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Sample records for abort vehicle lav

  1. Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Attitude Control Motor Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Paschal, Keith B.; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Foley, Robert; Mayfield, David; Cross, Jared

    2011-01-01

    Current Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) configurations use an eight-jet, solid-fueled Attitude Control Motor (ACM) to provide required vehicle control for all proposed abort trajectories. Due to the forward position of the ACM on the LAV, it is necessary to assess the effects of jet-interactions (JI) between the various ACM nozzle plumes and the external flow along the outside surfaces of the vehicle. These JI-induced changes in flight control characteristics must be accounted for in developing ACM operations and LAV flight characteristics. A test program to generate jet interaction aerodynamic increment data for multiple LAV configurations was conducted in the NASA Ames and NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels from August 2007 through December 2009. Using cold air as the simulant gas, powered subscale models were used to generate interaction data at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic test conditions. This paper presents an overview of the complete ACM JI experimental test program for Orion LAV configurations, highlighting ACM system modeling, nozzle scaling assumptions, experimental test techniques, and data reduction methodologies. Lessons learned are discussed, and sample jet interaction data are shown. These data, in conjunction with computational predictions, were used to create the ACM JI increments for all relevant flight databases.

  2. Modeling Powered Aerodynamics for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Aerodynamic Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Robinson, Philip E.; Wilson, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Modeling the aerodynamics of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) has presented many technical challenges to the developers of the Orion aerodynamic database. During a launch abort event, the aerodynamic environment around the LAV is very complex as multiple solid rocket plumes interact with each other and the vehicle. It is further complicated by vehicle separation events such as between the LAV and the launch vehicle stack or between the launch abort tower and the crew module. The aerodynamic database for the LAV was developed mainly from wind tunnel tests involving powered jet simulations of the rocket exhaust plumes, supported by computational fluid dynamic simulations. However, limitations in both methods have made it difficult to properly capture the aerodynamics of the LAV in experimental and numerical simulations. These limitations have also influenced decisions regarding the modeling and structure of the aerodynamic database for the LAV and led to compromises and creative solutions. Two database modeling approaches are presented in this paper (incremental aerodynamics and total aerodynamics), with examples showing strengths and weaknesses of each approach. In addition, the unique problems presented to the database developers by the large data space required for modeling a launch abort event illustrate the complexities of working with multi-dimensional data.

  3. Grid Fin Stabilization of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruzan, Daniel A.; Mendenhall, Michael R.; Rose, William C.; Schuster, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted by Nielsen Engineering & Research (NEAR) and Rose Engineering & Research (REAR) in conjunction with the NASA Engineering & Safety Center (NESC) on a 6%-scale model of the Orion launch abort vehicle (LAV) configured with four grid fins mounted near the base of the vehicle. The objectives of these tests were to 1) quantify LAV stability augmentation provided by the grid fins from subsonic through supersonic Mach numbers, 2) assess the benefits of swept grid fins versus unswept grid fins on the LAV, 3) determine the effects of the LAV abort motors on grid fin aerodynamics, and 4) generate an aerodynamic database for use in the future application of grid fins to small length-to-diameter ratio vehicles similar to the LAV. The tests were conducted in NASA Ames Research Center's 11x11-foot transonic wind tunnel from Mach 0.5 through Mach 1.3 and in their 9x7-foot supersonic wind tunnel from Mach 1.6 through Mach 2.5. Force- and moment-coefficient data were collected for the complete vehicle and for each individual grid fin as a function of angle of attack and sideslip angle. Tests were conducted with both swept and unswept grid fins with the simulated abort motors (cold jets) off and on. The swept grid fins were designed with a 22.5deg aft sweep angle for both the frame and the internal lattice so that the frontal projection of the swept fins was the same as for the unswept fins. Data from these tests indicate that both unswept and swept grid fins provide significant improvements in pitch stability as compared to the baseline vehicle over the Mach number range investigated. The swept fins typically provide improved stability as compared to the unswept fins, but the performance gap diminished as Mach number was increased. The aerodynamic performance of the fins was not observed to degrade when the abort motors were turned on. Results from these tests indicate that grid fins can be a robust solution for stabilizing the Orion LAV over a wide

  4. Gain Scheduling for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, Sara J.; Restrepo, Carolina I.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Medina, Edgar A.; Proud, Ryan W.; Whitley, Ryan J.

    2011-01-01

    One of NASAs challenges for the Orion vehicle is the control system design for the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV), which is required to abort safely at any time during the atmospheric ascent portion of ight. The focus of this paper is the gain design and scheduling process for a controller that covers the wide range of vehicle configurations and flight conditions experienced during the full envelope of potential abort trajectories from the pad to exo-atmospheric flight. Several factors are taken into account in the automation process for tuning the gains including the abort effectors, the environmental changes and the autopilot modes. Gain scheduling is accomplished using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) approach for the decoupled, simplified linear model throughout the operational envelope in time, altitude and Mach number. The derived gains are then implemented into the full linear model for controller requirement validation. Finally, the gains are tested and evaluated in a non-linear simulation using the vehicles ight software to ensure performance requirements are met. An overview of the LAV controller design and a description of the linear plant models are presented. Examples of the most significant challenges with the automation of the gain tuning process are then discussed. In conclusion, the paper will consider the lessons learned through out the process, especially in regards to automation, and examine the usefulness of the gain scheduling tool and process developed as applicable to non-Orion vehicles.

  5. Effects of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Plumes on Aerodynamics and Controllability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicker, Darby; Childs, Robert; Rogers,Stuart E.; McMullen, Matthew; Garcia, Joseph; Greathouse, James

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of the launch abort system of the Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) for control design and accurate simulation has provided a significant challenge to aerodynamicists and design engineers. The design space of the launch abort vehicle (LAV) includes operational altitudes from ground level to approximately 300,000 feet, Mach numbers from 0-9, and peak dynamic pressure near 1300psf during transonic flight. Further complicating the characterization of the aerodynamics and the resultant vehicle controllability is the interaction of the vehicle flowfield with the plumes of the two solid propellant motors that provide attitude control and the main propulsive impulse for the LAV. These interactions are a function of flight parameters such as Mach number, altitude, dynamic pressure, vehicle attitude, as well as parameters relating to the operation of the motors themselves - either as a function of time for the AM, or as a result of the flight control system requests for control torque from the ACM. This paper discusses the computational aerodynamic modeling of the aerodynamic interaction caused by main abort motor and the attitude control motor of the MPCV LAV, showing the effects of these interactions on vehicle controllability.

  6. Crew Exploration Vehicle Ascent Abort Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B., Jr.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Proud, Ryan W.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Kenyon, Paul R.; Burt, Richard; McFarland, Mike

    2007-01-01

    One of the primary design drivers for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is to ensure crew safety. Aborts during the critical ascent flight phase require the design and operation of CEV systems to escape from the Crew Launch Vehicle and return the crew safely to the Earth. To accomplish this requirement of continuous abort coverage, CEV ascent abort modes are being designed and analyzed to accommodate the velocity, altitude, atmospheric, and vehicle configuration changes that occur during ascent. The analysis involves an evaluation of the feasibility and survivability of each abort mode and an assessment of the abort mode coverage. These studies and design trades are being conducted so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle abort requirements, design, and operation. This paper presents an overview of the CEV, driving requirements for abort scenarios, and an overview of current ascent abort modes. Example analysis results are then discussed. Finally, future areas for abort analysis are addressed.

  7. Crew Exploration Vehicle Ascent Abort Coverage Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abadie, Marc J.; Berndt, Jon S.; Burke, Laura M.; Falck, Robert D.; Gowan, John W., Jr.; Madsen, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    An important element in the design of NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is the consideration given to crew safety during various ascent phase failure scenarios. To help ensure crew safety during this critical and dynamic flight phase, the CEV requirements specify that an abort capability must be continuously available from lift-off through orbit insertion. To address this requirement, various CEV ascent abort modes are analyzed using 3-DOF (Degree Of Freedom) and 6-DOF simulations. The analysis involves an evaluation of the feasibility and survivability of each abort mode and an assessment of the abort mode coverage using the current baseline vehicle design. Factors such as abort system performance, crew load limits, thermal environments, crew recovery, and vehicle element disposal are investigated to determine if the current vehicle requirements are appropriate and achievable. Sensitivity studies and design trades are also completed so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle design. An overview of the CEV ascent abort modes is presented along with the driving requirements for abort scenarios. The results of the analysis completed as part of the requirements validation process are then discussed. Finally, the conclusions of the study are presented, and future analysis tasks are recommended.

  8. Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Pad Abort Test Vehicle (PATV) II Attitude Control System (ACS) Integration and Pressurization Subsystem Dynamic Random Vibration Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekrami, Yasamin; Cook, Joseph S.

    2011-01-01

    In order to mitigate catastrophic failures on future generation space vehicles, engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have begun to integrate a novel crew abort systems that could pull a crew module away in case of an emergency at the launch pad or during ascent. The Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) is a recent test vehicle that was designed as an alternative to the baseline Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) to demonstrate the performance of a "tower-less" LAS configuration under abort conditions. The MLAS II test vehicle will execute a propulsive coast stabilization maneuver during abort to control the vehicles trajectory and thrust. To accomplish this, the spacecraft will integrate an Attitude Control System (ACS) with eight hypergolic monomethyl hydrazine liquid propulsion engines that are capable of operating in a quick pulsing mode. Two main elements of the ACS include a propellant distribution subsystem and a pressurization subsystem to regulate the flow of pressurized gas to the propellant tanks and the engines. The CAD assembly of the Attitude Control System (ACS) was configured and integrated into the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) design. A dynamic random vibration analysis was conducted on the Main Propulsion System (MPS) helium pressurization panels to assess the response of the panel and its components under increased gravitational acceleration loads during flight. The results indicated that the panels fundamental and natural frequencies were farther from the maximum Acceleration Spectral Density (ASD) vibrations which were in the range of 150-300 Hz. These values will direct how the components will be packaged in the vehicle to reduce the effects high gravitational loads.

  9. Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Ascent Abort Coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Mark B.; Evans, Bryan M.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Falck, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to maintain continuous abort capability from lift off through destination arrival. This requirement is driven by the desire to provide the capability to safely return the crew to Earth after failure scenarios during the various phases of the mission. This paper addresses abort trajectory design considerations, concept of operations and guidance algorithm prototypes for the portion of the ascent trajectory following nominal jettison of the Launch Abort System (LAS) until safe orbit insertion. Factors such as abort system performance, crew load limits, natural environments, crew recovery, and vehicle element disposal were investigated to determine how to achieve continuous vehicle abort capability.

  10. Launch Vehicle Debris Models and Crew Vehicle Ascent Abort Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, Ken; Lawrence, Scott

    2013-01-01

    For manned space launch systems, a reliable abort system is required to reduce the risks associated with a launch vehicle failure during ascent. Understanding the risks associated with failure environments can be achieved through the use of physics-based models of these environments. Debris fields due to destruction of the launch vehicle is one such environment. To better analyze the risk posed by debris, a physics-based model for generating launch vehicle debris catalogs has been developed. The model predicts the mass distribution of the debris field based on formulae developed from analysis of explosions. Imparted velocity distributions are computed using a shock-physics code to model the explosions within the launch vehicle. A comparison of the debris catalog with an existing catalog for the Shuttle external tank show good comparison in the debris characteristics and the predicted debris strike probability. The model is used to analyze the effects of number of debris pieces and velocity distributions on the strike probability and risk.

  11. Launch Vehicle Failure Dynamics and Abort Triggering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Hill, Ashely D.; Beard, Bernard B.

    2011-01-01

    Launch vehicle ascent is a time of high risk for an on-board crew. There are many types of failures that can kill the crew if the crew is still on-board when the failure becomes catastrophic. For some failure scenarios, there is plenty of time for the crew to be warned and to depart, whereas in some there is insufficient time for the crew to escape. There is a large fraction of possible failures for which time is of the essence and a successful abort is possible if the detection and action happens quickly enough. This paper focuses on abort determination based primarily on data already available from the GN&C system. This work is the result of failure analysis efforts performed during the Ares I launch vehicle development program. Derivation of attitude and attitude rate abort triggers to ensure that abort occurs as quickly as possible when needed, but that false positives are avoided, forms a major portion of the paper. Some of the potential failure modes requiring use of these triggers are described, along with analysis used to determine the success rate of getting the crew off prior to vehicle demise.

  12. Crew Exploration Vehicle Ascent Abort Trajectory Analysis and Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falck, Robert D.; Gefert, Leon P.

    2007-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle is the first crewed capsule design to be developed by NASA since Project Apollo. Unlike Apollo, however, the CEV is being designed for service in both Lunar and International Space Station missions. Ascent aborts pose some issues that were not present for Apollo, due to its launch azimuth, nor Space Shuttle, due to its cross range capability. The requirement that a North Atlantic splashdown following an abort be avoidable, in conjunction with the requirement for overlapping abort modes to maximize crew survivability, drives the thrust level of the service module main engine. This paper summarizes 3DOF analysis conducted by NASA to aid in the determination of the appropriate propulsion system for the service module, and the appropriate propellant loading for ISS missions such that crew survivability is maximized.

  13. Investigation of abort procedures for space shuttle-type vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, R. W.; Eide, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation has been made of abort procedures for space shuttle-type vehicles using a point mass trajectory optimization program known as POST. This study determined the minimum time gap between immediate and once-around safe return to the launch site from a baseline due-East launch trajectory for an alternate space shuttle concept which experiences an instantaneous loss of 25 percent of the total main engine thrust.

  14. Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort System Guidance and Control Analysis Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Kim, Sungwan; Raney, David L.; Aubuchon, Vanessa V.; Sparks, Dean W.; Busan, Ronald C.; Proud, Ryan W.; Merritt, Deborah S.

    2008-01-01

    Aborts during the critical ascent flight phase require the design and operation of Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) systems to escape from the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and return the crew safely to the Earth. To accomplish this requirement of continuous abort coverage, CEV ascent abort modes are being designed and analyzed to accommodate the velocity, altitude, atmospheric, and vehicle configuration changes that occur during ascent. Aborts from the launch pad to early in the flight of the CLV second stage are performed using the Launch Abort System (LAS). During this type of abort, the LAS Abort Motor is used to pull the Crew Module (CM) safely away from the CLV and Service Module (SM). LAS abort guidance and control studies and design trades are being conducted so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle abort requirements, design, and operation. This paper presents an overview of the Orion CEV, an overview of the LAS ascent abort mode, and a summary of key LAS abort analysis methods and results.

  15. Launch Vehicle Abort Analysis for Failures Leading to Loss of Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Hill, Ashley D.; Beard, Bernard B.

    2013-01-01

    Launch vehicle ascent is a time of high risk for an onboard crew. There is a large fraction of possible failures for which time is of the essence and a successful abort is possible if the detection and action happens quickly enough. This paper focuses on abort determination based on data already available from the Guidance, Navigation, and Control system. This work is the result of failure analysis efforts performed during the Ares I launch vehicle development program. The two primary areas of focus are the derivation of abort triggers to ensure that abort occurs as quickly as possible when needed, but that false aborts are avoided, and evaluation of success in aborting off the failing launch vehicle.

  16. Considerations in Launch Vehicle Abort Capability and Failure Tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, N. W., Jr.; Conte, B. A.

    2002-01-01

    operations, the Space Shuttle was designed to incur loss of thrust from one engine at liftoff and return safely to a runway. This is a very unusual capability in space launch vehicles and, if desired, must be designed into the system initially. For some extremely high value payloads on future expendable launch vehicles, this capability may be cost effective as well as for human space flights. Current designers may be inclined to design a "simple" emergency escape pod to resolve this issue. That may neither be the most effective nor the safest way to provide ascent failure tolerance. This paper discusses some real-world issues associated with this capability that the designers of the Space Shuttle did take into account that have become serious issues in real operations. paper discusses the affect of payload mass on abort capability. Issues related to abort modes can also be influence by other aspects of payload mass including center of gravity concerns. In a similar mode, consumables such as on-orbit attitude control propellant is a major factor in abort mode design. multiple engine failures during the powered ascent trajectory and have a happy outcome: landing on a runway. This paper discusses options and post-design fixes to the Space Shuttle to enhance multiple engine out capability. scenarios. include propellant underload on STS-61C, off nominal performance of engine clusters on STS-78 and STS-93, and other flights. Designers of these future human rated vehicles should consider the Space Shuttle experience in designing their systems. About the Authors: N. Wayne Hale, Jr. is currently the Deputy Chief for Shuttle of the NASA/JSC Flight Director Office. In 23 years with NASA at Houston's Johnson Space Center, he has served in the Mission Control Center for 41 Space Shuttle flights including 25 as Entry Flight Director. Mr. Hale received his Bachelor of Science Degree in Mechanical Engineering from Rice University in 1976 and his Master of Science Degree in

  17. Use of Heated Helium to Simulate Surface Pressure Fluctuations on the Launch Abort Vehicle During Abort Motor Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta; James, George H.; Burnside, Nathan J.; Fong, Robert; Fogt, Vincent A.

    2011-01-01

    The solid-rocket plumes from the Abort motor of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV, also know as Orion) were simulated using hot, high pressure, Helium gas to determine the surface pressure fluctuations on the vehicle in the event of an abort. About 80 different abort situations over a wide Mach number range, (0.3< or =M< or =1.2) and vehicle attitudes (+/-15deg) were simulated inside the NASA Ames Unitary Plan, 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel. For each abort case, typically two different Helium plume and wind tunnel conditions were used to bracket different flow matching critera. This unique, yet cost-effective test used a custom-built hot Helium delivery system, and a 6% scale model of a part of the MPCV, known as the Launch Abort Vehicle. The test confirmed the very high level of pressure fluctuations on the surface of the vehicle expected during an abort. In general, the fluctuations were found to be dominated by the very near-field hydrodynamic fluctuations present in the plume shear-layer. The plumes were found to grow in size for aborts occurring at higher flight Mach number and altitude conditions. This led to an increase in the extent of impingement on the vehicle surfaces; however, unlike some initial expectations, the general trend was a decrease in the level of pressure fluctuations with increasing impingement. In general, the highest levels of fluctuations were found when the outer edges of the plume shear layers grazed the vehicle surface. At non-zero vehicle attitudes the surface pressure distributions were found to become very asymmetric. The data from these wind-tunnel simulations were compared against data collected from the recent Pad Abort 1 flight test. In spite of various differences between the transient flight situation and the steady-state wind tunnel simulations, the hot-Helium data were found to replicate the PA1 data fairly reasonably. The data gathered from this one-of-a-kind wind-tunnel test fills a gap in the manned-space programs

  18. Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most healthcare providers advise counseling.

  19. Real-Time Trajectory Assessment and Abort Management for the X-33 Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moise, M. C.; McCarter, J. W.; Mulqueen, J.

    2000-01-01

    The X-33 is a flying testbed to evaluate technologies and designs for a reusable Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) production vehicle. Although it is sub-orbital, it is trans-atmospheric. This paper will discuss the abort capabilities, both commanded and autonomous, available to the X-33. The cornerstone of the abort capabilities is the Performance Monitor (PM) and it's supporting software. PM is an on-board 3-DOF simulation, which evaluates the vehicle ability to execute the current trajectory. The Abort Manager evaluates the results from PM, and, when indicated, computes and implements an abort trajectory.

  20. Orion Pad Abort 1 GN and C Design and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, Edgar A.; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    The first flight test of the Orion Abort Flight Test project is scheduled to launch in Spring 2010. This flight test is known as Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) and it is intended to accomplish a series of flight test objectives, including demonstrating the capability of the Launch Abort System (LAS) to propel the Crew Module (CM) to a safe distance from a launch vehicle during a pad abort. The PA-1 Flight Test Article (FTA) is actively controlled by a guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) system for much of its flight. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design, development, and analysis of the PA-1 GN&C system. A description of the technical solutions that were developed to meet the challenge of satisfying many competing requirements is presented. A historical perspective of how the Orion LAV compares to the Apollo Launch Escape Vehicle (LEV) design will also be included.

  1. [Abortion].

    PubMed

    Dourlen-rollier, A M

    1971-01-01

    The historical and current (1969) abortion laws in France as well as those in other Western countries are analyzed. France has had a series of punitive abortion codes since the Napoleonic Code of 1810 prescribing solitary confinement for the woman. The reforms of 1920 and 1923 made provocation of abortion or contraceptional propaganda a "crime" (felony), later a "delit" (misdemeanor), called for trial before magistr ate instead of jury, but resulted in only about 200 convictions a year. The decree of 1939 extended the misdemeanor to women who aborted even if they were not pregnant, and provided for professional licenses such as that of surgeon or pharmacist to be suspended. The law of 1942 made abortion a social crime and increased the maximum penalty to capital punishment, which was exercised in 2 cases. About 4000 per year were convicted from 1942-1944. Now the law still applies to all who intend to abort, whether or not pregnant or successful, but punishemnt is limited to 1-5 years imprisonment, and 72,000 francs fine, or suspension of medical practice for 5 years. About 500 have been convicted per year. Since 1955 legal abortion has been available (to about 130 women over 4 years) if it is the only means to save the woman's life. Although pregnancy tests are controlled, the population desregards the law by resorting to clandestine abortion. The wealthy travel to Switzerland (where 68% of legal abortions are done on French women) or to England. Numbers are estimated by the French government at 250,000-300,000 per year, or 1 for every 2 live births, but by hospital statistics at 400,000-1,000,000 per year. The rest of the review covers abortion laws in Scandinavian, Central European, and individual US states as of 1969.

  2. Executive Summary of Propulsion on the Orion Abort Flight-Test Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Brooks, Syri J.; Barnes, Marvin W.; McCauley, Rachel J.; Wall, Terry M.; Reed, Brian D.; Duncan, C. Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion Flight Test Office was tasked with conducting a series of flight tests in several launch abort scenarios to certify that the Orion Launch Abort System is capable of delivering astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Module to a safe environment, away from a failed booster. The first of this series was the Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight-Test Vehicle, which was successfully flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. This report provides a brief overview of the three propulsive subsystems used on the Pad Abort 1 Flight-Test Vehicle. An overview of the propulsive systems originally planned for future flight-test vehicles is also provided, which also includes the cold gas Reaction Control System within the Crew Module, and the Peacekeeper first stage rocket motor encased within the Abort Test Booster aeroshell. Although the Constellation program has been cancelled and the operational role of the Orion spacecraft has significantly evolved, lessons learned from Pad Abort 1 and the other flight-test vehicles could certainly contribute to the vehicle architecture of many future human-rated space launch vehicles

  3. Executive Summary of Propulsion on the Orion Abort Flight-Test Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Koelfgen, Syri J.; Barnes, Marvin W.; McCauley, Rachel J.; Wall, Terry M.; Reed, Brian D.; Duncan, C. Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Orion Flight Test Office was tasked with conducting a series of flight tests in several launch abort scenarios to certify that the Orion Launch Abort System is capable of delivering astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Module to a safe environment, away from a failed booster. The first of this series was the Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight-Test Vehicle, which was successfully flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. This paper provides a brief overview of the three propulsive subsystems used on the Pad Abort 1 Flight-Test Vehicle. An overview of the propulsive systems originally planned for future flight-test vehicles is also provided, which also includes the cold gas Reaction Control System within the Crew Module, and the Peacekeeper first stage rocket motor encased within the Abort Test Booster aeroshell. Although the Constellation program has been cancelled and the operational role of the Orion spacecraft has significantly evolved, lessons learned from Pad Abort 1 and the other flight-test vehicles could certainly contribute to the vehicle architecture of many future human-rated space launch vehicles.

  4. Multi-functional annular fairing for coupling launch abort motor to space vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor); Scotti, Stephen J. (Inventor); Buning, Pieter G. (Inventor); Bauer, Steven X. S. (Inventor); Engelund, Walter C. (Inventor); Schuster, David M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An annular fairing having aerodynamic, thermal, structural and acoustic attributes couples a launch abort motor to a space vehicle having a payload of concern mounted on top of a rocket propulsion system. A first end of the annular fairing is fixedly attached to the launch abort motor while a second end of the annular fairing is attached in a releasable fashion to an aft region of the payload. The annular fairing increases in diameter between its first and second ends.

  5. PIV Measurements of the CEV Hot Abort Motor Plume for CFD Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark; Wolter, John D.; Locke, Randy; Wroblewski, Adam; Childs, Robert; Nelson, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    NASA s next manned launch platform for missions to the moon and Mars are the Orion and Ares systems. Many critical aspects of the launch system performance are being verified using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions. The Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) consists of a tower mounted tractor rocket tasked with carrying the Crew Module (CM) safely away from the launch vehicle in the event of a catastrophic failure during the vehicle s ascent. Some of the predictions involving the launch abort system flow fields produced conflicting results, which required further investigation through ground test experiments. Ground tests were performed to acquire data from a hot supersonic jet in cross-flow for the purpose of validating CFD turbulence modeling relevant to the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV). Both 2-component axial plane Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and 3-component cross-stream Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) measurements were obtained on a model of an Abort Motor (AM). Actual flight conditions could not be simulated on the ground, so the highest temperature and pressure conditions that could be safely used in the test facility (nozzle pressure ratio 28.5 and a nozzle temperature ratio of 3) were used for the validation tests. These conditions are significantly different from those of the flight vehicle, but were sufficiently high enough to begin addressing turbulence modeling issues that predicated the need for the validation tests.

  6. Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort Controller Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Raney, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper covers the simulation and evaluation of a controller design for the Crew Module (CM) Launch Abort System (LAS), to measure its ability to meet the abort performance requirements. The controller used in this study is a hybrid design, including features developed by the Government and the Contractor. Testing is done using two separate 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) computer simulation implementations of the LAS/CM throughout the ascent trajectory: 1) executing a series of abort simulations along a nominal trajectory for the nominal LAS/CM system; and 2) using a series of Monte Carlo runs with perturbed initial flight conditions and perturbed system parameters. The performance of the controller is evaluated against a set of criteria, which is based upon the current functional requirements of the LAS. Preliminary analysis indicates that the performance of the present controller meets (with the exception of a few cases) the evaluation criteria mentioned above.

  7. Application of Fault Management Theory to the Quantitative Selection of a Launch Vehicle Abort Trigger Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Yunnhon; Johnson, Stephen B.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.

    2014-01-01

    The theory of System Health Management (SHM) and of its operational subset Fault Management (FM) states that FM is implemented as a "meta" control loop, known as an FM Control Loop (FMCL). The FMCL detects that all or part of a system is now failed, or in the future will fail (that is, cannot be controlled within acceptable limits to achieve its objectives), and takes a control action (a response) to return the system to a controllable state. In terms of control theory, the effectiveness of each FMCL is estimated based on its ability to correctly estimate the system state, and on the speed of its response to the current or impending failure effects. This paper describes how this theory has been successfully applied on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program to quantitatively estimate the effectiveness of proposed abort triggers so as to select the most effective suite to protect the astronauts from catastrophic failure of the SLS. The premise behind this process is to be able to quantitatively provide the value versus risk trade-off for any given abort trigger, allowing decision makers to make more informed decisions. All current and planned crewed launch vehicles have some form of vehicle health management system integrated with an emergency launch abort system to ensure crew safety. While the design can vary, the underlying principle is the same: detect imminent catastrophic vehicle failure, initiate launch abort, and extract the crew to safety. Abort triggers are the detection mechanisms that identify that a catastrophic launch vehicle failure is occurring or is imminent and cause the initiation of a notification to the crew vehicle that the escape system must be activated. While ensuring that the abort triggers provide this function, designers must also ensure that the abort triggers do not signal that a catastrophic failure is imminent when in fact the launch vehicle can successfully achieve orbit. That is

  8. Abortion.

    PubMed

    Hume, K

    1979-04-21

    The review by Aileen F. Connon of Abortion by Potts, Diggory and Peel (Journal, February 10) made interesting reading, especially her quotation of the "facinating statistical information" that Australia has 11.5 million people and 45,000 to 90,000 criminal abortions a year. These are rather wide upper and lower confidence limits. One wonders what other information the authors have included that is of the same standard of accuracy. On the other hand, Malcolm Potts told me some years ago that the experience of his parent organization, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, with the IUD in India was a disaster. That I could well believe. Seeing some of the victims, the sight would indeed be enough to stir the stony heart of the most inhuman consultant gynaecologist. There is in Australia, and indeed in the world, an increasing number of doctors who are revolted by the activities of the International Planned Parenthood Federation and its affiliates which aggressively promote abortion as "an acceptable method of fertility control," and even as the primary method. These are a cross-section of the profession and include some of its most distinguished and erudite members who would be both competent and happy to review a book such as Abortion by Potts et alii from a pro-life point of view. Could I suggest that in future your book reviews and editorials include some well informed commentaries from doctors representing that heretofore silent group? I am holding a long and growing list of Australian doctors who have signed the "Declaration of Doctors," thus explicitly spelling out their respect for human life from the first moment of biological existence to that of natural death. Their services are available on request.

  9. Abortion.

    PubMed

    Churchill, M

    1979-09-15

    I would like to take issue with Dr Colin Brewer's statements concerning intrauterine contraceptive devices and abortion (11 August, p 389). I agree that logically there is no distinction between IUCDs, and other abortifacients used early in pregnancy, and abortion methods used later in pregnancy. However, I disagree with his statement that to make illegal IUCDs and similar methods out of an "obsessive concern for microscopic forms of life" would be "absurd." Firstly, size has never been a criterion for the presence or absence of life, or of its importance. Surely Dr Brewer, MPs, and the public would be outraged by anything less than obsessively careful handling of, say, rabies or smallpox viruses in laboratories. Do not the products of conception, with the full potential of a human being unless actively interfered with by other men (neglecting normal fetal wastage), deserve any less concern? Secondly, mortality should not be determined by practicalities; rather morality should determine one's actions. The question of whether IUCDs and other such procedures should remain legal or be made illegal should not be determined by their efficacy, popularity, or economy. I agree fully with Dr Brewer--abortion is a moral issue and it is a pity that the BMF has not raised the moral issues at stake. Particularly so, as Lord Denning put it "...without morality there can be no law." I personally subscribe to the Hippocratic Oath. PMID:497769

  10. Application of Fault Management Theory to the Quantitative Selection of a Launch Vehicle Abort Trigger Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Yunnhon; Johnson, Stephen B.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the quantitative application of the theory of System Health Management and its operational subset, Fault Management, to the selection of Abort Triggers for a human-rated launch vehicle, the United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS). The results demonstrate the efficacy of the theory to assess the effectiveness of candidate failure detection and response mechanisms to protect humans from time-critical and severe hazards. The quantitative method was successfully used on the SLS to aid selection of its suite of Abort Triggers.

  11. Application of Fault Management Theory to the Quantitative Selection of a Launch Vehicle Abort Trigger Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Yunnhon; Johnson, Stephen B.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the quantitative application of the theory of System Health Management and its operational subset, Fault Management, to the selection of abort triggers for a human-rated launch vehicle, the United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS). The results demonstrate the efficacy of the theory to assess the effectiveness of candidate failure detection and response mechanisms to protect humans from time-critical and severe hazards. The quantitative method was successfully used on the SLS to aid selection of its suite of abort triggers.

  12. Abortion.

    PubMed

    Rice-Oxley, C P

    1979-09-15

    Professor Peter Hungerford (25 August, p 496) says that he is fed up with semantic arguments about abortion which ignore reality. He then invokes two major fantasies of the last decade, those of sexual equality and the woman's right to choose. The second of these has become an article of faith to many pro-abortionists and its credentials should be examined. Whence does this right derive? A woman takes part in a more or less pleasurable activity with a man and then, without her volition, with no conscious effort on her part at all, the miraculous occurs and a new life comes into being. How does she have the right to destroy this new life? The argument is usually to the effect that it belongs to her and could not survive without her: "It's mine and I can do what I like with it." Of course, it is true that a fetus cannot survive without the support of its mother; no more could Professor Hungerford or I survive without the support of our fellow men who provide us with food, drink, and clothing, but that does not give them the right to kill us. The claim to possession, the assumption that the fetus is owned by its mother involves, I believe, a semantic error. In a sense, the fetus is "hers" in that it is growing inside her, even though she did not create it. Likewise, her husband is hers because joined to her by marriage and her country is hers because she lives there, although she does not own either of them and certainly has no right to destroy them. The life growing inside the mother is not hers in the same way that a cardigan she has bought or knitted for herself is hers. It is the consideration of semantics that protects us from the "realities" of such as Professor Hungerford.

  13. Optimal return-to-launchsite abort trajectories for an HL-20 Personnel Launch System vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, Kevin E.

    The Personnel Launch System (PLS) being studied by NASA is a system to complement the Space Shuttle and provide alternative access to space. The PLS consists of a manned spacecraft launched by an expendable launch vehicle (ELV). A candidate for the manned spacecraft is the HL-20 lifting body. In the event of an ELV malfunction during the initial portion of the ascent trajectory, the HL-20 will separate from the rocket and perform an unpowered return-to-launchsite (RTLS) abort. This paper describes an investigation of the RTLS abort scenario using optimal control theory. The objective of the abort trajectory is to maximize final altitude at a point near the runway. The assumption is then made that there exists a control history to steer the vehicle to any final altitude lower than the final optimal altitude. With this selection of cost function, and with this assumption, the feasibility of an RTLS abort at different times along the ascent trajectory can be determined. The method of differential inclusions, which allows the determination of optimal states and eliminates the need for determining the optimal controls, is used to determine the optimal trajectories.

  14. Optimal RTLS abort trajectories for an HL-20 personnel launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutton, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether Return To Launch Site (RTLS) abort at T seconds along the launch trajectory of the Personnel Launch System (PLS) is possible using optimal control theory. The secondary objective is to assess effects of bank angle constraint, lift coefficient constraint, free and fixed final boundary conditions, etc. of the vehicle. The PLS is a complementary system to the Space Shuttle.

  15. Simulation Development and Analysis of Crew Vehicle Ascent Abort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Chi S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program is an integral step in its journey to Mars as it would expedite development of space technologies and open up partnership with U.S. commercial companies. NASA reviews and independent assessment of Commercial Crew Program is fundamental to its success, and being able to model a commercial crew vehicle in a simulation rather than conduct a live test would be a safer, faster, and less expensive way to assess and certify the capabilities of the vehicle. To this end, my project was to determine the feasibility of using a simulation tool named SOMBAT version 2.0 to model a multiple parachute system for Commercial Crew Program simulation. The main tasks assigned to me were to debug and test the main parachute system model, (capable of simulating one to four main parachute bodies), and to utilize a graphical program to animate the simulation results. To begin tackling the first task, I learned how to use SOMBAT by familiarizing myself with its mechanics and by understanding the methods used to tweak its various parameters and outputs. I then used this new knowledge to set up, run, and analyze many different situations within SOMBAT in order to explore the limitations of the parachute model. Some examples of parameters that I varied include the initial velocity and orientation of the falling capsule, the number of main parachutes, and the location where the parachutes were attached to the capsule. Each parameter changed would give a different output, and in some cases, would expose a bug or limitation in the model. A major bug that I discovered was the inability of the model to handle any number of parachutes other than three. I spent quite some time trying to debug the code logically, but was unable to figure it out until my mentor taught me that digital simulation limitations can occur when some approximations are mistakenly assumed for certain in a physical system. This led me to the realization that unlike in all of the programming classes

  16. Modeling the Launch Abort Vehicle's Subsonic Aerodynamics from Free Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    An investigation into the aerodynamics of the Launch Abort Vehicle for NASA's Constellation Crew Launch Vehicle in the subsonic, incompressible flow regime was conducted in the NASA Langley 20-ft Vertical Spin Tunnel. Time histories of center of mass position and Euler Angles are captured using photogrammetry. Time histories of the wind tunnel's airspeed and dynamic pressure are recorded as well. The primary objective of the investigation is to determine models for the aerodynamic yaw and pitch moments that provide insight into the static and dynamic stability of the vehicle. System IDentification Programs for AirCraft (SIDPAC) is used to determine the aerodynamic model structure and estimate model parameters. Aerodynamic models for the aerodynamic body Y and Z force coefficients, and the pitching and yawing moment coefficients were identified.

  17. Application of Fault Management Theory to the Quantitive Selection of a Launch Vehicle Abort Trigger Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Yunnhon; Johnson, Stephen B.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.

    2014-01-01

    SHM/FM theory has been successfully applied to the selection of the baseline set Abort Triggers for the NASA SLS center dot Quantitative assessment played a useful role in the decision process ? M&FM, which is new within NASA MSFC, required the most "new" work, as this quantitative analysis had never been done before center dot Required development of the methodology and tool to mechanize the process center dot Established new relationships to the other groups ? The process is now an accepted part of the SLS design process, and will likely be applied to similar programs in the future at NASA MSFC ? Future improvements center dot Improve technical accuracy ?Differentiate crew survivability due to an abort, vs. survivability even no immediate abort occurs (small explosion with little debris) ?Account for contingent dependence of secondary triggers on primary triggers ?Allocate "? LOC Benefit" of each trigger when added to the previously selected triggers. center dot Reduce future costs through the development of a specialized tool ? Methodology can be applied to any manned/unmanned vehicle, in space or terrestrial

  18. Overview of Orion Crew Module and Launch Abort Vehicle Dynamic Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Donald B.; Aibicjpm. Vamessa V.

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA is designing a new spacecraft, called Orion, to fly astronauts to low earth orbit and beyond. Characterization of the dynamic stability of the Orion spacecraft is important for the design of the spacecraft and trajectory construction. Dynamic stability affects the stability and control of the Orion Crew Module during re-entry, especially below Mach = 2.0 and including flight under the drogues. The Launch Abort Vehicle is affected by dynamic stability as well, especially during the re-orientation and heatshield forward segments of the flight. The dynamic stability was assessed using the forced oscillation technique, free-to-oscillate, ballistic range, and sub-scale free-flight tests. All of the test techniques demonstrated that in heatshield-forward flight the Crew Module and Launch Abort Vehicle are dynamically unstable in a significant portion of their flight trajectory. This paper will provide a brief overview of the Orion dynamic aero program and a high-level summary of the dynamic stability characteristics of the Orion spacecraft.

  19. Improvement in Capsule Abort Performance Using Supersonic Aerodynamic Interaction by Fences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Hiroto; Wang, Yunpeng; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Katsunori; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    The space transportation system will need advanced abort systems to secure crew against serious accidents. Here this study deals with the capsule-type space transportation systems with a Launch Abort System (LAS). This system is composed of a conic capsule as a Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) and a cylindrical rocket as a Service Module (SM), and the capsule is moved away from the rocket by supersonic aerodynamic interactions in an emergency. We propose a method to improve the performance of the LAV by installing fences at the edges of surfaces on the rocket and capsule sides. Their effects were investigated by experimental measurements and numerical simulations. Experimental results show that the fences on the rocket and capsule surfaces increase the aerodynamic thrust force on the capsule by 70% in a certain clearance between the capsule and rocket. Computational results show the detailed flow fields where the centripetal flow near the surface on the rocket side is induced by the fence on the rocket side and the centrifugal flow near the surface on the capsule side is blocked by the fence on the capsule side. These results can confirm favorable effects of the fences on the performance of the LAS.

  20. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePlus

    ... womb (uterus). There are different types of medical abortions: Therapeutic medical abortion is done because the woman has ... Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion

  1. Closed-loop nominal and abort atmospheric ascent guidance for rocket-powered launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukeman, Greg A.

    2005-07-01

    An advanced ascent guidance algorithm for rocket-powered launch vehicles is developed. The ascent guidance function is responsible for commanding attitude, throttle and setting during the powered ascent phase of flight so that the vehicle attains target cutoff conditions in a near optimal manner while satisfying path constraints such as maximum allowed bending moment and maximum allowed axial acceleration. This algorithm cyclically solves the calculus-of-variations two-point boundary-value problem starting at vertical rise completion through orbit insertion. This is different from traditional ascent guidance algorithms which operate in an open-loop mode until the high dynamic pressure portion of the trajectory is over, at which time there is a switch to a closed loop guidance mode that operates under the assumption of negligible aerodynamic forces. The main contribution of this research is an algorithm of the predictor-corrector type wherein the state/costate system is propagated with known (navigated) initial state and guessed initial costate to predict the state/costate at engine cutoff. The initial costate guess is corrected, using a multi-dimensional Newton's method, based on errors in the terminal state constraints and the transversality conditions. Path constraints are enforced within the propagation process. A modified multiple shooting method is shown to be a very effective numerical technique for this application. Results for a single stage to orbit launch vehicle are given. In addition, the formulation for the free final time multi-arc trajectory optimization problem is given. Results for a two-stage launch vehicle burn-coast-burn ascent to orbit in a closed-loop guidance mode are shown. An abort to landing site formulation of the algorithm and numerical results are presented. A technique for numerically treating the transversality conditions is discussed that eliminates part of the analytical and coding burden associated with optimal control theory.

  2. Optimal control theory determination of feasible return-to-launch-site aborts for the HL-20 Personnel Launch System vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, Kevin E.

    1994-07-01

    The personnel launch system (PLS) being studied by NASA is a system to complement the space shuttle and provide alternative access to space. The PLS consists of a manned spacecraft launched by an expendable launch vehicle (ELV). A candidate for the manned spacecraft is the HL-20 lifting body. In the event of an ELV malfunction during the initial portion of the ascent trajectory, the HL-20 will separate from the rocket and perform an unpowered return to launch site (RTLS) abort. This work details an investigation, using optimal control theory, of the RTLS abort scenario. The objective of the optimization was to maximize final altitude. With final altitude as the cost function, the feasibility of an RTLS abort at different times during the ascent was determined. The method of differential inclusions was used to determine the optimal state trajectories, and the optimal controls were then calculated from the optimal states and state rates.

  3. Optimal control theory determination of feasible return-to-launch-site aborts for the HL-20 Personnel Launch System vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutton, Kevin E.

    1994-01-01

    The personnel launch system (PLS) being studied by NASA is a system to complement the space shuttle and provide alternative access to space. The PLS consists of a manned spacecraft launched by an expendable launch vehicle (ELV). A candidate for the manned spacecraft is the HL-20 lifting body. In the event of an ELV malfunction during the initial portion of the ascent trajectory, the HL-20 will separate from the rocket and perform an unpowered return to launch site (RTLS) abort. This work details an investigation, using optimal control theory, of the RTLS abort scenario. The objective of the optimization was to maximize final altitude. With final altitude as the cost function, the feasibility of an RTLS abort at different times during the ascent was determined. The method of differential inclusions was used to determine the optimal state trajectories, and the optimal controls were then calculated from the optimal states and state rates.

  4. Abort performance for a winged-body single-stage to orbit vehicle. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Jeffery A.

    1995-01-01

    Optimal control theory is employed to determine the performance of abort to orbit (ATO) and return to launch site (RTLS) maneuvers for a single-stage to orbit vehicle. The vehicle configuration examined is a seven engine, winged-body vehicle, that lifts-off vertically and lands horizontally. The abort maneuvers occur as the vehicle ascends to orbit and are initiated when the vehicle suffers an engine failure. The optimal control problems are numerically solved in discretized form via a nonlinear programming (NLP) algorithm. A description highlighting the attributes of this NLP method is provided. ATO maneuver results show that the vehicle is capable of ascending to orbit with a single engine failure at lift-off. Two engine out ATO maneuvers are not possible from the launch pad, but are possible after launch when the thrust to weight ratio becomes sufficiently large. Results show that single engine out RTLS maneuvers can be made for up to 180 seconds after lift-off and that there are scenarios for which RTLS maneuvers should be performed instead of ATP maneuvers.

  5. Calculated maximum Hl ground-level concentrations downwind from launch pad aborts of the space shuttle and Titan 3 C vehicles at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbauld, R. K.; Bjorklund, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    A quantitative assessment is described of the potential environmental hazard posed by the atmospheric release of HCl resulting from the burning of solid propellant during two hypothetical on-pad aborts of the Titan 3 C and space shuttle vehicles at Kennedy Space Center. In one pad-abort situation, it is assumed that the cases of the two solid-propellant engines are ruptured and the burning propellant falls to the ground in the immediate vicinity of the launch pad where it continues to burn for 5 minutes. In the other pad-abort situation considered, one of the two solid engines on each vehicle is assumed to ignite and burn at the normal rate while the vehicle remains on the launch pad. Calculations of maximum HCl ground-level concentration for the above on-pad abort situations were made using the computerized NASA/MSFC multilayer diffusion models in conjunction with appropriate meteorological and source inputs. Three meteorological regimes are considered-fall, spring, and afternoon sea-breeze. Source inputs for the hazard calculations were developed. The principal result of the calculations is that maximum ground-level HCl concentrations at distances greater than 1 kilometer from the launch pad are less than 3 parts per million in all cases considered.

  6. Abortion - surgical

    MedlinePlus

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  7. Induced Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Induced Abortion Patient Education FAQs Induced Abortion Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  8. Determination of antibodies against LAV/HTLV III: comparative evaluation of four different commercial test kits.

    PubMed

    Abb, J

    1986-01-01

    Four different, commercially available ELISA tests for the detection of antibodies against LAV/HTLV III were evaluated for specificity and sensitivity. The relative specificity of the kits was determined by investigating a test panel of 76 sera collected from asymptomatic or symptomatic homosexual men. Completely concordant results were obtained for sera from asymptomatic male homosexuals (11% positive for Anti-LAV/HTLV III) or from patients with the AIDS-related complex (91% positive for Anti-LAV/HTLV III). Differences between the ELISA test kits, however, were observed with sera obtained from patients with AIDS. While Anti-LAV/HTLV III was detected by the Abbott, Electro-Nucleonics, and Organon test in all 17 sera from AIDS patients, the Pasteur test failed to detect Anti-LAV/HTLV III in 7 consecutive sera from an individual patient with late-stage AIDS. The relative sensitivity of the ELISA tests was determined by endpoint titration of confirmed Anti-LAV/HTLV III positive sera from donors of different risk groups for AIDS. The titration experiments demonstrated that the Abbott test clearly was the most sensitive of the ELISA tests studied, followed by the Electro-Nucleonics, Pasteur, and Organon test. The results further indicate that most of the differences of specificity and sensitivity observed between the Anti-LAV/HTLV III tests could be abolished by a modified definition of minimum positive absorbance values.

  9. Orion Abort Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Peggy Sue

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of NASA's Constellation project is to create the new generation of spacecraft for human flight to the International Space Station in low-earth orbit, the lunar surface, as well as for use in future deep-space exploration. One portion of the Constellation program was the development of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) to be used in spaceflight. The Orion spacecraft consists of a crew module, service module, space adapter and launch abort system. The crew module was designed to hold as many as six crew members. The Orion crew exploration vehicle is similar in design to the Apollo space capsules, although larger and more massive. The Flight Test Office is the responsible flight test organization for the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office originally proposed six tests that would demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests were to be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and were similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. The first flight test of the launch abort system was a pad abort (PA-1), that took place on 6 May 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Primary flight test objectives were to demonstrate the capability of the launch abort system to propel the crew module a safe distance away from a launch vehicle during a pad abort, to demonstrate the stability and control characteristics of the vehicle, and to determine the performance of the motors contained within the launch abort system. The focus of the PA-1 flight test was engineering development and data acquisition, not certification. In this presentation, a high level overview of the PA-1 vehicle is given, along with an overview of the Mobile Operations Facility and information on the White Sands tracking sites for radar & optics. Several lessons learned are presented, including detailed information on the lessons learned in the development of wind

  10. Space Shuttle Abort Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.

  11. Abortion Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brashear, Diane B.

    1973-01-01

    The author discusses the characteristics and feelings of women undergoing abortion. She mentions the decisions which counselors must help such women face, the information they must be given, and the types of support they need. Increased counseling services are needed, she feels, for the markedly increased number of women seeking abortions. (EK)

  12. Multimodal Perception and Multicriterion Control of Nested Systems. 2; Constraints on Crew Members During Space Vehicle Abort, Entry, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccio, Gary E.; McDonald, P. Vernon; Irvin, Gregg E.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    1998-01-01

    This report reviews the operational demands made of a Shuttle pilot or commander within the context of a proven empirical methodology for describing human sensorimotor performance and whole-body coordination in mechanically and perceptually complex environments. The conclusions of this review pertain to a) methods for improving our understanding of the psychophysics and biomechanics of visual/manual control and whole-body coordination in space vehicle cockpits; b) the application of scientific knowledge about human perception and performance in dynamic inertial conditions to the development of technology, procedures, and training for personnel in space vehicle cockpits; c) recommendations for mitigation of safety and reliability concerns about human performance in space vehicle cockpits; and d) in-flight evaluation of flight crew performance during nominal and off-nominal launch and reentry scenarios.

  13. Algorithm for Determination of Orion Ascent Abort Mode Achievability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    For human spaceflight missions, a launch vehicle failure poses the challenge of returning the crew safely to earth through environments that are often much more stressful than the nominal mission. Manned spaceflight vehicles require continuous abort capability throughout the ascent trajectory to protect the crew in the event of a failure of the launch vehicle. To provide continuous abort coverage during the ascent trajectory, different types of Orion abort modes have been developed. If a launch vehicle failure occurs, the crew must be able to quickly and accurately determine the appropriate abort mode to execute. Early in the ascent, while the Launch Abort System (LAS) is attached, abort mode selection is trivial, and any failures will result in a LAS abort. For failures after LAS jettison, the Service Module (SM) effectors are employed to perform abort maneuvers. Several different SM abort mode options are available depending on the current vehicle location and energy state. During this region of flight the selection of the abort mode that maximizes the survivability of the crew becomes non-trivial. To provide the most accurate and timely information to the crew and the onboard abort decision logic, on-board algorithms have been developed to propagate the abort trajectories based on the current launch vehicle performance and to predict the current abort capability of the Orion vehicle. This paper will provide an overview of the algorithm architecture for determining abort achievability as well as the scalar integration scheme that makes the onboard computation possible. Extension of the algorithm to assessing abort coverage impacts from Orion design modifications and launch vehicle trajectory modifications is also presented.

  14. J-2X Abort System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, Louis M.; Butas, John P.; Aguilar, Robert B.; Sowers, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    The J-2X is an expendable liquid hydrogen (LH2)/liquid oxygen (LOX) gas generator cycle rocket engine that is currently being designed as the primary upper stage propulsion element for the new NASA Ares vehicle family. The J-2X engine will contain abort logic that functions as an integral component of the Ares vehicle abort system. This system is responsible for detecting and responding to conditions indicative of impending Loss of Mission (LOM), Loss of Vehicle (LOV), and/or catastrophic Loss of Crew (LOC) failure events. As an earth orbit ascent phase engine, the J-2X is a high power density propulsion element with non-negligible risk of fast propagation rate failures that can quickly lead to LOM, LOV, and/or LOC events. Aggressive reliability requirements for manned Ares missions and the risk of fast propagating J-2X failures dictate the need for on-engine abort condition monitoring and autonomous response capability as well as traditional abort agents such as the vehicle computer, flight crew, and ground control not located on the engine. This paper describes the baseline J-2X abort subsystem concept of operations, as well as the development process for this subsystem. A strategy that leverages heritage system experience and responds to an evolving engine design as well as J-2X specific test data to support abort system development is described. The utilization of performance and failure simulation models to support abort system sensor selection, failure detectability and discrimination studies, decision threshold definition, and abort system performance verification and validation is outlined. The basis for abort false positive and false negative performance constraints is described. Development challenges associated with information shortfalls in the design cycle, abort condition coverage and response assessment, engine-vehicle interface definition, and abort system performance verification and validation are also discussed.

  15. Abortion ethics.

    PubMed

    Fromer, M J

    1982-04-01

    Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view

  16. Abort System Using Supersonic Aerodynamic Interaction for Capsule-Type Space Transportation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    小澤, 啓伺; 北村, 圭一; 花井, 勝祥; 三好, 理也; 森, 浩一; 中村, 佳朗

    The space transportation system using capsule/rocket configurations such as Apollo and Soyuz are simple compared with Space Shuttle, and have several merits from the viewpoint of reliability. The capsule/rocket system will take over the Space Shuttle, after it retires in 2010. As the Space Shuttle accidents had been caused by several factors, e.g., aerodynamic interaction of shock waves ahead of its wing, advanced abort systems such as LAS (Launch Abort System) are required for the capsule/rocket system. In the present study, as a baseline configuration, a combination of a cone and a cylinder is employed as a CEV (Crew Exploration Vehicle), which consists of a capsule (LAV: Launch Abort Vehicle) and a rocket (SM: Service Module). By changing the relative position of the two components as well as the profile area of the rocket, their effects on the capsule/rocket aerodynamic interaction and characteristics (drag and pitching moment) are experimentally and numerically investigated at a supersonic speed (M∞ = 3.0). It is found from the results that the clearance have little effects on the flow field for the case of the baseline configuration. The capsule always showed a positive drag (CD = 0.34), which means that thrust is required to overcome the drag. Otherwise the capsule will recontact the rocket. However in the case where the rocket contact area is 2.2 times as large as the capsule profile, more favorable effects were obtained. Especially in the case of a certain clearance (h/D = 0.40), the drag coefficient of the capsule is CD = -0.35, which means that the capsule suffers a thrust force from the aerodynamic interaction. Under this condition, if capsule has a pitch angle with 5 degrees instantaneously, then pitching moment coefficient becomes CMp = -0.41 therefore capsule stabilize. However, in the case of a very small clearance (h/D ∝ 0.00), the flow becomes unsteady involving pulsating shock wave, leading to a potentially risky separation of the capsule.

  17. Abort Options for Potential Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, P. V.; Striepe, S. A.; Powell, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    Mars trajectory design options were examined that would accommodate a premature termination of a nominal manned opposition class mission for opportunities between 2010 and 2025. A successful abort must provide a safe return to Earth in the shortest possible time consistent with mission constraints. In this study, aborts that provided a minimum increase in the initial vehicle mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) were identified by locating direct transfer nominal missions and nominal missions including an outbound or inbound Venus swing-by that minimized IMLEO. The ease with which these missions could be aborted while meeting propulsion and time constraints was investigated by examining free return (unpowered) and powered aborts. Further reductions in trip time were made to some aborts by the addition or removal of an inbound Venus swing-by. The results show that, although few free return aborts met the specified constraints, 85% of each nominal mission could be aborted as a powered abort without an increase in propellant. Also, in many cases, the addition or removal of a Venus swing-by increased the number of abort opportunities or decreased the total trip time during an abort.

  18. [Abortion and rights. Legal thinking about abortion].

    PubMed

    Perez Duarte, A E

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of abortion in Mexico from a juridical perspective requires recognition that Mexico as a national community participates in a double system of values. Politically it is defined as a liberal, democratic, and secular state, but culturally the Judeo-Christian ideology is dominant in all social strata. This duality complicates all juridical-penal decisions regarding abortion. Public opinion on abortion is influenced on the 1 hand by extremely conservative groups who condemn abortion as homicide, and on the other hand by groups who demand legislative reform in congruence with characteristics that define the state: an attitude of tolerance toward the different ideological-moral positions that coexist in the country. The discussion concerns the rights of women to voluntary maternity, protection of health, and to making their own decisions regarding their bodies vs. the rights of the fetus to life. The type of analysis is not objective, and conclusions depend on the ideology of the analyst. Other elements must be examined for an objective consideration of the social problem of abortion. For example, aspects related to maternal morbidity and mortality and the demographic, economic, and physical and mental health of the population would all seem to support the democratic juridical doctrine that sees the clandestine nature of abortion as the principal problem. It is also observed that the illegality of abortion does not guarantee its elimination. Desperate women will seek abortion under any circumstances. The illegality of abortion also impedes health and educational policies that would lower abortion mortality. There are various problems from a strictly juridical perspective. A correct definition of the term abortion is needed that would coincide with the medical definition. The discussion must be clearly centered on the protected juridical right and the definition of reproductive and health rights and rights to their own bodies of women. The experiences of other

  19. Abortion Before & After Roe

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu

    2013-01-01

    We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971–1975 to demonstrate that women travelled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A100- mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services. PMID:23811233

  20. Abortion before & after Roe.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu

    2013-09-01

    We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971 to 1975 to demonstrate that women traveled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A 100-mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services.

  1. LAV@HAZARD: a Web-GIS Framework for Real-Time Forecasting of Lava Flow Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Negro, C.; Bilotta, G.; Cappello, A.; Ganci, G.; Herault, A.

    2014-12-01

    Crucial to lava flow hazard assessment is the development of tools for real-time prediction of flow paths, flow advance rates, and final flow lengths. Accurate prediction of flow paths and advance rates requires not only rapid assessment of eruption conditions (especially effusion rate) but also improved models of lava flow emplacement. Here we present the LAV@HAZARD web-GIS framework, which combines spaceborne remote sensing techniques and numerical simulations for real-time forecasting of lava flow hazards. By using satellite-derived discharge rates to drive a lava flow emplacement model, LAV@HAZARD allows timely definition of parameters and maps essential for hazard assessment, including the propagation time of lava flows and the maximum run-out distance. We take advantage of the flexibility of the HOTSAT thermal monitoring system to process satellite images coming from sensors with different spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions. HOTSAT was designed to ingest infrared satellite data acquired by the MODIS and SEVIRI sensors to output hot spot location, lava thermal flux and discharge rate. We use LAV@HAZARD to merge this output with the MAGFLOW physics-based model to simulate lava flow paths and to update, in a timely manner, flow simulations. Thus, any significant changes in lava discharge rate are included in the predictions. A significant benefit in terms of computational speed was obtained thanks to the parallel implementation of MAGFLOW on graphic processing units (GPUs). All this useful information has been gathered into the LAV@HAZARD platform which, due to the high degree of interactivity, allows generation of easily readable maps and a fast way to explore alternative scenarios. We will describe and demonstrate the operation of this framework using a variety of case studies pertaining to Mt Etna, Sicily. Although this study was conducted on Mt Etna, the approach used is designed to be applicable to other volcanic areas around the world.

  2. Unsafe abortion in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Olukoya, A A; Kaya, A; Ferguson, B J; AbouZahr, C

    2001-11-01

    Every year, an estimated 2.0-4.4 million adolescents resort to abortion. In comparison with adults, adolescents are more likely to delay the abortion, resort to unskilled persons to perform it, use dangerous methods and present late when complications arise. Adolescents are also more likely to experience complications. Consequently, adolescents seeking abortion or presenting with complications of abortion should be considered as a medical emergency. Issues requiring special attention in the management of abortion complications in adolescents are identified. Approaches to adolescent abortion should involve all levels of the health care system, as well as the community, and should include not only management of the consequences of unsafe abortion, but also post-abortion contraception and counseling. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy by providing information on sexuality, ensuring that reproductive health services are adolescent-friendly, creating a supportive environment, building young people's social and decision-making skills, and offering counseling in times of crisis are highlighted.

  3. Post abortion contraception.

    PubMed

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp, Helena Kallner

    2015-11-01

    A safe induced abortion has no impact on future fertility. Ovulation may resume as early as 8 days after the abortion. There is no difference in return to fertility after medical or surgical abortion. Most women resume sexual activity soon after an abortion. Contraceptive counseling and provision should therefore be an integrated part of the abortion services to help women avoid another unintended pregnancy and risk, in many cases an unsafe, abortion. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods that includes implants and intrauterine contraception have been shown to be the most effective contraceptive methods to help women prevent unintended pregnancy following an abortion. However, starting any method is better than starting no method at all. This Special Report will give a short guide to available methods and when they can be started after an induced abortion.

  4. Post abortion contraception.

    PubMed

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp, Helena Kallner

    2015-11-01

    A safe induced abortion has no impact on future fertility. Ovulation may resume as early as 8 days after the abortion. There is no difference in return to fertility after medical or surgical abortion. Most women resume sexual activity soon after an abortion. Contraceptive counseling and provision should therefore be an integrated part of the abortion services to help women avoid another unintended pregnancy and risk, in many cases an unsafe, abortion. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods that includes implants and intrauterine contraception have been shown to be the most effective contraceptive methods to help women prevent unintended pregnancy following an abortion. However, starting any method is better than starting no method at all. This Special Report will give a short guide to available methods and when they can be started after an induced abortion. PMID:26619082

  5. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  6. Conceptualising abortion stigma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuradha; Hessini, Leila; Mitchell, Ellen M H

    2009-08-01

    Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies upon power disparities and inequalities for its formation. In this paper, we identify social and political processes that favour the emergence, perpetuation and normalisation of abortion stigma. We hypothesise that abortion transgresses three cherished 'feminine' ideals: perpetual fecundity; the inevitability of motherhood; and instinctive nurturing. We offer examples of how abortion stigma is generated through popular and medical discourses, government and political structures, institutions, communities and via personal interactions. Finally, we propose a research agenda to reveal, measure and map the diverse manifestations of abortion stigma and its impact on women's health.

  7. Late-term abortion.

    PubMed

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed. PMID:9728645

  8. Late-term abortion.

    PubMed

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed.

  9. Abortion among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  10. Abortion and religion.

    PubMed

    Howell, N R

    1997-01-01

    This paper argues that religious communities should pose new questions about abortion in an attempt to reinvigorate the abortion debate and make it more constructive. Such questions would break the current impasse, enlarge the global and ecological scope of abortion inquiry, and engage plural religious perspectives in an interreligious dialogue about justice and abortion. After an introduction, the paper discusses the first impasse in the abortion debate, which is caused by conflicting definitions of personhood that create a fetus/pregnant woman dualism and artificially separate the fetus from its interdependence with the mother. Section 2 looks at how the abortion impasse results from the assertions of competing fetal and maternal rights and from conflict over who controls nature and women's bodies. The third section seeks alternatives to the dichotomizing of individual and community in the abortion debate in Christian theology, such as the notion of the relational self that demands attention to the wider social implications of reproduction. By examining theories that presume that people are relational, section 4 locates the abortion debate in a wider ecological context with concerns about overpopulation and environmental degradation. Section 5 explores questions of what authority can be used to determine whether abortion is ever justifiable for Christians and what authority is relevant for determining a Christian theological ethic of abortion. This section also looks at Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist views of abortion in the belief that the complex ethical issues relating to abortion may be explored through religious ritual. PMID:12348325

  11. Abortion: A Problem-Solving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Lloyd P.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to use the vehicle of a controversial issue--abortion--as a means of illustrating the advantages of teaching such issues through a problem-solving method. Discussion ideas and resources are presented. (Author/JR)

  12. Full-Envelope Launch Abort System Performance Analysis Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubuchon, Vanessa V.

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of a new dispersion methodology is described, which dis-perses abort initiation altitude or time along with all other Launch Abort System (LAS) parameters during Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast, the standard methodology assumes that an abort initiation condition is held constant (e.g., aborts initiated at altitude for Mach 1, altitude for maximum dynamic pressure, etc.) while dispersing other LAS parameters. The standard method results in large gaps in performance information due to the discrete nature of initiation conditions, while the full-envelope dispersion method provides a significantly more comprehensive assessment of LAS abort performance for the full launch vehicle ascent flight envelope and identifies performance "pinch-points" that may occur at flight conditions outside of those contained in the discrete set. The new method has significantly increased the fidelity of LAS abort simulations and confidence in the results.

  13. Abortion: a reader's guide.

    PubMed

    Hisel, L M

    1996-01-01

    This review traces the discussion of abortion in the US through 10 of the best books published on the subject in the past 25 years. The first book considered is Daniel Callahan's "Abortion: Law, Choice and Morality," which was published in 1970. Next is book of essays also published in 1970: "The Morality of Abortion: Legal and Historical Perspectives," which was edited by John T. Noonan, Jr., who became a prominent opponent to the Roe decision. It is noted that Roman Catholics would find the essay by Bernard Haring especially interesting since Haring supported the Church's position on abortion but called for acceptance of contraception. Third on the list is historian James C. Mohr's review of "Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy," which was printed five years after the Roe decision. Selection four is "Enemies of Choice: The Right-to-Life Movement and Its Threat to Abortion" by Andrew Merton. This 1981 publication singled out a concern about sexuality as the overriding motivator for anti-abortion groups. Two years later, Beverly Wildung Harrison published a ground-breaking, feminist, moral analysis of abortion entitled "Our Right to Choose: Toward a New Ethic of Abortion. This was followed by a more empirical and sociopolitical feminist analysis in Kristin Luker's 1984 "Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood." The seventh book is by another feminist, Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, whose work "Abortion and Women's Choice: The State, Sexuality, and Reproductive Freedom" was first published in 1984 and reprinted in 1990. The eighth important book was "Abortion and Catholicism: The American Debate," edited by Thomas A. Shannon and Patricia Beattie Jung. Rounding out the list are the 1992 work "Life Itself: Abortion in the American Mind" by Roger Rosenblatt and Ronald Dworkin's 1993 "Life's Dominion: An Argument About Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom."

  14. Abortion: a reader's guide.

    PubMed

    Hisel, L M

    1996-01-01

    This review traces the discussion of abortion in the US through 10 of the best books published on the subject in the past 25 years. The first book considered is Daniel Callahan's "Abortion: Law, Choice and Morality," which was published in 1970. Next is book of essays also published in 1970: "The Morality of Abortion: Legal and Historical Perspectives," which was edited by John T. Noonan, Jr., who became a prominent opponent to the Roe decision. It is noted that Roman Catholics would find the essay by Bernard Haring especially interesting since Haring supported the Church's position on abortion but called for acceptance of contraception. Third on the list is historian James C. Mohr's review of "Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy," which was printed five years after the Roe decision. Selection four is "Enemies of Choice: The Right-to-Life Movement and Its Threat to Abortion" by Andrew Merton. This 1981 publication singled out a concern about sexuality as the overriding motivator for anti-abortion groups. Two years later, Beverly Wildung Harrison published a ground-breaking, feminist, moral analysis of abortion entitled "Our Right to Choose: Toward a New Ethic of Abortion. This was followed by a more empirical and sociopolitical feminist analysis in Kristin Luker's 1984 "Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood." The seventh book is by another feminist, Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, whose work "Abortion and Women's Choice: The State, Sexuality, and Reproductive Freedom" was first published in 1984 and reprinted in 1990. The eighth important book was "Abortion and Catholicism: The American Debate," edited by Thomas A. Shannon and Patricia Beattie Jung. Rounding out the list are the 1992 work "Life Itself: Abortion in the American Mind" by Roger Rosenblatt and Ronald Dworkin's 1993 "Life's Dominion: An Argument About Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom." PMID:12178914

  15. Design of Launch Abort System Thrust Profile and Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litton, Daniel; O'Keefe, Stephen A.; Winski, Richard G.; Davidson, John B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how the Abort Motor thrust profile has been tailored and how optimizing the Concept of Operations on the Launch Abort System (LAS) of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) aides in getting the crew safely away from a failed Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). Unlike the passive nature of the Apollo system, the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle will be actively controlled, giving the program a more robust abort system with a higher probability of crew survival for an abort at all points throughout the CLV trajectory. By optimizing the concept of operations and thrust profile the Orion program will be able to take full advantage of the active Orion LAS. Discussion will involve an overview of the development of the abort motor thrust profile and the current abort concept of operations as well as their effects on the performance of LAS aborts. Pad Abort (for performance) and Maximum Drag (for separation from the Launch Vehicle) are the two points that dictate the required thrust and shape of the thrust profile. The results in this paper show that 95% success of all performance requirements is not currently met for Pad Abort. Future improvements to the current parachute sequence and other potential changes will mitigate the current problems, and meet abort performance requirements.

  16. Abortion: the continuing controversy.

    PubMed

    Behrens, C E

    1972-08-01

    While most countries of the world practice abortion, government policy, medical opinion, private opinion and actual practice vary widely. Although mortality from legal abortions is quite low, complications rise sharply after 12 gestational weeks. No conclusive proof shows adverse postabortion psychological effects. Romania, Japan and the Soviet Union experienced declining birth rates when abortion was made available and New York City saw a decline in illegitimacy of approximately 12% from 1970 to 1971. Throughout the world abortion laws vary from restrictive to moderate to permissive. Where laws are restrictive, as in France and Latin America, illegal abortions are estimated in the millions. The controversy over abortion centers around the arguments of what constitutes a human life, and the rights of the fetus versus the right of a woman to control her reproductive life. A review of state abortion laws as of August 1972 shows pressure on state legislatures to change existing laws. The future of abortion depends upon technological advances in fertility control, development of substitutes like menstral extraction, prostaglandins and reversible sterilization. Development of these techniques will take time. At present only through education and improved delivery of contraceptives can dependence on abortion as a method of fertility control be eased. Citizen education in the United States, both sex education and education for responsbile parenthood, is in a poor state according to the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future. If recourse to abortion is to be moderated, it is the next generation of parents who will have to be educated.

  17. France: late abortion.

    PubMed

    Gaudry, D; Sadan, G

    1989-01-01

    In France, under the terms of a law passed by Parliament in 1975, a woman may have an abortion up to 12 weeks of pregnancy if she is a French resident and, in the event that she is a minor, she has parental consent. The woman must also have 2 medical consultations, a week apart. The woman is reimbursed by the state up to 70% of the cost of the abortion. After 12 weeks, abortion, except for therapeutic abortion, under the terms of Article 317 of the Criminal Code, is a crime, punishable by 6 months to 10 years in prison, a fine of between 1800 and 250,000 Francs, and loss of professional license. Moreover, Article 647 of the Health Code bans any advertising, incitement or propaganda for abortion or abortion-inducing products. Many French women go to Britain or Holland for abortions after 12 weeks, but they face the financial burden of traveling as well as the difficulties of getting help in a strange country and the stigma of having done something illegal. The Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial, which won the legalization of contraception in 1967, is now fighting for legal abortion as well as the distribution of information about sexuality, contraception, and abortion in the schools. 2 charges of incitement to abortion have been brought against the organization.

  18. Letter: The Canadian abortion law.

    PubMed

    Coffey, P G

    1976-08-01

    Removing abortion from the Criminal Code in Canada will mean that more and more abortions will be performed for nonmedical reasons which will result in an abortion-on-demand situation similar to that in Japan. Early complications of abortion include death, hemorrhage, shock, cervical injury, and infection. Later complications include premature births, spontaneous abortions, ectopic pregnancies, pelvic inflammation, and infertility. Legalized abortion does not seem to reduce the incidence of illegal abortion. There are also psychological, moral, and sociological consequences of legalized abortion. It would seem that liberal abortion makes bad medicine and leads to far-reaching consequences.

  19. Abortion in early America.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Z

    1979-01-01

    This piece describes abortion practices in use from the 1600s to the 19th century among the inhabitants of North America. The abortive techniques of women from different ethnic and racial groups as found in historical literature are revealed. Thus, the point is made that abortion is not simply a "now issue" that effects select women. Instead, it is demonstrated that it is a widespread practice as solidly rooted in our past as it is in the present.

  20. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  1. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  2. Partial-birth abortion: the final frontier of abortion jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Bopp, J; Cook, C R

    1998-01-01

    Partial-birth abortion bans patterned after the federal bill passed by both houses of Congress are constitutional. The clear legislative definition can be easily distinguished from other abortion procedures. Abortion precedents do not apply to such bans because the abortion right pertains to unborn human beings, not to those partially delivered. Such bans are also rationally-related to legitimate state interests. Even if abortion jurisprudence is deemed to apply in the partial-birth abortion context, a ban is still constitutional under Casey because a ban on partial-birth abortions does not impose an undue burden on the abortion right.

  3. Reduced glycosylation of human cell lines increases susceptibility to CD4-independent infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (LAV-2/B).

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, S J; Weiss, R A; Schulz, T F

    1995-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) strain LAV-2/B is able to infect a variety of human cell lines via a CD4-independent pathway. We have used the glycosylation inhibitors tunicamycin, swainsonine, and deoxymannojirimycin to further characterize this putative alternative receptor for HIV-2 (LAV-2/B). These antibiotics resulted in an increase (5- to 30-fold) in the susceptibility of a variety of CD4- human cell lines to infection by LAV-2/B (RD, HeLa, HT29, Rsb, Heb7a, Hos, and Daudi). Several nonprimate cell lines (mink Mv-1-lu, rabbit SIRC, hamster a23, mouse NIH 3T3, cat CCC, and rat HSN) remained resistant to infection by LAV-2/B after treatment with glycosylation inhibitors, suggesting that they do not express the HIV-2 CD4-independent receptor. Two of these nonprimate cell lines are readily infected by HIV-2 when they express CD4 (Mv-1-lu and CCC). Treatment of human cells with neuraminidase had no effect on subsequent infection by LAV-2/B, suggesting that the increase in susceptibility to infection of deglycosylated cells is not due to a change in the electrostatic charge of the cell surface. Treatment of RD CD4- cells and HeLa CD4+ cells with a variety of proteases resulted in a 75 to 90% decrease in infection by LAV-2/B when compared with untreated cells. Taken together, all these data suggest that HIV-2 can utilize a membrane glycoprotein other than CD4 to attach and fuse with a variety of human cells. PMID:7745686

  4. Abortion in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szawarski, Z

    1991-12-01

    As of July 1991 abortion is still legal in Poland. Currently the Polish Parliament has taken a break from the debate because the issue is so important that any decision must not be made in past. There is strong pressure from the Catholic Church to eliminate access to abortion. In the fall the Polish people will vote for and elect their first truly democratic Parliament. Abortion does not seem to be playing as important a role as other political issues. In 1956 a law was passed that allowed a woman to have an abortion for medical or social reasons. This law resulted in allowing women in Poland to use abortion as their primary form of contraception. The vast majority of the abortions were performed under the social justification. Then, when democracy same to Poland with the help of the Catholic Church, an unprecedented debate in the mass media, churches, and educational institutions was stirred up. The government attempted to stay out of the debate at first. But as people from different side of the debate saw that they had an opportunity to influence things in their favor, they began to politicize the issue. Currently there are 4 different drafts of the new Polish abortion law. 3 of them radically condemn abortion while the 4th condemns it as a method of family planning, but allows to terminate pregnancies in order to save the life of the mother. PMID:1777450

  5. [Abortion in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, Y; Hayase, T

    1993-01-01

    In Japan, the artificial abortion is a penal offence; only in the presence of certain conditions it is authorized under the provision of the Eugenic Protection Law which was promulgated in 1948. According to the law, the artificial abortion is restricted to the period, in which the fetus is not viable outside of the uterus. This period is prescribed by notification from the Ministry of Public Welfare; up to now it has been shortened twice (1976, 1991). Due to the introduction of economic reasons in the list of conditions and the simplification of the procedure the artificial abortion in Japan was virtually liberalized. Prosecution for illegal abortion is very rare in recent years. The number of reported artificial abortions decreases; in the about last 30 years it reduced by half. However, the increase in the number of abortions in women younger than 20 years of age is a problem. The abortion in teenagers is late compared with that in other age groups. Although the number of neonaticides does not seem to increase, the increase in the number of abortions in teenagers remains a serious problem in Japan. PMID:8352642

  6. Psychosocial aspects of abortion

    PubMed Central

    Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users. PMID:1085671

  7. CMA abortion survey.

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Responses to the question as to whether abortions should be performed at the woman's request during the first trimester of pregnancy were evenly divided. There was support for abortion on socioeconomic grounds, during the first trimester, from 61.5% of the respondents. Termination of pregnancy beyond the first trimester was supported by a majority of the respondents only in cases in which the woman's life is in danger (73.9%) or in which there is evidence of a severe physical abnormality in the fetus (70.6%) or in cases in which the woman's physical health is in danger (55.5%). Those who said they would not support abortion under any circumstances constitute, at most, 5.1% of the respondents. Support for the maintenance or the elimination of therapeutic abortion committees was addressed in two questions and in both cases the respondents were evenly divided. The responses to these two questions were compared and found to be logically consistent. Only physicians should perform abortions, and they should be performed in hospitals with the woman either as an inpatient or, during the first trimester, as an outpatient. The performance of first-trimester abortions in provincially approved abortion clinics was supported by 47.3% of the respondents. Of the 885 respondents who wished to see some amendment to the Criminal Code, 409 stated that the term "health" as used in the Criminal Code relative to the legal grounds for therapeutic abortion should be defined. PMID:6861064

  8. Abortion in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Nancy B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored differences between 35 women who had abortions as teenagers and 36 women who had abortions as adults. Respondents reported on their premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and postabortion distress symptoms. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders, drug abuse, and psychotic delusions were significantly…

  9. Resolving the abortion controversy.

    PubMed

    Rosoff, J I

    1989-01-01

    This article addresses legislative attempts to reverse Roe v. Wade, U.S. abortion laws vis-á-vis those of other developed nations, socioeconomic factors figuring into the decision (or option) to abort, and the positive potential impact of improved contraceptive use.

  10. Abortion: a history.

    PubMed

    Hovey, G

    1985-01-01

    This review of abortion history considers sacred and secular practice and traces abortion in the US, the legacy of the 19th century, and the change that occurred in the 20th century. Abortion has been practiced since ancient times, but its legality and availability have been threatened continuously by forces that would denigrate women's fundamental rights. Currently, while efforts to decrease the need for abortion through contraception and education continue, access to abortion remains crucial for the well-being of millions of women. That access will never be secure until profound changes occur in the whole society. Laws that prohibit absolutely the practice of abortion are a relatively recent development. In the early Roman Catholic church, abortion was permitted for male fetuses in the first 40 days of pregnancy and for female fetuses in the first 80-90 days. Not until 1588 did Pope Sixtus V declare all abortion murder, with excommunication as the punishment. Only 3 years later a new pope found the absolute sanction unworkable and again allowed early abortions. 300 years would pass before the Catholic church under Pius IX again declared all abortion murder. This standard, declared in 1869, remains the official position of the church, reaffirmed by the current pope. In 1920 the Soviet Union became the 1st modern state formally to legalize abortion. In the early period after the 1917 revolution, abortion was readily available in state operated facilities. These facilities were closed and abortion made illegal when it became clear that the Soviet Union would have to defend itself against Nazi Germany. After World War II women were encouraged to enter the labor force, and abortion once again became legal. The cases of the Catholic church and the Soviet Union illustrate the same point. Abortion legislation has never been in the hands of women. In the 20th century, state policy has been determined by the rhythms of economic and military expansion, the desire for cheap

  11. Induced abortion: epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Baird, D

    1975-01-01

    Sir Dugald Baird sketches the history of abortion legislation in Great Britain from the beginning of the century. In his views the 1967 Abortion Act has been one of the most important and beneficial pieces of social legislation enacted in Britain in the last 100 years. It has, however, brought problems both of administration in the hospitals and to individual doctors and nurses, particularly when the patients are young single women and even schoolgirls. One of the consequences of the Abortion Act has been a fall in maternal mortality and perinatal mortality rates. Abortion does not seem to be followed by serious emotional sequelae. Nevertheless recent changes in sexual mores have introduced new and serious social problems which are discussed in relation to the role of the doctor in his relationship with patients seeking abortion. PMID:765461

  12. Walking the abortion tightrope.

    PubMed

    Simms, M

    1971-03-01

    The abortion controversy in England was partially resolved on February 23, 1971, when Sir Keith Joseph, Secretary of State for Social Services, announced that an inquiry into the 1967 Abortion Act would be established, but one which would be concerned with the way the Act was working rather than the principles underlying it. Regional inequalities exist in the implementation of the Act (as with substandard services in Birmingham, Liverpool and Sheffield) due to opposition of the local gynecological establishment and a genuine shortage of facilities. These can be eliminated only through time and retirement and with public finance for more equal abortion facilities. The addition of a consultant clause into the Act would probably reduce the number of abortions in smaller private nursing homes, flood the National Health Service with abortion requests, and drive women back to criminal abortionists.

  13. Comparison of Two Recent Launch Abort Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittemore, Gary D.; Harding, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The development of new and safer manned space vehicles is a top priority at NASA. Recently two different approaches of how to accomplish this mission of keeping astronauts safe was successfully demonstrated. With work already underway on an Apollo-like launch abort system for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), an alternative design concept named the Max Launch Abort System, or MLAS, was developed as a parallel effort. The Orion system, managed by the Constellation office, is based on the design of a single solid launch abort motor in a tower positioned above the capsule. The MLAS design takes a different approach placing the solid launch abort motor underneath the capsule. This effort was led by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). Both escape systems were designed with the Ares I Rocket as the launch vehicle and had the same primary requirement to safely propel a crew module away from any emergency event either on the launch pad or during accent. Beyond these two parameters, there was little else in common between the two projects, except that they both concluded in successful launches that will further promote the development of crew launch abort systems. A comparison of these projects from the standpoint of technical requirements; program management and flight test objectives will be done to highlight the synergistic lessons learned by two engineers who worked on each program. This comparison will demonstrate how the scope of the project architecture and management involvement in innovation should be tailored to meet the specific needs of the system under development.

  14. Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) Propulsion on Pad Abort 1 (PA-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides a concise overview of the highly successful Orion Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) flight test, and the three rocket motors that contributed to this success. The primary purpose of the Orion PA-1 flight was to help certify the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS), which can be utilized in the unlikely event of an emergency on the launchpad or during mission vehicle ascent. The PA-1 test was the first fully integrated flight test of the Orion LAS, one of the primary systems within the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The Orion MPCV is part of the architecture within the Space Launch System (SLS), which is being designed to transport astronauts beyond low-Earth orbit for future exploration missions. Had the Orion PA-1 flight abort occurred during launch preparations for a real human spaceflight mission, the PA-1 LAS would have saved the lives of the crew. The PA-1 flight test was largely successful due to the three solid rocket motors of the LAS: the Attitude Control Motor (ACM); the Jettison Motor (JM); and the Abort Motor (AM). All three rocket motors successfully performed their required functions during the Orion PA-1 flight test, flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, culminating in a successful demonstration of an abort capability from the launchpad.

  15. When Is an Abortion Not an Abortion?

    PubMed

    Mutcherson, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Discussion about the similarities and differences between abortion and multi-fetal pregnancy reduction, including the tug-of-war over naming, highlights ongoing contestation about the relationship between the law, ethics, and women's bodies. Ultimately, the law must root itself in the realities of pregnancy including the physical and social consequences that any pregnancy creates for the woman who carries it.

  16. Abortion and abortifacients.

    PubMed

    King, T M

    1978-01-01

    It is argued that abortion research is needed to improve existing techniques and to develop new ones to overcome logistical, financial, and political obstacles to wider availability. Such developments are reviewed, including early pregnancy tests, menstrual regulation, improved cervical dilatation methods, new second trimester abortifacients (e.g., urea and prostaglandins), and new first trimester abortifacients (e.g., injection of ethanol into the uterus and prostaglandin pills or vaginal suppositories). This last is quite promising because of the possibility of self-administration, removing much of the need for medical intervention. Further research is urged on 1) long-term side effects of abortion, particularly late or multiple abortions; and 2) ways to improve the delivery and integration of abortions into family planning programs. It is noted that because abortion seekers demonstrate by the fact itself a strong motivation to control fertility and are therefore enthusiastic acceptors of contraceptive methods, the widespread availability of early pregnancy tests and abortion could be the most effective way of increasing contraceptive practice and reducing abortion itself.

  17. Avoidance of late abortion.

    PubMed

    1979-11-24

    Induced abortion is now a common procedure in the United States and Britain. Methods for performing induced abortion are reviewed. Menstrual regulation, aspiration with a hand-held syringe and a flexible cannula within 6 weeks of the last period, is not often practiced in Britain. Several developing countries are using this simple technique to advantage. Vacuum aspiration in the 1st 12 weeks of pregnancy is the main method being used everywhere for 1st trimester procedures. Mortality rates with this method are low and, in well-organized clinics with experienced personnel, the rates can be reduced even further. It is agreed that 2nd trimester procedures are more complex, both physically and emotionally. In the last several years, dilatation and evacuation (D&E) has increased in popularity for 2nd trimester procedures. Dilation of the cervix is generally accomplished with laminaria, evacuation of the uterus with forceps, and then suction curettage applied. This procedure has replaced intraamniotic infusion, hysterotomy, and hysterectomy as the most commonly - practiced method, despite its need for special surgical skills and good clinical backup. Follow-up of abortions is difficult. Different long-term effects have been noted with different abortion procedures. Early abortion seems to have only a modest effect, if that. Whether late abortion has long-lasting effects remains open to question. Late abortion should be avoided.

  18. Abortion cases worrying.

    PubMed

    Mwanza, G

    1994-01-01

    The writer believes that life begins the instant that an human sperm cell and ovule fuse. This life must be respected and preserved. Abortion is shameful, but tolerated when either the mother or would-be baby's life is at stake. As the number of abortions continue to increase, the controversy over a woman's right to abortion rages on. The author wonders whether questions about abortion will ever be resolved and considers some possible solutions with reference to Zambia. There are many early pregnancies among Zambian youths. A 1993 study found 207 abortions per year in the country among 15-19 year olds; this includes illegal, incomplete, and induced abortions. The Coordinator for the Young Women Christian Association in Lusaka thinks that inadequate sex education is one of the factors contributing to the ever-rising number of abortions today. Youths have sexual intercourse without understanding the possible consequences. Parents, community leaders, and school authorities should instead become more involved and teach children about sex to lessen the incidence of abortion. Specifically, parents should talk to their children about sex as they mature, teaching them about their biological reproductive features and functions. The author is convinced that once children and youths understand their bodies, it will be very easy for them to control their desires. Most male and female teens do, however, cite love and sexual desire as the primary motives for their first relationships. The writer also mentions how pregnant girls get expelled from school and that women experience mental and physical side effects from induced abortion.

  19. Immune impairments and antibodies to HTLVIII/LAV in asymptomatic male homosexuals in Israel: relevance to the risk of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Bentwich, Z; Saxinger, C; Ben-Ishay, Z; Burstein, R; Berner, Y; Pecht, M; Trainin, N; Levin, S; Handzel, Z T

    1987-09-01

    We have studied 288 Israeli asymptomatic male homosexuals (MHS) to determine the prevalence of antibodies to HTLVI and HTLVIII and their correlation with impairments of the immune system and serum interferon (IFN). Seropositivity for HTLVI, HTLVIII, or both was found in 1.4, 8.3, and 0%, respectively. Significant decreases in the total peripheral T cells, TH cells, and TH/TS ratio as well as elevated alpha IFN serum levels were found in the MHS group in comparison with normal controls. Although no difference in the prevalence of either immune derangements or elevated serum IFN was observed between HTLVIII/LAV-seropositive and HTLVIII/LAV-seronegative MHS, the decreases in total T cells, TH cells, and TH/TS ratios were significantly greater in the seropositive MHS. These results indicate that (a) immune impairments and IFN system activation occur commonly in homosexuals, precede their exposure to HTLVIII/LAV, and probably reflect this group's increased risk for AIDS and (b) HTLVIII/LAV infection of MHS aggravates further their preexisting immune impairments.

  20. Near-infrared down-conversion and energy transfer mechanism in Yb(3+)-doped Ba2LaV3O11 phosphors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin; Guo, Chongfeng; Li, Ting; Song, Dan; Su, Xiangying

    2015-10-21

    Yb(3+)-doped Ba2LaV3O11 vanadate phosphors with near-infrared (NIR) emission are synthesized via the sol-gel method. The phase purity and structure of samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electronic structure of the self-activated phosphor host Ba2LaV3O11 is estimated by density functional theory (DFT) calculation, and the host absorption is mainly ascribed to the charge transition from the O-2p to V-3d states. Photoluminescence emission (PL) and excitation (PLE) spectra, decay curves, absorption spectra and theoretical quantum yields of samples are also investigated. Results indicate that Ba2LaV3O11:Yb(3+) phosphors have strong broad band absorption and efficient NIR emission, which matches well with the spectral response of the Si-based solar cells. The energy transfer processes from [VO4](3-) to Yb(3+) and possible transfer models are proposed based on the concentration of Yb(3+) ions. Results demonstrate that Ba2LaV3O11:Yb(3+) phosphors might act as a promising NIR DC solar spectral converter to enhance the efficiency of the silicon solar cells by utilizing broad band absorption of the solar spectrum.

  1. Near-infrared down-conversion and energy transfer mechanism in Yb(3+)-doped Ba2LaV3O11 phosphors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin; Guo, Chongfeng; Li, Ting; Song, Dan; Su, Xiangying

    2015-10-21

    Yb(3+)-doped Ba2LaV3O11 vanadate phosphors with near-infrared (NIR) emission are synthesized via the sol-gel method. The phase purity and structure of samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electronic structure of the self-activated phosphor host Ba2LaV3O11 is estimated by density functional theory (DFT) calculation, and the host absorption is mainly ascribed to the charge transition from the O-2p to V-3d states. Photoluminescence emission (PL) and excitation (PLE) spectra, decay curves, absorption spectra and theoretical quantum yields of samples are also investigated. Results indicate that Ba2LaV3O11:Yb(3+) phosphors have strong broad band absorption and efficient NIR emission, which matches well with the spectral response of the Si-based solar cells. The energy transfer processes from [VO4](3-) to Yb(3+) and possible transfer models are proposed based on the concentration of Yb(3+) ions. Results demonstrate that Ba2LaV3O11:Yb(3+) phosphors might act as a promising NIR DC solar spectral converter to enhance the efficiency of the silicon solar cells by utilizing broad band absorption of the solar spectrum. PMID:26388401

  2. Abortion: pro and contra.

    PubMed

    Jebereanu, Laura; Jebereanu, Diana; Alaman, Roxana; Tofan, Andra; Jebereanu, Sorin; Pauncu, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    To kill a new life before it's born, to do an abortion. This is a problem of many generations. In the evolution of human civilization, the attitude concerning abortion was different in different cultures, periods, societies. The aim of our study is to evaluate the actual opinion and attitude of young persons, students, and residents in medicine in Timisoara city, and the situation of the whole country. We performed a questionnaire for 400 people, between the ages of 19 and 28 with superior studies. The group is composed of 320 (80%) women and 80 (20%) men. We accepted for recording and analyzing all the the completed questionnaires. The questions referred to the topic of abortion in the antecedents, and asked if they had had one, how it affected the life of the women and her family, the circumstances of acceptance of abortion today, religious aspects and different other aspects. PMID:17146907

  3. Botswana: abortion "debate" dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mogwe, A

    1992-01-01

    The Penal Code (Amendment) Bill or the abortion bill has the objective of liberalizing the current law on the regulation of abortion. Abortion had been strictly prohibited and carried stiff penalties. Anyone who attempted to assists a woman to procure an abortion could be liable to 7 years' imprisonment. However, medical abortions were distinguished as being medically determined to save the health of the mother. Demands for a reevaluation of the law came from the medical profession, and in response the Minister for Presidential Affairs submitted a bill to Parliament in November, 1990. The expressed government rationale for these proposed amendments was concern about the health of women. In Botswana about 200 women die yearly because of pregnancy. According to the proposed law: an abortion could be carried out within the first 16 weeks of pregnancy if: 1) the pregnancy were a result of rape, incest, or defilement (the impregnation of a girl aged 16 or less, the impregnation of imbeciles or idiots), 2) the physical or mental health of the woman were at risk because of the pregnancy, 3) the child would be born with a serious physical or mental abnormality. The abortion could be carried out only if 2 medical doctors approved it. The amendments fall far short of increasing women's control over their bodies. The Botswana Christian Council issued a statement early in the public debate. While it did not oppose the bill in its entirety, clear concern was expressed concerning the apparent right of determining who lives and who dies depending on the handicap of the child. This rather liberal position was challenged by the Roman Catholic Church which interpreted abortion as the murder of God-given life. The bill was nevertheless passed by Parliament in September 1991, and the President signed it on October 11, 1991. PMID:12288837

  4. Moderate views of abortion.

    PubMed

    Sumner, L W

    1997-01-01

    This essay offers a moderate view of abortion that imposes a time limit for unrestricted abortion and specific indications for later abortions. The introduction notes that the discussion will provide a defense for this policy based on a moral analysis but that other options for moderates, especially options provided by freestanding views (the defense of which does not rest on any prior commitment about the morality of abortion), will also be considered. The next section considers the moral status of the fetus grounded in a criterion of moral standing that stipulates the necessary characteristics to achieve moral standing. This discussion concludes that a fetus acquires moral standing only when it becomes sentient. Section 3 moves the argument from ethics to politics to prove that a moderate policy must place no limitations on abortion before the time the fetus becomes sentient because before that time the fetus has no interest for the state to protect. The final section notes that some pro-choice advocates may be happier with the moderate policy proposed than with its controversial defense based on the moral status of the fetus and that another defense of a moderate policy could be based on a finding that the ethical issue can not be decided and that no view about abortion ethics is more reasonable than any other. The essay concludes that the ethical debate is ultimately unavoidable. PMID:12348328

  5. Abortion and regret.

    PubMed

    Greasley, Kate

    2012-12-01

    The article considers three theses about postabortion regret which seek to illustrate its pertinence to reasoning about abortion, and which are often deployed, either explicitly or implicitly, to dissuade women out of that reproductive choice. The first is that postabortion regret renders an abortion morally unjustified. The second is that that a relatively high incidence of postabortion regret-compared with a lower incidence of postnatal regret in the relevant comparator field-is good evidence for the moral impermissibility of abortion choice. The third is that high rates of postabortion regret suggest that abortion is not the most prudent or welfare-maximising choice for the woman concerned. All three theses argue for the compellingness of knowledge about postabortion regret in moral and practical reasoning about abortion, especially from the pregnant woman's point of view. This article argues that all three theses are flawed. In particular, it seeks to remind readers that feelings of regret directed at past decisions are often decoupled from the fact of the matter about their moral or rational justification. Moreover, certain features of reproductive decisions in particular make regret an especially unsuitable yardstick for actual justification in this context, and even less epistemically reliable as evidence for a lack of justification than it may be in other fields of decision-making. The implication is that rates of postabortion regret, even if they can be presumed to be higher than rates of postnatal regret, are not as pertinent to moral and practical reasoning about abortion as is sometimes suggested.

  6. Politics and abortion.

    PubMed

    Rosoff, J I

    1985-01-01

    The legalization of abortion in the United States by the Supreme Court in 1973 bypassed the political process in the majority of the states. Since then, however, political controversy and agitation in relation to abortion has become nationwide. From largely Catholic-based opposition, it has grown to encompass religious fundamentalists and to be a major part of the New Right's agenda. Abortion is now, pro and con, part of the platform of both political parties. The sweeping nature of the Supreme Court's decisions leaves the opposition with very little room to restrict abortion, short of overturning the decisions through a constitutional amendment. Such an amendment requires a two-thirds majority of Congress and passage is unlikely. However, funding bans on scores of federal programmes have succeeded in restricting access to abortion for the poor, the young and minorities. These restrictions are part of a long-term strategy to educate the public as to the evils of abortion with the aim of making it illegal again, either through the adoption of a constitutional amendment or by obtaining a reversal by a hoped-for change in membership of the Supreme Court.

  7. Orion Launch Abort System Performance During Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, Rachel; Davidson, John; Gonzalez, Guillo

    2015-01-01

    The Orion Launch Abort System Office is taking part in flight testing to enable certification that the system is capable of delivering the astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Module to a safe environment during both nominal and abort conditions. Orion is a NASA program, Exploration Flight Test 1 is managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched on a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. Although the Launch Abort System Office has tested the critical systems to the Launch Abort System jettison event on the ground, the launch environment cannot be replicated completely on Earth. During Exploration Flight Test 1, the Launch Abort System was to verify the function of the jettison motor to separate the Launch Abort System from the crew module so it can continue on with the mission. Exploration Flight Test 1 was successfully flown on December 5, 2014 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's Space Launch Complex 37. This was the first flight test of the Launch Abort System preforming Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. The abort motor and attitude control motors were inert for Exploration Flight Test 1, since the mission did not require abort capabilities. Exploration Flight Test 1 provides critical data that enable engineering to improve Orion's design and reduce risk for the astronauts it will protect as NASA continues to move forward on its human journey to Mars. The Exploration Flight Test 1 separation event occurred at six minutes and twenty seconds after liftoff. The separation of the Launch Abort System jettison occurs once Orion is safely through the most dynamic portion of the launch. This paper will present a brief overview of the objectives of the Launch Abort System during a nominal Orion flight. Secondly, the paper will present the performance of the Launch Abort System at it fulfilled those objectives. The lessons learned from Exploration Flight Test 1 and the other Flight Test Vehicles will certainly

  8. Orion Guidance and Control Ascent Abort Algorithm Design and Performance Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proud, Ryan W.; Bendle, John R.; Tedesco, Mark B.; Hart, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    During the ascent flight phase of NASA s Constellation Program, the Ares launch vehicle propels the Orion crew vehicle to an agreed to insertion target. If a failure occurs at any point in time during ascent then a system must be in place to abort the mission and return the crew to a safe landing with a high probability of success. To achieve continuous abort coverage one of two sets of effectors is used. Either the Launch Abort System (LAS), consisting of the Attitude Control Motor (ACM) and the Abort Motor (AM), or the Service Module (SM), consisting of SM Orion Main Engine (OME), Auxiliary (Aux) Jets, and Reaction Control System (RCS) jets, is used. The LAS effectors are used for aborts from liftoff through the first 30 seconds of second stage flight. The SM effectors are used from that point through Main Engine Cutoff (MECO). There are two distinct sets of Guidance and Control (G&C) algorithms that are designed to maximize the performance of these abort effectors. This paper will outline the necessary inputs to the G&C subsystem, the preliminary design of the G&C algorithms, the ability of the algorithms to predict what abort modes are achievable, and the resulting success of the abort system. Abort success will be measured against the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) abort performance metrics and overall performance will be reported. Finally, potential improvements to the G&C design will be discussed.

  9. Abortion and rape.

    PubMed

    Barry-Martin, P

    1977-10-26

    The letter is an answer to a previous letter which appeared in the same journal and which was discrediting, according to the author of this letter, the Royal Commission on Contraception, Sterilization, and Abortion. The earlier letter refutes a quote from "Abortion and Social Justice" used by the Commission, regarding the situation in Colorado after rape became an indication for abortion. The quote reports that although between 1967-1971 the number of abortions for rape totalled 290, no rapist was charged or convicted for the crime. However, according to the author of this letter, the actual quote reads somewhat differently, and states that, during the same period, "no rapist was ever charged with his crime, much less convicted of it, which casts some real doubts on the reality of the alleged rapes." The meaning of this passage is that none of the alleged rapists had actually caused the 290 pregnancies. From records and government statistics it is possible to count about 3300 cases of rape known to the police in Colorado for the years 1967-1971. To suggest that none of these cases were charged or convicted is ridiculous. The author also states that rape as an indication for abortion will lead to abuse of the law, and that pregnancy for actual rape is rare.

  10. The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

  11. Addressing barriers to safe abortion.

    PubMed

    Culwell, Kelly R; Hurwitz, Manuelle

    2013-05-01

    The latest World Health Organization data estimate that the total number of unsafe abortions globally has increased to 21.6 million in 2008. There is increasing recognition by the international community of the importance of the contribution of unsafe abortion to maternal mortality. However, the barriers to delivery of safe abortion services are many. In 68 countries, home to 26% of the world's population, abortion is prohibited altogether or only permitted to save a woman's life. Even in countries with more liberal abortion legal frameworks, additional social, economic, and health systems barriers and the stigma surrounding abortion prevent adequate access to safe abortion services and postabortion care. While much has been achieved to reduce the barriers to comprehensive abortion care, much remains to be done. Only through the concerted action of public, private, and civil society partners can we ensure that women have access to services that are safe, affordable, confidential, and stigma free. PMID:23477700

  12. Abortion and human rights.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus. PMID:20303830

  13. A compromise on abortion?

    PubMed

    Rhoden, N K

    1989-01-01

    Rhoden's article is one of three on "Abortion: searching for common ground" in this issue of the Hastings Center Report. Her article, together with those by M. Mahowald and M. Glendon, was prompted by the expectation that the impending U.S. Supreme Court decision in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (3 July 1989) would overturn or restrict Roe v. Wade (1973). Rhoden, an advocate for the pro-choice position, asks whether a compromise leading to an acceptable regulatory policy is possible or desirable among those on opposite sides of the abortion issue. She identifies several reasons why the Roe decision is vulnerable to review, but argues that effective education about sexuality and comprehensive social support of women are better approaches to abortion than restrictive legislation. PMID:2663778

  14. Integrated Flight Performance Analysis of a Launch Abort System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, Paul V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes initial flight performance analyses conducted early in the Orion Project to support concept feasibility studies for the Crew Exploration Vehicle s Launch Abort System (LAS). Key performance requirements that significantly affect abort capability are presented. These requirements have implications on sizing the Abort Motor, tailoring its thrust profile to meet escape requirements for both launch pad and high drag/high dynamic pressure ascent aborts. Additional performance considerations are provided for the Attitude Control Motor, a key element of the Orion LAS design that eliminates the need for ballast and provides performance robustness over a passive control approach. Finally, performance of the LAS jettison function is discussed, along with implications on Jettison Motor sizing and the timing of the jettison event during a nominal mission. These studies provide an initial understanding of LAS performance that will continue to evolve as the Orion design is matured.

  15. Connecticut's new abortion statute.

    PubMed

    Healey, J M

    1990-08-01

    Amid the raging controversy on whether minors should have the same access to abortion as adults, the Connecticut legislature has passed a compromise statues that recognizes a minor's right seek an abortion, while imposing certain requirements. Those who seek to regulate access argue that because minors may lack the maturity to make a valid decision, parental notification is necessary; advocates of minors' right to access hold that it should be the minor who makes such personal decision. In an effort to resolve the conflict, Connecticut's law says that young women under the age of 16 must receive pregnancy-related information before an abortion can take place. Specifically., a physician or counselor is required to: 1) explain to the minor that the information provided is not intended to coerce or persuade her into making a particular choice; 2) explain that she may consider her decision any time prior to the operation or during the time period when abortion is legally permitted; 3) explain the alternatives of either carrying out the pregnancy or getting an abortion, including information on public and private agencies that may assist in carrying out the decision; 4) inform her that pubic and private agencies provide information on birth control; 5) discuss the possibility of involving the minor's parents(s), guardian(s), or other adult family member in the decision; and 6) allow the minor to ask questions and to obtain useful information. After the completion of the process, the minor must sign a form that attests that the requirements have been met, and -- if applicable -- that the minor has decided to involve a parent or relative. In cases where the health or safety of a minor requires and abortion, the Connecticut statute allows for the provisions to be waived.

  16. Multiple Induced Abortions: Danish Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Mogens; David, Henry P.; Morgall, Janine M.

    1997-01-01

    Women having an induced abortion in an urban clinic were studied. First, second, and third time aborters (N=150) were interviewed. Variables including reasons for choosing abortion, life situations, contraceptive risk-taking, and ease of becoming pregnant were examined. Related studies and suggestions for postabortion counseling are discussed.…

  17. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. PMID:25846035

  18. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading.

  19. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  20. Pitch Guidance Optimization for the Orion Abort Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stillwater, Ryan Allanque

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration created the Constellation program to develop the next generation of manned space vehicles and launch vehicles. The Orion abort system is initiated in the event of an unsafe condition during launch. The system has a controller gains schedule that can be tuned to reduce the attitude errors between the simulated Orion abort trajectories and the guidance trajectory. A program was created that uses the method of steepest descent to tune the pitch gains schedule by an automated procedure. The gains schedule optimization was applied to three potential abort scenarios; each scenario tested using the optimized gains schedule resulted in reduced attitude errors when compared to the Orion production gains schedule.

  1. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  2. [Abortion and conscientious objection].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion.

  3. Dynamic Modeling of Ascent Abort Scenarios for Crewed Launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigler, Mark; Boyer, Roger L.

    2015-01-01

    For the last 30 years, the United States's human space program has been focused on low Earth orbit exploration and operations with the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs. After nearly 50 years, the U.S. is again working to return humans beyond Earth orbit. To do so, NASA is developing a new launch vehicle and spacecraft to provide this capability. The launch vehicle is referred to as the Space Launch System (SLS) and the spacecraft is called Orion. The new launch system is being developed with an abort system that will enable the crew to escape launch failures that would otherwise be catastrophic as well as probabilistic design requirements set for probability of loss of crew (LOC) and loss of mission (LOM). In order to optimize the risk associated with designing this new launch system, as well as verifying the associated requirements, NASA has developed a comprehensive Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the integrated ascent phase of the mission that includes the launch vehicle, spacecraft and ground launch facilities. Given the dynamic nature of rocket launches and the potential for things to go wrong, developing a PRA to assess the risk can be a very challenging effort. Prior to launch and after the crew has boarded the spacecraft, the risk exposure time can be on the order of three hours. During this time, events may initiate from either of the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, or the ground systems, thus requiring an emergency egress from the spacecraft to a safe ground location or a pad abort via the spacecraft's launch abort system. Following launch, again either the spacecraft or the launch vehicle can initiate the need for the crew to abort the mission and return to the home. Obviously, there are thousands of scenarios whose outcome depends on when the abort is initiated during ascent as to how the abort is performed. This includes modeling the risk associated with explosions and benign system failures that require aborting a

  4. Observations on abortion in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Castle, M A; Likwa, R; Whittaker, M

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the findings of a preliminary investigation of women who sought treatment for abortion from the Gynecological Emergency Ward at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia. Barriers to obtaining legal abortions are identified and the harsh experiences of women seeking treatment for complications of illegally induced abortion are discussed. The data contribute to an understanding of the intensity of abortion for Zambian women and draw attention to the value of small-scale, qualitative research on women's reproductive health care needs. It is suggested that a study be planned at UTH to determine how health care delivery can be improved for women who seek abortion.

  5. Anti-abortion movement.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K

    1985-01-01

    At the same time that American women celebrate the freedoms won thus far for so many Americans, American women must realize they face some of the greatest threats to liberty in recent memory. To understand this movement against American women, it is necessary to first understand the roots of the historic movement for women's rights. Reproductive freedom for many years topped the agenda of the modern women's movement. At a time and in a land where rights were being enriched and liberty prized, choice took a prominent role, specifically, the right to abortion but also generally to repdocuctive freedom and the many underlying issues involved. This is why the various efforts to criminalize abortion effect every citizen, because they pose a serious threat to the constitutional rights of each individual. This is the intellectual view, or the "head" argument. The Constitution states that: "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and no state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US." Each of these clauses expresses the philosophy on which the Constitution was founded -- individual liberty. While there has been some legitimate disagreement over what constitutes an inalienable right, the concept is clear: the government should not become involved in personal philosophical or religious matters, except to permit the freedom of personal philosophical or religious expression. The anti-abortion contignent makes its case by claiming that a fertilized egg is a cona fide person and should, therefore, be guaranteed the Constitution's full roster of protections. In its landmark Roe v. Wade opinion, the Supreme Court held what pro-choice activities have been claiming for years. Since there is no empirical test by which measure

  6. [Recurrent spontaneous abortions].

    PubMed

    Salat-Baroux, J

    1988-01-01

    The process of fertilization in humans, is remarkably inefficient. Spontaneous abortion is estimated to be between 15 and 20% of all clinical pregnancies, and the early spontaneous abortion rate is closer to 30-50% of fertilized ova. Not all authors agree on the definition of "recurrent spontaneous abortion" (RSA), so the frequency of repeated pregnancy wastage is difficult to determine; from empirically derived data, it has been estimated to range between 0.4 and 0.8%. Because of the various etiologies of RSA, their association in determining an abortive event, it is difficult to evaluate their exact incidence. Moreover, their is no prospective study on this subject, so it is advisable to distinguish between the admitted causes, the likely factors, and the etiologies to be evaluated. In the first group, the congenital or acquired müllerian anomalies (especially the septate uterus), represent about 25% of the RSA, but a lot of problems concerning the physiopathology are still debated, even if the rate of pregnancies after surgery ranges around 50% in certain series. On the other hand, the genetic factors, identified especially with the banding technique, are undeniable: however, although the rate of chromosomal aberrations in the offspring (Monosomy X, Trisony 16, Triploidy) is very high (50 to 60% of spontaneous abortions in the first trimester of pregnancy), when couples with usual abortions are subjected to karyotypic analysis, genetic anomalies (especially translocations) are been noted in only 6.2% of the women and 2.6% of the men. In the second group, the infective factors (chlamydiae, toxoplasma and mycoplasma) are difficult to analyse since the serology is not sufficient without a real proof of an endometrial colonization. Among the endocrinological causes, the classical luteal phase deficiency remains a subject of controversy (estimated between 3 and 30%) not only for the establishment of the diagnosis, but also for the efficiency of progesterone

  7. Abortion (Amendment) Bill.

    PubMed

    Dundon, S

    1980-02-23

    Your editorial of Jan. 26 and the multi-signatory letter in your issue of Feb. 2 support the 1967 Abortion Act and suggest that Mr. Corrie's Bill is a retrograde step. The implication is that our professional knowledge should lead us to that conclusion. To take the opposite view risks being regarded as a member of a pressure group or a conscientious objector, but to remain silent might be construed as being in agreement. As I see it the great majority of people of varying ethnic groups, including those adhering to the Jewish, Muslim, and Christian faiths, subscribe to a behavioral code which regards human life as sacred: to take a life is to be countenanced only to save another. Abortion should be regarded as taking human life and morally wrong; making abortion legal does not make it morally right. Doctors are in a very difficult position, and cannot, no more than politicians can, make moral decisions for other people. Traditionally, however, the profession has a role in the responsibility for protection of life, and perhaps the public have a right to expect this protection. Human life begins at conception and some human rights begin at this time. Life (and its protection) seems to be a most basic right. The World Medical Association, in the Declaration of Oslo (1970), stated: "1. The first moral principle imposed upon the doctor is respect for human life as expressed in a clause of the Declaration of Geneva: 'I will maintain the utmost respect for human life from the time of conception.'" The 1967 Abortion Act did not result from a general referendum, much less a medical referendum. If the Corrie Bill is passed and abortions are cut by 2/3 as you suggest, this would, in my view, be a step, not back, but in the right direction.

  8. Abortion health services in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Wendy V.; Guilbert, Edith R.; Okpaleke, Christopher; Hayden, Althea S.; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; White, Katharine O’Connell; Jones, Heidi E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the location of Canadian abortion services relative to where reproductive-age women reside, and the characteristics of abortion facilities and providers. Design An international survey was adapted for Canadian relevance. Public sources and professional networks were used to identify facilities. The bilingual survey was distributed by mail and e-mail from July to November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures The number and location of services were compared with the distribution of reproductive-age women by location of residence. Results We identified 94 Canadian facilities providing abortion in 2012, with 48.9% in Quebec. The response rate was 83.0% (78 of 94). Facilities in every jurisdiction with services responded. In Quebec and British Columbia abortion services are nearly equally present in large urban centres and rural locations throughout the provinces; in other Canadian provinces services are chiefly located in large urban areas. No abortion services were identified in Prince Edward Island. Respondents reported provision of 75 650 abortions in 2012 (including 4.0% by medical abortion). Canadian facilities reported minimal or no harassment, in stark contrast to American facilities that responded to the same survey. Conclusion Access to abortion services varies by region across Canada. Services are not equitably distributed in relation to the regions where reproductive-age women reside. British Columbia and Quebec have demonstrated effective strategies to address disparities. Health policy and service improvements have the potential to address current abortion access inequity in Canada. These measures include improved access to mifepristone for medical abortion; provincial policies to support abortion services; routine abortion training within family medicine residency programs; and increasing the scope of practice for nurses and midwives to include abortion

  9. [Acute complications of abortion].

    PubMed

    Obel, E

    1976-02-01

    The complications accompanying the various methods of abortion as studied in different surveys are reported. In studies of dilation and curettage (D and C) and vaccuum aspiration (VA), lethality ranges from .5 to 2.9 deaths/100,000 cases. Metrorrhagia occurred in 2.5-6% of the D and C cases studied and in 2.9-3.5% of the VA cases. The bleeding was accompanied by infection in most cases where abortive tissue remained in the uterus, which occured in .4-.8% of the D and C cases and in .6-.9% of the VA cases studied. Postabortive bleeding occurred through the 10th day in up to 25% of the patients and was related to the length of the gestation period before abortion. Pelvic infection, mostly of the endometrium, occurred in about 1.4% of the D and C patients and in .3-1.2% of the VA patients. 1.4% of the D and C patients and .6% of the VA patients experienced a rise in body temperature as the only complication of abortion. Perforation of the uterus occurred in about .8% of the D and C patients and in .1-.6% of VA patients. Lesions of the cervix had to be sutured in .1% of the D and C group and .3% of the VA group. Saline instillation, used for abortions in the second trimest er, had a mortality rate of about 20/100,000 cases. Since the success rate of saline instillation is 90-98%, complications are more frequent, often requiring treatment with oxytocin or curettage. Extensive bleeding occurred in 2.3-4%. Curettage of the placenta was required in about 2.1-16.9% of the cases. Pelvic inflammation occurred in about 2.5% and temperature elevation in 1-3.4%. Abdominal hysterotomies had a lethality of 208/100,000. Pelvic hemorrhage occurred in 31%, inflammation in 4.7%, temperature elevation in 13%, and febrile reactions in 31% of the abdominal hysterotomies studied. It is necessary to establish international definitions of abortion complications for better documentation, and postoperative observations should be recorded more conscientiously. PMID:1251502

  10. Abortion research in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gaslonde Sainz, S

    1976-08-01

    Surveys dealing with abortion in Latin America have provided useful information despite problems in the collection and use of the data. Considerations that should be taken into account in designing abortion surveys and using the resultant information have been discussed here. Special attention has been paid to the need for a broad definition of "abortion" in order to overcome difficulties in gathering information about abortion in Latin America. Surveys have shown increasing incidence of abortion throughout Latin America in the recent past. In examining changes over time it is crucial to interpret clearly and carefully the summary measures of proportion of pregnancies ending in abortion and abortion rates per 1,000 women. It is also important to realize that the level and direction of change of the abortion rate depends on both the rate at which women are becoming pregnant and the proportion of pregnancies ending in abortion. Better survey design and techniques and more careful use of the resulting information will aid in the planning and evaluation of programs aimed at reducing abortion in Latin America. PMID:960180

  11. Abortion: taking the debate seriously.

    PubMed

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2015-05-19

    Voluntarily induced abortion has been under permanent dispute and legal regulations, because societies invariably condemn extramarital pregnancies. In recent decades, a measure of societal tolerance has led to decriminalize and legalize abortion in accordance with one of two models: a more restricted and conservative model known as therapeutic abortion, and the model that accepts voluntary abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy. Liberalization of abortion aims at ending clandestine abortions and decriminalizes the practice in order to increase reproductive education and accessibility of contraceptive methods, dissuade women from interrupting their pregnancy and, ultimately, make abortion a medically safe procedure within the boundaries of the law, inspired by efforts to reduce the incidence of this practice. The current legal initiative to decriminalize abortion in Chile proposes a notably rigid set of indications which would not resolve the three main objectives that need to be considered: 1) Establish the legal framework of abortion; 2) Contribute to reduce social unrest; 3) Solve the public health issue of clandestine, illegal abortions. Debate must urgently be opened to include alternatives in line with the general tendency to respect women's decision within the first trimester of pregnancy.

  12. Religion and attitudes toward abortion and abortion policy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the association between religion and attitudes toward the practice of abortion and abortion policy in Brazil. Drawing upon data from the 2002 Brazilian Social Research Survey (BSRS), we test a number of hypotheses with regard to the role of religion on opposition to the practice of abortion and its legalization. Findings indicate that frequently attending Pentecostals demonstrate the strongest opposition to the practice of abortion and both frequently attending Pentecostals and Catholics demonstrate the strongest opposition to its legalization. Additional religious factors, such as a commitment to biblical literalism, were also found to be significantly associated with opposition to both abortion issues. Ultimately, the findings have implications for the future of public policy on abortion and other contentious social issues in Brazil.

  13. The Politicization of Abortion and the Evolution of Abortion Counseling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The field of abortion counseling originated in the abortion rights movement of the 1970s. During its evolution to the present day, it has faced significant challenges, primarily arising from the increasing politicization and stigmatization of abortion since legalization. Abortion counseling has been affected not only by the imposition of antiabortion statutes, but also by the changing needs of patients who have come of age in a very different era than when this occupation was first developed. One major innovation—head and heart counseling—departs in significant ways from previous conventions of the field and illustrates the complex and changing political meanings of abortion and therefore the challenges to abortion providers in the years following Roe v Wade. PMID:23153144

  14. Psychiatric aspects of therapeutic abortion.

    PubMed

    Doane, B K; Quigley, B G

    1981-09-01

    A search of the literature on the psychiatric aspects of abortion revealed poor study design, a lack of clear criteria for decisions for or against abortion, poor definition of psychologic symptoms experienced by patients, absence of control groups in clinical studies, and indecisiveness and uncritical attitudes in writers from various disciplines. A review of the sequelae of therapeutic abortion revealed that although the data are vague, symptoms of depression were reported most frequently, whereas those of psychosis were rare. Positive emotional responses and a favourable attitude toward therapeutic abortion were often reported, although again the statistical bases for these reports were inadequate. There was a lack of evidence that the reported effects were due to having an abortion rather than to other variables.Other areas dealt with inadequately in most of the articles reviewed included analyses of symptoms and of the evidence on the duration of sequelae, descriptions of the criteria for approving abortions, investigation of the psychiatric histories of the patients, presentation of data on the effects of refusing abortion requests, systematic study of a number of epidemiologic factors, and analyses of the circumstances leading to pregnancy in patients having abortions. The evidence was found to be sparse on the effects of supportive relationships, different abortion techniques and the length of gestation on the psychologic status of patients. Little attention was paid to the consequences of psychiatric labelling of patients, or to the effect of having an abortion on factors that may influence future pregnancies.The potential roles of health care professionals appear to deserve more study, and little research seems to have been done to compare the psychologic factors associated with abortion and those associated with live birth. As well, there is little evidence that differences in abortion legislation account for significant differences in the psychologic

  15. Late abortion meeting, Paris / France.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, A

    1989-01-01

    On January 27 and 28, 1989 a workshop and a meeting were organized in Paris by Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial (MFPF/France) and the IPPF Europe Region. The workshop was held on the first day. 24 staff and volunteers from Planned Parenthood Associations of 15 countries attended, reviewing abortion laws, the definition of therapeutic abortion, and the incidence and problems of second trimester abortion. Second trimester abortion is available in only a few European countries. Second trimester abortions are rare in France (about 2000 per annum), and in 1986 1717 French women travelled to England in order to seek an abortion. All late abortions are performed for serious reasons. Older women may mistake signs of pregnancy for the onset of the menopause; and women fearful of social or familial punishment, especially teenagers, may be reluctant to consult a doctor. The experiences of Denmark and Sweden, where the problem is partially solved, suggest some strategies: optimize accessibility of contraceptive services, particularly for women at higher risk of late abortion; diminish the taboo surrounding abortion, so that women are less frightened to seek help at an early stage of pregnancy; make abortion services available in all regions of the country; avert time-consuming enforced waiting periods or consent for minors; and stimulate public information campaigns on the importance of seeking help early. On January 28 a meeting involving about 200 participants took place at the Universite Paris Dauphine, Salle Raymond Aron. Speakers at the meeting discussed the issue of late abortion in Europe, the difficulties of obtaining late abortions, counseling, medical problems, the woman's point of view, and possible solutions. At the close of the meeting, the MFPF called on the French government to modify some of the articles in the Penal Code that restrict women's access to safe and legal abortion.

  16. Austerity and Abortion in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Billari, Francesco; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Economic hardship accompanying large recessions can lead families to terminate unplanned pregnancies. To assess whether abortions have risen during the recession, we collected crude abortion data from 2000 to 2012 from Eurostat for countries that had legal abortions and complete data. Declining trends in abortion ratios between 2000 and 2009 have been reversing. Excess abortions between 2010 and 2012 totaled 10.6 abortions per 1000 pregnancies ending in abortion or birth or 6701 additional abortions (95% CI 1190–9240) with stronger effects in younger ages. Economic shocks may increase recourse to abortion. Further research should explore causal pathways and protective factors. PMID:27009038

  17. [Chemical methods of abortion].

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Matthiesen, H

    1979-07-20

    Medicaments are used to prepare for instrument abortions in the 1st trimester and as inducers of abortion in the 2nd trimester. The effects, side effects, and dangers depend on the substances used and the route of application, which can be vaginal, cervical, injection, instillation, extraamniotic, intraamniotic, intravenous, or intramuscular. In the past, intraamniotic instillation of a 20% salt solution was the most common 2nd trimester method in Japan, the US, and Eastern Europe, giving a success rate of 90%. Serious side effects prompted substitution of extraamniotic instillation, which rarely produces serious side effects. Instillation of a 60% urea solution into the amniotic fluid in combination with oxytocin or prostaglandin produces an abortion in 13-21 hours, with a failure rate of 3% and a frequency of cervical laceration of under 1%. Extraamniotic use of a .1% solution of rivanol yields a success rate of about 85%, with a relatively long average time to explusion of 24-41 hours. In case of failure the procedure can be repeated. The advantage of the Rivanol method is the rarity of infectious complications. Alcohol is not used as a human abortifacient because it produces necrosis in the decidua and placenta. Prostaglandins are used in most 2nd trimester abortions. Research is underway to identify derivatives that will have an extended uterine impact without serious side effects. Different routes of administration have different effectiveness rates and dangers. All prostaglandins cause side effects including pain during uterine contractions, gastro-intestinal reactions, nausea, vomiting, fever, and headaches. Specific preparations are associated with other effects, some of them life-threatening. Emergency treatment should be available when these substances are used. Adjuvant measures may be employed before adminstration of an abortifacient agent to soften the cervix, or after administration to hasten the procedure. The choice of procedure depends upon the

  18. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  19. Public funding of abortions and abortion counseling for poor women.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R B

    1997-01-01

    This essay seeks to reveal the weakness in arguments against public funding of abortions and abortion counseling in the US based on economic, ethico-religious, anti-racist, and logical-consistency objections and to show that public funding of abortion is strongly supported by appeals to basic human rights, to freedom of speech, to informed consent, to protection from great harm, to justice, and to equal protection under the law. The first part of the article presents the case against public funding with detailed considerations of the economic argument, the ethico/religious argument, the argument that such funding supports racist genocide or eugenic quality control, and arguments that a logical inconsistency exists between the principles used to justify the legalization of abortions and arguments for public funding. The second part of the article presents the case for public funding by discussing the spending of public funds on morally offensive programs, arguments for public funding of abortion counseling for the poor, and arguments for public funding of abortions for the poor. It is concluded that it is morally unacceptable and rationally unjustifiable to refuse to expend public funds for abortions for low income women, because after all most money for legal abortions for the poor comes from welfare payments made to women. If conservative forces want to insure that no public funds pay for abortions, they must stop all welfare payments to pregnant women. PMID:12348330

  20. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742

  1. Dworkin and Casey on abortion.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Sarah

    1996-01-01

    This article responds to two important recent treatments of abortion rights. I will mainly discuss Ronald Dworkin's recent writings concerning abortion: his article "Unenumerated rights: whether and how Roe should be overruled," and his book Life's Dominion. In these writings Dworkin presents a novel view of what the constitutional and moral argument surronding abortion is really about. Both debates actually turn, he argues, on the question of how to interpret the widely shared idea that human life is sacred. At the heart of the abortion debate is the essentially religious notion that human life has value which transcends its value to any particular person; abortion is therefore at bottom a religious issue. Dworkin hopes to use this analysis to show that the religion clauses of the First Amendment provide a "textual home" for a woman's right to choose abortion. I wish to scrutinize this suggestion here; I want to probe the precise consequences for abortion rights of such an understanding of their basis. I will argue that the consequences are more radical than Dworkin seems to realize. The other work I will examine here is the important 1992 Supreme Court decision on abortion, Planned Parenthood v. Casey. The controlling opinion in that case, written jointly by Justices Kennedy, O'Connor, and Souter, strongly reaffirmed Roe v. Wade, but also upheld most of the provisions of a Pennsylvania statute that had mandated various restrictions on abortion. The justices' basis for upholding these restictions was their introduction of a new constitutional standard for abortion regulations, an apparently weaker standard than those that had governed previous Supreme Court abortion decisions. I think there is a flaw in Casey's new constitutional test for abortion regulations, and I will explain, when we turn to Casey, what it is and why it bears a close relation to Dworkin's reluctance to carry his argument as far as it seems to go.

  2. Abortion in a just society.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M E

    1993-01-01

    A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.

  3. Anti-abortion movement.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K

    1985-01-01

    At the same time that American women celebrate the freedoms won thus far for so many Americans, American women must realize they face some of the greatest threats to liberty in recent memory. To understand this movement against American women, it is necessary to first understand the roots of the historic movement for women's rights. Reproductive freedom for many years topped the agenda of the modern women's movement. At a time and in a land where rights were being enriched and liberty prized, choice took a prominent role, specifically, the right to abortion but also generally to repdocuctive freedom and the many underlying issues involved. This is why the various efforts to criminalize abortion effect every citizen, because they pose a serious threat to the constitutional rights of each individual. This is the intellectual view, or the "head" argument. The Constitution states that: "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and no state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US." Each of these clauses expresses the philosophy on which the Constitution was founded -- individual liberty. While there has been some legitimate disagreement over what constitutes an inalienable right, the concept is clear: the government should not become involved in personal philosophical or religious matters, except to permit the freedom of personal philosophical or religious expression. The anti-abortion contignent makes its case by claiming that a fertilized egg is a cona fide person and should, therefore, be guaranteed the Constitution's full roster of protections. In its landmark Roe v. Wade opinion, the Supreme Court held what pro-choice activities have been claiming for years. Since there is no empirical test by which measure

  4. The abortion struggle in America.

    PubMed

    Warren, Mary Anne

    1989-10-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court's July 1989 decision in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services, while not overturning Roe v. Wade, extended the power of state and local governments to regulate abortion. Warren situates the Webster decision in a larger context of 19th and 20th century American anti-abortion legislation, the Court's 1973 Roe decision and its predecessors, and the anti-abortion campaign that followed Roe. She then discusses Webster and its legal, practical, and political implications, concluding that the future of legal abortion in the United States is radically uncertain.

  5. God's bullies: attacks on abortion.

    PubMed

    Hadley, J

    1994-01-01

    National politics in the US, Poland, and Ireland have in recent years been afire with debate over abortion. Conflicting abortion laws almost scuttled the reunification of Germany. This paper describes how the abortion debate took hold in post-Communist Poland and how the issue came to be so entrenched in US politics in the wake of the US Supreme Court's 1973 decision on abortion in the case of Roe vs. Wade. It focuses upon abortion mainly as a method of birth control which women have always sought when needed regardless of the procedure's legal status. The controversies and campaigns recorded and the ideas offered focus upon women's access to affordable, safe, and legal abortion. The author argues that Poland is no place to be a woman and presents sections on the country's church, government, and medical profession; Roe vs. Wade; who opposes abortion rights and their broad success; the 1992 US presidential election; Bill Clinton's presidency; why the abortion debate has been different in Britain; and new issues on abortion.

  6. Prophylactic antibiotics for curettage abortion.

    PubMed

    Grimes, D A; Schulz, K F; Cates, W

    1984-11-15

    Opinion is divided as to the advisability of routine use of prophylactic antibiotics for curettage abortion. Six studies, including three randomized clinical trials, suggest that prophylaxis reduces infectious morbidity associated with curettage abortions by about one half. Three other studies, two involving prophylaxis for instillation abortions and one involving a vaginal antiseptic for curettage abortion, support the hypothesis that antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces morbidity. Tetracyclines are commonly used for this purpose. The cost of routine prophylaxis even with an expensive tetracycline would appear to be offset by the savings in direct and indirect costs. Prophylaxis may help prevent both short-term morbidity and potential late sequelae, such as ectopic pregnancy and infertility.

  7. Controversy over abortion funding increases.

    PubMed

    1980-03-01

    The controversy surrounding the question of public financing of Medicaid abortions in the U.S. was fanned through 5 separate court decisions in January 1980. In 3 of the decisions--directed against the Connecticut, Minnesota, and Missouri Medicaid abortion programs--the courts invalidated the state laws on the grounds that they limited federal funding of abortions for poor women too narrowly. Another decision stated that the Missouri law violated the equal protection clause of th Constitution. A decision in the U.S. District Court in Brooklyn, New York, stated that the 1976 Hyde amendment's restrictions on federal payment for abortions under Medicaid are unconstitutional. Each case is briefly analyzed.

  8. Dynamic Modeling of Ascent Abort Scenarios for Crewed Launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigler, Mark; Boyer, Roger L.

    2015-01-01

    For the last 30 years, the United States' human space program has been focused on low Earth orbit exploration and operations with the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs. After over 40 years, the U.S. is again working to return humans beyond Earth orbit. To do so, NASA is developing a new launch vehicle and spacecraft to provide this capability. The launch vehicle is referred to as the Space Launch System (SLS) and the spacecraft is called Orion. The new launch system is being developed with an abort system that will enable the crew to escape launch failures that would otherwise be catastrophic as well as probabilistic design requirements set for probability of loss of crew (LOC) and loss of mission (LOM). In order to optimize the risk associated with designing this new launch system, as well as verifying the associated requirements, NASA has developed a comprehensive Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the integrated ascent phase of the mission that includes the launch vehicle, spacecraft and ground launch facilities. Given the dynamic nature of rocket launches and the potential for things to go wrong, developing a PRA to assess the risk can be a very challenging effort. Prior to launch and after the crew has boarded the spacecraft, the risk exposure time can be on the order of three hours. During this time, events may initiate from either the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, or the ground systems, thus requiring an emergency egress from the spacecraft to a safe ground location or a pad abort via the spacecraft's launch abort system. Following launch, again either the spacecraft or the launch vehicle can initiate the need for the crew to abort the mission and return home. Obviously, there are thousands of scenarios whose outcome depends on when the abort is initiated during ascent and how the abort is performed. This includes modeling the risk associated with explosions and benign system failures that require aborting a spacecraft under very

  9. The medicolegal aspects of abortion.

    PubMed

    Hall, R E

    1972-01-01

    There was little demand for abortion in the 19th century. There was no population explosion and large families were needed to tend the farm. People were more religious; women were 2nd class citizens; and abortions in those days were medically unsafe. The movement to reform abortion laws in the United States stemmed largely from 3 events in the early 1960s: 1) the request in 1963 of Sherri Finkbine for an abortion after she had taken thalidomide and then learned of its teratogenic potential; 2) a rubella epidemic in 1964 and 1965; and 3) the 1965 Supreme Court decision declaring the Connecticut birth control law to be unconstitutional. In 1970 abortion was completely legalized in the states of Hawaii, Alaska, New York and Washington -- the first 3 by legislation and the last by popular referendum. With 4 states operating under repeal laws, 12 under reform laws, and 34 under restrictive laws, the current practice of abortion in the U.S. at this time is chaotic. In order to cope with the tremendous new demand for abortions, doctors have had to learn new techniques and hospitals have had to modify their procedures and adapt their facilities. An obstacle in the transition to universally available abortion has been the resistance of attending physicians, house staff, paramedical personnel, and hospital administrators and trustees. The legal future of abortion lies more in the courts than in the legislatures. With the impetus provided by the 4 new repeal laws, other states will now revise their abortion statutes at an accelerated pace, but it will not be possible to achieve universal repeal by this state-by-state route. Medical practitioners need to prepare for the eventuality of legalized abortion on a national scale.

  10. Contraception following abortion and the treatment of incomplete abortion.

    PubMed

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp Kallner, Helena; Faúndes, Anibal

    2014-07-01

    Family planning counseling and the provision of postabortion contraception should be an integrated part of abortion and postabortion care to help women avoid another unplanned pregnancy and a repeat abortion. Postabortion contraception is significantly more effective in preventing repeat unintended pregnancy and abortion when it is provided before women leave the healthcare facility where they received abortion care, and when the chosen method is a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) method. This article provides evidence supporting these two critical aspects of postabortion contraception. It suggests that gynecologists and obstetricians have an ethical obligation to do everything necessary to ensure that postabortion contraception, with a focus on LARC methods, becomes an integral part of abortion and postabortion care, in line with the recommendations of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and of several other organizations.

  11. Denial of abortion in legal settings

    PubMed Central

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePiñeres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-01-01

    Background Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. Methods In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic characteristics of legal abortion seekers, as well as the frequency and reasons that women are denied abortion care. Results The proportion of women denied abortion services and the reasons for which they were denied varied widely by country. In Colombia, 2% of women surveyed did not receive the abortions they were seeking; in South Africa, 45% of women did not receive abortions on the day they were seeking abortion services. In both Tunisia and Nepal, 26% of women were denied their wanted abortions. Conclusions The denial of legal abortion services may have serious consequences for women's health and wellbeing. Additional evidence on the risk factors for presenting later in pregnancy, predictors of seeking unsafe illegal abortion, and the health consequences of illegal abortion and childbirth after an unwanted pregnancy is needed. Such data would assist the development of programmes and policies aimed at increasing access to and utilisation of safe abortion services where abortion is legal, and harm reduction models for women who are unable to access legal abortion services. PMID:25511805

  12. Abortion Information: A Guidance Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolleat, Patricia L.

    1975-01-01

    A number of questions relating to providing abortion information to teenagers can be raised from legal, ethical and philosophical standpoints. The purpose of this article is to examine abortion information-giving from the perspective of counseling and guidance theory and practice. (Author)

  13. Abortion, Birthright and the Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadale, Vincent E.; And Others

    This transcript is the result of panel presentation given on the implications of liberalized abortion laws for counselors. A new law which went into effect in July, 1970, in New York State presented women with the option of obtaining a legal abortion up to the 24th week of pregnancy. Counselors in New York State were, therefore, presented with new…

  14. Advice in the Abortion Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luscutoff, Sidney A.; Elms, Alan C.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects in this study were asked to report the number of contacts-for-advice they had made when forming decisions to have a therapeutic abortion, or to carry a pregnancy to term. As predicted, the abortion group differed strongly from both other groups on most questions. (Author)

  15. Partner violence and abortion characteristics.

    PubMed

    Colarossi, Lisa; Dean, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study using randomly selected medical charts of women reporting a history of partner violence and women with no history of partner violence at the time of a family planning or abortion appointment (n = 6,564 per group). We analyzed lifetime history of partner violence for odds of lifetime history of abortion and miscarriage number, and birth control problems. To more closely match timing, we analyzed a subsample of 2,186 women reporting current violence versus not at the time of an abortion appointment for differences in gestational age, medical versus surgical method choice, and return for follow-up visit. After adjusting for years at risk and demographic characteristics, women with a past history of partner violence were not more likely to have ever had one abortion, but they were more likely to have had problems with birth control, repeat abortions, and miscarriages than women with no history of violence. Women with current partner violence were also more likely to be receiving an abortion at a later gestational age. We found no differences between the groups in return for abortion follow-up visit or choice of surgical versus medication abortion. Findings support screening for the influence of partner violence on reproductive health and related safety planning. PMID:24580133

  16. Abortion: epidemiology, safety, and technique.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, P D

    1992-08-01

    In 1991, the abortion literature was characterized by articles relating to 1) epidemiologic issues in abortion care, 2) advances in knowledge and experience with medical abortifacients such as mifepristone (RU 486), and 3) cervical ripening prior to abortion with the use of both mifepristone and prostaglandins. Technical methods of achieving termination of pregnancy continue to be similar in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Europe, although induction-abortion times are generally slower in Europe than in the United States. Surgically, dilatation and evacuation procedures continue to be more common in the United States than in other countries. The effectiveness of mifepristone is undisputed, and the recommended dose for early first-trimester termination is being compared with lower dose alternative regimens. There is additional evidence that at least in the short term, the negative psychological sequelae of abortion are infrequent and are inconsequential as a public health issue. PMID:1504270

  17. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong.

  18. [Induced abortion: a world perspective].

    PubMed

    Henshaw, S K

    1987-01-01

    This article presents current estimates of the number, rate, and proportion of abortions for all countries which make such data available. 76% of the world's population lives in countries where induced abortion is legal at least for health reasons. Abortion is legal in almost all developed countries. Most developing countries have some laws against abortion, but it is permitted at least for health reasons in the countries of 67% of the developing world's population. The other 33%--over 1 billion persons--reside mainly in subSaharan Africa, Latin America, and the most orthodox Muslim countries. By the beginning of the 20th century, abortion had been made illegal in most of the world, with rules in Africa, Asia, and Latin America similar to those in Europe and North America. Abortion legislation began to change first in a few industrialized countries prior to World War II and in Japan in 1948. Socialist European countries made abortion legal in the first trimester in the 1950s, and most of the industrialized world followed suit in the 1960s and 1970s. The worldwide trend toward relaxed abortion restrictions continues today, with governments giving varying reasons for the changes. Nearly 33 million legal abortions are estimated to be performed annually in the world, with 14 million of them in China and 11 million in the USSR. The estimated total rises to 40-60 million when illegal abortions added. On a worldwide basis some 37-55 abortions are estimated to occur for each 1000 women aged 15-44 years. There are probably 24-32 abortions per 100 pregnancies. The USSR has the highest abortion rate among developed countries, 181/1000 women aged 15-44, followed by Rumania with 91/1000, many of them illegal. The large number of abortions in some countries is due to scarcity of modern contraception. Among developing countries, China apparently has the highest rate, 62/1000 women aged 15-44. Cuba's rate is 59/1000. It is very difficult to calculate abortion rates in countries

  19. Abortion in Croatia and Slovenia.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In Slovenia abortion will continue to be available during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy as it has been since 1978. The Slovenian Constitutional Court passed this decision in December, 1991 calling the right to abortion a basic human right. T he ruling was a setback both for the government's conservative parties and the Catholic church. In Croatia, where the Catholic church is campaigning against abortion, the situation is quite different. Zagreb is full of stickers and posters with anti-abortion messages branding abortion murder and spreading inaccurate information in announcements. In 1990, there were 56,000 abortions. For every child that was born, one was aborted. The largest Croatian newspaper publicizes the Catholic view. They want pro-choice women of the volunteer group Tresnjevka to stop their struggle. The church and conservative women's groups press for inclusion of abortion in the Constitution. They are very powerful, and the fear is that might soon succeed in restricting or outlawing abortion. Tresnjevka is making efforts to organize a coordination and information center for women in Zagreb where there are 350,000 women and children refugees. Informative brochures are printed on natural healing methods in gynecology, as drugs are very scarce, and addresses for gynecological emergency care are also provided. Abortion has been legally available on demand during the 1st 10 weeks of pregnancy since 1978. Fore year Tresnjevka has worked for women, trying to raise funds from personal donations and from the government for their activities. Funds from foreign countries have never been received. At present many of the group's activities are on hold because of lack of funds, nevertheless the determination to continue fighting is alive. PMID:12285925

  20. Teenage pregnancies and abortion.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, J E

    1984-01-01

    The issue of abortion, except when it is rendered moot because the fetus endangers the life of the mother, is not really a medical issue. The physician's role is to help patients achieve and maintain their maximum potential for physical, mental, and social well-being. To accomplish this, the physician must acquire a constantly evolving database of scientific knowledge, must evaluate this information in a critical and ethical manner, and must be prepared to apply what is learned. In the realm of applied ethics, no particular religion, profession, culture, class, or sex should be thought of as having all the answers in the realm of applied ethics. This physician's actions are predicated on the belief that, to a large extent, ethical precepts reflect the broader social and economic issues of the period in which they are articulated. If this is the case, then in today's world the population explosion, the postindustrial society, the women's rights movement, inequality of access, and the ability to perform prenatal diagnosis are all factors which have molded the approach to the issue of abortion. Only the last 3 of these can in any way be considered as medical. When considering the role of a physician in dealing with the issue of abortion in the adolescent, this individual relies on the concept articulated by the World Health Association (WHA): promoting the physical, emotional, and social well-being of one's patients. Each year in the US over 1 million 15-19 year olds become pregnant, resulting in over 600,000 births. Most of these pregnancies are unintentional, yet approximately 90% of the infants are kept in the home by mothers who are ill prepared to be parents. What is most disturbing is that the pregnancy rate for the younger mother, 16 years or under, is accounting for an ever increasing percentage of the total. Studies at the Adolescent Health Center of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City as well as national studies suggest that the younger teens are more

  1. Aerodynamic results of an abort separation effects test (IA8) conducted in the NASA/ARC 14-foot transonic wind tunnel on a model (6-OTS) of the Rockwell International launch configuration integrated vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a 6-OTS 0.015-scale model. The Ames dual sting support separation rig was used to obtain grid-type data for tank-booster abort from orbiter (SSV). Freestream data were obtained for the orbiter to provide a baseline for evaluation of proximity effects. Data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.32 to 1.1, and Reynolds number per foot varying from 2.1 million to 3.9 million. Data are not presented. Because of balance failure, a very substantial portion of the test was run with a dummy balance in the tank boosters configuration.

  2. Fast Calculation of Abort Return Trajectories for Manned Missions to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senent, Juan S.

    2010-01-01

    In order to support the anytime abort requirements of a manned mission to the Moon, the vehicle abort capabilities for the translunar and circumlunar phases of the mission must be studied. Depending on the location of the abort maneuver, the maximum return time to Earth and the available propellant, two different kinds of return trajectories can be calculated: direct and fly-by. This paper presents a new method to compute these return trajectories in a deterministic and fast way without using numerical optimizers. Since no simplifications of the gravity model are required, the resulting trajectories are very accurate and can be used for both mission design and operations. This technique has been extensively used to evaluate the abort capabilities of the Orion/Altair vehicles in the Constellation program for the translunar phase of the mission.

  3. Smoking habits and spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Sandahl, B

    1989-04-01

    Smoking habits have been compared in three samples of pregnancies: (1) spontaneous abortions (n = 610); (2) induced abortions (n = 800); and (3) deliveries (n = 1337). The variables studied were, besides smoking habits, day of LMP, outcome of earlier pregnancies, maternal age, and, for the delivery sample, also diagnoses of mother and child, gestational length, sex, and birthweight. A statistical analysis of the association between smoking and the risk of having a spontaneous abortion was made. The comparisons were made with all types of intra-uterine pregnancies but spontaneous abortions, e.g., deliveries and induced abortions. The effects and consequences of that are discussed. The smoking rates according to pregnancy outcome differ among the samples. In the induced abortion sample 58% smoked compared with 50% in the spontaneous abortion sample and 44% in the delivery sample. The well-known effect of smoking on gestational length and birthweight was shown. No significant effect of smoking on the miscarriage risk was seen. The only trend was the opposite. Possible explanations for this are discussed.

  4. Republic of Ireland: abortion controversy.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The problems associated with illegal abortion dominate public discussion in Ireland. While abortion is illegal in Ireland, the Supreme Court directed in 1992 that Irish women can go to Britain for abortions when their lives are thought to be at risk. Abortion was a constant feature during the Irish Presidential election campaign in October, while a dispute about the future of a 13-year-old girl's pregnancy dominated the headlines in November. The presidential election on October 30 resulted in a victory for one of the two openly anti-choice candidates, Mary McAleese, a lawyer from Northern Ireland. With a voter turnout of 47.6%, McAleese polled 45.2% of the votes cast. Although the president may refuse to sign bills which have been passed by parliament, McAleese has said that she will sign whatever bill is placed before her, even if it liberalizes abortion law in the republic. As for the case of the 13-year-old pregnant girl, she was taken into the care of Irish health authority officials once the case was reported to the police. However, the health board, as a state agency, is prevented by Irish law from helping anyone travel abroad for abortion. The girl was eventually given leave in a judgement by a High Court Judicial Review on November 28 to travel to England for an abortion.

  5. Abort Trigger False Positive and False Negative Analysis Methodology for Threshold-Based Abort Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Cruz, Jose A.; Johnson Stephen B.; Lo, Yunnhon

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a quantitative methodology for bounding the false positive (FP) and false negative (FN) probabilities associated with a human-rated launch vehicle abort trigger (AT) that includes sensor data qualification (SDQ). In this context, an AT is a hardware and software mechanism designed to detect the existence of a specific abort condition. Also, SDQ is an algorithmic approach used to identify sensor data suspected of being corrupt so that suspect data does not adversely affect an AT's detection capability. The FP and FN methodologies presented here were developed to support estimation of the probabilities of loss of crew and loss of mission for the Space Launch System (SLS) which is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The paper provides a brief overview of system health management as being an extension of control theory; and describes how ATs and the calculation of FP and FN probabilities relate to this theory. The discussion leads to a detailed presentation of the FP and FN methodology and an example showing how the FP and FN calculations are performed. This detailed presentation includes a methodology for calculating the change in FP and FN probabilities that result from including SDQ in the AT architecture. To avoid proprietary and sensitive data issues, the example incorporates a mixture of open literature and fictitious reliability data. Results presented in the paper demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in providing quantitative estimates that bound the probability of a FP or FN abort determination.

  6. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  7. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  8. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  9. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  10. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  11. Fathers and abortion.

    PubMed

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-08-01

    I argue that it is possible for prospective mothers to wrong prospective fathers by bearing their child; and that lifting paternal liability for child support does not correct the wrong inflicted to fathers. It is therefore sometimes wrong for prospective mothers to bear a child, or so I argue here. I show that my argument for considering the legitimate interests of prospective fathers is not a unique exception to an obvious right to procreate. It is, rather, part of a growing consensus that procreation can be morally problematic and that generally talking of rights in this context might not be warranted. Finally, I argue that giving up a right to procreate does not imply nor suggest giving up on women's absolute right to abort, which I defend.

  12. [Umberto Eco and abortion].

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    The Cardinal of Milan and the linguist and writer Umberto Eco maintained a correspondence in the mid-1990s in connection with the Italian magazine ¿Liberal¿. One of the issues discussed was the conflict between belief in the value of human life and existing abortion legislation. Umberto Eco stated that he would do all in his power to dissuade a woman pregnant with his child from having an abortion, regardless of the personal cost to the parents, because the birth of a child is a miracle. He would not, however, feel capable of imposing his ethical position on anyone else. Terrible moments occur in which women have a right to make autonomous decisions concerning their bodies, their feelings, their futures. Those who disagree cite the right to life, a rather vague concept about which even atheists can be enthusiastic. The moment at which a new human being is formed has been brought to the center of Catholic theology, despite its uncertainty; the beginning of a new life may always need to be understood as a process whose end result is the newborn. Only the mother should decide at what moment the process may be interrupted. The cardinal¿s response distinguished between psychic and physical life, on the one hand, and life participating in the life of God on the other. The threshold is the moment of conception, reflecting a continuity of identity. The new being is worthy of respect. Any violation of the affection and care owed to the being can only be experienced as a profound suffering and painful laceration that may never heal. The response of Eco is unknown. PMID:12349541

  13. [Umberto Eco and abortion].

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    The Cardinal of Milan and the linguist and writer Umberto Eco maintained a correspondence in the mid-1990s in connection with the Italian magazine ¿Liberal¿. One of the issues discussed was the conflict between belief in the value of human life and existing abortion legislation. Umberto Eco stated that he would do all in his power to dissuade a woman pregnant with his child from having an abortion, regardless of the personal cost to the parents, because the birth of a child is a miracle. He would not, however, feel capable of imposing his ethical position on anyone else. Terrible moments occur in which women have a right to make autonomous decisions concerning their bodies, their feelings, their futures. Those who disagree cite the right to life, a rather vague concept about which even atheists can be enthusiastic. The moment at which a new human being is formed has been brought to the center of Catholic theology, despite its uncertainty; the beginning of a new life may always need to be understood as a process whose end result is the newborn. Only the mother should decide at what moment the process may be interrupted. The cardinal¿s response distinguished between psychic and physical life, on the one hand, and life participating in the life of God on the other. The threshold is the moment of conception, reflecting a continuity of identity. The new being is worthy of respect. Any violation of the affection and care owed to the being can only be experienced as a profound suffering and painful laceration that may never heal. The response of Eco is unknown.

  14. Psychological sequelae of induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Romans-Clarkson, S E

    1989-12-01

    This article reviews the scientific literature on the psychological sequelae of induced abortion. The methodology and results of studies carried out over the last twenty-two years are examined critically. The unanimous consensus is that abortion does not cause deleterious psychological effects. Women most likely to show subsequent problems are those who were pressured into the operation against their own wishes, either by relatives or because their pregnancy had medical or foetal contraindications. Legislation which restricts abortion causes problems for women with unwanted pregnancies and their doctors. It is also unjust, as it adversely most affects lower socio-economic class women.

  15. Abortion incidence in Cambodia, 2005 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Fetters, Tamara; Samandari, Ghazaleh

    2015-01-01

    Although Cambodia now permits elective abortion, scarcity of research on this topic means that information on abortion incidence is limited to regional estimates. This estimation model combines national survey data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) with national prospective data of abortion procedures from government health facilities, collected in 2005 and 2010, to calculate the national incidence of safe and unsafe abortion. According to DHS, the proportion of all induced abortions that took place in a health facility in the five years preceding each survey increased from almost 52% to 60%. Projecting from facility-based abortions to national estimates, the national abortion rate increased from 21 to 28 per 1000 women aged 15-44. The abortion ratio also increased from 19 to 28 per 100 live births. This research quantifies an increase in safely induced abortions in Cambodia and provides a deeper understanding of induced abortion trends in Cambodia.

  16. Launch Abort System Pathfinder Arrival

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Orion Launch Abort System, or LAS, pathfinder returned home to NASA Langley on Oct. 18 on its way to NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The hardware was built at Langley and was used in preparation f...

  17. Abortion: the antithesis of womanhood?

    PubMed

    Timpson, J

    1996-04-01

    The debate regarding the practice and role of abortion has been an enduring and problematic area of discourse within the nursing literature, with a tendency towards a polarized and inevitably simplistic analysis of what, for many practitioners, women and families, remains a highly complex and morally fraught concept. This paper attempts to explore the concept of abortion from within a feminist epistemology, to present a review of the literature as regards women's reproductive health and responsibilities, and thereby to contribute to the process of better understanding the role of abortion within contemporary health care practice. In order to facilitate the study it has been necessary to explore the wide spectrum of historical, philosophical, legal, moral and political imperatives pertaining to the meaning of abortion as represented within contemporary society, not only in relation to women and their reproductive health, but to feminism, women's well-being and self-determinism per se. PMID:8675897

  18. Abortion and the human animal.

    PubMed

    Tollefsen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    I discuss three topics. First, there is a philosophical connecting thread between several recent trends in the abortion discussion, namely, the issue of our animal nature, and physical embodiment. The philosophical name given to the position that you and I are essentially human animals is "animalism." In Section II of this paper, I argue that animalism provides a unifying theme to recent discussions of abortion. In Section III, I discuss what we do not find among recent trends in the abortion discussion, namely "the right to privacy." I suggest some reasons why the right to privacy is conspicuous by its absence. Finally, I address Patrick Lee's claim that the evil of abortion involves "the moral deterioration that the act brings to those who are complicit in it, and to the culture that fosters it."

  19. The Development of Instruments to Measure Attitudes toward Abortion and Knowledge of Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1976-01-01

    This study developed an abortion attitude scale and abortion knowledge inventory that may be utilized by health educators, counselors, and researchers for assessing attitudes toward abortion and knowledge about it. (SK)

  20. Participation of nurses in abortions.

    PubMed

    Neustatter, P L

    1980-11-29

    Doctors for a Woman's Choice on Abortion would agree with 1 point in Lord Denning's ruling on the role of nurses in abortions induced by (PGS) prostaglandins (November 15, p. 1091). The nurse should not be doing a doctor's job, as Lord Denning indicated, and we sympathize with any nurse who is doing so (though the 1967 Abortion Act allows any nurse to abstain, on grounds of conscience). However, the ruling that nurses are not legally covered to participate in any way with the "procuring of a miscarriage" (using terminology of the 1861 Offenses against the Persons Act upon which the ruling is based) does not require a radical change in the practice of late abortions (constituting only 7% of the terminations) or any change in the law. PG abortion can be done without a nurse. With the extraamniotic technique, a very cheap pump can be used to give subsequent doses of the PG (a function normally performed by a nurse) through the catheter left inserted through the cervix after the 1st dose has been given by the doctor. Alternatively, the intraamniotic method can be used, where PG is instilled into the amniotic sac via a needle passed through the abdominal wall. This normally requires only 1 dose, given by the doctor. Rarely are subsequent doses needed; however they could be given by the doctor with very little addition to his or her workload. While the fact that PG abortion can be done without nurses is not realized, late abortion will be restricted, a situation which is entirely deplorable. Also deplorable are the comments of an antiabortion nature made by Lord Denning, over and above the legal ruling in his jurisdiction to make. His ruling, furthermore, seems to have been sufficiently confused for the Department of Health to withdraw its circular on abortion and await an interpretation before issuing another. PMID:6107800

  1. [Induced abortion: pro and con].

    PubMed

    Balić, Adem; Balić, Devleta; Habibović, A; Adzajlić, A

    2003-01-01

    Induced abortion like a method of birth control is the most unpopular method but it is a choice of great deal women especially in our environment. In connection with very loud demands for sharpened the low of pregnancy interrupting, many authors analyse methods, complications and risk groups of women, its acceptability like a method of family planning. At the end they give conclusion with some concrete suggestions and the aim to reduce the number of induced abortions. PMID:14528715

  2. Genetics, amniocentesis, and abortion.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, K

    1984-01-01

    At this time a rather large number of congenital abnormalities still occur. About 2-3% of pregnancies will result in children with major congenital abnormalities that cannot be detected prenatally. Yet, with the availability of prenatal diagnosis for an ever increasing number of genetic problems and, more recently, for developmental problems as well, a new option was offered to couples at risk when they took the risk of pregnancy: finding out whether the fetus was abnormal. An early argument regarding the ethics of this option was formulated by Dan Callahan, director of the Hastings Institute for Ethics, Society and the Life Sciences, when he indicated the need to be careful about the term "option." A need exists to be careful about societal pressures in favor of the new medical options--on, for example, a pregnant woman who is over 35 and does not get a prenatal diagnosis; or on a woman carrying a Down's syndrome child identified by prenatal diagnosis not to have an abortion. This was the 1st specter raised when prenatal diagnosis was introduced. The most common indication for amniocentesis is the risk of chromosomal abnormalities. The risk of discovering a chromosomal abnormality by amniocentesis is about double the risk at birth because a number of chromosomally abnormal fetuses are lost late in the 2nd trimester by spontaneous abortion. The age cutoff at 35 raises an immediate ethical question: since the total number of births to women over age 35 seems to be increasing, and at the same time a greater and greater percentage of children with Down's syndrome are born to women under age 35, the question arises as to whether amniocentesis should be done on all pregnancies, and whether all births with Down's syndrome should be selectively aborted or avoided. Amniocentesis in all pregnancies is impractical at this time from the technological and the cost perspective, but the ethical question should be raised. Among the X-linked disorders, 1 group cannot be

  3. Safe abortion: a woman's right.

    PubMed

    Sangala, Vanessa

    2005-07-01

    Complications of induced abortion sadly remain significant causes of maternal mortality and morbidity around the world, but only in countries that do not provide access to safe abortion services. This article presents a brief account of how high maternal mortality from induced abortion became history in the UK and the dire consequences to women's health that unsafe abortion still has in many countries of the world. It gives a brief overview of the methods available to evacuate the uterus, with particular reference to manual vacuum aspiration. The status of the law in different countries is discussed, together with the need for health professionals to interpret repressive laws in ways that enables them to care for women who seek their help. Safe abortion services are cost effective, essential services for women. Men are part and parcel of the reason women resort to terminating a pregnancy, and, together with the countless children whose lives are dependent on a healthy caring mother, are also beneficiaries of safe abortion services. There can be no excuse for continuing to deny these services to so many women around the world.

  4. Abortion and infertility in Russia.

    PubMed

    Kulakov, V I

    1995-03-01

    The exceptionally high rate of induced abortion in Russia (204/100 live births in 1991) and of abortion-related genital tract infection and infertility implies an urgent need for both the prevention of unwanted pregnancy and less invasive abortion techniques. Vacuum aspiration is gradually replacing curettage as the abortion method of choice for first-trimester abortions, and research is being conducted on pharmacologic abortion involving prostaglandins in combination with RU-486. Infertility, which affects 10-15% of married Russian couples, accounts for 50% of visits to the largest gynecologic hospitals. 92% of women and 49% of men in couples with impaired fertility exhibit pathology of the reproductive system, primarily prior inflammatory morbidity of the genitalia. The use of surgery to correct these impairments is largely unsuccessful, especially when there has been prior treatment with the hydroturbation method. The Federal Family Planning Program for 1993-97 reflects increased awareness of the problem; among its goals are the creation of state and social structures for a family planning service, mass media campaigns, the preparation of educational materials on the avoidance of unwanted pregnancy, and staff training in sex education and family planning.

  5. A Proposed Ascent Abort Flight Test for the Max Launch Abort System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, Paul V.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Starr, Brett R.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center initiated the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Project to investigate alternate crew escape system concepts that eliminate the conventional launch escape tower by integrating the escape system into an aerodynamic fairing that fully encapsulates the crew capsule and smoothly integrates with the launch vehicle. This paper proposes an ascent abort flight test for an all-propulsive towerless escape system concept that is actively controlled and sized to accommodate the Orion Crew Module. The goal of the flight test is to demonstrate a high dynamic pressure escape and to characterize jet interaction effects during operation of the attitude control thrusters at transonic and supersonic conditions. The flight-test vehicle is delivered to the required test conditions by a booster configuration selected to meet cost, manufacturability, and operability objectives. Data return is augmented through judicious design of the boost trajectory, which is optimized to obtain data at a range of relevant points, rather than just a single flight condition. Secondary flight objectives are included after the escape to obtain aerodynamic damping data for the crew module and to perform a high-altitude contingency deployment of the drogue parachutes. Both 3- and 6-degree-of-freedom trajectory simulation results are presented that establish concept feasibility, and a Monte Carlo uncertainty assessment is performed to provide confidence that test objectives can be met.

  6. Aeroacoustics of Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta

    2014-01-01

    While for airplanes the subject of aeroacoustics is associated with community noise, for space vehicles it is associated with vibro-acoustics and structural dynamics. Surface pressure fluctuations encountered during launch and travel through lower part of the atmosphere create intense vibro-acoustics environment for the payload, electronics, navigational equipment, and a large number of subsystems. All of these components have to be designed and tested for flight-certification. This presentation will cover all three major sources encountered in manned and unmanned space vehicles: launch acoustics, ascent acoustics and abort acoustics. Launch pads employ elaborate acoustic suppression systems to mitigate the ignition pressure waves and rocket plume generated noise during the early part of the liftoff. Recently we have used large microphone arrays to identify the noise sources during liftoff and found that the standard model by Eldred and Jones (NASA SP-8072) to be grossly inadequate. As the vehicle speeds up and reaches transonic speed in relatively denser part of the atmosphere, various shock waves and flow separation events create unsteady pressure fluctuations that can lead to high vibration environment, and occasional coupling with the structural modes, which may lead to buffet. Examples of wind tunnel tests and computational simulations to optimize the outer mold line to quantify and reduce the surface pressure fluctuations will be presented. Finally, a manned space vehicle needs to be designed for crew safety during malfunctioning of the primary rocket vehicle. This brings the subject of acoustic environment during abort. For NASAs Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), abort will be performed by lighting rocket motors atop the crew module. The severe aeroacoustics environments during various abort scenarios were measured for the first time by using hot helium to simulate rocket plumes in the Ames unitary plan wind tunnels. Various considerations used for the

  7. Air Data Boom System Development for the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Cox, Jeff; Bondurant, Robert; Dupont, Ron; ODonnell, Louise; Vellines, Wesley, IV; Johnston, William M.; Cagle, Christopher M.; Schuster, David M.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Newman, John A.; Tyler, Erik D.; Sterling, William J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) chartered the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) to demonstrate an alternate launch abort concept as risk mitigation for the Orion project's baseline "tower" design. On July 8, 2009, a full scale and passively, aerodynamically stabilized MLAS launch abort demonstrator was successfully launched from Wallops Flight Facility following nearly two years of development work on the launch abort concept: from a napkin sketch to a flight demonstration of the full-scale flight test vehicle. The MLAS flight test vehicle was instrumented with a suite of aerodynamic sensors. The purpose was to obtain sufficient data to demonstrate that the vehicle demonstrated the behavior predicted by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis and wind tunnel testing. This paper describes development of the Air Data Boom (ADB) component of the aerodynamic sensor suite.

  8. Simulation Environment for Orion Launch Abort System Control Design Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMinn, J. Dana; Jackson, E. Bruce; Christhilf, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The development and use of an interactive environment to perform control system design and analysis of the proposed Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort System is described. The environment, built using a commercial dynamic systems design package, includes use of an open-source configuration control software tool and a collaborative wiki to coordinate between the simulation developers, control law developers and users. A method for switching between multiple candidate control laws and vehicle configurations is described. Aerodynamic models, especially in a development program, change rapidly, so a means for automating the implementation of new aerodynamic models is described.

  9. Abortion restrictions may undermine welfare reform.

    PubMed

    1999-02-01

    Results from a study conducted by Pennsylvania State University's Population Research Institute indicate that more restrictive abortion laws in the US may have led to an increase in the number of single mothers, even given new welfare reform laws which make unmarried childbearing more costly. Study findings are based upon county rates of female-headed families from the 1980 and 1990 censuses, excluding those in Alaska and Hawaii. By making unmarried childbearing more costly, welfare reform has sparked a demand for abortion, while at the same time abortion laws have restricted access to abortion. An increasing number of unmarried women on welfare have therefore chosen childbearing over abortion. The study found a decline in the number of abortions in counties where abortion laws had become more strict. That states can now require abortion providers to notify the parents of minors who have abortions, to restrict Medicaid funding for abortions, and to establish 24-hour waiting periods has made abortion either a difficult or impossible option for some women. These restrictive abortion laws and geographic barriers to abortion have discouraged women from undergoing the procedure, increasing the number of female-headed families and single mothers. The public policy goal of reducing unmarried childbearing and female-headed families is being undermined by the growing geographic and legal barriers designed to discourage abortion. PMID:12348920

  10. Repeat abortions in New York City, 2010.

    PubMed

    Toprani, Amita; Cadwell, Betsy L; Li, Wenhui; Sackoff, Judith; Greene, Carolyn; Begier, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to describe factors associated with the number of past abortions obtained by New York City (NYC) abortion patients in 2010. We calculated rates of first and repeat abortion by age, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood-level poverty and the mean number of self-reported past abortions by age, race/ethnicity, neighborhood-level poverty, number of living children, education, payment method, marital status, and nativity. We used negative binomial regression to predict number of past abortions by patient characteristics. Of the 76,614 abortions reported for NYC residents in 2010, 57% were repeat abortions. Repeat abortions comprised >50% of total abortions among the majority of sociodemographic groups we examined. Overall, mean number of past abortions was 1.3. Mean number of past abortions was higher for women aged 30-34 years (1.77), women with ≥5 children (2.50), and black non-Hispanic women (1.52). After multivariable regression, age, race/ethnicity, and number of children were the strongest predictors of number of past abortions. This analysis demonstrates that, although socioeconomic disparities exist, all abortion patients are at high risk for repeat unintended pregnancy and abortion. PMID:25779755

  11. Europe's abortion wars: womb for debate.

    PubMed

    Blinken, A J

    1991-01-01

    As Europe edges toward some sort of unity, the volatile abortion debate has begun to spill across national boundaries. Reflecting the continent's religious and cultural diversity, abortion laws throughout Europe vary widely. Holland and Sweden have the most liberal abortion laws. The former allows abortion on demand, while the later permits abortion until the 18th week -- and possibly up until term, if the National Health Bureau gives permission. Britain, France, and Belgium have also adopted liberal abortion laws. Other nations, however, have more conservative laws. Since 1983, Ireland has banned abortion entirely. Spain allows abortion only in cases of rape, malformed fetuses, or when the mother's life is in danger. Many countries are also experiencing bitter debates over abortion. Czechoslovakia's liberal abortion law has come under increasing pressure, and in Poland, bishops and legislators have feuded over the legality of abortion. The move towards unification has only intensified these debates. Germany is currently without a national abortion law, as the former East Germany still enjoys a more liberal abortion law than West Germany. Differences over abortion laws have led to what is know in Europe as abortion shipping. Every year, an estimated 15,000 Irish women travel to England, some 7,000 German women go to Holland, and some 3,000 French women travel to England -- all seeking to take advantage of another country's abortion law. Some Europeans have begun to look for continent-wide laws on abortion. Recently, an Irish group argued against its country's law before the European court of Justice. Right-to-life groups have also fought to establish continent-wide restrictions. So far, it seems unlikely that Europe will reach an agreement on the issue of abortion.

  12. Orion Launch Abort System Performance on Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, R.; Davidson, J.; Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    This paper will present an overview of the flight test objectives and performance of the Orion Launch Abort System during Exploration Flight Test-1. Exploration Flight Test-1, the first flight test of the Orion spacecraft, was managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. This flight test was a two-orbit, high-apogee, high-energy entry, low-inclination test mission used to validate and test systems critical to crew safety. This test included the first flight test of the Launch Abort System preforming Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. NASA is currently designing and testing the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Orion will serve as NASA's new exploration vehicle to carry astronauts to deep space destinations and safely return them to earth. The Orion spacecraft is composed of four main elements: the Launch Abort System, the Crew Module, the Service Module, and the Spacecraft Adapter (Fig. 1). The Launch Abort System (LAS) provides two functions; during nominal launches, the LAS provides protection for the Crew Module from atmospheric loads and heating during first stage flight and during emergencies provides a reliable abort capability for aborts that occur within the atmosphere. The Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) consists of an Abort Motor to provide the abort separation from the Launch Vehicle, an Attitude Control Motor to provide attitude and rate control, and a Jettison Motor for crew module to LAS separation (Fig. 2). The jettison motor is used during a nominal launch to separate the LAS from the Launch Vehicle (LV) early in the flight of the second stage when it is no longer needed for aborts and at the end of an LAS abort sequence to enable deployment of the crew module's Landing Recovery System. The LAS also provides a Boost Protective Cover fairing that shields the crew module from debris and the aero-thermal environment during ascent. Although the

  13. Contemporary issues for spontaneous abortion. Does recurrent abortion exist?

    PubMed

    Reindollar, R H

    2000-09-01

    Most of the time, spontaneous abortion is a random event and represents the natural selection process. Although a recurrent factor may be present and may cause one or more abortions for a given couple, such instances are rare. Well-substantiated causes include parental chromosomal abnormalities (e.g., translocation), antiphospholipid syndrome, PCOD, and maternal age greater than 40 years. Müllerian duplication defects are most likely a cause of pregnancy loss for some women. A growing body of evidence refutes the role of corpus luteum defect as a common cause of recurrent abortion. Other causes are numerically infrequent in occurrence. It is likely that cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption contribute to pregnancy wastage. Although some therapies for the causes listed herein have been proven effective by randomized controlled trials, most have not. Given the excellent outcome demonstrated for most couples with unexplained recurrent abortion in the absence of treatment, it is difficult to recommend unproven therapies, especially if they are invasive and expensive. Instead of examining the environment in which pregnancy has occurred or been planned, clinicians have simply counted the number of spontaneous abortions among couples in an attempt to determine who should be evaluated. The former approach would seem most appropriate and proactive.

  14. Abortion epidemic in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Viel, B

    1983-05-01

    Recent surveys have shown that 3.4 million illegal abortions may be taking place in the Latin American countries every year, with a rate of around 45/1000 women of childbearing age. Yet only in Cuba can women have abortion on demand. In the other countries the penalty for the abortionist and the client is a prison sentence. The only way of measuring the frequency of abortion is through the numbers of women entering hospitals for treatment of postabortion complication, but not all countries publish hospitals statistics that are reliable. Surveys in Chile and Colombia for 1974 show a rate of 11.7-17.9/1000 women of fertile age undergoing illegal abortions, with only 1/3 resulting in complications. The law is not strictly enforced in these countries because the number of people that will have to be prosecuted is too large and because there is no place to care for the young children of women who will be prosecuted. Yet the abortion death rate (38% of total maternal deaths) is so high that a new policy must be drawn up, especially since women who have normal deliveries are sent home earlier to make room for those with abortion complications, resulting in a high infant mortality rate. In addition the rate of pregnancies among adolescents is very high due to the permissive social atmosphere combined with a lack of sex education in the schools. Studies that would allow international comparisons to show ways to prevent the consequences of illegal abortions are needed.

  15. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    PubMed

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited. PMID:6913282

  16. [Induced abortion in China: problems and interventions].

    PubMed

    Wu, Shang-chun; Qiu, Hong-yan

    2010-10-01

    Pooled literatures showed that the induced abortion in China faces many problems:the number of induced abortion remains large; most cases are young and nulliparity women; the frequency of abortion is high; and the interval between one and another abortion is short. Health promotion strategies should be applied to address these problems. It is important to increase the population's awareness of contraception,especially among nulliparity and migrant populations. Routine and effective contraceptive methods should be recommended and emphasized during induced abortion and delivery to lower the rate of induced abortion.

  17. Abortion applicants in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Henker, F O

    1973-03-01

    The article reports upon the characteristics of 300 abortion applicants in Arkansas manifesting significant stress from unwanted pregnancy between May 1, 1970 and June 30, 1971. The sample is limited by the fact that all of these women had been willing to seek medical aid. Patients ranged from ages 13-47, 131 of them ages 17-21. 35% had had some college education; another 29% were high school graduates. 50.6%, 20.6%, and 27.3% were single, divorced, and married, respectively. 59.6% of the patients were primiparas. 18.3%, 9.6%, and 12.3% were classified as being neurotic, having psychophysiologic tendencies (gastrointestinal problems, obesity, chronic headaches), and having sociopathic features (passive-aggressive, frankly rebellious, delinquent, antisocial, alcoholic), respectively. 12 women had noticeable schizoid features; 4 women had mildly active schizophrenia. Fathers of the women were usually blue-collar workers (55.3%) or white-collar workers (24.6%). The most frequent ordinal sibling position among the women was oldest child (38%). Parental instability (1 or both parents lost through death, divorce, father usually away working, chronic alcoholism, etc.) was reported by 39.6% of the patients. Patients' attitudes toward the unwanted pregnancy included dislike of inexpediency of the situation (82.6%), self-depreciation (55.6%), and aversion (28.6%). Precipitated psychiatric disorders were for the greatest part mild. Manifesting symptoms included depression (66.7%), anxiety (21%), and mixed anxiety and depression (12.2%). Suicidal threats and gestures were made by 22 and 8 patients, respectively. In summary, the study reveals a group of predominantly Caucasian women from unstable, middle-class urban families who were going through an adjustment reaction to adolescence or adult life.

  18. Abortion and the law: the Supreme Court, privacy, and abortion.

    PubMed

    Marsh, F H

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the impact of the continuing politicization of the abortion issue in the US on the rights of women and on the emerging concept of fetal rights. The introduction 1) attributes the "final and total politicization" of a woman's right to control her reproduction to the "undue burden" standard introduced by the Supreme Court in its 1992 Casey decision and 2) claims that, if unchecked, the concept of fetal rights may give the state's interest in protecting potential life supremacy over women's rights. The next section presents an in-depth discussion of the politicization of the right to abortion that covers such topics as how the courts before Casey became the forum for debating abortion policy, how the "undue burden" standard fails to set definite parameters of acceptable state behavior, how the Casey decision in effect abandons the trimester-based framework of reference provided in Roe vs. Wade, how Casey allows states to subtly coerce women seeking abortions, how the Casey decision failed to reduce the intense politicization of abortion, and how the court failed to protect individual rights to health care and abortion funding from states. Part 3 of the article begins its exploration of the concept of "fetal rights" with a sketch of the history of this concept in the US courts starting in 1884 when damages for miscarriage were denied. Ways in which fetal rights compete with the rights of a pregnant woman are described, the Supreme Court is blamed for allowing states to develop this concept, and issues of patient confidentiality versus reporting requirements are considered. It is concluded that the Supreme Court will have to act to limit fetal rights.

  19. The Road to Pad Abort 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces, N.M., engineers and technicians are preparing for the Pad Abort 1 flight test. The Launch Abort System is a sophisticated new rocket tower designed t...

  20. Abortion: the right to an argument.

    PubMed

    Meilaender, G

    1989-01-01

    Our moral puzzles about abortion will not be resolved by resort to compromise positions and adoption of middle ground, for abortion concerns how we understand ourselves as a people and how we define membership in this community. PMID:2606652

  1. Roe v. Wade. On abortion.

    PubMed

    French, M

    1998-01-01

    In ancient Assyria, fathers held the right of life or death over their newborn infants, but women found to have performed an abortion on themselves or others were impaled and denied burial. This punishment was otherwise reserved for crimes against the state such as high treason or assault on the king. Likewise, in Babylon if a wife arranged her husband's death so that she could marry another man, she was convicted of treason and impaled or crucified. Thus, ancient thought paralleled the husband-wife relationship with that of the state-subject. The small group of men who generally dominate institutions such as the state, the church, or a corporation have a primary demand for obedience and deference to their supreme authority from their underlings. These groups did not condemn abortion because it involved questions of life or death. After all, many states have permitted infanticide, many still sanction execution, and all are willing to sacrifice the lives of their soldiers in war. Patriarchs condemn abortion because they consider it treasonous for a woman to assert the right to use her own judgement and to treat her body as if it were her own and not the property of her husband. This denies the supremacy of the male, which is the first principle of patriarchs. Because patriarchal institutions depend upon the subjection of women, women's bodies become important markers in the struggle for human freedom. This explains why patriarchal institutions in the US have continuously attacked women's right to abortion by fragmenting the statute allowing abortion and attempting to render the fragments illegal. While US women have won other rights that can be protected legally, women require the right to abortion in order to possess the right to physical integrity and to be able to undo what men have done to them. Otherwise, men would be able to create a set-back in women's human rights by forcing women into motherhood.

  2. SUICIDE, PSYCHIATRISTS AND THERAPEUTIC ABORTION.

    PubMed

    ROSENBERG, A J; SILVER, E

    1965-06-01

    Pressures for interruption of pregnancy by therapeutic abortion constantly increase, both for liberalization of laws and for interpreting existing law more broadly. There are wide variations and inconsistencies in psychiatric attitudes and practices about therapeutic abortion. Follow-up patient data are scant, but necessary. Results of questionnaires indicate that such data can be obtained, and convey the impression that patients seem to manage after pregnancy, regardless of outcome, much as they had before pregnancy. This study indicates that the incidence of suicide in pregnant women is approximately one-sixth that of the rate for non-pregnant women in comparable age groups, implying that perhaps pregnancy has a psychically protective role.

  3. Improving abortion care in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Bradley, J; Sikazwe, N; Healy, J

    1991-01-01

    In this commentary, the impact of the introduction of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) for incomplete abortion patients and for early uterine evacuation is discussed for the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. This 3-year training and service delivery program was begun in 1988 after it was clear that 15% of maternal deaths were due to illegally induced abortion. The prior procedure of dilation and curettage (D and C) required use of the main operating room and general anesthesia, which resulted in severe congestion and treatment delays. As a result of the new MVA procedure, congestion has decreased substantially, treatment is safer and more timely, and the staff's ability to provide abortions has increased. Family planning counseling is provided to postabortion patients in a more thorough fashion, and the savings in time has improved the quality of patient-staff interactions. Specifically, the patient flow has improved from a 12-hour wait to a 4-6 hour wait and rarely requires overnight hospitalization. The demand for the main operating room had decreased which frees space, time, and commodities for other gynecological treatment. The shorter procedure and release time means a minimal loss of earnings and productivity, and allows for greater privacy in explaining absences to families, schools, or employers. The improved quality of are is reflected in the figures for number treated, i.e., in 1989, 74% were treated with MVA for incomplete abortion 12 weeks and pregnancy termination 8 weeks compared with 26% treated with D and C. In 1990, the figures were 86% with MVA and 14% with D and C. The likelihood of complications from hemorrhage and sepsis have also been reduced. The MVA procedure is also less traumatic for the patient. The increased access to safe legal abortion services is reflected in the ratio of induced to incomplete abortions between 1988-1990 (1:25 to 1:5). Family planning counseling is provided by a full-time counselor who counsels preabortion

  4. Combatting the "partial-birth abortion" myth.

    PubMed

    1998-11-01

    Despite the efforts of pro-choice activists in the US to point out the critical differences between so-called "partial-birth abortions" and late-term abortions, the public remains confused about the issue. Proposed federal legislation banning "partial-birth abortions" excludes any language defining late-term abortions (time period or fetal viability). Thus, such a ban would apply to any abortion at any stage of pregnancy. Only the states of Kansas and Utah have passed legislation that limit the ban to late-term abortions. The term "partial-birth abortion" also has no independent meaning: it is not a medical term nor does it refer to a medical procedure. The correct term, "intact dilation and extraction," is never mentioned in most proposed legislation, much of which is written in broad enough language to outlaw all abortions. Most states that passed bans on "partial-birth abortions," in fact, had previously banned late-term abortions. In Georgia, a court order revised a "partial-birth abortion" law by limiting it to post-viability dilation and extraction and insisting on exceptions to protect the pregnant women's life and health. The courts have severely limited or enjoined "partial-birth abortion" legislation in 19 of the 20 states where challenges were mounted. Because an educated public overwhelmingly rejects the bans, reproductive rights activists are attempting to educate the public despite the inability or unwillingness of the media to make the crucial distinction. PMID:12294330

  5. Combatting the "partial-birth abortion" myth.

    PubMed

    1998-11-01

    Despite the efforts of pro-choice activists in the US to point out the critical differences between so-called "partial-birth abortions" and late-term abortions, the public remains confused about the issue. Proposed federal legislation banning "partial-birth abortions" excludes any language defining late-term abortions (time period or fetal viability). Thus, such a ban would apply to any abortion at any stage of pregnancy. Only the states of Kansas and Utah have passed legislation that limit the ban to late-term abortions. The term "partial-birth abortion" also has no independent meaning: it is not a medical term nor does it refer to a medical procedure. The correct term, "intact dilation and extraction," is never mentioned in most proposed legislation, much of which is written in broad enough language to outlaw all abortions. Most states that passed bans on "partial-birth abortions," in fact, had previously banned late-term abortions. In Georgia, a court order revised a "partial-birth abortion" law by limiting it to post-viability dilation and extraction and insisting on exceptions to protect the pregnant women's life and health. The courts have severely limited or enjoined "partial-birth abortion" legislation in 19 of the 20 states where challenges were mounted. Because an educated public overwhelmingly rejects the bans, reproductive rights activists are attempting to educate the public despite the inability or unwillingness of the media to make the crucial distinction.

  6. Abortion, Moral Maturity and Civic Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Maggie Jones; Hall, Megan Williams

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to rhetoric, moral reasonings scholarship, and journalism scholarship by examining public rhetoric on abortion and American popular media coverage (1940s to 1990s). Finds that the feminine means of moral reasoning has emerged into the foreground of discourse on abortion. Compares emergence of a common-ground rhetoric on abortion with a…

  7. [[Prevalence of induced abortion in Korea

    PubMed

    Lim, J; Lee, S; Bae, H

    1989-07-01

    The authors analyze recent trends in the prevalence of induced abortions in South Korea. They attempt to determine motivations for abortion, examine its side effects, and investigate the impact of induced abortions on infertility. The focus is on creating recommendations for population policy and maternal and child health care. Data are from the 1988 Korean National Fertility and Family Health Survey. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  8. Abortion in Adolescence: The Ethical Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silber, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    This essay, addressed to medical personnel and counselors, presents a bioethical approach to adolescent abortion. Topics include an overview of abortion in the U.S., related medical issues, data pertinent to adolescent abortions, ethical theory, adolescent moral development, and moral aspects of treatment of adolescents. (Author/DB)

  9. Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

  10. Orientation toward Abortion: Guilt or Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allgeier, A.R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Students (N=118) were classified as pro-choice, anti-abortion, or mixed on the basis of their responses to 10 fictitious case histories of women who requested abortion. Attitudinal differences are discussed in the context of the public controversy over abortion. (Author/CM)

  11. Abortion: a legal and public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Kunins, H; Rosenfield, A

    1991-01-01

    Abortion is an issue of great public concern and debate. The majority of US citizens support a woman's right to choose, but it has not always been that way. Abortion was made legal in 1973 but women have been abortions for hundreds of years before that. The history of abortion is therefore a history of women breaking the law and subjecting themselves to great physical and social risk. Abortion law in the US has been changed mostly by the Supreme Court. After Roe v Wade (1973) there were many other cases brought before the Court involving federal and state funding of abortion, father's rights, parental consent for minors, and many other finer points of law and policy regarding abortion. Abortion is commonly practiced in many developing countries including the ones where it is illegal. The data collected from these countries gives researchers here a great deal of information on the clinical and sociological aspects of abortion. Medical technology has broadened the scope of abortion by introducing medication to induce abortion such as RU486. Abortion is no longer an exclusively surgical procedure. Since it can performed now with a pill it will be almost impossible to regulate it as strictly as before.

  12. Sociology and abortion: legacies and strategies.

    PubMed

    Imber, J B

    1979-11-01

    A survey essay sees the sociological view of abortion practice in 1979 appearing as a dense web of philosophical conundrums and at times violent political strategies; with abortion still not typically seen as 1 form of birth control among others. Attention is called to the variety of approaches to abortion in books and articles about its medical, demographic, religious, historical, political, philosophical, psychological, practical, and personal aspects. These include: James C. Mohr's Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy 1800-1900; Abortion, by Potts, Diggory, and Peel; Abortion in Psychosocial Perspective: Trends in Transnational Research, edited by Davis, Friedman, Van der Tak, and Seville; Linda Francke's The Ambivalence of Abortion; Mary K. Zimmerman's Passage Through Abortion: The Personal and Social Reality of Women's Experiences; Abortion Politics: The Hawaii Experience, by Steinhoff and Diamond; John Connery's Abortion: the Development of the Roman Catholic Perspective; Abortion: New Directions for Policy Studies, by Manier, Liu, and Solomon; and Harry Harris' Prenatal Diagnosis and Selective Abortion.

  13. Storming wombs and Waco: how the anti-abortion and militia movements converge.

    PubMed

    Dubowski, S

    1996-10-01

    This study describes how violent anti-abortion militancy and "Christian Patriot" militia (unregulated private army) activity in the US converge. "Christian Patriots" reject all laws except the US Constitution and its first ten amendments and claim that Anglo-Saxon Christian men are the only true citizens. The convergence of this group with anti-abortion groups can be seen by the fact that militia leaders have been arrested for blocking women's health centers, and anti-abortion leaders have been linked to militia and white supremacist groups. This anti-abortion/militia link has a great potential for violence. The two groups also rallied around standoffs between federal agents and extremist groups such as that which occurred in Waco, Texas. The mainstreaming of militias is seen to be a relatively new phenomenon, and people like Larry Pratt, executive director of Gun Owners of America, are identified as "almost a shadow congressman" in the US. Pratt's organization contributed to 46 Republican campaigns in 1994 and bankrolled Operation Rescue when federal agents seized the organization's bank accounts for failure to pay a court-ordered fine. A chart illustrates the names, state, primary affiliation, secondary affiliations, and actions or statements of 22 of the individuals involved in militias and anti-abortion efforts. It is also noted that anti-abortion militants use private Christian schools as vehicles to spread their views, and the increasing threat to abortion providers of militia violence is reviewed. It is concluded that abortion is a "bridge" issue which allows religious political extremist factions to recruit members. Abortion is being used as a catalyst in the struggle of these white supremacists to replace democracy with a theocracy which seeks to enforce idiosyncratic versions of God's law. PMID:12320460

  14. Storming wombs and Waco: how the anti-abortion and militia movements converge.

    PubMed

    Dubowski, S

    1996-10-01

    This study describes how violent anti-abortion militancy and "Christian Patriot" militia (unregulated private army) activity in the US converge. "Christian Patriots" reject all laws except the US Constitution and its first ten amendments and claim that Anglo-Saxon Christian men are the only true citizens. The convergence of this group with anti-abortion groups can be seen by the fact that militia leaders have been arrested for blocking women's health centers, and anti-abortion leaders have been linked to militia and white supremacist groups. This anti-abortion/militia link has a great potential for violence. The two groups also rallied around standoffs between federal agents and extremist groups such as that which occurred in Waco, Texas. The mainstreaming of militias is seen to be a relatively new phenomenon, and people like Larry Pratt, executive director of Gun Owners of America, are identified as "almost a shadow congressman" in the US. Pratt's organization contributed to 46 Republican campaigns in 1994 and bankrolled Operation Rescue when federal agents seized the organization's bank accounts for failure to pay a court-ordered fine. A chart illustrates the names, state, primary affiliation, secondary affiliations, and actions or statements of 22 of the individuals involved in militias and anti-abortion efforts. It is also noted that anti-abortion militants use private Christian schools as vehicles to spread their views, and the increasing threat to abortion providers of militia violence is reviewed. It is concluded that abortion is a "bridge" issue which allows religious political extremist factions to recruit members. Abortion is being used as a catalyst in the struggle of these white supremacists to replace democracy with a theocracy which seeks to enforce idiosyncratic versions of God's law.

  15. Launch-pad abort capabilities of the HL-20 lifting body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Rivers, Robert A.; Chowdhry, Rajiv S.; Ragsdale, W. A.; Geyer, David W.

    1994-01-01

    The capability of the HL-20 lifting body to perform an abort maneuver from the launch pad to a horizontal landing was studied. The study involved both piloted and batch simulation models of the vehicle. A point-mass model of the vehicle was used for trajectory optimization studies. The piloted simulation was performed in the Langley Visual/Motion Simulator in the fixed-base mode. A candidate maneuver was developed and refined for the worst-case launch-pad-to-landing-site geometry with an iterative procedure of off-line maneuver analysis followed by piloted evaluations and heuristic improvements to the candidate maneuver. The resulting maneuver demonstrates the launch-site abort capability of the HL-20 and dictates requirements for nominal abort-motor performance. The sensitivity of the maneuver to variations in several design parameters was documented.

  16. A request for an abortion.

    PubMed

    Walker, A; Marsden, S; Rubin, P

    1990-12-01

    How to manage to abortion request by a hypothetical 30-year old married woman who states the she fears a deformed child because of taking an antibiotic combination, cotrimoxazole, containing trimethoprim is discussed by 3 physicians. The 1st doctor would confirm pregnancy with an exam and a laboratory test, schedule another consultation for counseling, and schedule a pelvic ultrasound if she decides to carry the pregnancy. If she wants an abortion, the physician would counsel her at length about her marriage and the emotional consequences of abortion. The 2nd physician would advise her that fetal abnormality from trimethoprim has not been reported in women. Since this doctor is personally opposed to abortion, she would refer the patient to another doctor to make the arrangements, and counsel her again afterward. The 3rd physician added the advice that 1-2% of all U.K. births are abnormal in some way. He would take steps to establish the precise gestational date, recommend an ultrasound scan at 18 weeks to cover himself legally and suggest that the patient's husband join in the counseling session to help bring out feelings about the marriage and the pregnancy.

  17. Abortion, infanticide and moral context.

    PubMed

    Porter, Lindsey

    2013-05-01

    In 'After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?', Giubilini and Minerva argue that infanticide should be permitted for the same reasons as abortion. In particular, they argue that infanticide should be permitted even for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be best interests) of the newborn. They claim that abortion is permissible for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be interests) of the fetus because fetuses lack a right to life. They argue that newborns also lack a right to life, and they conclude that therefore, the same reasons that justify abortion can justify infanticide. This conclusion does not follow. The lack of a right to life is not decisive. Furthermore, the justificatory power of a given reason is a function of moral context. Generalisations about reasons across dissimilar moral contexts are invalid. However, a similar conclusion does follow-that fetus-killing and newborn-killing are morally identical in identical moral contexts-but this conclusion is trivial, since fetuses and newborns are never in identical moral contexts.

  18. Abortion, infanticide and moral context.

    PubMed

    Porter, Lindsey

    2013-05-01

    In 'After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?', Giubilini and Minerva argue that infanticide should be permitted for the same reasons as abortion. In particular, they argue that infanticide should be permitted even for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be best interests) of the newborn. They claim that abortion is permissible for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be interests) of the fetus because fetuses lack a right to life. They argue that newborns also lack a right to life, and they conclude that therefore, the same reasons that justify abortion can justify infanticide. This conclusion does not follow. The lack of a right to life is not decisive. Furthermore, the justificatory power of a given reason is a function of moral context. Generalisations about reasons across dissimilar moral contexts are invalid. However, a similar conclusion does follow-that fetus-killing and newborn-killing are morally identical in identical moral contexts-but this conclusion is trivial, since fetuses and newborns are never in identical moral contexts. PMID:23637451

  19. Mifepristone and first trimester abortion.

    PubMed

    Murray, S; Muse, K

    1996-06-01

    The development of safe, effective, nonsurgical methods of pregnancy termination has the potential to avert significant maternal mortality and morbidity, especially in developing countries. RU-486 blocks the action of progesterone and cortisol, leading to structural changes in the endothelium of decidual capillaries, decidual necrosis, and subsequent detachment of the products of conception. When RU-486 is administered in conjunction with a low dose of a prostaglandin such as misoprostol, the abortion rate is comparable to that for vacuum aspiration (e.g., 94-96%). This regimen is contraindicated, however, in women aged 35 years and older, smokers, and those with medical problems such as diabetes, hypertension, clotting disorders, or anemia. In countries with strict abortion laws, RU-486 has been used to induce menstrual bleeding in women whose periods are delayed up to 10 days. An obstacle to more widespread acceptance of RU-486 has been its medicalization through national guidelines that stipulate waiting periods or require multiple visits to an approved abortion clinic. Women are likely to prefer RU-486 over surgical abortion because it allows the patient more control over her pregnancy termination and is less invasive. As political controversy continues to delay RU-486's introduction to the US and most developing countries, there are concerns that the drug will become a black market commodity used for self-induction.

  20. RU-486: the "abortion pill".

    PubMed

    Herranz, G

    1991-05-23

    A report sent by the Vatican to bishops' conferences throughout the world calls RU-486, the so-called abortion pill currently available in France, "a new, serious threat to human life." The report was developed at the Vatican's request by Gonzalo Herranz, a Spanish bioethicist. A cover letter to bishops' conferences from Cardinal Alfonso Lopez Trujillo, president of the Pontifical Council for the Family, suggested that the report be used "to resist the introduction of the abortion pill RU-486 into your country." Related to TU-486 and to new terminology some use to characterize its non-surgical approach to abortion is an intention "to amoralize and thereby place the transmission of human life into an ethically neutral terrain and reduce it to pure biology," says the report. The report discusses possible future uses of RU-486 as a contraceptive, stating: "Women would no longer have to worry themselves about whether they have conceived or not. Each month they would proceed to clean out their uterus chemically." The report refers to RU-486 as "a technical step forward in an area that did not need it." It says, "The abortion pill favors a woman's privacy and secret, but it condemns her to solitude." The English text from the Vatican follows. PMID:16145821

  1. Unintended pregnancy and abortion in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Rubina

    2013-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy is common in Uganda, leading to high levels of unplanned births, unsafe abortions, and maternal injury and death. Because most pregnancies that end in abortion are unwanted, nearly all ill health and mortality resulting from unsafe abortion is preventable. This report summarizes evidence on the context and consequences of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Uganda, points out gaps in knowledge, and highlights steps that can be taken to reduce levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion, and, in turn, the high level of maternal mortality.

  2. Family planning is reducing abortions.

    PubMed

    Clinton, H R

    1997-01-01

    This news brief presents the US President's wife's statement on the association between use of family planning and a decline in abortions worldwide. Hillary Rodham Clinton attended the Sixth Conference of Wives of Heads of State and Government of the Americas held in La Paz, Bolivia. The conference was suitably located in Bolivia, a country with the highest rates of maternal mortality in South America. Bolivia has responded by launching a national family planning campaign coordinated between government, nongovernmental, and medical organizations. Half of Bolivian women experience pregnancy and childbirth without the support of trained medical staff. Mortality from abortion complications account for about half of all maternal deaths in Bolivia. Voluntary family planning workers teach women about the benefits of child spacing, breast feeding, nutrition, prenatal and postpartum care, and safe deliveries. Bolivia has succeeded in increasing its contraceptive use rates and decreasing the number of safe and unsafe abortions. Bolivia's program effort was supported by USAID. USAID provided technical assistance and funds for the establishment of a network of primary health care clinics. Mrs. Clinton visited one such clinic in a poor neighborhood in La Paz, which in its first six months of operation provided 2200 consultations, delivered 200 babies, registered 700 new family planning users, and immunized 2500 children. Clinics such as this one will be affected by the US Congress's harsh cuts in aid, which reduce funding by 35% and delay program funding by 9 months. These US government cuts in foreign aid are expected to result in an additional 1.6 million abortions, over 8000 maternal deaths, and 134,000 infant deaths in developing countries. An investment in population assistance represents a sensible, cost-effective, and long-term strategy for improving women's health, strengthening families, and reducing abortion.

  3. Family planning is reducing abortions.

    PubMed

    Clinton, H R

    1997-01-01

    This news brief presents the US President's wife's statement on the association between use of family planning and a decline in abortions worldwide. Hillary Rodham Clinton attended the Sixth Conference of Wives of Heads of State and Government of the Americas held in La Paz, Bolivia. The conference was suitably located in Bolivia, a country with the highest rates of maternal mortality in South America. Bolivia has responded by launching a national family planning campaign coordinated between government, nongovernmental, and medical organizations. Half of Bolivian women experience pregnancy and childbirth without the support of trained medical staff. Mortality from abortion complications account for about half of all maternal deaths in Bolivia. Voluntary family planning workers teach women about the benefits of child spacing, breast feeding, nutrition, prenatal and postpartum care, and safe deliveries. Bolivia has succeeded in increasing its contraceptive use rates and decreasing the number of safe and unsafe abortions. Bolivia's program effort was supported by USAID. USAID provided technical assistance and funds for the establishment of a network of primary health care clinics. Mrs. Clinton visited one such clinic in a poor neighborhood in La Paz, which in its first six months of operation provided 2200 consultations, delivered 200 babies, registered 700 new family planning users, and immunized 2500 children. Clinics such as this one will be affected by the US Congress's harsh cuts in aid, which reduce funding by 35% and delay program funding by 9 months. These US government cuts in foreign aid are expected to result in an additional 1.6 million abortions, over 8000 maternal deaths, and 134,000 infant deaths in developing countries. An investment in population assistance represents a sensible, cost-effective, and long-term strategy for improving women's health, strengthening families, and reducing abortion. PMID:12293000

  4. The Best Estimated Trajectory Analysis for Pad Abort One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutty, Prasad; Noonan, Meghan; Karlgaard, Christopher; Beck, Roger

    2011-01-01

    I. Best Estimated Trajectory (BET) objective: a) Produce reconstructed trajectory of the PA-1 flight to understand vehicle dynamics and aid other post flight analyses. b) Leverage all measurement sources taken of vehicle during flight to produce the most accurate estimate of vehicle trajectory. c) Generate trajectory reconstructions of the Crew Module (CM), Launch Abort System (LAS), and Forward Bay Cover (FBC). II. BET analysis was started immediately following the PA-1 mission and was completed in September, 2010 a) Quick look version of BET released 5/25/2010: initial repackaging of SIGI data. b) Preliminary version of BET released 7/6/2010: first blended solution using available sources of external measurements. c) Final version of BET released 9/1/2010: final blended solution using all available sources of data.

  5. Post-abortion syndrome: creating an affliction.

    PubMed

    Dadlez, E M; Andrews, William L

    2010-11-01

    The contention that abortion harms women constitutes a new strategy employed by the pro-life movement to supplement arguments about fetal rights. David C. Reardon is a prominent promoter of this strategy. Post-abortion syndrome purports to establish that abortion psychologically harms women and, indeed, can harm persons associated with women who have abortions. Thus, harms that abortion is alleged to produce are multiplied. Claims of repression are employed to complicate efforts to disprove the existence of psychological harm and causal antecedents of trauma are only selectively investigated. We argue that there is no such thing as post-abortion syndrome and that the psychological harms Reardon and others claim abortion inflicts on women can usually be ascribed to different causes. We question the evidence accumulated by Reardon and his analysis of data accumulated by others. Most importantly, we question whether the conclusions Reardon has drawn follow from the evidence he cites. PMID:19594725

  6. [Induced abortion--a historical outline].

    PubMed

    Glenc, F

    1974-11-11

    An historical review of the use of induced abortion is presented, beginning with early eras. The Chinese were the 1st to record the practice of induced abortion, with this operation being administered to royal concubines recorded at 500-515 B.C. Induced abortion was not used in ancient Greece, either for criminal or ethical reason. However, the ancient Greeks did utilize compulsory abortion for serious economic indications, as a means of controlling natural growth. Greek medical, gyneoclogigcal instruments for adminsitering abortions were described by Hippocrates. The Greek moral attitudes on abortion were largely adopted by the Romans, which were later altered by the appearance of Christianity and new ethical ideas. These ideas dominated European attitudes, along with the Church of Rome, limiting induced abortion to cases where the life of the mother was threatened. This attitude has existed until the present century, when these moral ideas are being challanged seriously for the 1st time in modern history. PMID:4610534

  7. Orientations toward abortion: guilty or knowledge?

    PubMed

    Allgeier, A R; Allgeier, E R; Rywick, T

    1981-01-01

    Students (N = 118) were classified as pro-choice, anti-abortion, or mixed on the basis of their responses to ten fictitious case histories of females who requested abortion. The distribution of participants on the abortion issue was quite similar to the results of a 1979 national survey. As expected, these groups differed on attitudes toward abortion as murder, the legalization of abortion, and the morality of premarital sex. The groups differed significantly in levels of sex guilt, but did not exhibit significant differences in levels of sexual knowledge. The results were discussed within the context of the public controversy over abortion. It was suggested that the affective messages accompanying the sexual socialization of children and adolescents may be more predictive of orientations toward abortion than the weight of intellectual arguments regarding the rights of the fetus, the point at which a fetus becomes viable, or a woman's right to have control over her own body.

  8. Flight Performance Feasibility Studies for the Max Launch Abort System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarabini, Paul V.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Beaty, James R.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) initiated the Max Launch Abort System Project to explore crew escape system concepts designed to be fully encapsulated within an aerodynamic fairing and smoothly integrated onto a launch vehicle. One objective of this design was to develop a more compact launch escape vehicle that eliminated the need for an escape tower, as was used in the Mercury and Apollo escape systems and what is planned for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The benefits for the launch vehicle of eliminating a tower from the escape vehicle design include lower structural weights, reduced bending moments during atmospheric flight, and a decrease in induced aero-acoustic loads. This paper discusses the development of encapsulated, towerless launch escape vehicle concepts, especially as it pertains to the flight performance and systems analysis trade studies conducted to establish mission feasibility and assess system-level performance. Two different towerless escape vehicle designs are discussed in depth: one with allpropulsive control using liquid attitude control thrusters, and a second employing deployable aft swept grid fins to provide passive stability during coast. Simulation results are presented for a range of nominal and off-nominal escape conditions.

  9. Induced abortion--a global health problem.

    PubMed

    Odlind, V

    1997-01-01

    Every year around 500,000 women are estimated to die from pregnancy-related causes, the majority in the developing world and many as a consequence of unsafe abortion. Around 25 per cent of maternal deaths in Asia and 30-50 per cent of maternal deaths in Africa and Latin America occur as a result of induced abortion. Data on abortion related maternal morbidity is less reliable than mortality but suggests that for every maternal death 10-15 women suffer significant pregnancy-related morbidity, i.e. infertility, genito-urinary problems and/or chronic pain. Induced abortion occurs in practically every society in the world but only 40 per cent of the women in the world live in countries where abortion is legally free. A permissive legislation is an important prerequisite for medically safe and early abortion. Oppositely, with a restrictive law, abortion is difficult to obtain, costly and possibly unsafe, in particular to the least affluent women in the society. Induced abortion in a developed country with legal and easy access to services is a safe procedure with hardly any mortality and very low morbidity. The best strategy to reduce the number of unsafe abortions is prevention of unwanted pregnancy. The consequences of unsafe abortion on women's health need to be acknowledged by everybody in the society in order to improve abortion care. It is necessary to adjust legal and other barriers to medically safe abortion in order to follow the declaration at the UN conference on population in Cairo, 1994, which stated that abortion, wherever legal, should be safe. It is also necessary to introduce preventive measures where abortions are performed, i.e. good and easily accessible family planning services.

  10. [Therapeutic abortion: a difficult choice].

    PubMed

    Gratton-Jacob, F

    1981-01-01

    Because the primary responsibility for the care and raising of children still falls on women, they should be able to decide freely whether or not to have children. Although many women who do not initially desire their pregnancies turn out to be adequate mothers, studies have shown that unwanted children suffer disproportionately from a variety of emotional and behavioral disorders. Studies have also found that large numbers of women seeking abortions failed to use any contraception while others used less effective methods, sometimes because of lack of knowledge. Even the most reliable contraceptive methods are liable to occasional failures. According to some authors, undesired pregnancy many reflect a struggle of adolescents with authoritarian parents, the search of a lonely person for something to love or possess, a proof of femininity, an expression of conflict with the partner or an attempt to force a marriage, or ambivalence among middle-aged women at the prospect of becoming more independent when their children enter school. Women may obtain abortions at accredited hospitals in the Province of Quebec upon decision of a committee of 3 physicians that continuation of the pregnancy would result in danger to the life or health of the patient. In 1970 some 100-150,000 illegal abortions occurred, resulting in hospitalization of 20,000 women for complications. In 1972, 4 French-speaking hospitals performed 136 of the 2919 therapeutic abortions sought in the Province of Quebec. In recent years the number has increased. Reasons for obtaining an abortion are usually social or economic: poor relationship with the father, sufficient number of children already born, age of the preceding infant, economic difficulties, mother's age, or effect of pregnancy on work. Many adolescents refuse to tell their parents of their pregnancy for fear of their reaction, but others enjoy considerable parental support. A study of about 5000 French speaking adolescents conducted in 1977

  11. Is Induced Abortion Really Declining in Armenia?

    PubMed

    Jilozian, Ann; Agadjanian, Victor

    2016-06-01

    As in other post-Soviet settings, induced abortion has been widely used in Armenia. However, recent national survey data point to a substantial drop in abortion rates with no commensurate increase in modern contraceptive prevalence and no change in fertility levels. We use data from in-depth interviews with women of reproductive age and health providers in rural Armenia to explore possible underreporting of both contraceptive use and abortion. While we find no evidence that women understate their use of modern contraception, the analysis suggests that induced abortion might indeed be underreported. The potential for underreporting is particularly high for sex-selective abortions, for which there is growing public backlash, and medical abortion, a practice that is typically self-administered outside any professional supervision. Possible underreporting of induced abortion calls for refinement of both abortion registration and relevant survey instruments. Better measurement of abortion dynamics is necessary for successful promotion of effective modern contraceptive methods and reduction of unsafe abortion practices.

  12. The Incidence of Abortion in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bankole, Akinrinola; Adewole, Isaac F.; Hussain, Rubina; Awolude, Olutosin; Singh, Susheela; Akinyemi, Joshua O.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT Because of Nigeria’s low contraceptive prevalence, a substantial number of women have unintended pregnancies, many of which are resolved through clandestine abortion, despite the country’s restrictive abortion law. Up-to-date estimates of abortion incidence are needed. METHODS A widely used indirect methodology was used to estimate the incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in Nigeria in 2012. Data on provision of abortion and postabortion care were collected from a nationally representative sample of 772 health facilities, and estimates of the likelihood that women who have unsafe abortions experience complications and obtain treatment were collected from 194 health care professionals with a broad understanding of the abortion context in Nigeria. RESULTS An estimated 1.25 million induced abortions occurred in Nigeria in 2012, equivalent to a rate of 33 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–49. The estimated unintended pregnancy rate was 59 per 1,000 women aged 15–49. Fifty-six percent of unintended pregnancies were resolved by abortion. About 212,000 women were treated for complications of unsafe abortion, representing a treatment rate of 5.6 per 1,000 women of reproductive age, and an additional 285,000 experienced serious health consequences but did not receive the treatment they needed. CONCLUSION Levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion continue to be high in Nigeria. Improvements in access to contraceptive services and in the provision of safe abortion and postabortion care services (as permitted by law) may help reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:26871725

  13. Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderman, Lawrence J.; Prichard, Lorraine; Fuller, Scott; Atkinson, Leslie

    1974-01-01

    A questionnaire comprising case histories was administered to 27 Protestant and 27 Catholic clergymen in the San Diego area to test their attitudes toward the use of birth control, sterilization and abortion in families with specific genetic problems. The responses indicated: • Catholic and Protestant clergymen do not always follow the official positions of their churches in these matters, although the majority of them do. • Protestant clergymen were more likely to approve of birth control, sterilization, and abortion than Catholic clergymen. • The approval responses of Protestant and Catholic clergymen were not greatly influenced by whether the illness variables involved high Mendelian risk, high psychological cost, high social cost, or poor prognosis. • The approval responses of Protestant and Catholic clergymen were not significantly influenced by the socio-ethnic background of the families. PMID:4813802

  14. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.; AHRENS,L.; III FLILLER,R.; GASSNER,D.; MCINTYRE,G.T.; MICHNOFF,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.

    2002-06-03

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  15. RHIC Abort Kicker Prefire Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Y.; Perlstein, S.

    2014-07-07

    In an attempt to discover any pattern to prefire events, abort prefire kicker data from 2007 to the present day have been recorded. With the 2014 operations concluding, this comprises 8 years of prefire data. Any activities that the Pulsed Power Group did to decrease prefire occurrences were recorded as well, but some information may be missing. The following information is a compilation of the research to date.

  16. Differential Impact of Abortion on Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Wanda; Reardon, David

    1992-01-01

    Compared adolescent and adult reactions to abortion among 252 women. Compared to adults, adolescents were significantly more likely to be dissatisfied with choice of abortion and with services received, to have abortions later in gestational period, to feel forced by circumstances to have abortion, to report being misinformed at time of abortion,…

  17. Modeling, Analysis and Simulation Approaches Used in Development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Max Launch Abort System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuchnovicz, Daniel E.; Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Schuster, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineering and Safety Center was chartered to develop an alternate launch abort system (LAS) as risk mitigation for the Orion Project. Its successful flight test provided data for the design of future LAS vehicles. Design of the flight test vehicle (FTV) and pad abort trajectory relied heavily on modeling and simulation including computational fluid dynamics for vehicle aero modeling, 6-degree-of-freedom kinematics models for flight trajectory modeling, and 3-degree-of-freedom kinematics models for parachute force modeling. This paper highlights the simulation techniques and the interaction between the aerodynamics, flight mechanics, and aerodynamic decelerator disciplines during development of the Max Launch Abort System FTV.

  18. [Abortions and prevention of pregnancies in 1992].

    PubMed

    Helweg-Larsen, K; Wichmann, B

    1994-03-01

    In January 1994, the Health Service published its statistics about pregnancy prevention and abortion in 1991 and 1992. The number of legal abortions was 19,729 in 1991 and 18,833 in 1992, which was the lowest figure since the law was introduced about elective abortion in 1973. 2623 fewer abortions were carried out in 1992 than five years before. The general abortion rate decreased from 15.8 in 1990 to 14.9 in 1992 (it was the highest in 1975 with 23.7). The age-specific abortion rate fell mostly in the 18-29 age group, with fewer in the 15-19 and 30-34 age groups. The number of children who were born to women over 40 increased from 390 in 1982 to 864 in 1992, while the birth rate of women under 20 decreased to almost half. The abortion rate was the highest in large cities, it was about 2.5 times higher than in the county of Ringkobing, which had the lowest rate, especially in the age groups under 25 years. The combined abortion rate (per 1000 women of reproductive age) was 578 in 1982, 540 in 1990, and 505 in 1992. 97.5% of abortions were performed within 12 weeks of pregnancy in accordance with the abortion law. 2% of abortions were carried out because of the woman's health or for social indications. 80% of abortions were performed in the 10th week of pregnancy mostly with vacuum aspiration. Complications decreased compared to previous years, and made up 2.6% of all abortions in 1992, mainly bleeding and, for 1/5 of them, inflammatory conditions. Half of the women who underwent an abortion in 1992 had given birth to at least one living child, 8% to more than three. Half of the 20% of women who could given birth but chose abortion had given birth in the previous two years and 27% within less than a year before abortion. The number of spontaneous abortions was 10,717 in 1991 and 10,605 in 1992, about 1000 fewer than in 1990. The number of male sterilizations fell from 2784 in 1991 to 1722 in 1992, and female sterilizations from 4777 to 4429. About 13 million condoms

  19. [Abortion. Spain: the keys to the controversy].

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    For many years, illegal abortion has been denounced in Spain. The estimate of 300,000 abortions annually is widely quoted but poorly founded in fact. Weekend "charters" to London and Amsterdam for women seeking abortions have been commented upon, denounced, and caricatured. The evidence indicates that abortions occur in Spain despite their illegality, just as they occur in every other country and have always occurred. Poor women abort in a poor way, with traditional healers, while rich women abort in a rich way, with physicians. "Charters" are the solution of the middle class. Proposed legislation in Spain would permit abortion on 3 grounds: rape, fetal malformation, and risk to the woman's life if the pregnancy continued. Excesses have been committed both by those opposing abortion and by those struggling for liberalization of laws. Defenders of abortion, such as radical feminists, appear to forget that abortion is a medical procedure with possible dangerous psychophysical consequences, and that preventive measures such as sex education and diffusion of contraception or social measures such as assistance for unwed mothers and their children would be preferrable to abortion. There is the question of whether medical personnel should be excused from assisting in abortions on grounds of conscience and whether those who do assist in abortions automatically become "progressive" by doing so. The staunchest defenders of fetal life are not moved to contribute anything beyond words to improvement of the plight of the many millions of already born who live in miserable conditions of hunger and want. Abortion is a violent act against the fetus and the pregnant woman. Its criminalization is a violent act against the woman and a social intrusion into matters better left to personal ethics. The government which proposes abortion on a few grounds fails to initiate a program to promote life through social protection of single mothers and their children or of families in general

  20. From unwanted pregnancy to safe abortion: Sharing information about abortion in Asia through animation.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Shweta; Dalvie, Suchitra

    2015-05-01

    Although unsafe abortion continues to be a leading cause of maternal mortality in many countries in Asia, the right to safe abortion remains highly stigmatized across the region. The Asia Safe Abortion Partnership, a regional network advocating for safe abortion, produced an animated short film entitled From Unwanted Pregnancy to Safe Abortion to show in conferences, schools and meetings in order to share knowledge about the barriers to safe abortion in Asia and to facilitate conversations on the right to safe abortion. This paper describes the making of this film, its objectives, content, dissemination and how it has been used. Our experience highlights the advantages of using animated films in addressing highly politicized and sensitive issues like abortion. Animation helped to create powerful advocacy material that does not homogenize the experiences of women across a diverse region, and at the same time emphasize the need for joint activities that express solidarity.

  1. From unwanted pregnancy to safe abortion: Sharing information about abortion in Asia through animation.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Shweta; Dalvie, Suchitra

    2015-05-01

    Although unsafe abortion continues to be a leading cause of maternal mortality in many countries in Asia, the right to safe abortion remains highly stigmatized across the region. The Asia Safe Abortion Partnership, a regional network advocating for safe abortion, produced an animated short film entitled From Unwanted Pregnancy to Safe Abortion to show in conferences, schools and meetings in order to share knowledge about the barriers to safe abortion in Asia and to facilitate conversations on the right to safe abortion. This paper describes the making of this film, its objectives, content, dissemination and how it has been used. Our experience highlights the advantages of using animated films in addressing highly politicized and sensitive issues like abortion. Animation helped to create powerful advocacy material that does not homogenize the experiences of women across a diverse region, and at the same time emphasize the need for joint activities that express solidarity. PMID:26278840

  2. [Psychiatric and psychological consequences of abortion].

    PubMed

    Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco

    2007-02-14

    Over the last decades a debate on the psychological and psychiatric consequences of the right to abortion took place. Abortion is a word-wide phenomenon linked to different aspects of public health. Although negative consequences are assumed to occur after abortion, most of the women who decide to terminate their pregnancy show several signs of relief. For instance, a decrease of signs of anxiety and depression may occur during the first month after abortion. Actually, the critical moment is the pre-abortion period. In this phase, most of the psychiatric and psychologic manifestations take place. Moreover, recent studies reinforce the importance to address the consequences of abortion with a multidisciplinary approach integrating somatic and psychologic components.

  3. Abortion in Sri Lanka: the double standard.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramya

    2013-03-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required.

  4. Health benefits of legal abortion: an analysis.

    PubMed

    Tyrer, L B

    1985-01-01

    The abolition of legal abortion in the US would seriously threaten the health, and even the lives, of women and children. Statistics on the relationship between abortion and health attained before and after abortion was legalized were used to project some of the probable consequences of reversing the US Supreme Court's 1973 Roe v. Wade decision. Abortion has been widely practiced throughout US history, but the actual number of procedures performed before some states legalized abortion is unknown. Few legal procedures were performed for medical reasons, yet many illegal abortions took place. In 1955, a panel of experts could only provide a "best estimate" of between 200,000 and 1,200,000 illegally induced abortions occurring annually in the US. The actual number was most likely closer to the higher figure. The complication rates for illegal abortions, most of which were performed by unskilled practitioners in unsafe settings, were much higher than the rates for legal abortion now. Complications were related to ineffective or unsafe methods, Sepsis, particularly with the bacterium "Clostridium prefringens," which causes gas gangrene, was a major problem that has virtually disappeared. Each year prior to the 1970s, more than 100 women in the US died of abortion complications. Due to the fact that vital statistics reflect an incomplete ascertainment of deaths, the actual number of deaths is probably larger, possibly by as much as 50%. In 1983 more than 1.3 million procedures were performed -- a figure close to the estimated number of illegal abortions performed before 1970. In comparison, 672,000 hysterectomies and 424,000 tonsillectomy operations were performed the same year. The number of abortion-related deaths in the US decreased between 1972 and 1980, from 90 to 16. Most of this decrease resulted from the availability and safety of legal abortion. Legal abortion carries an especially low risk of death, particularly when performed in the 1st trimester. For the 1972

  5. Abortion in Thailand: a feminist perspective.

    PubMed

    Lerdmaleewong, M; Francis, C

    1998-01-01

    With the passing of the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, China, women's issues in Asia have moved increasingly to the forefront. One such issue, abortion, continues to generate controversy as many women argue for protection and/or recognition of their reproductive rights. The objectives of this paper are threefold: (1) To examine the abortion debate in Thailand, identifying issues raised by Thai feminist scholars about the status of women; (2) To overview some of the more prominent feminist arguments regarding abortion (particularly those written by Canadian and American scholars) as a tool for defining women's reproductive rights; (3) To focus on a study of attitudes toward abortion among health care personnel and post-induced abortion patients in Bangkok, Thailand in order to discern the degree of support (if any) for feminist abortion arguments.

  6. Abortion in Sri Lanka: The Double Standard

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

  7. Producing change in attitudes toward abortion.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R A

    1977-01-01

    During the 1969-1970 school year, 351 upperclassmen at a southeastern university were used in a study on the use of different communication methods to change attitudes toward abortion. Following the pretest questionnaire, the group was divided into 4 groups and treated in the following ways: 1) a panel from the group presented pros and cons of abortion; 2) the group broke into 5-member discussion groups to talk about attitudes toward abortion; 3) a movie on normal birth was presented to this group; and 4) the 4th group received no interim abortion-related communication. The movie had no effect on abortion attitudes. The discussions had a slight liberalizing effect on abortion attitudes. Less than 3% of the students in the survey changed their attitude. PMID:12308804

  8. The abortion decision: reasons and ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Allanson, S; Astbury, J

    1995-09-01

    Self-in-relation theory and pilot data responses to an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet by 20 women attending an abortion-providing clinic challenge previous formulations of the abortion decision. Pilot data suggest that: women may make an abortion decision based primarily on pragmatics, a belief in their right to choose and knowledge of the safety and simplicity of the procedure. A discrepancy may exist for a significant minority of women between their abstract beliefs/knowledge and the personal meaning for them of the pregnancy, abortion and its safety. Important links may exist between maternal attachment and anxiety about the safety of the abortion procedure. Ramifications for counselling and future research are discussed. PMID:8528379

  9. Abortion: a guide to making ethical choices.

    PubMed

    Maguire, M R; Maguire, D C

    1983-09-01

    A mature attitude toward abortion rests on responsible decision-making and action taking, not on the belief in irreversible events. Abortion is therefore a choice which should be made if it is the most correct and responsible action in view of one's own circumstances. There are a number of doubts, concerns and moral--as opposed to medical--questions that women may be asking themselves as they face this serious choice. The guide addresses these issues to help women think through that choice. It is important to know, for instance, that the Pope has never formally proclaimed a doctrine of faith on the matter of abortion. The Catholic Church, when considered in its diversity, teaches that some abortions can be moral; the conscience of a person is the final arbiter of any abortion decision. Conscience is humans' progressively refined ability to think about situations and evaluate their moral goodness/badness. With respect to abortion, this means that a woman should make the choice that seems best to her. The fear that having an abortion will result in excommunication from the Church is dismissed here. A distinction must be made between committing the sin of abortion and having an abortion. The former obtains when people act against their own conscience. The attitude toward abortion as murder and the issue of the fetus' afterlife are responded to in terms of personhood, a complicated concept on which there is no legal, scientific or religious consensus. Instead, the answer is a function of the time period and its prevalent beliefs. Today, the viability of the fetus has become an important determinant of life. Having an abortion, giving birth, and use of contraceptives when no children are wanted, are responses to which a woman is entitled. Her choice is moral when based on responsible and conscious decisions and actions. The views of Protestantism and Judaism on abortion are clarified briefly.

  10. First-trimester surgical abortion technique.

    PubMed

    Yonke, Nicole; Leeman, Lawrence M

    2013-12-01

    New data have emerged to support changes in first-trimester abortion practice in regard to antibiotic prophylaxis, cervical ripening, the use of manual vacuum aspiration, and pain management. This article addresses these new recommendations and reviews techniques in performing manual and electric vacuum uterine aspiration procedures before 14 weeks' gestation, including very early abortion (<7 weeks' gestation), technically difficult abortions, management of complications, and postabortal contraception. The information discussed also applies to miscarriage management.

  11. [Legal abortivity and life project of women].

    PubMed

    Bielli, C; Racioppi, F

    1988-01-01

    This article concerns the relationship between fertility and legal abortivity in the first 5-year period of the 80's. The legal abortivity pattern of married women, by age and prior fertility is studied in 4 typical regions. This typology is stated considering both levels of fertility of abortivity at 1980-81 (low fertility-low abortivity; low fertility-high abortivity; high fertility-high abortivity; high fertility-low abortivity). In each region the change in the age-conception order specifies abortivity rate is examined by a regression model. Same interesting results can be stressed. Young women seem to be the most involved in the changing fertility pattern during the years considered. They appear at 1984-85 with a number of children more strictly reduced than during 1980-81. Of them, those residing in the too low fertility regions, as well as those residing in the high fertility-high abortivity region seem to be exposed to a lower risk of a legal abortion. The same results cannot be found for young residents in the high fertility-low abortivity region. In other words, those above seem to be in progress as it concerns the prevention possibility of an unplanned conception, otherwise the same cannot be stated for these latter. Many more women had a legal abortion in the early 80's, while less younger women, in a similar status, seem to risk the same 5 years later. At least, spreading knowledge about family planning methods seems to be working as outlined in the spirit of the 194 law operating in public health services. (Author's modified).

  12. RADX34: A Future-X Demonstration of Autonomous Robust Abort Technologies on the X-34

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aron, Edward C.; Barton, Gregg H.; Bottkol, Matthew S.; Smith, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. has been conducting the RADX-34 Future-X Pathfinder Flight Demonstration experiment under the direction of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The Future-X experiment will use the X-34 to demonstrate autonomous abort technologies needed for the next generation of reusable launch vehicles. This project will involve integration of real-time abort mission planning algorithms with the existing guidance and control to provide abort coverage for the low-Mach flights of the X-34. This paper describes the design and capability of the abort planner three months prior to the conclusion of its development. The mission planner described herein is able to respond to loss of thrust, determine which runways can be reached within the vehicle constraints, and designate an appropriate landing site. This project, when complete, will mark the first step in the development of the Next Generation of Guidance and Control (NGGC) autonomous algorithms. NGGC algorithms will help ensure the second generation of reusable launch vehicles will meet their cost, safety and reliability requirements.

  13. Medical abortion in Australia: a short history.

    PubMed

    Baird, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Surgical abortion has been provided liberally in Australia since the early 1970s, mainly in privately owned specialist clinics. The introduction of medical abortion, however, was deliberately obstructed and consequently significantly delayed when compared to similar countries. Mifepristone was approved for commercial import only in 2012 and listed as a government subsidised medicine in 2013. Despite optimism from those who seek to improve women's access to abortion, the increased availability of medical abortion has not yet addressed the disadvantage experienced by poor and non-metropolitan women. After telling the story of medical abortion in Australia, this paper considers the context through which it has become available since 2013. It argues that the integration of medical abortion into primary health care, which would locate abortion provision in new settings and expand women's access, has been constrained by the stigma attached to abortion, overly cautious institutionalised frameworks, and the lack of public health responsibility for abortion services. The paper draws on documentary sources and oral history interviews conducted in 2013 and 2015. PMID:26719008

  14. Pregnancy complications following legally induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Obel, E B

    1979-01-01

    The frequency of pregnancy and delivery complications in women whose previous pregnancy had been terminated by a legally induced abortion is evaluated in a prospective and a retrospective study. Bleeding before 28 weeks of gestation and retention of placenta or placental tissue occurred more frequently after legal abortion that in a control group matched for age, parity, and socio-economic status. Other pregnancy and delivery complications did not occur more frequently after legal abortion. It is of particular interest that the study could not demonstrate an increased frequency of low birth weight among women whose previous pregnancy had been terminated by legal abortion.

  15. Husbands' involvement in abortion in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Johansson, A; Nga, N T; Huy, T Q; Dat, D D; Holmgren, K

    1998-12-01

    This study analyzes the involvement of men in abortion in Vietnam, where induced abortion is legal and abortion rates are among the highest in the world. Twenty men were interviewed in 1996 about the role they played in their wives' abortions and about their feelings and ethical views concerning the procedure. The results showed that both husbands and wives considered the husband to be the main decisionmaker regarding family size, which included the decision to have an abortion, but that, in fact, some women had undergone an abortion without consulting their husbands in advance. Parents and in-laws were usually not consulted; the couples thought they might object to the decision on moral grounds. Respondents' ethical perspectives on abortion are discussed. When faced with an unwanted pregnancy, the husbands adopted an ethics of care and responsibility toward family and children, although some felt that abortion was immoral. The study highlights the importance of understanding husbands' perspectives on their responsibilities and rights in reproductive decisionmaking and their ethical and other concerns related to abortion.

  16. The abortion battle: the Canadian scene.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, P

    1994-01-01

    In January 1988 the Supreme Court of Canada struck down the country's archaic abortion law on the ground that it imposed arbitrary delays and unfair disparities in access to abortion across the country. Since then, the conservative government of Canada has made a few attempts to introduce a new abortion policy, but it did not get passed in the parliament because the revised bills failed to protect women's right to 'life, liberty, and security of the person' within the meaning of the Canadian Charter. Canada has been without an abortion law for over four years and there has been a wide range of provincial policies and confusion in the country. Despite the legal vacuum, Canadian women are not frenziedly having abortions. However, the militancy of the anti-abortion groups has steadily intensified with continued assault on a woman's right to make reproductive choices. Since no law, short of banning abortions altogether, is going to satisfy abortion opponents, the abortion battle will rage on in Canada. PMID:8065237

  17. The abortion issue in the 1984 elections.

    PubMed

    Granberg, D

    1987-01-01

    In the 1984 election, Ronald Reagan, the Republican presidential incumbent and an opponent of legal abortion, defeated Walter Mondale, a prochoice Democrat, by a wide margin. Despite Reagan's sweep of 49 states, however, conservatives lost a little ground in the Senate, where four of the seven new senators elected take a prochoice position on abortion. On the other hand, antiabortion forces registered some gains in the House of Representatives. The voting groups were more divided over the abortion issue in 1984 than they had been in 1980: In 1980, Reagan voters and Carter voters did not differ significantly in their attitudes toward abortion, but in 1984, Reagan voters were significantly more likely to be opposed to abortion than were Mondale voters. Nevertheless, only a small minority of voters considered abortion to be a major national issue, and the two voter groups were far more divided on several other issues than they were on abortion. There was no antiabortion consensus among the electorate as a whole, or among Reagan voters in particular. The level of approval for legalized abortion has, in fact, remained quite stable since 1973, and a popular base in favor of banning abortion seems to be lacking. PMID:3595819

  18. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Allahbedashti, Neda

    2014-02-01

    Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas) as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA) and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  19. Two steps back: Poland's new abortion law.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, W

    1993-06-01

    After the fall of Communism in Poland, the Catholic church exerted pressure to increase its influence in public life. One way in which this pressure has manifested itself has been in the passing of a restrictive abortion bill which was signed into law on February 15, 1993. Abortion had been legalized in Poland in 1956 and was used as a means of birth control because of a lack of availability and use of contraceptives. The number of abortions performed was variously reported as 60,000 - 300,000/year. In 1990, the Ministry of Health imposed restrictions on abortions at publicly funded hospitals, and 3 deaths were reported from self-induced abortions. In 1 year (1989-90), the number of induced abortions at 1 hospital dropped from 71 to 19, while the number of self-induced abortions increased from 48 to 85. Further restrictions were introduced in May 1992 as part of the "Ethical Code for Physicians," which allows abortions only in cases where the mother's life or health is in danger or in cases or rape. This code brought abortions to a halt at publicly funded hospitals and doubled or even tripled the cost of private abortions. Women have been refused abortions in tragic and life=threatening situations since the code was adopted. When an outright anti family planning bill was drafted in November 1992, the Polish citizenry collected 1,300,000 signatures to force a referendum. The referendum was not held, but the bill was defeated. The amended bill which passed allows abortions in publicly funded hospitals only when the mother's life or health is in danger and in cases of rape, incest, or incurable deformity of the fetus. The implications of this law remain unclear, since its language is strange and vague. The reproductive rights of Polish women face a further threat because the Catholic church is working to limit the availability of contraceptive methods which they deem to be "early abortives." On the other side of the issue, the Federation for Women and Planned

  20. Attitudes towards abortion in the Danish population.

    PubMed

    Norup, Michael

    1997-10-01

    This article reports the results of a survey, by mailed questionnaire, of the attitudes among a sample of the Danish population towards abortion for social and genetic reasons. Of 1080 questionnaires sent to a random sample of persons between 18 and 45 years, 731 (68%) were completed and returned. A great majority of the respondents were liberal towards early abortion both for social reasons and in case of minor disease. In contrast, there was controversy about late abortions for social reasons and in the case of Down syndrome. Further there was strong reluctance to accept late abortion in case of minor disease. An analysis of the response patterns showed that most of the respondents had gradualist views on abortion, i.e. they would allow all early abortions, but only abortions for some reasons later in pregnancy. It was also found that the number who would find an early abortion acceptable in general was much higher than the number who would accept it in their own case. These findings suggest that a great part of the resistance towards abortion does not rest on a concern for the rights and interests for the fetus. Instead it may be explained on a view according to which fetal life is ascribed intrinsic moral value.

  1. [Abortion: 20 years of Brazilian research].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Corrêa, Marilena; Squinca, Flávia; Braga, Kátia Soares

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the main characteristics of the scientific literature on abortion in Brazil. Data were collected from 88 literature bases, and 2,109 documents from 1987 to 2008 were retrieved. Based on the findings, the field of abortion in Brazil is dominated by female researchers affiliated with public universities and nongovernmental organizations from the Southeast, with training in health sciences. There is no research on abortion in the North, while 14% of the studies were conducted in the Northeast and 4% in the Central-West. Abortion has been a constant theme in the scientific literature in Brazil, increasing in the mid-20th century.

  2. Abortion Decision and Ambivalence: Insights via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allanson, Susie

    2007-01-01

    Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…

  3. Prenatal diagnosis, selective abortion, and the Abortion (Amendment) Bill.

    PubMed

    Laurence, K M

    1980-02-01

    The rapid development of early prenatal diagnostic tests for some fetal malformations and abnormalities and the introduction of this approach to malformation into clinical practice in most areas of the United Kingdom has, to a great extent, been made possible by the 1967 Abortion Act. Although at least 30 of every 1000 pregnancies will end in a seriously malformed infant with reduced survival, or survival with impaired quality of life, only less than 1/3 of these abnormal fetuses are currently amenable to early antenatal detection. Yet, it has been estimated that about 10% of all pregnancies can be identified as having a risk of 1 of these detectable abnormalities of more than 1 in 100. Most prenatal diagnostic tests available at this time involve an amniocentesis, which cannot generally be carried out safely and successfully before 15 or 16 weeks' gestation. Laboratory tests on the amniotic fluid itself or on the cells it contains must follow, generally after a period of cell culture. Fetosocopy at about 18 weeks or later is at present rarely used because of its technical difficulties as well as its relatively high risk of complications. Ultrasound is largely used as a preliminary to amniocentesis or to identify anencephaly. 1 of the problems of these prenatal tests often involving lengthy laboratory techniques is reflected in the late termination times reported from 1 large center, where barely 1/2 the terminations for fetal malformations could be performed before 20 weeks' gestation. 2 provisions of John Corrie's Bill now before Parliament may have a profound effect on prenatal diagnosis and related aspects of secondary prevention of fetal malformation. These are the suggested lowering of the gestational age at which abortions can normally be performed, and the strengthening of the conscience clause enabling physicians to refuse to provide a certificate for abortion.

  4. Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access

    MedlinePlus

    Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access June 2008 Approximately one-fifth (19%) of the 6. ... occurring annually in the U.S. end in induced abortion. 1 While abortion is one of the most ...

  5. Evidence supporting broader access to safe legal abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal; Shah, Iqbal H

    2015-10-01

    Unsafe abortion continues to be a major cause of maternal death; it accounts for 14.5% of all maternal deaths globally and almost all of these deaths occur in countries with restrictive abortion laws. A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. Despite this evidence, abortion is denied even when the legal condition for abortion is met. The present article aims to contribute to a better understanding that one can be in favor of greater access to safe abortion services, while at the same time not be "in favor of abortion," by reviewing the evidence that indicates that criminalization of abortion only increases mortality and morbidity without decreasing the incidence of induced abortion, and that decriminalization rapidly reduces abortion-related mortality and does not increase abortion rates.

  6. Mission and vehicle sizing sensitivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie C.

    1986-01-01

    Representative interplanetary space vehicle systems are sized to compare and show sensitivity of the initial mass required in low Earth orbit to one mission mode and mission opportunity. Data are presented to show the requirements for Earth-Mars opposition and conjunction class roundtrip flyby and stopover mission opportunities available during the time period from year 1997 to year 2045. The interplanetary space vehicle consists of a spacecraft and a space vehicle acceleration system. Propellant boil-off for the various mission phases is given for the Lox/LH (Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Hydrogen) propulsion systems. Mission abort information is presented for the 1999 Venus outbound swingby trajectory, transfer profile.

  7. NASP guidance design for vehicle autonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, E. A.; Li, I.; Nguyen, D. D.; Nguyen, P. L.

    1990-10-01

    Vehicle guidance for General Dynamics' NASP vehicle is planned to be self-contained onboard the vehicle, and independent of any ground support during the mission. It will include real-time onboard abort and ascent trajectory optimization capability. Although these features should be considered a natural outgrowth of research in guidance and trajectory optimization and advances in computation, facilitating full vehicle autonomy for NASP represents a significant advance relative to any flight-demonstrated guidance. Algorithms and processing requirements for autonomous NASP vehicle guidance are considered.

  8. Energy management and vehicle synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czysz, P.; Murthy, S. N. B.

    1995-01-01

    The major drivers in the development of launch vehicles for the twenty-first century are reduction in cost of vehicles and operations, continuous reusability, mission abort capability with vehicle recovery, and readiness. One approach to the design of such vehicles is to emphasize energy management and propulsion as being the principal means of improvements given the available industrial capability and the required freedom in selecting configuration concept geometries. A methodology has been developed for the rational synthesis of vehicles based on the setting up and utilization of available data and projections, and a reference vehicle. The application of the methodology is illustrated for a single stage to orbit (SSTO) with various limits for the use of airbreathing propulsion.

  9. Energy management and vehicle synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czysz, P.; Murthy, S. N. B.

    The major drivers in the development of launch vehicles for the twenty-first century are reduction in cost of vehicles and operations, continuous reusability, mission abort capability with vehicle recovery, and readiness. One approach to the design of such vehicles is to emphasize energy management and propulsion as being the principal means of improvements given the available industrial capability and the required freedom in selecting configuration concept geometries. A methodology has been developed for the rational synthesis of vehicles based on the setting up and utilization of available data and projections, and a reference vehicle. The application of the methodology is illustrated for a single stage to orbit (SSTO) with various limits for the use of airbreathing propulsion.

  10. Incidence of Induced Abortion and Post-Abortion Care in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, Sarah C.; Kimaro, Godfather; Muganyizi, Projestine; Philbin, Jesse; Kahwa, Amos; Ngadaya, Esther; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2015-01-01

    Background Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and unsafe abortion is one of its leading causes. Yet little is known about its incidence. Objectives To provide the first ever estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion in Tanzania, at the national level and for each of the 8 geopolitical zones (7 in Mainland plus Zanzibar). Methods A nationally representative survey of health facilities was conducted to determine the number of induced abortion complications treated in facilities. A survey of experts on abortion was conducted to estimate the likelihood of women experiencing complications and obtaining treatment. These surveys were complemented with population and fertility data to obtain abortion numbers, rates and ratios, using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. Results In Tanzania, women obtained just over 405,000 induced abortions in 2013, for a national rate of 36 abortions per 1,000 women age 15–49 and a ratio of 21 abortions per 100 live births. For each woman treated in a facility for induced abortion complications, 6 times as many women had an abortion but did not receive care. Abortion rates vary widely by zone, from 10.7 in Zanzibar to 50.7 in the Lake zone. Conclusions The abortion rate is similar to that of other countries in the region. Variations by zone are explained mainly by differences in fertility and contraceptive prevalence. Measures to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated maternal mortality include expanding access to post-abortion care and contraceptive services to prevent unintended pregnancies. PMID:26361246

  11. Initial effects of light armored vehicle use on grassland vegetation at Fort Lewis, Washington.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jeffrey R; Ayers, Paul D; Lombardi-Przybylowicz, Angela M; Simmons, Katie

    2006-12-01

    Sustainable use of military training lands requires understanding and prediction of the effects of military vehicles on vegetation. We examined the initial impacts of an 8-wheeled, light armored vehicle (LAV) on grassland vegetation at Fort Lewis, Washington. The LAV drove replicate spiral paths at two starting velocities, 10.3 and 5.1 m s(-1). The disturbed width (width of ground impacted by the tires) increased as turning radius decreased, but was unaffected by vehicle velocity. An inverse-exponential model predicted disturbed width (r(2)=0.68) at all turning radii for both velocities combined. In low-velocity spirals, and for straight tracking (turning radius>40 m) and moderate turns (radius 20-40 m) in high-velocity spirals, all vegetation damage was imprint (plants flattened by wheels). During sharp (radius <20 m), high-velocity turns, most or all of the disturbed width was scraped free of surface vegetation and soil, which was piled to the outside of each tire track. Total plant cover (all species) was not affected by track curvature in low-velocity spirals, but decreased in the order straight tracking>moderate turns>sharp turns in high-velocity spirals. In low-velocity spirals, post-tracking cover of several plant growth forms (non-native species, perennial species, sod-forming grasses) was similar to pre-tracking cover, but in high-velocity spirals, post-tracking cover of these growth forms decreased in the order straight > or =moderate=sharp. Cover of native species and forbs decreased more in high- than in low-velocity spirals, but was unaffected by curvature. Pre- and post-tracking cover of annual species, bunchgrasses, and shrubs was < or =3%. The most severe vegetation damage caused by operation of wheeled LAVs on grasslands is associated with sharp, high-velocity turns.

  12. Abortion and infant mortality before and after the 1973 US Supreme Court decision on abortion.

    PubMed

    Robertson, L S

    1981-07-01

    The 50 states of the US were compared in 1971-72 and 1974-75 with respect to percentage apparent conceptions aborted and infant mortality rates attributed to various causes. Only nonvehicle accidental deaths were consistently related to abortion. The correlation is nonlinear; nonvehicle accidental deaths were especially high in states with little or no abortion. A decline in nonvehicle accidental deaths from before to after the Supreme Court decision was most pronounced in states where there were fewest abortions before the decision and where increases in abortion followed the decision.

  13. What can obstetrician/gynecologists do to support abortion access?

    PubMed

    Mark, Alice G; Wolf, Merrill; Edelman, Alison; Castleman, Laura

    2015-10-01

    Unsafe abortion causes approximately 13% of all maternal deaths worldwide, with higher rates in areas where abortion access is restricted. Because safe abortion is so low risk, if all women who needed an abortion could access safe care, this rate would drop dramatically. As women's health providers and advocates, obstetrician/gynecologists can support abortion access. By delivering high-quality, evidence-based care ourselves, supporting other providers who perform abortion, helping women who access abortion in the community, providing second-trimester care, and improving contraceptive uptake, we can decrease morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion. PMID:26433507

  14. STS-1 operational flight profile. Volume 6: Abort analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The abort analysis for the cycle 3 Operational Flight Profile (OFP) for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) is defined, superseding the abort analysis previously presented. Included are the flight description, abort analysis summary, flight design groundrules and constraints, initialization information, general abort description and results, abort solid rocket booster and external tank separation and disposal results, abort monitoring displays and discussion on both ground and onboard trajectory monitoring, abort initialization load summary for the onboard computer, list of the key abort powered flight dispersion analysis.

  15. Abort Options for Human Lunar Missions between Earth Orbit and Lunar Vicinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald L.; Senent, Juan S.; Llama, Eduardo Garcia

    2005-01-01

    Apollo mission design emphasized operational flexibility that supported premature return to Earth. However, that design was tailored to use expendable hardware for short expeditions to low-latitude sites and cannot be applied directly to an evolutionary program requiring long stay times at arbitrary sites. This work establishes abort performanc e requirements for representative onorbit phases of missions involvin g rendezvous in lunar-orbit, lunar-surface and at the Earth-Moon libr ation point. This study submits reference abort delta-V requirements and other Earth return data (e.g., entry speed, flight path angle) and also examines the effect of abort performance requirements on propul sive capability for selected vehicle configurations.

  16. A simulation model for probabilistic analysis of Space Shuttle abort modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hage, R. T.

    1993-01-01

    A simulation model which was developed to provide a probabilistic analysis tool to study the various space transportation system abort mode situations is presented. The simulation model is based on Monte Carlo simulation of an event-tree diagram which accounts for events during the space transportation system's ascent and its abort modes. The simulation model considers just the propulsion elements of the shuttle system (i.e., external tank, main engines, and solid boosters). The model was developed to provide a better understanding of the probability of occurrence and successful completion of abort modes during the vehicle's ascent. The results of the simulation runs discussed are for demonstration purposes only, they are not official NASA probability estimates.

  17. A qualitative investigation of low-income abortion clients' attitudes toward public funding for abortion.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Adrianne; Manski, Ruth; Dennis, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    We explored how low-income abortion clients in states where public funding was and was not available perceived the role of public funding for abortion. From October 2010 through February 2011, we conducted 71 semi-structured in-depth telephone interviews with low-income abortion clients in Arizona, Florida, New York, and Oregon. Women reported weighing numerous factors when determining which circumstances warranted public funding. Though most women generally supported coverage, they deviated from their initial support when asked about particular circumstances. Respondents felt most strongly that abortion should not be covered when a woman could not afford another child or was pregnant outside of a romantic relationship. Participants used disparaging language to describe the presumed behavior of women faced with unintended pregnancies. In seeking to discredit "other" women's abortions, women revealed the complex nature of abortion stigma. We propose that women's abortion experiences and subsequent opinions on coverage indicated three distinct manifestations of abortion stigma: women (1) resisted the prominent discourse that marks women who have had abortions as selfish and irresponsible; (2) internalized societal norms that stereotype women based on the circumstances surrounding the abortion; and (3) reproduced stigma by distancing themselves from the negative stereotypes associated with women who have had abortions. PMID:25068780

  18. The persistence of induced abortion in Cuba: exploring the notion of an "abortion culture".

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Danièle; Flynn, Andrea

    2009-03-01

    Cuba's annual induced abortion rate persistently ranks among the highest in the world, and abortion plays a prominent role in Cuban fertility regulation despite widespread contraceptive prevalence and state promotion of modern contraceptives. We explore this phenomenon using the concept of an "abortion culture," typically used in reference to Soviet and post-Soviet countries. We synthesize existing literature to provide a historical account of abortion and contraception in Cuba. We also provide a qualitative analysis of abortion and contraceptive use based on in-depth interviews conducted in 2005 in Havana with 24 women who have had an abortion and 10 men whose partners have had an abortion. Information gained from a focus-group discussion with medical professionals also informed the study. Our four principal findings are: (a) longstanding awareness of abortion, (b) the view of abortion as a personal decision, (c) the influence of economic constraints on the decision to induce an abortion, and (d) general skepticism toward contraceptives. We discuss our results on abortion in Cuba in relation to the notion of social diffusion, an approach commonly used to explain the spread of fertility control throughout a population.

  19. Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN and C) Design Overview and Flight Test Results from NASA's Max Launch Abort System (MLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lanzi, Raymond J.; Ward, Philip R.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Engineering and Safety Center designed, developed and flew the alternative Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) as risk mitigation for the baseline Orion spacecraft launch abort system already in development. The NESC was tasked with both formulating a conceptual objective system design of this alternative MLAS as well as demonstrating this concept with a simulated pad abort flight test. Less than 2 years after Project start the MLAS simulated pad abort flight test was successfully conducted from Wallops Island on July 8, 2009. The entire flight test duration was 88 seconds during which time multiple staging events were performed and nine separate critically timed parachute deployments occurred as scheduled. This paper provides an overview of the guidance navigation and control technical approaches employed on this rapid prototyping activity; describes the methodology used to design the MLAS flight test vehicle; and lessons that were learned during this rapid prototyping project are also summarized.

  20. Emotional responses of women following therapeutic abortion.

    PubMed

    Adler, N E

    1975-04-01

    Factor analysis of post-abortion emotional responses revealed three factors. Negative emotions split into two factors: socially-and internally-based. Positive emotions, constituting the third factor, were experienced most strongly. Correlations with background variables suggest two influences on response: the woman's social environment and her internalized concerns about the abortion.

  1. Counseling for Women Who Seek Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth M.

    1972-01-01

    Concerned professionals in various parts of the country have formed crisis-oriented counseling services to meet the needs of women who request abortions. This article presents information obtained from a sample of women seeking abortions and discusses the counselor's role in the decision making process. (Author)

  2. Comment: unethical ethics investment boycotts and abortion.

    PubMed

    Furedi, A

    1998-01-01

    Ethical investment funds have traditionally boycotted the arms industry, companies known to pollute the environment, and those involved in animal research. However, recent newspaper reports suggest that some investment funds plan to also boycott hospitals and pharmaceutical companies involved in abortion-related activities. Ethical Financial, anti-abortion independent financial advisors, are encouraging a boycott of investment in private hospitals and manufacturers of equipment involved in abortions, and pharmaceutical firms which produce postcoital contraception or conduct embryo research. Ethical Financial claims that Family Assurance has agreed to invest along anti-abortion lines, Aberdeen Investment is already boycotting companies linked to abortion, and Hendersons ethical fund plans to follow suit. There is speculation that Standard Life, the largest mutual insurer in Europe, will also refuse to invest in abortion-related concerns when it launches its ethical fund in the spring. Managers of ethical funds should, however, understand that, contrary to the claims of the anti-choice lobby, there is extensive public support for legal abortion, emergency contraception, and embryo research. Individuals and institutions which contribute to the development of reproductive health care services are working to alleviate the distress of unwanted pregnancy and infertility, laudable humanitarian goals which should be encouraged. Those who try to restrict the development of abortion methods and services simply show contempt for women, treating them as people devoid of conscience who are incapable of making moral choices.

  3. Group A Streptococcus endometritis following medical abortion.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Poyart, Claire; Kernéis, Solen

    2014-07-01

    Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol. PMID:24829245

  4. Group A Streptococcus Endometritis following Medical Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Kernéis, Solen

    2014-01-01

    Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol. PMID:24829245

  5. Strategies for the prevention of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2012-10-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the main causes of maternal mortality and severe morbidity in countries with restrictive abortion laws. In 2007, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) created a Working Group on the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences (WGPUA). This led to a FIGO initiative with that aim which has the active participation of 43 FIGO member societies. The WGPUA has recommended that the plans of action of the countries participating in the initiative consider several levels of prevention shown to have the potential to successfully reduce unsafe abortions: (1) primary prevention of unintended pregnancy and induced abortion; (2) secondary prevention to ensure the safety of an abortion procedure that could not be avoided; (3) tertiary prevention of further complications of an unsafe abortion procedure that has taken place already, through high-quality postabortion care; and (4) quaternary prevention of repeated abortion procedures through postabortion family planning counseling and contraceptive services. This paper reviews these levels of prevention and the evidence that they can be effective.

  6. Comment: unethical ethics investment boycotts and abortion.

    PubMed

    Furedi, A

    1998-01-01

    Ethical investment funds have traditionally boycotted the arms industry, companies known to pollute the environment, and those involved in animal research. However, recent newspaper reports suggest that some investment funds plan to also boycott hospitals and pharmaceutical companies involved in abortion-related activities. Ethical Financial, anti-abortion independent financial advisors, are encouraging a boycott of investment in private hospitals and manufacturers of equipment involved in abortions, and pharmaceutical firms which produce postcoital contraception or conduct embryo research. Ethical Financial claims that Family Assurance has agreed to invest along anti-abortion lines, Aberdeen Investment is already boycotting companies linked to abortion, and Hendersons ethical fund plans to follow suit. There is speculation that Standard Life, the largest mutual insurer in Europe, will also refuse to invest in abortion-related concerns when it launches its ethical fund in the spring. Managers of ethical funds should, however, understand that, contrary to the claims of the anti-choice lobby, there is extensive public support for legal abortion, emergency contraception, and embryo research. Individuals and institutions which contribute to the development of reproductive health care services are working to alleviate the distress of unwanted pregnancy and infertility, laudable humanitarian goals which should be encouraged. Those who try to restrict the development of abortion methods and services simply show contempt for women, treating them as people devoid of conscience who are incapable of making moral choices. PMID:12321439

  7. Restricting Federal Funds for Abortion: Another Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Paul M.; Thomas, Laura S.

    1983-01-01

    No public funds are saved by forbidding the use of federal funds for abortions among poor women. The future public cost of an unwanted birth is estimated for 1978 to be almost 100 times the cost of an abortion. (Author/RM)

  8. Abortion: The Viewpoint of Potential Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamrick, Michael H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A college survey showed strong support by a majority for legalized abortion, governmental support of abortion and family planning services, voluntary sterilization, and sex education and birth control information and/or services in the schools. Important differences of opinion among subgroups were, however, indicated. (Author/MJB)

  9. Safe abortion: a right for refugees?

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Aimee

    2002-05-01

    Thanks to initiatives since 1994, most reproductive health programmes for refugee women now include family planning and safe delivery care. Emergency contraception and post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortion are recommended, but provision of these services has lagged behind, while services for women who wish to terminate an unwanted pregnancy are almost non-existent. Given conditions in refugee settings, including high levels of sexual violence, unwanted pregnancies are of particular concern. Yet the extent of need for abortion services among refugee women remains undocumented. UNFPA estimates that 25-50% of maternal deaths in refugee settings are due to complications of unsafe abortion. Barriers to providing abortion services may include internal and external political pressure, legal restrictions, or the religious affiliation of service providers. Women too may be pressured to continue pregnancies and are often unable to express their needs or assert their rights. Abortion advocacy efforts should highlight the specific needs of refugee women and encourage provision of services where abortion is legally indicated, especially in cases of rape or incest, and risk to a woman's physical and mental health. Implementation of existing guidelines on reducing the occurrence and consequences of sexual violence in refugee settings is also important. Including refugee women in international campaigns for expanded access to safe abortion is critical in addressing the specific needs of this population. PMID:12369319

  10. Abortion and nursing: a legal update.

    PubMed

    Horsley, J

    1992-12-01

    Almost 2 decades after the Supreme Court's landmark decision in Roe v. Wade, nurses' refusal to assist in abortions is still in question. There are about 1.6 million abortions a year. If Congress passes the Freedom of Choice Act, American women will be guaranteed continued access to abortion. But the effect of new regulations on 2 million nurses is the issue. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 protects those who refuse to participate in abortions because of their religious beliefs. Several states have also enacted laws giving the right to health care workers to refuse to participate on ethical grounds. In Florida a staffer at an ambulatory care center was demoted after refusing to assist in an abortion. The appeals court ruled in the nurse's favor, stating that she should have been given a different assignment. Nurses who oppose abortion are advised by attorneys not to accept jobs where they are likely to be expected to assist in them. A New York City nurse refused to assist in an abortion and was reassigned to an administrative position, which she contested. The arbitrator restored her to her original position indicating that if the Freedom of Choice Act is passed it will not eliminate a nurse's right not to assist. In 1988 the so-called gag rule was issued barring caregivers at 4000 federally funded family planning clinics serving nearly 5 million women/year from recommending abortion to patients.

  11. Adolescents and Abortion: Choice in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Rebecca

    This publication seeks to explain the many facets of adolescent abortion: teenagers' need for access to safe abortion; the need for confidentiality in order to ensure safety; the real intent and effect of parental involvement laws; and the roles of parents and the state in safeguarding the health of pregnant teenagers. The first section looks at…

  12. Induced Abortion: An Ethical Conundrum for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millner, Vaughn S.; Hanks, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most controversial moral issues in American culture, but counselor value struggles regarding abortion are seldom addressed in counseling literature. This article considers the conflictual nature of the ethical principles of autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence as they can occur within the…

  13. Complexifying Commodification, Consumption, ART, and Abortion.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2015-01-01

    This commentary on Madeira's paper complicates the relationships between commodification, consumption, abortion, and assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) she draws in two ways. First, I examine under what conditions the commodification of ARTs, gametes, and surrogacy lead to patients becoming consumers. Second, I show that there are some stark difference between applying commodification critiques to ART versus abortion.

  14. [Abortion: an ethical or political issue?].

    PubMed

    Divay, Sophie

    2015-12-01

    Forty years after the decriminalisation of abortion, what is society's view of this hard-fought right of women? Do they finally have the freedom to control their own bodies? The sociological view put forward here questions the professional positioning of caregivers faced with women requesting an elective abortion.

  15. House seeks restrictions on "bogus" abortion clinics.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    Recent Congressional hearings have identified over 2000 pro-life counseling centers that deceptively portray themselves as abortion clinics. The issue has now become regulating these facilities referred to as bogus clinics. The bogus clinics enjoy a good deal of protection from the Federal Trade Commission because they are all registered as non-profit organizations. Many people investigating the situation feel that the issues of pro-life and pro-choice are not central. What is most important is the fact that these bogus clinics are able to attract people who think they can obtain abortions when in fact these facilities do not offer such services. The staff at the bogus clinics have been reported to detain, harass, and coerce women who want to have abortions. They often show graphic films and employ psychological pressure in an attempt to convince the woman not to have an abortion. The Pearson Foundation published a 93 page manual titled, "How to Start and Operate Your Own Pro-Life Crisis Pregnancy Center". The manual outlines all the steps and procedures necessary to run an operation committed into deceiving women into thinking they offer abortion services. So far, proposed legislation would either require Yellow Pages publishers to list abortion alternatives and abortion services separately, or make facilities that do not provide abortions declare it in a disclaimer. However, federal authority in this situation is unclear. other proposals would give the FTC control of non-profits, or only deceptive non-profits.

  16. Abortion 1982: the Supreme Court once again.

    PubMed

    Healey, J M

    1982-11-01

    Clearly, abortion in the US continues to be a major medico-legal issue which will not go away. 5 major abortion cases are scheduled for review by the US Supreme Court during its 1982-83 term. Taken together, these 5 cases challenge several of the key conclusions of the Court's review of the abortion question. The primary focus of the cases is the state's power to regulate the abortion decision during the 1st and 2nd trimester of the pregnancy. 2 cases involve ordinances passed by the City of Akron regulating access to abortion in areas such as consent and notification requirements and the location of abortions after the 1st trimester. 2 of the cases involve a Missouri statute also dealing with the requirement that abortions after the 1st trimester be performed in a hospital. The final case involves a Virginia criminal prosecution of a physician accused of violating the state's requirement of in-hospital performance of a 2nd trimester abortion. In the case of Roe v. Wade, the Court had established the "trimester trilogy" governing state regulation of the abortion procedure. For the stage of the pregnancy prior to the end of the 1st trimester, the Court held that the abortion decision and its effectuation must be left to the medical judgment of the pregnant women's attending physician. For the stage of the pregnancy subsequent to the end of the 1st trimester, the Court ruled that the state may promote its interest in the health of the mother by regulating the abortion procedure in ways reasonably related to maternal health. For the stage of pregnancy subsequent to viability, the state may promote its interest in the potentiality of human life by regulation, even prohibiting abortion, except where it is necessary to preserve the mother's life or health. These 5 cases challenge the role of the Court in determining the scope of appropriate state regulation at various stages of the pregnancy. Suffering a loss of prestige in the 10 years since the Roe v. Wade and Doe v

  17. [Counter-acception or abort and lie].

    PubMed

    Maruani, G

    1979-09-01

    In this very short but fiery and violent paper against abortion the author states that most women seeking abortion are actually lying to themselves, pretending they want something which, in reality, they do not want, i.e. an abortion. The laws regulating abortion in most countries are such that a woman is practically forbidden to make an independent decision, despite, or because of the number of counseling sessions and of meetings with doctors that she must go through. Radio, television, newspapers and magazines, friends and relatives, all contribute to make of abortion a run-of-the-mill operation, while it should be seen as scandal, and as the total negation of any maternal instinct. PMID:12158286

  18. [Therapeutic abortion, unjustified absence in health policy].

    PubMed

    Chávez-Alvarado, Susana

    2013-07-01

    Although abortion for health reasons is not considered a crime in Peru, the State does not allow its inclusion in public policy, thus violating women's right to terminate a pregnancy when it affects their health. When examining the article in the Criminal Code which decriminalizes this type of abortion, provisions are identified which protect women and set the conditions to offer this type of service. This document sets the debate about the arguments used by the Peruvian State for not approving a therapeutic abortion protocol which would regulate the provision and financing of therapeutic abortion in public services, and explains why this obligation should be complied with, based on the conceptual framework of "health exception" In addition, it presents two cases brought before the judicial court in which the Peruvian State was found guilty of violating the human rights of two adolescents to whom a therapeutic abortion was denied.

  19. Information needs among Italian abortion patients.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson Agostino, M

    1997-01-01

    Controversy still surrounds abortion and abortion care in many countries. Information for women who seek abortion is not always as objective and complete as desired. In Italy abortion has been legal for the last decades. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate general information needs among patients in a hospital in Rome. A questionnaire concerning information needs, opinions on information to include in a booklet, and methods of information was distributed among 212 women in a public hospital in Rome. Women answered the questionnaire very differently, and general information needs were not shown to be as essential as expected; their present needs seemed especially underestimated. However, a booklet with information as objective and complete as possible is suggested as a way of giving information to abortion patients.

  20. Medical abortion: the hidden revolution.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Phil

    2015-07-01

    While the medical abortion (MA) drugs, mifepristone and misoprostol, have radically altered reproductive health practices around the world, there has been little field research on the sales and use of these drugs, especially in developing countries. This leaves the family planning community with many unanswered questions. While good profiles of contraceptive use are available for many countries and we have good technical data on the MA drugs' efficacy, dosages and regimens such as home dosage of misoprostol versus clinic dosage, we have very little information about the quantities of MA drugs sold, how they are used, where they are used, and, in the case of misoprostol, for what purposes. Sales data are available from one excellent commercial survey and from social marketing sales of mifepristone and misoprostol and these are presented. Acknowledging the sensitivity of the issue, especially in countries where abortion is severely restricted, the author makes a plea for careful additional research to shed light on an important and growing part of the international reproductive health picture.

  1. If war is "just," so is abortion.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    1991-01-01

    Currently Catholic bishops are applying an inconsistent ethical paradigm to the issues of war and abortion. Based on the seamless garment theory war, abortion and capital punishment are all immoral acts because they are of the same garment. They are all "killing acts" and as such they are immoral. However there is within the Catholic paradigm the idea of a just war. The just war theory states that the destruction of human life in war is justified if it is for a greater good. However abortion has no exceptions, there is no just abortion in the rules of the Catholic Church. The author takes the just war doctrine as presented by the Catholic Church and shows how it could easily apply to abortion. Both war and abortion involve the taking of a human life, but in the case of war the taking of a life is justified if it is done to protect your own life. The same exception in abortion would be to allow abortion when the mother's life is in danger. yet no such exception exists. The just war theory further states that was is necessary to protect national integrity, particularly if the violation erodes the quality of life for its citizens. The same exception for abortion would include allowing abortions for women who already have more children then they can care for or if having the child would erode the quality of life for the woman. Other aspects of the just war theory include the competence and goals of the national leaders. Women must also be allowed to be competent moral agents. Proponents of the seamless garment theory will bring up the fact that in a just war only combatants die yet the fetus is innocent. But no war has ever been fought without the loss of innocent civilians.

  2. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion

    PubMed Central

    Urquia, Marcelo L.; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O’Campo, Patricia J.; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H.; Henry, David A.; Ray, Joel G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. Methods: We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Results: Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75–2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26–2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44–3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02–7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. Interpretation: High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. PMID:27067818

  3. States rebel against Federal abortion orders.

    PubMed

    Kent, C; Tokarski, C

    1994-01-01

    Despite the ascent of Bill Clinton to Presidential power in the US and his early successful repeals of bans on abortion counseling at federally funded clinics, abortions in military hospitals, and fetal tissue research, the controversy and debate over a woman's right to abortion continues in the US. The Hyde Amendment, named after Representative Henry Hyde, Republican from Illinois, has been in effect since 1976 barring Medicaid from funding abortions except to save the life of the pregnant woman. Congress in 1993, however, eased the amendment to allow states to use Medicaid funds to pay for abortions for low-income women in the cases of rape or incest. Anti-abortion lawmakers were assured by the provision's sponsors that the Clinton Administration would not force states to comply. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) instead sent a letter to state Medicaid directors on December 28, 1993, ordering them to use Medicaid funds to pay for abortions for low-income women who were the victims of rape or incest. President Clinton subsequently complained that HHS had bypassed his office in issuing the directive, state Medicaid directors protested that the directive had been imposed without the usual notice and allowance of time for public comment, and states claimed that the order clashes with existing state laws which ban the public funding of abortions not required to save the life of the mother. Officials from Arkansas, Colorado, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, and Utah have stated that they may fight the directive, while the HHS will most likely not move to rescind or change its directive. The issue will probably be resolved in the courts. The authors note that this state/federal battle over Medicaid-funded abortions is only part of a larger war scheduled to take place in Congress over whether pregnancy-related services, including abortion, will be covered in the Administration's Health Security Act.

  4. Safety improvement issues for mission aborts of future space transportation systems.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, M; Wächter, M; Sachs, G

    2006-01-01

    Two-stage winged space access vehicles consisting of a carrier stage with airbreathing turbo/ram jet engines and a rocket propelled orbital stage which may significantly reduce space transport costs and have additional advantages offer a great potential for mission safety improvements. Formulating the nominal mission and abort scenarios caused by engine malfunctions as an optimal control problem allows full exploitation of safety capabilities. The shaping of the nominal mission has a significant impact on the prospective safety. For this purpose, most relevant mission aborts are considered together with the nominal mission, treating them as an optimization problem of branched trajectories where the branching point is not fixed. The applied procedure yields a safety improved nominal trajectory, showing the feasibility of the included mission aborts with minimum payload penalty. The other mission aborts can be separately treated, with the initial condition given by the state of the nominal trajectory at the time when a failure occurs. A mission abort plan is set up, covering all emergency scenarios. PMID:16480117

  5. Safety improvement issues for mission aborts of future space transportation systems.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, M; Wächter, M; Sachs, G

    2006-01-01

    Two-stage winged space access vehicles consisting of a carrier stage with airbreathing turbo/ram jet engines and a rocket propelled orbital stage which may significantly reduce space transport costs and have additional advantages offer a great potential for mission safety improvements. Formulating the nominal mission and abort scenarios caused by engine malfunctions as an optimal control problem allows full exploitation of safety capabilities. The shaping of the nominal mission has a significant impact on the prospective safety. For this purpose, most relevant mission aborts are considered together with the nominal mission, treating them as an optimization problem of branched trajectories where the branching point is not fixed. The applied procedure yields a safety improved nominal trajectory, showing the feasibility of the included mission aborts with minimum payload penalty. The other mission aborts can be separately treated, with the initial condition given by the state of the nominal trajectory at the time when a failure occurs. A mission abort plan is set up, covering all emergency scenarios.

  6. [Induced abortion: a vulnerable public health problem].

    PubMed

    Requena, M

    1991-03-01

    Induced abortion is an urgent public health problem that can be controlled if it is approached in its true complexity and with a social and humanist perspective. Induced abortion has been discussed in Chile since the last century, but not always openly. Abortion is not just an individual and collective medical problem, it is also an ethical, religious, legal, demographic, political, and psychological problem. Above all it is a problem of human rights. In the past 60 years, more than 50 countries representing 76% of the world population have liberalized their abortion legislation. Around 980 million women have some degrees of access of legal abortion. The magnitude of illegal abortion is difficult to determine because of the desire of women to hide their experiences. Estimates of the incidence of abortion in Chile made some 25 years ago are no longer valid because of the numerous social changes in the intervening years. The number of abortions in Chile in 1987 was estimated using an indirect residual method at 195,441, of which 90%, or 175,897, were induced. By this estimate, 38.8% of pregnancies in Chile end in abortion. Data on hospitalizations for complications of induced abortion show an increase from 13.9/1000 fertile aged women in 1940 to 29.1 in 1965. By 1987, with increased contraceptive usage, the rate declined to 10.5 abortions per 1000 fertile aged women. The cost of hospitalization for abortion complications in 1987, despite the decline, was still estimated at US $4.3 million, a large sum in an era of declining health resources. The problem of induced abortion can be analyzed by placing it in the context of elements affecting the desire to control fertility. 4 complexes of variables are involved: those affecting the supply of contraceptive, the demand for contraceptives, the various costs of fertility control measure, and alternatives to fertility control for satisfying various needs. The analysis is further complicated when efforts are made to

  7. Overview of C/C-SiC Composite Development for the Orion Launch Abort System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Lee R.; Valentine, Peter G.; Schofield, Elizabeth S.; Beshears, Ronald D.; Coston, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Past and present efforts by the authors to further understanding of the ceramic matrix composite (CMC) material used in the valve components of the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) Attitude Control Motor (ACM) will be presented. The LAS is designed to quickly lift the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) away from its launch vehicle in emergency abort scenarios. The ACM is a solid rocket motor which utilizes eight throttleable nozzles to maintain proper orientation of the CEV during abort operations. Launch abort systems have not been available for use by NASA on manned launches since the last Apollo ]Saturn launch in 1975. The CMC material, carbon-carbon/silicon-carbide (C/C-SiC), is manufactured by Fiber Materials, Inc. and consists of a rigid 4-directional carbon-fiber tow weave reinforced with a mixed carbon plus SiC matrix. Several valve and full system (8-valve) static motor tests have been conducted by the motor vendor. The culmination of these tests was the successful flight test of the Orion LAS Pad Abort One (PA ]1) vehicle on May 6, 2010. Due to the fast pace of the LAS development program, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center assisted the LAS community by performing a series of material and component evaluations using fired hardware from valve and full ]system development motor tests, and from the PA-1 flight ACM motor. Information will be presented on the structure of the C/C-SiC material, as well as the efficacy of various non ]destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, including but not limited to: radiography, computed tomography, nanofocus computed tomography, and X-ray transmission microscopy. Examinations of the microstructure of the material via scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy will also be discussed. The findings resulting from the subject effort are assisting the LAS Project in risk assessments and in possible modifications to the final ACM operational design.

  8. Can the Danish abortion rate be changed?

    PubMed

    Lawson, C

    1990-06-01

    Topics of interest to women were discussed at a 1-day conference. 85% of the participants were women. The theme was, "Can the abortion rate be changed?" The number of abortions rose from 19,919 in 1985 to 21,199 in 1988, a rate of 6%. The previous 8 years had shown a steady decrease from 25,662 in 1977. This was especially pronounced in women under 25. The birth rate climbed 10% at the same time. With the exception of Ireland, free access to abortion is the rule in the majority of the countries of Europe. Prenatal diagnosis (PD)--chorionic villus biopsies and amniocentesis--was begun in 1970 in Denmark. Investigation of placental biopsies was begun in 1983. The number of diagnoses rose sharply after this. From 1980-1988 the number of legally induced abortions was between 20,000 and 23,000. The number of spontaneous abortions rose from 8000 to over 9000. There were approximately 70 abortions because of PD. This figure reached 133 in 1980. Women aged 35 and above have made increasing use of PD. After PD was brought about, the number of legal abortions dropped. 42% of pregnant women over 35 carried to term;l 46% chose legal abortion. In the 40-year age group, the figures were 23% and 60%, respectively. Data on 140 abortion seekers (AS) (ages 16-21) in Denmark (73.6% replied) were compared to 201 sexually active youngsters who were not pregnant. The abortion seekers showed no difference from those not pregnant. However, more among the AS had started sexual intercourse with the 1st 2 years after menarche; they had had many different sexual partners. 73.9% of the AS used contraception at 1st intercourse, compared to 82.1% of those not pregnant. In the abortion-seeking group, about 1/3 became pregnant despite the use of contraception (generally a condom). 44% had most recently used a pill. In 1973, a law was passed permitting abortion before the end of the 12th week of pregnancy. In the last 17 years, abortions have become more frequent among young career women. The

  9. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lamina, Mustafa Adelaja

    2015-01-01

    Background. Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. Method. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. Results. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. Conclusion. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high. PMID:26078881

  10. The Range Safety Debris Catalog Analysis in Preparation for the Pad Abort One Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutty, Prasad M.; Pratt, William D.

    2010-01-01

    The Pad Abort One flight test of the Orion Abort Flight Test Program is currently under development with the goal of demonstrating the capability of the Launch Abort System. In the event of a launch failure, this system will propel the Crew Exploration Vehicle to safety. An essential component of this flight test is range safety, which ensures the security of range assets and personnel. A debris catalog analysis was done as part of a range safety data package delivered to the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico where the test will be conducted. The analysis discusses the consequences of an overpressurization of the Abort Motor. The resulting structural failure was assumed to create a debris field of vehicle fragments that could potentially pose a hazard to the range. A statistical model was used to assemble the debris catalog of potential propellant fragments. Then, a thermodynamic, energy balance model was applied to the system in order to determine the imparted velocity to these propellant fragments. This analysis was conducted at four points along the flight trajectory to better understand the failure consequences over the entire flight. The methods used to perform this analysis are outlined in detail and the corresponding results are presented and discussed.

  11. Fertility after contraception or abortion.

    PubMed

    Huggins, G R; Cullins, V E

    1990-10-01

    There is a very small correlation, if any, between the prior use of OCs and congenital malformations, including Down's syndrome. There are few, if any, recent reports on masculinization of a female fetus born to a mother who took an OC containing 1 mg of a progestogen during early pregnancy. However, patients suspected of being pregnant and who are desirous of continuing that pregnancy should not continue to take OCs, nor should progestogen withdrawal pregnancy tests be used. Concern still exists regarding the occurrence of congenital abnormalities in babies born to such women. The incidence of postoperative infection after first trimester therapeutic abortion in this country is low. However, increasing numbers of women are undergoing repeated pregnancy terminations, and their risk for subsequent pelvic infections may be multiplied with each succeeding abortion. The incidence of prematurity due to cervical incompetence or surgical infertility after first trimester pregnancy terminations is not increased significantly. Asherman's syndrome may occur after septic therapeutic abortion. The pregnancy rate after treatment of this syndrome is low. The return of menses and the achievement of a pregnancy may be slightly delayed after OCs are discontinued, but the fertility rate is within the normal range by 1 year. The incidence of postpill amenorrhea of greater than 6 months' duration is probably less than 1%. The occurrence of the syndrome does not seem to be related to length of use or type of pill. Patients with prior normal menses as well as those with menstrual abnormalities before use of OCs may develop this syndrome. Patients with normal estrogen and gonadotropin levels usually respond with return of menses and ovulation when treated with clomiphene. The rate for achievement of pregnancy is much lower than that for patients with spontaneous return of menses. The criteria for defining PID or for categorizing its severity are diverse. The incidence of PID is higher

  12. Legal abortion in Italy: 1980-1981.

    PubMed

    Tosi, S L; Grandolfo, M E; Spinelli, A; O'Reilly, K R; Hogue, C J

    1985-01-01

    In 1980 and 1981, there were 446,430 legal abortions performed in Italy. There were about 345 legal abortions per 1,000 live births in 1980 and 363 in 1981. About 1.6 percent of women aged 15-49 obtained abortions in both years. An analysis of the characteristics of Italian women who obtained abortions indicates that most were married (about 70 percent), aged 18-36 (74 percent), had had less than a high school education (74 percent) and had had at least one previous live birth (70-75 percent). In 1981, 88 percent of abortions were obtained in public hospitals; 58 percent were carried out at eight or fewer weeks of gestation; and 78 percent were performed under general anesthesia. Only 20 percent were performed without an overnight stay in the hospital; and over 40 percent of women were hospitalized for two days or longer. Infection after the abortion was reported in only 0.03 percent of cases in 1981, and hemorrhage was reported in only 0.27 percent. In 1981, between 43 percent and 84 percent of gynecologists (depending on the region of the country) declined to perform abortions on grounds of conscience. PMID:3872230

  13. Abortion: women's demands. Report from Piriapolis.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A

    1993-01-01

    On November 26-28, 1992, the Latin American and Caribbean Women's Health Network convened a meeting in Uruguay entitled, "Abortion in Latin America: Perspectives and Strategies." The first session was devoted to discussion of a paper that argues that a feminist ethic must be developed to counteract the dominant patriarchal ethic, which fails to improve women's lives. The next session covered the World Bank's concerns about the economic consequences of illegal abortion. The third session included descriptions of the experiences of the coordinator of the Sao Paulo Municipal Women's Health Program and of the new Argentine National Women's Health Network. Debate and discussion were generated by the next speaker, who presented a legislative proposal for the decriminalization of abortion in Latin America and noted that restrictive policies, which have failed to reduce abortion rates, will be difficult to change. It was proposed that regional campaigns be launched to legalize abortion as a first step in achieving reproductive rights for women. After a review of abortion-related activities in the region during the past year, participants composed a five-year plan of action in the areas of research, data centralization, petition campaigns, and publication of a review of abortion legislation. Finally, it was proposed that a counselor training course in sexual and reproductive rights be developed. PMID:12179717

  14. Ireland: child rape case undermines abortion ban.

    PubMed

    1992-11-01

    Abortion has been illegal in Ireland since 1861. This position was written into the national Constitution in 1963 and reconfirmed by referendum in 1983. Contraception is also illegal in the country. The pregnancy of a 14-year old adolescent due to an alleged rape, however, has caused many in Ireland to voice their support for abortion in limited circumstances. Approximately 5000 pregnant women go from Ireland to the United Kingdom annually for abortions. This 14-year old youth also planned to make the crossing, but was blocked from leaving by the Irish police and later by an injunction of the Attorney-General. The Irish Supreme Court upheld the injunction even though the young woman was reportedly contemplating suicide. A national outcry ensued with thousands of demonstrators marching in Dublin to demand the availability of information on abortion and that Irish women be allowed to travel whenever and wherever they desire. 66% of respondents to recent public opinion polls favor abortion in certain circumstances. Ultimately, the Irish Supreme Court reversed their stance to allow pregnant Irish women to travel internationally and gave suicidal Irish women the right to abortions. These decisions were made shortly within the time frame needed for the young lady in question to received a legal abortion in the United Kingdom.

  15. Spanish cabinet moves to liberalize abortion law.

    PubMed

    1995-07-14

    On July 7 (1995), the cabinet of Spain's socialist prime minister Felipe Gonzalez approved a measure to expand the country's abortion law by permitting a woman to obtain the procedure during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy in circumstances not currently allowed. Since 1985, abortion has been legal throughout pregnancy in the following situations: when a medical specialist not associated with the procedure determines that an abortion is necessary to "avert a serious risk to [a woman's] physical or mental health;" during the first 12 weeks if the pregnancy results from reported rape; and within the first 22 weeks when two physicians not associated with the abortion certify that the fetus would develop "severe physical or mental defects." The new legislation, which also requires women to receive nonbinding counseling, permits abortions when a health care professional determines that carrying to term will cause a woman severe anxiety for social or economic reasons. Before the measure can become law, it must be approved by the Spanish Parliament, which is expected to vote on the proposal in September. The Catalan nationalist grouping, which has been a key supporter of the socialist government, is among the forces opposing liberalization of the abortion statute. Partly due to the abortion controversy, the Catalan coalition is expected to vote on July 17 to decide whether to continue its backing.

  16. Abortion stigma: a reconceptualization of constituents, causes, and consequences.

    PubMed

    Norris, Alison; Bessett, Danielle; Steinberg, Julia R; Kavanaugh, Megan L; De Zordo, Silvia; Becker, Davida

    2011-01-01

    Stigmatization is a deeply contextual, dynamic social process; stigma from abortion is the discrediting of individuals as a result of their association with abortion. Abortion stigma is under-researched and under-theorized, and the few existing studies focus only on women who have had abortions. We build on this work, drawing from the social science literature to describe three groups whom we posit are affected by abortion stigma: Women who have had abortions, individuals who work in facilities that provide abortion, and supporters of women who have had abortions, including partners, family, and friends, as well as abortion researchers and advocates. Although these groups are not homogeneous, some common experiences within the groups--and differences between the groups--help to illuminate how people manage abortion stigma and begin to reveal the roots of this stigma itself. We discuss five reasons why abortion is stigmatized, beginning with the rationale identified by Kumar, Hessini, and Mitchell: The violation of female ideals of sexuality and motherhood. We then suggest additional causes of abortion stigma, including attributing personhood to the fetus, legal restrictions, the idea that abortion is dirty or unhealthy, and the use of stigma as a tool for anti-abortion efforts. Although not exhaustive, these causes of abortion stigma illustrate how it is made manifest for affected groups. Understanding abortion stigma will inform strategies to reduce it, which has direct implications for improving access to care and better health for those whom stigma affects.

  17. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  18. Emotional Sequelae of Abortion: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemkau, Jeanne Parr

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes literature on normative reactions to abortion and factors that increase risk of negative emotional sequelae. Discusses characteristics of woman, social support and cultural milieu around the abortion, the medical environment and abortion procedure itself, and events subsequent to abortion which may cause conflict. Discusses implications…

  19. The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

  20. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  1. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  2. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  3. The deprivation argument against abortion.

    PubMed

    Stretton, Dean

    2004-04-01

    The most plausible pro-life argument claims that abortion is seriously wrong because it deprives the foetus of something valuable. This paper examines two recent versions of this argument. Don Marquis's version takes the valuable thing to be a 'future like ours', a future containing valuable experiences and activities. Jim Stone's version takes the valuable thing to be a future containing conscious goods, which it is the foetus's biological nature to make itself have. I give three grounds for rejecting these arguments. First, they lead to unacceptable inequalities in the wrongness of killing. Second, they lead to counterintuitive results in a range of imaginary cases. Third, they ignore the role of psychological connectedness in determining the magnitude or seriousness of deprivation-based harms: because the foetus is only weakly psychologically connected to its own future, it cannot be seriously harmed by being deprived of that future. PMID:15148946

  4. The Marquis de Sade and induced abortion.

    PubMed Central

    Farr, A D

    1980-01-01

    In 1795 the Marquis de Sade published his La Philosophic dans le boudoir, in which he proposed the use of induced abortion for social reasons and as a means of population control. It is from this time that medical and social acceptance of abortion can be dated, although previously the subject had not been discussed in public in modern times. It is suggested that it was largely due to de Sade's writing that induced abortion received the impetus which resulted in its subsequent spread in western society. PMID:6990001

  5. Immediate Intrauterine Device Insertion Following Surgical Abortion.

    PubMed

    Patil, Eva; Bednarek, Paula H

    2015-12-01

    Placement of an intrauterine device (IUD) immediately after a first or second trimester surgical abortion is safe and convenient and decreases the risk of repeat unintended pregnancy. Immediate postabortion IUD placement is not recommended in the setting of postprocedure hemorrhage, uterine perforation, infection, or hematometra. Otherwise, there are few contraindications to IUD placement following surgical abortion. Sexually transmitted infection screening should follow US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. No additional antibiotics are needed beyond those used for the abortion. Placing immediate postabortion IUDs makes highly-effective long-acting reversible contraception more accessible to women. PMID:26598301

  6. How technology is reframing the abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Callahan, D

    1986-02-01

    Since the 1973 Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion, medical and scientific developments have focused greater public and professional attention on the status of the fetus. Their cumulative effect may influence legal, social, and moral thought and set the stage for a change in public opinion and a challenge to legalized abortion. There is as yet no inexorable convergence of medical data and legal opinion that would undermine the rational of Roe v. Wade. But the prochoice movement must find room for an open airing of the moral questions if abortion is to remain what it should be--a legally acceptable act.

  7. Preventing infective complications relating to induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Mary, Nirmala; Mahmood, Tahir A

    2010-08-01

    Infective complications following induced abortions are still a common cause of morbidity and mortality. This review focusses on defining the strategies to improve care of women seeking an induced abortion and to reduce infective complications. We have considered the evidence for screening and cost-effectiveness for antibiotic prophylaxis. Current evidence suggests that treating all women with prophylactic antibiotics in preference to screening and treating is the most cost-effective way of reducing infective complications following induced abortions. The final strategy to prevent infective complications should be individualized for each region/area depending on the prevalence of organisms causing pelvic infections and the resources available.

  8. Selective abortion in Brazil: the anencephaly case.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora

    2007-08-01

    This paper discusses the Brazilian Supreme Court ruling on the case of anencephaly. In Brazil, abortion is a crime against the life of a fetus, and selective abortion of non-viable fetuses is prohibited. Following a paradigmatic case discussed by the Brazilian Supreme Court in 2004, the use of abortion was authorized in the case of a fetus with anencephaly. The objective of this paper is to analyze the ethical arguments of the case, in particular the strategy of avoiding the moral status of the fetus, the cornerstone thesis of the Catholic Church. PMID:17614991

  9. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    SciTech Connect

    Uythoven, Jan; Boccardi, Andrea; Bravin, Enrico; Goddard, Brennan; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry; Höfle, Wolfgang; Jacquet, Delphine; Kain, Verena; Mazzoni, Stefano; Meddahi, Malika; Valuch, Daniel; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana

    2014-07-01

    To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  10. Access to services: advocacy for abortion.

    PubMed

    Edouard, Lindsay

    2014-10-01

    Twenty-five years ago, in 1989, family planning services in Britain faced a serious crisis with contentious cuts for community clinics being contemplated by health authorities. There was extensive discussion on ethical issues relating to the provision of abortion services. Social acceptance of abortion occurred in association with departure from traditional values due to the exigencies of modern life. Twenty-five years later, in 2014, abortion unfortunately continues to cause controversy in international health, despite guidance for its incorporation in comprehensive reproductive health care services.

  11. Public opinion about abortion-related stigma among Mexican Catholics and implications for unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    McMurtrie, Stephanie M; García, Sandra G; Wilson, Kate S; Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Fawcett, Gillian M

    2012-09-01

    A nationally representative survey was conducted among 3000 Catholics in Mexico during 2009 and 2010. Respondents were presented with a hypothetical situation about a young woman who decided to have an abortion and were asked their personal opinion of her. On the basis of a stigma index, it was found that the majority (61%) had stigmatizing attitudes about abortion; however, 81% believed that abortion should be legal in at least some circumstances. Respondents were significantly more likely to stigmatize abortion if they disagreed with the Mexico City law legalizing the procedure (odds ratio 1.66; 95% CI, 1.30-2.11) and believed that abortion should be prohibited in all cases (odds ratio 3.13; 95% CI, 2.28-4.30). Such stigma can lead women to seek unsafe abortions to avoid judgment by society.

  12. Entry Abort Determination Using Non-Adaptive Neural Networks for Mars Precision Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybeal, Sarah R.; Kranzusch, Kara M.

    2005-01-01

    The 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will attempt the first precision landing on Mars using a modified version of the Apollo Earth entry guidance program. The guidance routine, Entry Terminal Point Controller (ETPC), commands the deployment of a supersonic parachute after converging the range to the landing target. For very dispersed cases, ETPC may not converge the range to the target and safely command parachute deployment within Mach number and dynamic pressure constraints. A full-lift up abort can save 85% of these failed trajectories while abandoning the precision landing objective. Though current MSL requirements do not call for an abort capability, an autonomous abort capability may be desired, for this mission or future Mars precision landers, to make the vehicle more robust. The application of artificial neural networks (NNs) as an abort determination technique was evaluated by personnel at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC). In order to implement an abort, a failed trajectory needs to be recognized in real time. Abort determination is dependent upon several trajectory parameters whose relationships to vehicle survival are not well understood, and yet the lander must be trained to recognize unsafe situations. Artificial neural networks (NNs) provide a way to model these parameters and can provide MSL with the artificial intelligence necessary to independently declare an abort. Using the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission as a case study, a non-adaptive NN was designed, trained and tested using Monte Carlo simulations of MSL descent and incorporated into ETPC. Neural network theory, the development history of the MSL NN, and initial testing with severe dust storm entry trajectory cases are discussed in Reference 1 and will not be repeated here. That analysis demonstrated that NNs are capable of recognizing failed descent trajectories and can significantly increase the survivability of MSL for very

  13. Abortion Providers' Experiences with Medicaid Abortion Coverage Policies: A Qualitative Multistate Study

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Amanda; Blanchard, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the implementation of state Medicaid abortion policies and the impact of these policies on abortion clients and abortion providers. Data Source From 2007 to 2010, in-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of 70 abortion-providing facilities in 15 states. Study Design In-depth interviews focused on abortion providers' perceptions regarding Medicaid and their experiences working with Medicaid and securing reimbursement in cases that should receive federal funding: rape, incest, and life endangerment. Data Extraction Data were transcribed verbatim before being coded. Principal Findings In two study states, abortion providers reported that 97 percent of submitted claims for qualifying cases were funded. Success receiving reimbursement was attributed to streamlined electronic billing procedures, timely claims processing, and responsive Medicaid staff. Abortion providers in the other 13 states reported reimbursement for 36 percent of qualifying cases. Providers reported difficulties obtaining reimbursement due to unclear rejections of qualifying claims, complex billing procedures, lack of knowledgeable Medicaid staff with whom billing problems could be discussed, and low and slow reimbursement rates. Conclusions Poor state-level implementation of Medicaid coverage of abortion policies creates barriers for women seeking abortion. Efforts to ensure policies are implemented appropriately would improve women's health. PMID:22742741

  14. Receiving versus being denied an abortion and subsequent tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Sarah C M; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-03-01

    The negative health consequences of tobacco use are well documented. Some research finds women receiving abortions are at increased risk of subsequent tobacco use. This literature has methodological problems, most importantly, inappropriate comparison groups. This study uses data from the Turnaway Study, a longitudinal study of women who all sought, but did not all receive, abortions at 30 facilities across the United States. Participants included women presenting just before an abortion facility's gestational age limit who received abortions (Near Limit Abortion Group, n = 452), just after the gestational limit who were denied abortions (Turnaways, n = 231), and who received first trimester abortions (First Trimester Abortion Group, n = 273). This study examined the association between receiving versus being denied an abortion and subsequent tobacco use over 2-years. Trajectories of tobacco use over 2 years were compared using multivariate mixed effects regression. Women receiving abortion maintained their level of tobacco use over 2 years. Women denied abortion initially had lower levels of tobacco use than women receiving abortion, but increased their tobacco use from 1 week through 12-18 months post-abortion seeking and then decreased their use by 2 years post-abortion seeking. Baseline parity modified these associations. Receiving an abortion was not associated with an increase in tobacco use over time. Overall, women who carry unwanted pregnancies to term appear to demonstrate similar cessation and resumption patterns to other pregnant women.

  15. Commercial Crew Program: Launch Abort Systems

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's work in the next generation of launch abort systems (LAS) is significantly different from past programs. Instead of designing a specific system for a given spacecraft or rocket, engineers ar...

  16. Thatcher condemns attacks on abortion mp.

    PubMed

    1987-12-19

    The Prime Minister, Mrs Margaret Thatcher, has stepped in to condemn a series of violent attacks on Liberal MP David Alton who is trying to reduce the [Illegible word] limit on abortions from 28 to 18 weeks.

  17. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone levels normally change throughout ... the development of breast cancer. Important Information about Breast Cancer Risk Factors At present, the factors known to ...

  18. Spiral Kicker for the beam abort system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. L.

    The feasibility of a special kicker to produce a damped spiral beam at the beam dump for the beam abort system was determined. There appears to be no problem with realizing this concept at a reasonably low cost.

  19. Ethnocultural identity and induced abortion in Kazakstan.

    PubMed

    Agadjanian, V; Qian, Z

    1997-12-01

    This study analyzes ethnic differences in induced abortion among ever-married women in Kazakstan, drawing on data from the 1995 Kazakstan Demographic and Health Survey. Instead of conventional ethnic markers, such as "Kazak" or "Russian," it focuses on more complex ethnocultural identities that combine ascribed ethnicity with language use. Because of the history of russification in Kazakstan, three ethnocultural groups are defined and compared--Kazak women who chose to be interviewed in Kazak, Kazak women who chose to be interviewed in Russian, and women of European background interviewed in Russian. Whereas women of European origin were the most likely to undergo induced abortion, the Russian-interviewed Kazaks had higher abortion ratios and were more likely to terminate their pregnancies than were the Kazak-interviewed Kazaks, net of other characteristics. The implications of the results for induced abortion trends and family planning policy in Kazakstan are discussed in addition to other findings. PMID:9431652

  20. Abortion and the search for public policy.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, R L

    1993-01-01

    The social policy towards abortion determined by the Roe vs. Wade decision can be overturned at any time depending upon how the US Supreme Court reacts to challenges to its earlier ruling. Roe vs. Wade was decided by a 7 to 2 vote, and the members of the Supreme Court appointed by Presidents Reagan and Bush were chosen to uphold a conservative (anti-abortion) ideology. Although more than half of the present Court was appointed by these presidents, President Clinton now has the opportunity to appoint 2 more Justices. The public policy positions which are currently available to the Supreme Court or to Congress can be ranked on a chart from liberal to conservative. In this article, 7 different positions are described in detail, and the public policy implications of the implementation of each position are described. The first position considered is the extreme conservative position of "no abortion; no exceptions" as defined by author and Roman Catholic theologian Gerald Kelly. The only procedures allowed which would end the life of a fetus would be those to remove an ovary or fallopian tube in the case of an extrauterine pregnancy (permissible under the doctrine of double effect). In the most extreme interpretation of this situation (which Kelly does not seem to hold), those who perform abortions would be prosecuted for murder. The next position considered is the most liberal position, which is espoused by Michael Tooley, and which holds that abortion and early infanticide are both permissible. The third position is that which allows no abortion but has limited exceptions in cases of rape or incest. The appropriate consideration for abortion presented next is that of the late Joseph Fletcher who believed that whatever love requires is the proper response to the situation. Philosopher Dan Callahan espouses the notion that abortion should be performed for compelling reasons only (after effective counseling). The trimester approach to the problem of abortion is that set

  1. Catholicism and abortion since Roe v. Wade.

    PubMed

    Hisel, L M

    1998-01-01

    This document summarizes a sample of significant activities and events undertaken by Roman Catholics in response to the US Supreme Court's Roe vs. Wade decision legalizing induced abortion. The summaries begin with the 1966 creation of the National Right to Life Committee and cover opposition of Catholic bishops to the Roe decision, the organization of the National Committee for a Human Life Amendment (NCHLA), the mock investiture of a female pope by Catholics for a Free Choice, dismissal of a pro-life priest from the Jesuits, excommunication of various women because of their work with pro-choice agencies or ones that provided abortion services, meetings of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) with presidential candidates, NCHLA lobbying for the Hyde Amendment, open letters and advertisements published by CFC, the effort of Abortion Rights Mobilization to strip the Catholic church of its tax-exempt status, the Vatican order for all priests to leave political office, actions taken by nuns to support the pro-choice position, the proposal of the "seamless garment" argument under the principle of the "consistent ethic of life," initiation of the post-abortion reconciliation project, the actions of Catholic politicians, the filing of amicus curiae briefs, support of bishops for Operation Rescue, forums on abortion conducted by an Archbishop, the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion, targeting by bishops of pro-choice candidates for sanctions and excommunication, testimony and lobbying in opposition of the Freedom of Choice Act, false accusations about the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development leveled by bishops, lobbying by bishops in support of a ban on late-term abortions, lobbying to increase the access of low-income women to abortion, and consideration by the bishops of reinstituting "meatless Fridays" to express Catholic opposition to "attacks on human life and dignity." PMID:12178893

  2. Catholicism and abortion since Roe v. Wade.

    PubMed

    Hisel, L M

    1998-01-01

    This document summarizes a sample of significant activities and events undertaken by Roman Catholics in response to the US Supreme Court's Roe vs. Wade decision legalizing induced abortion. The summaries begin with the 1966 creation of the National Right to Life Committee and cover opposition of Catholic bishops to the Roe decision, the organization of the National Committee for a Human Life Amendment (NCHLA), the mock investiture of a female pope by Catholics for a Free Choice, dismissal of a pro-life priest from the Jesuits, excommunication of various women because of their work with pro-choice agencies or ones that provided abortion services, meetings of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) with presidential candidates, NCHLA lobbying for the Hyde Amendment, open letters and advertisements published by CFC, the effort of Abortion Rights Mobilization to strip the Catholic church of its tax-exempt status, the Vatican order for all priests to leave political office, actions taken by nuns to support the pro-choice position, the proposal of the "seamless garment" argument under the principle of the "consistent ethic of life," initiation of the post-abortion reconciliation project, the actions of Catholic politicians, the filing of amicus curiae briefs, support of bishops for Operation Rescue, forums on abortion conducted by an Archbishop, the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion, targeting by bishops of pro-choice candidates for sanctions and excommunication, testimony and lobbying in opposition of the Freedom of Choice Act, false accusations about the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development leveled by bishops, lobbying by bishops in support of a ban on late-term abortions, lobbying to increase the access of low-income women to abortion, and consideration by the bishops of reinstituting "meatless Fridays" to express Catholic opposition to "attacks on human life and dignity."

  3. Cambodia passes new limits on abortion.

    PubMed

    1997-10-17

    According to international news sources, Cambodia's parliament approved a law limiting the circumstances under which abortions can be performed on October 6 [1997]. Members of parliament say the new law, the first ever passed regulating abortion in Cambodia, is intended to reduce maternal morality rates from abortions performed by unlicensed health practitioners under unsanitary conditions. Local news outlets report that the Cambodian Health Ministry estimates the maternal mortality at 4.7 deaths per 1000 live births. The rate in the US is 0.12 deaths per 1000 live births. The law requires that abortions be performed by licensed health professionals in hospitals and certified clinics within the first trimester of pregnancy, and that women under the age of 18 must obtain parental consent. The new law also sets harsh penalties for those who harm women during illegal procedures--up to 5 years in prison if a woman is injured and up to 10 years if she dies. Opponents of the law say they fear that the new restrictions will push abortion even further underground, as the hospital system cannot handle the current demand for abortion. PMID:12292784

  4. Abortion politics and the production of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lisa H

    2013-08-01

    It is common to think of scientific research and the knowledge it generates as neutral and value free. Indeed, the scientific method is designed to produce "objective" data. However, there are always values built into science, as historians of science and technology have shown over and over. The relevant question is not how to rid science of values but, instead, to ask which values and whose values belong? Currently, antiabortion values consistently determine US research policy. Abortion research is declared illegitimate in covert and overt ways, at the level of individual researchers and research policy broadly. Most importantly, federal policy impedes conduct of both basic and clinical research in abortion. However, it is not just research in abortion that is deemed "illegitimate;" research in infertility and in vitro fertilization is as well. Federal funding of any reproductive health research agenda that would pose more than minimal risk to a fetus or embryo is banned. This leaves unanswered scientific questions about abortion, infertility, miscarriage and contraception among other areas. Since moral ground is occupied not just by abortion opponents but also by people who support abortion rights, there is at the very least a competing moral claim to consider changing federal research funding policy. Women and families deserve access to knowledge across the spectrum of reproductive health issues, whether they seek to end or start a pregnancy. Thus, research funding is an issue of reproductive justice. PMID:23815965

  5. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    PubMed

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve.

  6. Abortion issue goes to US courts.

    PubMed

    Charatan, F B

    1995-04-22

    The antiabortion groups and their lawyers have added a new weapon to their arsenal against physicians who perform abortions in the US: malpractice lawsuits. The nonprofit educational organization Life Dynamics generates material for personal injury lawyers and is participating in 80 cases. It has assembled 642 lawyers and 500 physicians in its abortion malpractice program. Life Dynamics calls for persons to support lawsuits to increase malpractice insurance rates of abortionists, thereby forcing them out of business. Its 2-day 1994 seminar in Texas addressed abortion injuries, an alleged link between abortion and breast cancer, and abortion as a likely source of post-traumatic stress disorder. A lawyer and general counsel of the Arizona Right-to-Life has filed two lawsuits against a Phoenix physician who performs abortion. The trial judge dismissed both cases and fined the lawyer for frivolous lawsuits. An appeal overturned the fines. The lawyer has three more lawsuits on the docket. The physician had complained to the Arizona Bar Association about the lawyer. Even though the physician's insurance company did not pay any claims, its underwriters deemed him an actuarial risk, thereby making him essentially uninsurable. Local medical associations have failed to take a position on the lawyer's legal misconduct because they do not want to alienate some members. The Planned Parenthood Federation of America agreed that the lawsuits brought against the Phoenix physician were fraudulent and that they do not aim to protect women but to revoke their right to choose. PMID:7728049

  7. Abortion politics and the production of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lisa H

    2013-08-01

    It is common to think of scientific research and the knowledge it generates as neutral and value free. Indeed, the scientific method is designed to produce "objective" data. However, there are always values built into science, as historians of science and technology have shown over and over. The relevant question is not how to rid science of values but, instead, to ask which values and whose values belong? Currently, antiabortion values consistently determine US research policy. Abortion research is declared illegitimate in covert and overt ways, at the level of individual researchers and research policy broadly. Most importantly, federal policy impedes conduct of both basic and clinical research in abortion. However, it is not just research in abortion that is deemed "illegitimate;" research in infertility and in vitro fertilization is as well. Federal funding of any reproductive health research agenda that would pose more than minimal risk to a fetus or embryo is banned. This leaves unanswered scientific questions about abortion, infertility, miscarriage and contraception among other areas. Since moral ground is occupied not just by abortion opponents but also by people who support abortion rights, there is at the very least a competing moral claim to consider changing federal research funding policy. Women and families deserve access to knowledge across the spectrum of reproductive health issues, whether they seek to end or start a pregnancy. Thus, research funding is an issue of reproductive justice.

  8. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    PubMed

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve. PMID:7716799

  9. A Dynamic Risk Model for Evaluation of Space Shuttle Abort Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Maggio, Gaspare; Elrada, Hassan A.; Yazdpour, Sabrina J.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is an advanced manned launch system with a respectable history of service and a demonstrated level of safety. Recent studies have shown that the Space Shuttle has a relatively low probability of having a failure that is instantaneously catastrophic during nominal flight as compared with many US and international launch systems. However, since the Space Shuttle is a manned. system, a number of mission abort contingencies exist to primarily ensure the safety of the crew during off-nominal situations and to attempt to maintain the integrity of the Orbiter. As the Space Shuttle ascends to orbit it transverses various intact abort regions evaluated and planned before the flight to ensure that the Space Shuttle Orbiter, along with its crew, may be returned intact either to the original launch site, a transoceanic landing site, or returned from a substandard orbit. An intact abort may be initiated due to a number of system failures but the highest likelihood and most challenging abort scenarios are initiated by a premature shutdown of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The potential consequences of such a shutdown vary as a function of a number of mission parameters but all of them may be related to mission time for a specific mission profile. This paper focuses on the Dynamic Abort Risk Evaluation (DARE) model process, applications, and its capability to evaluate the risk of Loss Of Vehicle (LOV) due to the complex systems interactions that occur during Space Shuttle intact abort scenarios. In addition, the paper will examine which of the Space Shuttle subsystems are critical to ensuring a successful return of the Space Shuttle Orbiter and crew from such a situation.

  10. Cross-cultural attitudes toward abortion--Greeks versus Americans.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Stephen J; Marcos, Anastasios C

    2003-04-01

    Using data from 1,494 Greeks and 1,993 Americans, this study finds that social abortion attitudes are a separate dimension from physical abortion attitudes. According to our structural equation model, abortion attitudes are influenced significantly by religiosity and sexual liberalism. The model explains social abortion attitudes significantly better than physical abortion attitudes. Although the model is applicable to both countries, there are three major differences between Greece and the United States. First, in Greece religiosity has a smaller impact on sexual liberalism, and sexual liberalism has a much weaker impact on both types of abortion attitudes, particularly social abortion attitudes. Second, in Greece religiosity is more strongly related to abortion attitudes than in the United States, particularly to social abortion attitudes. Third, education has a weaker influence in Greece than in the United States.

  11. Women's Private Conversations about Abortion: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Herold, Stephanie; Kimport, Katrina; Cockrill, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Abortion is a relatively frequent experience, yet public discourse about abortion is contentious and stigmatizing. Little literature is available on private conversations about abortion, which may be distinct from public discourse. We explored private discourse by documenting the nature of women's discussions about abortion with peers in a book club. We recruited thirteen women's book clubs in nine states. Participants (n = 119) read the book Choice: True Stories of Birth, Contraception, Infertility, Adoption, Single Parenthood, & Abortion, and participated in a book club meeting, which we audio-recorded and transcribed. Data collection occurred between April 2012 and April 2013. In contrast to public discourse of abortion, private discourse was nuanced and included disclosures of multiple kinds of experiences with abortion. Participants disclosed having abortions, considering abortion as an option for past or future pregnancies, and supporting others through an abortion. Distinguishing between public and private discourse enabled us to identify that an "abortion experience" could include personal decisions, hypothetical decisions, or connection with someone having an abortion. The book club atmosphere provided a rare opportunity for participants to explore their relationship to abortion. More research is needed to understand the role of private discourse in reducing abortion stigma. PMID:26086582

  12. Abortion controversy hinders state reform effort.

    PubMed

    Frece, J W

    1993-10-28

    A review of the progress and problems of the state of Maryland on health care reform is provided. The Standard Benefits Package Task Force completed and approved in a preliminary 7 to 2 vote a long list of benefits, including abortion services, to be covered in health plans that must be made available to small businesses by July 1, 1994. Small businesses are those employing at least 2 workers and no more than 50 workers. The value of benefits cannot exceed $3519, or policies, $3034. The new health care law passed in summer, 1993 stipulated that the value of basic policies for small companies cannot exceed 12% of wages. The development of a minimum package of benefits was the first phase of the health care reform law. Final decision on benefits will be made sometime in the first week of November and presented to the full 7-member Health Care Access and Cost Commission by November 4, 1993. Abortion opponents have opposed insurance coverage of abortions on the grounds that it is not health care and it forces employers opposed to abortion to accept this package, or deny coverage to employees. A public hearing is expected to hear from abortion foes about their notion to offer abortion coverage as an option or "rider" to the standard insurance policy. The task force has another option: to describe the benefit in terms that do not mention abortion per se, but refer to "family planning services and services for pregnant women," which is the wording in the Clinton health care plan. The Director of Public Affairs for Planned Parenthood of Maryland, Bebe Verdery, reported that the organization is strongly opposed to abortion as optional coverage. Kevin Appleby, Associate Director of Social Concerns for the Maryland Catholic Conference, finds that respect for rights of those with moral concerns against abortion should be respected. The task force is confronted with issues of cost, since its initial benefits package was too high, and, most troubling, the controversy over

  13. [Glimpses from the history of abortion].

    PubMed

    Holmdahl, B

    1992-05-01

    For a long time in human history, global population growth was checked by infant mortality, which ranged from 30-50% and did not start sinking until the beginning of the 1800s in the west. Child murder in the west was prohibited by law around the 1100-1200s, but it continued secretly. Among private people, induced abortion was allowed. In the holy scripts of Hinduism and Brahminism, abortion was prohibited. Hippocrates wrote that doctors should not give women abortifacient. The church father Augustinus stated that it was not within human power to discern when the soul entered the body, a circumstance that forbid abortion. A church meeting in 305 A.D. distanced itself from abortion, and this has been the stand of the Catholic Church ever since. In Sweden, exposing a child to the elements was practiced until the end of the 1200s, when it became prohibited. Protestants punished child murder by death. During 1759-78, 217 women were executed for child-killing. From the 1400s, church law punished abortion, and later, capital and punishment was meted out for it, but a distinction was made if the fetus was alive or stillborn. The law in 1734 punished abortion by the death of all concerned. The death penalty was abolished in 1864. In 1896, Anna Linholm reported to the policy in Uppsala that a midwife had been practicing clandestine abortions. Some of her patients were admitted to hospital for hemorrhaging. She was sentenced to hard labor. During 1851-1903, a total of 1408 abortions were reported to the health service. 90% of these became known because of death caused by obduction. Phosphorus was used for abortion in 1271 cases, arsenic in 62, and mechanical aids in 8 cases. About 1//2 of all female suicides at the end of the 1800s was performed by pregnant women who ate phosphorus. Almost all were unmarried, and 56% carried it out after the 5th month of pregnancy. In 1901, phosphorus was prohibited in Swedish homes. In 1875, free abortions became available. However, the

  14. Abortion--a philosophical perspective.

    PubMed

    Jali, M N

    2001-11-01

    The central issue in the abortion debate is the moral status of the conceptus. There are two positions that argue this issue. At one extreme are the views of the pro-life group which argues that human life begins at the moment of conception whilst at the other are views of the pro-choice group that argues in favour of a woman's right to self-determination. Two basic principles come into conflict in this debate, namely the Value of Life and that of Self-determination. In this paper the arguments forwarded by each group in justification of its position are presented. Also discussed is the moderate developmental viewpoint which accepts that the genetic basis of an individual is established at conception. Some development, however, has to occur before the conceptus can be called a person. The fact that an entity is a potential person is a prima facie reason for not destroying it. On the other hand, we need not conclude that a person has a right to life by virtue of that potentiality. Simultaneously we should recognise that the right a potential entity has, may be nullified by the woman's right to self-determination. PMID:11993259

  15. A simplified method for differential staining of aborted and non-aborted pollen grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to use chemical staining to discriminate aborted from non-aborted pollen grains has well-known practical applications in agriculture. A commonly used technique for assessing pollen vitality, Alexander’s stain, uses chloral hydrate, phenol and mercuric chloride, all of which are highly to...

  16. Medical Students’ Attitudes toward Abortion Education: Malaysian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tey, Nai-peng; Yew, Siew-yong; Low, Wah-yun; Su’ut, Lela; Renjhen, Prachi; Huang, M. S. L.; Tong, Wen-ting; Lai, Siow-li

    2012-01-01

    Background Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students’ attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. Methods and Results A survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward abortion among medical students was conducted in two public universities and a private university in Malaysia in 2011. A total of 1,060 students returned the completed questionnaires. The survey covered about 90% of medical students in Years 1, 3, and 5 in the three universities. About 90% of the students wanted more training on the general knowledge and legal aspects of abortion, and pre-and post-abortion counseling. Overall, 75.9% and 81.0% of the students were in favor of including in medical education the training on surgical abortion techniques and medical abortion, respectively. Only 2.4% and 1.7% were opposed to the inclusion of training of these two methods in the curriculum. The remaining respondents were neutral in their stand. Desire for more abortion education was associated with students’ pro-choice index, their intention to provide abortion services in future practice, and year of study. However, students’ attitudes toward abortion were not significantly associated with gender, type of university, or ethnicity. Conclusions Most students wanted more training on abortion. Some students also expressed their intention to provide abortion counseling and services in their future practice. Their desire for more training on abortion should be taken into account in the new curriculum. Abortion education is an important step towards making available safe abortion services to enable women to exercise their reproductive rights. PMID:23300600

  17. Latin American women’s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades. This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women’s experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal. Women’s personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support. Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and

  18. Abortion attitudes as determinants of perceptions regarding male involvement in abortion decisions.

    PubMed

    Coleman, P K; Nelson, E S

    1999-01-01

    Abortion decisions have a potentially meaningful effect on the lives of men. Previous research suggests that both men and women generally believe that men have the right to be involved in such decisions. However, very little research attention has been devoted to identifying individual difference correlates of discrepant levels of endorsement for male involvement in abortion decisions. The extent to which abortion attitudes (on a pro-choice to pro-life continuum), conceptualization of abortion as strictly a female issue, and interest in the issue operate as effective predictors of the appropriate level of male involvement in abortion decisions was examined in a sample of 1,387 college students. Results of a multiple regression analysis revealed that 44% of the variance in male involvement scores was explained by the predictor variables. PMID:9919847

  19. A cross-cultural history of abortion.

    PubMed

    Shain, R N

    1986-03-01

    Abortion is a universal phenomenon, occurring throughout recorded history and at all levels of societal organization. Techniques are highly varied, as are the circumstances under which it is practised. The status of and attitudes towards abortion in Western civilization are variable and have, in most cases, been changing. As of 1982, 10% and 18% of the world's population respectively, lived in countries where abortion was totally prohibited or where it was permitted only to save the mother's life. In the USA, various national surveys indicate liberalization of public attitudes towards pregnancy termination between 1965 and the years immediately following the Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision (1973) which legalized abortion. More recent polls demonstrate little attitudinal change since 1972-1973: between 80% and 90% of Americans approve of abortion in the case of poor health, a seriously defective fetus, or rape, and between 40% and 50% indicate approval for all other reasons as well. Only 10% of the American population would like to see abortion prohibited under all circumstances. Sociodemographic analyses indicate that individuals who disapprove of abortion differ from those who approve of its availability in that they are more likely to be Roman Catholic or fundamentalist Protestant; are, in general, more strongly committed to organized religion; are on the traditional/conservative end of the spectrum with regard to women's role in life, premarital sex, sex education and civil liberties; and tend to have achieved a relatively low educational level. 'Pro-life' and 'pro-choice' activists tend to be women who are completely different from one another in sociodemographic characteristics and in overall values, particularly as these relate to traditional versus modern female roles.

  20. Influence of induced abortion on gestational duration in subsequent pregnancies.

    PubMed Central

    van der Slikke, J W; Treffers, P E

    1978-01-01

    We studied the effect of previous induced and spontaneous abortion on gestational duration in subsequent pregnancies in 12 obstetric departments in the Netherlands. Only primiparae were studied. Of 504 women who had had a previous induced abortion, 18 (3.6%) delivered before 32 weeks' gestational age. Forty of 1313 women with a history of spontaneous abortion (3.0%) and 259 of 12 678 women with no history of abortion (2.1%) also delivered before 32 weeks. The differences between the three groups were not significant. In the Netherlands there are no significant indications that spontaneous midtrimester abortions or premature deliveries are caused by a previous induced abortion. PMID:620303

  1. GN and C Design Overview and Flight Test Results from NASA's Max Launch Abort System (MLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lanzi, Ryamond J.; Ward, Philip R.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) designed, developed and flew the alternative Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) as risk mitigation for the baseline Orion spacecraft launch abort system (LAS) already in development. The NESC was tasked with both formulating a conceptual objective system (OS) design of this alternative MLAS as well as demonstrating this concept with a simulated pad abort flight test. The goal was to obtain sufficient flight test data to assess performance, validate models/tools, and to reduce the design and development risks for a MLAS OS. Less than 2 years after Project start the MLAS simulated pad abort flight test was successfully conducted from Wallops Island on July 8, 2009. The entire flight test duration was 88 seconds during which time multiple staging events were performed and nine separate critically timed parachute deployments occurred as scheduled. Overall, the as-flown flight performance was as predicted prior to launch. This paper provides an overview of the guidance navigation and control (GN&C) technical approaches employed on this rapid prototyping activity. This paper describes the methodology used to design the MLAS flight test vehicle (FTV). Lessons that were learned during this rapid prototyping project are also summarized.

  2. Shuttle Orbiter Contingency Abort Aerodynamics: Real-Gas Effects and High Angles of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Papadopoulos, Periklis E.; Davies, Carol B.; Wright, Michael J.; McDaniel, Ryan D.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wercinski, Paul F.

    2005-01-01

    An important element of the Space Shuttle Orbiter safety improvement plan is the improved understanding of its aerodynamic performance so as to minimize the "black zones" in the contingency abort trajectories [1]. These zones are regions in the launch trajectory where it is predicted that, due to vehicle limitations, the Orbiter will be unable to return to the launch site in a two or three engine-out scenario. Reduction of these zones requires accurate knowledge of the aerodynamic forces and moments to better assess the structural capability of the vehicle. An interesting aspect of the contingency abort trajectories is that the Orbiter would need to achieve angles of attack as high as 60deg. Such steep attitudes are much higher than those for a nominal flight trajectory. The Orbiter is currently flight certified only up to an angle of attack of 44deg at high Mach numbers and has never flown at angles of attack larger than this limit. Contingency abort trajectories are generated using the data in the Space Shuttle Operational Aerodynamic Data Book (OADB) [2]. The OADB, a detailed document of the aerodynamic environment of the current Orbiter, is primarily based on wind-tunnel measurements (over a wide Mach number and angle-of-attack range) extrapolated to flight conditions using available theories and correlations, and updated with flight data where available. For nominal flight conditions, i.e., angles of attack of less than 45deg, the fidelity of the OADB is excellent due to the availability of flight data. However, at the off-nominal conditions, such as would be encountered on contingency abort trajectories, the fidelity of the OADB is less certain. The primary aims of a recent collaborative effort (completed in the year 2001) between NASA and Boeing were to determine: 1) accurate distributions of pressure and shear loads on the Orbiter at select points in the contingency abort trajectory space; and 2) integrated aerodynamic forces and moments for the entire

  3. Spain still in need of a good abortion law.

    PubMed

    Gasco, M

    1991-09-01

    In 1985 Spain adopted a new abortion law that allows women to have abortions if: 1) the pregnancy poses a physical or mental risk, 2) the fetus risks a defect, 3) in cases of rape. 94% of all abortions are carried out in private clinics. Before the law only 411 abortions were reported, after the law 16,766 were reported the next year. 52% of the women were unmarried, 49% had no children, and 93% were less than 12 weeks pregnant. The availability of safe abortions is limited by: 1) lack of centers in most geographical regions and 2) lack of clinics or hospitals in the public health system that will give abortion services. The addition of 4th ground for abortion would not significantly improve access to abortion services since 98% of all abortions are performed under the mental risk indication. A better solution would be to adopt a time limit system similar to other European countries. Since 93% of all abortion occur within 12 weeks of pregnancy, it would accommodate most women. However, whether by executive order or legislation, increasing legal access will still not increase access. There simply is n system in place to accommodate the number of women who would seek abortions i they became legal (it is estimated that 200000 women got to England annually seeking abortion.) Doctors do not want to perform abortions and there is no social or legal standing to force them to do so. PMID:12284545

  4. [Abortion-related mortality in Brazil: decrease in spatial inequality].

    PubMed

    Lima, B G

    2000-03-01

    Abortion is not only a major cause of obstetric hospitalization in poor countries, but it also represents the failure of the public health system to provide enough information about contraceptive methods and thus prevent pregnancies. In Brazil, the high utilization rates of health facilities due to abortions reflect the ongoing difficulties with family planning and contraception. In addition, mortality resulting from abortions serves as an indicator of the quality of abortion procedures, an important point in a country where the practice is illegal and therefore done clandestinely. In this study, we analyzed the rates of mortality resulting from abortions among women 10 to 54 years old, including women who died from spontaneous and induced abortion, from 1980 to 1995, for the various regions of the country. The information we used came from the mortality data bank of the public health system of the Ministry of Health. Population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics. We studied 2,602 deaths, 15% of which were due to missed abortion, spontaneous abortion, or legally permitted induced abortion. The other 85% of the deaths were due to illegal induced abortions or to nonspecified abortions. The mortality rates from abortion-related causes have steadily decreased in all the regions of Brazil, but this improvement has been unevenly distributed in the country. The region with the smallest decrease in this rate (38% over 15 years) was the Northeast. The age of women dying from abortions progressively declined over the period studied.

  5. Restricted access to abortion in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland: exploring abortion tourism and barriers to legal reform.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Fiona; O'Dowd, Kellie

    2014-01-01

    Access to abortion remains a controversial issue worldwide. In Ireland, both north and south, legal restrictions have resulted in thousands of women travelling to England and Wales and further afield to obtain abortions in the last decade alone, while others purchase the 'abortion pill' from Internet sources. This paper considers the socio-legal context in both jurisdictions, the data on those travelling to access abortion and the barriers to legal reform. It argues that moral conservatism in Ireland, north and south, has contributed to the restricted access to abortion, impacting on the experience of thousands of women, resulting in these individuals becoming 'abortion tourists'.

  6. Conservative management of spontaneous abortions. Women's experiences.

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, E.; Janssen, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe women's experiences with expectant management of spontaneous abortions. DESIGN: Descriptive survey using questionnaires with fixed-choice and open-ended questions. The latter were analyzed for themes, using qualitative methods. SETTING: Urban and suburban private primary care family practices. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of family practice patients (59 of 80 eligible) pregnant for less than 12 weeks who had spontaneous abortions without surgery. Response rate was 84.7%; 50 questionnaires were received from the 59 women. METHOD: Women were asked about their physical experiences, including amount of pain and bleeding; emotional effects; their satisfaction with medical care; and their suggestions for improving care. MAIN FINDINGS: The mean worst pain experienced during a spontaneous abortion on an 11-point scale was 5.9. Bleeding varied, but was often very heavy. Satisfaction rate was 92.9% with family physician care and 84.6% with hospital care. Women described the emotional effect of "natural" spontaneous abortions and made recommendations for improving care. CONCLUSIONS: A better understanding of the physical and emotional experiences of the women in this study might help physicians better prepare and support patients coping with expectant management of spontaneous abortions. PMID:10540695

  7. [Pregnancy and induced abortion among teenagers].

    PubMed

    Tado, S

    1985-11-01

    The number of pregnancies and induced abortions among Japanese teenagers has recently increased. 2 of 5 pregnant single women whom social workers assist are teenagers. The teenagers fall into 2 groups: those under 18, who are in a sexually awakening period, or 18 and older, who are maturing. Those under 18, despite a strong tendency toward sexual activity, are predominantly insecure and run away from home to escape adversity and seek friendship among members of the opposite sex. After becoming pregnant, they go home only to embarrass their parents. Ultimately, they choose abortion or, because of their own inability, their babies are taken care of by their families or in foster homes. Those 18 or older, despite their knowledge of the relationship between sexual intercourse and pregnancy, typically did not take it seriously. Consequently, their reaction to their pregnancies tends toward shock and panic. Many try to keep their pregnancy from their parents. Though they do not want abortion, their circumstances may force them to it. Behind the increase of unexpected pregnancy and unwanted abortion in both age groups are several factors: the lack of sexual education suitable to their level of their physical maturity; a lack of responsibility by the male teenagers, who cannot relate their own actions to their partners' pregnancies; and the ignorance of pregnant teenagers, who cannot see that abortions may hurt them not only physically but mentally in the long run. PMID:3854863

  8. Abortion in Brazil: legislation, reality and options.

    PubMed

    Guedes, A C

    2000-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Brazil except when performed to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. This paper gives a brief history of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary efforts to change abortion-related legislation in Brazil in the past 60 years, the contents of some of the 53 bills that have been tabled in that time, the non-governmental stakeholders involved and the debate itself in recent decades. The authorities in Brazil have never assumed full public responsibility for reproductive health care or family planning, let alone legal abortion; the ambivalence of the medical profession is an important obstacle. Most politicians avoid getting involved in the abortion debate, but the majority of bills in the 1990s have favoured less restrictive legislation. Incremental legislative and health service changes could help to improve the situation for women. Advocacy is probably the most important action, to promote an environment conducive to change. Clandestine abortion is a serious public health problem in Brazil, and the inadequacy of family planning services is one of the causes of this problem. The solutions should be made a priority for the Brazilian public health system.

  9. The Supreme Court, liberty, and abortion.

    PubMed

    Annas, G J

    1992-08-27

    While the issue of abortion has fueled a great deal of personal and political debate and controversy in the US, few have actually read the Supreme Court's rulings on Roe v. Wade and Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, which are central to the debate. This essay summarizes both rulings, examines the difference between the 2, and discusses implications for medical practice. Casey is important to states, physicians, and patients. Of central import is the ruling's restriction against states to outlaw abortion before viability. Other measures are, however, included which will complicate record keeping and securing consent. Restrictions against and/or steps required by the physician practicing abortion may also spread to apply to other medical procedures. The essay considers the future of Roe v. Wade. Whether or not a Freedom of Choice Act is ultimately passed in Congress, abortion will continue to divide large segments of the American population. Anti-abortionists will continue to attempt to overthrow women's right of free choice to abortion.

  10. Access to abortion services: abortions performed by mid-level practitioners.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, E A

    1993-01-01

    Because the number of physicians available to perform abortions in the US is dwindling, certified nurse-midwives, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants should be trained and permitted to perform abortions. Roadblocks to this change are the fact that the Supreme Court would likely allow states to prevent mid-level practitioners from performing abortions in the name of protecting the health of the mother. Also, existing statutes would probably not be interpreted by courts to allow mid-level practitioners to perform abortions. However, physician assistants have been performing abortions in Vermont since 1975, and a 1981-82 comparative study affirmed that physician assistants are well-equipped to perform abortions (of 2458 procedures, the complication rate/1000 was 27.4 for physician assistants and 30.8 for physicians). However, controversy surrounds the provision of abortion by these physician assistants in Vermont, since the relevant statute suggests that abortion is illegal unless performed by a physician. However, the statute has not been changed since Roe vs. Wade and is likely unconstitutional. Court cases in Missouri and Tennessee suggest that courts may be willing to include abortion within the scope of progressive nursing practice acts, but a recent similar case in Massachusetts resulted in a narrow interpretation of nursing practice statutes. Because the definition of professional nursing varies with each state statute, it will be a formidable task to convince every jurisdiction to include abortion as a permissible mid-level practice. Even in Vermont, the nursing practice statute defines in an exclusive list what services the professional nurse may perform (whereas the physician assistant regulations limit their scope of practice only to that delegated by a supervising physician). States could, of course, pass statutes which include abortion as a permissible practice for the mid-level practitioner. However, specific legislation would provide a clear

  11. Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159500.html Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows ... from mosquito-borne Zika may be driving up abortion rates in Latin American countries affected by the ...

  12. International developments in abortion laws: 1977-88.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1988-01-01

    During the period between 1977 and the first quarter of 1988, 35 countries liberalized their abortion laws and four countries limited grounds for the procedure. Most legislation has extended abortion eligibility through traditional indications such as danger to maternal health or fetal handicap, but a number of other indications have been created such as adolescence, advanced maternal age, family circumstances, and AIDS or HIV infection. A number of countries have redesigned their abortion laws as part of a comprehensive package to facilitate access to and delivery of contraception, voluntary sterilization, and abortion services. Abortion litigation has increased and stimulated the liberalization of abortion provisions and the support of women's autonomous choice within the law. In Canada, the entire criminal prohibition of abortion was held unconstitutional for violating women's integrity and security. In contrast, Latin American and other constitutional developments may limit legal abortion to instances of danger to women's lives. PMID:3048126

  13. Their Right to an Abortion, Your Right to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share Their Right to an Abortion, Your Right to Know Page Content Article Body ... a handful of states grant minors access to abortion without their parents’ knowledge or permission. The majority ...

  14. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  15. The abortion ethos: pervasive but not persuasive.

    PubMed

    Andrusko, D

    1989-01-01

    The history of the past 16 years has borne out pro-life predictions that abortion would be the precursor of an even wider assault on helpless people. The unborn initially were the victim of choice because they were, in 1973, outside our customary line of moral vision. But as a dress rehearsal for a pattern of discretionary killing what was most significant about abortion was its explicit rejection of the Declaration of Independence's principle holding that our right to life is "inalienable." Abortion taught us that the lives of some are alienable and raised the question, why not the lives of others? Contrary to stereotype, the pro-life movement is a classic reform movement, inbued with a fierce belief in the inherent worth and equality of mankind.

  16. Medical abortion options may advance in 1998.

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    The US debut of mifepristone (RU-486) was delayed in 1997 by legal and manufacturer problems. However, the Population Council is searching worldwide for companies to produce mifepristone for the US market. In the meantime, women in a number of US cities can obtain mifepristone through clinical trials coordinated by the New York City-based Abortion Rights Mobilization. The trials are evaluating the effectiveness of a 200 mg dosage of the drug and will continue until there is a commercial product. New developments in medical abortion will be announced in 1998. Currently, 29 Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA) affiliates are recruiting women for its study of methotrexate and misoprostol. By midsummer 1998, the organization expects to have data from what is the largest multicenter trial to date of a methotrexate and misoprostol medical abortion regimen. PMID:12348221

  17. Ethical considerations on methods used in abortions.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Eike-Henner W

    2015-03-01

    There is a fundamental inconsistency in Western society's treatment of non-human animals on the one hand, and of human foetuses on the other. While most Western countries allow the butchering of animals and their use in experimentation, this must occur under carefully controlled conditions that are intended to minimize their pain and suffering as much as possible. At the same time, most Western countries permit various abortion methods without similar concerns for the developing fetus. The only criteria for deciding which abortion method is used centre in the stage of the pregnancy, the size of the fetus, the health of the pregnant woman and the physician's preference. This is out of step with the underlying ethos of animal cruelty legislation, cannot be justified ethically and should be rectified by adjusting abortion methods to the capacity of the fetus to experience nociception and/or pain. PMID:23076345

  18. Delayed reproductive complications after induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Dalaker, K; Lichtenberg, S M; Okland, G

    1979-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken regarding subsequent pregnancy in 619 women who had their preceding pregnancy terminated by legal abortion, compared with an age- and parity-matched group of 619 women who continued with the pregnancy to delivery. The groups were compared for complications such as first and second trimester abortion, cervical incompetence, pre-term delivery, ectopic pregnancy and sterility. The total complication rate was 24.3 per cent in the abortion group, and 20.2 per cent in the controls. No significant difference was found between the two groups for any of the parameters examined, except for a significantly higher rate of complications amongst women who had not had a previous delivery: 25.5 per cent as opposed to 13.2 per cent in the control group.

  19. The abortion ethos: pervasive but not persuasive.

    PubMed

    Andrusko, D

    1989-01-01

    The history of the past 16 years has borne out pro-life predictions that abortion would be the precursor of an even wider assault on helpless people. The unborn initially were the victim of choice because they were, in 1973, outside our customary line of moral vision. But as a dress rehearsal for a pattern of discretionary killing what was most significant about abortion was its explicit rejection of the Declaration of Independence's principle holding that our right to life is "inalienable." Abortion taught us that the lives of some are alienable and raised the question, why not the lives of others? Contrary to stereotype, the pro-life movement is a classic reform movement, inbued with a fierce belief in the inherent worth and equality of mankind. PMID:10294688

  20. Ethical considerations on methods used in abortions.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Eike-Henner W

    2015-03-01

    There is a fundamental inconsistency in Western society's treatment of non-human animals on the one hand, and of human foetuses on the other. While most Western countries allow the butchering of animals and their use in experimentation, this must occur under carefully controlled conditions that are intended to minimize their pain and suffering as much as possible. At the same time, most Western countries permit various abortion methods without similar concerns for the developing fetus. The only criteria for deciding which abortion method is used centre in the stage of the pregnancy, the size of the fetus, the health of the pregnant woman and the physician's preference. This is out of step with the underlying ethos of animal cruelty legislation, cannot be justified ethically and should be rectified by adjusting abortion methods to the capacity of the fetus to experience nociception and/or pain.

  1. Abortion laws in African Commonwealth countries.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1981-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the range of current (1981) abortion laws in the African Commonwealth countries, traces the origins of the laws to their colonial predecessors, and discusses legal reform that would positively provide for legal termination of pregnancy. The authors claim that the range of these laws demonstrates an evolution that leads from customary/common law (Lesotho and Swaziland) to basic law (Botswana, The Gambia, Malawi, Mauritius, Nigeria's Northern States and Seychelles) to developed law (Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria's Southern States, Sierra Leone, and Uganda), and, finally, to advanced law (Zambia and Zimbabwe). The authors call for treating abortion as an issue of health and welfare as opposed to one of crime and punishment. Since most of the basic law de jure is treated and administered as developed law de facto, the authors suggest decriminalizing abortion and propose ways in which to reform the law: clarifying existing law; liberalizing existing law to allow abortion based upon certain indications; limiting/removing women's criminal liability for seeking an abortion; allowing hindsight contraception; protecting providers treating women in good faith; publishing recommended fees for services to protect poor women; protecting providers who treat women with incomplete abortion; and punishing providers who fail to provide care to women in need, with the exception of those seeking protection under a conscience clause. The authors also suggest clarifying the means by which health services involving pregnancy termination may be delivered, including: clarification of the qualifications of practitioners who may treat women; specification of the facilities that may treat women, perhaps broken down by gestational duration of the pregnancy; specifying gestational limits during which the procedure can be performed; clarifying approval procedures and consents; and allowing for conscientious objections to performing the procedure.

  2. Re-establishment of menstruation after abortion.

    PubMed

    Purola, E; Nerdrum, T

    1968-01-01

    The sample consisted of 33 patients who had had abortions in the 7-18 week of pregnancy, except 1 case where the duration of pregnancy had been 25 weeks. In 21 cases legal interruption of pregnancy had been carried out. The remaining 12 came to the hospital after the onset of bleeding. Methods used for the determination of ovulation were measurements of the basal temperature, cytological smear, and single endometrial biopsy. The interval between abortions and the onset of menstruation was 25-64 days, the average being 39 days. Endometrial biopsies were done on all patients 16-39 days after ovulation. The first cycle after abortion was determined to be anovular in 25, and probably so in 4 others, while ovulation had occurred in 4. In the 21 patients having had therapeutic abortions ovulation had occurred in only 1 while in the 12 patients who had had spontaneous abortions ovulation occurred in 3. Histological findings were hyperplastic endometrium in 3, endometritis in 6 and retained fragments in 5. Check-up examination of 27 patients at the second menstrual period established that 15 had ovular cycles. Patients having legal abortion were routinely given 5 mg of estradiolbenzoate a day to a total of 10-15 mg. It is thought that this dose of estrogen may depress pituitary activity and thus disturb the mechanism leading to normal ovulation. Of 41 cytological vaginal smears 15 could not be analyzed owing to infection. All but 1 of the remaining showed results consistent with those obtained by biopsy.

  3. [Risks in legal, induced abortion. Review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Stamm, H E

    1980-01-01

    A literature review is presented about the risks of induced abortion, as indicated in research from Switzerland and other countries of the world. The attitude of the various countries toward abortion appears to be becoming more liberal. The incidence of legal induced abortions has decreased slightly over the past years, despite more liberal abortion laws. Switzerland lies about in the middle of the scale, with 139 abortions/1000 women and 227/1000 births in 1974. The mortality associated with induced abortion is 1-4 deaths to 100,000 pregnancies, which is about the same risk as 10 years' use of the IUD or oral contraceptives. Most of the deaths occur when abortion is induced after the 16th week of pregnancy. About 10% of all complications of abortion are serious. The complication rate of abortion is highest in patients who undergo hysterotomy or hysterectomy and lowest for those undergoing the Karmen method or vacuum aspiration. No studies have shown a significant increase in the incidence of spontaneous abortions, of cervical insufficiency, of premature births, and of small-for-date babies as a consequence of having undergone induced abortion. There is a tendency, for these complications to occur, especially when dilatation beyond 10 mm is necessary or when the pregnancy is in an advanced stage. It is important to remember, however, that similar tendencies are observed among multiparae, and that the risks of abortion are less than those of childbirth. Cases of depression are recorded in conjunction with induced abortion, but undergoing abortion also relieves many cases of depression due to unwanted pregnancy. There is an increased incidence of sterility after abortion when prophylactic measures are taken against pelvic infection. Outpatient abortions should be performed by dilatation and curettage, before the 12th week of pregnancy. Local paracervical anesthesia is the method of choice for ambulant operations.

  4. Abortion services in the United States, 1979 and 1980.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, S K; Forrest, J D; Sullivan, E; Tietze, C

    1982-01-01

    Reports results of the 7th national survey by the Alan Guttmacher Institute of all known providers of abortion in the US. There were 1.55 million abortions in 1980, about 1/4 of all pregnancies and 1/2 of unintended ones. About 3% of women of childbearing age obtained an abortion. The rate increased by 2% from 1979 to 1980, compared to an increase of 4% over the previous 2 years. As the increases have been smaller each year, the rate may stabilize in 1982 at 1980 levels. Despite the continuing controversy, geographic availability improved somewhat, although 78% of all counties had no provider and 59 of the 305 metropolitan areas had no facilities reporting abortions. Almost 70% of nonmetropolitan women live in counties with no facilities reporting abortions--only 4.5% of abortions take place in nonmetropolitan areas. Other factors restricting availability of abortion include lack of Medicaid funding in most states, parental notification and consent requirements (by law in 7 states), period of gestation at which abortions may be performed (30% of providers will only perform abortions up to 10 weeks' gestation; only 21% will perform them after 14 weeks), and the way in which hospitals are organized to provide services. 3/4 of all abortions were performed in 459 clinics and hospitals which reported 1000 or more abortions each. The proportion performed in nonhospital facilities has risen steadily since legalization: nearly 80% were performed in these facilities in 1980 compared with less than 1/2 in 1973. Improvements and simplification in abortion techniques have contributed to this trend. Only 55% of hospital abortion providers perform any outpatient abortions, and in most cases women are unable to arrange for a hospital abortion without a referral, further restricting access to abortion services in many cases.

  5. Abortion and contraceptive practices in eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Kovács, L

    1997-07-01

    In countries of the CCEE region (Countries of Central and Eastern Europe) the very high incidence of pregnancy termination is characteristic of family planning and the notion 'contraception instead of abortion' has not yet been achieved. The causes and consequences of this unfortunate situation will be reviewed: the reproductive health indicators in the area; the status of contraceptive use and of abortion; the impact of legislation in the different countries; and the efforts to achieve changes. The conclusions of the 'Szeged Declaration' which led to an increase in contraceptive prevalence will be discussed.

  6. [Religion, morality and politics: the abortion debate].

    PubMed

    Ladriere, P

    1982-01-01

    The views of morality enunciated by the Protestant and Catholic churches in the process of France's abortion law revision are examined through an analysis of the testimony of each church and its moral theologians during hearings held from July-November 1973 by the Commission of Cultural, Family, and Social Affairs of the National Assembly concerning the proposed abortion legislation. The offical Catholic Church position, which restated a neoscholastic philosophy with its theory of human nature, natural law, natural right, and natural morality, was opposed by 2 priests who participated as members of other organizations. The moral principles behind the official Catholic position included the sacred and absolute principle of respect for life, the beginning of human life at conception, and the responsibility to protect the fetus as a human being. Internal Catholic challenges to the official position appeared to rest principally on the question of when life begins but also touched on the inappropriateness of viewing unwanted pregnancy as a punishment for sexual activity, the constant recourse to authority of the church, and the reluctance to reexamine questions on new evidence. Faced with the likely replacement of abortion law consistent with Catholic morality by 1 seriously at variance, the French Church and state while justifying their organized opposition to any change. The right of the church to impose its views on the legislature and on society, the view of the cultural context of abortion as a degradation of public attitudes expressed in rejection of children, the necessary connections between sexuality and fertility, the necessity for women to be able to control their fertility if they were to participate fully in society, the debased conditions in which thousands of illegal abortions occurred or the exaggeration of such conditions were other issues. Proposed legislation on abortion was opposed by the official Catholic position, which instead called for a vaguely

  7. [The decision process in induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Ytterstad, T S; Tollan, A

    1990-06-20

    This study describes the pattern of decision as reported by women undergoing elective abortion. The results are based on interviews with 45 of 67 women admitted to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Tromsø, during a two month period in 1988. All women had informed, and most often consulted, at least one person before making the decision, usually their partner and/or a female friend. The majority of the persons consulted supported her, whatever her decision. According to the women, they made the women, the final decision themselves. Two women were persuaded by their partner to decide to have an elective abortion.

  8. [Religion, morality and politics: the abortion debate].

    PubMed

    Ladriere, P

    1982-01-01

    The views of morality enunciated by the Protestant and Catholic churches in the process of France's abortion law revision are examined through an analysis of the testimony of each church and its moral theologians during hearings held from July-November 1973 by the Commission of Cultural, Family, and Social Affairs of the National Assembly concerning the proposed abortion legislation. The offical Catholic Church position, which restated a neoscholastic philosophy with its theory of human nature, natural law, natural right, and natural morality, was opposed by 2 priests who participated as members of other organizations. The moral principles behind the official Catholic position included the sacred and absolute principle of respect for life, the beginning of human life at conception, and the responsibility to protect the fetus as a human being. Internal Catholic challenges to the official position appeared to rest principally on the question of when life begins but also touched on the inappropriateness of viewing unwanted pregnancy as a punishment for sexual activity, the constant recourse to authority of the church, and the reluctance to reexamine questions on new evidence. Faced with the likely replacement of abortion law consistent with Catholic morality by 1 seriously at variance, the French Church and state while justifying their organized opposition to any change. The right of the church to impose its views on the legislature and on society, the view of the cultural context of abortion as a degradation of public attitudes expressed in rejection of children, the necessary connections between sexuality and fertility, the necessity for women to be able to control their fertility if they were to participate fully in society, the debased conditions in which thousands of illegal abortions occurred or the exaggeration of such conditions were other issues. Proposed legislation on abortion was opposed by the official Catholic position, which instead called for a vaguely

  9. Abortion, Adoption, and Marriage: Alternative Resolutions of an Unwanted Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nock, Steven L.

    1994-01-01

    Responds to previous article by Stolley and Hall (this issue) on presentation of adoption and abortion in undergraduate marriage and family textbooks. Contends that Stolley and Hall have constructed the issue as involving but two options (abortion and adoption). Asserts that abortion and adoption are but two of several related topics. Considers…

  10. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to... type of device may include aspiration cannula, vacuum source, and vacuum controller. (b)...

  11. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to... type of device may include aspiration cannula, vacuum source, and vacuum controller. (b)...

  12. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to... type of device may include aspiration cannula, vacuum source, and vacuum controller. (b)...

  13. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to... type of device may include aspiration cannula, vacuum source, and vacuum controller. (b)...

  14. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to... type of device may include aspiration cannula, vacuum source, and vacuum controller. (b)...

  15. The Psychosocial Factors of the Abortion Experience: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shusterman, Lisa Roseman

    1976-01-01

    Due to faulty methodology no general statements can be made about psychosocial factors for women receiving illegal abortions. Women receiving therapeutic abortions experienced favorable psychological consequences more often than negative consequences. New abortion patients are mostly young, unmarried women who are not in a social position to care…

  16. The Expression of Experience: Code's Critique of Gilligan's Abortion Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, Alice

    1991-01-01

    Presents a response to Lorraine Code's critique of Carol Gilligan's abortion study. Urges that abortion be read as a socially constructed experience based on more than women's moral decisions. Discusses language and experience to present abortion as an area of contested meaning in historical and ideological constructions of social life. (DK)

  17. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  18. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  19. The Effect of Religious Membership on Teen Abortion Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomal, Annette

    2001-01-01

    Studied abortion rates among teenagers in 1,024 counties in 18 states that report abortion numbers. Results show that counties with high levels of religious membership were more likely to be in a state with a parental involvement law for teenage abortions. Both religious membership level and a parental involvement law were negatively related to…

  20. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  1. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  2. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  3. Estimates of the rate of illegal abortion and the effects of eliminating therapeutic abortion, Alberta 1973-74.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, S A; Krótki, K J

    1979-01-01

    Data from the Growth of Alberta Family Study were used to estimate the illegal abortion rate for the residents of Edmonton, Alberta and to assess the potential impact of eliminating therapeutic abortion on the birth rate and on the illegal abortion rate. The study population consisted of 938 women, aged 18-54. The women were divided into 3 groups, and sensitive abortion data was elicited from each group using different data collection techniques. One group was asked about abortion in the traditional interview mode. Another group was asked to mail in their responses to abortion answers anonymously, and the remaining group was questioned about abortion using the (RRT) randomized response technique. The use of the RRT allowed the respondent to answer yes or no questions without the interviewer being aware that the respondent was responding to sensitive abortion questions. The RRT elicited information on a greater number of abortions than the other 2 techniques. According to calculations based on the RRT elicited information, the illegal abortion rate in Edmonton was 22.4/100 conceptions surviving the 1st 4 weeks of gestation. In view of the controversy surrounding the current abortion law, an effort was made to assess the effects of eliminating therapeutic abortions. A method, previously developed by Tietze for calculating the impact of abortion laws on the birth rate in New York, was applied to the Alberta data. The conclusion was reached that if therapeutic abortions were eliminated, the effect on the birth rate would be negligible and the illegal abortion rate would increase by 12%. The estimated illegal abortion rates and other major study results were presented in tabular form.

  4. Flight-Simulated Launch-Pad-Abort-to-Landing Maneuvers for a Lifting Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Rivers, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an in-flight investigation of the feasibility of conducting a successful landing following a launch-pad abort of a vertically-launched lifting body are presented. The study attempted to duplicate the abort-to-land-ing trajectory from the point of apogee through final flare and included the steep glide and a required high-speed, low-altitude turn to the runway heading. The steep glide was flown by reference to ground-provided guidance. The low-altitude turn was flown visually with a reduced field- of-view duplicating that of the simulated lifting body. Results from the in-flight experiment are shown to agree with ground-based simulation results; however, these tests should not be regarded as a definitive due to performance and control law dissimilarities between the two vehicles.

  5. Attitudes to abortion in the era of reform: evidence from the Abortion Law Reform Association correspondence.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma L

    2011-01-01

    This article examines letters sent by members of the general public to the Abortion Law Reform Association (ALRA) in the decade immediately before the 1967 Abortion Act. It shows how a voluntary organisation, in their aim of supporting a specific cause of unclear legality, called forth correspondence from those in need. In detailing the personal predicaments of those facing an unwanted pregnancy, this body of correspondence was readily deployed by ALRA in their efforts to mobilise support for abortion law reform, thus exercising a political function. A close examination of the content of the letters and the epistolary strategies adopted by their writers reveals that as much as they were a lobbying tool for changes in abortion law, these letters were discursively shaped by debates surrounding that very reform.

  6. Expansion of Safe Abortion Services in Nepal Through Auxiliary Nurse‐Midwife Provision of Medical Abortion, 2011‐2013

    PubMed Central

    Basnett, Indira; Shrestha, Dirgha Raj; Shrestha, Meena Kumari; Shah, Mukta; Aryal, Shilu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The termination of unwanted pregnancies up to 12 weeks’ gestation became legal in Nepal in 2002. Many interventions have taken place to expand access to comprehensive abortion care services. However, comprehensive abortion care services remain out of reach for women in rural and remote areas. This article describes a training and support strategy to train auxiliary nurse‐midwives (ANMs), already certified as skilled birth attendants, as medical abortion providers and expand geographic access to safe abortion care to the community level in Nepal. Methods This was a descriptive program evaluation. Sites and trainees were selected using standardized assessment tools to determine minimum facility requirements and willingness to provide medical abortion after training. Training was evaluated via posttests and observational checklists. Service statistics were collected through the government's facility logbook for safe abortion services (HMIS‐11). Results By the end of June 2014, medical abortion service had been expanded to 25 districts through 463 listed ANMs at 290 listed primary‐level facilities and served 25,187 women. Providers report a high level of confidence in their medical abortion skills and considerable clinical knowledge and capacity in medical abortion. Discussion The Nepali experience demonstrates that safe induced abortion care can be provided by ANMs, even in remote primary‐level health facilities. Post‐training support for providers is critical in helping ANMs handle potential barriers to medical abortion service provision and build lasting capacity in medical abortion. PMID:26860072

  7. Spontaneous abortion and unexpected death: a critical discussion of Marquis on abortion.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Mary Clayton

    2013-02-01

    In his classic paper, 'Why abortion is immoral', Don Marquis argues that what makes killing an adult seriously immoral is that it deprives the victim of the valuable future he/she would have otherwise had. Moreover, Marquis contends, because abortion deprives a fetus of the very same thing, aborting a fetus is just as seriously wrong as killing an adult. Marquis' argument has received a great deal of critical attention in the two decades since its publication. Nonetheless, there is a potential challenge to it that seems to have gone unnoticed. A significant percentage of fetuses are lost to spontaneous abortion. Once we bring this fact to our attention, it becomes less clear whether Marquis can use his account of the wrongness of killing to show that abortion is the moral equivalent of murder. In this paper, I explore the relevance of the rate of spontaneous abortion to Marquis' classic anti-abortion argument. I introduce a case I call Unexpected Death in which someone is about to commit murder, but, just as the would-be murderer is about to strike, his would-be victim dies unexpectedly. I then ask: what does Marquis' account of killing imply about the moral status of what the would-be murderer was about to do? I consider four responses Marquis could give to this question, and I examine what implications these responses have for Marquis' strategy of using his account of the wrongness of killing an adult to show that abortion is in the same moral category. PMID:23038800

  8. Abortion Legalization and Childbearing in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Vázquez, Edith Y; Parrado, Emilio A

    2016-06-01

    In 2007 abortion was legalized in the Federal District of Mexico, making it the largest jurisdiction in Latin America, outside of Cuba, to allow women to have abortions on request during the first trimester of pregnancy. While the implications of the law for women's health and maternal mortality have been investigated, its potential association with fertility behavior has yet to be assessed. We examine metropolitan-area differences in overall and parity-specific childbearing, as well as the age pattern of childbearing between 2000 and 2010 to identify the contribution of abortion legalization to fertility in Mexico. Our statistical specification applies difference-in-difference regression methods that control for concomitant changes in other socioeconomic predictors of fertility to assess the differential influence of the law across age groups. In addition, we account for prior fertility levels and change to better separate the effect of the law from preceding trends. Overall, the evidence suggests a systematic association between abortion legalization and fertility. The law appears to have contributed to lower fertility in Mexico City compared to other metropolitan areas and prior trends. The influence is mostly visible among women aged 20-34 in connection with the transition to first and second child, with limited impact on teenage fertility. There is some evidence that its effect might be diffusing to the Greater Mexico City Metropolitan area. PMID:27285423

  9. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  10. Abortion Legalization and Childbearing in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Vázquez, Edith Y; Parrado, Emilio A

    2016-06-01

    In 2007 abortion was legalized in the Federal District of Mexico, making it the largest jurisdiction in Latin America, outside of Cuba, to allow women to have abortions on request during the first trimester of pregnancy. While the implications of the law for women's health and maternal mortality have been investigated, its potential association with fertility behavior has yet to be assessed. We examine metropolitan-area differences in overall and parity-specific childbearing, as well as the age pattern of childbearing between 2000 and 2010 to identify the contribution of abortion legalization to fertility in Mexico. Our statistical specification applies difference-in-difference regression methods that control for concomitant changes in other socioeconomic predictors of fertility to assess the differential influence of the law across age groups. In addition, we account for prior fertility levels and change to better separate the effect of the law from preceding trends. Overall, the evidence suggests a systematic association between abortion legalization and fertility. The law appears to have contributed to lower fertility in Mexico City compared to other metropolitan areas and prior trends. The influence is mostly visible among women aged 20-34 in connection with the transition to first and second child, with limited impact on teenage fertility. There is some evidence that its effect might be diffusing to the Greater Mexico City Metropolitan area.

  11. Debate: Should Abortion Be Available on Request?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Bernard; Lawrence, George

    1971-01-01

    Two physicians debate whether abortions should be available on request regardless of medical indications. The crux of the issue is whether the fetus should be considered body tissue over which the woman has complete control or whether society has an interest in the embryo and should protect it. (Author/BY)

  12. Evaluation of stated motives for legal abortion.

    PubMed

    Törnbom, M; Ingelhammar, E; Lilja, H; Möller, A; Svanberg, B

    1994-03-01

    In a study of 404 women (simple random sample), 20-29 years of age, 201 (group A) applying for abortion and 203 (group B) continuing their pregnancies, the women were given a questionnaire and in addition were interviewed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the spontaneous personal motives of women for abortion at a time when age is not supposed to be a common reason. The results showed that more than half of the women expressed that a bad relationship with the partner in one way or another was a motive for the abortion. Other important motives included characteristics of the women and their partners, mainly immaturity, work/studies and unsuitable life situation for having a child. Less common motives seemed to be economy, dwelling and medical and health factors. It is obvious that women in this study wanted to have a stable relationship to the child's father before they dared or wanted to have a child. Social networks in modern society seem to be too weak. The women do not want to face social and emotional problems as lonely mothers. Political decisions in the society, for example with parental benefit according to your income discourage women from continuing their pregnancies during their studies. It also seems important for the woman to feel mature enough to have a child. The provision and encouragement of methods for safer sex may be a possible way by which to reduce the number of abortions.

  13. How Attitudes Toward Abortion are Changing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elise F.; Westoff, Charles F.

    1978-01-01

    Data were obtained from the 1975 National Fertility Study concerning the acceptability of abortion, based largely on reinterviews with respondents from the 1970 sample. Using these data, aggregate trends over time and patterns of change for individuals have been analyzed. (BB)

  14. Emotional distress in Israeli women before and after abortion.

    PubMed

    Teichman, Y; Shenhar, S; Segal, S

    1993-04-01

    Emotional distress in a group of Israeli women who requested legal abortion was compared with that in a group of women on the verge of delivery and in a random group of nonpregnant women on measures of anxiety and depression. Emotional consequences of the abortion were evaluated by before-and-after comparisons of the same measures in a subgroup of the aborting women. Findings indicated significantly greater distress in the aborting women, with lower levels after the abortion. The effects on emotional well-being of personal and contextual factors and their interactions were also examined.

  15. Attitudes toward the level of men's involvement in abortion decisions.

    PubMed

    Nelson, E S; Coleman, P K; Swager, M J

    1997-06-01

    College students completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitudes toward the level of male responsibility in abortion decisions. Overall, both men and women thought that men should have some degree of involvement in the abortion decision. However, as expected by the first hypothesis, men indicated a desire for more responsibility in the abortion decision than women thought the men should have. A second hypothesis predicted women would feel more strongly than men that abortion was strictly a woman's issue. Contrary to the hypothesis, women tended to disagree that abortion was strictly a women's issue. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:12295943

  16. [Peru: reproductive health, abortion and family planning].

    PubMed

    Ferrando, D

    1994-01-01

    The average number of children per woman in Peru declined from 7 to 3.5 between 1960-65 and 1990-95, but the 1991 Demographic and Health Survey indicates that ideal family size was 2.7. Significant socioeconomic and regional fertility differentials persist. Despite the desire for smaller families, 59% of reproductive-age women use no contraceptive method. The most widely used method in Peru is rhythm. Around 34% of women 15-44 years old, some 2 million women, can be considered insufficiently protected against risks of unwanted pregnancy. The 1991 survey found that 1/3 of women using contraceptive methods had experienced failure of their method, with proportions ranging from 32% for rhythm to 1.2% for IUD. Abortion is illegal in Peru, as in most of Latin America, but is known to be widespread. The recurring public debates about abortion are hampered by lack of reliable data. The Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) estimate for Peru was based on data from the 1991 Demographic and Health Survey, official hospital discharge statistics, and a survey of 197 professionals and nonprofessionals. The AGI study reveals that a wide variety of techniques are used to induce abortion. There are the safe, modern methods, such as vacuum aspiration or dilatation and curettage, but the most common methods include inserting a probe or catheter, sometimes pouring toxic fluids into the uterus. Women also insert metal objects into the uterus or herbal suppositories into the vagina. They jump, fall, exercise violently, and take injections. 84% of rural women and 64% of poor urban women attempt to induce the abortion themselves or seek the aid of untrained midwives. 95% of wealthier urban women are attended by health professionals. An estimated 1 in 5 illegal abortions in Peru result in hospitalization. Applying this ratio to the estimated 54,230 hospitalizations for induced abortion in 1989 results in an estimate of 271,150 induced abortions in that year, equivalent to 43% of live births.

  17. State abortion policy, geographic access to abortion providers and changing family formation.

    PubMed

    Lichter, D T; McLaughlin, D K; Ribar, D C

    1998-01-01

    This study examined whether new barriers to abortion access are likely to contribute to increased female headship in the US. State and country fixed effects models are estimated for the impact of geographic access to abortion providers, notification requirements, parental consent, and Medicaid funding restrictions. Data were obtained from county records from summary tape files of the 1980 and 1990 censuses; abortion provider information from the Alan Guttmacher Institute; and physicians active in OB-GYN patient care data from the Bureau of Health Professionals Area Resource File. Pooled data amounted to 6132 observations for 3066 counties. The data included nonmarital births without a marriage and marital births followed by separation or divorce. Sensitivity analysis accounted for local divorce rates. Fixed effects controls accounted for unobserved variables. Population-weighted descriptive statistics are provided for dependent and key independent variables. Abortion provider declines ranged from 13% to 19%. Findings indicate that declines in geographic access accounted for a small, but significant, decline in increased female headship. About 50% of the increase among Black female headship was accounted for by restrictions on Medicaid funding. A modest amount of the rise in White female headship was due to state parent notification requirements. The difference in the estimated impact of abortion providers in the state and county specific models supported findings of Kane and Staiger. Sensitivity models did not alter the effects of access to abortion providers and physicians. Findings suggest conflicting or competing public policy goals.

  18. An alternate mechanism of abortive release marked by the formation of very long abortive transcripts.

    PubMed

    Chander, Monica; Austin, Karyn M; Aye-Han, Nwe-Nwe; Sircar, Piya; Hsu, Lilian M

    2007-11-01

    The Esigma70-dependent N25 promoter is rate-limited at promoter escape. Here, RNA polymerase repeatedly initiates and aborts transcription, giving rise to a ladder of short RNAs 2-11 nucleotides long. Certain mutations in the initial transcribed sequence (ITS) of N25 lengthen the abortive initiation program, resulting in the release of very long abortive transcripts (VLATs) 16-19 nucleotides long. This phenomenon is completely dependent on sequences within the first 20 bases of the ITS since altering sequences downstream of +20 has no effect on their formation. VLAT formation also requires strong interactions between RNA polymerase and the promoter. Mutations that change the -35 and -10 hexamers and the intervening 17 base pair spacer away from consensus decrease the probability of aborting at positions +16 to +19. An unusual characteristic of the VLATs is their undiminished levels in the presence of GreB, which rescues abortive RNAs (abortive release at VLAT positions.

  19. Visualising abortion: emotion discourse and fetal imagery in a contemporary abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Nick; Zeedyk, Suzanne; Raitt, Fiona

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a recent UK anti-abortion campaign in which the use of fetal imagery--especially images of fetal remains--was a prominent issue. A striking feature of the texts produced by the group behind the campaign was the emphasis given to the emotions of those viewing such imagery. Traditionally, social scientific analyses of mass communication have problematised references to emotion and viewed them as being of significance because of their power to subvert the rational appraisal of message content. However, we argue that emotion discourse may be analysed from a different perspective. As the categorisation of the fetus is a social choice and contested, it follows that all protagonists in the abortion debate (whether pro- or anti-abortion) are faced with the task of constructing the fetus as a particular entity rather than another, and that they must seek to portray their preferred categorisation as objective and driven by an 'out-there' reality. Following this logic, we show how the emotional experience of viewing fetal imagery was represented so as to ground an anti-abortion construction of the fetus as objective. We also show how the arguments of the (pro-abortion) opposition were construed as totally discrepant with such emotions and so were invalidated as deceitful distortions of reality. The wider significance of this analysis for social scientific analyses of the abortion debate is discussed. PMID:15893054

  20. Herbal infusions used for induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Ciganda, Carmen; Laborde, Amalia

    2003-01-01

    Plants and herbs have been used to induce abortions but there is very little published information describing the commonly used ones. The purpose of this report is to describe the herbal products used to induce abortions, and to enhance awareness and understanding of their toxic effects. A descriptive retrospective survey was conducted on the calls received by the Montevideo Poison Centre between 1986 and 1999 concerning the ingestion of herbal infusions with abortive intent. A total of 86 cases involving 30 different plant species were identified. The species most frequently involved were ruda (Ruta chalepensis/graveolens), cola de quirquincho (Lycopodium saururus), parsley (Petroselinum hortense), and an over-the-counter herbal product named Carachipita. The components of Carachipita are pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), yerba de la perdiz (Margiricarpus pinnatus), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and guaycuri (Statice brasiliensis). Abortion occurred in 23 cases after the ingestion of parsley, ruda, Carachipita, celery, Cedron, francisco alvarez, floripon, espina colorada. Out of the 23 cases, 15 involved the only the ingestion of plants, 4 cases used injected drugs (presumably hormones), and in 4 cases there was associated self-inflicted instrumental manipulation. Multiple organ system failure occurred in those patients who had ingested ruda (alone or in combination with parsley or fennel), Carachipita, arnica, or bardana. Deaths occurred in one case of Carachipita ingestion and in 4 cases of ruda ingestion (2 cases of ruda alone, 2 cases of ruda with parsley and fennel). Self-inflicted instrumental manipulations were found in 4 of the patients with multiple organ system failure and in one of those who died. The results of this report are not conclusive, but it appears that the ingestion of plants to induce abortion involves the risk of severe morbidity and mortality.

  1. A note on "An economic approach to abortion demand.".

    PubMed

    Sun, W

    1995-01-01

    Donna S. Rothstein analyzed the socioeconomic factors which affect the demand for abortion using a cross-section of 1985 data for the fifty states of the US and Washington, D.C. The dependent variable was the percentage of pregnancies of women aged 15-44 which are terminated through legal abortion. Rothstein found that the average cost of abortions and the unemployment rate had significant negative effects upon the demand for abortion, while disposable personal per capita income, the availability of Medicaid funding for abortion, the percentage of unmarried women aged 15 and older, the states which are located in the far west, and the divorce rate had significant positive effects upon the demand for abortion. Educational status had no significant effect upon abortion. The author re-estimated Rothstein's abortion demand model using a continuous abortion price variable instead of a dummy variable to find that the abortion price and Medicaid funding have insignificant effects upon demand for abortion. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:12292333

  2. Abortion in Europe, 1920-91: a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    David, H P

    1992-01-01

    This article grew out of a keynote address prepared for the conference, "From Abortion to Contraception: Public Health Approaches to Reducing Unwanted Pregnancy and Abortion Through Improved Family Planning Services," held in Tbilisi, Georgia, USSR in October 1990. The article reviews the legal, religious, and medical situation of induced abortion in Europe in historical perspective, and considers access to abortion services, attitudes of health professionals, abortion incidence, morbidity and mortality, the new antiprogestins, the characteristics of abortion seekers, late abortions, postabortion psychological reactions, effects of denied abortion, and repeat abortion. Special attention is focused on the changes occurring in Romania, Albania, and the former Soviet Union, plus the effects of the new conservatism elsewhere in the formerly socialist countries of central and eastern Europe, particularly Poland. Abortion is a social reality that can no more be legislated out of existence than the controversy surrounding it can be stilled. No matter how effective family planning services and practices become, there will always be a need for access to safe abortion services.

  3. Second trimester abortion laws globally: actuality, trends and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Boland, Reed

    2010-11-01

    There are important and compelling reasons why women have second trimester abortions, which constitute a significant percentage of all abortions performed. Laws vary widely around the world on the legality of these abortions. In many cases, they are quite restrictive. Indeed, the later in pregnancy an abortion is sought, the more restrictive the law tends to be. However, many laws say little about second trimester or later abortions. This article reviews the laws of the 191 countries around the world for which information is available and categorizes them by legal indications, which include preservation of the woman's life, health reasons, pregnancy due to sex offences, fetal impairment, socio-economic reasons and on request. Given that there are serious reasons why women have second trimester abortions, and that the laws in many countries do not make these abortions legally available, this paper makes recommendations on how laws and regulations can be changed in order better to respond to women's needs. While most countries may not decriminalise all abortions in the near future, especially second trimester abortions, less comprehensive legislative and regulatory reforms are possible. These include recommendations aimed at ensuring that abortions are carried out safely and as early as possible in pregnancy, and improving access to safe abortions by removing unnecessary legal and regulatory restrictions.

  4. [Induced abortions in the Third Reich. Legal basis and provision].

    PubMed

    Link, G

    2000-01-01

    This article analyses, after introductory comments on the legal situation in the German Empire and the Weimar Republic, the legal basis for induced abortions during National Socialist rule in Germany. During this period the first legal definition for eugenically and medically indicated abortions was established. At the same time the prohibition of induced abortions outside these criteria was controlled more strictly and violations were punished more severely. This concerned abortions mainly for social reasons. The intention was to legalize abortion for those deemed "less worthy" while, at the same time, to minimise the number of abortions of those considered as "more valuable" to society. The main thrust of this policy was to increase the birth rate of "valuable" citizens. The second part of this paper focuses on eugenic and medical abortions at the University of Freiburg's Maternity Hospital. PMID:11050762

  5. Eliminating the phrase "elective abortion": why language matters.

    PubMed

    Janiak, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2016-02-01

    The phrase "elective abortion" is often used to describe induced abortions performed for reasons other than a direct, immediate threat to maternal physical health. We argue that the term "elective abortion" is variably defined, misrepresents the complexity and multiplicity of indications for abortion and perpetuates stigma. In practice, restricting access to abortion at the legal, regulatory or institutional level based on subjective perceptions of patient need constrains health care providers' ability to act according to their best clinical judgments and limits patient access to care. The phrase "elective abortion" should be eliminated from scientific and medical discourse to prevent further damage to the public understanding of the variety of indications for which women require expeditious and equitable access to induced abortion. PMID:26480889

  6. The relationship between restrictive state abortion laws and postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Medoff, Marshall H

    2014-01-01

    Is there a relationship between restrictive state abortion laws and postpartum depression? Do states with restrictive abortion laws have higher rates of postpartum depression? If there is a relationship, does it differ by the type of restrictive state abortion law? Using the Centers for Disease Control's 2008 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System state survey of the percentage of women who gave birth and suffered from postpartum depression, states with and without restrictive abortion laws were compared. The empirical results found that there were no significant differences in the incidence of postpartum depression between states with parental involvement laws, mandatory counseling laws, waiting period laws, two-visit laws, and states without these restrictive abortion laws. States that prohibit the Medicaid funding of abortions have significantly higher rates of postpartum depression than in those states that fund Medicaid abortions. PMID:25068613

  7. Eliminating the phrase "elective abortion": why language matters.

    PubMed

    Janiak, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2016-02-01

    The phrase "elective abortion" is often used to describe induced abortions performed for reasons other than a direct, immediate threat to maternal physical health. We argue that the term "elective abortion" is variably defined, misrepresents the complexity and multiplicity of indications for abortion and perpetuates stigma. In practice, restricting access to abortion at the legal, regulatory or institutional level based on subjective perceptions of patient need constrains health care providers' ability to act according to their best clinical judgments and limits patient access to care. The phrase "elective abortion" should be eliminated from scientific and medical discourse to prevent further damage to the public understanding of the variety of indications for which women require expeditious and equitable access to induced abortion.

  8. [Induced abortions in the Third Reich. Legal basis and provision].

    PubMed

    Link, G

    2000-01-01

    This article analyses, after introductory comments on the legal situation in the German Empire and the Weimar Republic, the legal basis for induced abortions during National Socialist rule in Germany. During this period the first legal definition for eugenically and medically indicated abortions was established. At the same time the prohibition of induced abortions outside these criteria was controlled more strictly and violations were punished more severely. This concerned abortions mainly for social reasons. The intention was to legalize abortion for those deemed "less worthy" while, at the same time, to minimise the number of abortions of those considered as "more valuable" to society. The main thrust of this policy was to increase the birth rate of "valuable" citizens. The second part of this paper focuses on eugenic and medical abortions at the University of Freiburg's Maternity Hospital.

  9. Regulatory policy and abortion clinics: implications for planning.

    PubMed

    Kay, B J; Neal, J R

    1978-01-01

    The practicalities of formulating regulatory policy associated with elective abortion often place public health officials at the center of political controversy. Resulting conflicts can inhibit a rational consideration of long-term objectives in implementing a national policy which assures legal accessibility to all who would select abortion as an alternative to term birth. Regulation which uses primarily structural criteria for monitoring and evaluating services tends to de-emphasize the importanc of contraceptive counseling as a component of abortion services. Our process/outcome evaluation of abortion clinics located in Chicago suggests that contraceptive counseling provided at the time of the abortion procedure has a potential long-term impact in terms of reducing the need for elective abortion. We suggest that regulation policy should include process and outcome criteria which support the eventual reduction in need for abortion as a long-range policy goal and suggest key issues for consideration when such a policy is formulated.

  10. Recent developments in abortion law in industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Boland, R

    1990-01-01

    An effort to bring new insights into the US abortion debate, this article reviews recent legal developments concerning abortion in 7 other industrialized countries. In addition to the US, the author examines developments in Canada, England, Ireland, France, Belgium, Romania, and Bulgaria. In the US, the Supreme Court has become the battleground for an increasingly bitter abortion debate. The 1989 ruling in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services has setback the 1973 Roe v. Wade ruling which guaranteed a woman's right to an abortion. Although the Webster did not overturn Roe, it did significantly weaken the trimester approach to abortion regulation and open the door to further restrictions. In Canada, however, the court has overturned a previously burdensome abortion law. The abortion debate in England has centered around the standard that says that an abortion may not take place when the fetus is "capable of being born alive." Conforming to present scientific knowledge, English law now allows abortions on demand during the 1st 12 weeks of pregnancy -- bringing England closer to the practice of other European countries. Belgium has also recently approved of unimpeded abortions during the 1st 12 weeks. In France, the governments has ordered the manufacturer of RU486 to make the abortifacient available to French women. Ireland, however, remains the only industrialized country in the world where abortion is still illegal. The cases of Bulgaria and Romania show what can happen when abortion becomes the pawn of social policy and ideology. Romania is the extreme case. Prior to his downfall in 1989, President Ceaucescu had instituted one of the most restrictive abortion laws as part of a pronatalist policy. This resulted in widespread misery for women and created a great number of unwanted children, which the author warns is the result of restrictive abortions laws.

  11. Physician provision of abortion before Roe v. Wade.

    PubMed

    Joffe, C

    1991-01-01

    With the possibility of the Supreme Court overturning the landmark Roe v. Wade (1973) case legalizing abortion, a review of abortion practices pre-Roe is instructive. Abortion became criminalized in the US around 1870, yet many abortions were performed. While estimates for the yearly number of pre-Roe illegal abortions roughly resemble today's number of legal abortions, the difference between legal and illegal abortion rests in the difference between the large number of women who died or were injured then, and the very few women who now die from illegal abortions. Along with the self-induced abortion, different categories of providers performed illegal abortions: physicians, nonphysicians, nurses, midwives, and lay people; all with varying skill, experience, and motives. While there were "butchers" and sexual exploiters, there were also competent, beloved physicians. There were the financially motivated physicians providing abortions full time, and the occasional providers acting with a sense of conscience, risking successful practices and jail. Within this "conscience" group of 44 interviewees gathered through personal networks, ads, etc., abortions were: performed outside of hospitals, reducing the risk of discovery, but creating greater medical risks; begun outside of a hospital with the intrusion into the uterus of an object, provoking a "spontaneous abortion" (miscarriage) needing completion by D and C (dilation and curettage) within a hospital, but only a limited number of such patients could be referred before arousing suspicion; and in a hospital under disguised circumstances, a very tricky undertaking with severe limitations, available only a few times before risking detection. Avoidance and lack of training by today's physicians and the well organized antiabortion groups will undoubtedly make illegal abortions even more difficult to engage in than the pre-Roe days.

  12. Needs for laws dealing with abortion in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ojo, S L

    1976-09-01

    This paper reviews from the point of view of a lawyer, the need for abortion, the state of the laws in Africa and hazards of illegal abortion encouraged by restrictive laws. The author then examines the trends in the liberalization of laws in Africa and poses the problem of intention towards liberalization and the tendency of the governments to continue retaining some aspects of the restrictive laws. It is concluded that restrictive abortion laws in many African countries have proved ineffective and should therefore be liberalized. Miller's 8 stages in a woman's reproductive career when she is especially vulnerable psychologically to unwanted pregnancy and the 5 aspects of ego psychology to explain these stages are delineated. Hazards of illegal abortions include use of unqualified personnel, unsanitary conditions, high mortality rate and a sense of punishment conveyed especially to the poor and uneducated which may deter them from seeking medical assistance and contraceptive advice after the operation. 7% of the world's population live in countries where abortion is prohibited; for 12% abortion is permitted only to save the life of the mother; 15% must have broad medical grounds for abortion; for 22% social factors are taken into consideration; 36% can have abortions at their own request, 8% are subject to restrictive abortion laws. Only Tunisia and Zambia in Africa have so far liberalized their abortion laws. Liberalization will substantially reduce frequency of illegal and/or self induced abortions and the incidence of illegitimate births. Women who practice contraception are more likely to accept abortion and those who have an abortion are more likely to accept contraceptive methods when available. Since Potts predicts that 1/3 of all married couples will have at least 1 unplanned pregnancy, liberalization of abortion laws cannot be denied on the argument that instead emphasis should be placed on prevention through family planning education and services. The

  13. Exploring the pathways of unsafe abortion in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sushanta K; Andersen, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 40 years after enactment of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act of 1971, unsafe abortion continues to be a neglected women's health issue in India. This prospective study of women presenting for post-abortion care in 10 selected hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India, aimed to understand the incidence, types and severity of post-abortion complications, probable causes of complications and consequences to women in terms of hospitalisation and incurred costs. Among 1565 women presenting for induced abortion-related services between July and November 2007, 381 women with post-abortion complications consented to participate. Data reveal a high prevalence of post-abortion complications (29%). Approximately half of women originally attempted to induce abortion at home using medication, home-made concoctions or traditional methods. Ninety percent sought care from either qualified (37%) or unqualified providers. More than half of the women were hospitalised as a result of post-abortion complications. This study suggests that supporting access to safely induced abortion services and improving community awareness on legal aspects, safe methods and approved providers are all necessary to reduce morbidity associated with unsafe abortion.

  14. Abortion law across Australia--A review of nine jurisdictions.

    PubMed

    de Costa, Caroline; Douglas, Heather; Hamblin, Julie; Ramsay, Philippa; Shircore, Mandy

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the current legal status of abortion in Australia and its implications. Australian abortion law has been a matter for the states since before Federation. In the years since Federation there have been significant reforms and changes in the abortion laws of some jurisdictions, although not all. Across Australia there are now nine sets of laws, state and Commonwealth, concerned with abortion. The test of a lawful abortion varies greatly across jurisdictions. In a number of states and territories, it is necessary to establish a serious risk to the physical or mental health of the woman if the pregnancy was to continue. In some cases, the certification of two doctors is required, particularly for abortions at later gestations. There are also physical restrictions on access, such as in South Australia and the Northern Territory where abortion must take place in a hospital. Only in the ACT has abortion been removed from the criminal law altogether. Variations in the law and restrictions arising from these are not consistent with the aims and provision of the universal, accessible health care system aspired to in Australia. There is an urgent need for overall reform and the introduction of uniformity to Australia's abortion laws, including removal of abortion from the criminal law.

  15. [An opinion survey on abortion in Mexico City].

    PubMed

    Núñez-Fernández, L; Shrader-Cox, E; Benson, J

    1994-01-01

    In view of the lack of information regarding abortion attitudes in Mexico, an abortion opinion survey was conducted in Mexico City among 387 women and 338 men. Respondents were asked if they agreed with a woman's abortion decision under seven different circumstances. Affirmative responses were analyzed by respondents' sociodemographic and reproductive health characteristics and a scale was created to measure respondents' overall attitudes toward abortion. Greatest support was expressed for a woman's right to an abortion, and to abortion in cases of fetal defect, threat to the mother's life, and rape. On the attitudinal scale, however, respondents generally disapproved abortion. Male respondents were more likely than female respondents to support a woman's abortion decision. Males in union, females not in union, respondents over thirty years of age, those with more than primary school education, those with fewer pregnancies, those with no history of child mortality, and those with a history of or experience with abortion, were also more likely to support an abortion decision.

  16. Women on waves: where next for the abortion boat?

    PubMed

    Gomperts, Rebecca

    2002-05-01

    Women on Waves was founded to contribute to the prevention of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortions throughout the world by direct action. Because national penal laws, including those governing abortion, generally extend only as far as territorial waters (12 miles), Women on Waves made plans to provide reproductive health services on a ship with a mobile clinic, including abortions, outside the territorial waters of countries where abortion is illegal. We went to Ireland first because it was nearby and there was a dedicated pro-choice community with immediate interest in and commitment to the project. Although we encountered problems that meant we could not do abortions, we were contacted by more than 300 women in five days and provided reproductive health information, contraception, workshops and information on where to obtain legal abortions in Europe. In many parts of the world an anti-abortion backlash is taking place. To safeguard our reproductive rights in the face of anti-abortion activities, it is crucial to recapture a pro-active, pro-choice role. Women on Waves helped to make visible the need for legal abortion services in Ireland, and the extensive class and other differences between women able to access abortions abroad and those who could not. We are currently attempting to resolve our status under Dutch law, but until women everywhere have the right to reproductive freedom, we will continue to make waves. PMID:12369324

  17. The Relationship between Neutralization Techniques and Induced Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Kalateh Sadati, Ahmad; Tabei, Seyed Ziaaddin; Salehzadeh, Hamzeh; Rahnavard, Farnaz; Namavar Jahromi, Bahia; Hemmati, Soroor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Induced abortion is not only a serious threat for women’s health, but also a controversial topic for its ethical and moral problems. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between neutralization techniques and attempting to commit abortion in married women with unintended pregnancy. Methods: After in-depth interviews with some women who had attempted abortion, neutralization themes were gathered. Next, to analyze the data quantitatively, a questionnaire was created including demographic and psychosocial variables specifically related to neutralization. The participants were divided into two groups (abortion and control) of unintended pregnancy and were then compared. Results: Analysis of psychosocial variables revealed a significant difference in the two groups at neutralization, showing that neutralization in the control group (56.97±10.24) was higher than that in the abortion group (44.19±12.44). To evaluate the findings more accurately, we examined the causal factors behind the behaviors of the abortion group. Binary logistic regression showed that among psychosocial factors, neutralization significantly affected abortion (95% CI=1.07-1.35). Conclusion: Despite the network of many factors affecting induced abortion, neutralization plays an important role in reinforcing the tendency to attempt abortion. Furthermore, the decline of religious beliefs, as a result of the secular context of the modern world, seems to have an important role in neutralizing induced abortion. PMID:25349851

  18. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

    2015-02-01

    Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes.

  19. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

    2015-02-01

    Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes. PMID:25715152

  20. Liberalisation of abortion laws in Nigeria: the undergraduates' perspective.

    PubMed

    Orji, E O; Adeyemi, A B; Esimai, O A

    2003-01-01

    Nothing in the field of health care generates more controversy than does the issue of abortion. The views of 396 undergraduates of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria concerning the liberalisation of abortion laws were investigated in May 2001. Ninety respondents (22.7%) supported the liberalisation of abortion laws in Nigeria because they believed that it would lead to reduction in associated morbidity and mortality, encourage more qualified personnel to perform it, encourage women to request abortion openly and encourage accurate statistics on abortion. However, the majority of the respondents (59.6%) opposed the liberalisation of abortion laws due to the fear that it would increase promiscuity, sexually transmitted diseases and abortion rates. Religious opposition and the belief that liberalisation would not reduce the level of poverty, ignorance and poor reproductive health facilities were the common factors leading to unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Nigeria. Support for the liberalisation of abortion laws shows significant relationship with increasing age (P = 0.001), male sex (P = 0.001) and a science-orientated faculty (P<0.05), but not religion. There is every indication that the issue of abortion is one that will continue to be unresolved for the forseeable future.

  1. Ugandan opinion-leaders' knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ann M; Kibombo, Richard; Cats-Baril, Deva

    2014-10-01

    While laws in Uganda surrounding abortion remain contradictory, a frequent interpretation of the law is that abortion is only allowed to save the woman's life. Nevertheless abortion occurs frequently under unsafe conditions at a rate of 54 abortions per 1000 women of reproductive age annually, taking a large toll on women's health. There are an estimated 148,500 women in Uganda who experience abortion complications annually. Understanding opinion leaders' knowledge and perceptions about unsafe abortion is critical to identifying ways to address this public health issue. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 41 policy-makers, cultural leaders, local politicians and leaders within the health care sector in 2009-10 at the national as well as district (Bushenyi, Kamuli and Lira) level to explore their knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion and the potential for policy to address this issue. Only half of the sample knew the current law regulating abortion in Uganda. Respondents understood that the result of the current abortion restrictions included long-term health complications, unwanted children and maternal death. Perceived consequences of increasing access to safe abortion included improved health as well as overuse of abortion, marital conflict and less reliance on preventive behaviour. Opinion leaders expressed the most support for legalization of abortion in cases of rape when the perpetrator was unknown. Understanding opinion leaders' perspectives on this politically sensitive topic provides insight into the policy context of abortion laws, drivers behind maintaining the status quo, and ways to improve provision under the law: increase education among providers and opinion leaders.

  2. [Contraception and abortion: an update in 2015].

    PubMed

    Chung, D; Ferro Luzzi, E; Bettoli Musy, L; Narring, F

    2015-09-23

    Family doctors can play an important role in preventing unplanned pregnancies. This article addresses the different contraceptives methods available in Switzerland, which are classified in 2 groups and recommends using the GATHER approach (Greet, Ask, Tell, Help, Explain, Return) to promote compliance. LARC (long acting reversible contraceptives) can be recommended to any woman who needs a reliable birth control method. These contraceptives require minimum effort for high efficiency. Further explanation regarding the use of an emergency contraception must be provided when short action contraceptives are chosen. Switzerland's abortion rate is one of the lowest in the world. Medical abortion tends to be more and more prominent. Under certain circumstances, it can be self-administered at home.

  3. [The modern indications for abortion (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stucki, D

    1980-01-15

    Within the Swiss legal code, somatic and psychiatric indications for interruption of pregnancy are very well indicated and codified. These days, however, only 8% of indications for abortion are based on purely medical reasons; the great majority of indications are "modern", a clear manifestation of a slipping away from classical indications toward a much more liberal intervention which often has nothing to do with the corporal integrity of the mother, but with that of the child, or which simply takes into consideration the future quality of life of everybody involved. This evolution is a reflection of the new role of women in society, and also the result of the recent progresses of the science of neonatology. Such enlarged indications for abortion are accepted by most doctors concerned with these problems, and they include such different reasons as IUD failure, hormonal contraception failure, very young or too old age, exposure to X-rays, divorce and exposure to chemotherapy.

  4. National abortion group begins education effort.

    PubMed

    1999-11-01

    This paper reports on the public awareness and education campaign of the National Abortion Federation (NAF) in the US. The campaign aims to prepare women and health care providers for the advent of mifepristone and other forms of medical abortion. This preparation includes the release of a provider manual, videotape, and CD-ROM that will coincide with the US approval of mifepristone. Once the manual, videotape, and CD-ROM are complete, NAF is planning a one-day training sessions in the year 2000 to coincide with various regional and national medical meetings. The education campaign will be made available through the Internet and possibly through satellite-based technology. NAF also provides public service messages to heighten the awareness of the Federation's toll-free hotline, in which it offers option counseling, referrals to qualified providers, help with funding, and information on dealing with individual state restrictions. PMID:12295330

  5. RU 486: an alternative to surgical abortion.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, K; Briggs, J; McMaster, D

    1994-09-01

    After 5 years of use in more than 100,000 European women, RU 486, an antiprogestin medication used as a medical abortifacient, has recently come under scrutiny in the United States. This article discusses the current and potential uses of RU 486. Also addressed are the history, advantages, and disadvantages of medical abortion (including the acceptability of the method from a woman-centered perspective); new clinical trials; and ethical issues.

  6. Medical Evidence and Expertise in Abortion Jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Aziza

    2015-01-01

    For another thing, the division of medical opinion about the matter at most means uncertainty, a factor that signals the presence of risk, not its absence. That division here involves highly qualified knowledgeable experts on both sides of the issue.--Stenberg v. Carhart, 2000. While we find no reliable data to measure the phenomenon, it seems unexceptionable to conclude some women come to regret their choice to abort the infant life they once created and sustained.--Gonzales v. Carhart, 2007.

  7. Abort Options for Human Missions to Earth-Moon Halo Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jesick, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Abort trajectories are optimized for human halo orbit missions about the translunar libration point (L2), with an emphasis on the use of free return trajectories. Optimal transfers from outbound free returns to L2 halo orbits are numerically optimized in the four-body ephemeris model. Circumlunar free returns are used for direct transfers, and cislunar free returns are used in combination with lunar gravity assists to reduce propulsive requirements. Trends in orbit insertion cost and flight time are documented across the southern L2 halo family as a function of halo orbit position and free return flight time. It is determined that the maximum amplitude southern halo incurs the lowest orbit insertion cost for direct transfers but the maximum cost for lunar gravity assist transfers. The minimum amplitude halo is the most expensive destination for direct transfers but the least expensive for lunar gravity assist transfers. The on-orbit abort costs for three halos are computed as a function of abort time and return time. Finally, an architecture analysis is performed to determine launch and on-orbit vehicle requirements for halo orbit missions.

  8. US poised to outlaw late abortion technique.

    PubMed

    Bozalis, D

    1995-11-18

    The House of Representatives passed a bill, by a two-thirds majority (288-139), prohibiting late (at 19-20 weeks gestation) abortion using intrauterine cranial decompression. The bill now awaits judgment from the Senate Judiciary Committee for hearings. If the bill becomes law, physicians performing the procedure could face up to two years in prison. Chris Smith, Republican cochairman of the House Pro-Life Caucus, who introduced the bill in the House, described the vote as historic. During his emotional speech, the procedure was described in order to desanitize a form of abortion that he called barbaric torture. Patricia Schroeder, Colorado House Representative, argued that the wording of the bill allowed the procedure only when it was the only possible way of saving the mother's life; the woman's health and future fertility were, in effect, set aside. There is no exception clause for when the woman's life or health is endangered. Schroeder fears women will be forced to choose more dangerous methods of abortion and believes more discussion is required regarding health risks and a more precise definition of when the procedure may be used. She is joined by the California Medical Association, the American Medical Women's Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, and the American Medical Association.

  9. Third trimester abortion: is compassion enough?

    PubMed

    Chervenak, F A; McCullough, L B; Campbell, S

    1999-04-01

    One comprehensive ethical framework that can be applied to cases of third trimester abortion is based on the following notion: patient trust depends upon physicians developing specific virtues and basing their professional actions on these virtues. One such virtue, as described by Dr. John Gregory in 1772, is sympathy for the distress of others that overcomes self-interest. This application of sympathy and desire to relieve suffering can justify late term abortion in some cases. The compassionate response to sympathy forwarded by Gregory, however, must be properly regulated by reason, as Gregory himself recognized. Thomas Percival (1740-1803), author of the classic text "Medical Ethics," charged physicians with uniting "tenderness" (Gregory's "sympathy") with "steadiness." This combination of virtues reoccurs in the contemporary work of bioethicists Edmund Pellegrino and David Thomasma. The intellectual component of compassion requires physicians to exhibit compassion towards their patients, and this includes fetal patients. Thus, third trimester abortion is only justified in cases where fetal abnormalities are associated with the certainty or near certainty of early death or of a complete absence of cognitive developmental capacity. Most anomalies fail to meet these criteria, and physicians must exhibit the virtues of self-effacement and integrity to make rigorous, clinical, ethical judgements and properly balance the interests of the pregnant woman and the fetus.

  10. US poised to outlaw late abortion technique.

    PubMed

    Bozalis, D

    1995-11-18

    The House of Representatives passed a bill, by a two-thirds majority (288-139), prohibiting late (at 19-20 weeks gestation) abortion using intrauterine cranial decompression. The bill now awaits judgment from the Senate Judiciary Committee for hearings. If the bill becomes law, physicians performing the procedure could face up to two years in prison. Chris Smith, Republican cochairman of the House Pro-Life Caucus, who introduced the bill in the House, described the vote as historic. During his emotional speech, the procedure was described in order to desanitize a form of abortion that he called barbaric torture. Patricia Schroeder, Colorado House Representative, argued that the wording of the bill allowed the procedure only when it was the only possible way of saving the mother's life; the woman's health and future fertility were, in effect, set aside. There is no exception clause for when the woman's life or health is endangered. Schroeder fears women will be forced to choose more dangerous methods of abortion and believes more discussion is required regarding health risks and a more precise definition of when the procedure may be used. She is joined by the California Medical Association, the American Medical Women's Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, and the American Medical Association. PMID:7496271

  11. CONTINUOUS ABORT GAP CLEANING AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.FLILLER,R.III.FU,W.MICHNOFF,R.

    2004-07-05

    Since the RHIC Au-Au run in the year 2001 the 200 MHz cavity system was used at storage and a 28 MHz system during injection and acceleration. The rebucketing procedure potentially causes a higher debunching rate of heavy ion beams in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam can easily account for more than 50% of the total beam intensity. This effect is even stronger with the achieved high intensities of the RHIC Au-Au run in 2004. A beam abort at the presence of a lot of debunched beam bears the risk of magnet quenching and experimental detector damage due to uncontrolled beam losses. Thus it is desirable to avoid any accumulation of debunched beam from the beginning of each store, in particular to anticipate cases of unscheduled beam aborts due to a system failure. A combination of a fast transverse kickers and the new 2-stage copper collimator system are used to clean the abort gap continuously throughout the store with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. This report gives. an overview of the new gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  12. Endogenous Candida endophthalmitis after induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Chen, S J; Chung, Y M; Liu, J H

    1998-06-01

    Reported, in this article, are the cases of two young women who developed endogenous Candida endophthalmitis after induced abortion. Both women experienced transient fever, chills, and abdominal pain after the abortion and were given antibiotics. The diagnosis of endophthalmitis was established on the basis of typical fundus appearance, positive vaginal culture, and (in one case) positive vitreous culture. In the first woman, who received vitrectomy and intravitreal amphotericin B injection, the affected eye had a best corrected visual acuity of 20/200. In the second woman, who was given systemic corticosteroid treatment before the correct diagnosis was reached, recurrent retinal detachment developed and the best corrected visual acuity was counting fingers. It appears that Candida organisms harbored in the genital tract are directly inoculated into the venous system during induced abortion. Once in the blood, if sufficient fungal load is present, Candida albicans tends to localize in the choroid and to spread toward the retina and vitreous cavity. The immunosuppressive effect of corticosteroids further increases the risk of endophthalmitis. PMID:9645729

  13. Abortion care in Ghana: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody R

    2014-09-01

    The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research. A total of four (4) databases were searched with the keywords "Ghana and abortion" and hand review of reference lists was conducted. All abstracts were reviewed. The final include sample was 39 articles. Abortion-related complications represent a large component of admissions to gynecological wards in hospitals in Ghana as well as a large contributor to maternal mortality. Almost half of the included studies were hospital-based, mainly chart reviews. This review has identified gaps in the literature including: interviewing women who have sought unsafe abortions and with healthcare providers who may act as gatekeepers to women wishing to access safe abortion services. PMID:25438507

  14. [The psychological (long-term) sequelae of abortion].

    PubMed

    Shadmi, N; Bloch, M; Hermoni, D

    2002-10-01

    This article aims to review the available literature on the short and long-term psychological sequelae of abortion. This subject remains controversial. The most common reactions women experienced after pregnancy loss were grief, depression and anxiety. From the reviewed literature it seems that those reactions are more common following spontaneous abortion than after therapeutic abortion. Risk factors for these reactions include past psychiatric history, social and cultural attitude, poor social support, history of previous therapeutic abortion, the fact that the current abortion is the result of medical or genetic problem, no living children, or being a single woman. Most of the reviewed papers deal with short-term reactions and raise the need for long term research (more than 2 years). Only one such paper was found. It is recommended that all those who treat women that had an abortion should be aware of its psychological consequences and help identify and refer high-risk women for treatment.

  15. Why do women present late for induced abortion?

    PubMed

    Lee, Ellie; Ingham, Roger

    2010-08-01

    This article summarises the findings of studies relating to why women present for abortion at gestations of more than 12 weeks. Its primary focus is on British experience, but relevant studies from other countries are described. Key findings reveal that there are many different reasons. Much of the delay occurs prior to women requesting an abortion; other key issues include women's concerns about what is involved in having the abortion and aspects of relationships with their partners and/or parents. Further, after requesting an abortion, delays are partly 'service-related' - for example, waiting for appointments - and partly 'woman-related' for example, missing or cancelling appointments. The relative contributions to the delay of these various factors are discussed. The implications of the research for abortion education and service provision are considered. Abortion for reasons linked to foetal abnormality is not covered in this article.

  16. Late abortion and the European convention for human rights.

    PubMed

    te Braake, T A

    1999-01-01

    National abortion laws usually do not allow abortion when a foetus is independently viable, i.e. from a gestational age of about 24 weeks. Fetal anomalies, which may be a reason to seek abortion, are sometimes detected only in an advanced stage of pregnancy. National legislatures who want to allow 'late' abortion need to account for the protection the fetus may derive from the European Convention for the protection of human rights. As yet it remains unclear to what extent the fetus can in fact derive protection from the Convention, although several national abortion laws have been tested against it by the European Commission. The significance of the reports of the Commission on the question whether national legislation allowing abortion of a viable fetus is in conflict with the Convention, is explored. It is concluded that there is no European legal standard in terms of duration of pregnancy to which national legislatures are committed.

  17. It Is Time to Integrate Abortion Into Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Roe v Wade decision made safe abortion available but did not change the reality that more than 1 million women face an unwanted pregnancy every year. Forty years after Roe v Wade, the procedure is not accessible to many US women. The politics of abortion have led to a plethora of laws that create enormous barriers to abortion access, particularly for young, rural, and low-income women. Family medicine physicians and advanced practice clinicians are qualified to provide abortion care. To realize the promise of Roe v Wade, first-trimester abortion must be integrated into primary care and public health professionals and advocates must work to remove barriers to the provision of abortion within primary care settings. PMID:23153160

  18. Measuring abortion-related mortality: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Gerdts, Caitlin; Tunçalp, Ozge; Johnston, Heidi; Ganatra, Bela

    2015-01-01

    Two recent efforts to quantify the causes of maternal deaths on a global scale generated divergent estimates of abortion-related mortality. Such discrepancies in estimates of abortion-related mortality present an important opportunity to explore unique challenges and opportunities associated with the generation and interpretation of abortion-related mortality estimates. While innovations in primary data collection and estimation methodologies are much needed, at the very least, studies that seek to measure maternal deaths due to abortion should endeavor to improve transparency, acknowledge limitations of data, and contextualize results. As we move towards sustainable development goals beyond 2015, the need for valid and reliable estimates of abortion-related mortality has never been more pressing. The post-MDG development agenda that aims to improve global health, reduce health inequities, and increase accountability, requires new and novel approaches be tested to improve measurement and estimation of abortion-related mortality, as well as incidence, safety and morbidity. PMID:26377189

  19. Population Policy: Abortion and Modern Contraception Are Substitutes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Grant; Valente, Christine

    2016-08-01

    A longstanding debate exists in population policy about the relationship between modern contraception and abortion. Although theory predicts that they should be substitutes, the empirical evidence is difficult to interpret. What is required is a large-scale intervention that alters the supply (or full price) of one or the other and, importantly, that does so in isolation (reproductive health programs often bundle primary health care and family planning-and in some instances, abortion services). In this article, we study Nepal's 2004 legalization of abortion provision and subsequent expansion of abortion services, an unusual and rapidly implemented policy meeting these requirements. Using four waves of rich individual-level data representative of fertile-age Nepalese women, we find robust evidence of substitution between modern contraception and abortion. This finding has important implications for public policy and foreign aid, suggesting that an effective strategy for reducing expensive and potentially unsafe abortions may be to expand the supply of modern contraceptives. PMID:27383846

  20. Legal abortion: the impending obsolescence of the trimester framework.

    PubMed

    Mangel, C P

    1988-01-01

    Women who wish to terminate a pregnancy, and physicians willing to perform abortions, are subject to increasing harassment from groups which challenge the constitutional abortion right upheld by the Supreme Court in Roe v. Wade. Their vulnerability, in fact, parallels the vulnerability of the abortion right. This Article analyzes the inherent weakness and impending obsolescence of the trimester framework established in Roe. Present medical evidence of maternal health risks and fetal viability demonstrates that the trimester framework is inconsistent with current medical knowledge, and will likely be rendered obsolete by developments in medical technology. The Article suggests that adoption of an alternative constitutional basis for legal abortion is necessary to preserve the abortion right, and explores the utility of two arguments grounded in the equal protection doctrine. Finally, it discusses means of preserving legal abortion within the confines of the trimester framework established in Roe v. Wade.

  1. Stewardship challenges abortion: A proposed means to mitigate abortion's social divisiveness

    PubMed Central

    Tardiff, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1973 the legislated constitutional right to abortion has produced a political dichotomy (anti-abortion versus pro-abortion) within the United States, even while witnessing a gradual decline in the rate of abortions. A third paradigm, moral stewardship, is advanced as an effective means to ameliorate this social divisiveness. Incorporating the concept of stewardship into deliberations of pregnancy termination would require recognition, through fact-based education programs, of the life circumstances that prompt the consideration to terminate a pregnancy. Based on collective responsibility, policies, and programs are needed to foster social justice for parents and for the offspring brought to term, without creating excessive burdens on women faced with an unwanted pregnancy. Moral stewardship is perceived as humanitarian to family and community and advantageous to society overall. It also offers a serious opportunity to reshape our society from divisiveness to inclusiveness, and to guide science policy judgment that enhances and strengthens social justice. Lay summary: Differing opinions over the ethics of human abortion have been legion since Roe v. Wade (1973). The disputes between pro- and anti-abortion factions have segregated society with few improvements in social justice. This study offers an alternative approach, one capable of social assimilation and justice for unwanted offspring and pregnant mothers bearing them. It promotes moral stewardship toward the unborn whose humanity and personhood are recognized genetically and supported philosophically by long-standing ethical principles. Stewardship incorporates all people at all levels of society based on collective responsibility, supported by government policies, yet not restricting a mother's choices for the future of her unborn offspring. PMID:26912934

  2. Stewardship challenges abortion: A proposed means to mitigate abortion's social divisiveness.

    PubMed

    Tardiff, Robert G

    2015-08-01

    Since 1973 the legislated constitutional right to abortion has produced a political dichotomy (anti-abortion versus pro-abortion) within the United States, even while witnessing a gradual decline in the rate of abortions. A third paradigm, moral stewardship, is advanced as an effective means to ameliorate this social divisiveness. Incorporating the concept of stewardship into deliberations of pregnancy termination would require recognition, through fact-based education programs, of the life circumstances that prompt the consideration to terminate a pregnancy. Based on collective responsibility, policies, and programs are needed to foster social justice for parents and for the offspring brought to term, without creating excessive burdens on women faced with an unwanted pregnancy. Moral stewardship is perceived as humanitarian to family and community and advantageous to society overall. It also offers a serious opportunity to reshape our society from divisiveness to inclusiveness, and to guide science policy judgment that enhances and strengthens social justice. Lay summary: Differing opinions over the ethics of human abortion have been legion since Roe v. Wade (1973). The disputes between pro- and anti-abortion factions have segregated society with few improvements in social justice. This study offers an alternative approach, one capable of social assimilation and justice for unwanted offspring and pregnant mothers bearing them. It promotes moral stewardship toward the unborn whose humanity and personhood are recognized genetically and supported philosophically by long-standing ethical principles. Stewardship incorporates all people at all levels of society based on collective responsibility, supported by government policies, yet not restricting a mother's choices for the future of her unborn offspring. PMID:26912934

  3. Stewardship challenges abortion: A proposed means to mitigate abortion's social divisiveness.

    PubMed

    Tardiff, Robert G

    2015-08-01

    Since 1973 the legislated constitutional right to abortion has produced a political dichotomy (anti-abortion versus pro-abortion) within the United States, even while witnessing a gradual decline in the rate of abortions. A third paradigm, moral stewardship, is advanced as an effective means to ameliorate this social divisiveness. Incorporating the concept of stewardship into deliberations of pregnancy termination would require recognition, through fact-based education programs, of the life circumstances that prompt the consideration to terminate a pregnancy. Based on collective responsibility, policies, and programs are needed to foster social justice for parents and for the offspring brought to term, without creating excessive burdens on women faced with an unwanted pregnancy. Moral stewardship is perceived as humanitarian to family and community and advantageous to society overall. It also offers a serious opportunity to reshape our society from divisiveness to inclusiveness, and to guide science policy judgment that enhances and strengthens social justice. Lay summary: Differing opinions over the ethics of human abortion have been legion since Roe v. Wade (1973). The disputes between pro- and anti-abortion factions have segregated society with few improvements in social justice. This study offers an alternative approach, one capable of social assimilation and justice for unwanted offspring and pregnant mothers bearing them. It promotes moral stewardship toward the unborn whose humanity and personhood are recognized genetically and supported philosophically by long-standing ethical principles. Stewardship incorporates all people at all levels of society based on collective responsibility, supported by government policies, yet not restricting a mother's choices for the future of her unborn offspring.

  4. Serious infection associated with induced abortion in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Angela

    2012-12-01

    Though serious infection after induced abortion is rare, infections account for one third of abortion-related deaths in the United States. Most fatal cases of infection after induced medical abortion have involved clostridial species. These reported cases share important clinical features that may guide clinicians to earlier recognition and institution of therapy. This article reviews our current knowledge regarding serious clostridial infections postabortion including the typical clinical presentation, pathophysiology, modes of diagnosis, and available treatment.

  5. Coverage of abortion controversial in both public and private plans.

    PubMed

    Sollom, T

    1996-09-01

    During 1995-96, 17 of 50 US states used their own resources, either voluntarily or under state court order, to pay for all or most abortions for low-income women. Alaska, Maryland, New York, and Washington are the only states to voluntarily pay for these abortions. Anti-choice legislators in California, Illinois, New York, and West Virginia tried unsuccessfully to cut funding for these abortions. Arkansas is the only state to circumvent direct payment for abortions for low-income women. Alabama, Mississippi, and South Dakota still are not complying with the court order but remain in the Medicaid program. Massachusetts has passed legislation to allow health insurance to cover abortions for state and city employees, thereby undoing a 17-year ban on the use of public funds for abortions for employees or their spouses. On the other hand, Virginia's governor has unilaterally, via an executive order, eliminated health insurance coverage for most abortions for state employees and their dependents. Anti-choice legislators have shepherded legislation that prohibit private insurance coverage for abortion unless women pay an extra premium in Idaho, Kentucky, Missouri, and North Dakota. Legislators in Illinois and Minnesota have passed state subsidized health care reform programs that exclude abortion from coverage except when the mother's life is endangered. There appears to be a loophole in the MinnesotaCare program that allows women to obtain state-financed abortions for other reasons, so antifunding lawmakers will introduce a bill in 1997 to close the loophole. The loophole is a result of a conflict between state and federal laws as a result of a 1995 federal waiver granted to Minnesota. The waiver allows pregnant women who earn up to 275% of the federal poverty level to be eligible for either MinnesotaCare or Medicaid. Abortion-rights legislators find MinnesotaCare's exclusion of abortion coverage to be a violation of the court order. They plan to submit a bill in 1997 to

  6. Recent CFD Simulations of Shuttle Orbiter Contingency Abort Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, Periklis; Prabhu, Dinesh; Wright, Michael; Davies, Carol; McDaniel, Ryan; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wersinski, Paul; Gomez, Reynaldo; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Modern Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques were used to compute aerodynamic forces and moments of the Space Shuttle Orbiter in specific portions of contingency abort trajectory space. The trajectory space covers a Mach number range of 3.5-15, an angle-of-attack range of 20-60 degrees, an altitude range of 100-190 kft, and several different settings of the control surfaces (elevons, body flap, and speed brake). While approximately 40 cases have been computed, only a sampling of the results is presented here. The computed results, in general, are in good agreement with the Orbiter Operational Aerodynamic Data Book (OADB) data (i.e., within the uncertainty bands) for almost all the cases. However, in a limited number of high angle-of-attack cases (at Mach 15), there are significant differences between the computed results, especially the vehicle pitching moment, and the OADB data. A preliminary analysis of the data from the CFD simulations at Mach 15 shows that these differences can be attributed to real-gas/Mach number effects.

  7. José Barzelatto lecture: Vision on unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2010-04-01

    José Barzelatto first distinguished himself as a leader with a vision in his years as a medical student. Later, principally as Director of the Reproductive Health Program at the World Health Organization and of the Ford Foundation program for women's sexual and reproductive rights, he contributed immensely toward the recognition of women's sexual and reproductive rights as part of their basic human rights. José Barzelatto's vision on abortion reflects his drive to promote social justice and respect individual rights, respect diversity, and promote a social consensus for a peaceful society. He believed that the fetus has moral value and did not accept abortion as a method of fertility control, but understood that abortion is a social phenomenon that cannot be changed with legal or moral condemnation. He accepted that condemning women who abort does not prevent abortion, is unfair, and causes great human suffering at a high social cost. José proposed nine points to form the basis for an overlapping consensus on abortion, on which to base a practical consensus that would allow societies to reduce the number of abortions and minimize their consequences. If we can agree on all or most of those points we would achieve the common objectives of: fewer women confronting the dilemma of how to deal with an unwanted pregnancy; fewer induced abortions; and fewer women suffering the consequences of unsafe abortion.

  8. Constructing access to legal abortion services in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Billings, Deborah L; Moreno, Claudia; Ramos, Celia; González de León, Deyanira; Ramírez, Rubén; Villaseñor Martínez, Leticia; Rivera Díaz, Mauricio

    2002-05-01

    For the last three decades, government and health institutions have recognised that unsafe abortion is an important social and public health problem in Mexico. Although the Penal Code in every state defines at least one situation in which abortion is legal, access to legal abortion services is restricted for women throughout Mexico. In August 2000, the Mexico City Legislative Assembly reformed the Penal Code to include a wider range of grounds on which abortion is legal and added regulations to ensure access to legal abortion services in cases of rape and forced artificial insemination. The Mexican Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the reforms in January 2002. This paper describes a collaborative project between Ipas Mexico and the Mexico City Department of Health to provide legal abortions in cases of rape and to ensure that comprehensive health services for survivors of sexual violence are available and accessible. It describes a model of care being introduced into 15 public general and maternal-child health hospitals in Mexico City through a programme of multi-disciplinary consciousness-raising workshops and training courses on sexual violence and legal abortion. Few health care providers have had prior training in service provision for survivors of sexual violence or abortion service delivery. Workshop participants showed a high level of willingness to participate in legal abortion services for survivors of sexual violence when and if they are receive solid institutional support.

  9. Fake abortion clinics: the threat to reproductive self-determination.

    PubMed

    Mertus, J A

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of "fake abortion clinics" poses a great threat to women's ability to make free and informed procreative decisions. Such clinics intentionally deceive pregnant women into believing that they provide a full range of women's health services when, in reality, they provide only a pregnancy test, accompanied by intense anti-abortion propaganda. Because fake abortion clinics threaten women's interests in "privacy" and decisional autonomy, state attorneys general should challenge them under deceptive business practice statutes. Successful challenges can be brought without violating anti-abortion groups' First Amendment rights. PMID:2309498

  10. Launch Architecture Impact on Ascent Abort and Crew Survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathias, Donovan L.; Lawrence, Scott L.

    2006-01-01

    A study was performed to assess the effect of booster configuration on the ascent abort process. A generic abort event sequence was created and booster related risk drivers were identified. Three model boosters were considered in light of the risk drivers: a solid rocket motor configuration, a side mount combination solid and liquid configuration, and a stacked liquid configuration. The primary risk drivers included explosive fireball, overpressure, and fragment effects and booster-crew module re-contact. Risk drivers that were not specifically booster dependent were not addressed. The solid rocket configuration had the most benign influence on an abort while the side mount architecture provided the most challenging abort environment.

  11. José Barzelatto lecture: Vision on unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2010-04-01

    José Barzelatto first distinguished himself as a leader with a vision in his years as a medical student. Later, principally as Director of the Reproductive Health Program at the World Health Organization and of the Ford Foundation program for women's sexual and reproductive rights, he contributed immensely toward the recognition of women's sexual and reproductive rights as part of their basic human rights. José Barzelatto's vision on abortion reflects his drive to promote social justice and respect individual rights, respect diversity, and promote a social consensus for a peaceful society. He believed that the fetus has moral value and did not accept abortion as a method of fertility control, but understood that abortion is a social phenomenon that cannot be changed with legal or moral condemnation. He accepted that condemning women who abort does not prevent abortion, is unfair, and causes great human suffering at a high social cost. José proposed nine points to form the basis for an overlapping consensus on abortion, on which to base a practical consensus that would allow societies to reduce the number of abortions and minimize their consequences. If we can agree on all or most of those points we would achieve the common objectives of: fewer women confronting the dilemma of how to deal with an unwanted pregnancy; fewer induced abortions; and fewer women suffering the consequences of unsafe abortion. PMID:20064638

  12. Single and repeated elective abortions in Japan: a psychosocial study.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, T; Toda, M A; Shima, S; Sugawara, M

    1998-09-01

    Despite its social, legal and medical importance, termination of pregnancy (TOP) (induced abortion) has rarely been the focus of psychosocial research. Of a total of 1329 women who consecutively attended the antenatal clinic of a general hospital in Japan, 635 were expecting their first baby. Of these 635 women, 103 (16.2%) had experienced TOP once previously (first aborters), while 47 (7.4%) had experienced TOP two or more times (repeated aborters). Discriminant function analysis was performed using psychosocial variables found to be significantly associated with either first abortion or repeated abortion in bivariate analyses. This revealed that both first and repeated aborters could be predicted by smoking habits and an unwanted current pregnancy while the repeated aborters appear to differ from first aborters in having a longer pre-marital dating period, non-arranged marriages, smoking habits, early maternal loss experience or a low level of maternal care during childhood. These findings suggest that both the frequency of abortion and its repetition have psychosocial origins.

  13. Fake abortion clinics: the threat to reproductive self-determination.

    PubMed

    Mertus, J A

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of "fake abortion clinics" poses a great threat to women's ability to make free and informed procreative decisions. Such clinics intentionally deceive pregnant women into believing that they provide a full range of women's health services when, in reality, they provide only a pregnancy test, accompanied by intense anti-abortion propaganda. Because fake abortion clinics threaten women's interests in "privacy" and decisional autonomy, state attorneys general should challenge them under deceptive business practice statutes. Successful challenges can be brought without violating anti-abortion groups' First Amendment rights.

  14. Irish abortion ban strengthened as information is censored and seized.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In Ireland it is illegal to distribute information about abortion services. This means that magazines like Cosmopolitan have to remove ads for abortion clinics from the magazines printed for Ireland. A BBC television show about abortion was aired in Ireland with the names of the clinics blacked out. Even the phone books of foreign cities have removed because they contain the phone numbers of abortion clinics. Currently the only price where women can get information about abortion clinics is from a very small network of priests, doctors, and activists. Some activists have resorted to writing the phone numbers of abortion clinics in England on the public bathroom walls. Officially there are 4000 Irish women who travel to England for abortions every year. That figure only represents the women that give Irish addresses. The real figure is estimated to be about 8000 annually. 14 students were arrested for distributing leaflets with information about abortion clinics in England. They lost their case in both the Irish and European courts and have been fined, undisclosed amounts. Ireland is 85% Catholic and the Catholic Church still has a great deal of influence in Irish politics. The head of the Irish Family Planning Association said that the Catholic Church has moved Ireland back into the Dark Ages. Abortion was made illegal in Ireland in 1986. Contraception was legalized in 1980 and in 1985 condoms were allowed to be sold without a doctors prescription. PMID:12317129

  15. Record numbers of Irish women visit Britain for abortion.

    PubMed

    Payne, D

    1999-09-01

    The abortion issue among Irish women in Britain is presented. About 2000 women from Northern Ireland travel to Britain each year because of the 1967 Abortion Act in the UK does not apply in the province. Most women travelling from the republic are working women in their 20s. There are various factors contributing to their decision to consider abortion. Some of these are the demands of work and the persisting stigma of single motherhood. Furthermore, the demand for emergency contraception is teeming in the republic, as stated by the Well Woman Center chief executive Allison Begas. This situation has encouraged the government to pass a referendum on abortion.

  16. Incidence and socioeconomic determinants of abortion in rural Upper Egypt.

    PubMed

    Yassin, K M

    2000-07-01

    Because of a growing cultural and religious sensitivity and controversy over reproductive health issues, particularly abortion, this area remains relatively unexplored in Egypt. This study was conducted using a participatory approach to determine the morbidity and determinants of abortion in rural Upper Egypt. In all, 1025 women from six villages in Upper Egypt were included in the study. Information regarding the incidence of abortion, patterns of health care utilization and risk factors was obtained using a structured interview format. The local dialect was used in formulating questions and they were revised and amended by a panel of local leaders, interviewers and representatives of the study population. Interviewers were local educated (secondary or university level) female volunteers. Information about exposure to 17 risk factors was also collected and statistical analysis was done by estimating the odds ratio and applying a test of statistical significance. Then, a multivariate logistic regression model was applied to control for possible interactions and confounding effects. The results were that 40.6% (n=416) had aborted at least once; of them 24.6% (n=252) had aborted more than once and were designated as recurrent aborters. The lifetime prevalence of recurrent abortion was estimated to be 25% and nearly 21% of pregnancies were aborted. The incidence of abortion was estimated to be 265 per 1000 live birth. Only 21.9% (n=91) of women received medical care for the last abortion. The vast majority of women (92%, n=299) who did not seek medical help received help from traditional and domestic sources. These sources are midwife (59.9%, n=179), relative or neighbour (29.8%, n=89), and traditional practitioner (10.4%, n=31). The multivariate analysis revealed that the incidence of abortion is significantly associated with gravidity, consanguinity, and mother occupation, while recurrent abortion is associated with gravidity, consanguinity and woman's age at

  17. Are all abortions equal? Should there be exceptions to the criminalization of abortion for rape and incest?

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Politics, public discourse, and legislation restricting abortion has settled on a moderate orthodoxy: restrict abortion, but leave exceptions for pregnancies that result from rape and incest. I challenge that consensus and suggest it may be much harder to defend than those who support the compromise think. From both Pro-Life and Pro-Choice perspectives, there are good reasons to treat all abortions as equal. PMID:25846041

  18. Women’s Experience Obtaining Abortion Care in Texas after Implementation of Restrictive Abortion Laws: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Sarah E.; White, Kari; Hopkins, Kristine; Potter, Joseph E.; Grossman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background In November 2013, Texas implemented three abortion restrictions included in House Bill 2 (HB 2). Within six months, the number of facilities providing abortion decreased by almost half, and the remaining facilities were concentrated in large urban centers. The number of medication abortions decreased by 70% compared to the same period one year prior due to restrictions on this method imposed by HB 2. The purpose of this study was to explore qualitatively the experiences of women who were most affected by the law: those who had to travel farther to reach a facility and those desiring medication abortion. Methods In August and September 2014, we conducted 20 in-depth interviews with women recruited from ten abortion clinics across Texas. The purposive sample included women who obtained or strongly preferred medication abortion or traveled ≥50 miles one way to the clinic. The interview guide focused on women’s experiences with obtaining services following implementation of HB 2, and a thematic analysis was performed. Results Women faced informational, cost and logistical barriers seeking abortion services, and these obstacles were often compounded by poverty. Two women found the process of finding or getting to a clinic so onerous that they considered not having the procedure, although they ultimately had an abortion; another woman decided to continue her pregnancy, in part because of challenges in getting to the clinic. For two women, arranging travel required disclosure to more people than desired. Women who strongly preferred medication abortion were frustrated by the difficulty or inability to obtain their desired method, especially among those who were near or just beyond the gestational age limit. The restricted eligibility criteria for medication abortion and difficulty finding clinics offering the method created substantial access barriers. Conclusions Medication abortion restrictions and clinic closures following HB 2 created substantial

  19. Are all abortions equal? Should there be exceptions to the criminalization of abortion for rape and incest?

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Politics, public discourse, and legislation restricting abortion has settled on a moderate orthodoxy: restrict abortion, but leave exceptions for pregnancies that result from rape and incest. I challenge that consensus and suggest it may be much harder to defend than those who support the compromise think. From both Pro-Life and Pro-Choice perspectives, there are good reasons to treat all abortions as equal.

  20. Abortion, metaphysics and morality: a review of Francis Beckwith's defending life: a moral and legal case against abortion choice.

    PubMed

    Nobis, Nathan

    2011-06-01

    In Defending Life: A Moral and Legal Case Against Abortion Choice (2007) and an earlier article in this journal, "Defending Abortion Philosophically"(2006), Francis Beckwith argues that fetuses are, from conception, prima facie wrong to kill. His arguments are based on what he calls a "metaphysics of the human person" known as "The Substance View." I argue that Beckwith's metaphysics does not support his abortion ethic: Moral, not metaphysical, claims that are part of this Substance View are the foundation of the argument, and Beckwith inadequately defends these moral claims. Thus, Beckwith's arguments do not provide strong support for what he calls the "pro-life" view of abortion. PMID:21597083

  1. [Abortion in unsafe conditions. Concealment, illegality, corruption and negligence].

    PubMed

    Ortiz Ortega, A

    1993-01-01

    "Abortion practiced under conditions of risk" is a phrase used to refer to illegal abortion. The phrase does not highlight the disappearance of risk when legislation changes. Rather, it calls attention to the fact that legal restrictions significantly increase dangers while failing to discourage women determined to terminate pregnancies. The International Planned Parenthood Federation defines abortion under conditions of risk as the use of nonoptimal technology, lack of counseling and services to orient the woman's decision and provide postabortion counseling, and the limitation of freedom to make the decision. The phrase encompasses concealment, illegality, corruption, and negligence. It is designed to impose a reproductive health perspective in response to an unresolved social conflict. Steps have been developed to improve the situation of women undergoing abortion even without a change in its legal status. Such steps include training and purchase of equipment for treatment of incomplete abortions and development of counseling and family planning services. The central difficulty of abortion induced in conditions of risk derives from the laws imposing the need for secrecy. In Mexico, the abortion decision belongs to the government and the society, while individual absorb the consequences of the practice of abortion. Public decision making about abortion is dominated by the concept that the female has an obligation to carry any pregnancy to term. Women who interfere with male descendency and practice a sexuality distinct from reproduction are made to pay a price in health and emotional balance. Resolution of the problem of abortion will require new concepts in terms of legal status, public health issues, and the rights of women. The problem becomes more pressing as abortion becomes more common in a country anxious to advance in the demographic transition. Only a commitment to the reproductive health of women and the full development of their rights as citizens will

  2. Tooley's immodest proposal: Abortion and Infanticide.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Christina Hoff

    1985-06-01

    Sommers takes strong issue with the thesis of Michael Tooley's book, Abortion and Infanticide (New York: Oxford University Press; 1984)--that there is nothing seriously wrong with painlessly killing human infants, even those that are healthy and normal. She reviews Tooley's arguments about what constitutes personhood and his contention that human infants first become "quasi-persons" at the age of three months, then recommmends that opponents of infanticide meet his challenge on different grounds--that the human infant is distinctive in being the product of responsible persons who are morally committed to its care "on arrival."

  3. Staphylococcus hyicus abortion in a sow.

    PubMed

    Onet, G E; Pommer, J L

    1991-08-01

    Five aborted fetuses from a mature sixth-parity sow with severe greasy pig disease as a gilt, were submitted for diagnostic evaluation. Necropsy of the fetuses revealed serogelatinous edema in the SC connective tissue of the ventral abdominal region (especially around the umbilicus), exaggerated amounts of serohemorrhagic fluid in the abdominal, pleural, and pericardial cavities, and hemorrhagic kidneys, with diminished consistency. Staphylococcus hyicus was isolated in pure culture from liver, lung, kidney, and brain tissues and from abdominal, pleural, pericardial, and gastric fluids.

  4. Medical Evidence and Expertise in Abortion Jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Aziza

    2015-01-01

    For another thing, the division of medical opinion about the matter at most means uncertainty, a factor that signals the presence of risk, not its absence. That division here involves highly qualified knowledgeable experts on both sides of the issue.--Stenberg v. Carhart, 2000. While we find no reliable data to measure the phenomenon, it seems unexceptionable to conclude some women come to regret their choice to abort the infant life they once created and sustained.--Gonzales v. Carhart, 2007. PMID:26237984

  5. Tooley's immodest proposal: Abortion and Infanticide.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Christina Hoff

    1985-06-01

    Sommers takes strong issue with the thesis of Michael Tooley's book, Abortion and Infanticide (New York: Oxford University Press; 1984)--that there is nothing seriously wrong with painlessly killing human infants, even those that are healthy and normal. She reviews Tooley's arguments about what constitutes personhood and his contention that human infants first become "quasi-persons" at the age of three months, then recommmends that opponents of infanticide meet his challenge on different grounds--that the human infant is distinctive in being the product of responsible persons who are morally committed to its care "on arrival." PMID:11643787

  6. After-birth abortion: the intuition argument.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Zohar

    2013-05-01

    The argument advanced by Giubilini and Minerva is an important one, but it suffers from some shortcomings. I briefly criticise their reasoning and method and argue that after birth abortion should be limited largely to infants with disabilities. My argument is based not on solid scientific evidence or cold rational reasoning but on intuition, something that has long been discounted as irrelevant in biomedical discourse. I end with a recommendation to all of us: in order to make a change, one should not only choose one's battles, but also one's weapon and mode of attack. PMID:23637457

  7. After-birth abortion: the intuition argument.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Zohar

    2013-05-01

    The argument advanced by Giubilini and Minerva is an important one, but it suffers from some shortcomings. I briefly criticise their reasoning and method and argue that after birth abortion should be limited largely to infants with disabilities. My argument is based not on solid scientific evidence or cold rational reasoning but on intuition, something that has long been discounted as irrelevant in biomedical discourse. I end with a recommendation to all of us: in order to make a change, one should not only choose one's battles, but also one's weapon and mode of attack.

  8. Design and Analysis of Outer Mold Line Close-outs for the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Knutson, Jeffrey R.; Schuster, David M.; Tyler, Erik D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) chartered the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) to demonstrate an alternate launch abort concept as risk mitigation for the Orion project's baseline "tower" design. On July 8, 2009, a full scale, passive aerodynamically stabilized Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) pad abort demonstrator was successfully launched from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility. Aerodynamic close-outs were required to cover openings on the MLAS fairing to prevent aerodynamic flow-through and to maintain the MLAS OML surface shape. Two-ply duct tape covers were designed to meet these needs. The duct tape used was a high strength fiber reinforced duct tape with a rubberized adhesive that demonstrated 4.6 lb/in adhesion strength to the unpainted fiberglass fairing. Adhesion strength was observed to increase as a function of time. The covers were analyzed and experimentally tested to demonstrate their ability to maintain integrity under anticipated vehicle ascent pressure loads and to not impede firing of the drogue chute mortars. Testing included vacuum testing and a mortar fire test. Tape covers were layed-up on thin Teflon sheets to facilitate installation on the vehicle. Custom cut foam insulation board was used to fill mortar hole and separation joint cavities and provide support to the applied tape covers. Flight test results showed that the tape covers remained adhered during flight.

  9. Abortion a business hurdle for nation's Catholic hospitals.

    PubMed

    Burda, D

    1989-08-25

    Abortion is the foremost moral issue for 626 Catholic hospitals nationwide since church teachings prohibit the performance of elective abortions. This and the fact that Catholic hospitals can not do voluntary sterilizations can hinder their ability to get managed care contracts. In some cases a hospital will not join a network because abortions and sterilizations are done in other hospitals in the network. In other cases they have been in plans where abortions are performed in other contract facilities; this does not violate the Catholic church policy since the abortions are not performed in their facility. When a Catholic and secular hospital plan a merger, Catholic ideals seem to take precedence. A Catholic hospital that went bankrupt in Philadelphia, was turned over to investors, and was under no obligation to follow the Catholic church's directives, but did not perform abortions anyway. In Washington state there are merger talks going on between a secular facility and the Franciscan Health System. The cessation of abortion and sterilization services appear to be outweighed by the financial benefits. Besides, these procedures can be performed through other providers in the area. In Michigan similar merger talks may fail because of the abortion issue. The government justice system is investigating and is likely to challenge any merger there.

  10. Medicine and abortion law: complicating the reforming profession.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Sheelagh; Thomson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The complicated intra-professional rivalries that have contributed to the current contours of abortion law and service provision have been subject to limited academic engagement. In this article, we address this gap. We examine how the competing interests of different specialisms played out in abortion law reform from the early twentieth-century, through to the enactment of the Abortion Act 1967, and the formation of the structures of abortion provision in the early 1970s. We demonstrate how professional interests significantly shaped the landscape of abortion law in England, Scotland, and Wales. Our analysis addresses two distinct and yet related fields where professional interests were negotiated or asserted in the journey to law reform. Both debates align with earlier analysis that has linked abortion law reform with the market development of the medical profession. We argue that these two axes of debate, both dominated by professional interests, interacted to help shape law's treatment of abortion, and continue to influence the provision of abortion services today.

  11. Abort-once-around entry corridor analysis program document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyle, H. C.

    1975-01-01

    The abort once around entry target corridor analysis program (ABECAP) was studied. The allowable range of flight path angles at entry interface for acceptable entry trajectories from a shuttle abort once around (AOA) situation was established. The solutions thus determined may be shown as corridor plots of entry interface flight path angle versus range from entry interface (EI) to the target.

  12. Abortion in the United States: Past, Present, and Future Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krannich, Richard S.

    1980-01-01

    Increases in abortions can be traced to changing public opinion, women entering the labor force, and higher levels of premarital sexual activity. Abortion tends to be more common among younger women and those in lower income and education categories. More aggressive family planning programs are needed. (JAC)

  13. Service provider perspectives on post-abortion contraception in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Fan; Puri, Mahesh; Rocca, Corinne H; Blum, Maya; Henderson, Jillian T

    2016-01-01

    The government of Nepal has articulated a commitment to the provision of post-abortion contraception since the implementation of a legal safe abortion policy in 2004. Despite this, gaps in services remain. This study examined the perspectives of abortion service providers and administrators regarding strengths and shortcomings of post-abortion contraceptive service provision. In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 abortion providers and administrators at four major health facilities that provide legal abortion in Nepal. Facility factors perceived to impact post-abortion contraceptive services included on-site availability of contraceptive supplies, dedicated and well-trained staff and adequate infrastructure. Cultural norms emerged as influencing contraceptive demand by patients, including method use being unacceptable for women whose husbands migrate and limited decision-making power among women. Service providers described their personal views on appropriate childbearing and the use of specific contraceptive methods that influenced counselling. Findings suggest that improvements to a facility's infrastructure and training to address provider biases and misinformation may improve post-abortion family planning uptake. Adapting services to be sensitive to cultural expectations and norms may help address some barriers to contraceptive use. More research is needed to determine how to best meet the contraceptive needs of women who have infrequent sexual activity or who may face stigma for using family planning, including adolescents, unmarried women and women whose husbands migrate.

  14. Medical and surgical options for induced abortion in first trimester.

    PubMed

    Hamoda, Haitham; Templeton, Allan

    2010-08-01

    Medical abortion has been shown to be an effective alternative to surgery for termination of pregnancy in the late as well as the early first trimester of pregnancy. This review discusses the development, application and the current issues with medical and surgical abortion in the first trimester. Studies comparing the two approaches are also assessed as well as potential research directions in this area.

  15. Mourning and Guilt among Greek Women Having Repeated Abortions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naziri, D.; Tzavaras, A.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted clinical study concerning bereavement process of Greek women after abortion. Found strong identificatory tendencies on both mother and father images. Argues that, in cases of repeated abortion, mourning and guilt do not only refer to murdered and lost "person-fetus" but principally to death and loss of object of ambiguous desire.…

  16. Abortion as "Deviance"; Traditional Female Roles Vs. The Feminist Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, R. A. Hudson; Martindale, Lois J.

    The paper focuses on the relationship between changing societal norms and actual, emotional acceptance of them for oneself, with regard to changing norms toward women's roles as they relate to the areas of abortion and sexual behavior. Elective abortion still is regarded by many as a "deviant" activity. Such a view has sprung from an uncritical…

  17. Illinois, Massachusetts: governors veto restrictions on state funds for abortion.

    PubMed

    1977-10-01

    Within a 24-hour period Governor James R. Thompson (Republican) of Illinois and Governor Michael S. Dukakis (Democrat) of Massachusetts vetoed bills which would have prohibited use of state funds to pay for abortion unless the woman's life were in danger. Since the U.S. Supreme Court ruling that neither the Constitution nor federal law requires states to pay Medicaid benefits for nonherapeutic abortions, many states have adopted similar restrictive policies. As of September 25, 1977, a total of 30 states had discontinued payment for abortion while 13 of the remaining 20 have committed themselves to continuing abortion payments. For fiscal year 1976 about 261,000-274,000 poor women received abortions paid for at least in part by federal or state funds. The total public expense was $60 million. 75% of these abortions were in California, Illinois, Michigan, New Jersey, New YOrk, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas. 3 of these states have cut off public funding. The average cost of a nonpublic abortion is $280, which is $42 more than the average monthly welfare payment for an entire family. It, thus seems unlikely that poor women will be able to afford abortion. PMID:12308832

  18. Abortion-Related Services: Value Clarification through "Difficult Dialogues" Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpeli, Moliehi Rosemary; Botma, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Midwives play a pivotal role in women's health in the face of increased deaths related to backyard abortions. Since the commencement in South Africa of the Name of the Act No. 92 of 1996 that allows abortion services, there has been a moral divide among healthcare workers in South Africa. This article reflects the opinions of preregistration…

  19. Abortion in Young Women and Subsequent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Ridder, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The extent to which abortion has harmful consequences for mental health remains controversial. We aimed to examine the linkages between having an abortion and mental health outcomes over the interval from age 15-25 years. Methods: Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 25-year longitudinal study…

  20. Regulating Abortion: Impact on Patients and Providers in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Silvie; Joyce, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The State of Texas began enforcement of the Woman's Right to Know (WRTK) Act on January 1, 2004. The law requires that all abortions at or after 16 weeks' gestation be performed in an ambulatory surgical center (ASC). In the month the law went into effect, not one of Texas's 54 nonhospital abortion providers met the requirements of a surgical…