, there is an urgent need to improve the practices of pharmacists selling medical abortion. PMID:25822656

  17. Abortion, metaphysics and morality: a review of Francis Beckwith's defending life: a moral and legal case against abortion choice.

    PubMed

    Nobis, Nathan

    2011-06-01

    In Defending Life: A Moral and Legal Case Against Abortion Choice (2007) and an earlier article in this journal, "Defending Abortion Philosophically"(2006), Francis Beckwith argues that fetuses are, from conception, prima facie wrong to kill. His arguments are based on what he calls a "metaphysics of the human person" known as "The Substance View." I argue that Beckwith's metaphysics does not support his abortion ethic: Moral, not metaphysical, claims that are part of this Substance View are the foundation of the argument, and Beckwith inadequately defends these moral claims. Thus, Beckwith's arguments do not provide strong support for what he calls the "pro-life" view of abortion.

  18. Onboard Determination of Vehicle Glide Capability for Shuttle Abort Flight Managment (SAFM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straube, Timothy; Jackson, Mark; Fill, Thomas; Nemeth, Scott

    2002-01-01

    When one or more main engines fail during ascent, the flight crew of the Space Shuttle must make several critical decisions and accurately perform a series of abort procedures. One of the most important decisions for many aborts is the selection ofa landing site. Several factors influence the ability to reach a landing site, including the spacecraft point of atmospheric entry, the energy state at atmospheric entry, the vehicle glide capability from that energy state, and whether one or more suitable landing sites are within the glide capability. Energy assessment is further complicated by the fact that phugoid oscillations in total energy influence glide capability. Once the glide capability is known, the crew must select the "best" site option based upon glide capability and landing site conditions and facilities. Since most of these factors cannot currently be assessed by the crew in flight, extensive planning is required prior to each mission to script a variety of procedures based upon spacecraft velocity at the point of engine failure (or failures). The results of this preflight planning are expressed in tables and diagrams on mission-specific cockpit checklists. Crew checklist procedures involve leafing through several pages of instructions and navigating a decision tree for site selection and flight procedures - all during a time critical abort situation. With the advent of the Cockpit Avionics Upgrade (CAU), the Shuttle will have increased on-board computational power to help alleviate crew workload during aborts and provide valuable situational awareness during nominal operations. One application baselined for the CAU computers is Shuttle Abort Flight Management (SAFM), whose requirements have been designed and prototyped. The SAFM application includes powered and glided flight algorithms. This paper describes the glided flight algorithm which is dispatched by SAFM to determine the vehicle glide capability and make recommendations to the crew for site

  19. Effects of price and availability on abortion demand.

    PubMed

    Gohmann, S F; Ohsfeldt, R L

    1993-10-01

    This study explained the variation in US state abortion demand due to the price of services, the net of insurance cost of birth services, the ability to pay, contraceptive use, individual attitudes regarding abortion, and government policy affecting cost of benefits of terminating an unintended pregnancy or of carrying to birth. The empirical model uses pooled data from 48 states for 1982, 1984, 1985, and 1987. Prices are deflated to 1977 dollars. Another two-staged least squares model is based on cross-sectional state level data for 1985. The dependent variable is the log of abortion per 1000 pregnancies. Other variables pertain to income, education, labor force, family planning, tax, aid to families with dependent children, religion, and abortion-related measures. The results of the cross-sectional analysis are consistent with Medoff's and Garbacz's findings. The estimated coefficient of per capita income is positive with a point elasticity ranging from 0.62 to 1.0. The model with the most complete specifications has an abortion price elasticity range from -0.75 to -1.3 and is statistically significant when religion measures are excluded. The Hausman test shows the pro-choice variable significantly correlated with the error term. The net price of birth services is not statistically significant. Catholic religion and no religion are only significant when the abortion provider variable is excluded. The suggestion is that the effect of Catholicism is ambiguous. In the pooled analysis, the fixed effects model is used to control for abortion attitudes and other unobserved factors. Abortion demand includes abortion per 1000 pregnancies, the ratio of abortions to pregnancies, and the logarithm of abortions per 1000 pregnancies. Higher income is associated with a higher abortion rate and elasticities of 0.76 and 0.35 and is associated with a higher pregnancy rate. The abortion ratio is found to be elastic with respect to price, and price elasticities are sensitive to

  20. International developments in abortion laws: 1977-88.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1989-08-01

    International developments in abortion laws have been diverse, but the general thrust of legislation and court decisions has been towards decriminalization and liberalization of laws and the reduction of legal barriers to access to therapuetic abortion services presented by spousal and parental authorization requirements. Most legislation has extended abortion eligibility through traditional indications such as danger to maternal health or fetal handicap, but other indications have also been created, such as adolescence, advanced maternal age, family circumstances and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. Several jurisdictions established stages of early gestation within which abortion could be undertaken with minimal legal scrutiny. In Canada, the entire prohibition of abortion was held unconstitutional for violating women's integrity and security. Under medical and public health guidance, several countries have amended their constitutions to recognize and protect human life from contraception. Cyprus, Italy, and Taiwan have created an indication for abortion of welfare of the women's family, while France and the Netherlands recognize the women's distress and Hungary cites cases where the women is single or separated for 6 months, where appropriate housing is lacking or where she is 35 years or older and has had 3 deliveries. National health services and insurance schemes vary in their coverage of abortion costs, but generally tend to fund the major park of lawful services. In Britain, France, Israel, the US and Yugoslavia husband's claims to veto abortions have been rejected. Courts have also established that mature adolescents, although legally minors, may give autonomous consent to abortion and are entitled to confidentiality. Few countries' laws define when criminal abortion liability commences or when conception occurs, but the law has moved to restrict abortion in Israel, Honduras, Romania and Finland.

  1. Emotional sequelae of abortion: implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Lemkau, J P

    1988-12-01

    Without ambivalence, psychotherapy would be unnecessary; however there is a great deal of ambivalence about abortion so it is a therapy issue. In our society abortion decision are made in an ambivalent environment. Even when a woman makes a free decision to have a legal abortion, an emotional sequelae can ensue. This article reviews literature and relates professional experience about the psychological problems and treatment of women before and after having an abortion. A feeling of relief is the typical reaction to an abortion for the woman. The issues involved in the decision process are the woman's own health and happiness as well as that of her future family. The issues include medical and interpersonal ones and often present a moral crisis. Issues such as education, occupation, and relationships must be considered. Three major types of reactions seem to follow an abortion. The 1st is a positive feeling of happiness and relief. The 2nd and 3rd are negative, one being socially based guilt and the other being individually based guilt. Identifying abortion related issues in psychotherapy is not always easy, since they are no usually directly presented to the therapist. They often manifest themselves as symptoms of other problems. Research suggests that unmarried young women without children have a harder time resolving all the issues involved in making an abortion decision. One effective method of discovering emotional problems is to determine the reasons for delaying an abortion. If a woman is having problems making the decision is must be for an important reason. Just as important is the aftermath of the abortion. Attempts should be made to discover as much information about the procedure itself, the recovery time and any repercussions of the procedure. Neither research nor clinical experience has shown that abortion related psychotherapy is different than other forms of treatment. Griefwork, educational approaches, reviews of the decision making process and

  2. [Abortion in unsafe conditions. Concealment, illegality, corruption and negligence].

    PubMed

    Ortiz Ortega, A

    1993-01-01

    "Abortion practiced under conditions of risk" is a phrase used to refer to illegal abortion. The phrase does not highlight the disappearance of risk when legislation changes. Rather, it calls attention to the fact that legal restrictions significantly increase dangers while failing to discourage women determined to terminate pregnancies. The International Planned Parenthood Federation defines abortion under conditions of risk as the use of nonoptimal technology, lack of counseling and services to orient the woman's decision and provide postabortion counseling, and the limitation of freedom to make the decision. The phrase encompasses concealment, illegality, corruption, and negligence. It is designed to impose a reproductive health perspective in response to an unresolved social conflict. Steps have been developed to improve the situation of women undergoing abortion even without a change in its legal status. Such steps include training and purchase of equipment for treatment of incomplete abortions and development of counseling and family planning services. The central difficulty of abortion induced in conditions of risk derives from the laws imposing the need for secrecy. In Mexico, the abortion decision belongs to the government and the society, while individual absorb the consequences of the practice of abortion. Public decision making about abortion is dominated by the concept that the female has an obligation to carry any pregnancy to term. Women who interfere with male descendency and practice a sexuality distinct from reproduction are made to pay a price in health and emotional balance. Resolution of the problem of abortion will require new concepts in terms of legal status, public health issues, and the rights of women. The problem becomes more pressing as abortion becomes more common in a country anxious to advance in the demographic transition. Only a commitment to the reproductive health of women and the full development of their rights as citizens will

  3. State abortion rates. The impact of policies, providers, politics, demographics, and economic environment.

    PubMed

    Blank, R M; George, C C; London, R A

    1996-10-01

    This paper uses data on abortion rates by state from 1974-1988 to estimate two-stage least squares models with fixed state and year effects. Restrictions on Medicaid funding for abortion are correlated with lower abortion rates in-state and higher rates among nearby states. A maximal estimate suggests that 19-25% of the abortions among low-income women that are publicly funded do not take place after funding is eliminated. Parental notification laws for teen abortions do not significantly affect aggregate abortion rates. A larger number of abortion providers in a state increases the abortion rate, primarily through inducing cross-state travel.

  4. [Demonstration of Chlamydia from an equine abortion].

    PubMed

    Henning, K; Sachse, K; Sting, R

    2000-02-01

    The isolation and identification of a chlamydial agent from an equine fetus is reported. The fetus was aborted by a mare with respiratory disease and fever in the 9th month of pregnancy. The serum of the mare was investigated by the compliment fixation test. Specific antibodies were detected for chlamydial antigen in a titer of > 1:40 and for equine herpes virus 1 antigen in a titer of 1:32. Pathological lesions were not found in the organs of the fetus. Chlamydiae were detected in the placenta by ELISA and subsequently isolated by cell culture. Using PCR technique the agent was identified as Chlamydophila psittaci.

  5. Adolescent induced abortion in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omu, A E; Oronsaye, A U; Faal, M K; Asuquo, E E

    1981-12-01

    Induced adolescent abortion is a major cause of maternal and gynecologic death in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, where 244 out of 349 such cases seen from January 1, 1974 to December 31, 1979 were reviewed. Ignorance and lack of contraceptive facilities were contributory factors. To deal with this problem that has been pervasive throughout Nigeria for the past decade, the authors advocate sex education, systematic dissemination of information for planned and conscientious parenthood as well as free availability of alternative methods of contraception. Interruption of early pregnancy should be an essential component of a national family planning program.

  6. Septic abortion caused by Campylobacter jejuni bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Skuhala, Tomislava; Škerk, Višnja; Markotić, Alemka; Bukovski, Suzana; Desnica, Boško

    2016-08-01

    A 20-year-old female patient, 14 weeks pregnant, was admitted to hospital with anamnestic and clinical features of acute pyelonephritis. Clinical signs of septic abortion developed and after obstetric examination the therapy was changed to ampicillin, gentamicin and clindamycin. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from blood cultures. Pathohistological findings confirmed diagnosis of purulent chorioamnionitis. After 2 weeks of ciprofloxacin administration the patient fully recovered. Campylobacter jejuni was not isolated from stool culture and no signs of acute enteritis were registered during the illness. Invasive forms of Campylobacter disease without enteritis are not unusual in immunocompromised hosts but they are restricted to C. fetus rather than C. jejuni isolates.

  7. Italy: abortion and nationalized health care.

    PubMed

    Mori, M

    1984-12-01

    Most of the recent public and scholarly interest in Italy concerning bioethical issues has centered on abortion, general reform of the health care system, and deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill. Medical decisions are thought to concern technical rather than moral issues, and are generally left to physicians. Although ethics is a formal part of the medical curriculum only in Catholic universities, physicians have recently shown more of an interest in bioethical issues, as have philosophers. At present, however, the author is aware of only one non-Catholic institution that is devoted to the study of ethical questions in medicine.

  8. Advocacy for reform of the abortion law in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oye-Adeniran, Boniface A; Long, Carolyn M; Adewole, Isaac F

    2004-11-01

    Safe abortion services are only legal in Nigeria to save the life of the woman. Widespread incidence of unsafe induced abortions often results in death or irreparable harm to women. The Campaign Against Unwanted Pregnancy (CAUP) was launched on 17 August 1991 to address this public health crisis through advocacy for reform of the abortion law, research, education and preparation of service providers, and development of a constituency to support provision of safe abortion to the full extent of the law. CAUP commissioned an evaluation in 2004 to examine and analyse the work of the campaign during its 14 years of existence, which included a review of documents, a participatory learning workshop with CAUP, and almost 50 interviews with different stakeholders. This article, adapted from the evaluation report, tells how CAUP took a taboo topic and, in the midst of an extremely complex political and cultural environment, made it a legitimate subject for public discussion and debate. The Campaign undertook groundbreaking research on abortion in Nigeria. Service providers are being trained to provide, to the full extent of the law, safe abortions and post-abortion care, and advocacy efforts are continuing to lay the groundwork for improving the abortion law.

  9. Adolescent males' abortion attitudes: data from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Marsiglio, W; Shehan, C L

    1993-01-01

    Roughly 13% of a nationally representative sample of 1,880 15-19-year-old males approve of abortion in each of eight circumstances presented to them, while about 4% disapprove in every instance. The proportions agreeing that abortion is acceptable range as high as 85-90% if the pregnancy endangers the woman's health or results from rape. Any type of religious affiliation, especially religious fundamentalism, is related to weaker support for abortion; an even stronger correlate of abortion attitudes is the importance of religion to the respondent. Abortion attitudes vary little by race after other social background factors are controlled. Those with more liberal attitudes toward premarital sex and those who perceive that they would be upset if they became a father in the immediate future are particularly likely to express acceptance of abortion. Roughly 61% of adolescent males do not feel that it would be all right for a woman to have an abortion if her partner objects, indicating a possible "gender conflict of interest" over the abortion issue.

  10. Validation of a Scale to Measure Reasoning about Abortion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Nancy K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Developed and administered Reasoning about Abortion Questionnaire (RAQ) to measure how persons view abortions. Pilot tested the RAQ on 134 college students and modified scale on basis of data. Administered revised RAQ to college students (N=230) replicating factor pattern and obtaining evidence for validity of polarity scores through structured…

  11. Abortion as "Deviance"; Traditional Female Roles Vs. The Feminist Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, R. A. Hudson; Martindale, Lois J.

    The paper focuses on the relationship between changing societal norms and actual, emotional acceptance of them for oneself, with regard to changing norms toward women's roles as they relate to the areas of abortion and sexual behavior. Elective abortion still is regarded by many as a "deviant" activity. Such a view has sprung from an uncritical…

  12. Attitudes toward the Level of Men's Involvement in Abortion Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eileen S.; Coleman, Priscilla K.; Swager, Melinda J.

    1997-01-01

    Analyzed college students' (N=366) attitudes regarding males' involvement in abortion decisions. Results indicate that both men and women thought that men should be involved. Men indicated a desire for more responsibility in such decisions than women thought they should have. Women did not view abortion as strictly a women's issue. (RJM)

  13. Access to safe abortion within the limits of the law.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kamini A; Faúndes, Anibal

    2006-06-01

    The World Health Organization defines unsafe abortion as a procedure for terminating an unintended pregnancy carried out by people lacking the necessary skills or in an environment that does not conform to minimal medical standards, or both. The Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development recommends that 'In circumstances where abortion is not against the law, such abortion should be safe'. However, millions of women still risk their lives by undergoing unsafe abortion even if they comply with the law. This is a serious violation of women's human rights, and obstetricians and gynaecologists have a fundamental role in breaking the administrative and procedural barriers to safe abortion. This chapter reviews the magnitude of the problem, its consequences for women's health, the barriers to access to safe abortion, including its legal status, the effect of the law on the rate and the consequences of abortion, the human rights implications and the current evidence on methods to perform safe abortion. This chapter concludes with an analysis of what can be done to change the current situation.

  14. Shortage of trained doctors signals hard times for abortion providers.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The American Association of Pro-Life Obstetricians and Gynecologists is an 18 year old coalition of 960 doctors who refuse to perform abortions. In addition, they are committed to aggressively counseling women with unintended pregnancies to continue to full term. Today there are so many pressures on doctors not to perform abortions that they are turning away from the procedure. Financial, peer, an activist pressure all contribute to this change. A 1986 study found that 66% of gynecologists would not perform abortions. A National Abortion Federation study found that only 50% of training programs in medical schools offer abortion training. Further, the majority of these are optional so a great many doctors are leaving medical school with no training in abortion. Currently in 83% of the counties in the US there are no abortion providers. Utah has only 2, North and South Dakota each have 1. Women may still have the right to have abortions, but there is no Constitutional provision to ensure their doctor will be willing to perform one.

  15. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  16. Abortion in Young Women and Subsequent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Ridder, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The extent to which abortion has harmful consequences for mental health remains controversial. We aimed to examine the linkages between having an abortion and mental health outcomes over the interval from age 15-25 years. Methods: Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 25-year longitudinal study…

  17. Abortion-Related Services: Value Clarification through "Difficult Dialogues" Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpeli, Moliehi Rosemary; Botma, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Midwives play a pivotal role in women's health in the face of increased deaths related to backyard abortions. Since the commencement in South Africa of the Name of the Act No. 92 of 1996 that allows abortion services, there has been a moral divide among healthcare workers in South Africa. This article reflects the opinions of preregistration…

  18. Regulating Abortion: Impact on Patients and Providers in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Silvie; Joyce, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The State of Texas began enforcement of the Woman's Right to Know (WRTK) Act on January 1, 2004. The law requires that all abortions at or after 16 weeks' gestation be performed in an ambulatory surgical center (ASC). In the month the law went into effect, not one of Texas's 54 nonhospital abortion providers met the requirements of a surgical…

  19. Day of Launch Profile Selection for Pad Abort Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Ryan J.

    2010-01-01

    A day of launch selection approach that involves choosing from an array of pitch profiles of varying loft was analyzed with the purpose of reducing the risk of a land landing failure during a pad abort. It was determined that selecting from three pitch profiles can reduce the number of waterline abort performance requirement failures approximately in half without compromising other performance metrics.

  20. Sex Differences in Correlates of Abortion Attitudes among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Barbara Agresti

    1981-01-01

    Data from a sample of students showed that males' abortion attitudes are related primarily to their degree of conventionality; females' abortion attitudes are related to sex-role conventionality, the value of children in their life plans, the "right to life" issue, and sexual and general conventionality. (Author)

  1. Should Parental Involvement Be Required for Minors' Abortions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodman, Hyman

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the U.S. Supreme Court's recent indication of willingness to accept state restrictions on a woman's right to abortion. Presents several key reasons why parental involvement should not be legally required for minors' abortions, and suggests that family practitioners are in an excellent position to inform the public and policymakers about…

  2. Is there an "abortion trauma syndrome"? Critiquing the evidence.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Gail Erlick; Stotland, Nada L; Russo, Nancy Felipe; Lang, Joan A; Occhiogrosso, Mallay

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this review is to identify and illustrate methodological issues in studies used to support claims that induced abortion results in an "abortion trauma syndrome" or a psychiatric disorder. After identifying key methodological issues to consider when evaluating such research, we illustrate these issues by critically examining recent empirical studies that are widely cited in legislative and judicial testimony in support of the existence of adverse psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Recent studies that have been used to assert a causal connection between abortion and subsequent mental disorders are marked by methodological problems that include, but not limited to: poor sample and comparison group selection; inadequate conceptualization and control of relevant variables; poor quality and lack of clinical significance of outcome measures; inappropriateness of statistical analyses; and errors of interpretation, including misattribution of causal effects. By way of contrast, we review some recent major studies that avoid these methodological errors. The most consistent predictor of mental disorders after abortion remains preexisting disorders, which, in turn, are strongly associated with exposure to sexual abuse and intimate violence. Educating researchers, clinicians, and policymakers how to appropriately assess the methodological quality of research about abortion outcomes is crucial. Further, methodologically sound research is needed to evaluate not only psychological outcomes of abortion, but also the impact of existing legislation and the effects of social attitudes and behaviors on women who have abortions.

  3. Abortion policy in Britain and the United States.

    PubMed

    Francome, C

    1980-01-01

    This article compares the number of legal abortions performed in the United States and Great Britain. It reveals that the rate of abortion in the United States is more than twice that of Britain. The author analyzes the reasons for the different rates.

  4. Medicine and abortion law: complicating the reforming profession.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Sheelagh; Thomson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The complicated intra-professional rivalries that have contributed to the current contours of abortion law and service provision have been subject to limited academic engagement. In this article, we address this gap. We examine how the competing interests of different specialisms played out in abortion law reform from the early twentieth-century, through to the enactment of the Abortion Act 1967, and the formation of the structures of abortion provision in the early 1970s. We demonstrate how professional interests significantly shaped the landscape of abortion law in England, Scotland, and Wales. Our analysis addresses two distinct and yet related fields where professional interests were negotiated or asserted in the journey to law reform. Both debates align with earlier analysis that has linked abortion law reform with the market development of the medical profession. We argue that these two axes of debate, both dominated by professional interests, interacted to help shape law's treatment of abortion, and continue to influence the provision of abortion services today.

  5. Reproducing inequalities: abortion policy and practice in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Abortion is illegal in Thailand, except in cases when it is considered necessary for a woman's health or in the case of rape. Yet abortions remain common and an important public health issue for women in Thailand. Based upon eight months' ethnographic research carried out in Northeast Thailand, this paper presents findings from a survey of 164 women of reproductive age in rural villages and from interviews with 19 women who have had illegal abortions. A range of techniques to induce abortions are used, including the consumption of abortifacients, massage, and uterine injections by untrained practitioners, and procedures carried out by trained medical personnel. This paper examines the effects of the current laws through the experiences of women who have undergone illegal abortions. Within the restrictive legal context, risk is stratified along economic lines. Poorer women have little choice but to resort to abortions by untrained practitioners. There is evidence of wide public support for the reform of the abortion laws to widen the circumstances under which abortion is legal. An ongoing movement, led by women's groups, medical and legal professionals, seeks to reform the law.

  6. Commercial availability of misoprostol and induced abortion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, S H

    1998-12-01

    In Brazil, abortion is only permitted to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. The principal effect of legal restrictions is not to make induced abortion practice less prevalent but to force poor women to resort to abortions performed under unhygienic conditions or attempt self-induced abortion. Within this context, misoprostol, a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1, was introduced in the country in 1986. Purchased over the counter in pharmacies, misoprostol has became a popular abortifacient method among Brazilian women. By 1990, about 70% of women hospitalized with abortion-related diagnoses reported use of the drug. In 1991, the Ministry of Health restricted the sale of misoprostol, and in some states its use was totally banned. While the proportion of abortions induced with misoprostol has decreased, the drug continues to be sold on the black market at an inflated value. Research indicates that women have acquired more experience with the drug over time, resulting in lower doses and more effective administration. Several studies show that the rate and severity of complications are significantly less among women who used misoprostol compared with women who used invasive methods. Research also suggests that about half of the women have complete abortion with misoprostol, but seek medical care as soon as they have vaginal bleeding. The experience of Brazilian women with misoprostol is an example of how women when faced with unwanted pregnancy will resort to illegal abortion whatever the costs are to their health.

  7. Mourning and Guilt among Greek Women Having Repeated Abortions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naziri, D.; Tzavaras, A.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted clinical study concerning bereavement process of Greek women after abortion. Found strong identificatory tendencies on both mother and father images. Argues that, in cases of repeated abortion, mourning and guilt do not only refer to murdered and lost "person-fetus" but principally to death and loss of object of ambiguous…

  8. Changes in the determinants of induced abortion in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, N H; Ahn, N

    1993-12-01

    Study results suggested that Korea's family planning program must shift to the promotion of a balanced sex ratio and prevention of induced abortion. The abortion rate increased markedly until the mid-1980s and then stabilized. The number of abortions almost equalled the number of live births. Retrospective data from the 1991 National Fertility and Family Health Survey of Korea were used to examine the determinants of pregnancy outcomes. The sample included 8475 pregnancies at parity 0, 7947 at parity 1, 5358 at parity 2, and 3437 at parity 3 or higher. An interesting finding was that families with 2 girls reported a very high number of spontaneous abortions since 1985: over 10% (41/389). The number of spontaneous abortions among families with 1-2 male children was only 3% (22/718). Among childless parents only 27% of pregnancies were aborted, while among one-child families 46% were aborted and among two-child families 81% were aborted. From before 1975 until after 1985, abortions among childless parents increased from 10% to 30%. This increase was accounted for by the increased number of premarital pregnancies, which were greater among middle and high school graduates. The abortion rate was high for pregnancies occurring at least 8 months before marriage and for pregnancies of more highly educated recent cohorts occurring earlier than 7 months before marriage. The probability of abortion was 3% for cohorts prior to 1974 with one son and 9% for the recent cohort (1985 and later). This shift may reflect a changed preference for smaller families and son preference. About 40% of pregnancies resulted in a live birth among families with 2 daughters in the most recent cohort. The probability of abortion was 33% higher among families with 2 boys in the earliest cohort than families without a son. The effect of education on pregnancy outcome varied with parity and time period. The abortion rate was higher among educated women, which meant less effective contraceptive

  9. Abortion and Catholic thought. The little-known history.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This article traces the history of the abortion policy of the Roman Catholic Church. The introductory section notes that the Church has consistently opposed abortion as evidence of sexual sin but has not always regarded it as homicide because Church teaching has never been definitive about the nature of the fetus. In addition, the prohibition of abortion has never been declared an infallible teaching. The chronology starts with a sketch of events in the first six Christian centuries when Christians sought ways to distinguish themselves from pagans who accepted contraception and abortion. During this period, Christians also decided that sexual pleasure was evil. Early Church leaders began the debate about when a fetus acquired a rational soul, and St. Augustine declared that abortion is not homicide but was a sin if it was intended to conceal fornication or adultery. During the period of 600-1500, illicit intercourse was deemed by the Irish Canons to be a greater sin than abortion, Church leaders considered a woman's situation when judging abortion, and abortion was listed in Church canons as homicide only when the fetus was formed. St. Thomas Aquinas declared that a fetus first has a vegetative soul, then an animal soul, and finally a rational soul when the body was developed. The next period, 1500-1750, found anyone who resorted to contraception or abortion subject to excommunication (1588), saw these rules relaxed in 1591, and banned abortion even for those who would be murdered because of a pregnancy (1679). From 1750 to the present, excommunication was the punishment for all abortions (1869). This punishment was extended to medical personnel in 1917, but the penalty had exceptions if the woman was young, ignorant, or operating under duress or fear. In 1930, therapeutic abortions were condemned, and, in 1965, abortion was condemned as the taking of life rather than as a sexual sin. By 1974, the right to life argument had taken hold and became part of a theory of

  10. Measuring public attitudes on abortion: methodological and substantive considerations.

    PubMed

    Cook, E A; Jelen, T G; Wilcox, C

    1993-01-01

    Data from a 1989 CBS News/New York Times survey are used to examine the effect that the framing of questions on abortion has on estimates of what proportions of the population support various legal positions. The nationwide data and results from six state polls show that general questions with only two or three options overestimate the proportions of respondents who either favor a ban on all abortion or who would allow abortion under all circumstances. Questions that pose specific circumstances result in movement of respondents out of extreme categories and into more moderate ones. Even respondents who indicate they would favor abortion in all specific circumstances and those who favor abortion in none are likely to moderate their views when asked if they support restrictions that have been proposed in a number of states.

  11. Abortion Law Around the World: Progress and Pushback

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There is a global trend toward the liberalization of abortion laws driven by women’s rights, public health, and human rights advocates. This trend reflects the recognition of women’s access to legal abortion services as a matter of women’s rights and self-determination and an understanding of the dire public health implications of criminalizing abortion. Nonetheless, legal strategies to introduce barriers that impede access to legal abortion services, such as mandatory waiting periods, biased counseling requirements, and the unregulated practice of conscientious objection, are emerging in response to this trend. These barriers stigmatize and demean women and compromise their health. Public health evidence and human rights guarantees provide a compelling rationale for challenging abortion bans and these restrictions. PMID:23409915

  12. Conscientious objection to provision of legal abortion care.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brooke R; Kismödi, Eszter; Dragoman, Monica V; Temmerman, Marleen

    2013-12-01

    Despite advances in scientific evidence, technologies, and human rights rationale for providing safe abortion, a broad range of cultural, regulatory, and health system barriers that deter access to abortion continues to exist in many countries. When conscientious objection to provision of abortion becomes one of these barriers, it can create risks to women's health and the enjoyment of their human rights. To eliminate this barrier, states should implement regulations for healthcare providers on how to invoke conscientious objection without jeopardizing women's access to safe, legal abortion services, especially with regard to timely referral for care and in emergency cases when referral is not possible. In addition, states should take all necessary measures to ensure that all women and adolescents have the means to prevent unintended pregnancies and to obtain safe abortion.

  13. Abortion law around the world: progress and pushback.

    PubMed

    Finer, Louise; Fine, Johanna B

    2013-04-01

    There is a global trend toward the liberalization of abortion laws driven by women's rights, public health, and human rights advocates. This trend reflects the recognition of women's access to legal abortion services as a matter of women's rights and self-determination and an understanding of the dire public health implications of criminalizing abortion. Nonetheless, legal strategies to introduce barriers that impede access to legal abortion services, such as mandatory waiting periods, biased counseling requirements, and the unregulated practice of conscientious objection, are emerging in response to this trend. These barriers stigmatize and demean women and compromise their health. Public health evidence and human rights guarantees provide a compelling rationale for challenging abortion bans and these restrictions.

  14. In Mexico, abortion rights strictly for the books.

    PubMed

    Farmer, A

    2000-06-01

    This paper characterizes the Mexican abortion laws using the case of a girl aged 14 years, Paulina Ramirez Jacinta, who was raped, became pregnant, and chose to terminate the unwanted pregnancy, yet was denied an abortion. This case clearly showed that Mexican abortion law, despite its legality, is highly restrictive in nature and, in a way, violated the human rights of Paulina. Even though it permits first-trimester abortion procedures for rape victims or women whose lives are endangered by the pregnancy, many pregnant women still resort to illegal abortion. To further aggravate the restrictive nature of the law, Baja California state Rep. Martin Dominguez Rocha made a proposal to eliminate the rape exception in the state's penal code. The case of Paulina will be handled by the lawyers at the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy in order to arrive at a settlement favorable to Paulina.

  15. Computational prediction of functional abortive RNA in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Jeremy I; Hassoun, Soha; Nair, Nikhil U

    2017-03-24

    Failure by RNA polymerase to break contacts with promoter DNA results in release of bound RNA and re-initiation of transcription. These abortive RNAs were assumed to be non-functional but have recently been shown to affect termination in bacteriophage T7. Little is known about the functional role of these RNA in other genetic models. Using a computational approach, we investigated whether abortive RNA could exert function in E. coli. Fragments generated from 3780 transcription units were used as query sequences within their respective transcription units to search for possible binding sites. Sites that fell within known regulatory features were then ranked based upon the free energy of hybridization to the abortive. We further hypothesize about mechanisms of regulatory action for a select number of likely matches. Future experimental validation of these putative abortive-mRNA pairs may confirm our findings and promote exploration of functional abortive RNAs (faRNAs) in natural and synthetic systems.

  16. [Second-trimester abortions induced by dinoprost].

    PubMed

    Feldman, J P; Jahier, J; Mavel, A; Kamp, A; Malbranche-Aupècle, M H

    1985-02-01

    The authors evaluated the usefulness of prostaglandin F2 alpha in inducing second trimester abortions in two consecutive groups of patients. Progressive and fractionated intracervical instillation of 10 ml of Tylose gel containing 10 mg of Prostine F2 alpha is the least traumatic method of uterine evacuation in the majority of cases (18 out of 24 cases). Advantages of this method consist of the ease with which it can be performed, that it may be repeated on subsequent days, and that there have been no serious complications. In case of failure, the authors recommend using an intraamnionic injection (usually performed only once) of 40 mg of Prostine F2 alpha diluted in 20 ml of normal saline solution. This more involved method requires an experienced physician and ultrasonography, but is very effective (31 cases out of 3). Exceptionally, this can be repeated after a several day interval if the initial injection fails (2 out of 3). These methods avoid recourse to surgery (except in the case of uterine scarring) in the induction of second trimester abortions.

  17. Surrogate Motherhood and Abortion for Fetal Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ruth; van Zyl, Liezl

    2015-10-01

    A diagnosis of fetal abnormality presents parents with a difficult - even tragic - moral dilemma. Where this diagnosis is made in the context of surrogate motherhood there is an added difficulty, namely that it is not obvious who should be involved in making decisions about abortion, for the person who would normally have the right to decide - the pregnant woman - does not intend to raise the child. This raises the question: To what extent, if at all, should the intended parents be involved in decision-making? In commercial surrogacy it is thought that as part of the contractual agreement the intended parents acquire the right to make this decision. By contrast, in altruistic surrogacy the pregnant woman retains the right to make these decisions, but the intended parents are free to decide not to adopt the child. We argue that both these strategies are morally unsound, and that the problems encountered serve to highlight more fundamental defects within the commercial and altruistic models, as well as in the legal and institutional frameworks that support them. We argue in favour of the professional model, which acknowledges the rights and responsibilities of both parties and provides a legal and institutional framework that supports good decision-making. In particular, the professional model acknowledges the surrogate's right to decide whether to undergo an abortion, and the intended parents' obligation to accept legal custody of the child. While not solving all the problems that arise in surrogacy, the model provides a framework that supports good decision-making.

  18. [AFP cites Jiefang Ribao on Shanghai abortions].

    PubMed

    1981-04-07

    The leader of a network of illegal abortionists in China's city of Shanghai was recently sentenced to 3 years in a labor camp. The Shanghai Liberation Daily reported today that Gu Xuezhong started his career by finding an abortionist for a young girl he had made pregnant without getting married. Encouraged by his success, he then joined a former convict and an abortionist to mount an operation on a larger scale. 20 unmarried young women resorted to their service, paying an average of 200 yuan (130 dollars) as well as giving many gifts. The Chinese authorities strongly advise against sex relations outside the scope of marriage. Although abortion is theoretically available free of charge, young unmarried girls are still frequently the target of various rough jokes from hospital staff in charge of carrying out abortions, not counting the social reprimand a pregnancy not sanctioned by marriage incurs. The newspaper said it was Shanghai public security officials who had decided to hand down the sentence of 3 years of "re-education through labor." Re-education through labor is always done in a labor camp. The paper did not report however whether Gu's accomplices had been punished.

  19. Conscientious objection and induced abortion in Europe.

    PubMed

    Heino, Anna; Gissler, Mika; Apter, Dan; Fiala, Christian

    2013-08-01

    The issue of conscientious objection (CO) arises in healthcare when doctors and nurses refuse to have any involvement in the provision of treatment of certain patients due to their religious or moral beliefs. Most commonly CO is invoked when it comes to induced abortion. Of the EU member states where induced abortion is legal, invoking CO is granted by law in 21 countries. The same applies to the non-EU countries Norway and Switzerland. CO is not legally granted in the EU member states Sweden, Finland, Bulgaria and the Czech Republic. The Icelandic legislation provides no right to CO either. European examples prove that the recommendation that CO should not prevent women from accessing services fails in a number of cases. CO puts women in an unequal position depending on their place of residence, socio-economic status and income. CO should not be presented as a question that relates only to health professionals and their rights. CO mainly concerns women as it has very real consequences for their reproductive health and rights. European countries should assess the laws governing CO and its effects on women's rights. CO should not be used as a subtle method for limiting the legal right to healthcare.

  20. Pine needle abortion in cattle update: Metabolite detection in sera and fetal fluids from abortion case samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle abortions associated with consumption of pine needles during late gestation are a serious poisonous plant problem in the Western US. Most cases of abortion have been associated with consumption of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and the causative agent was identified as the labdane diterpen...

  1. Role of birth spacing, family planning services, safe abortion services and post-abortion care in reducing maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Ganatra, Bela; Faundes, Anibal

    2016-10-01

    Access to contraception reduces maternal deaths by preventing or delaying pregnancy in women who do not intend to be pregnant or those at higher risk of complications. However, not all unintended pregnancies can be prevented through increase in contraceptive use, and access to safe abortion is needed to prevent unsafe abortions. Despite not preventing the problem, provision of emergency care for complications can help prevent deaths from such unsafe abortions. Safe abortion in early pregnancy can be provided at primary care level and by non-physician providers, and the risks of mortality associated with such safe, legal abortions are minimal. Although entirely preventable, unsafe abortions continue to occur because of numerous barriers such as legal and policy restrictions, service delivery issues and provider attitudes to abortion stigma. Overall, the provision of contraception and safe abortion is important not just to prevent maternal deaths but as a measure of our ability to respect women's decisions and ensure that they have access to timely, evidence-based care that protects their health and human rights.

  2. The present status of abortion laws: A statement by the New York Academy of Medicine prepared by the Committee on Public Health.

    PubMed

    1970-04-01

    In 1943 the New York Academy of Medicine proposed abortion to be permitted up to 28 weeks gestation, where mother's life was jeopardized, and if performed by a licensed physician in an approved facility. In 1953, it recommended the additional conditions of threatened health or disability to the child. The American Law Institute in 1959 recommended that a licensed physician should decide when there was sufficient threat to mother or childs health, or that pregnancy resulting from rape or incest be terminated. Arguments in favor of a more liberal law include morbidity and mortality from illegal abortion, disparity between statutory law and actual practice, and discrimination against the poor for obtaining safe abortions,y In 1969 in California in People v. Belous, it was stated that limiting abortion abridges the right of privacy of women and that the decision making power is delegated to an involved individiual (the doctor is subject to prosecution by approving an abortion but not by denying one), violating the 14th amendment. It is recommended by the New York Academy of Medicine that the law be altered to place abortion under the general provision of the medical practices acts of the states.

  3. House vote on Hyde changes dynamic of Congressional abortion debate.

    PubMed

    1993-07-27

    US Congressional action is summarized for actions taken on abortion amendments and abortion funding amendments during the month of July 1993. The Hyde Amendment was passed in the House on July 1, 1993; by a margin of 255 to 178; the Senate version will be voted on in August. The amendment was a victory for anti-abortion supporters, because it limited coverage of abortions under Medicaid to cases involving only life endangerment, rape, or incest. Both sides of the abortion debate were energized by the vote. The national Campaign for Abortion and Reproductive Equity (CARE) was launched on July 13 through support from a coalition of 130 organizations and Representatives Maxine Waters, Cynthia McKinney, and Nita Lowey. CARE aims to restore federal funding of abortion services for poor women and others using federally funded health care. The Freedom of Choice Act (FOCA) leaves abortion funding and parental involvement to the discretion of individual states. FOCA was characterized by Senator Carol Moseley-Braun, who withdrew her sponsorship of the bill, as not meeting the needs of the "marginalized, disrespected, and ignored population." 4 other Democratic women senators followed suit and promised to very strongly oppose all efforts to restrict abortions through amendments to appropriations bills. Senate appropriations bills were also considered during July. On July 15 the Senate Veterans Affairs (VA) Committee defeated an amendment that would have barred the use of federal funds for abortion services at VA hospitals, except in cases of rape, incest, or the saving of maternal life. Senate Committee members John Rockefeller and Tom Daschle contributed to the bill's defeat. Federal employee health insurance plans will continue to ban the coverage of abortion services due to passage by the Subcommittee on Treasury, Postal Service, and General Government. An amendment introduced by Senator Bond to allow abortions in cases of rape, incest, or risk to maternal life was adopted

  4. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, M.K.; Staub, S.L.; Tokuhata, G.K.

    1983-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss.

  5. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Goldhaber, M K; Staub, S L; Tokuhata, G K

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss. PMID:6859357

  6. Abortion policies and practices in Chile: ambiguities and dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Bonnie L; Casas Becerra, Lidia

    2007-11-01

    Abortion is not legal in Chile even to save the woman's life or health. This situation creates serious dilemmas and vulnerabilities for both women and medical practitioners. Abortion incidence has probably decreased since 1990, when data were last studied, due to increased use of contraception and lower fertility, and deaths and complication rates have fallen as well. Misoprostol is available, but Chilean hospitals are still using D&C for incomplete abortions. Although Chilean medical professionals should by law report illegal abortions to the authorities, less than 1% of women in hospital with abortion complications are reported. There are two loopholes, one legal, one clinical. "Interruption of pregnancy" after 22 weeks of pregnancy is legal for medical reasons; this may save some women's lives but can also force prolongation of health-threatening pregnancies. Catholic clinical guidelines define interventions solely aimed at saving the woman's life, even if the fetus dies, not as abortion but "indirect abortion" and permissible. Since 1989, three bills to liberalise the law on therapeutic grounds have been unsuccessful. The political climate is not favourable to changing the law. Conservatives have also not succeeded in making the law more punitive, while the governing centre-left coalition is divided and the associated political risks are considerable.

  7. Fetal tissue transplantation: can it be morally insulated from abortion?

    PubMed

    Strong, C

    1991-06-01

    Ethical controversy over transplantation of human fetal tissue has arisen because the source of tissue is induced abortions. Opposition to such transplants has been based on various arguments, including the following: rightful informed consent cannot be obtained for use of fetal tissue from induced abortions, and fetal tissue transplantation might result in an increase in the number of abortions. These arguments were not accepted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Human Fetal Tissue Transplantation Research Panel. The majority opinion of the panel stated that abortion and fetal tissue use are entirely separate issues, and that tissue use is ethically acceptable because it can be morally insulated from the issue of abortion. In support of this view, panel members and others have replied to the arguments put forward by opponents of fetal tissue use. However, replies to the two arguments mentioned above have been unsatisfactory, and the shortcomings of those replies are identified herein. Examination of the arguments pro and con suggests that fetal tissue use cannot be completely insulated from the issue of abortion. Thus, in seeking an ethical justification for fetal tissue transplantation we must consider reasons other than those put forward by the NIH panel. In this paper it is argued that whatever wrong is involved in using fetal tissue from induced abortions must be balanced against the benefits for patients, and it is on this basis that fetal tissue transplantation can be ethically justified.

  8. The heritability of abortion in pedigree Charollais flocks.

    PubMed

    Darlay, Rebecca; Stear, Michael J; Mason, Sam; Smith, Judith; Shaw, Marie-Anne

    2014-10-01

    Foetal death, or abortion at term, in sheep is of major significance to the livestock industry, accounting for more than £24million lost per annum. We have investigated whether there is a genetic component to abortion within two flocks of pedigree Charollais sheep, one followed from 1989 to 2006, the other from 1992 to 2006. Abortion occurred at a rate of 5.74-8.78% per annum against a total mortality rate of 14-24%. By model covariate analysis we have shown that 15.5% aborting ewes went on to have one or more abortions and that this risk increased with parity (p=0.006). Heritability estimates were approximately 0.08 as calculated by SOLAR, pedigreemm and ASReml3, with sire and dam components of 0.046 and 0.048, respectively. Where the lamb was aborted, heritability estimates were highly variable according to the method employed, 0.046-0.378, with sex of the lamb being a significant covariate. This variability indicated one or more underlying, significant factors that were not measured in these analyses, potentially including infectious agents that may be involved. Nevertheless, the ASReml3 estimate (0.179) resolved to 0.074 variance attributable to the sire and 0.092 attributable to the dam, which, while not significant, was suggestive that genetic variants passed by the dam to the lamb may be of more weight than that from the sire in determining whether a lamb will abort.

  9. Midwives' experiences of encountering women seeking an abortion.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Meta; Jacobsson, Lars; Wulff, Marianne; Lalos, Ann

    2007-12-01

    In order to gain knowledge about midwives' clinical and emotional experiences of working with termination of pregnancy (TOP) and their perception of women's motives for having an abortion questionnaires were mailed to a representative sample of Swedish midwives (n = 258), and 84% responded. Responses to 17 statements were studied and interpreted. It was found that every third midwife had not at all worked with TOP, and every fifth had not done so in the preceding two years. Among those who had experienced this work, few midwives had considered changing their job or had had misgivings or feelings of inadequacy caused by encountering women seeking an abortion. Both working currently with TOP and for a longer period of time were found to evoke positive experiences in every other midwife. Midwives' perception of motives for abortion corresponded very well to motives provided by women themselves. Half the midwives had had misgivings concerning late abortions and somewhat fewer regarding surgical abortions. In general, religious belief did not influence midwives' views of TOP. Those midwives who had themselves had an abortion reported fewer misgivings about late abortions than those without personal experience of TOP.

  10. International developments in abortion law from 1988 to 1998.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M; Bliss, L E

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In 2 successive decades since 1967, legal accommodation of abortion has grown in many countries. The objective of this study was to assess whether liberalizing trends have been maintained in the last decade and whether increased protection of women's human rights has influenced legal reform. METHODS: A worldwide review was conducted of legislation and judicial rulings affecting abortion, and legal reforms were measured against governmental commitments made under international human rights treaties and at United Nations conferences. RESULTS: Since 1987, 26 jurisdictions have extended grounds for lawful abortion, and 4 countries have restricted grounds. Additional limits on access to legal abortion services include restrictions on funding of services, mandatory counseling and reflection delay requirements, third-party authorizations, and blockades of abortion clinics. CONCLUSIONS: Progressive liberalization has moved abortion laws from a focus on punishment toward concern with women's health and welfare and with their human rights. However, widespread maternal mortality and morbidity show that reform must be accompanied by accessible abortion services and improved contraceptive care and information. PMID:10191808

  11. A mixture model for bovine abortion and foetal survival.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Timothy; Bedrick, Edward J; Johnson, Wesley O; Thurmond, Mark C

    2003-05-30

    The effect of spontaneous abortion on the dairy industry is substantial, costing the industry on the order of US dollars 200 million per year in California alone. We analyse data from a cohort study of nine dairy herds in Central California. A key feature of the analysis is the observation that only a relatively small proportion of cows will abort (around 10;15 per cent), so that it is inappropriate to analyse the time-to-abortion (TTA) data as if it were standard censored survival data, with cows that fail to abort by the end of the study treated as censored observations. We thus broaden the scope to consider the analysis of foetal lifetime distribution (FLD) data for the cows, with the dual goals of characterizing the effects of various risk factors on (i). the likelihood of abortion and, conditional on abortion status, on (ii). the risk of early versus late abortion. A single model is developed to accomplish both goals with two sets of specific herd effects modelled as random effects. Because multimodal foetal hazard functions are expected for the TTA data, both a parametric mixture model and a non-parametric model are developed. Furthermore, the two sets of analyses are linked because of anticipated dependence between the random herd effects. All modelling and inferences are accomplished using modern Bayesian methods.

  12. [Abortion among female students and employees of a Brazilian university].

    PubMed

    Hardy, E; Rebello, I; Faúndes, A

    1993-04-01

    In Brazil, the subject of induced abortion is controversial and considered by some to be a serious public health problem. On the other hand there are little data available as to its frequency and general characteristics. The difficulty encountered in obtaining reliable information is to be explained by the illegality of abortion that inhibits women from talking about their experience, and most studies are carried out in hospitals and thus succeed in identifying only those women who have complications. A study was carried out in 1990, involving all the female graduate students and employees of a Brazilian university. Data was obtained through a questionnaire that was returned by mail, anonymously. This paper presents some of the results relating to the frequency of miscarriage and abortion in this population. Significantly more students than employees were less than 25 years old (85% and 13.7% respectively); fewer students were married or in a common-law union (11% of students as against 56% of employees) and four times fewer students than employees had never been pregnant (15% and 65%). Nine percent of the students and 14% of the employees had had at least one abortion. When only sometime pregnant women were taken into consideration, over half the students (59%) and 20% of the employees had had an abortion. Differences between the two groups were maintained when considered by age, both for miscarriage and abortion. Students of less than 25 years of age presented the highest percentage of abortion.

  13. Reasons women give for abortion: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kirkman, Maggie; Rowe, Heather; Hardiman, Annarella; Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen

    2009-12-01

    The aim was to identify from empirical research that used quantitative or qualitative methods the reasons women give for having an abortion. A search was conducted of peer-reviewed, English language publications indexed in eight computerized databases with publication date 1996-2008, using keywords 'abortion' and 'reason' (Medline: 'induced abortion' OR 'termination of pregnancy' OR 'elective abortion' and 'reason'). Inclusion criteria were empirical research on humans that identified women's reasons for undergoing an abortion, conducted in 'high-income' countries. 19 eligible papers were found. Despite variation in methods of generating, collecting, and analysing reasons, and the inadequacy of methodological detail in some papers, all contributed to a consistent picture of the reasons women give for having an abortion, with three main categories ('Woman-focused', 'Other-focused', and 'Material') identified. Ambivalence was often evident in women's awareness of reasons for continuing the pregnancy, but abortion was chosen because continuing with the pregnancy was assessed as having adverse effects on the life of the woman and significant others. Women's reasons were complex and contingent, taking into account their own needs, a sense of responsibility to existing children and the potential child, and the contribution of significant others, including the genetic father.

  14. The difficult issue of second-trimester abortion.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, A

    1994-08-04

    In the US, 10.2% of legal abortions are performed at 13-20 weeks and an additional 1% occur at 21 weeks gestation or beyond. These second-trimester abortions account for about 140,000 procedures per year. Dilatation and evacuation; instillation of saline, urea, or medication into the amniotic cavity; and intravenous prostaglandin administration are the approaches available for these procedures. At present, intravaginal prostaglandin E is the most commonly used mid-trimester abortion method; new research suggests that intravaginal misoprostol may confer advantages. Since teenagers are the population group most likely to delay abortion until the second trimester, priority should be given to making abortion services more accessible and removing requirements such as parental consent. Most beneficial would be a preventive approach that decreases the number of unintended pregnancies among adolescents through school-based sex education programs and access to free, effective contraceptive methods. Problematic is the reluctance on the part of many obstetricians and gynecologists to perform abortions due to a lack of technical training or moral objections. These practitioners should be mandated to fulfill their obligation to meet the needs of their patients, regardless of their personal views on the abortion issues.

  15. MTP Amendment Bill, 2014: towards re-imagining abortion care.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Shweta

    2015-01-01

    In India, the 1971 Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, while allowing abortions under a broad range of circumstances, can be considered a conservative law from a feminist perspective. The Act allows healthcare providers rather than women seeking abortion to have the final say on abortion, and creates an environment within which women are made dependent on their healthcare providers. On October 29, 2014, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare released a draft of the MTP (Amendment) Bill 2014, which proposes changes that could initiate a shift in the focus of the Indian abortion discourse from healthcare providers to women. Such a shift would decrease the vulnerability of women within the clinical setting and free them from subjective interpretations of the law. The Bill also expands the base of healthcare providers by including mid-level and non-allopathic healthcare providers. While the medical community has resisted this inclusion, the author is in favour of it, arguing that in the face of the high rates of unsafe abortion, such a step is both ethical and necessary. Additionally, the clause extending the gestational limit could trigger ethical debates on eugenic abortions and sex-selective abortions. This paper argues that neither of these should be used to limit access to late-trimester termination, and should, instead, be dealt with separately and in a way that enquires into why such pregnancies are considered unwanted.

  16. Abortion, changed paternity, and risk of preeclampsia in nulliparous women.

    PubMed

    Saftlas, Audrey F; Levine, Richard J; Klebanoff, Mark A; Martz, Karen L; Ewell, Marian G; Morris, Cynthia D; Sibai, Baha M

    2003-06-15

    A prior birth confers a strong protective effect against preeclampsia, whereas a prior abortion confers a weaker protective effect. Parous women who change partners in a subsequent pregnancy appear to lose the protective effect of a prior birth. This study (Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention Trial, 1992-1995) examines whether nulliparous women with a prior abortion who change partners also lose the protective effect of the prior pregnancy. A cohort analysis was conducted among participants in this large clinical trial of calcium supplementation to prevent preeclampsia. Subjects were nulliparous, had one prior pregnancy or less, delivered after 20 weeks' gestation, and were interviewed at 5-21 weeks about prior pregnancies and paternity. Women without a history of abortion served as the reference group in logistic regression analyses. Women with a history of abortion who conceived again with the same partner had nearly half the risk of preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio = 0.54, 95 percent confidence interval: 0.31, 0.97). In contrast, women with an abortion history who conceived with a new partner had the same risk of preeclampsia as women without a history of abortion (adjusted odds ratio = 1.03, 95 percent confidence interval: 0.72, 1.47). Thus, the protective effect of a prior abortion operated only among women who conceived again with the same partner. An immune-based etiologic mechanism is proposed, whereby prolonged exposure to fetal antigens from a previous pregnancy protects against preeclampsia in a subsequent pregnancy with the same father.

  17. Neospora caninum - Associated Abortions in Slovak Dairy Farm

    PubMed Central

    ŠPILOVSKÁ, Silvia; REITEROVÁ, Katarína; ANTOLOVÁ, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neospora caninum is considered one of the major causes of repeated abortions in livestock. This study aimed to determine the seropositivity to N. caninum using indirect ELISA and the influence of the infection on the occurrence of abortions in selected dairy herd in Slovakia. Method: Blood samples were obtained from 490 cattle over a period of two years and were tested for N. caninum antibodies using indirect ELISA. Results: The presence of specific antibodies in the herd was detected in 118 (24.1%) cows. According to selected groups; 117 (41.0%) cows with a history of abortion, 65 (43.3%) heifers and 223 (2.2%) cows without abortions were tested positive to Neospora. Vertical transmission of N. caninum dominated in examined herd and the relative risk (RR) of dam-daughter seropositivity in progenies of seropositive mothers was 2.1 times higher than in progenies of seronegative dams. Molecular analyses of aborted foetuses of seropositive mothers showed the presence of Neospora DNA. However, 23 (28.1%) of heifers born to seronegative cows were seropositive, indicating also the postnatal transmission of the infection from the environment. Conclusion: Study revealed significant correlation between the presence of specific antibodies and the occurrence of abortions, the risk of abortion in seropositive animals was 3.8 times higher than in seronegative ones. Incorrect farm management contributed to spread and circulation of neosporosis in entire dairy herd what could significantly impair the reproduction and economic parameters of breeding. PMID:25904951

  18. Factors associated with induced abortion among women in Hohoe, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mote, Charity V; Otupiri, Easmon; Hindin, Michelle J

    2010-12-01

    In Hohoe, Ghana, induced abortion is the second highest cause of hospital admissions. We aimed to describe factors influencing induced abortion among 408 randomly selected women aged 15-49 years. 21% of the women had had an abortion; of those, 36% said they did not want to disrupt their education or employment; 66% of the abortions were performed by doctors. Bivariate logistic regression showed that compared with women with secondary education, women with basic education (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.18-0.54) and uneducated women (OR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.07-0.70) were significantly less likely to have had an abortion. Women who were married (OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.10-3.04), peri-urban residents (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 0.95-3.94), and women with formal employment (OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 0.86-5.45) were more likely to have had an abortion. Stakeholders should improve access to effective contraception to lower the chance of needing an abortion and target education programmes at those with unmet need for contraception.

  19. The introduction of first trimester medical abortion in Armenia.

    PubMed

    Louie, Karmen S; Chong, Erica; Tsereteli, Tamar; Avagyan, Gayane; Vardanyan, Susanna; Winikoff, Beverly

    2015-02-01

    In Armenia, abortion is the main means of fertility regulation; however, before research activities were initiated only surgical methods were available and the quality of services was low in some areas. Our clinical study from 2008-2011 aimed to show that early medical abortion is an acceptable and feasible option. A total of 700 eligible women with pregnancies up to 63 days LMP presenting for abortion were recruited for the study in five locations. Participants took 200 mg mifepristone and 800 μg buccal misoprostol 24-48 hours later. They returned for a follow-up visit two weeks after mifepristone administration. 95% of the women had successful abortions and 95% were satisfied with the method. In 2012-2013, we conducted a follow-up assessment to examine the ongoing provision and quality of medical abortion services at the former research sites. Medical record reviews, interviews and observations were carried out three times approximately six months apart. The assessment found that all five sites had continued providing medical abortion, with about half of eligible women choosing the medical method. Four of the five sites were achieving high success rates. Staff turnover and the lack of trained providers likely contributed to the higher failure rate at the fifth site. These findings provide evidence that first trimester medical abortion is an acceptable and feasible option for Armenian women and providers, and that high quality services are being delivered.

  20. Constructing the meaning of ultrasound viewing in abortion care.

    PubMed

    Kimport, Katrina; Weitz, Tracy A

    2015-07-01

    As ultrasound scanning becomes increasingly routine in abortion care, scholars and activists have forwarded claims about how viewing the ultrasound image will affect pregnant women seeking abortion, speculating that it will dissuade them from abortion. These accounts, however, fail to appreciate how viewing is a social process. Little research has investigated how ultrasound workers navigate viewing in abortion care. We draw on interviews with twenty-six ultrasound workers in abortion care for their impressions and practices around ultrasound viewing. Respondents reported few experiences of viewing dissuading women from abortion, but did report that it had an emotional effect on patients that they believed was associated with gestational age. These impressions informed their practices, leading many to manage patient viewing based on the patient's gestational age. Other aspects of their accounts, however, undercut the assertion that the meaning of ultrasound images is associated with gestation and show the pervasiveness of cultural ideas associating developing foetal personhood with increasing gestational age. Findings demonstrate the social construction of ultrasound viewing, with implications in the ongoing contestation over abortion rights in the US.