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Sample records for aborted human fetuses

  1. [Scientific ethics of the abortion with anencephalic fetus].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Carlos Y

    2011-09-01

    author proposes, from the perspective of the Scientific Ethics, to assimilate anencephalic fetuses to non-human fetuses because they have a large deficiency of the brain that is the organ for human specificity. This proposal comes after considering arguments and facts from ontogeny, phylogeny, from the situation of loss of the brain in the adult life and from the organic specificity of the human condition given by the brain. If anencephalic fetuses are not human, the interruption of their pregnancy cannot be considered as abortion, regardless the pregnancy stage.

  2. Concurrent conjunctivitis and placentitis in aborted bovine fetuses.

    PubMed

    Murray, R D

    1991-11-01

    Consistent histopathological lesions were found in 10 out of 136 aborted fetuses examined during a three year period, using a multi-disciplinary diagnostic investigation technique. Fetuses exhibited a generalized mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration, accompanied by distinctive lesions of conjunctival hyperplasia and goblet cell formation, alveolitis, and necrotic placentitis. In two cases where amnion was also examined, a chronic amnionitis was present. No consistent laboratory findings could be related to these cases. The fetal and placental lesions described were similar to those associated with experimental inoculation of Ureaplasma diversum in pregnant cows, and with field isolations of the same organism in aborting cattle.

  3. Hobi-Like Pestivirus in Aborted Bovine Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Sciarretta, Rossana; Pinto, Pierfrancesco; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-01-01

    An outbreak of abortion affecting multiparous cows was associated with Hobi-like pestivirus infection. Viral RNA and antigens were detected in the tissues of two aborted fetuses. Molecular assays for other common abortogenic agents tested negative. At the genetic level, the Hobi-like pestivirus displayed the closest relatedness to Italian, Australian, and South American viruses, whereas it diverged from the prototype Thai isolate. These findings may have important implications for the pestivirus control/eradication programs in cattle herds. PMID:22162547

  4. Immunohistochemical identification of Campylobacter fetus in natural cases of bovine and ovine abortions.

    PubMed

    Campero, C M; Anderson, M L; Walker, R L; Blanchard, P C; Barbano, L; Chiu, P; Martínez, A; Combessies, G; Bardon, J C; Cordeviola, J

    2005-04-01

    An immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedure for the detection of Campylobacter fetus antigens using an avidin-biotin complex technique was performed on formalin fixed bovine and ovine fetal tissues from 26 natural cases of Campylobacter spp. abortion (four ovine and 22 bovine). The species of Campylobacter isolated included C. fetus ssp. venerealis from 13 bovine fetuses, C. fetus ssp. fetus from two ovine and one bovine fetus, Campylobacter jejuni from seven bovine fetuses, Campylobacter lari from two ovine fetuses and an unspeciated Campylobacter species in one bovine fetus. Histologic lesions identified in the aborted fetuses included placentitis, serositis, pneumonia, gastroenteritis, hepatitis and encephalitis. Campylobacter fetus antigens were identified by IHC in 13 of 13 bovine fetuses from which C. fetus ssp. venerealis was isolated and in two of two ovine fetuses from which C. fetus ssp. fetus was isolated. The IHC stains were negative in tissues from seven bovine fetuses from which C. jejuni was isolated, one bovine fetus infected with C. fetus ssp. fetus, one bovine fetus infected with the unspeciated Campylobacter and two ovine fetuses infected with C. lari. In positive cases, the IHC stain most frequently identified bacteria in the lung and gastrointestinal tract. The C. fetus IHC procedure performed on formalin fixed tissues is a practical tool for the diagnosis of natural cases of ovine and bovine abortion caused by C. fetus.

  5. Isolation of bluetongue virus serotype 1 from aborted goat fetuses.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, H C; Biswas, S K; Chand, K; Rehman, W; Das, B; Dadawala, A I; Chandel, B S; Kher, H N; Mondal, B

    2014-12-01

    Abortions and stillbirths were noticed in pregnant goats on a farm in the state of Gujarat, India. About 50% of the pregnant goats aborted or gave birth to dead kids. Bluetongue virus (BTV) antibody in the sera of affected goats was detected using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Viral antigen in the blood of these goats and in the aborted fetal spleens was detected using a sandwich ELISA. Two viruses (SKN-9, SKN-10) were isolated in cell culture from aborted fetal spleens and were confirmed as Orbivirus by demonstration of ten bands in RNA polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified as BTV-1 by sequencing of the VP2 gene. Sequence analyses revealed thatthese isolates were very closely related to a BTV-1 (strain SKN-8) isolated from Culicoides vectors captured on the same farm one month after the occurrence of abortion. Isolation of BTV-1 from fetuses is probably evidence of transplacental transmission of the wild-type strain, because attenuated or laboratory-adapted BTV-1 strains have never been used in this region. This may have important implications in the epidemiology of bluetongue, considering the presence of many BTV serotypes in India.

  6. Isolation and Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii Strains in Ovine Aborted Fetuses in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Danehchin, Leila; Razmi, Gholamreza; Naghibi, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonotic disease that can cause abortion in humans and animals. The aim of this study was isolation and subsequent genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in ovine aborted fetuses. During 2012-2013, 39 ovine aborted fetuses were collected from sheep flocks in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. The brain samples were screened for detection of the parasite DNA by nested PCR. The positive brain samples were bioassayed in Webster Swiss mice. The serum samples of mice were examined for T. gondii antibodies by IFAT at 6 weeks post inoculation, and T. gondii cysts were searched in brain tissue samples of seropositive mice. The positive samples were genotyped by using a PCR-RLFP method. Subsequently, GRA6 sequences of isolates were analyzed using a phylogenetic method. The results revealed that T. gondii DNA was detected in 54% (20/37, 95% CI 38.4-69.0%) brain samples of ovine aborted fetuses. In bioassay of mice, only 2 samples were virulent and the mice were killed at 30 days post inoculation, while the others were non-virulent to mice. The size of cysts ranged 7-22 µm. Complete genotyping data for GRA6 locus were observed in 5 of the 20 samples. PCR-RLFP results and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all of the isolated samples were closely related to type I. For the first time, we could genotype and report T. gondii isolates from ovine aborted fetuses in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. The results indicate that the T. gondii isolates are genetically related to type I, although most of them were non-virulent for mice. PMID:26951974

  7. Isolation and Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii Strains in Ovine Aborted Fetuses in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Danehchin, Leila; Razmi, Gholamreza; Naghibi, Abolghasem

    2016-02-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonotic disease that can cause abortion in humans and animals. The aim of this study was isolation and subsequent genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in ovine aborted fetuses. During 2012-2013, 39 ovine aborted fetuses were collected from sheep flocks in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. The brain samples were screened for detection of the parasite DNA by nested PCR. The positive brain samples were bioassayed in Webster Swiss mice. The serum samples of mice were examined for T. gondii antibodies by IFAT at 6 weeks post inoculation, and T. gondii cysts were searched in brain tissue samples of seropositive mice. The positive samples were genotyped by using a PCR-RLFP method. Subsequently, GRA6 sequences of isolates were analyzed using a phylogenetic method. The results revealed that T. gondii DNA was detected in 54% (20/37, 95% CI 38.4-69.0%) brain samples of ovine aborted fetuses. In bioassay of mice, only 2 samples were virulent and the mice were killed at 30 days post inoculation, while the others were non-virulent to mice. The size of cysts ranged 7-22 µm. Complete genotyping data for GRA6 locus were observed in 5 of the 20 samples. PCR-RLFP results and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all of the isolated samples were closely related to type I. For the first time, we could genotype and report T. gondii isolates from ovine aborted fetuses in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. The results indicate that the T. gondii isolates are genetically related to type I, although most of them were non-virulent for mice. PMID:26951974

  8. Late abortion and the European convention for human rights.

    PubMed

    te Braake, T A

    1999-01-01

    National abortion laws usually do not allow abortion when a foetus is independently viable, i.e. from a gestational age of about 24 weeks. Fetal anomalies, which may be a reason to seek abortion, are sometimes detected only in an advanced stage of pregnancy. National legislatures who want to allow 'late' abortion need to account for the protection the fetus may derive from the European Convention for the protection of human rights. As yet it remains unclear to what extent the fetus can in fact derive protection from the Convention, although several national abortion laws have been tested against it by the European Commission. The significance of the reports of the Commission on the question whether national legislation allowing abortion of a viable fetus is in conflict with the Convention, is explored. It is concluded that there is no European legal standard in terms of duration of pregnancy to which national legislatures are committed.

  9. Abortion and human rights.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus. PMID:20303830

  10. Ethical and Legal Issues Regarding Selective Abortion of Fetuses with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Noreen M.; Glover, Samuel J.

    1996-01-01

    Selective abortion of fetuses with Down syndrome is discussed in terms of abortion perspectives, genetic testing, legislation, and ethical principles. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, fidelity, and justice are offered as guidelines for the examination of legal standards imposed by legislation. (Author/PB)

  11. [The unclear status of the fetus is an ethical dilemma. Neonatal care can save the fetus when abortion is still legally possible].

    PubMed

    Persson, I

    1990-05-01

    A striking situation occasionally occurs in Swedish hospitals: a fetus survives late abortion and then all available intensive care resources are employed to keep it alive. The law permits free abortion through the 18th week of pregnancy, but with permission from the social service authorities, the limit for abortion can be stretched to the end of the 22nd week. At the same time it is possible to save the life of a premature birth down to the 23rd or 24th week. The development of a neonatal advanced care is based upon the assumption that it is desirable to save the life of a human fetus no matter how young it may be. At the same time, legislation which legitimizes free abortion up to a certain period of time expresses the view that the life of the fetus up through that time possesses little or no real value. A recent report by a government commission on the individuality of the pregnant woman and the fetus should have dealt with this ambivalence but did not. One possible way out of this dilemma is for society to take an active role in offering the woman economic compensation for bearing the child to term with a view toward giving it up for adoption. The commission's report compromised in not presenting this alternative as an official suggestion because it is too unpopular politically. The result is that tens of thousands of humans in Sweden every year are denied a chance for normal life because the public allows itself to be represented by politicians who lack the courage or the insight to accept the moral consequences of this decision.

  12. Aberrant expression of Xist in aborted porcine fetuses derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lin; Wang, Anfeng; Yao, Chaogang; Huang, Yongye; Duan, Feifei; Lv, Qinyan; Wang, Dongxu; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Li, Zhanjun; Lai, Liangxue

    2014-01-01

    Cloned pigs generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) show a greater ratio of early abortion during mid-gestation than normal controls. X-linked genes have been demonstrated to be important for the development of cloned embryos. To determine the relationship between the expression of X-linked genes and abortion of cloned porcine fetuses, the expression of X-linked genes were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and the methylation status of Xist DMR was performed by bisulfate-specific PCR (BSP). q-PCR analysis indicated that there was aberrant expression of X-linked genes, especially the upregulated expression of Xist in both female and male aborted fetuses compared to control fetuses. Results of BSP suggested that hypomethylation of Xist occurred in aborted fetuses, whether male or female. These results suggest that the abnormal expression of Xist may be associated with the abortion of fetuses derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos. PMID:25429426

  13. Abortion decisions as inclusion and exclusion criteria in research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    PubMed

    Strong, Carson

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of investigators conducting research involving pregnant women and fetuses, a woman's decision about whether to have an abortion can sometimes be relevant to the suitability of the woman and fetus as research subjects. However, prominent ethicists disagree over whether it is permissible for a woman's decision about abortion to be an inclusion or exclusion criterion for participation in research. A widely held view is that fetuses to be aborted and fetuses to be carried to term should be treated equally as research subjects. Some hold that this principle implies that a woman's decision about whether to have an abortion should not be an inclusion or exclusion criterion. This paper identifies types of research in which investigators might want to have inclusion or exclusion criteria based on decisions about abortion. It examines the arguments for and against having the woman's decision about abortion included in such criteria. It is argued that there are types of research in which such criteria are ethically permissible. PMID:21685147

  14. Abortion decisions as inclusion and exclusion criteria in research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    PubMed

    Strong, Carson

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of investigators conducting research involving pregnant women and fetuses, a woman's decision about whether to have an abortion can sometimes be relevant to the suitability of the woman and fetus as research subjects. However, prominent ethicists disagree over whether it is permissible for a woman's decision about abortion to be an inclusion or exclusion criterion for participation in research. A widely held view is that fetuses to be aborted and fetuses to be carried to term should be treated equally as research subjects. Some hold that this principle implies that a woman's decision about whether to have an abortion should not be an inclusion or exclusion criterion. This paper identifies types of research in which investigators might want to have inclusion or exclusion criteria based on decisions about abortion. It examines the arguments for and against having the woman's decision about abortion included in such criteria. It is argued that there are types of research in which such criteria are ethically permissible.

  15. What British women say matters to them about donating an aborted fetus to stem cell research: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Naomi

    2008-06-01

    This is the first investigation into what matters to British women when they think about donating an aborted fetus to research, and how stem cell research and therapies might influence their views. Tissue derived from the aborted fetus is considered "the right tool for the job" in some stem cell laboratories. Research using tissue derived from aborted fetuses is permitted in Britain, while deliberate abortion to provide fetal tissue for research is illegal. Investigators are advised to seek women's agreement to donate the fetus after they have signed the consent form for the abortion, and stem cell researchers seek fetuses aborted under the 'social' grounds of the Abortion Act 1967. This research was based on focus groups with women who had both had a termination and had not had a termination. It found that initial enthusiasm for the donation of the aborted fetus for medical research, which was understood as a good thing, diminished as participants gained information and thought more carefully about the implications of such a decision. Lack of knowledge about how aborted fetuses are treated as scientific objects in the stem cell laboratory provoked concerns about mishandling, and invoked in some participants what we have called the duty of care which women feel towards babies and children. The duty of care might apply to other research using aborted fetuses. But what makes stem cell research more troubling is its association with renewal, regeneration, and immortality which participants understood as somehow reinstating and even developing the fetus' physical existence and social biography, the very thing abortion is meant to eliminate. By the end of the focus groups, participants had co-produced a tendency to refuse to donate aborted fetuses.

  16. Complete genome sequence of Brucella melitensis biovar 3 strain NI, isolated from an aborted bovine fetus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenxiao; Jing, Zhigang; Ou, Qixing; Cui, Buyun; He, Yongqun; Wu, Qingmin

    2012-11-01

    From an aborted bovine fetus in China, a bacterial strain named NI was isolated and identified as Brucella melitensis by a PCR assay. Strain NI was further characterized as B. melitensis biovar 3 using biochemical assays. Here we report the complete genome sequence of strain NI.

  17. Detection of Coxiella burnetii in buffaloes aborted fetuses by IS111 DNA amplification: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Perugini, A G; Capuano, F; Esposito, A; Marianelli, C; Martucciello, A; Iovane, G; Galiero, G

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate by PCR analyses the presence of Coxiella burnetii infection in fetuses of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in the Campania region (Southern Italy). Samples were collected only from aborted fetuses and C. burnetii presence was evaluated by one-tube nested PCR amplification of the IS111 repetitive element. Of the 164 fetuses examined 14 (17.5%) were positive after DNA amplification, showing that C. burnetii occurs in this population of water buffaloes. However, more extensive prevalence studies need to be carried out to define the role of buffaloes as reservoirs for this pathogen and also the role of C. burnetii as an abortive agent in this animal.

  18. Abortion and the human animal.

    PubMed

    Tollefsen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    I discuss three topics. First, there is a philosophical connecting thread between several recent trends in the abortion discussion, namely, the issue of our animal nature, and physical embodiment. The philosophical name given to the position that you and I are essentially human animals is "animalism." In Section II of this paper, I argue that animalism provides a unifying theme to recent discussions of abortion. In Section III, I discuss what we do not find among recent trends in the abortion discussion, namely "the right to privacy." I suggest some reasons why the right to privacy is conspicuous by its absence. Finally, I address Patrick Lee's claim that the evil of abortion involves "the moral deterioration that the act brings to those who are complicit in it, and to the culture that fosters it."

  19. Toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Jitender P; Johnson, James E; Hanson, Margaret A; Pierce, Virginia

    2014-06-01

    A near-full-term alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was stillborn 2 days before the expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within 6 hr of delivery. Gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. On histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta, liver, and lungs, although no etiology was recognized. Within the brain, there was a mild nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, hydrocephalus, and hydromyelia. Both kidneys had inflammatory foci in cortex and medulla associated with protozoal tissue cysts. Protozoa in brain and kidneys were identified as Toxoplasma gondii based on immunoreactivity to T. gondii polyclonal antibodies that stain both tachyzoites and tissue cysts and BAG1 T. gondii antibodies that are bradyzoite specific. The tissue cysts exhibited intense positivity to T. gondii and mild immunoreactivity to Neospora caninum antibodies. The dam had a high antibody titer (1 : 12,800) to T. gondii and low titer (1 : 100) to N. caninum using their respective agglutination tests. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in alpaca.

  20. Chimerism and multiple numerical chromosome imbalances in a spontaneously aborted fetus.

    PubMed

    Vorsanova, S G; Iourov, I Y; Demidova, I A; Kirillova, E A; Soloviev, I V; Yurov, Y B

    2006-01-01

    We report on a case of chimerism and multiple abnormalities of chromosomes 21, Xand Yin spontaneous abortion specimen. To the best our knowledge the present case is the first documented chimera in a spontaneously aborted fetus. The application of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using chromosome enumeration and site-specific DNA probes showed trisomy X in 92 nuclei (23 %), tetrasomy X in 100 nuclei (25 %), pentasomy of chromosome X in 40 nuclei (10 %), XXY in 36 nuclei (9 %), XXXXXXYY in 12 nuclei (3 %), XXXXXYYYYY in 8 nuclei (2 %), trisomy 21 and female chromosome complement in 40 nuclei (10 %), normal female chromosome complement in 72 nuclei (18 %) out of 400 nuclei scored. Our experience indicates that the frequency of chimerism coupled with multiple chromosome abnormalities should be no less than 1 : 400 among spontaneous abortions. The difficulties of chimerism identification in fetal tissues are discussed. PMID:17385415

  1. Pathology of the human embryo and previable fetus

    SciTech Connect

    Kalousek, D.K. ); Fitch, N.; Paradice, B.

    1990-01-01

    Topics covered in this book include a general review of normal embryonic and fetal development; abortion and the basic approach to the examination of aborted embryos and fetuses; and pathologic findings detected on examination of products of conception. The authors illustrate specific morphologic lesions and the variable expression of genetic syndromes in the embryonic and fetal periods.

  2. [Accessory renal arteries in human fetuses].

    PubMed

    Gościcka, D; Szpinda, M; Kochan, J

    1996-12-01

    Using conventional anatomical methods, renal arteries of 140 human fetuses were studied. It was found (21.1%) that the accessory renal arteries occurred in a three-fold manner: 1. as single arteries (19.2%), 2. as double arteries (2.1%) and 3. as triplex arteries (0.7%). More often they originated from the right part of the circumference of the abdominal aorta, mainly in the female fetuses. These arteries penetrated the following segments of the kidney: the inferior (12.9%), the superior (2.3%), the anterior inferior (2.8%), the posterior (2.1%) and the anterior superior (1.5%). They crossed the renal pelvis more often in front (12.2%) than from behind of it (5%). The frequency of the occurrence of the accessory arteries depends not from the age of the fetus. PMID:9082875

  3. Prevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus detection in aborted fetuses, mummified fetuses and stillborn piglets using quantitative polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    OLANRATMANEE, Em-on; WONGYANIN, Piya; THANAWONGNUWECH, Roongroje; TUMMARUK, Padet

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus detection in aborted fetuses (n=32), mummified fetuses (n=30) and stillborn piglets (n=27) from 10 swine herds in Thailand using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Pooled organs and umbilical cord from each fetus/piglet were homogenized and subjected to RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. The qPCR was carried out on the ORF7 of the PRRS viral genome using fluorogenic probes for amplified product detection. The results revealed that 67.4% (60/89) of the specimens contained PRRS virus. The virus was found in 65.6% (21/32) of aborted fetuses, 63.3% (19/30) of mummified fetuses and 74.1% (20/27) of stillborn piglets (P=0.664). Genotype 1, genotype 2 and mixed genotypes of PRRS virus were detected in 19.1% (17/89), 25.8% (23/89) and 22.5% (20/89) of the specimens, respectively (P=0.316). PRRS virus antigen was retrieved from both non-PRRS-vaccinated herds (68.2%, 45/66) and PRRS-vaccinated herds (65.2%, 15/23) (P=0.794). These findings indicated that these specimens are important sources of the PRRS viral load and the viral shedding within the herd. Thus, intensive care on the routine management of dead fetuses and stillborn piglets in PRRS virus-positive herds should be emphasized. PMID:25866409

  4. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.

    2011-12-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  5. Comparison of direct culture versus PCR for the detection of Brucella in aborted fetuses of cattle and sheep in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Buyukcangaz, E; Sen, A; Carli, K T; Kahya, S

    2011-04-23

    The aim of this study was to detect Brucella in samples from aborted fetuses of sheep and cattle in Turkey using PCR and bacteriological analysis, and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the PCR. Organ homogenates from 38 aborted fetuses of cattle and 56 aborted fetuses of sheep were tested. All organ homogenates were cultured for bacteriological analysis, and all of the homogenates and the Brucella isolates obtained by culture were examined with a commercial PCR kit. On bacteriological analysis, Brucella species were found in 30 (31.9 per cent) of the 94 organ homogenates, eight (21.1 per cent) of which were from cattle and 22 (39.3 per cent) from sheep. Using PCR, a total of 29 (30.9 per cent) homogenates were positive for Brucella species, eight (21.1 per cent) of which were from cattle and 21 (37.5 per cent) from sheep. Compared with the bacteriological method, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the PCR kit used in this study were 83 per cent and 94 per cent, respectively.

  6. Application of real-time PCR for evaluation of distribution of equine herpesvirus type 1 in tissues of aborted fetuses.

    PubMed

    Stasiak, K; Rola, J; Zmudzinski, J F

    2015-01-01

    A highly sensitive and specific real-time PCR assay was used for detection and quantitation of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) in the different internal organs of aborted fetuses. Tissue samples from 23 aborted fetuses submitted to the Department of Virology of the National Veterinary Research Institute in Pulawy between 2012 and 2013 were used for testing. Total DNA was extracted using a phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol standard protocol. A real-time PCR with forward and reverse primers encompassing a highly conserved region encoding viral glycoprotein B was adapted for diagnosis of EHV-1 infection. The detection limit of the assay was shown to be 6.0 × 10⁰ of viral DNA copies and the obtained standard curve exhibited a linear range from 10⁰ to 10⁷ molecules. Sixteen out of twenty three aborted fetuses (69.5%) were positive for EHV-1 in real-time PCR. The highest EHV-1 DNA load was obtained for liver (mean Ct value: 15.7) and lung (18.2) samples, while the lowest was in the thymus (29.6) and placenta (28.4). PMID:26812827

  7. Cerebral Candidal Abscess and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Infection in an Aborted Bovine Fetus.

    PubMed

    Vilander, A C; Niles, G A; Frank, C B

    2016-01-01

    Candida species are opportunistic fungi associated with immunosuppression and are the most commonly isolated fungal pathogens from the human central nervous system. Invasive candidiasis is reported uncommonly in animals and there have only been two reports of candidal infection of the brain. This report presents a case of a cerebral candidal abscess in an aborted late-term calf co-infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Candida etchellsii, a species not previously identified as pathogenic, was identified as the causative agent by polymerase chain reaction. PMID:26895887

  8. Drug metabolism by the human fetus.

    PubMed

    Juchau, M R; Chao, S T; Omiecinski, C J

    1980-01-01

    A review of the literature that pertains to drug biotransformation in human fetal tissues reveals that, in spite of several publications in this comparatively new area of research, only very limited definitive information is currently available. The large majority of the studies performed have dealt with the cytochrome P-450-dependent microsomal mono-oxygenase systems and for several of the common drug metabolising reactions, very little or no data are available at this time. Some of the more important data that have emerged include observations that important bioactivation reactions can be demonstrated in human fetal tissues obtained during the period of late embryogenesis (high susceptibility to chemical dysmorphogenesis) and that the human fetal adrenal gland possesses considerable capacity to catalyse several important oxidation-reduction reactions. From the data available to date, it would appear that, in most instances, the biotransformation of drugs in the human embryo and fetus would not affect maternal plasma concentrations significantly. From the viewpoint of parameters of the pharmacokinetics of parent drug (or other xenobiotic) substrates under steady-state conditions, human fetal drug metabolism probably is of little consequence in most cases, although exceptions may exist. Pharmacokinetic parameters observed after isolated exposure, however, are very likely to be affected, perhaps markedly, in some instances. The demonstrated capacity of human prenatal tissues and cells to generate reactive intermediary metabolites, including those that produce mutations, has attracted the greatest attention recently. This capacity may be associated with extremely important adverse reactions to drugs and other environmental chemicals. Such adverse responses include transplacental mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, dysmorphogenesis, and perhaps several other undesirable effects. Although far from conclusive, the data tend to suggest that humans and subhuman primates may be

  9. Abortion ethics.

    PubMed

    Fromer, M J

    1982-04-01

    Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view

  10. Infectious agents identified in aborted swine fetuses in a high-density breeding area: a three-year study.

    PubMed

    Salogni, Cristian; Lazzaro, Massimiliano; Giacomini, Enrico; Giovannini, Stefano; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Giuliani, Matteo; Ruggeri, Jessica; Pozzi, Paolo; Pasquali, Paolo; Boniotti, Maria Beatrice; Alborali, Giovanni Loris

    2016-09-01

    Reproductive failure in sows is one of the most important factors affecting pig breeding. Many reproductive disorders are linked to both environmental factors and infectious agents. The goal of our study was to determine the presence of pathogens that are known to cause abortion, considering a set of conditioning factors, such as seasonality and pregnancy period. A large number of aborted fetuses (1,625 fetuses from 140 farms) from a high-density breeding area in northern Italy was analyzed for a period of 3 years. The pigs were diagnosed based on direct (culture, PCR) or indirect (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) evidence. An infectious etiologic agent was found in 323 of 549 cases of abortion (58.8%). These included viral agents (Porcine circovirus-2, 138/323; Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, 108/323; porcine parvovirus, 20/323; pseudorabies virus, 6/323; and Encephalomyocarditis virus, 3/323) and bacteria (Escherichia coli, 64/323; Streptococcus sp., 63/323; Staphylococcus sp., 5/323; Pasteurella sp., 3/323; Shigella sp., 1/323; and Yersinia sp., 1/323). This study describes the prevalence of infectious agents involved in reproductive failure in a high-density swine population. The data can be useful to swine breeders, practitioners, and medical specialists in monitoring animal health and in supervising the breeding process. PMID:27400956

  11. Elevated serum amyloid A levels in cases of aborted equine fetuses due to fetal and placental infections.

    PubMed

    Erol, Erdal; Jackson, Carney; Horohov, David; Locke, Stephan; Smith, Jacqueline; Carter, Craig

    2016-09-01

    Determination of fetal serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations in aborted fetuses can provide valuable information regarding the infectious and/or inflammatory process of abortion in horses. To investigate the relationship between fetal SAA levels and the infectious/inflammatory disease process in feto-placental tissues, a SAA ELISA was used to test heart serum samples of 89 equine fetuses that were necropsied and diagnosed in the following groups: a multiorgan disease process diagnosed with an identified microorganism (14 cases, group 1); only placentitis diagnosed with an identified microorganism (nine cases, group 2); only placentitis diagnosed with no microorganism identified (six cases, group 3); and no infectious or inflammatory disease process diagnosed (60 cases, group 4). Serum amyloid A concentrations in equine fetuses were elevated from 10.5 to ≥40 mg/L in 10 of 14 cases in group 1; and from less than 2.5 mg/L to greater than 40 mg/L in seven of nine cases in group 2. In group 3, SAA concentrations were found to be less than 2.5 mg/L in five of six cases. In group 4, SAA concentrations were less than 2.5 mg/L in 55 cases, whereas in five cases SAA concentrations were elevated. Statistical significant differences were found between the concentrations of SAA in fetal horse blood and the presence of infectious and/or inflammatory disease process in the feto-placental tissues when a causative microorganism was identified. These results suggest that testing SAA concentrations in fetal heart blood may aid in further understanding the causes of abortions in horses. PMID:27125694

  12. Abortion.

    PubMed

    Rice-Oxley, C P

    1979-09-15

    Professor Peter Hungerford (25 August, p 496) says that he is fed up with semantic arguments about abortion which ignore reality. He then invokes two major fantasies of the last decade, those of sexual equality and the woman's right to choose. The second of these has become an article of faith to many pro-abortionists and its credentials should be examined. Whence does this right derive? A woman takes part in a more or less pleasurable activity with a man and then, without her volition, with no conscious effort on her part at all, the miraculous occurs and a new life comes into being. How does she have the right to destroy this new life? The argument is usually to the effect that it belongs to her and could not survive without her: "It's mine and I can do what I like with it." Of course, it is true that a fetus cannot survive without the support of its mother; no more could Professor Hungerford or I survive without the support of our fellow men who provide us with food, drink, and clothing, but that does not give them the right to kill us. The claim to possession, the assumption that the fetus is owned by its mother involves, I believe, a semantic error. In a sense, the fetus is "hers" in that it is growing inside her, even though she did not create it. Likewise, her husband is hers because joined to her by marriage and her country is hers because she lives there, although she does not own either of them and certainly has no right to destroy them. The life growing inside the mother is not hers in the same way that a cardigan she has bought or knitted for herself is hers. It is the consideration of semantics that protects us from the "realities" of such as Professor Hungerford.

  13. Comparison of polymerase chain reaction and bacteriological culture for the diagnosis of sheep brucellosis using aborted fetus samples.

    PubMed

    Leyla, Güler; Kadri, Gündüz; Umran, Ok

    2003-05-01

    PCR assay has been shown to be a promising option for the diagnosis of brucellosis. However, few studies have been performed with field samples in order to evaluate the assay as a diagnostic tool. In this study, routine use of a species-specific PCR assay previously developed for the identification of Brucella cultures was assessed for the detection of Brucella DNA directly from the stomach contents of aborted sheep fetuses. The assay is based on the insertion sequence IS711 in the Brucella chromosome. In the study, during 3 successive lambing seasons (1998-1999, 1999-2000 and 2000-2001) 126 aborted fetus samples each from different flocks and locations were examined. Brucella strains were isolated from 39 (31%) of the samples and all of the strains were identified as Brucella melitensis by biochemical characteristics, agglutination with monospecific A and M sera and PCR. Thirty-seven of 39 B. melitensis isolates were biotyped as biotype 3, and 2 isolates as biotype 1. From 38 of 39 culture positive fetal stomach contents B. melitensis-specific DNA was detected by PCR. PCR was found negative in all of the culture negative samples. Compared with culture, sensitivity and specificity of PCR were determined as 97.4 and 100%, respectively. The results indicate that this PCR procedure has a potential for use in routine diagnosis of sheep brucellosis.

  14. Comparison of PCR assay and bacteriological culture method for the detection of Brucella melitensis in stomach content samples of aborted sheep fetuses.

    PubMed

    Ilhan, Z; Solmaz, H; Aksakal, A; Gülhan, T; Ekin, I H; Boynukara, B

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for detection of Brucella melitensis in stomach content samples of aborted sheep fetuses and to compare its performance with bacteriological culture method. It was also aimed to determine the agreement between PCR and Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT). Materials were collected from aborted sheep from 109 different sheep flocks in the region of Van during the lambing seasons of 2004-2005 and 2005-2006. Stomach contents from 135 aborted sheep fetuses were examined by bacteriological culture and PCR, and 135 sera from these aborting ewes were tested by RBPT. Identification and typing of Brucella strains were performed using standard classification test. B. melitensis biovar 3 was isolated from 26 (19.2%) of foetal stomach contents. B. melitensis was detected by PCR in 29 (21.4%) stomach content samples. Twenty five sera (18.5%) from aborting ewes tested positive by RBPT. The detection limit of B. melitensis 16 M strain by PCR was 1.7 x 10(3) cfu (colony forming units) /ml in spiked stomach contents. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the PCR were detected as 100% and 97.2%, respectively. The agreement between PCR and RBPT was found to be 97%. In conclusion, PCR assay would have an advantage over conventional bacteriological culture method, but in particular for its ability to meet the specificity requirements for the detection of B. melitensis in stomach content samples of aborted sheep fetuses.

  15. Abortion.

    PubMed

    Churchill, M

    1979-09-15

    I would like to take issue with Dr Colin Brewer's statements concerning intrauterine contraceptive devices and abortion (11 August, p 389). I agree that logically there is no distinction between IUCDs, and other abortifacients used early in pregnancy, and abortion methods used later in pregnancy. However, I disagree with his statement that to make illegal IUCDs and similar methods out of an "obsessive concern for microscopic forms of life" would be "absurd." Firstly, size has never been a criterion for the presence or absence of life, or of its importance. Surely Dr Brewer, MPs, and the public would be outraged by anything less than obsessively careful handling of, say, rabies or smallpox viruses in laboratories. Do not the products of conception, with the full potential of a human being unless actively interfered with by other men (neglecting normal fetal wastage), deserve any less concern? Secondly, mortality should not be determined by practicalities; rather morality should determine one's actions. The question of whether IUCDs and other such procedures should remain legal or be made illegal should not be determined by their efficacy, popularity, or economy. I agree fully with Dr Brewer--abortion is a moral issue and it is a pity that the BMF has not raised the moral issues at stake. Particularly so, as Lord Denning put it "...without morality there can be no law." I personally subscribe to the Hippocratic Oath. PMID:497769

  16. Abortion of Defective Fetuses: Attitudes of Mothers of Congenitally Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslau, Naomi

    1987-01-01

    Compared a sample of mothers of children with cystic fibrosis, cerebral palsy, myelodysplasia, and multiple physical handicaps with a probability sample of mothers of children free of disabilities on their attitudes toward the availability of legal abortion. The responses were not distinguishable for the two groups, nor was the specific disability…

  17. Abortion.

    PubMed

    Hume, K

    1979-04-21

    The review by Aileen F. Connon of Abortion by Potts, Diggory and Peel (Journal, February 10) made interesting reading, especially her quotation of the "facinating statistical information" that Australia has 11.5 million people and 45,000 to 90,000 criminal abortions a year. These are rather wide upper and lower confidence limits. One wonders what other information the authors have included that is of the same standard of accuracy. On the other hand, Malcolm Potts told me some years ago that the experience of his parent organization, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, with the IUD in India was a disaster. That I could well believe. Seeing some of the victims, the sight would indeed be enough to stir the stony heart of the most inhuman consultant gynaecologist. There is in Australia, and indeed in the world, an increasing number of doctors who are revolted by the activities of the International Planned Parenthood Federation and its affiliates which aggressively promote abortion as "an acceptable method of fertility control," and even as the primary method. These are a cross-section of the profession and include some of its most distinguished and erudite members who would be both competent and happy to review a book such as Abortion by Potts et alii from a pro-life point of view. Could I suggest that in future your book reviews and editorials include some well informed commentaries from doctors representing that heretofore silent group? I am holding a long and growing list of Australian doctors who have signed the "Declaration of Doctors," thus explicitly spelling out their respect for human life from the first moment of biological existence to that of natural death. Their services are available on request.

  18. Biologically Active Chorionic Gonadotropin: Synthesis by the Human Fetus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, W. G.; Kuhn, R. W.; Jaffe, R. B.

    1983-04-01

    The kidney, and to a slight extent the liver, of human fetuses were found to synthesize and secrete the α subunit common to glycoprotein hormones. Fetal lung and muscle did not synthesize this protein. Since fetal kidney and liver were previously found to synthesize β chorionic gonadotropin, their ability to synthesize bioactive chorionic gonadotropin was also determined. The newly synthesized hormone bound to mouse Leydig cells and elicited a biological response: namely, the synthesis of testosterone. These results suggest that the human fetus may participate in metabolic homeostasis during its development.

  19. Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most healthcare providers advise counseling.

  20. Isolated bilateral transverse agenesis of the distal segments of the lower limbs at the level of the knee joint in a human fetus.

    PubMed

    Christiaens, Antoine B; Deprez, Pierre M L; Amyere, Mustapha; Mendola, Antonella; Bernard, Pierre; Gillerot, Yves; Clapuyt, Philippe; Godfraind, Catherine; Lengelé, Benoît G; Vikkula, Miikka; Nyssen-Behets, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Congenital limb anomalies occur in Europe with a prevalence of 3.81/1,000 births and can have a major impact on patients and their families. The present study concerned a female fetus aborted at 23 weeks of gestation because she was affected by non-syndromic bilateral absence of the zeugopod (leg) and autopod (foot). Autopsy of the aborted fetus, X-ray imaging, MRI, and histochemical analysis showed that the distal extremity of both femurs was continued by a cartilage-like mass, without joint cavitation. Karyotype was normal. Moreover, no damaging variant was detected by exome sequencing. The limb characteristics of the fetus, which to our knowledge have not yet been reported in humans, suggest a developmental arrest similar to anomalies described in chicks following surgical experiments on the apical ectodermal ridge of the lower limbs. PMID:26544544

  1. MYSTERIES OF THE HUMAN FETUS REVEALED

    PubMed Central

    SANDMAN, CURT A

    2015-01-01

    The impressive program of research from the DiPietro laboratory succeeds in its aim to document the ontogeny of human fetal neurobehavioral development. From studies of great depth and breadth, and wielding creative methods of assessment, DiPietro et al open a window into the largely inaccessible developing human fetal brain. This commentary, with reference to the seminal cardiovascular studies of the Lacey's, supports the measures of the fetal heart to index fetal well-being and to provide evidence of stimulus processing. A separate case is made that the DiPietro program provides unique and invaluable information for assessing the influential Developmental Origins of Health and Disease or Fetal Programming Models. The goal of these models, to predict or understand the influences of early experience or response patterns on later postnatal life, is identical to the ultimate goal of the DiPietro program. Because human fetal behavior is uncontaminated by socialization or parenting or peers, it may be the best reflection of fetal exposures. The remarkable neurobehavioral profiles generated by the DiPietro program can make a critical contribution to the Fetal Programming Model in terms of sensitive and critical periods of nervous system vulnerability and to specify gestational periods of neurobehavioral risk.. PMID:26303720

  2. Eye findings in 8 children and a spontaneously aborted fetus with RSH/Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Atchaneeyasakul, L O; Linck, L M; Connor, W E; Weleber, R G; Steiner, R D

    1998-12-28

    We evaluate the ophthalmologic findings in 8 children with RSH/Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) and document abnormal concentrations of cholesterol and cholesterol precursors in the ocular tissues in a case of SLOS. The most common ophthalmologic finding was blepharoptosis, which was found in 6 of 8 patients, with the severity ranging from mild to moderate. None of the patients in the present study demonstrated cataracts; none had amblyopia from blepharoptosis. One patient had a right hypertropia with overaction of the inferior oblique muscle. This patient also had optic atrophy and a second patient had bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia. The importance of these findings to the visual function remains to be defined. Sterol analysis from ocular tissues of an aborted fetus with SLOS showed increased 7- and 8-dehydrocholesterol and a low cholesterol concentration in the retinal pigment epithelium, lens, cornea, and sclera. Routine ophthalmologic examination is indicated in SLOS because of the high incidence of abnormalities, most likely due to the abnormal synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol precursors in the ocular tissues of these patients, as evidenced by sterol analysis of the ocular tissues in a case of SLOS. PMID:9880216

  3. Steroid profiling in pregnancy: a focus on the human fetus.

    PubMed

    Hill, Martin; Pašková, Andrea; Kančeva, Radmila; Velíková, Marta; Kubátová, Jana; Kancheva, Lyudmila; Adamcová, Karolína; Mikešová, Michaela; Žižka, Zdeněk; Koucký, Michal; Šarapatková, Hana; Kačer, Viktor; Matucha, Petr; Meloun, Milan; Pařízek, Antonín

    2014-01-01

    In this review we focused on steroid metabolomics in human fetuses and newborns and its role in the physiology and pathophysiology of human pregnancy and subsequent stages of human life, and on the physiological relevance of steroids influencing the nervous systems with regards to their concentrations in the fetus. Steroid profiling provides valuable data for the diagnostics of diseases related to altered steroidogenesis in the fetal and maternal compartments and placenta. We outlined a potential use of steroid metabolomics for the prediction of reproductive disorders, misbalance of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and impaired insulin sensitivity in subsequent stages of human life. A possible role of steroids exhibiting a non-genomic effect in the development of gestational diabetes and in the neuroprotection via negative modulation of AMPA/kainate receptors was also indicated. Increasing progesterone synthesis and catabolism, declining production of tocolytic 5β-pregnane steroids, and rising activities of steroid sulfotransferases with the approaching term may be of importance in sustaining pregnancy. An increasing trend was demonstrated with advancing gestation toward the production of ketones (and 3β-hydroxyl groups in the case of 3α-hydroxy-steroids) was demonstrated in the fetus on the expense of 3α-hydroxy-, 17β-hydroxy-, and 20α-hydroxy-groups weakening in the sequence C17, C3, and C20. There was higher production of active progestogen but lower production of active estrogen and GABAergic steroids with the approaching term. Rising activities of placental CYP19A1 and oxidative isoforms of HSD17B, and of fetal CYP3A7 with advancing gestation may protect the fetus from hyperestrogenization. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Pregnancy and Steroids'.

  4. Early ontogeny of the central benzodiazepine receptor in human embryos and fetuses

    SciTech Connect

    Hebebrand, J.; Hofmann, D.; Reichelt, R.; Schnarr, S.; Knapp, M.; Propping, P.; Foedisch, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The early ontogeny of the central benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) was investigated in human embryos and fetuses between 7 and 26 weeks of gestation. Brain tissue was gained from terminated pregnancies or spontaneous abortions. Binding studies, which were performed with /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam (FNZ), revealed that specific benzodiazepine binding is already detectable at an embryonal age of 7 weeks post conception. Binding at this early stage can be displaced potently by clonazepam and the inverse agonist ..beta..-CCE. Additionally, /sup 3/H-FNZ binding is enhanced by GABA. Thus, benzodiazepine binding is of the central type. Receptor density increases steeply in whole brain between weeks 8 and 11 of gestation. In frontal cortex receptor density increases gradually between weeks 12 and 26 of gestation. No specific fetal disease entity (including trisomy 21) was consistently associated with exceptionally high or low B/sub max/-values.

  5. [Abortion].

    PubMed

    Dourlen-rollier, A M

    1971-01-01

    The historical and current (1969) abortion laws in France as well as those in other Western countries are analyzed. France has had a series of punitive abortion codes since the Napoleonic Code of 1810 prescribing solitary confinement for the woman. The reforms of 1920 and 1923 made provocation of abortion or contraceptional propaganda a "crime" (felony), later a "delit" (misdemeanor), called for trial before magistr ate instead of jury, but resulted in only about 200 convictions a year. The decree of 1939 extended the misdemeanor to women who aborted even if they were not pregnant, and provided for professional licenses such as that of surgeon or pharmacist to be suspended. The law of 1942 made abortion a social crime and increased the maximum penalty to capital punishment, which was exercised in 2 cases. About 4000 per year were convicted from 1942-1944. Now the law still applies to all who intend to abort, whether or not pregnant or successful, but punishemnt is limited to 1-5 years imprisonment, and 72,000 francs fine, or suspension of medical practice for 5 years. About 500 have been convicted per year. Since 1955 legal abortion has been available (to about 130 women over 4 years) if it is the only means to save the woman's life. Although pregnancy tests are controlled, the population desregards the law by resorting to clandestine abortion. The wealthy travel to Switzerland (where 68% of legal abortions are done on French women) or to England. Numbers are estimated by the French government at 250,000-300,000 per year, or 1 for every 2 live births, but by hospital statistics at 400,000-1,000,000 per year. The rest of the review covers abortion laws in Scandinavian, Central European, and individual US states as of 1969.

  6. Prevalence study of Bovine viral diarrhea virus by evaluation of antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR assay in Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel aborted fetuses in Iran

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae that cause abortions and stillbirths in livestock and its traditional diagnosis is based on cell culture and virus neutralization test. In this study, for more sensitive, specific detection and determined the prevalence of virus in aborted Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel fetuses the antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR were recommended. From the total of 2173 aborted fetuses, 347 (15.96%) and 402 (18.49%) were positive for presence of Bovine viral diarrhea virus by antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR respectively. Statistical analysis of data showed significant differences between ELISA and RT-PCR for detection of virus in aborted fetuses. These results indicate a high presence of this pathogen in Iran and that RT- PCR is considerably faster and more accurate than ELISA for identification of Bovine viral diarrhea virus. To our knowledge the Camels and Bovine are the most resistant and sensitive to Bovine viral diarrhea's abortions respectively and the prevalence of virus in Caprine is more than Ovine aborted fetuses. This study is the first prevalence report of Bovine viral diarrhea virus in aborted Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel fetuses by evaluation of ELISA and RT-PCR in Iran. PMID:22018096

  7. Morphological structure and variations of lumbar plexus in human fetuses.

    PubMed

    Yasar, Soner; Kaya, Serdar; Temiz, Cağlar; Tehli, Ozkan; Kural, Cahit; Izci, Yusuf

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to study the anatomy of lumbar plexus on human fetuses and to establish its morphometric characteristics and differences compared with adults. Twenty lumbar plexus of 10 human fetal cadavers in different gestational ages and genders were dissected. Lumbar spinal nerves, ganglions, and peripheral nerves were exposed. Normal anatomical structure and variations of lumbar plexus were investigated and morphometric analyses were performed. The diameters of lumbar spinal nerves increased from L1 to L4. The thickest nerve forming the plexus was femoral nerve, the thinnest was ilioinguinal nerve, the longest nerve through posterior abdominal wall was iliohypogastric nerve, and the shortest nerve was femoral nerve. Each plexus had a single furcal nerve and this arose from L4 nerve in all fetuses. No prefix or postfix plexus variation was observed. In two plexuses, L1 nerve was in the form of a single branch. Also, in two plexuses, genitofemoral nerve arose only from L2 nerve. Accessory obturator nerve was observed in four plexuses. According to these findings, the morphological pattern of the lumbar plexus in the fetus was found to be very similar to the lumbar plexus in adults. PMID:22696243

  8. Beyond abortion: the potential reach of a human life amendment.

    PubMed

    Westfall, D

    1982-01-01

    In Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court held that the constitutionally protected right to privacy includes a woman's right to terminate pregnancy. Following the decision, anti-abortion groups turned to Congress to limit or negate that right. As a result of their efforts, several "human life" statutes and constitutional amendments have been proposed. This Article focuses on the implications of proposed amendments that seek to ban or limit the availability of abortions indirectly by broadening the definition of "person" to include unborn individuals. The Article discusses the potentially serious effects such an amendment would have in areas unrelated to abortion. It finds that the resulting chaos and uncertainty would have great social costs, and concludes that if abortions are to be banned or restricted, a human life amendment that directly deals with abortion is preferable to one that defines "person" to include the unborn.

  9. Beyond abortion: the potential reach of a human life amendment.

    PubMed

    Westfall, D

    1982-01-01

    In Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court held that the constitutionally protected right to privacy includes a woman's right to terminate pregnancy. Following the decision, anti-abortion groups turned to Congress to limit or negate that right. As a result of their efforts, several "human life" statutes and constitutional amendments have been proposed. This Article focuses on the implications of proposed amendments that seek to ban or limit the availability of abortions indirectly by broadening the definition of "person" to include unborn individuals. The Article discusses the potentially serious effects such an amendment would have in areas unrelated to abortion. It finds that the resulting chaos and uncertainty would have great social costs, and concludes that if abortions are to be banned or restricted, a human life amendment that directly deals with abortion is preferable to one that defines "person" to include the unborn. PMID:7148834

  10. [The metabolism and conjugation of estrogens in the human fetus].

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, K

    1984-09-20

    Although several studies have been reported on the synthesis of steroids in the fetus, the metabolism and conjugation of estrogens in the fetus is not completely known. In this study serum levels of estetrol (E4), estetrol glucosiduronate (E4-G), estriol (E3) and estriol-16-glucosiduronate (E3-16-G) were measured by R.I.A. in maternal peripheral vein blood (MPV), umbilical artery blood (UA) and umbilical vein blood (UV) at delivery. The same steroids were also measured in various fetal organs (liver, kidney, intestine, adrenal, lung and placenta) in the second-trimester. After 4-14C-E2, 4-14C-E3 and 6, 9 (n)-3H-E4 were incubated with homogenates of various human fetal organs, the metabolites were analyzed with an authentic sample. 15, 15-D2-estradiol-17 beta (d2-E2) was incubated with human second-trimester fetal liver and the metabolites were analyzed with GC-MS. It was concluded that: 1) E3-16-G was higher in UA and UV than in MPV, suggesting active glucosiduronation in the fetus. 2) Higher levels of E4 and E4-G in UA and UV than in MPV suggest the production of E3 and E3-16-G in the fetus. 3) Levels of E4 and E4-G were higher than those of E3 and E3-16-G in various fetal organs in the second-trimester. 4) E4 and E4-G were especially high in fetal liver and intestine, and E3 and E3-16-G were high in fetal kidney, liver and intestine. 5) The level of E3-16-G was higher than that of E3 in these organs. 6) The second-trimester fetal liver conjugated E2, E3 and E4 to each glucosiduronate. 7) The second-trimester fetal kidney conjugated E2 and E4 to each sulfate, but E3 to E3-16-G. 8) 15-Hydroxylation of d2-E2 was demonstrated in the incubation with homogenate of second human fetal liver. 9) The active glucosiduronation of E3 in the fetus was thought to inactivate a large amount of E3 transported from the placenta. PMID:6519315

  11. Towards a New Study on Associative Learning in Human Fetuses: Fetal Associative Learning in Primates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Research has revealed that fetuses can learn from events in their environment. The most convincing evidence for fetal learning is habituation to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in human fetuses and classical conditioning in rat fetuses. However, these two research areas have been independent of each other. There have been few attempts at classical…

  12. WT1 Expression in the Human Fetus During Development

    PubMed Central

    Ambu, R.; Vinci, L.; Gerosa, C.; Fanni, D.; Obinu, E.; Faa, A.; Fanos, V.

    2015-01-01

    Wilms’ Tumor 1 (WT1) is a transcription factor involved in the development of the urogenital system. The purpose of this study was to analyze the immunoreactivity for WT1 protein in different tissues and organs in human fetuses in early phases of gestation. To this end, samples from multiple organs were obtained from 4 human fetuses, ranging from 7 up to 12 weeks of gestation. Each sample was formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded and immunostained for WT1. Our data show that WT1 is involved in development of multiple human organs in a more vast series of cells types than previously reported. Immunostaining for WT1 was characterized by a predominant cytoplasmic reactivity in the vast majority of cell types. Mesenchimal progenitors in the fetal lung, ductal plate progenitors in fetal liver, cap mesenchimal cells in the developing kidney, fetal zone cells in adrenal glands, atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes in the fetal heart, radial glial cells in the fetal cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle cell precursors showed the highest levels of WT1 immunoreactivity. Future studies will be needed to detect differences in the expression of WT1 in various organs at different gestational ages, in order to better evaluate the role of WT1 in cell proliferation and differentiation during intrauterine human development. PMID:26150159

  13. Abortion: the continuing controversy.

    PubMed

    Behrens, C E

    1972-08-01

    While most countries of the world practice abortion, government policy, medical opinion, private opinion and actual practice vary widely. Although mortality from legal abortions is quite low, complications rise sharply after 12 gestational weeks. No conclusive proof shows adverse postabortion psychological effects. Romania, Japan and the Soviet Union experienced declining birth rates when abortion was made available and New York City saw a decline in illegitimacy of approximately 12% from 1970 to 1971. Throughout the world abortion laws vary from restrictive to moderate to permissive. Where laws are restrictive, as in France and Latin America, illegal abortions are estimated in the millions. The controversy over abortion centers around the arguments of what constitutes a human life, and the rights of the fetus versus the right of a woman to control her reproductive life. A review of state abortion laws as of August 1972 shows pressure on state legislatures to change existing laws. The future of abortion depends upon technological advances in fertility control, development of substitutes like menstral extraction, prostaglandins and reversible sterilization. Development of these techniques will take time. At present only through education and improved delivery of contraceptives can dependence on abortion as a method of fertility control be eased. Citizen education in the United States, both sex education and education for responsbile parenthood, is in a poor state according to the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future. If recourse to abortion is to be moderated, it is the next generation of parents who will have to be educated.

  14. Evaluation of DNA extraction protocols for Brucella abortus pcr detection in aborted fetuses or calves born from cows experimentally infected with strain 2308

    PubMed Central

    Matrone, M.; Keid, L.B.; Rocha, V.C.M.; Vejarano, M.P.; Ikuta, C.Y.; Rodriguez, C.A.R.; Ferreira, F.; Dias, R.A.; Ferreira Neto, J.S

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to improve the detection of B. abortus by PCR in organs of aborted fetuses from infected cows, an important mechanism to find infected herds on the eradication phase of the program. So, different DNA extraction protocols were compared, focusing the PCR detection of B. abortus in clinical samples collected from aborted fetuses or calves born from cows challenged with the 2308 B. abortus strain. Therefore, two gold standard groups were built based on classical bacteriology, formed from: 32 lungs (17 positives), 26 spleens (11 positives), 23 livers (8 positives) and 22 bronchial lymph nodes (7 positives). All samples were submitted to three DNA extraction protocols, followed by the same amplification process with the primers B4 and B5. From the accumulated results for organ, the proportion of positives for the lungs was higher than the livers (p=0.04) or bronchial lymph nodes (p=0.004) and equal to the spleens (p=0.18). From the accumulated results for DNA extraction protocol, the proportion of positives for the Boom protocol was bigger than the PK (p< 0.0001) and GT (p=0.0004). There was no difference between the PK and GT protocols (p=0.5). Some positive samples from the classical bacteriology were negative to the PCR and vice-versa. Therefore, the best strategy for B. abortus detection in the organs of aborted fetuses or calves born from infected cows is the use, in parallel, of isolation by classical bacteriology and the PCR, with the DNA extraction performed by the Boom protocol. PMID:24031391

  15. Quantitative Anatomy of the Growing Lungs in the Human Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Szpinda, Michał; Siedlaczek, Waldemar; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Badura, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Using anatomical, digital, and statistical methods we examined the three-dimensional growth of the lungs in 67 human fetuses aged 16–25 weeks. The lung dimensions revealed no sex differences. The transverse and sagittal diameters and the base circumference were greater in the right lungs while the lengths of anterior and posterior margins and the lung height were greater in the left lungs. The best-fit curves for all the lung parameters were natural logarithmic models. The transverse-to-sagittal diameter ratio remained stable and averaged 0.56 ± 0.08 and 0.52 ± 0.08 for the right and left lungs, respectively. For the right and left lungs, the transverse diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 0.74 ± 0.09 to 0.92 ± 0.08 and from 0.56 ± 0.07 to 0.79 ± 0.09, respectively. The sagittal diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 1.41 ± 0.23 to 1.66 ± 0.18 in the right lung, and from 1.27 ± 0.17 to 1.48 ± 0.22 in the left lung. In the fetal lungs, their proportionate increase in transverse and sagittal diameters considerably accelerates with relation to the lung height. The lung dimensions in the fetus are relevant in the evaluation of the normative pulmonary growth and the diagnosis of pulmonary hypoplasia. PMID:26413517

  16. Origin of the styloglossus muscle in the human fetus

    PubMed Central

    Mérida-Velasco, J R; Rodríguez-Vazquez, J F; de la Cuadra Blanco, C; Sánchez-Montesinos, I; Mérida-Velasco, J A

    2006-01-01

    The origin of the styloglossus muscle was histologically studied bilaterally in nine human fetuses (18 sides). In all cases, the muscle originated in Reichert's cartilage, which gives rise to the temporal styloid process. We identified three types of variation: type A, an accessory muscle fascicle originating from the mandibular angle, found in 7 cases (12 sides); type B, where the styloglossus muscle was attached to the mandibular angle by fibrous tracts, found in three cases (4 sides); and type C, where an accessory muscle fascicle arose from the fibrous tract connecting Reichert's cartilage to the mandibular angle; found in one case. In all cases (2 sides), the styloglossus muscle was innervated by the hypoglossal nerve. Relationships between the styloglossus muscle and vasculonervous elements of the prestyloid and retrostyloid spaces were analysed. PMID:16637887

  17. Origin of the styloglossus muscle in the human fetus.

    PubMed

    Mérida-Velasco, J R; Rodríguez-Vazquez, J F; de la Cuadra Blanco, C; Sánchez-Montesinos, I; Mérida-Velasco, J A

    2006-05-01

    The origin of the styloglossus muscle was histologically studied bilaterally in nine human fetuses (18 sides). In all cases, the muscle originated in Reichert's cartilage, which gives rise to the temporal styloid process. We identified three types of variation: type A, an accessory muscle fascicle originating from the mandibular angle, found in 7 cases (12 sides); type B, where the styloglossus muscle was attached to the mandibular angle by fibrous tracts, found in three cases (4 sides); and type C, where an accessory muscle fascicle arose from the fibrous tract connecting Reichert's cartilage to the mandibular angle; found in one case. In all cases (2 sides), the styloglossus muscle was innervated by the hypoglossal nerve. Relationships between the styloglossus muscle and vasculonervous elements of the prestyloid and retrostyloid spaces were analysed.

  18. [Evolutionary aspect of spinal ligaments in the human fetus].

    PubMed

    Bourges, M; Vanneuville, G

    1994-06-01

    Preliminary histological observations concerning interspinal ligament, at level T1 T2 and far the 14th, 24th and 37th post-ovulatory (P.O.) weeks, are presented here. In an histological, then biological context, these observation take place into an evolutive study of the muscular and ligamentous material of the human fetus spine. The paraffin included biopsy sections were examined after being colored with Mallory blue and picro-indigo-carmin chlorhydric orcein. After 14 weeks P.O., an heterogeneous structure appears with muscular, mixt and fibrous fascicules in a polygonal cellulo-fibrous network. After 24 weeks P.O., the structure is entirely fibrous, in a long, plexiform web. The evolution become more acute after 37 weeks P.O. After chlorhydric orcein coloration, no elastic fibers were observed in the collagen network, during the first two stages of observation cholorhydric orcein coloration, however, revealed a small quantity of them, 37 weeks after ovulation.

  19. Description of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like isolates from humans (n=8) and reptiles (n=5). Phenotypic characterization, Genusgenus-specific and sap insertion-PCR initially identified all human isolates as type A Campylobacter fetus. Phylogenet...

  20. Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Collette; Tu, Zheng Chao; Patrick, Mary; Stiles, Tracy; Lawson, Andy J; Santovenia, Monica; Gilbert, Maarten J; van Bergen, Marcel; Joyce, Kevin; Pruckler, Janet; Stroika, Steven; Duim, Birgitta; Miller, William G; Loparev, Vladimir; Sinnige, Jan C; Fields, Patricia I; Tauxe, Robert V; Blaser, Martin J; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2014-09-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like strains from humans (n = 8) and reptiles (n = 5). The results of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS and genomic data from sap analysis, 16S rRNA gene and hsp60 sequence comparison, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and whole genome sequencing demonstrated that these strains are closely related to C. fetus but clearly differentiated from recognized subspecies of C. fetus. Therefore, this unique cluster of 13 strains represents a novel subspecies within the species C. fetus, for which the name Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov. is proposed, with strain 03-427(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2539(T) = LMG 27499(T)) as the type strain. Although this novel taxon could not be differentiated from C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis using conventional phenotypic tests, MALDI-TOF MS revealed the presence of multiple phenotypic biomarkers which distinguish Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov. from recognized subspecies of C. fetus.

  1. Foetus or child? Abortion discourse and attributions of humanness.

    PubMed

    Mikołajczak, Małgorzata; Bilewicz, Michał

    2015-09-01

    Due to moral, religious, and cultural sensibilities, the topic of abortion still gives rise to controversy. The ongoing public debate has become visibly polarized with the usage of the pro-life versus pro-choice rhetoric. The aim of the current research was to investigate whether the language used in abortion discourse can affect people's attitudes by changing their attributions of humanity to unborn. Across three experimental studies we showed that participants who read about a 'foetus', compared to a 'child' declared higher support for elective abortion (Study 1; N = 108), this effect can be explained by greater humanness, as reflected in human nature traits, attributed to the child (vs. the foetus; Study 2; N = 121). The effect is mediated uniquely by attribution of human nature, but not by human uniqueness traits (Study 3; N = 120). These findings serve as a starting point for discussion of the role of language in shaping attitudes on abortion and other morally ambiguous issues. PMID:25418861

  2. Foetus or child? Abortion discourse and attributions of humanness.

    PubMed

    Mikołajczak, Małgorzata; Bilewicz, Michał

    2015-09-01

    Due to moral, religious, and cultural sensibilities, the topic of abortion still gives rise to controversy. The ongoing public debate has become visibly polarized with the usage of the pro-life versus pro-choice rhetoric. The aim of the current research was to investigate whether the language used in abortion discourse can affect people's attitudes by changing their attributions of humanity to unborn. Across three experimental studies we showed that participants who read about a 'foetus', compared to a 'child' declared higher support for elective abortion (Study 1; N = 108), this effect can be explained by greater humanness, as reflected in human nature traits, attributed to the child (vs. the foetus; Study 2; N = 121). The effect is mediated uniquely by attribution of human nature, but not by human uniqueness traits (Study 3; N = 120). These findings serve as a starting point for discussion of the role of language in shaping attitudes on abortion and other morally ambiguous issues.

  3. The effect of irradiation at low doses on human embryos and fetuses

    SciTech Connect

    Romanova, L.K.; Zhorova, E.S.

    1994-05-01

    Data about the biological effect of irradiation at low dose on prenatal human development have been reviewed. The effect of irradiation is observed either immediately after it or in the progeny, as consequences of irradiation affecting the embryo or fetus. Human embryos and fetuses are most sensitive to ionizing irradiation during the peaks of proliferative activity and cell differentiation. The concept has been formulated that any dose of irradiation, however low, can inflict damage to the embryo or fetus. Problems and perspectives of studies in this field are discussed.

  4. State obligations to implement African abortion laws: employing human rights in a changing legal landscape.

    PubMed

    Ngwena, Charles G

    2012-11-01

    Women in the African region are overburdened with unsafe abortion. Abortion regimes that fail to translate any given abortion rights into tangible access are partly to blame. Historically, African abortion laws have been highly restrictive. However, the post-independence era has witnessed a change toward liberalizing abortion law, even if incremental for many jurisdictions. Furthermore, Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa has significantly augmented the regional trend toward liberalization by recognizing abortion as a human right in given circumstances. However, states are failing to implement abortion laws. The jurisprudence that is emerging from the European Court of Human Rights and United Nations treaty bodies is a tool that can be used to render African governments accountable for failure to implement domestic abortion laws. PMID:22944215

  5. Ethical considerations on methods used in abortions.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Eike-Henner W

    2015-03-01

    There is a fundamental inconsistency in Western society's treatment of non-human animals on the one hand, and of human foetuses on the other. While most Western countries allow the butchering of animals and their use in experimentation, this must occur under carefully controlled conditions that are intended to minimize their pain and suffering as much as possible. At the same time, most Western countries permit various abortion methods without similar concerns for the developing fetus. The only criteria for deciding which abortion method is used centre in the stage of the pregnancy, the size of the fetus, the health of the pregnant woman and the physician's preference. This is out of step with the underlying ethos of animal cruelty legislation, cannot be justified ethically and should be rectified by adjusting abortion methods to the capacity of the fetus to experience nociception and/or pain. PMID:23076345

  6. Ethical considerations on methods used in abortions.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Eike-Henner W

    2015-03-01

    There is a fundamental inconsistency in Western society's treatment of non-human animals on the one hand, and of human foetuses on the other. While most Western countries allow the butchering of animals and their use in experimentation, this must occur under carefully controlled conditions that are intended to minimize their pain and suffering as much as possible. At the same time, most Western countries permit various abortion methods without similar concerns for the developing fetus. The only criteria for deciding which abortion method is used centre in the stage of the pregnancy, the size of the fetus, the health of the pregnant woman and the physician's preference. This is out of step with the underlying ethos of animal cruelty legislation, cannot be justified ethically and should be rectified by adjusting abortion methods to the capacity of the fetus to experience nociception and/or pain.

  7. Abortion: a history.

    PubMed

    Hovey, G

    1985-01-01

    This review of abortion history considers sacred and secular practice and traces abortion in the US, the legacy of the 19th century, and the change that occurred in the 20th century. Abortion has been practiced since ancient times, but its legality and availability have been threatened continuously by forces that would denigrate women's fundamental rights. Currently, while efforts to decrease the need for abortion through contraception and education continue, access to abortion remains crucial for the well-being of millions of women. That access will never be secure until profound changes occur in the whole society. Laws that prohibit absolutely the practice of abortion are a relatively recent development. In the early Roman Catholic church, abortion was permitted for male fetuses in the first 40 days of pregnancy and for female fetuses in the first 80-90 days. Not until 1588 did Pope Sixtus V declare all abortion murder, with excommunication as the punishment. Only 3 years later a new pope found the absolute sanction unworkable and again allowed early abortions. 300 years would pass before the Catholic church under Pius IX again declared all abortion murder. This standard, declared in 1869, remains the official position of the church, reaffirmed by the current pope. In 1920 the Soviet Union became the 1st modern state formally to legalize abortion. In the early period after the 1917 revolution, abortion was readily available in state operated facilities. These facilities were closed and abortion made illegal when it became clear that the Soviet Union would have to defend itself against Nazi Germany. After World War II women were encouraged to enter the labor force, and abortion once again became legal. The cases of the Catholic church and the Soviet Union illustrate the same point. Abortion legislation has never been in the hands of women. In the 20th century, state policy has been determined by the rhythms of economic and military expansion, the desire for cheap

  8. Pattern of malformations in the axial skeleton in human trisomy 18 fetuses

    SciTech Connect

    Kjaer, I.; Hansen, B.F.; Keeling, J.W.

    1996-11-11

    We examined and described the development and abnormalities of the axial skeleton in 10 human trisomy 18 fetuses. Whole-body radiographs and radiographs of midsagittal tissue blocks of the cranial base and the spine were studied. In 3 fetuses no spinal radiographs were available. Seven osseous regions or fields along the body axis were analyzed, four in the spine, and three in the cranial base and nasal bones. Malformations occurred in the occipital field in all fetuses. This was a characteristic notching, either unilateral or bilateral, of the basilar part of the occipital bone. Nasal bones were abnormal in 8 cases, either absent or hypoplastic. Malformations were found in the thoracic and/or lumbosacral field in 7 fetuses. A single abnormality was found in the cervical spine in one fetus. The pattern of axial skeletal malformation in trisomy 18 fetuses recorded in the present study has not been described previously. Axial skeletal radiography should be included in autopsies of fetuses when chromosome disorders are present or suspected. The methods applied here are unaffected by autolysis. 26 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Endocrine regulation of human fetal growth: the role of the mother, placenta, and fetus.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Vanessa E; Smith, Roger; Giles, Warwick B; Clifton, Vicki L

    2006-04-01

    The environment in which the fetus develops is critical for its survival and long-term health. The regulation of normal human fetal growth involves many multidirectional interactions between the mother, placenta, and fetus. The mother supplies nutrients and oxygen to the fetus via the placenta. The fetus influences the provision of maternal nutrients via the placental production of hormones that regulate maternal metabolism. The placenta is the site of exchange between mother and fetus and regulates fetal growth via the production and metabolism of growth-regulating hormones such as IGFs and glucocorticoids. Adequate trophoblast invasion in early pregnancy and increased uteroplacental blood flow ensure sufficient growth of the uterus, placenta, and fetus. The placenta may respond to fetal endocrine signals to increase transport of maternal nutrients by growth of the placenta, by activation of transport systems, and by production of placental hormones to influence maternal physiology and even behavior. There are consequences of poor fetal growth both in the short term and long term, in the form of increased mortality and morbidity. Endocrine regulation of fetal growth involves interactions between the mother, placenta, and fetus, and these effects may program long-term physiology.

  10. Plasma from human mothers of fetuses with severe arthrogryposis multiplex congenita causes deformities in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Leslie; Polizzi, Agata; Morriss-Kay, Gillian; Vincent, Angela

    1999-01-01

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is characterized by fixed joint contractures and other deformities, sometimes resulting in fetal death. The cause is unknown in most cases, but some women with fetuses affected by severe AMC have serum antibodies that inhibit fetal acetylcholine receptor (AChR) function, and antibodies to fetal antigens might play a pathogenic role in other congenital disorders. To investigate this possibility, we have established a model by injecting pregnant mice with plasma from four anti-AChR antibody–positive women whose fetuses had severe AMC. We found that human antibodies can be transferred efficiently to the mouse fetus during the last few days of fetal life. Many of the fetuses of dams injected with AMC maternal plasmas or Ig were stillborn and showed fixed joints and other deformities. Moreover, similar changes were found in mice after injection of a serum from one anti-AChR antibody–negative mother who had had four AMC fetuses. Thus, we have confirmed the role of maternal antibodies in cases of AMC associated with maternal anti-AChR, and we have demonstrated the existence of pathogenic maternal factors in one other case. Importantly, this approach can be used to look at the effects of other maternal human antibodies on development of the fetus. PMID:10194476

  11. Abortion: a guide to making ethical choices.

    PubMed

    Maguire, M R; Maguire, D C

    1983-09-01

    A mature attitude toward abortion rests on responsible decision-making and action taking, not on the belief in irreversible events. Abortion is therefore a choice which should be made if it is the most correct and responsible action in view of one's own circumstances. There are a number of doubts, concerns and moral--as opposed to medical--questions that women may be asking themselves as they face this serious choice. The guide addresses these issues to help women think through that choice. It is important to know, for instance, that the Pope has never formally proclaimed a doctrine of faith on the matter of abortion. The Catholic Church, when considered in its diversity, teaches that some abortions can be moral; the conscience of a person is the final arbiter of any abortion decision. Conscience is humans' progressively refined ability to think about situations and evaluate their moral goodness/badness. With respect to abortion, this means that a woman should make the choice that seems best to her. The fear that having an abortion will result in excommunication from the Church is dismissed here. A distinction must be made between committing the sin of abortion and having an abortion. The former obtains when people act against their own conscience. The attitude toward abortion as murder and the issue of the fetus' afterlife are responded to in terms of personhood, a complicated concept on which there is no legal, scientific or religious consensus. Instead, the answer is a function of the time period and its prevalent beliefs. Today, the viability of the fetus has become an important determinant of life. Having an abortion, giving birth, and use of contraceptives when no children are wanted, are responses to which a woman is entitled. Her choice is moral when based on responsible and conscious decisions and actions. The views of Protestantism and Judaism on abortion are clarified briefly.

  12. Cross-sectional study of C1–S5 vertebral bodies in human fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Baumgart, Mariusz; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Knowledge on the normative spinal growth is relevant in the prenatal detection of its abnormalities. The present study determines the height, transverse and sagittal diameters, cross sectional area, and volume of individual C1–S5 vertebral bodies. Material and methods Using the methods of computed tomography (CT), digital image analysis, and statistics, the size of C1–S5 vertebral bodies in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses aged 17–30 weeks was examined. Results All the 5 examined parameters changed significantly with gestational age (p < 0.01). The mean height of vertebral bodies revealed an increase from the atlas (2.39 ±0.54 mm) to L2 (4.62 ±0.97 mm), stabilized through L3–L4 (4.58 ±0.92 mm, 4.61 ±0.84 mm), and then was decreasing to S5 (0.43 ±1.06 mm). The mean transverse diameter of vertebral bodies was increasing from the atlas (1.20 ±1.96 mm) to L1 (6.24 ±1.46 mm), so as to stabilize through L2–L3 (6.12 ±1.65, 6.12 ±1.61 mm), and finally was decreasing to S5 (0.26 ±0.96 mm). There was an increase in sagittal diameter of vertebral bodies from the atlas (0.82 ±1.34 mm) to T7 (4.76 ±0.85 mm), its stabilization for T8–L4 (4.73 ±0.86 mm, 4.71 ±1.02 mm), and then a decrease in values to S5 (0.21 ±0.75 mm) was observed. The values for cross-sectional area of vertebral bodies were increasing from the atlas (2.95 ±5.25 mm2) to L3 (24.92 ±11.07 mm2), and then started decreasing to S5 (0.48 ±2.09 mm2). The volumetric growth of vertebral bodies was increasing from the atlas (8.60 ±16.40 mm3) to L3 (122.16 ±74.73 mm3), and then was decreasing to S5 (1.60 ±7.00 mm3). Conclusions There is a sharp increase in size of fetal vertebral bodies between the atlas and the axis, and a sharp decrease in size within the sacral spine. In human fetuses the vertebral body growth is characterized by maximum values in sagittal diameter for T7, in transverse diameter for L1, in height for L2, and in both cross-sectional area and volume for

  13. Fathers and fetuses.

    PubMed

    Harris, George W

    1986-04-01

    Harris postulates that in certain instances it would be morally impermissible for a woman to have an abortion because it would be a wrongful harm to the father and a violation of his autonomy. He constructs and analyzes five cases chosen to elucidate the moral issues involved and concludes that, for a man to lay claim to the fetus being his in a sense that the mother is obligated to respect, the fetus must be the result of his having pursued a legitimate interest in procreation in a morally legitimate way. When a man has satisfied the requirements of autonomy both for himself and for his sexual partner in regard to the interest in procreation, the woman has a prima facie obligation to him not to harm the fetus. Therefore, unless there is some contravening moral consideration that overrides this obligation, the abortion of the fetus is morally impermissible.

  14. Abortion, metaphysics and morality: a review of Francis Beckwith's defending life: a moral and legal case against abortion choice.

    PubMed

    Nobis, Nathan

    2011-06-01

    In Defending Life: A Moral and Legal Case Against Abortion Choice (2007) and an earlier article in this journal, "Defending Abortion Philosophically"(2006), Francis Beckwith argues that fetuses are, from conception, prima facie wrong to kill. His arguments are based on what he calls a "metaphysics of the human person" known as "The Substance View." I argue that Beckwith's metaphysics does not support his abortion ethic: Moral, not metaphysical, claims that are part of this Substance View are the foundation of the argument, and Beckwith inadequately defends these moral claims. Thus, Beckwith's arguments do not provide strong support for what he calls the "pro-life" view of abortion. PMID:21597083

  15. Development of Synovial Membrane in the Temporomandibular Joint of the Human Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco, R.C.; Arraéz-Aybar, L.A.; Klein, O.; Mérida-Velasco, J.R.; Alonso, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    The development of the synovial membrane was analyzed in serial sections of 21 temporomandibular joints of human fetuses at 9 to 13 weeks of gestation. Sections of two fetuses at 12 weeks of development were used to perform immunohistochemical expression of the markers CD68 and Hsp27 on the synovial lining. Macrophage-like type A and fibroblast-like type B cells, which express CD68 and Hsp27, respectively, were observed at the twelfth week of development. Our results suggest that the development of the synovial membrane is related to the vascularization of the joint and the formation of the articular cavities. PMID:26708184

  16. Detection of equine arteritis virus by two chromogenic RNA in situ hybridization assays (conventional and RNAscope(®)) and assessment of their performance in tissues from aborted equine fetuses.

    PubMed

    Carossino, Mariano; Loynachan, Alan T; James MacLachlan, N; Drew, Clifton; Shuck, Kathleen M; Timoney, Peter J; Del Piero, Fabio; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2016-11-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis, a respiratory and reproductive disease of equids. EAV infection can induce abortion in pregnant mares, fulminant bronchointerstitial pneumonia in foals, and persistent infection in stallions. Here, we developed two RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) assays (conventional and RNAscope(®) ISH) for the detection of viral RNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and evaluated and compared their performance with nucleocapsid-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC) and virus isolation (VI; gold standard) techniques. The distribution and cellular localization of EAV RNA and antigen were similar in tissues from aborted equine fetuses. Evaluation of 80 FFPE tissues collected from 16 aborted fetuses showed that the conventional RNA ISH assay had a significantly lower sensitivity than the RNAscope(®) and IHC assays, whereas there was no difference between the latter two assays. The use of oligonucleotide probes along with a signal amplification system (RNAscope(®)) can enhance detection of EAV RNA in FFPE tissues, with sensitivity comparable to that of IHC. Most importantly, these assays provide important tools with which to investigate the mechanisms of EAV pathogenesis. PMID:27541817

  17. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePlus

    ... womb (uterus). There are different types of medical abortions: Therapeutic medical abortion is done because the woman has ... Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion

  18. The development of hepatic stellate cells in normal and abnormal human fetuses – an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Christine K C; Pereira, Tamara N; Pozniak, Katarzyna N; Ramsing, Mette; Vogel, Ida; Ramm, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    The precise embryological origin and development of hepatic stellate cells is not established. Animal studies and observations on human fetuses suggest that they derive from posterior mesodermal cells that migrate via the septum transversum and developing diaphragm to form submesothelial cells beneath the liver capsule, which give rise to mesenchymal cells including hepatic stellate cells. However, it is unclear if these are similar to hepatic stellate cells in adults or if this is the only source of stellate cells. We have studied hepatic stellate cells by immunohistochemistry, in developing human liver from autopsies of fetuses with and without malformations and growth restriction, using cellular Retinol Binding Protein-1 (cRBP-1), Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), and α-Smooth Muscle Actin (αSMA) antibodies, to identify factors that influence their development. We found that hepatic stellate cells expressing cRBP-1 are present from the end of the first trimester of gestation and reduce in density throughout gestation. They appear abnormally formed and variably reduced in number in fetuses with abnormal mesothelial Wilms Tumor 1 (WT1) function, diaphragmatic hernia and in ectopic liver nodules without mesothelium. Stellate cells showed similarities to intravascular cells and their presence in a fetus with diaphragm agenesis suggests they may be derived from circulating stem cells. Our observations suggest circulating stem cells as well as mesothelium can give rise to hepatic stellate cells, and that they require normal mesothelial function for their development. PMID:26265759

  19. Types of coronary vasculature in the human fetus: an autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Dariusz; Gielecki, Jerzy; Rzeszowska, Mariola; Kiestrzyn-Wójcik, Alina

    2008-01-01

    The heart receives blood from 2 vessels: the right and the left coronary arteries. Depending on the relationship between these 2 vessels, types with the right, the left or with neither coronary artery predominating can be distinguished. The incidence of particular types varies according to different reports. All available data regarding this issue come from studies where adult subjects were examined. There is no research in this field involving human fetuses. We examined 199 fetuses of both sexes (101 males and 98 females), 3-8 months of intrauterine life. All cases were derived from the Department of Histology and Embryology, Nicolaus Copernicus University. Prior to examination, all fetuses had been conserved in a 9% formaldehyde solution for over 3 months. We obtained the following results: type I vasculature, having equally developed coronary arteries, was found in 59 cases (29.5%); type II, with the right coronary artery predominating, was found in 65 cases (32.5%), and type III, with the left coronary artery predominating, occurred in 76 cases (38%). The subtypes IIIA and IIIB were described in 50 (25%) and 26 (13%) of the type III subjects, respectively. These data differ from the adult material incidence of dominant left coronary artery. While it is the most frequently occurring type in human fetuses, it is the least common in adult subjects.

  20. An investigation of the origin, location and variations of the renal arteries in human fetuses and their clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Ciçekcibaşi, Aynur Emine; Ziylan, Taner; Salbacak, Ahmet; Seker, Muzaffer; Büyükmumcu, Mustafa; Tuncer, Işik

    2005-09-01

    We investigated the origin, localizations and anatomic variations of the renal artery (RA) in human fetuses with the aim of determining the distribution of these variations according to lateralization and gender. In total, 90 fetuses of spontaneous abortion (45 males, 45 females) with no congenital malformations were included to the study. The abdominal aorta and its branches were dissected after latex solution colored with red ink had been injected into the vessels from the thoracic aorta. In all, 180 RA dissections were performed bilaterally in 90 cases and the anatomic variations were photographed. Right and left RAs were found to originate from the following levels according to the columna vertebralis, respectively: 3.8% and 1.9% lower T12, 67.3% and 25.0% upper L1, 9.6% and 28.8% mid L1, 15.3% and 40.3 lower L1, 3.8% and 3.8% upper 1/3 part of L2 vertebra. The right RA originated from the lateral part and anterolateral wall of the abdominal aorta in 73.0% and 26.9% of cases while the lateral and anterolateral wall origin percentages of left RA were 90.3% and 9.6%, respectively. The origin site of the right RA from the abdominal aorta was superior to, at the same level with, and inferior to that of the left RA in 53.8%, 34.6% and 11.5% of the cases, respectively. There were no variations in 75% of the cases whereas the remaining 25% had several variation patterns. The presented morphological results are as follows: A single hilar artery in 75% of the cases, double hilar arteries in 11.1%, an inferior polar artery in 10.5%, and a superior polar artery in 3.3% of specimens studied. Anatomical variations were observed more frequently among male fetuses and on the right side. Knowledge of RA variations is important for surgeons in performing many procedures and may help to avoid clinical complications, especially, during radiological examination and/or surgical approaches in the abdominal region.

  1. Active suppression of host-vs-graft reaction in pregnant mice. VII. Spontaneous abortion of allogeneic CBA/J x DBA/2 fetuses in the uterus of CBA/J mice correlates with deficient non-T suppressor cell activity

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.A.; Chaput, A.; Tutton, D.

    1986-03-01

    The mammalian fetus has been viewed as an unusually successful type of allograft and unexplained spontaneous abortion as a possible example of maternal rejection. Previous studies have shown the presence of small lymphocytic suppressor cells in the murine decidua which block the generation and reactivation of anti-paternal cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK) by elaborating a factor that inhibits the response to interleukin 2 (IL 2). A deficiency of these suppressor cells was associated with implants of xenogeneic Mus caroli embryos in the Mus musculus uterus which are infiltrated by maternal lymphoid cells and aborted. A deficiency of such suppressor cells in the lymph nodes draining the uterus of CBA/J females in the process of aborting their semi-allogeneic CBA x DBA/2 F/sub 1/ progeny has also been shown. CBA/J females possess significantly lower levels of decidua-associated non-T suppressor cells on day 8.5 to 10.5 of allopregnancy than do mothers that will produce large litters of live babies. The F/sub 1/ embryos are infiltrated by maternal lymphocytes prior to abortion, and the infiltration and abortion rate appears to be augmented by pre-immunization with paternal DBA/2 spleen cells. The CBA/J x DBA/2J mating combination provides a model of spontaneous abortion in which immunologic factors play an important role and demonstrates that the association between deficiency of decidua-associated suppressor cells and xenopregnancy failure also holds true for the failure of allopregnancies resulting from natural within-species mating.

  2. Three-dimensional display of human fetus image by holographic stereogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Koki; Akiyama, Iwaki; Ishizuka, Takao; Odani, Makoto; Itoh, Koichi; Ishikawa, Jun

    1993-03-01

    Three-dimensional image display technique is becoming very important in the field of diagnosis of human fetus by ultrasound B-mode image. We apply the technique of holographic stereogram (HS) to the ultrasound B-mode human fetus images and display a 3-D image which is the real stereoscopic image. In this case each sectional diagram of the human body is measured by the ultrasound B-mode method and the human fetus image is extracted and then a 3-D surface image is reconstructed with the digital image processing. Then the 3-D image is projected to a plane and films which are composed of the various viewpoints are taken. Next, HS is constructed using these films. Then we make clear the condition of making HS. The rainbow hologram is made using the HS as the master hologram and we consider the characteristics of the reconstructed image. Also, the special image reconstructing lamp house is developed for medical application, and we discuss the possibility of this method for the medical diagnosis.

  3. Abortion and religion.

    PubMed

    Howell, N R

    1997-01-01

    This paper argues that religious communities should pose new questions about abortion in an attempt to reinvigorate the abortion debate and make it more constructive. Such questions would break the current impasse, enlarge the global and ecological scope of abortion inquiry, and engage plural religious perspectives in an interreligious dialogue about justice and abortion. After an introduction, the paper discusses the first impasse in the abortion debate, which is caused by conflicting definitions of personhood that create a fetus/pregnant woman dualism and artificially separate the fetus from its interdependence with the mother. Section 2 looks at how the abortion impasse results from the assertions of competing fetal and maternal rights and from conflict over who controls nature and women's bodies. The third section seeks alternatives to the dichotomizing of individual and community in the abortion debate in Christian theology, such as the notion of the relational self that demands attention to the wider social implications of reproduction. By examining theories that presume that people are relational, section 4 locates the abortion debate in a wider ecological context with concerns about overpopulation and environmental degradation. Section 5 explores questions of what authority can be used to determine whether abortion is ever justifiable for Christians and what authority is relevant for determining a Christian theological ethic of abortion. This section also looks at Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist views of abortion in the belief that the complex ethical issues relating to abortion may be explored through religious ritual. PMID:12348325

  4. RISKS, REASONS AND RIGHTS: THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS AND ENGLISH ABORTION LAW

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Rosamund

    2016-01-01

    Although there is no right to abort in English law but rather abortion is a crime, the lawful grounds for which are instantiated in the Abortion Act 1967 (as amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990), the regulation of abortion is sometimes perceived as being fairly ‘liberal’. Accordingly, the idea that aspects of English law could be criticised under the European Convention on Human Rights, with which the UK must comply following the Human Rights Act 1998, may seem unlikely. Indeed, English law is compatible with the consensus amongst contracting states that abortion should be available on maternal health grounds. However, analysis of the UK's negative obligations under Article 8 shows that section 1(1)(a) of the Act is problematic as it operates in the first trimester. Further, given the European Court of Human Rights' emphasis on the reduced margin of appreciation once a state has legalised abortion to some degree and its jurisprudence relating to a state's positive obligations, the analysis shows that, while English law may not be problematic in relation to the lack of guidelines relating to the lawful grounds for abortion, it may well be in relation to the lack of a formal system for the review of any two doctors' decision not to grant a termination. Notwithstanding the morally serious nature of the decision to abort, the analysis overall raises questions about the need for at least some degree of abortion law reform, particularly in relation to the first trimester, towards a more autonomy-focused, though time-limited, rights-based approach. PMID:26546800

  5. RISKS, REASONS AND RIGHTS: THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS AND ENGLISH ABORTION LAW.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rosamund

    2016-01-01

    Although there is no right to abort in English law but rather abortion is a crime, the lawful grounds for which are instantiated in the Abortion Act 1967 (as amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990), the regulation of abortion is sometimes perceived as being fairly 'liberal'. Accordingly, the idea that aspects of English law could be criticised under the European Convention on Human Rights, with which the UK must comply following the Human Rights Act 1998, may seem unlikely. Indeed, English law is compatible with the consensus amongst contracting states that abortion should be available on maternal health grounds. However, analysis of the UK's negative obligations under Article 8 shows that section 1(1)(a) of the Act is problematic as it operates in the first trimester. Further, given the European Court of Human Rights' emphasis on the reduced margin of appreciation once a state has legalised abortion to some degree and its jurisprudence relating to a state's positive obligations, the analysis shows that, while English law may not be problematic in relation to the lack of guidelines relating to the lawful grounds for abortion, it may well be in relation to the lack of a formal system for the review of any two doctors' decision not to grant a termination. Notwithstanding the morally serious nature of the decision to abort, the analysis overall raises questions about the need for at least some degree of abortion law reform, particularly in relation to the first trimester, towards a more autonomy-focused, though time-limited, rights-based approach.

  6. Intrinsic functional brain architecture derived from graph theoretical analysis in the human fetus.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Moriah E; Brown, Jesse A; Dassanayake, Maya T; Shastri, Rupal; Marusak, Hilary A; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Yeo, Lami; Mody, Swati; Berman, Susan; Hassan, Sonia S; Romero, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The human brain undergoes dramatic maturational changes during late stages of fetal and early postnatal life. The importance of this period to the establishment of healthy neural connectivity is apparent in the high incidence of neural injury in preterm infants, in whom untimely exposure to ex-uterine factors interrupts neural connectivity. Though the relevance of this period to human neuroscience is apparent, little is known about functional neural networks in human fetal life. Here, we apply graph theoretical analysis to examine human fetal brain connectivity. Utilizing resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 33 healthy human fetuses, 19 to 39 weeks gestational age (GA), our analyses reveal that the human fetal brain has modular organization and modules overlap functional systems observed postnatally. Age-related differences between younger (GA <31 weeks) and older (GA≥31 weeks) fetuses demonstrate that brain modularity decreases, and connectivity of the posterior cingulate to other brain networks becomes more negative, with advancing GA. By mimicking functional principles observed postnatally, these results support early emerging capacity for information processing in the human fetal brain. Current technical limitations, as well as the potential for fetal fMRI to one day produce major discoveries about fetal origins or antecedents of neural injury or disease are discussed.

  7. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    PubMed

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited. PMID:6913282

  8. Moderate views of abortion.

    PubMed

    Sumner, L W

    1997-01-01

    This essay offers a moderate view of abortion that imposes a time limit for unrestricted abortion and specific indications for later abortions. The introduction notes that the discussion will provide a defense for this policy based on a moral analysis but that other options for moderates, especially options provided by freestanding views (the defense of which does not rest on any prior commitment about the morality of abortion), will also be considered. The next section considers the moral status of the fetus grounded in a criterion of moral standing that stipulates the necessary characteristics to achieve moral standing. This discussion concludes that a fetus acquires moral standing only when it becomes sentient. Section 3 moves the argument from ethics to politics to prove that a moderate policy must place no limitations on abortion before the time the fetus becomes sentient because before that time the fetus has no interest for the state to protect. The final section notes that some pro-choice advocates may be happier with the moderate policy proposed than with its controversial defense based on the moral status of the fetus and that another defense of a moderate policy could be based on a finding that the ethical issue can not be decided and that no view about abortion ethics is more reasonable than any other. The essay concludes that the ethical debate is ultimately unavoidable. PMID:12348328

  9. Amino acid metabolism in the human fetus at term: leucine, valine, and methionine kinetics.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Chris H P; Schierbeek, Henk; Minderman, Gardi; Vermes, Andras; Schoonderwaldt, Ernst M; Duvekot, Johannes J; Steegers, Eric A P; van Goudoever, Johannes B

    2011-12-01

    Human fetal metabolism is largely unexplored. Understanding how a healthy fetus achieves its fast growth rates could eventually play a pivotal role in improving future nutritional strategies for premature infants. To quantify specific fetal amino acid kinetics, eight healthy pregnant women received before elective cesarean section at term, continuous stable isotope infusions of the essential amino acids [1-13C,15N]leucine, [U-13C5]valine, and [1-13C]methionine. Umbilical blood was collected after birth and analyzed for enrichments and concentrations using mass spectrometry techniques. Fetuses showed considerable leucine, valine, and methionine uptake and high turnover rates. α-Ketoisocaproate, but not α-ketoisovalerate (the leucine and valine ketoacids, respectively), was transported at net rate from the fetus to the placenta. Especially, leucine and valine data suggested high oxidation rates, up to half of net uptake. This was supported by relatively low α-ketoisocaproate reamination rates to leucine. Our data suggest high protein breakdown and synthesis rates, comparable with, or even slightly higher than in premature infants. The relatively large uptakes of total leucine and valine carbon also suggest high fetal oxidation rates of these essential branched chain amino acids.

  10. Cervical vertebrae, cranial base, and mandibular retrognathia in human triploid fetuses.

    PubMed

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Nolting, Dorrit; Engel, Ulla; Kjaer, Inger

    2009-02-01

    On profile radiographs of adults, an association between fusions of cervical vertebrae, deviations in the cranial base and mandibular retrognathia has been documented radiographically. An elaboration of this association on a histological level is needed. In human triploid fetuses severe mandibular retrognathia and deviations in the cranial base have previously been described radiographically (without cephalometry) and cervical column fusions radiographically as well as histologically. Therefore, triploid fetuses were chosen to elucidate the cranial base cephalomterically and histologically. In the present study, eight triploid fetuses were analyzed radiographically and histologically focusing especially on the cranial base, which borders to the spine and to which the jaws are attached. A histological analysis of the cranial base has not previously been performed in triploid cases. An enlarged cranial base angle and a retrognathic position of the mandible were documented cephalometrically on radiographs of all cases. Histologically, malformations were observed in the cranial base as well as in the spine. These are new findings indicating the association between the occipital bone and the uppermost vertebra in the body axis. As the notochord connects the cervical column and the cranial base in early prenatal life, molecular signaling from the notochord may in future studies support the notochord as the developmental link between abnormal development in the spine and the cranial base.

  11. If war is "just," so is abortion.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    1991-01-01

    Currently Catholic bishops are applying an inconsistent ethical paradigm to the issues of war and abortion. Based on the seamless garment theory war, abortion and capital punishment are all immoral acts because they are of the same garment. They are all "killing acts" and as such they are immoral. However there is within the Catholic paradigm the idea of a just war. The just war theory states that the destruction of human life in war is justified if it is for a greater good. However abortion has no exceptions, there is no just abortion in the rules of the Catholic Church. The author takes the just war doctrine as presented by the Catholic Church and shows how it could easily apply to abortion. Both war and abortion involve the taking of a human life, but in the case of war the taking of a life is justified if it is done to protect your own life. The same exception in abortion would be to allow abortion when the mother's life is in danger. yet no such exception exists. The just war theory further states that was is necessary to protect national integrity, particularly if the violation erodes the quality of life for its citizens. The same exception for abortion would include allowing abortions for women who already have more children then they can care for or if having the child would erode the quality of life for the woman. Other aspects of the just war theory include the competence and goals of the national leaders. Women must also be allowed to be competent moral agents. Proponents of the seamless garment theory will bring up the fact that in a just war only combatants die yet the fetus is innocent. But no war has ever been fought without the loss of innocent civilians.

  12. José Barzelatto lecture: Vision on unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2010-04-01

    José Barzelatto first distinguished himself as a leader with a vision in his years as a medical student. Later, principally as Director of the Reproductive Health Program at the World Health Organization and of the Ford Foundation program for women's sexual and reproductive rights, he contributed immensely toward the recognition of women's sexual and reproductive rights as part of their basic human rights. José Barzelatto's vision on abortion reflects his drive to promote social justice and respect individual rights, respect diversity, and promote a social consensus for a peaceful society. He believed that the fetus has moral value and did not accept abortion as a method of fertility control, but understood that abortion is a social phenomenon that cannot be changed with legal or moral condemnation. He accepted that condemning women who abort does not prevent abortion, is unfair, and causes great human suffering at a high social cost. José proposed nine points to form the basis for an overlapping consensus on abortion, on which to base a practical consensus that would allow societies to reduce the number of abortions and minimize their consequences. If we can agree on all or most of those points we would achieve the common objectives of: fewer women confronting the dilemma of how to deal with an unwanted pregnancy; fewer induced abortions; and fewer women suffering the consequences of unsafe abortion.

  13. José Barzelatto lecture: Vision on unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2010-04-01

    José Barzelatto first distinguished himself as a leader with a vision in his years as a medical student. Later, principally as Director of the Reproductive Health Program at the World Health Organization and of the Ford Foundation program for women's sexual and reproductive rights, he contributed immensely toward the recognition of women's sexual and reproductive rights as part of their basic human rights. José Barzelatto's vision on abortion reflects his drive to promote social justice and respect individual rights, respect diversity, and promote a social consensus for a peaceful society. He believed that the fetus has moral value and did not accept abortion as a method of fertility control, but understood that abortion is a social phenomenon that cannot be changed with legal or moral condemnation. He accepted that condemning women who abort does not prevent abortion, is unfair, and causes great human suffering at a high social cost. José proposed nine points to form the basis for an overlapping consensus on abortion, on which to base a practical consensus that would allow societies to reduce the number of abortions and minimize their consequences. If we can agree on all or most of those points we would achieve the common objectives of: fewer women confronting the dilemma of how to deal with an unwanted pregnancy; fewer induced abortions; and fewer women suffering the consequences of unsafe abortion. PMID:20064638

  14. [Femoral bone morphogenesis in human fetuses in the area of environmental fluoride pollution].

    PubMed

    Shalina, T I; Vasil'eva, L S

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the peculiarities of femoral bone osteogenesis in human fetuses in the areas with different levels of environmental pollution with fluoride compounds (the city of Irkutsk and the town of Shelekhov). The histological structure of femoral bones was studied in 70 fetuses aged 15-16, 19-20, 22-25 and 27-29 gestational weeks. Morphometric methods were used to evaluate the number of blood vessels per total area of epiphysis, the length of endochondral trabeculae, the thickness of hypertrophic and columnar cartilage zones, diaphysis wall and its trabeculae thickness, the thickness of endochondral trabeculae merging with the diaphysis wall, and of the bone growing on the epiphysis. It was found that in the city of Irkutzk, relatively remote from the pollution source, the processes of osteogenesis and osteoresorption are balanced and are characterized by the prevalence of osteoblastic activity over osteoclastic activity, ensuring the active bone growth. During weeks 15-22, the bones are actively growing in length, while during weeks 22-29 they grow mainly in width. In the town of Shelekhov, located closely to the pollution source, the growth of bones in both length and width, is delayed. The bone growth was active till week 16, however, during weeks 18-29, osteoresorption prevailed over the osteosynthesis, the bone thickness decreased, while the activity of their growth in length remained reduced. PMID:20593589

  15. Uterine Natural Killer Cell and Human Leukocyte Antigen-G1 and Human Leukocyte Antigen-G5 Expression in Vaginal Discharge of Threatened-Abortion Women: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Shobeiri, Saeideh Sadat; Rahmani, Zahra; Hossein Nataj, Hadi; Ranjbaran, Hossein; Mohammadi, Masoud; Abediankenari, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    The immunotolerant human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) molecules have a major role in fetal-maternal tolerance during pregnancy. Interaction between these molecules and uterine natural killer (uNK) cells inhibitory receptors prevents NK cell invasion against fetus trophoblast cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percentages of uNK cells and HLA-G1 and HLA-G5 isoforms expression in vaginal discharge of threatened-abortion women in comparison with control. In a case-control study, we investigated 30 threatened-abortion women with bleeding or spotting less than 20 weeks of pregnancy as compared to 30 normal pregnant women. uNK cells percentage was assessed by flow cytometry. Furthermore, we evaluated HLA-G1 and HLA-G5 isoforms expression by Real-Time PCR in these groups. The results of this study showed that threatened-abortion women had increased uNK cells and decreased T cells percentage in vaginal discharge in comparison with normal pregnant women (p = 0.01, p = 0.003, resp.). In addition, HLA-G1 isoform had lower expression in threatened-abortion women in comparison with control group (p = 0.0001). The increase of uNK cells level with the decrease of HLA-G expression in vaginal discharge of threatened-abortion pregnant women is an indicator of mother's immune dysregulation. It is concluded that HLA-G expression level with uNK cells percentage can be determined as a diagnostic marker for threatened-abortion women. PMID:26509178

  16. Uterine Natural Killer Cell and Human Leukocyte Antigen-G1 and Human Leukocyte Antigen-G5 Expression in Vaginal Discharge of Threatened-Abortion Women: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shobeiri, Saeideh Sadat; Rahmani, Zahra; Hossein Nataj, Hadi; Ranjbaran, Hossein; Mohammadi, Masoud; Abediankenari, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    The immunotolerant human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) molecules have a major role in fetal-maternal tolerance during pregnancy. Interaction between these molecules and uterine natural killer (uNK) cells inhibitory receptors prevents NK cell invasion against fetus trophoblast cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percentages of uNK cells and HLA-G1 and HLA-G5 isoforms expression in vaginal discharge of threatened-abortion women in comparison with control. In a case-control study, we investigated 30 threatened-abortion women with bleeding or spotting less than 20 weeks of pregnancy as compared to 30 normal pregnant women. uNK cells percentage was assessed by flow cytometry. Furthermore, we evaluated HLA-G1 and HLA-G5 isoforms expression by Real-Time PCR in these groups. The results of this study showed that threatened-abortion women had increased uNK cells and decreased T cells percentage in vaginal discharge in comparison with normal pregnant women (p = 0.01, p = 0.003, resp.). In addition, HLA-G1 isoform had lower expression in threatened-abortion women in comparison with control group (p = 0.0001). The increase of uNK cells level with the decrease of HLA-G expression in vaginal discharge of threatened-abortion pregnant women is an indicator of mother's immune dysregulation. It is concluded that HLA-G expression level with uNK cells percentage can be determined as a diagnostic marker for threatened-abortion women. PMID:26509178

  17. Procedural abortion rights: Ireland and the European Court of Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Erdman, Joanna N

    2014-11-01

    The Irish Protection of Life During Pregnancy Act seeks to clarify the legal ground for abortion in cases of risk to life, and to create procedures to regulate women's access to services under it. This article explores the new law as the outcome of an international human rights litigation strategy premised on state duties to implement abortion laws through clear standards and procedural safeguards. It focuses specifically on the Irish law reform and the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, including A. B. and C. v. Ireland (2010). The article examines how procedural rights at the international level can engender domestic law reform that limits or expands women's access to lawful abortion services, serving conservative or progressive ends.

  18. Ensuring a stillborn: the ethics of fetal lethal injection in late abortion.

    PubMed

    Callahan, J C

    1995-01-01

    This article responds to two papers: one describing and defending the intracardiac injection of potassium chloride (KCl) to achieve immediate cardiac arrest in fetuses destined for second-trimester abortion because of abnormalities and a second, accompanying, paper that replies to objections to KCl injection and presents positive arguments for the use of KCl. This response concurs with the moral acceptability of the use of KCl and goes further to argue for its use in late elective abortions of nonanomalous fetuses. The response, however, while agreeing with the conclusions of the arguments presented in the second paper, finds the reasoning set forth in the arguments to be faulty. The objections to the procedure addressed in the second paper are that all abortions are unjust, that newborns and second-trimester fetuses with identical defects should be managed in like manner, and that a woman is not entitled to the death of her fetus. The arguments presented in the second paper to defend KCl use are that the abortion decision is protected by the right to noninterference, that potential harm is avoided by the procedure, and that the potential for coercion is eliminated. Abortion is defended on the grounds that a majority supports a woman's right to choose abortion. The author of this response asserts that abortion can be defended because human fetuses are not persons and because religious commitments cannot be enforced in a pluralistic society. Furthermore, even infants who have severe anomalies need not be treated as potential persons. While a woman has no moral right to the death of her fetus, she does have the right to the safest surgical procedure and to a consideration of the short-term welfare of the fetus or the long-term welfare of children who may result from rescued fetuses. In each case, the denial of life may be the only way to minimize suffering. Even healthy fetuses can be aborted using this procedure on these grounds. Every child should be a wanted child

  19. Reproductive health information and abortion services: standards developed by the European Court of Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Westeson, Johanna

    2013-08-01

    In 3 recent judgments, the European Court of Human Rights addressed the issue of access to abortion and related reproductive health services. In 2 of the judgments, the Court declared that the state violated women's rights by obstructing access to legal health services, including abortion. In so doing, it referred to the state's failure to implement domestic norms on prenatal testing and conscientious objection, and recognized the relevance of international medical guidelines. This illustrates that domestic and international medical standards can serve as critical guidance to human rights courts. In the third case, the Court showed its unwillingness to declare access to abortion a human right per se, which is troubling from the perspective of women's right to health and dignity. The present article outlines the relevance of these cases for the reproductive health profession and argues that medical professional societies can influence human rights courts by developing and enforcing medical standards, not only for the benefit of abortion rights domestically but also for the advancement of women's human rights worldwide.

  20. Selective abortion in Brazil: the anencephaly case.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora

    2007-08-01

    This paper discusses the Brazilian Supreme Court ruling on the case of anencephaly. In Brazil, abortion is a crime against the life of a fetus, and selective abortion of non-viable fetuses is prohibited. Following a paradigmatic case discussed by the Brazilian Supreme Court in 2004, the use of abortion was authorized in the case of a fetus with anencephaly. The objective of this paper is to analyze the ethical arguments of the case, in particular the strategy of avoiding the moral status of the fetus, the cornerstone thesis of the Catholic Church. PMID:17614991

  1. A time to regulate? Possible implications of European human rights law on abortion in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Irvine, W N

    2001-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Abortion Act 1967 the legality and status of abortion in Northern Ireland, being excluded from the provisions of the 1967 Act, has remained shrouded in uncertainty. In light of the introduction of the Human Rights Act 1998, this article will explore whether this inconsistency in the UK is in breach of the provisions laid down in Articles 8 and 14. It will be shown that while compelling arguments can be built under these provisions, perhaps the most persuasive arguments in favour of law reform are the inequities that the current legal regime has perpetuated.

  2. Decreased type V collagen expression in human decidual tissues of spontaneous abortion during early pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Iwahashi, M; Nakano, R

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To provide some insight into the aetiology of spontaneous abortion, the contents of type V collagen was investigated in human decidual tissues in spontaneous abortion and normal pregnancy. METHODS: Collagens were extracted from decidual tissues in spontaneous abortion (n = 19) and normal pregnancy (n = 25). The different types of collagen alpha chains were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), stained with Coomassie brilliant blue, and measured by densitometry. The relative amounts of the alpha 1 (III) and alpha 1 (V) chains were calculated by dividing the band intensities of the alpha 1 (III) and alpha 1 (V) chains by that of the alpha 1 (I) chain. RESULTS: The ratio of the alpha 1 (V) chain to that of the alpha 1 (I) chain in decidual tissues in spontaneous abortion was significantly lower than that found in normal pregnancy (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that type V collagen might play an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy and that decreased expression of this collagen could be associated with spontaneous abortion. Images PMID:9577371

  3. Triclosan causes spontaneous abortion accompanied by decline of estrogen sulfotransferase activity in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Chen, Xiaojiao; Feng, Xuejiao; Chang, Fei; Chen, Minjian; Xia, Yankai; Chen, Ling

    2015-12-15

    Triclosan (TCS), an antibacterial agent, is identified in serum and urine of humans. Here, we show that the level of urinary TCS in 28.3% patients who had spontaneous abortion in mid-gestation were increased by 11.3-fold (high-TCS) compared with normal pregnancies. Oral administration of TCS (10 mg/kg/day) in mice (TCS mice) caused an equivalent urinary TCS level as those in the high-TCS abortion patients. The TCS-exposure from gestation day (GD) 5.5 caused dose-dependently fetal death during GD12.5-16.5 with decline of live fetal weight. GD15.5 TCS mice appeared placental thrombus and tissue necrosis with enhancement of platelet aggregation. The levels of placenta and plasma estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) mRNA and protein in TCS mice or high-TCS abortion patients were not altered, but their EST activities were significantly reduced compared to controls. Although the levels of serum estrogen (E2) in TCS mice and high-TCS abortion patients had no difference from controls, their ratio of sulfo-conjugated E2 and unconjugated E2 was reduced. The estrogen receptor antagonist ICI-182,780 prevented the enhanced platelet aggregation and placental thrombosis and attenuated the fetal death in TCS mice. The findings indicate that TCS-exposure might cause spontaneous abortion probably through inhibition of EST activity to produce placental thrombosis.

  4. [Abortion and rights. Legal thinking about abortion].

    PubMed

    Perez Duarte, A E

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of abortion in Mexico from a juridical perspective requires recognition that Mexico as a national community participates in a double system of values. Politically it is defined as a liberal, democratic, and secular state, but culturally the Judeo-Christian ideology is dominant in all social strata. This duality complicates all juridical-penal decisions regarding abortion. Public opinion on abortion is influenced on the 1 hand by extremely conservative groups who condemn abortion as homicide, and on the other hand by groups who demand legislative reform in congruence with characteristics that define the state: an attitude of tolerance toward the different ideological-moral positions that coexist in the country. The discussion concerns the rights of women to voluntary maternity, protection of health, and to making their own decisions regarding their bodies vs. the rights of the fetus to life. The type of analysis is not objective, and conclusions depend on the ideology of the analyst. Other elements must be examined for an objective consideration of the social problem of abortion. For example, aspects related to maternal morbidity and mortality and the demographic, economic, and physical and mental health of the population would all seem to support the democratic juridical doctrine that sees the clandestine nature of abortion as the principal problem. It is also observed that the illegality of abortion does not guarantee its elimination. Desperate women will seek abortion under any circumstances. The illegality of abortion also impedes health and educational policies that would lower abortion mortality. There are various problems from a strictly juridical perspective. A correct definition of the term abortion is needed that would coincide with the medical definition. The discussion must be clearly centered on the protected juridical right and the definition of reproductive and health rights and rights to their own bodies of women. The experiences of other

  5. [Glimpses from the history of abortion].

    PubMed

    Holmdahl, B

    1992-05-01

    For a long time in human history, global population growth was checked by infant mortality, which ranged from 30-50% and did not start sinking until the beginning of the 1800s in the west. Child murder in the west was prohibited by law around the 1100-1200s, but it continued secretly. Among private people, induced abortion was allowed. In the holy scripts of Hinduism and Brahminism, abortion was prohibited. Hippocrates wrote that doctors should not give women abortifacient. The church father Augustinus stated that it was not within human power to discern when the soul entered the body, a circumstance that forbid abortion. A church meeting in 305 A.D. distanced itself from abortion, and this has been the stand of the Catholic Church ever since. In Sweden, exposing a child to the elements was practiced until the end of the 1200s, when it became prohibited. Protestants punished child murder by death. During 1759-78, 217 women were executed for child-killing. From the 1400s, church law punished abortion, and later, capital and punishment was meted out for it, but a distinction was made if the fetus was alive or stillborn. The law in 1734 punished abortion by the death of all concerned. The death penalty was abolished in 1864. In 1896, Anna Linholm reported to the policy in Uppsala that a midwife had been practicing clandestine abortions. Some of her patients were admitted to hospital for hemorrhaging. She was sentenced to hard labor. During 1851-1903, a total of 1408 abortions were reported to the health service. 90% of these became known because of death caused by obduction. Phosphorus was used for abortion in 1271 cases, arsenic in 62, and mechanical aids in 8 cases. About 1//2 of all female suicides at the end of the 1800s was performed by pregnant women who ate phosphorus. Almost all were unmarried, and 56% carried it out after the 5th month of pregnancy. In 1901, phosphorus was prohibited in Swedish homes. In 1875, free abortions became available. However, the

  6. Do Human Fetuses Anticipate Self-Oriented Actions? A Study by Four-Dimensional (4D) Ultrasonography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Takeshita, Hideko

    2006-01-01

    Using four-dimensional (4D) ultrasonography, arm and hand movements toward the face were examined in 27 human fetuses at 19 to 35 weeks of gestation, thereby enabling the continuous monitoring of their faces and other surface features such as the extremities. More than half of the observed arm movements resulted in the hand touching the mouth…

  7. The Human Fetus Preferentially Secretes Corticosterone, Rather than Cortisol, in Response to Intra-Partum Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E.; Edwards, Heather E.; Hancock, Trina M.

    2013-01-01

    Context Fetal stress is relevant to newborn outcomes. Corticosterone is rarely quantified in human clinical endocrinology and is found at much lower concentrations than cortisol. However, fetal corticosterone is a candidate hormone as a fetal stress signal. Objective Test the hypothesis that preferential fetal corticosterone synthesis occurs in response to fetal intra-partum stress. Design Cross-sectional comparison of paired serum corticosteroid concentrations in umbilical artery and vein from 300 women providing consent at admission to a General Hospital Labor and Delivery unit. Pre-term and multiple births were excluded, leaving 265 healthy deliveries. Main Outcome Measures Corticosterone and cortisol concentrations determined by LC-MS/MS for umbilical cord venous (V) and arterial (A) samples and used to calculate fetal synthesis (A−V) and proportional fetal synthesis ([A−V]/V). Chart-derived criteria stratified samples by type of delivery, maternal regional analgesia, augmentation of contractions, and clinical rationale for emergent Caesarian delivery. Results Cortisol concentrations were higher than corticosterone concentrations; however, the fetus preferentially secretes corticosterone (148% vs 49% proportional increase for cortisol) and differentially secretes corticosterone as fetal stress increases. Fetal corticosterone synthesis is elevated after passage through the birth canal relative to Caesarian deliveries. For vaginal deliveries, augmentation of contractions does not affect corticosteroid concentrations whereas maternal regional analgesia decreases venous (maternal) concentrations and increases fetal synthesis. Fetal corticosterone synthesis is also elevated after C-section indicated by cephalopelvic disproportion after labor, whereas cortisol is not. Conclusions The full-term fetus preferentially secretes corticosterone in response to fetal stress during delivery. Fetal corticosterone could serve as a biomarker of fetal stress. PMID:23798989

  8. Hepatitis Due to Equine Abortion Virus. Comparison Between the Liver Histology in Human, Canine, Duckling, and Equine Viral Hepatitis1

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, W. M.; Nilsson, M. R.

    1966-01-01

    Five livers of equine fetuses, aborted due to the action of equine abortion virus, five livers from men, two of whom died of epidemic hepatitis and three obtained by needle biopsies, 5 livers of dogs with infectious canine hepatitis and 7 livers of ducklings that had hepatitis, were studied histopathologically. The foals' livers were studied by several staining methods and the others by H. E. only. The results indicate that the lesions are quite similar in the four species with the appearance of nuclear inclusion bodies only in foals and dogs. The strong staining properties of the nuclear inclusion bodies in infectious canine hepatitis and the weak staining properties of the equine virus abortion reveal that the protein-DNA association is different resulting in a different electropolarity. The lesions in foals are of two main types, one a Necrotic-Mosaic Type in which the hepatocyte degeneration is irregularly distributed within the hepatic lobules and the other an Hyperplastic Type in which marked regeneration occurs. In the Hyperplastic Type the practical absence of plasmocytes in foals' livers might suggest that if the newborn is a female, abortions may occur later in life because the virus remained alive in colts which were born in an immune tolerance state. Histologically the picture in the livers of aborted foals assume features of a viral hepatitis similar to the viral hepatitis in men, dogs and ducklings. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9. PMID:4225286

  9. Access to abortion services: the impact of the European convention on human rights in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Daly, Brenda

    2011-06-01

    Abortion is unlawful in Ireland except where it is necessary to save the life of the mother. The right to life of the unborn child is safeguarded under Article 40.3.3 degrees of Bunreacht na hEireann (the Irish Constitution). In 2003 the European Convention on Human Rights was incorporated into Irish domestic legislation, subject to the provisions of the Irish Constitution. The aim of this paper is to consider the potential impact of the ECHR on access to abortion services within the State. This paper commences with discussion of the statutory prohibition on abortion and the Constitutional provisions concerning the protection afforded to the unborn child. It will then be necessary to examine the implications for Ireland of recent European Court of Human Rights' decisions, in particular the recent judgment in A, B & C v Ireland, regarding the right to legal abortions given the unique nature of the legal status of the ECHR and its relationship with the Irish Constitution.

  10. c-kit positive cells and networks in tooth germs of human midterm fetuses.

    PubMed

    Didilescu, Andreea Cristiana; Pop, Florinel; Rusu, Mugurel Constantin

    2013-12-01

    Numerous studies have attempted to characterize the dental pulp stem cells. However, studies performed on prenatal human tissues have not been performed to evaluate the in situ characterization and topography of progenitor cells. We aimed to perform such a study using of antibodies for CD117/c-kit and multiplex antibody for Ki67+ caspase 3. Antibodies were applied on samples dissected from five human midterm fetuses. Positive CD117/c-kit labeling was found in mesenchymal derived tissues, such as the dental follicle and the dental papilla. The epithelial tissues, that is, dental lamina, enamel organ and oral epithelia, also displayed isolated progenitor cells which were CD117/c-kit positive. Interestingly, CD117/c-kit positive cells of mesenchymal derived tissues extended multiple prolongations building networks; the most consistent of such networks were those of the dental follicle and the perivascular networks of the dental papilla. However, the mantle of the dental papilla was also positive for CD117/c-kit positive stromal networks. The CD117/c-kit cell populations building networks appeared mostly with a Ki67 negative phenotype. The results suggest that CD117/c-kit progenitor cells of the prenatal tooth germ tissues might be involved in intercellular signaling.

  11. The UF family of hybrid phantoms of the developing human fetus for computational radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Matthew R.; Geyer, John W.; Aris, John P.; Shifrin, Roger Y.; Bolch, Wesley

    2011-08-01

    Historically, the development of computational phantoms for radiation dosimetry has primarily been directed at capturing and representing adult and pediatric anatomy, with less emphasis devoted to models of the human fetus. As concern grows over possible radiation-induced cancers from medical and non-medical exposures of the pregnant female, the need to better quantify fetal radiation doses, particularly at the organ-level, also increases. Studies such as the European Union's SOLO (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations) hope to improve our understanding of cancer risks following chronic in utero radiation exposure. For projects such as SOLO, currently available fetal anatomic models do not provide sufficient anatomical detail for organ-level dose assessment. To address this need, two fetal hybrid computational phantoms were constructed using high-quality magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography image sets obtained for two well-preserved fetal specimens aged 11.5 and 21 weeks post-conception. Individual soft tissue organs, bone sites and outer body contours were segmented from these images using 3D-DOCTOR™ and then imported to the 3D modeling software package Rhinoceros™ for further modeling and conversion of soft tissue organs, certain bone sites and outer body contours to deformable non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces. The two specimen-specific phantoms, along with a modified version of the 38 week UF hybrid newborn phantom, comprised a set of base phantoms from which a series of hybrid computational phantoms was derived for fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks post-conception. The methodology used to construct the series of phantoms accounted for the following age-dependent parameters: (1) variations in skeletal size and proportion, (2) bone-dependent variations in relative levels of bone growth, (3) variations in individual organ masses and total fetal masses and (4) statistical percentile variations in

  12. New patterns of the growing L3 vertebra and its 3 ossification centers in human fetuses – a CT, digital, and statistical study

    PubMed Central

    Szpinda, Michał; Baumgart, Mariusz; Szpinda, Anna; WoŸniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2013-01-01

    Background This study describes reference data for L3 vertebra and its 3 ossification centers at varying gestational ages. Material/Methods Using CT, digital-image analysis and statistics, the growth of L3 vertebra and its 3 ossification centers in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses aged 17–30 weeks was examined. Results Neither sex nor right-left significant differences were found. The height and transverse and sagittal diameters of the L3 vertebral body increased logarithmically. Its cross-sectional area followed linearly, whereas its volume increased parabolically. The transverse and sagittal diameters of the ossification center of the L3 vertebral body varied logarithmically, but its cross-sectional area and volume grew linearly. The ossification center-to-vertebral body volume ratio gradually declined with age. The neural ossification centers increased logarithmically in length and width, and proportionately in cross-sectional area and volume. Conclusions With no sex differences, the growth dynamics of the L3 vertebral body follow logarithmically in height, sagittal and transverse diameters, linearly (in cross-sectional area), and parabolically (in volume). The growth dynamics of the 3 ossification centers of the L3 vertebra follow logarithmically in transverse and sagittal diameters, and linearly (in cross-sectional area and volume). The age-specific reference intervals of the L3 vertebra and its 3 ossification centers present the normative values of clinical importance in the diagnosis of congenital spinal defects. PMID:23778313

  13. Genetic regulation of recurrent spontaneous abortion in humans.

    PubMed

    Vaiman, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss, defined as a pregnancy failure occurring before 24 weeks of gestation more than two or three times according to most definitions, is a fertility defect encountered in 1-5% of the patients. This defect is of course of multifactorial origin. Among the possible origins of recurrent pregnancy loss are uterine structural defaults, defective ploidy control of the embryo, defective immunological dialog between the embryo (or the fetus) and the uterus sometimes in relation with immunological disorders (such as autoimmune diseases), thrombophilia, and free radical metabolism imbalance. Numerous studies attempted to correlate variants of genes supposed to be intervening in the different facets of the early maternal-fetal or maternal-embryonic dialog, and eventually modify the outcome of fertilization, leading to success or failure of post-implantation development. The objective of the present review is to portray the major genes and gene polymorphisms studied for their putative association with recurrent pregnancy loss. Most of these genes have been studied as candidate genes for which strong biological arguments were put forward as to their putative involvement in recurrent pregnancy loss. They were mostly studied by genetic analysis, often in various populations of different ethnic origins, throughout the world. Some of these studies were available only in English as abstracts and were nevertheless used if the information was given with enough detail. With the space being too short to depict all the available literature, different major pathways relevant to the scientific question are presented without any attempt to hide the fact that discordant views often aroused for a given gene. PMID:25179715

  14. Molecular detection of adeno-associated virus in cases of spontaneous and intentional human abortion.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Christiane Curi; de Freitas, Luciana Bueno; de Vargas, Paulo Roberto Merçon; de Azevedo, Maria Luiza Borges; do Nascimento, Jussara Pereira; Spano, Liliana Cruz

    2010-10-01

    Pregnancy failure is a common event and often of unknown cause. Some viruses are thought to cause abortions including the adeno-associated viruses (AAV), viruses which are regarded as being without any definitive association to any human disease. This study investigated AAV infection in 81 human abortions, both spontaneous and intentional that occurred up to the 23rd week of gestation. Nucleic acid of AAV-2, 3, and 5 types from 118 decidual and chorionic tissues, collected from the patients in this study, was amplified by nested-PCR. In situ hybridization (ISH) was developed with a digoxigenin-labeled AAV probe in paraffin embedded tissues from the AAV positive cases. AAV was observed in 28.4% (23/81) of the cases, of which, 78.3% (18/23) were in the decidua and 21.7% (5/23) in the extravillous trophoblast, the chorionic plate, or chorionic villi fragments. AAV-2, the only type detected, occurred in 32.3% (22/68) and in 7.7% (1/13) of the spontaneous and intentional abortions, respectively. ISH revealed AAV in the decidua, chorionic tissue or chorionic plate and extravillous trophoblast. The detection of only AAV-2 type indicates that it is the most frequent in the population studied and/or shows tissue tropism. The presence of AAV in decidual or trophoblastic cells in cases of abortion, as observed by ISH, implies that the virus could jeopardize the pregnancy. The significant predominance in spontaneous cases suggests possibly a causal association between AAV and abortion. PMID:20827766

  15. Human Papillomavirus Infection as a Possible Cause of Spontaneous Abortion and Spontaneous Preterm Delivery.

    PubMed

    Ambühl, Lea Maria Margareta; Baandrup, Ulrik; Dybkær, Karen; Blaakær, Jan; Uldbjerg, Niels; Sørensen, Suzette

    2016-01-01

    Based on the current literature, we aimed to provide an overview on Human Papillomavirus prevalence in normal pregnancies and pregnancies with adverse outcome. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed and Embase. Data extracted from the articles and used for analysis included HPV prevalence, pregnancy outcome, geographical location, investigated tissue types, and HPV detection methods. The overall HPV prevalence in normal full-term pregnancies was found to be 17.5% (95% CI; 17.3-17.7) for cervix, 8.3% (95% CI; 7.6-9.1) for placental tissue, 5.7% (95% CI; 5.1-6.3) for amniotic fluid, and 10.9% (95% CI; 10.1-11.7) for umbilical cord blood. Summary estimates for HPV prevalence of spontaneous abortions and spontaneous preterm deliveries, in cervix (spontaneous abortions: 24.5%, and preterm deliveries: 47%, resp.) and placenta (spontaneous abortions: 24.9%, and preterm deliveries: 50%, resp.), were identified to be higher compared to normal full-term pregnancies (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001). Great variation in HPV prevalence was observed between study populations of different geographical locations. This review demonstrates an association between spontaneous abortion, spontaneous preterm delivery, and the presence of HPV in both the cervix and the placenta. However, a reliable conclusion is difficult to draw due to the limited number of studies conducted on material from pregnancies with adverse outcome and the risk of residual confounding. PMID:27110088

  16. Human Papillomavirus Infection as a Possible Cause of Spontaneous Abortion and Spontaneous Preterm Delivery.

    PubMed

    Ambühl, Lea Maria Margareta; Baandrup, Ulrik; Dybkær, Karen; Blaakær, Jan; Uldbjerg, Niels; Sørensen, Suzette

    2016-01-01

    Based on the current literature, we aimed to provide an overview on Human Papillomavirus prevalence in normal pregnancies and pregnancies with adverse outcome. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed and Embase. Data extracted from the articles and used for analysis included HPV prevalence, pregnancy outcome, geographical location, investigated tissue types, and HPV detection methods. The overall HPV prevalence in normal full-term pregnancies was found to be 17.5% (95% CI; 17.3-17.7) for cervix, 8.3% (95% CI; 7.6-9.1) for placental tissue, 5.7% (95% CI; 5.1-6.3) for amniotic fluid, and 10.9% (95% CI; 10.1-11.7) for umbilical cord blood. Summary estimates for HPV prevalence of spontaneous abortions and spontaneous preterm deliveries, in cervix (spontaneous abortions: 24.5%, and preterm deliveries: 47%, resp.) and placenta (spontaneous abortions: 24.9%, and preterm deliveries: 50%, resp.), were identified to be higher compared to normal full-term pregnancies (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001). Great variation in HPV prevalence was observed between study populations of different geographical locations. This review demonstrates an association between spontaneous abortion, spontaneous preterm delivery, and the presence of HPV in both the cervix and the placenta. However, a reliable conclusion is difficult to draw due to the limited number of studies conducted on material from pregnancies with adverse outcome and the risk of residual confounding.

  17. Medical Students and Abortion: Reconciling Personal Beliefs and Professional Roles at One Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dans, Peter E.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of first- and fourth-year Johns Hopkins University (Maryland) medical students found little change in attitudes about abortion over four years. Attitudes correlated most strongly with personal beliefs about when a fetus is considered human life and somewhat with student gender. Results are used in a medical ethics course to illuminate…

  18. Partial-birth abortion: the final frontier of abortion jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Bopp, J; Cook, C R

    1998-01-01

    Partial-birth abortion bans patterned after the federal bill passed by both houses of Congress are constitutional. The clear legislative definition can be easily distinguished from other abortion procedures. Abortion precedents do not apply to such bans because the abortion right pertains to unborn human beings, not to those partially delivered. Such bans are also rationally-related to legitimate state interests. Even if abortion jurisprudence is deemed to apply in the partial-birth abortion context, a ban is still constitutional under Casey because a ban on partial-birth abortions does not impose an undue burden on the abortion right.

  19. Ultrasonographic Investigation of Human Fetus Responses to Maternal Communicative and Non-communicative Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Gabriella A; Nicolini, Ylenia; Demuru, Elisa; Tosato, Cecilia; Hussain, Merhi; Scesa, Elena; Romei, Luisa; Boerci, Maria; Iappini, Emanuela; Dalla Rosa Prati, Guido; Palagi, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Pier F

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy fetuses are responsive to the external environment, specifically to maternal stimulation. During this period, brain circuits develop to prepare neonates to respond appropriately. The detailed behavioral analysis of fetus' mouth movements in response to mothers' speech may reveal important aspects of their sensorimotor and affective skills; however, to date, no studies have investigated this response. Given that newborns at birth are capable of responding with matched behaviors to the social signals emitted by the caregiver, we hypothesize that such precocious responses could emerge in the prenatal period by exploiting infants' sensitivity to their mother's voice. By means of a two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonography, we assessed whether fetuses at 25 weeks of gestation, showed a congruent mouthmotor response to maternal acoustic stimulation. Mothers were asked to provide different stimuli, each characterized by a different acoustic output (e.g., chewing, yawning, nursery rhymes, etc.) and we recorded the behavioral responses of 29 fetuses. We found that, when mothers sang the syllable LA in a nursery rhyme, fetuses significantly increased mouth openings. Other stimuli provided by the mother did not produce other significant changes in fetus' behavior. This finding suggests that fetuses are sensitive only to specific maternal vocalizations (LA) and that fetal matched responses are rudimentary signs of early mirroring behaviors that become functional in the postnatal period. In conclusion, fetuses seem to be predisposed to respond selectively to specific maternal stimuli. We propose that such responses may play a role in the development of behavioral and emotional attunement with their mothers long before birth.

  20. Ultrasonographic Investigation of Human Fetus Responses to Maternal Communicative and Non-communicative Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Gabriella A; Nicolini, Ylenia; Demuru, Elisa; Tosato, Cecilia; Hussain, Merhi; Scesa, Elena; Romei, Luisa; Boerci, Maria; Iappini, Emanuela; Dalla Rosa Prati, Guido; Palagi, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Pier F

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy fetuses are responsive to the external environment, specifically to maternal stimulation. During this period, brain circuits develop to prepare neonates to respond appropriately. The detailed behavioral analysis of fetus' mouth movements in response to mothers' speech may reveal important aspects of their sensorimotor and affective skills; however, to date, no studies have investigated this response. Given that newborns at birth are capable of responding with matched behaviors to the social signals emitted by the caregiver, we hypothesize that such precocious responses could emerge in the prenatal period by exploiting infants' sensitivity to their mother's voice. By means of a two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonography, we assessed whether fetuses at 25 weeks of gestation, showed a congruent mouthmotor response to maternal acoustic stimulation. Mothers were asked to provide different stimuli, each characterized by a different acoustic output (e.g., chewing, yawning, nursery rhymes, etc.) and we recorded the behavioral responses of 29 fetuses. We found that, when mothers sang the syllable LA in a nursery rhyme, fetuses significantly increased mouth openings. Other stimuli provided by the mother did not produce other significant changes in fetus' behavior. This finding suggests that fetuses are sensitive only to specific maternal vocalizations (LA) and that fetal matched responses are rudimentary signs of early mirroring behaviors that become functional in the postnatal period. In conclusion, fetuses seem to be predisposed to respond selectively to specific maternal stimuli. We propose that such responses may play a role in the development of behavioral and emotional attunement with their mothers long before birth. PMID:27014160

  1. Functional plasticity before the cradle: a review of neural functional imaging in the human fetus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Amy L; Thomason, Moriah E

    2013-11-01

    The organization of the brain is highly plastic in fetal life. Establishment of healthy neural functional systems during the fetal period is essential to normal growth and development. Across the last several decades, remarkable progress has been made in understanding the development of human fetal functional brain systems. This is largely due to advances in imaging methodologies. Fetal neuroimaging began in the 1950-1970's with fetal electroencephalography (EEG) applied during labor. Later, in the 1980's, magnetoencephalography (MEG) emerged as an effective approach for investigating fetal brain function. Most recently, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has arisen as an additional powerful approach for examining fetal brain function. This review will discuss major developmental findings from fetal imaging studies such as the maturation of prenatal sensory system functions, functional hemispheric asymmetry, and sensory-driven neurodevelopment. We describe how with improved imaging and analysis techniques, functional imaging of the fetus has the potential to assess the earliest point of neural maturation and provide insight into the patterning and sequence of normal and abnormal brain development.

  2. Abortion - surgical

    MedlinePlus

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  3. [Abortion in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, Y; Hayase, T

    1993-01-01

    In Japan, the artificial abortion is a penal offence; only in the presence of certain conditions it is authorized under the provision of the Eugenic Protection Law which was promulgated in 1948. According to the law, the artificial abortion is restricted to the period, in which the fetus is not viable outside of the uterus. This period is prescribed by notification from the Ministry of Public Welfare; up to now it has been shortened twice (1976, 1991). Due to the introduction of economic reasons in the list of conditions and the simplification of the procedure the artificial abortion in Japan was virtually liberalized. Prosecution for illegal abortion is very rare in recent years. The number of reported artificial abortions decreases; in the about last 30 years it reduced by half. However, the increase in the number of abortions in women younger than 20 years of age is a problem. The abortion in teenagers is late compared with that in other age groups. Although the number of neonaticides does not seem to increase, the increase in the number of abortions in teenagers remains a serious problem in Japan. PMID:8352642

  4. CMA abortion survey.

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Responses to the question as to whether abortions should be performed at the woman's request during the first trimester of pregnancy were evenly divided. There was support for abortion on socioeconomic grounds, during the first trimester, from 61.5% of the respondents. Termination of pregnancy beyond the first trimester was supported by a majority of the respondents only in cases in which the woman's life is in danger (73.9%) or in which there is evidence of a severe physical abnormality in the fetus (70.6%) or in cases in which the woman's physical health is in danger (55.5%). Those who said they would not support abortion under any circumstances constitute, at most, 5.1% of the respondents. Support for the maintenance or the elimination of therapeutic abortion committees was addressed in two questions and in both cases the respondents were evenly divided. The responses to these two questions were compared and found to be logically consistent. Only physicians should perform abortions, and they should be performed in hospitals with the woman either as an inpatient or, during the first trimester, as an outpatient. The performance of first-trimester abortions in provincially approved abortion clinics was supported by 47.3% of the respondents. Of the 885 respondents who wished to see some amendment to the Criminal Code, 409 stated that the term "health" as used in the Criminal Code relative to the legal grounds for therapeutic abortion should be defined. PMID:6861064

  5. Abortion, women and national development: the Nigeria experience.

    PubMed

    Ebijuwa, T

    1993-06-01

    The author argues that, if women have the right of self-determination, it is immoral of society to withhold or limit women's access to abortion services in Nigeria. Morality must pertain to society as well as women. In Nigeria, the abortion argument tends to focus on the rights of the fetus or the third party's interest. The abortion issue must involve understanding the rationale that is used by abortion-seeking women. Denial of access to abortion services dehumanizes women and reduces growth in national development. Women carry the burden of responsibility associated with child bearing and rearing. Unwanted pregnancies impose severe psychological, physical, social, and medical dangers on women. Impaired psychological and physical illness creates pain and suffering and limits productivity. "Doing good" is not necessarily accomplished by either abortion or unwanted childbearing. Society both discourages the taking of a human life and supports the health of its citizens, many of whom are women. A child brought into this world who is not adequately taken care of will be a burden to society. When society pursues its own self-interest in preventing abortion as a choice for women, then society becomes immoral and selfish. A woman pursuing her own self-interest is not necessarily immoral. The decision becomes immoral if the woman acts against the wishes of the father. Morality is not necessarily the opposite of the promotion of one's self-interest. Women who seek to terminate a pregnancy for health reasons seek a virtuous option of enhancing the well-being of every individual in society. The right to life for the fetus is very different from the right to self-determination for the abortion-seeking woman. When the Yoruba define a wife as a servant to the husband, the Yoruba deny women personhood. Women know best what serves their self-interest and that of society.

  6. Development of the stapedius muscle and unilateral agenesia of the tendon of the stapedius muscle in a human fetus.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, J F; Mérida-Velasco, J R; Verdugo-López, S

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to analyze the development of the stapedius muscle to understand an isolated unilateral absence of the tendon of the stapedius muscle in a human fetus. The study was made on 50 human embryos and fetuses aged 38 days to 17 weeks post-conception. The stapedius muscle was formed by two anlagen, one for the tendon, which derives from the internal segment of the interhyale and another for the belly, located in the second pharyngeal arch, medially to the facial nerve and near the interhyale. In the interhyale, two segments were observed forming an angle and delimited by the attachment of the belly of the stapedius muscle. The internal segment will form the tendon. The lateral segment of the interhyale was attached to the cranial end of the Reichert's cartilage (laterohyale), and normally it disappears at the beginning of the fetal period. The right unilateral agenesia of the tendon of the stapedius muscle, observed for the first time in a human fetus of 14 weeks post-conception development (PCd), was brought about by the lack of formation or the regression of the internal segment of the interhyale. It presented a belly of the stapedius muscle with an anomalous arrangement, and with a pseudo tendon originated by the persistence of the external segment of the interhyale.

  7. An anatomical and biometrical study of the femoral trochlear groove in the human fetus

    PubMed Central

    Glard, Yann; Jouve, Jean-Luc; Panuel, Michel; Adalian, Pascal; Tardieu, Christine; Bollini, Gérard

    2005-01-01

    We performed a biometric analysis of the femoral trochlear groove in the fetus and compared our findings with those observed in adults. We studied 44 formalin-preserved fetuses (13–38 weeks) and used digitized images to obtain measurements (α angle of the groove, trochlear slopes θL and θM). A comparison of means between our series and adults was achieved. For each angle of the distal epiphysis (α, θL, θM) there was no significant difference between our fetal series and adults. This is the first biometric study of fetal trochlea. The morphology of the lower femur appears to be the same in the fetus and the adult. PMID:15817109

  8. Volumetric Growth of the Liver in the Human Fetus: An Anatomical, Hydrostatic, and Statistical Study

    PubMed Central

    Szpinda, Michał; Paruszewska-Achtel, Monika; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Elminowska-Wenda, Gabriela; Dombek, Małgorzata; Szpinda, Anna; Badura, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Using anatomical, hydrostatic, and statistical methods, liver volumes were assessed in 69 human fetuses of both sexes aged 18–30 weeks. No sex differences were found. The median of liver volume achieved by hydrostatic measurements increased from 6.57 cm3 at 18–21 weeks through 14.36 cm3 at 22–25 weeks to 20.77 cm3 at 26–30 weeks, according to the following regression: y = −26.95 + 1.74 × age ± Z  × (−3.15 + 0.27 × age). The median of liver volume calculated indirectly according to the formula liver volume = 0.55 × liver length × liver transverse diameter × liver sagittal diameter increased from 12.41 cm3 at 18–21 weeks through 28.21 cm3 at 22–25 weeks to 49.69 cm3 at 26–30 weeks. There was a strong relationship (r = 0.91, p < 0.001) between the liver volumes achieved by hydrostatic (x) and indirect (y) methods, expressed by y = −0.05 + 2.16x  ± 7.26. The liver volume should be calculated as follows liver volume = 0.26 × liver length × liver transverse diameter × liver sagittal diameter. The age-specific liver volumes are of great relevance in the evaluation of the normal hepatic growth and the early diagnosis of fetal micro- and macrosomias. PMID:26413551

  9. Ultrasonographic Investigation of Human Fetus Responses to Maternal Communicative and Non-communicative Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Gabriella A.; Nicolini, Ylenia; Demuru, Elisa; Tosato, Cecilia; Hussain, Merhi; Scesa, Elena; Romei, Luisa; Boerci, Maria; Iappini, Emanuela; Dalla Rosa Prati, Guido; Palagi, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy fetuses are responsive to the external environment, specifically to maternal stimulation. During this period, brain circuits develop to prepare neonates to respond appropriately. The detailed behavioral analysis of fetus’ mouth movements in response to mothers’ speech may reveal important aspects of their sensorimotor and affective skills; however, to date, no studies have investigated this response. Given that newborns at birth are capable of responding with matched behaviors to the social signals emitted by the caregiver, we hypothesize that such precocious responses could emerge in the prenatal period by exploiting infants’ sensitivity to their mother’s voice. By means of a two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonography, we assessed whether fetuses at 25 weeks of gestation, showed a congruent mouthmotor response to maternal acoustic stimulation. Mothers were asked to provide different stimuli, each characterized by a different acoustic output (e.g., chewing, yawning, nursery rhymes, etc.) and we recorded the behavioral responses of 29 fetuses. We found that, when mothers sang the syllable LA in a nursery rhyme, fetuses significantly increased mouth openings. Other stimuli provided by the mother did not produce other significant changes in fetus’ behavior. This finding suggests that fetuses are sensitive only to specific maternal vocalizations (LA) and that fetal matched responses are rudimentary signs of early mirroring behaviors that become functional in the postnatal period. In conclusion, fetuses seem to be predisposed to respond selectively to specific maternal stimuli. We propose that such responses may play a role in the development of behavioral and emotional attunement with their mothers long before birth. PMID:27014160

  10. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    opponents. Opponents have taken an active approach in decomposing their beliefs into different strands to be argued. Their assertions that the fetus is a person from conception or a person in potential have forced proponents of legalized abortion to argue in a largely reactive mode. PMID:12348801

  11. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    opponents. Opponents have taken an active approach in decomposing their beliefs into different strands to be argued. Their assertions that the fetus is a person from conception or a person in potential have forced proponents of legalized abortion to argue in a largely reactive mode.

  12. Orientations toward abortion: guilty or knowledge?

    PubMed

    Allgeier, A R; Allgeier, E R; Rywick, T

    1981-01-01

    Students (N = 118) were classified as pro-choice, anti-abortion, or mixed on the basis of their responses to ten fictitious case histories of females who requested abortion. The distribution of participants on the abortion issue was quite similar to the results of a 1979 national survey. As expected, these groups differed on attitudes toward abortion as murder, the legalization of abortion, and the morality of premarital sex. The groups differed significantly in levels of sex guilt, but did not exhibit significant differences in levels of sexual knowledge. The results were discussed within the context of the public controversy over abortion. It was suggested that the affective messages accompanying the sexual socialization of children and adolescents may be more predictive of orientations toward abortion than the weight of intellectual arguments regarding the rights of the fetus, the point at which a fetus becomes viable, or a woman's right to have control over her own body.

  13. Abort Options for Human Missions to Earth-Moon Halo Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jesick, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Abort trajectories are optimized for human halo orbit missions about the translunar libration point (L2), with an emphasis on the use of free return trajectories. Optimal transfers from outbound free returns to L2 halo orbits are numerically optimized in the four-body ephemeris model. Circumlunar free returns are used for direct transfers, and cislunar free returns are used in combination with lunar gravity assists to reduce propulsive requirements. Trends in orbit insertion cost and flight time are documented across the southern L2 halo family as a function of halo orbit position and free return flight time. It is determined that the maximum amplitude southern halo incurs the lowest orbit insertion cost for direct transfers but the maximum cost for lunar gravity assist transfers. The minimum amplitude halo is the most expensive destination for direct transfers but the least expensive for lunar gravity assist transfers. The on-orbit abort costs for three halos are computed as a function of abort time and return time. Finally, an architecture analysis is performed to determine launch and on-orbit vehicle requirements for halo orbit missions.

  14. Human Papillomavirus Infection as a Possible Cause of Spontaneous Abortion and Spontaneous Preterm Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ambühl, Lea Maria Margareta; Baandrup, Ulrik; Dybkær, Karen; Blaakær, Jan; Uldbjerg, Niels; Sørensen, Suzette

    2016-01-01

    Based on the current literature, we aimed to provide an overview on Human Papillomavirus prevalence in normal pregnancies and pregnancies with adverse outcome. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed and Embase. Data extracted from the articles and used for analysis included HPV prevalence, pregnancy outcome, geographical location, investigated tissue types, and HPV detection methods. The overall HPV prevalence in normal full-term pregnancies was found to be 17.5% (95% CI; 17.3–17.7) for cervix, 8.3% (95% CI; 7.6–9.1) for placental tissue, 5.7% (95% CI; 5.1–6.3) for amniotic fluid, and 10.9% (95% CI; 10.1–11.7) for umbilical cord blood. Summary estimates for HPV prevalence of spontaneous abortions and spontaneous preterm deliveries, in cervix (spontaneous abortions: 24.5%, and preterm deliveries: 47%, resp.) and placenta (spontaneous abortions: 24.9%, and preterm deliveries: 50%, resp.), were identified to be higher compared to normal full-term pregnancies (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001). Great variation in HPV prevalence was observed between study populations of different geographical locations. This review demonstrates an association between spontaneous abortion, spontaneous preterm delivery, and the presence of HPV in both the cervix and the placenta. However, a reliable conclusion is difficult to draw due to the limited number of studies conducted on material from pregnancies with adverse outcome and the risk of residual confounding. PMID:27110088

  15. Thomson, the right to life, and partial birth abortion or two MULES for Sister Sarah.

    PubMed

    Alward, P

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, I argue that Thomson's famous attempt to reconcile the fetus's putative right to life with robust abortion rights is not tenable. Given her view, whether or not an abortion violates the fetus's right to life depends on the abortion procedure utilised. And I argue that Thomson's view implies that any late term abortion that involves feticide is impermissible. In particular, this would rule out the partial birth abortion technique which has been so controversial of late.

  16. In Utero Bisphenol A Concentration, Metabolism, and Global DNA Methylation Across Matched Placenta, Kidney, and Liver in the Human Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Muna S.; Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Harris, Craig; Dolinoy, Dana C.

    2014-01-01

    While urine has been an easily accessible and feasible matrix for human biomonitoring, analytical measurements in internal tissues and organs can provide more accurate exposure assessments to understand disease etiology. This is especially important for the endocrine active compound, bisphenol A (BPA), where studies investigating internal doses at sensitive periods of human development are currently lacking. Herein, BPA concentrations, BPA-specific metabolizing enzyme gene expression, and global DNA methylation were characterized across three matched tissues from elective pregnancy terminations of 2nd trimester human fetuses: the placenta, liver, and kidney (N=12 each; N=36 total). Compared to liver (free: 0.54-50.5 ng/g), BPA concentrations were lower in matched placenta (<0.05-25.4 ng/g) and kidney (0.08-11.1 ng/g) specimens. BPA-specific metabolism gene expression of GUSB, UGT2B15, STS, and SULT1A1 differed across each tissue type; however, conjugation and deconjugation expression patterns were similar across the fetus. Average LINE1 and CCGG global methylation were 58.3 and 59.2% in placenta, 79.5 and 66.4% in fetal liver, and 77.9 and 77.0% in fetal kidney, with significant tissue-specific DNA methylation differences in both LINE1 (p-value <0.001) and CCGG content (p-value <0.001). Total BPA concentrations were positively associated with global methylation for the placenta only using the LINE1 assay (p-value: 0.002), suggesting organ-specific biological effects after fetal exposure. Utilizing sensitive human clinical specimens, results are informative for BPA toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics assessment in the developing human fetus. PMID:25434263

  17. Synthesis of human adenovirus early RNA species is similar in productive and abortive infections of monkey and human cells.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, K P; Klessig, D F

    1982-01-01

    Northern (RNA) blot analysis has been used to show that synthesis of early mRNA species is similar in monkey cells productively or abortively infected with human adenovirus. mRNA species from all five major early regions (1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4) are identical in size and comparable in abundance whether isolated from monkey cells infected with adenovirus type 2 or with the host range mutant Ad2hr400 or coinfected with adenovirus type 2 plus simian virus 40. The mRNA species isolated from monkey cells are identical in size to those isolated from human cells. Production of virus-associated RNA is also identical in productive and abortive infections of monkey cells. Synthesis of virus-associated RNA is, however, significantly greater in HeLa cells than in CV1 cells at late times after infection regardless of which virus is used in the infection. Images PMID:6283181

  18. Perineal raphe with special reference to its extension to the anus: a histological study using human fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yu; Li, Xiang Wu; Murakami, Gen; Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Francisco; Wilting, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The raphe of the human penis and scrotum is considered to develop secondarily after disappearance of the initial midline seam by fusion of the bilateral genital folds. However, the fetal development was still obscure. We examined histological sections of 30 fetuses (17 males and 13 females) at 10–15 weeks. In male fetuses, the scrotum was not yet clearly identified because of no descent of testis. The perineal raphe was thin and wavy at 10 weeks, and it was continuous with and took a direction same as the inferior wall of the closed penile urethra after physiological hypospadias. Depending on growth of the bulbospongiosus muscle and corpus spongiosus penis, the midline intermuscular septum obtained a connection to the subcutaneous wavy raphe and made the latter thick and straight at 12–15 weeks. Notably, the perineal raphe extended posteriorly to attach to the external anal sphincter. In female fetuses, an epithelial fusion occurred along a short distance at the posterior end of the vestibule. However, in front of the external anal sphincter, a large midline mesenchymal tissue from the urorectal septum did not contain a raphe-like structure. Moreover, since the bilateral bulbospongiosus muscles were separated widely by the vestibule, they did not provide a midline septum. Fetal development of the perineal raphe was accelerated by reinforcement from the muscular septum. In contrast, without such a muscular support, the female raphe could not maintain its growth even if the seed appeared at the posterior end of the vestibule. PMID:27382513

  19. Anococcygeal Raphe Revisited: A Histological Study Using Mid-Term Human Fetuses and Elderly Cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Takashi; Abe, Hiroshi; Abe, Shinichi; Cho, Baik Hwan; Murakami, Gen; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We recently demonstrated the morphology of the anococcygeal ligament. As the anococcygeal ligament and raphe are often confused, the concept of the anococcygeal raphe needs to be re-examined from the perspective of fetal development, as well as in terms of adult morphology. Materials and Methods We examined the horizontal sections of 15 fetuses as well as adult histology. From cadavers, we obtained an almost cubic tissue mass containing the dorsal wall of the anorectum, the coccyx and the covering skin. Most sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or Masson-trichrome solution. Results The adult ligament contained both smooth and striated muscle fibers. A similar band-like structure was seen in fetuses, containing: 1) smooth muscle fibers originating from the longitudinal muscle coat of the anal canal and 2) striated muscle fibers from the external anal sphincter (EAS). However, in fetuses, the levator ani muscle did not attach to either the band or the coccyx. Along and around the anococcygeal ligament, we did not find any aponeurotic tissue with transversely oriented fibers connecting bilateral levator ani slings. Instead, in adults, a fibrous tissue mass was located at a gap between bilateral levator ani slings; this site corresponded to the dorsal side of the ligament and the EAS in the immediately deep side of the natal skin cleft. Conclusion We hypothesize that a classically described raphe corresponds to the specific subcutaneous tissue on the superficial or dorsal side of the anococcygeal ligament. PMID:22665356

  20. Induced Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Induced Abortion Patient Education FAQs Induced Abortion Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  1. Expression and localization of collectins in feto-maternal tissues of human first trimester spontaneous abortion and abortion prone mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yadav, A K; Chaudhari, H; Shah, P K; Madan, T

    2016-02-01

    Dysregulation of immune response at the feto-maternal interface during first trimester of pregnancy is one of the leading causes of spontaneous abortion. Previously, we reported differential expression of collectins, soluble pattern recognition molecules involved in immunoregulation, in placental and decidual tissues during spontaneous labor. In the present pilot study, the expression of collectins was analyzed in the inflamed human gestational tissues of spontaneous abortion ('SA') and in 13.5 dpc placental tissues from resorption survived embryos of murine model (CBA/J X DBA/2J). Transcripts of SP-A were significantly down-regulated and SP-D were significantly up-regulated in placental and decidual tissues of 'SA' group compared to that of 'normal' group. Immunostaining for SP-D and MBL proteins was positive in placental and decidual tissues. However, levels of SP-D and MBL proteins were not significantly altered in placental as well as in decidual tissues of 'SA' group in comparison to the 'normal' group. Placental tissues of viable embryos from the abortion prone mouse model showed significantly enhanced expression of mSP-A and mSP-D transcripts at 13.5 day post coitus (dpc) and 14.5 dpc compared to the control group (CBA/J X Balb/c). Mouse collectins were localized in placental tissues (13.5 dpc), with increased staining in murine model compared to control. Human and murine data together indicate that SP-A, SP-D and MBL are synthesised in early gestational tissues, and may contribute to regulation of immune response at the feto-maternal interface during pregnancy.

  2. A critique of "the best secular argument against abortion".

    PubMed

    Strong, C

    2008-10-01

    Don Marquis has put forward a non-religious argument against abortion based on what he claims is a morally relevant similarity between killing adult human beings and killing fetuses. He asserts that killing adults is wrong because it deprives them of their valuable futures. He points out that a fetus's future includes everything that is in an adult's future, given that fetuses naturally develop into adults. Thus, according to Marquis, killing a fetus deprives it of the same sort of valuable future that an adult is deprived of in being killed and this makes abortion seriously wrong. Commentators have raised a number of objections to Marquis's argument, to which he has satisfactorily responded. In this paper, difficulties with Marquis's argument that have not been considered by previous commentators are pointed out. A main thesis of this paper is that Marquis does not adequately defend his argument against several important objections that he himself has raised. These new considerations support the view that Marquis's argument is unsuccessful. PMID:18827103

  3. A critique of "the best secular argument against abortion".

    PubMed

    Strong, C

    2008-10-01

    Don Marquis has put forward a non-religious argument against abortion based on what he claims is a morally relevant similarity between killing adult human beings and killing fetuses. He asserts that killing adults is wrong because it deprives them of their valuable futures. He points out that a fetus's future includes everything that is in an adult's future, given that fetuses naturally develop into adults. Thus, according to Marquis, killing a fetus deprives it of the same sort of valuable future that an adult is deprived of in being killed and this makes abortion seriously wrong. Commentators have raised a number of objections to Marquis's argument, to which he has satisfactorily responded. In this paper, difficulties with Marquis's argument that have not been considered by previous commentators are pointed out. A main thesis of this paper is that Marquis does not adequately defend his argument against several important objections that he himself has raised. These new considerations support the view that Marquis's argument is unsuccessful.

  4. Chimeras, moral status, and public policy: implications of the abortion debate for public policy on human/nonhuman chimera research.

    PubMed

    Streiffer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly interested in creating chimeras by transplanting human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into animals early in development. One concern is that such research could confer upon an animal the moral status of a normal human adult but then impermissibly fail to accord it the protections it merits in virtue of its enhanced moral status. Understanding the public policy implications of this ethical conclusion, though, is complicated by the fact that claims about moral status cannot play an unfettered role in public policy. Arguments like those employed in the abortion debate for the conclusion that abortion should be legally permissible even if abortion is not morally permissible also support, to a more limited degree, a liberal policy on hESC research involving the creation of chimeras.

  5. [A fetus is a person with a right to exist].

    PubMed

    Bischofberger, E

    1989-12-27

    This article is the contribution of a Jesuit priest, a teacher of medical ethics at Uppsala, to a debate inspired by a Swedish official report "The pregnant woman and fetus--2 individuals. On fetal diagnostics. On late abortions." In a society which depends upon a structured consensus as much as Sweden does, the report has been criticized for not making clearer recommendations. The author points out that the ethical dilemmas involved are so complex that they cannot be treated from a simple either/or point of view. Fetal diagnostics, for example, serve the cause of life when the aim is to avoid abortion of a healthy fetus and make it possible to cure, even at the fetal stage, or to strengthen prospective parents' readiness to accept a handicapped child. The use of fetal diagnostic for sorting out damaged and sick fetuses, however, is selective abortion and implies a violation of the principle that all human life is of equal value. The question is no longer if one will have a child or not, but which child will one have. This collision of values has inspired so many polemic statements that it is worthwhile recalling that there is always a tension between the ethically desirable and the politically possible, The report has succeeded in formulating the ethical principles in spite of the impossibility of seeing them presented as concrete recommendations. Even so, Thomas Aquinas wrote in 13th century that one cannot always apply ethical rules to laws of society. That can lead to more evil than good.

  6. [Religion, morality and politics: the abortion debate].

    PubMed

    Ladriere, P

    1982-01-01

    The views of morality enunciated by the Protestant and Catholic churches in the process of France's abortion law revision are examined through an analysis of the testimony of each church and its moral theologians during hearings held from July-November 1973 by the Commission of Cultural, Family, and Social Affairs of the National Assembly concerning the proposed abortion legislation. The offical Catholic Church position, which restated a neoscholastic philosophy with its theory of human nature, natural law, natural right, and natural morality, was opposed by 2 priests who participated as members of other organizations. The moral principles behind the official Catholic position included the sacred and absolute principle of respect for life, the beginning of human life at conception, and the responsibility to protect the fetus as a human being. Internal Catholic challenges to the official position appeared to rest principally on the question of when life begins but also touched on the inappropriateness of viewing unwanted pregnancy as a punishment for sexual activity, the constant recourse to authority of the church, and the reluctance to reexamine questions on new evidence. Faced with the likely replacement of abortion law consistent with Catholic morality by 1 seriously at variance, the French Church and state while justifying their organized opposition to any change. The right of the church to impose its views on the legislature and on society, the view of the cultural context of abortion as a degradation of public attitudes expressed in rejection of children, the necessary connections between sexuality and fertility, the necessity for women to be able to control their fertility if they were to participate fully in society, the debased conditions in which thousands of illegal abortions occurred or the exaggeration of such conditions were other issues. Proposed legislation on abortion was opposed by the official Catholic position, which instead called for a vaguely

  7. [Religion, morality and politics: the abortion debate].

    PubMed

    Ladriere, P

    1982-01-01

    The views of morality enunciated by the Protestant and Catholic churches in the process of France's abortion law revision are examined through an analysis of the testimony of each church and its moral theologians during hearings held from July-November 1973 by the Commission of Cultural, Family, and Social Affairs of the National Assembly concerning the proposed abortion legislation. The offical Catholic Church position, which restated a neoscholastic philosophy with its theory of human nature, natural law, natural right, and natural morality, was opposed by 2 priests who participated as members of other organizations. The moral principles behind the official Catholic position included the sacred and absolute principle of respect for life, the beginning of human life at conception, and the responsibility to protect the fetus as a human being. Internal Catholic challenges to the official position appeared to rest principally on the question of when life begins but also touched on the inappropriateness of viewing unwanted pregnancy as a punishment for sexual activity, the constant recourse to authority of the church, and the reluctance to reexamine questions on new evidence. Faced with the likely replacement of abortion law consistent with Catholic morality by 1 seriously at variance, the French Church and state while justifying their organized opposition to any change. The right of the church to impose its views on the legislature and on society, the view of the cultural context of abortion as a degradation of public attitudes expressed in rejection of children, the necessary connections between sexuality and fertility, the necessity for women to be able to control their fertility if they were to participate fully in society, the debased conditions in which thousands of illegal abortions occurred or the exaggeration of such conditions were other issues. Proposed legislation on abortion was opposed by the official Catholic position, which instead called for a vaguely

  8. Possible homozygous Waardenburg syndrome in a fetus with exencephaly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-06

    This paper describes a pedigree with Waardenburg syndrome and an aborted fetus who had severe congenital malformations but no detected genetic mutations. The authors concluded that despite the fact that no homozygosity of the fetus was demonstrated, the phenotype pointed to homozygous mutations of the PAX3 gene. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Allahbedashti, Neda

    2014-02-01

    Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas) as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA) and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  10. Abortion, infanticide and moral context.

    PubMed

    Porter, Lindsey

    2013-05-01

    In 'After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?', Giubilini and Minerva argue that infanticide should be permitted for the same reasons as abortion. In particular, they argue that infanticide should be permitted even for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be best interests) of the newborn. They claim that abortion is permissible for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be interests) of the fetus because fetuses lack a right to life. They argue that newborns also lack a right to life, and they conclude that therefore, the same reasons that justify abortion can justify infanticide. This conclusion does not follow. The lack of a right to life is not decisive. Furthermore, the justificatory power of a given reason is a function of moral context. Generalisations about reasons across dissimilar moral contexts are invalid. However, a similar conclusion does follow-that fetus-killing and newborn-killing are morally identical in identical moral contexts-but this conclusion is trivial, since fetuses and newborns are never in identical moral contexts.

  11. Abortion, infanticide and moral context.

    PubMed

    Porter, Lindsey

    2013-05-01

    In 'After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?', Giubilini and Minerva argue that infanticide should be permitted for the same reasons as abortion. In particular, they argue that infanticide should be permitted even for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be best interests) of the newborn. They claim that abortion is permissible for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be interests) of the fetus because fetuses lack a right to life. They argue that newborns also lack a right to life, and they conclude that therefore, the same reasons that justify abortion can justify infanticide. This conclusion does not follow. The lack of a right to life is not decisive. Furthermore, the justificatory power of a given reason is a function of moral context. Generalisations about reasons across dissimilar moral contexts are invalid. However, a similar conclusion does follow-that fetus-killing and newborn-killing are morally identical in identical moral contexts-but this conclusion is trivial, since fetuses and newborns are never in identical moral contexts. PMID:23637451

  12. [About da tai - abortion in old Chinese folk medicine handwritten manuscripts].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinsheng

    2013-01-01

    Of 881 Chinese handwritten volumes with medical texts of the 17th through mid-20th century held by Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin and Ethnologisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, 48 volumes include prescriptions for induced abortion. A comparison shows that these records are significantly different from references to abortion in Chinese printed medical texts of pre-modern times. For example, the percentage of recipes recommended for artificial abortions in handwritten texts is significantly higher than those in printed medical books. Authors of handwritten texts used 25 terms to designate artificial abortion, with the term da tai [see text], lit.: "to strike the fetus", occurring most frequently. Its meaning is well defined, in contrast to other terms used, such as duo tai [see text], lit: "to make a fetus fall", xia tai [see text], lit. "to bring a fetus down", und duan chan [see text], lit., to interrupt birthing", which is mostly used to indicate a temporary or permanent sterilization. Pre-modern Chinese medicine has not generally abstained from inducing abortions; physicians showed a differentiating attitude. While abortions were descibed as "things a [physician with an attitude of] humaneness will not do", in case a pregnancy was seen as too risky for a woman she was offered medication to terminate this pregnancy. The commercial application of abortifacients has been recorded in China since ancient times. A request for such services has continued over time for various reasons, including so-called illegitimate pregnancies, and those by nuns, widows and prostitutes. In general, recipes to induce abortions documented in printed medical literature have mild effects and are to be ingested orally. In comparison, those recommended in handwritten texts are rather toxic. Possibly to minimize the negative side-effects of such medication, practitioners of folk medicine developed mechanical devices to perform "external", i.e., vaginal approaches.

  13. [Fetal experimentation, transplantations, cosmetics and their connection with induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Redondo Calderón, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    The increase in induced abortion produces large numbers of cells, tissues and organs, which are used in several fields of Medicine, either in research or in treatment. The main uses are in Cardiology, Hematology, Metabolism, Embryology, Neurology, Immunology, Ophthalmology, Dermatology and Transplantations. Flavor enhancers and cosmetics also benefit. Utilitarianism has led to an increase in abortion-originated cell and tissue banks. Abortion is justified through the manipulation of language. Vested interests give rise to complicity in researchers and society as a whole. Abortion and tissue 'donation' cannot be split; since fresh tissues are involved there is a symbiotic relationship between them. Valid consent is not possible. A contradiction emerges, the nasciturus is not desired or valued but fetal organs are. When someone is deprived of his rights it is because another wants to enslave them. Research must have a moral base. Knowledge should not be increased at any price. Something that is legal and well intentioned is not always morally acceptable. The duty of omission is applicable. Means to achieve a goal must be ethical means. Educational efforts to restore respect for the human embryo and fetus must be promoted. Technical advances are not always in accordance with human nature and dignity. Research and treatment that do not resort to cells, tissues and organs obtained from induced abortions should be promoted.

  14. [Fetal experimentation, transplantations, cosmetics and their connection with induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Redondo Calderón, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    The increase in induced abortion produces large numbers of cells, tissues and organs, which are used in several fields of Medicine, either in research or in treatment. The main uses are in Cardiology, Hematology, Metabolism, Embryology, Neurology, Immunology, Ophthalmology, Dermatology and Transplantations. Flavor enhancers and cosmetics also benefit. Utilitarianism has led to an increase in abortion-originated cell and tissue banks. Abortion is justified through the manipulation of language. Vested interests give rise to complicity in researchers and society as a whole. Abortion and tissue 'donation' cannot be split; since fresh tissues are involved there is a symbiotic relationship between them. Valid consent is not possible. A contradiction emerges, the nasciturus is not desired or valued but fetal organs are. When someone is deprived of his rights it is because another wants to enslave them. Research must have a moral base. Knowledge should not be increased at any price. Something that is legal and well intentioned is not always morally acceptable. The duty of omission is applicable. Means to achieve a goal must be ethical means. Educational efforts to restore respect for the human embryo and fetus must be promoted. Technical advances are not always in accordance with human nature and dignity. Research and treatment that do not resort to cells, tissues and organs obtained from induced abortions should be promoted. PMID:23320641

  15. Chemokine CCL28 induces apoptosis of decidual stromal cells via binding CCR3/CCR10 in human spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chan; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Tang, Chuan-Ling; Wang, Song-Cun; Piao, Hai-Lan; Tao, Yu; Zhu, Rui; Du, Mei-Rong; Li, Da-Jin

    2013-10-01

    Spontaneous abortion is the most common complication of pregnancy. Immune activation and the subsequent inflammation-induced tissue injury are often observed at the maternal-fetal interface as the final pathological assault in recurrent spontaneous abortion. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for spontaneous abortion involving inflammation are not fully understood. Chemokine CCL28 and its receptors CCR3 and CCR10 are important regulators in inflammatory process. Here, we examined the expression of CCL28 and its receptors in decidual stromal cells (DSCs) by immunochemistry and flow cytometry (FCM), and compared their expression level in DSCs from normal pregnancy versus spontaneous abortion, and their relationship to inflammatory cytokines production by DSCs. We further analyzed regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines on CCL28 expression in DSCs by real-time polymerase chain reaction, In-cell Western and FCM. The effects of CCL28-CCR3/CCR10 interaction on DSC apoptosis was investigated by Annexin V staining and FCM analysis or DAPI staining and nuclear morphology. Higher levels of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-17A and tumor necrosis factor-α, and increased CCR3/CCR10 expression were observed in DSCs from spontaneous abortion compared with normal pregnancy. Treatment with inflammatory cytokines differently affected CCL28 and CCR3/CCR10 expression in DSCs. Human recombinant CCL28 promoted DSC apoptosis, which was eliminated by pretreatment with neutralizing antibodies against CCR3/CCR10 and CCL28. However, CCL28 did not affect DSC growth. These results suggest that the inflammation-promoted up-regulation of CCL28 and its receptors interaction in DSCs is involved in human spontaneous abortion via inducing DSC apoptosis.

  16. Europe's abortion wars: womb for debate.

    PubMed

    Blinken, A J

    1991-01-01

    As Europe edges toward some sort of unity, the volatile abortion debate has begun to spill across national boundaries. Reflecting the continent's religious and cultural diversity, abortion laws throughout Europe vary widely. Holland and Sweden have the most liberal abortion laws. The former allows abortion on demand, while the later permits abortion until the 18th week -- and possibly up until term, if the National Health Bureau gives permission. Britain, France, and Belgium have also adopted liberal abortion laws. Other nations, however, have more conservative laws. Since 1983, Ireland has banned abortion entirely. Spain allows abortion only in cases of rape, malformed fetuses, or when the mother's life is in danger. Many countries are also experiencing bitter debates over abortion. Czechoslovakia's liberal abortion law has come under increasing pressure, and in Poland, bishops and legislators have feuded over the legality of abortion. The move towards unification has only intensified these debates. Germany is currently without a national abortion law, as the former East Germany still enjoys a more liberal abortion law than West Germany. Differences over abortion laws have led to what is know in Europe as abortion shipping. Every year, an estimated 15,000 Irish women travel to England, some 7,000 German women go to Holland, and some 3,000 French women travel to England -- all seeking to take advantage of another country's abortion law. Some Europeans have begun to look for continent-wide laws on abortion. Recently, an Irish group argued against its country's law before the European court of Justice. Right-to-life groups have also fought to establish continent-wide restrictions. So far, it seems unlikely that Europe will reach an agreement on the issue of abortion.

  17. Pyramidal tract abnormalities in the human fetus and infant with trisomy 18 syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Hajime; Miyata, Mio; Ohama, Eisaku

    2014-06-01

    Trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome is known to exhibit various developmental abnormalities in the central nervous system. We report dominant uncrossed pyramidal tract in trisomy 18 syndrome, based on the postmortem neuropathologic study of eight consecutive autopsied fetuses and infants with trisomy 18 ranging in age from 16 to 39 weeks of gestation, including six males and two females, along with autopsy cases of a stillborn triploid infant with 69XXX and two stillborn infants without chromosomal or neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Five out of eight cases with trisomy 18 showed a larger proportion of uncrossed than crossed pyramidal tract. All of these cases were male, and the anterior corticospinal tract on one side was constantly larger than the contralateral lateral corticospinal tract in the spinal cord on both sides, while the pyramidal tract was hypoplastic in female cases with trisomy 18 and a case with 69XXX. Abnormal pyramidal decussation has been found in cases with posterior fossa malformations such as occipital encephaloceles, Dandy-Walker malformation, Joubert syndrome and Möbius syndrome, but has not been described in cases with trisomy 18. Our data, together with the previous reports describing uncrossed aberrant ipsilateral pyramidal tract in patients with congenital mirror movements caused by DCC gene mutation in chromosome 18, and hypolasia and hyperplasia of the pyramidal tract in X-linked recessive disorders caused by L1CAM and Kal1 gene mutations, respectively, suggest a role of trisomy 18 in association with X-chromosome in the abnormal development of the pyramidal tract.

  18. The continuous measurement of tissue pH in the human fetus during labour using a new application technique.

    PubMed

    Flynn, A M; Kelly, J

    1980-08-01

    The subcutaneous tissue pH (tpH) of 61 fetuses has been measured continuously during labour using the tissue pH electrode designed by Stamm (Stamm et al, 1976) and adapted for use by Roche Medical and Laboratory Systems. These 61 fetuses fell chronologically into two groups: Group 1 comprised 31 fetuses in whom the original method of fixation to the fetal scalp was used, and Group 2 comprised 30 fetuses in whom the fixation apparatus incorporated the latest technical developments of the double spiral electrocardiograph (ECG) electrode and the fetal tpH Applicator Tool Set Model 678449. Better results were obtained with Model 678449.

  19. Pyramidal tract abnormalities in the human fetus and infant with trisomy 18 syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Hajime; Miyata, Mio; Ohama, Eisaku

    2014-06-01

    Trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome is known to exhibit various developmental abnormalities in the central nervous system. We report dominant uncrossed pyramidal tract in trisomy 18 syndrome, based on the postmortem neuropathologic study of eight consecutive autopsied fetuses and infants with trisomy 18 ranging in age from 16 to 39 weeks of gestation, including six males and two females, along with autopsy cases of a stillborn triploid infant with 69XXX and two stillborn infants without chromosomal or neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Five out of eight cases with trisomy 18 showed a larger proportion of uncrossed than crossed pyramidal tract. All of these cases were male, and the anterior corticospinal tract on one side was constantly larger than the contralateral lateral corticospinal tract in the spinal cord on both sides, while the pyramidal tract was hypoplastic in female cases with trisomy 18 and a case with 69XXX. Abnormal pyramidal decussation has been found in cases with posterior fossa malformations such as occipital encephaloceles, Dandy-Walker malformation, Joubert syndrome and Möbius syndrome, but has not been described in cases with trisomy 18. Our data, together with the previous reports describing uncrossed aberrant ipsilateral pyramidal tract in patients with congenital mirror movements caused by DCC gene mutation in chromosome 18, and hypolasia and hyperplasia of the pyramidal tract in X-linked recessive disorders caused by L1CAM and Kal1 gene mutations, respectively, suggest a role of trisomy 18 in association with X-chromosome in the abnormal development of the pyramidal tract. PMID:24313853

  20. Chronic intermittent materno-fetal hyperoxygenation in late gestation may improve on hypoplastic cardiovascular structures associated with cardiac malformations in human fetuses.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Hypoplasia of cardiovascular structures is a common finding in fetuses with cardiac malformations. Materno-fetal hyperoxygenation (HO) during late gestation promotes venous return to the fetal heart. This analysis in human fetuses sought to define whether this "loading" effect might improve hypoplastic cardiovascular dimensions. Fifteen late-gestation fetuses presented with varying degrees of hypoplastic cardiovascular structures. In these cases, chronic intermittent materno-fetal HO was administered during periods ranging from 8 to 33 days. Cardiac measurements were taken before and at the end of treatment and translated into Z-scores as well as plotted on normal growth charts. During the treatment period, chronic intermittent materno-fetal HO was associated with improved dimensions of >or=1 hypoplastic cardiovascular structures in most fetuses. However, in some cases, the effect of HO was neutralized or impaired by the presence of ventricular septal defects as well as obstructions to ventricular filling or emptying. Chronic intermittent materno-fetal HO near term may be associated with improvements of hypoplastic cardiovascular dimensions in fetuses with a spectrum of cardiac malformations. This effect may facilitate postnatal treatment and improve prognosis in suitable cases.

  1. A Melodic Contour Repeatedly Experienced by Human Near-Term Fetuses Elicits a Profound Cardiac Reaction One Month after Birth

    PubMed Central

    Granier-Deferre, Carolyn; Bassereau, Sophie; Ribeiro, Aurélie; Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne; DeCasper, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Human hearing develops progressively during the last trimester of gestation. Near-term fetuses can discriminate acoustic features, such as frequencies and spectra, and process complex auditory streams. Fetal and neonatal studies show that they can remember frequently recurring sounds. However, existing data can only show retention intervals up to several days after birth. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that auditory memories can last at least six weeks. Experimental fetuses were given precisely controlled exposure to a descending piano melody twice daily during the 35th, 36th, and 37th weeks of gestation. Six weeks later we assessed the cardiac responses of 25 exposed infants and 25 naive control infants, while in quiet sleep, to the descending melody and to an ascending control piano melody. The melodies had precisely inverse contours, but similar spectra, identical duration, tempo and rhythm, thus, almost identical amplitude envelopes. All infants displayed a significant heart rate change. In exposed infants, the descending melody evoked a cardiac deceleration that was twice larger than the decelerations elicited by the ascending melody and by both melodies in control infants. Conclusions/Significance Thus, 3-weeks of prenatal exposure to a specific melodic contour affects infants ‘auditory processing’ or perception, i.e., impacts the autonomic nervous system at least six weeks later, when infants are 1-month old. Our results extend the retention interval over which a prenatally acquired memory of a specific sound stream can be observed from 3–4 days to six weeks. The long-term memory for the descending melody is interpreted in terms of enduring neurophysiological tuning and its significance for the developmental psychobiology of attention and perception, including early speech perception, is discussed. PMID:21383836

  2. "Braxton Hick's" or the birth of a new era? Tracing the development of Ireland's abortion laws in respect of European Court of Human Rights Jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Daly, Brenda

    2011-09-01

    In Ireland, Article 40.3.3 degrees of Bunreacht na hEireann (the Irish Constitution) guarantees the right to life of the unborn child and the equal right to life of the mother. Abortion in Ireland is permissible only where there is a real and substantial risk to the mother's own life. Since Ireland became a signatory to the European Convention on Human Rights in 1950,2 there have been concerns that it could result in Ireland being compelled to introduce a right to abortion. This article commences with a review of the extant law on abortion in Ireland, tracing the Constitutional protection afforded to the unborn child. The article will discuss the impact of the European Court of Human Rights' jurisprudence in regard to access to abortion and to information on abortion services in Ireland in an effort to ascertain if it really has resulted in a radical change to Irish abortion laws. As such, it will also be necessary to examine the more recent decisions of the ECtHR such as Tysiac v. Poland, and A, B, and C v. Ireland, to determine both the approach of the ECtHR to access to abortion in general and also to consider if it has resulted in a liberalisation of abortion law in Ireland.

  3. Preparation of Polyclonal Antibody Specific for BRD7 and Detection of Its Expression Pattern in the Human Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huaying; Li, Xiaoling; Niu, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Liming; Zhou, Ming; Huang, He; He, Jiajin; Zhang, Wenling; Xiao, Lan; Tang, Yunlian; Wang, Li; Li, Guiyuan

    2008-01-01

    BRD7 is a novel bromodomain gene. It plays critical role in cell growth, cell cycle progression, and signal-dependent gene expression. Overexpression of the BRD7 gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells is effective to inhibit cell growth and cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase. However, little is known about its bio-functions because of the unavailability of a specific BRD7 antibody. In this study, for the first time, we generated a highly specific BRD7 antibody. It is able to specifically recognize recombinant GST-BRD7N protein with a molecular mass of 65 kDa and recognize BRD7-Myc and endogenously expressed BRD7 protein with an approximate molecular mass of 75 kDa, which corresponds well with the calculated molecular mass of the BRD7 protein. More importantly, with these antisera, we analyzed BRD7 distribution in the human fetus by Western blot and immunohistochemistry assays. Obvious nuclear expression of BRD7 protein presents in human cerebellum, pancreas, intestines, liver, and kidney. Cardiomyocyte shows high cytoplasm expression of the BRD7 protein. Weak nuclear expression of the BRD7 protein is found in human cerebrum, lung, and stomach. These data may help to further study the cellular role of the BRD7 gene. In particular, the prepared BRD7 antibody will be helpful for studying the bio-functions of endogenously expressed BRD7 protein. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:531–538, 2008) PMID:18071067

  4. Concise review: human umbilical cord stroma with regard to the source of fetus-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Can, Alp; Karahuseyinoglu, Sercin

    2007-11-01

    Human umbilical cord (UC) has been a tissue of increasing interest in recent years. Many groups have shown the stem cell potency of stromal cells isolated from the human UC mesenchymal tissue, namely, Wharton's jelly. Since UC is a postnatal organ discarded after birth, the collection of cells does not require an invasive procedure with ethical concerns. Stromal cells, as the dominant cells of this fetus-derived tissue, possess multipotent properties between embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. They bear a relatively higher proliferation rate and self-renewal capacity. Although they share common surface markers with bone marrow-derived MSCs, they also express certain embryonic stem cell markers, albeit in low levels. Without any spontaneous differentiation, they can be successfully differentiated into mature adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, skeletal myocytes, cardiomyocytes, neurons, and endothelial cells. While causing no immunorejection reaction, they effectively function in vivo as dopaminergic neurons, myocytes, and endothelial cells. Given these characteristics, particularly the plasticity and developmental flexibility, UC stromal cells are now considered an alternative source of stem cells and deserve to be examined in long-term clinical trials. This review first aims to document the published findings so far regarding the nature of human UC stroma with special emphasis on the spatial distribution and functional structure of stromal cells and matrix, which serves as a niche for residing cells, and, secondly, to assess the in vitro and in vivo experiments in which differential stem cell potencies were evaluated.

  5. [Late-term abortions--a legislative problem].

    PubMed

    Neidert, Rudolf

    2008-08-01

    Based on the coalition agreement of 2005 aimed at improving the situation regarding late-term abortions, the author examines to what extent the current legislation on abortion requires amendment. In an historical overview, he explores the long tradition of the step-wise protection of life commensurate with the gradual "animation" of the fetus, the abortion of which by "human hand" was a punishable crime. Having been observed in civil codes of modern times for centuries, this tradition finally perished in section sign 218 of 1871. With the embryopathic indication of 1974, a comparatively late deadline of 22 weeks came back into force. However, since the German Bundestag overruled this indication in 1995, only the unlimited (until birth) medico-social indication (section sign 218 par. 2 of the German criminal code) applies to late terminations, according to which even late terminations of fetuses of extrauterine viability are "not unlawful". While examining both decisions of the German Federal Constitutional Court and the literature, the author makes the case for restricting section sign 281 a par. 2 with extrauterine viability of the child--according to the constitutional preservation of life and our legal tradition--strictly to those cases where the pregnant woman's life is in danger. PMID:18787861

  6. [Late-term abortions--a legislative problem].

    PubMed

    Neidert, Rudolf

    2008-08-01

    Based on the coalition agreement of 2005 aimed at improving the situation regarding late-term abortions, the author examines to what extent the current legislation on abortion requires amendment. In an historical overview, he explores the long tradition of the step-wise protection of life commensurate with the gradual "animation" of the fetus, the abortion of which by "human hand" was a punishable crime. Having been observed in civil codes of modern times for centuries, this tradition finally perished in section sign 218 of 1871. With the embryopathic indication of 1974, a comparatively late deadline of 22 weeks came back into force. However, since the German Bundestag overruled this indication in 1995, only the unlimited (until birth) medico-social indication (section sign 218 par. 2 of the German criminal code) applies to late terminations, according to which even late terminations of fetuses of extrauterine viability are "not unlawful". While examining both decisions of the German Federal Constitutional Court and the literature, the author makes the case for restricting section sign 281 a par. 2 with extrauterine viability of the child--according to the constitutional preservation of life and our legal tradition--strictly to those cases where the pregnant woman's life is in danger.

  7. Abortion stigma: a reconceptualization of constituents, causes, and consequences.

    PubMed

    Norris, Alison; Bessett, Danielle; Steinberg, Julia R; Kavanaugh, Megan L; De Zordo, Silvia; Becker, Davida

    2011-01-01

    Stigmatization is a deeply contextual, dynamic social process; stigma from abortion is the discrediting of individuals as a result of their association with abortion. Abortion stigma is under-researched and under-theorized, and the few existing studies focus only on women who have had abortions. We build on this work, drawing from the social science literature to describe three groups whom we posit are affected by abortion stigma: Women who have had abortions, individuals who work in facilities that provide abortion, and supporters of women who have had abortions, including partners, family, and friends, as well as abortion researchers and advocates. Although these groups are not homogeneous, some common experiences within the groups--and differences between the groups--help to illuminate how people manage abortion stigma and begin to reveal the roots of this stigma itself. We discuss five reasons why abortion is stigmatized, beginning with the rationale identified by Kumar, Hessini, and Mitchell: The violation of female ideals of sexuality and motherhood. We then suggest additional causes of abortion stigma, including attributing personhood to the fetus, legal restrictions, the idea that abortion is dirty or unhealthy, and the use of stigma as a tool for anti-abortion efforts. Although not exhaustive, these causes of abortion stigma illustrate how it is made manifest for affected groups. Understanding abortion stigma will inform strategies to reduce it, which has direct implications for improving access to care and better health for those whom stigma affects.

  8. Distribution of elastic fibers in the head and neck: a histological study using late-stage human fetuses.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Hideaki; Umezawa, Takashi; Omine, Yuya; Kasahara, Masaaki; Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shinichi

    2013-03-01

    There is little or no information about the distribution of elastic fibers in the human fetal head. We examined this issue in 15 late-stage fetuses (crown-rump length, 220-320 mm) using aldehyde-fuchsin and elastica-Masson staining, and we used the arterial wall elastic laminae and external ear cartilages as positive staining controls. The posterior pharyngeal wall, as well as the ligaments connecting the laryngeal cartilages, contained abundant elastic fibers. In contrast with the sphenomandibular ligament and the temporomandibular joint disk, in which elastic fibers were partly present, the discomalleolar ligament and the fascial structures around the pterygoid muscles did not have any elastic fibers. In addition, the posterior marginal fascia of the prestyloid space did contain such fibers. Notably, in the middle ear, elastic fibers accumulated along the tendons of the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles and in the joint capsules of the ear ossicle articulations. Elastic fibers were not seen in any other muscle tendons or vertebral facet capsules in the head and neck. Despite being composed of smooth muscle, the orbitalis muscle did not contain any elastic fibers. The elastic fibers in the sphenomandibular ligament seemed to correspond to an intermediate step of development between Meckel's cartilage and the final ligament. Overall, there seemed to be a mini-version of elastic fiber distribution compared to that in adults and a different specific developmental pattern of connective tissues. The latter morphology might be a result of an adaptation to hypoxic conditions during development.

  9. Endocrine dysfunction and recurrent spontaneous abortion: An overview.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ramandeep; Gupta, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    Miscarriage is the spontaneous loss of a fetus before it is viable, occurring at a rate of 15-20%. Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) or habitual miscarriage is defined as repeated occurrence of 3 or more miscarriages before 20(th) week of gestation accounting for the most common complication of early pregnancy in humans. Various etiological factors responsible for recurrent miscarriage are anatomical, genetical, endocrinological, immunological, and infectious. The endocrinological abnormalities may be polycystic ovarian syndrome, hyperprolactinemia, luteal phase defect, thyroid dysfunction, diabetes, or hyperandrogenism contributing to recurrent pregnancy loss. In the present article, the role of endocrinological disorders in patients with RSA has been reviewed. The article search was done using electronic databases, Google scholarly articles, and PubMed based on different key words. We have further combined the searches and made grouping as per various endocrine abnormalities, which might be responsible to cause spontaneous loss of fetus. PMID:27127734

  10. Endocrine dysfunction and recurrent spontaneous abortion: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ramandeep; Gupta, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    Miscarriage is the spontaneous loss of a fetus before it is viable, occurring at a rate of 15–20%. Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) or habitual miscarriage is defined as repeated occurrence of 3 or more miscarriages before 20th week of gestation accounting for the most common complication of early pregnancy in humans. Various etiological factors responsible for recurrent miscarriage are anatomical, genetical, endocrinological, immunological, and infectious. The endocrinological abnormalities may be polycystic ovarian syndrome, hyperprolactinemia, luteal phase defect, thyroid dysfunction, diabetes, or hyperandrogenism contributing to recurrent pregnancy loss. In the present article, the role of endocrinological disorders in patients with RSA has been reviewed. The article search was done using electronic databases, Google scholarly articles, and PubMed based on different key words. We have further combined the searches and made grouping as per various endocrine abnormalities, which might be responsible to cause spontaneous loss of fetus. PMID:27127734

  11. Endocrine dysfunction and recurrent spontaneous abortion: An overview.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ramandeep; Gupta, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    Miscarriage is the spontaneous loss of a fetus before it is viable, occurring at a rate of 15-20%. Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) or habitual miscarriage is defined as repeated occurrence of 3 or more miscarriages before 20(th) week of gestation accounting for the most common complication of early pregnancy in humans. Various etiological factors responsible for recurrent miscarriage are anatomical, genetical, endocrinological, immunological, and infectious. The endocrinological abnormalities may be polycystic ovarian syndrome, hyperprolactinemia, luteal phase defect, thyroid dysfunction, diabetes, or hyperandrogenism contributing to recurrent pregnancy loss. In the present article, the role of endocrinological disorders in patients with RSA has been reviewed. The article search was done using electronic databases, Google scholarly articles, and PubMed based on different key words. We have further combined the searches and made grouping as per various endocrine abnormalities, which might be responsible to cause spontaneous loss of fetus.

  12. Abort Options for Human Lunar Missions between Earth Orbit and Lunar Vicinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald L.; Senent, Juan S.; Llama, Eduardo Garcia

    2005-01-01

    Apollo mission design emphasized operational flexibility that supported premature return to Earth. However, that design was tailored to use expendable hardware for short expeditions to low-latitude sites and cannot be applied directly to an evolutionary program requiring long stay times at arbitrary sites. This work establishes abort performanc e requirements for representative onorbit phases of missions involvin g rendezvous in lunar-orbit, lunar-surface and at the Earth-Moon libr ation point. This study submits reference abort delta-V requirements and other Earth return data (e.g., entry speed, flight path angle) and also examines the effect of abort performance requirements on propul sive capability for selected vehicle configurations.

  13. Abortion cases worrying.

    PubMed

    Mwanza, G

    1994-01-01

    The writer believes that life begins the instant that an human sperm cell and ovule fuse. This life must be respected and preserved. Abortion is shameful, but tolerated when either the mother or would-be baby's life is at stake. As the number of abortions continue to increase, the controversy over a woman's right to abortion rages on. The author wonders whether questions about abortion will ever be resolved and considers some possible solutions with reference to Zambia. There are many early pregnancies among Zambian youths. A 1993 study found 207 abortions per year in the country among 15-19 year olds; this includes illegal, incomplete, and induced abortions. The Coordinator for the Young Women Christian Association in Lusaka thinks that inadequate sex education is one of the factors contributing to the ever-rising number of abortions today. Youths have sexual intercourse without understanding the possible consequences. Parents, community leaders, and school authorities should instead become more involved and teach children about sex to lessen the incidence of abortion. Specifically, parents should talk to their children about sex as they mature, teaching them about their biological reproductive features and functions. The author is convinced that once children and youths understand their bodies, it will be very easy for them to control their desires. Most male and female teens do, however, cite love and sexual desire as the primary motives for their first relationships. The writer also mentions how pregnant girls get expelled from school and that women experience mental and physical side effects from induced abortion.

  14. Comparative stereological studies on zonation and cellular composition of adrenal glands of normal and anencephalic human fetuses. II. Cellular composition of the gland.

    PubMed

    Bocian-Sobkowska, J; Malendowicz, L K; Woźniak, W

    1997-04-01

    In our previous paper (Bocian-Sobkowska et al., 1997) we demonstrated a striking difference in development of zonation in adrenals of normal and anencephalic human fetuses. The purpose of the present study was to characterize, by means of stereology, the cellular composition of developing adrenals in the same case. Studies were performed on 11 pairs of adrenal glands from normal fetuses and 10 from anencephalic fetuses. In the studied period of development (24 to 39 weeks of intra-uterine life) the average volume of cells in normal glands increased as follows: zona glomerulosa (ZG) from 355 to 870 microns3; zona fasciculata (ZF) from 779 to 1200 microns3; fetal zone (FZ) from 2004 to 2380 microns3: and medulla (M) from 600 to 970 microns3. In anencephalic fetuses, the appropriate values were: ZG-380-680 microns3; ZF-460-680 microns3; FZ-1820-1680 microns3; and M-870-1400 microns3. At the end of the studied period the number of ZG cells in normal fetuses was two fold higher than in anencephalics, ZF cells-6-fold and in FZ-5-fold higher, while in the M the number of cells was nearly equal in both groups. During the whole investigated period of intra-uterine development the total number of adrenocortical cells in normal glands increased ca 2.5-fold, while in anencephalic glands only ca 0.5-fold, reaching at the end ca 40% of normal value. In both normal and anencephalic adrenals the number of ZG and M cells was highly correlated with ZG/M cell ratio, being slightly higher in normal glands. No such relation was demonstrated for cells of the remaining adrenocortical zones. PMID:9151128

  15. Analysis by Light, Scanning, and Transmission Microscopy of the Intima Synovial of the Temporomandibular Joint of Human Fetuses during the Development

    PubMed Central

    Alvez, Carlos Sabu; Carvalho de Moraes, Luis Otavio; Marques, Sergio R.; Tedesco, Roberto C.; Harb, Leandro J. C.; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose F.; Mérida-Velasco, Jose R.; Alonso, Luis Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To characterize morphologically and ultrastructurally using light microscopy, the scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy the intima synovial of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of human fetuses between the 10th and the 38th week of development. Materials and Methods. The TMJ was dissected bilaterally in 37 human fetuses belonging to the Institute of Embryology of the University Complutense of Madrid and of the Federal University of São Paulo. Results. The outcome by light microscopy showed the morphology of the TMJ and that the formation of inferior joint cavity precedes the superior joint cavity and the presence of blood vessels in the synovial. Conclusion. By scanning and transmission electron microscopy we observed the presence of two well-defined cell types in the intima layer of synovial of the TMJ of human fetuses, macrophage-like type A cell and fibroblast-like type B cell, and the presence of the a third cell type, defined by the name of intermediate lining cell in the intima layer of the synovial. PMID:24527214

  16. Lymphocyte subpopulations in the liver, spleen, intestines, and mesenteric nodes: an immunohistochemical study using human fetuses at 15-16 weeks.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Si Eun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yu, Hee Chul; Murakami, Gen; Cho, Baik Hwan

    2014-08-01

    The roles of the liver and intestines in lymphocyte differentiation in human fetuses were assessed by immunohistochemical analysis of the thymus, bone marrow, liver, spleen, intestines, and lymph nodes of 15-16 week human fetuses using primary antibodies against IgM, CD3, CD7, CD8, CD10, CD20, CD45RO, HLA-DR, and CD68. The density of immunoreactive lymphocytes was high in the thymus and lymph nodes, but much lower in the bones, liver, spleen, and intestines. The medulla of the thymus contained IgM-positive mature B lymphocytes as well as CD20-positve B lymphocytes. In contrast, CD10-positive immature B lymphocytes were restricted in the cortex. There were no site-dependent differences among axillary, mediastinal, mesenteric, and pelvic lymph nodes. CD68-positive cells were observed at all sites examined. Many HLA-DR-positive round cells were present in the thymus, with fewer in the liver and spleen. The absolute number of lymphocytes was estimated to be ≥10-fold higher in lymph nodes than in liver. Although limited by analysis of only one fetal stage, these findings suggest that mesenteric nodes are likely to be more important than the liver, spleen, and intestines for lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation in human mid-term fetuses.

  17. [Abortion. Spain: the keys to the controversy].

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    For many years, illegal abortion has been denounced in Spain. The estimate of 300,000 abortions annually is widely quoted but poorly founded in fact. Weekend "charters" to London and Amsterdam for women seeking abortions have been commented upon, denounced, and caricatured. The evidence indicates that abortions occur in Spain despite their illegality, just as they occur in every other country and have always occurred. Poor women abort in a poor way, with traditional healers, while rich women abort in a rich way, with physicians. "Charters" are the solution of the middle class. Proposed legislation in Spain would permit abortion on 3 grounds: rape, fetal malformation, and risk to the woman's life if the pregnancy continued. Excesses have been committed both by those opposing abortion and by those struggling for liberalization of laws. Defenders of abortion, such as radical feminists, appear to forget that abortion is a medical procedure with possible dangerous psychophysical consequences, and that preventive measures such as sex education and diffusion of contraception or social measures such as assistance for unwed mothers and their children would be preferrable to abortion. There is the question of whether medical personnel should be excused from assisting in abortions on grounds of conscience and whether those who do assist in abortions automatically become "progressive" by doing so. The staunchest defenders of fetal life are not moved to contribute anything beyond words to improvement of the plight of the many millions of already born who live in miserable conditions of hunger and want. Abortion is a violent act against the fetus and the pregnant woman. Its criminalization is a violent act against the woman and a social intrusion into matters better left to personal ethics. The government which proposes abortion on a few grounds fails to initiate a program to promote life through social protection of single mothers and their children or of families in general

  18. Abortion: pro and contra.

    PubMed

    Jebereanu, Laura; Jebereanu, Diana; Alaman, Roxana; Tofan, Andra; Jebereanu, Sorin; Pauncu, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    To kill a new life before it's born, to do an abortion. This is a problem of many generations. In the evolution of human civilization, the attitude concerning abortion was different in different cultures, periods, societies. The aim of our study is to evaluate the actual opinion and attitude of young persons, students, and residents in medicine in Timisoara city, and the situation of the whole country. We performed a questionnaire for 400 people, between the ages of 19 and 28 with superior studies. The group is composed of 320 (80%) women and 80 (20%) men. We accepted for recording and analyzing all the the completed questionnaires. The questions referred to the topic of abortion in the antecedents, and asked if they had had one, how it affected the life of the women and her family, the circumstances of acceptance of abortion today, religious aspects and different other aspects. PMID:17146907

  19. Mourning and Guilt among Greek Women Having Repeated Abortions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naziri, D.; Tzavaras, A.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted clinical study concerning bereavement process of Greek women after abortion. Found strong identificatory tendencies on both mother and father images. Argues that, in cases of repeated abortion, mourning and guilt do not only refer to murdered and lost "person-fetus" but principally to death and loss of object of ambiguous desire.…

  20. Abortion Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brashear, Diane B.

    1973-01-01

    The author discusses the characteristics and feelings of women undergoing abortion. She mentions the decisions which counselors must help such women face, the information they must be given, and the types of support they need. Increased counseling services are needed, she feels, for the markedly increased number of women seeking abortions. (EK)

  1. Identification of the origin of adrenergic and cholinergic nerve fibers within the superior hypogastric plexus of the human fetus

    PubMed Central

    Zaitouna, Mazen; Alsaid, Bayan; Diallo, Djibril; Benoit, Gérard; Bessede, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Nerve fibers contributing to the superior hypogastric plexus (SHP) and the hypogastric nerves (HN) are currently considered to comprise an adrenergic part of the autonomic nervous system located between vertebrae (T1 and L2), with cholinergic aspects originating from the second to fourth sacral spinal segments (S2, S3 and S4). The aim of this study was to identify the origin and the nature of the nerve fibers within the SHP and the HN, especially the cholinergic fibers, using computer-assisted anatomic dissection (CAAD). Serial histological sections were performed at the level of the lumbar spine and pelvis in five human fetuses between 14 and 30 weeks of gestation. Sections were treated with histological staining [hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson's trichrome (TriM)] and with immunohistochemical methods to detect nerve fibers (anti-S100), adrenergic fibers (anti-TH), cholinergic fibers (anti-VAChT) and nitrergic fibers (anti-nNOS). The sections were then digitalized using a high-resolution scanner and the 3D images were reconstructed using winsurf software. These experiments revealed the coexistence of adrenergic and cholinergic fibers within the SHP and the HNs. One-third of these cholinergic fibers were nitrergic fibers [anti-VACHT (+)/anti-NOS (+)] and potentially pro-erectile, while the others were non-nitrergic [anti-VACHT (+)/anti-NOS (−)]. We found these cholinergic fibers arose from the lumbar nerve roots. This study described the nature of the SHP nerve fibers which gives a better understanding of the urinary and sexual dysfunctions after surgical injuries. PMID:23668336

  2. Megakaryocyte growth and development factor is a potent growth factor for primitive hematopoietic progenitors in the human fetus.

    PubMed

    Muench, Marcus O; Bárcena, Alicia

    2004-06-01

    Megakaryocyte growth and development factor (MGDF), or thrombopoietin, has received considerable attention as a therapeutic agent for treating thrombocytopenia or for its use in the ex vivo culture of hematopoietic stem cells. MGDF is known to support the growth of a broad spectrum of hematopoietic precursors obtained from adult or neonatal tissues, but its effects on the growth of fetal progenitors and stem cells has not been studied. Human CD38(+)CD34(2+) progenitors and CD38(-)CD34(2+) cells, a population that contains stem cells, were isolated from midgestation liver and grown under defined conditions with MGDF and various cytokines known to support the growth of primitive hematopoietic precursors. In clonal assays of colony-forming cells (CFCs), MGDF supported the growth of 15-25% of candidate stem cells when combined with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), flk-2/flt3 ligand, or stem cell factor. MGDF was observed to strongly support the early stages of hematopoiesis and expansion of high proliferative potential CFCs. More mature progenitors were expanded nearly 78-fold in 1 wk of culture with MGDF+SCF+GM-CSF. MGDF alone was also found to support the short-term (2 d) survival of CD38(-)CD34(2+) high proliferative potential CFCs. The effects of MGDF were more modest on CD38(+)CD34(2+) progenitors with only additive increases in colony formation being observed. These findings suggest that MGDF administration in fetuses and neonates may strongly affect the growth and mobilization of primitive hematopoietic progenitors and that MGDF may find use in the ex vivo growth and expansion of fetal stem cells.

  3. Identification of the origin of adrenergic and cholinergic nerve fibers within the superior hypogastric plexus of the human fetus.

    PubMed

    Zaitouna, Mazen; Alsaid, Bayan; Diallo, Djibril; Benoit, Gérard; Bessede, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Nerve fibers contributing to the superior hypogastric plexus (SHP) and the hypogastric nerves (HN) are currently considered to comprise an adrenergic part of the autonomic nervous system located between vertebrae (T1 and L2), with cholinergic aspects originating from the second to fourth sacral spinal segments (S2, S3 and S4). The aim of this study was to identify the origin and the nature of the nerve fibers within the SHP and the HN, especially the cholinergic fibers, using computer-assisted anatomic dissection (CAAD). Serial histological sections were performed at the level of the lumbar spine and pelvis in five human fetuses between 14 and 30 weeks of gestation. Sections were treated with histological staining [hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson's trichrome (TriM)] and with immunohistochemical methods to detect nerve fibers (anti-S100), adrenergic fibers (anti-TH), cholinergic fibers (anti-VAChT) and nitrergic fibers (anti-nNOS). The sections were then digitalized using a high-resolution scanner and the 3D images were reconstructed using winsurf software. These experiments revealed the coexistence of adrenergic and cholinergic fibers within the SHP and the HNs. One-third of these cholinergic fibers were nitrergic fibers [anti-VACHT (+)/anti-NOS (+)] and potentially pro-erectile, while the others were non-nitrergic [anti-VACHT (+)/anti-NOS (-)]. We found these cholinergic fibers arose from the lumbar nerve roots. This study described the nature of the SHP nerve fibers which gives a better understanding of the urinary and sexual dysfunctions after surgical injuries.

  4. How technology is reframing the abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Callahan, D

    1986-02-01

    Since the 1973 Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion, medical and scientific developments have focused greater public and professional attention on the status of the fetus. Their cumulative effect may influence legal, social, and moral thought and set the stage for a change in public opinion and a challenge to legalized abortion. There is as yet no inexorable convergence of medical data and legal opinion that would undermine the rational of Roe v. Wade. But the prochoice movement must find room for an open airing of the moral questions if abortion is to remain what it should be--a legally acceptable act.

  5. The immunohistochemical localization of Fas and Fas ligand in jaw bone and tooth germ of human fetuses.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, S; Tomichi, N; Ohara-Nemoto, Y; Satoh, M

    2000-05-01

    The cellular localization and roles of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and apoptosis-associating factors in human orofacial development remain unclear. In this study, BMP-2, osteocalcin, and TGF-beta, which are bone-differentiating markers, apoptosis-associating factors (i.e., Bcl-2, Bax, Fas, and Fas ligand), apoptotic cells detected by the in situ 3'-end labeling method (TUNEL), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were immunohistochemically examined in the heads (in particular, the jaw bone and tooth germs) of human fetuses of 11-week pregnancy. BMP-2 was positive in osteoblasts and newly formed osteoid of the incisive and palatal bone of the maxilla and the mandible, which indicated that BMP-2 was exclusively involved in intramembranous ossification in the human fetal head. Fas was positive in the cytoplasm of osteocytes and a few osteoblasts. In contrast, Fas ligand was positive in the cytoplasm of osteoblasts and abundant in the stroma of the osteoblastic layer, periosteum, and perichondrium. The Fas ligand in the stroma was recognized as the soluble form, which was possibly produced by osteoblasts. TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were found in a few osteocytes and a few osteoblastic cells in new bone, and in monocytes of degenerate Meckel's cartilage. The induction of apoptosis observed in monocytes seems to be caused via a Fas-Fas ligand cell death system, because some of these monocytes were Fas-positive, and most of them were Fas ligand-positive. Interestingly, the abundant soluble Fas ligand observed in the periosteum probably protects the bone-formative zone from the invasion of the activated lymphocytes by binding to Fas expressing in these lymphocytes and killing these cells. Fas and Fas ligand were focally positive in the dental lamina and inner enamel epithelium and cusps of the enamel organ, nevertheless, the presence of TUNEL-positive cells was very rare. Bcl-2 was clearly and Bax was weakly positive in the cells throughout the dental

  6. Whole genome sequence analysis indicates recent diversification of mammal-associated Campylobacter fetus and implicates a genetic factor associated with H2S production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter fetus can cause disease in both humans and animals. C. fetus has been divided into three subspecies: C. fetus subsp. fetus (Cff), C. fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) and C. fetus subsp. testudinum. Subspecies identification of C. fetus strains is crucial in the control of Bovine Genital C...

  7. Invoking health and human rights to ensure access to legal abortion: the case of a nine-year-old girl from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Hord, Charlotte E; Mitchell, Ellen M H; Blandon, Marta Maria

    2006-01-01

    Human rights and public health advocates working to compel states to guarantee access to legal abortion services face obstacles. We describe the challenges faced by "Rosa", a nine-year old Nicaraguan girl, whose pregnancy following rape sparked international controversy. The health and human rights arguments utilized either to support or undermine her family's petition for access to legal abortion are explored. Rosa's case highlights how laws that narrowly restrict abortion and make access contingent upon health care providers' approval undermine human rights principles. The article analyzes the strengths, limitations, and complementarity of health and human rights approaches for achieving access to safe, legal services in restrictive contexts. The importance of strategic alliances and implications for future cases are considered. PMID:17265755

  8. After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?

    PubMed

    Giubilini, Alberto; Minerva, Francesca

    2013-05-01

    Abortion is largely accepted even for reasons that do not have anything to do with the fetus' health. By showing that (1) both fetuses and newborns do not have the same moral status as actual persons, (2) the fact that both are potential persons is morally irrelevant and (3) adoption is not always in the best interest of actual people, the authors argue that what we call 'after-birth abortion' (killing a newborn) should be permissible in all the cases where abortion is, including cases where the newborn is not disabled. PMID:22361296

  9. After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?

    PubMed

    Giubilini, Alberto; Minerva, Francesca

    2013-05-01

    Abortion is largely accepted even for reasons that do not have anything to do with the fetus' health. By showing that (1) both fetuses and newborns do not have the same moral status as actual persons, (2) the fact that both are potential persons is morally irrelevant and (3) adoption is not always in the best interest of actual people, the authors argue that what we call 'after-birth abortion' (killing a newborn) should be permissible in all the cases where abortion is, including cases where the newborn is not disabled.

  10. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum type strain 03-427T

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum has been isolated from reptiles and humans. This Campylobacter subspecies is genetically distinct from other C. fetus subspecies. Here we present the first whole genome sequence for this C. fetus subspecies....

  11. Chlamydia pecorum: fetal and placental lesions in sporadic caprine abortion.

    PubMed

    Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats. PMID:26965241

  12. Debate: Should Abortion Be Available on Request?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Bernard; Lawrence, George

    1971-01-01

    Two physicians debate whether abortions should be available on request regardless of medical indications. The crux of the issue is whether the fetus should be considered body tissue over which the woman has complete control or whether society has an interest in the embryo and should protect it. (Author/BY)

  13. Attitudes towards abortion in the Danish population.

    PubMed

    Norup, Michael

    1997-10-01

    This article reports the results of a survey, by mailed questionnaire, of the attitudes among a sample of the Danish population towards abortion for social and genetic reasons. Of 1080 questionnaires sent to a random sample of persons between 18 and 45 years, 731 (68%) were completed and returned. A great majority of the respondents were liberal towards early abortion both for social reasons and in case of minor disease. In contrast, there was controversy about late abortions for social reasons and in the case of Down syndrome. Further there was strong reluctance to accept late abortion in case of minor disease. An analysis of the response patterns showed that most of the respondents had gradualist views on abortion, i.e. they would allow all early abortions, but only abortions for some reasons later in pregnancy. It was also found that the number who would find an early abortion acceptable in general was much higher than the number who would accept it in their own case. These findings suggest that a great part of the resistance towards abortion does not rest on a concern for the rights and interests for the fetus. Instead it may be explained on a view according to which fetal life is ascribed intrinsic moral value.

  14. Dworkin and Casey on abortion.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Sarah

    1996-01-01

    This article responds to two important recent treatments of abortion rights. I will mainly discuss Ronald Dworkin's recent writings concerning abortion: his article "Unenumerated rights: whether and how Roe should be overruled," and his book Life's Dominion. In these writings Dworkin presents a novel view of what the constitutional and moral argument surronding abortion is really about. Both debates actually turn, he argues, on the question of how to interpret the widely shared idea that human life is sacred. At the heart of the abortion debate is the essentially religious notion that human life has value which transcends its value to any particular person; abortion is therefore at bottom a religious issue. Dworkin hopes to use this analysis to show that the religion clauses of the First Amendment provide a "textual home" for a woman's right to choose abortion. I wish to scrutinize this suggestion here; I want to probe the precise consequences for abortion rights of such an understanding of their basis. I will argue that the consequences are more radical than Dworkin seems to realize. The other work I will examine here is the important 1992 Supreme Court decision on abortion, Planned Parenthood v. Casey. The controlling opinion in that case, written jointly by Justices Kennedy, O'Connor, and Souter, strongly reaffirmed Roe v. Wade, but also upheld most of the provisions of a Pennsylvania statute that had mandated various restrictions on abortion. The justices' basis for upholding these restictions was their introduction of a new constitutional standard for abortion regulations, an apparently weaker standard than those that had governed previous Supreme Court abortion decisions. I think there is a flaw in Casey's new constitutional test for abortion regulations, and I will explain, when we turn to Casey, what it is and why it bears a close relation to Dworkin's reluctance to carry his argument as far as it seems to go.

  15. Ex utero: live human fetal research and the films of Davenport Hooker.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Emily K

    2014-01-01

    Between 1932 and 1963 University of Pittsburgh anatomist Davenport Hooker, Ph.D., performed and filmed noninvasive studies of reflexive movement on more than 150 surgically aborted human fetuses. The resulting imagery and information would contribute substantially to new visual and biomedical conceptions of fetuses as baby-like, autonomous human entities that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s. Hooker's methods, though broadly conforming to contemporary research practices and views of fetuses, would not have been feasible later. But while Hooker and the 1930s medical and general public viewed live fetuses as acceptable materials for nontherapeutic research, they also shared a regard for fetuses as developing humans with some degree of social value. Hooker's research and the various reactions to his work demonstrate the varied and changing perspectives on fetuses and fetal experimentation, and the influence those views can have on biomedical research. PMID:24769805

  16. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase in the developing human fetus: quantitative biochemical and immunological characterization of the hepatic, renal, and adrenal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Barker, E V; Hume, R; Hallas, A; Coughtrie, W H

    1994-02-01

    The sulfation of the adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a critical step in the provision of substrates for estrogen biosynthesis by the placenta during pregnancy. This enzyme reaction is catalyzed by a cytosolic sulfotransferase (ST) found in many key body tissues, and we have examined the ontogeny and localization of expression of this important enzyme in three tissues: the liver, adrenal, and kidney. Hepatic DHEA ST expression increased with advancing gestational age before reaching near-adult levels in the early postnatal period, suggesting an increased requirement for this enzyme in the liver as development progresses, whereas in the adrenal and kidney there was no obvious ontogenic pattern. The enzyme was expressed at a 5-fold higher level in the adrenal than in the liver and some 40-fold higher than in the kidney. Comparison of enzyme activity measurements and quantitation of the expression of DHEA ST by immunodot blot analysis with an anti-DHEA ST antibody preparation demonstrated the fragility of the enzyme activity and suggested that immunoquantitation was a superior method for assessment of levels of expression of this enzyme in widely different tissue sources. Examination of the localization of DHEA ST in these tissues by immunohistochemistry showed that in liver, DHEA ST was expressed in embryonic hepatocytes and continued to be expressed in these cells into adulthood, when there was some concentration of immunostaining around central veins. In the fetus, the adrenal enzyme was expressed in the fetal zone, whereas in adult tissue, staining was localized principally to the zona reticularis. Renal DHEA ST was present in the proximal and distal tubules, loops of Henle, collecting ducts, and their progenitors, but was at no time expressed in the vascular glomerulus. In light of the broad substrate specificity of this enzyme toward other steroids, in particular bile acids and cholesterol, the information presented forms a strong basis for

  17. Public funding of abortions and abortion counseling for poor women.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R B

    1997-01-01

    This essay seeks to reveal the weakness in arguments against public funding of abortions and abortion counseling in the US based on economic, ethico-religious, anti-racist, and logical-consistency objections and to show that public funding of abortion is strongly supported by appeals to basic human rights, to freedom of speech, to informed consent, to protection from great harm, to justice, and to equal protection under the law. The first part of the article presents the case against public funding with detailed considerations of the economic argument, the ethico/religious argument, the argument that such funding supports racist genocide or eugenic quality control, and arguments that a logical inconsistency exists between the principles used to justify the legalization of abortions and arguments for public funding. The second part of the article presents the case for public funding by discussing the spending of public funds on morally offensive programs, arguments for public funding of abortion counseling for the poor, and arguments for public funding of abortions for the poor. It is concluded that it is morally unacceptable and rationally unjustifiable to refuse to expend public funds for abortions for low income women, because after all most money for legal abortions for the poor comes from welfare payments made to women. If conservative forces want to insure that no public funds pay for abortions, they must stop all welfare payments to pregnant women. PMID:12348330

  18. Prevalence of parvovirus B19 specific antibody in pregnant women with spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Nahid; Vali Zadeh, Saeid; Ghorbani, Raheb; Kheradmand, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is a very common viral infection especially in school-aged children. The infection during pregnancy can affect the fetus due to lack of mother's immunity. Although, there is still no evidence of fetal teratogenic effects with parvovirus B19, but non-immune fetal hydrops and abortion may be caused by vertical transmission of the virus during pregnancy. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) in pregnant women who had a spontaneous abortion. This cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women who referred due to a spontaneous abortion. All demographic information such as age, occupation, and gestational age, last history of abortion, gravity, and presence of children below the age of six was recorded and a blood sample was provided for all the women. Then, the blood samples were tested to assay parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) by EuroImmune ELISA kit. Among 94 pregnant women with the mean age of 28.4 years who had a spontaneous abortion, parvovirus B19 specific antibody (IgM) was detected in 17 participants (18.1%). Meanwhile, 14 women (14.9%) were suspected for presence of the antibody in their blood sample. There was no significant difference between the presence of antibody and age of pregnant women, occupation, gestational age, number of previous abortion, presence of children below the age of six and number of pregnancy. These findings revealed that a high percentage of pregnant women are probably non-immune against parvovirus B19, and also there might be a number of spontaneous abortions in which parvovirus infection caused fetal death.  However, more studies are needed to prove the absolute role of parvovirus B19 in these abortions.

  19. Visualising abortion: emotion discourse and fetal imagery in a contemporary abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Nick; Zeedyk, Suzanne; Raitt, Fiona

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a recent UK anti-abortion campaign in which the use of fetal imagery--especially images of fetal remains--was a prominent issue. A striking feature of the texts produced by the group behind the campaign was the emphasis given to the emotions of those viewing such imagery. Traditionally, social scientific analyses of mass communication have problematised references to emotion and viewed them as being of significance because of their power to subvert the rational appraisal of message content. However, we argue that emotion discourse may be analysed from a different perspective. As the categorisation of the fetus is a social choice and contested, it follows that all protagonists in the abortion debate (whether pro- or anti-abortion) are faced with the task of constructing the fetus as a particular entity rather than another, and that they must seek to portray their preferred categorisation as objective and driven by an 'out-there' reality. Following this logic, we show how the emotional experience of viewing fetal imagery was represented so as to ground an anti-abortion construction of the fetus as objective. We also show how the arguments of the (pro-abortion) opposition were construed as totally discrepant with such emotions and so were invalidated as deceitful distortions of reality. The wider significance of this analysis for social scientific analyses of the abortion debate is discussed. PMID:15893054

  20. Spain still in need of a good abortion law.

    PubMed

    Gasco, M

    1991-09-01

    In 1985 Spain adopted a new abortion law that allows women to have abortions if: 1) the pregnancy poses a physical or mental risk, 2) the fetus risks a defect, 3) in cases of rape. 94% of all abortions are carried out in private clinics. Before the law only 411 abortions were reported, after the law 16,766 were reported the next year. 52% of the women were unmarried, 49% had no children, and 93% were less than 12 weeks pregnant. The availability of safe abortions is limited by: 1) lack of centers in most geographical regions and 2) lack of clinics or hospitals in the public health system that will give abortion services. The addition of 4th ground for abortion would not significantly improve access to abortion services since 98% of all abortions are performed under the mental risk indication. A better solution would be to adopt a time limit system similar to other European countries. Since 93% of all abortion occur within 12 weeks of pregnancy, it would accommodate most women. However, whether by executive order or legislation, increasing legal access will still not increase access. There simply is n system in place to accommodate the number of women who would seek abortions i they became legal (it is estimated that 200000 women got to England annually seeking abortion.) Doctors do not want to perform abortions and there is no social or legal standing to force them to do so. PMID:12284545

  1. Abortion in a just society.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M E

    1993-01-01

    A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.

  2. [The abortion from bioethics: autonomy of woman and physician?].

    PubMed

    León Correa, Francisco Javier

    2010-01-01

    In this reflection on abortion, we will analyze from the bioethics viewpoint the concept of autonomy, in accordance with the liberal individual model and personal ambitions to be applied to the woman's and the doctor's decision making and the society in general. Now that the abortion liberalization is being proposed in Spain through a law that intends to substitute the decriminalization of certain assumptions that have been in effect since 1985, it is necessary to analyze in deep the ethical aspects beyond the legal and social approaches. Bioethics and Law must join together, since both have the same aim: the promotion of human life respect and its basic rights; safeguard -as long as possible-, the values within an interpersonal relationship that lead to fulfill a woman's life having an unwanted pregnancy, as well as that of the fetus and the doctor; and always trying to protect the rights of those who are the weakest: the woman and the fetus, without disregarding everyone's duties with them. PMID:20405975

  3. Does obstetric ethics have any role in the obstetrician's response to the abortion controversy?

    PubMed

    Chervenak, F A; McCullough, L B

    1990-11-01

    We defend the view that the obstetrician's response to the abortion controversy cannot be based on accounts of the independent moral status of the fetus, because all such accounts are irresolvably disputable. That response, however, can be based on an account of the dependent moral status of the fetus. For such an account the central question is, "When is the fetus a patient?" Viable fetuses are patients. Nonviable third-trimester fetuses are not patients. Previable fetuses are patients solely as a function of the woman's autonomous decision to confer such status. The abortion of a viable fetus is, with few exceptions, never ethically justified, because it is a patient. The abortion of nonviable third-trimester fetuses (i.e., premature termination of pregnancy) is justified when the pregnant women consents to it. Abortion of the previable fetus is justifiable when the pregnant women consents to it. We distinguish between professional and private conscience. We identify the limits of the former and the legitimate role of the latter, especially in the area of religious beliefs. Finally, we address the implications of our view for residency training programs. The most important of these implications is that requiring all residents to perform abortions is ethically unjustifiable.

  4. Second trimester abortion provision: breaking the silence and changing the discourse.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lisa H

    2008-05-01

    How do abortion providers determine how late in pregnancy they will provide abortion services? While law, training and socio-political factors likely play a part, this essay considers additional factors, including: personal and psychological aspects, visceral responses to the fetus and fetal parts at later gestations, feelings that second trimester abortion is violent, and ethical concerns with second trimester abortion. Providers may censor themselves with respect to these issues, fearing that honest acknowledgement of difficult aspects may be dangerous to the pro-choice movement; that is, such acknowledgements could appear to legitimise the anti-abortion stance that second trimester abortion is gruesome and morally unacceptable. I argue that this silence is harmful to providers, the pro-choice movement and the women who need abortion services. I make the case for pro-choice discourse that is honest about the nature of abortion procedures and uses this honesty to strengthen abortion care, including second trimester abortion. PMID:18772087

  5. Space Shuttle Abort Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.

  6. Studies on immunoproteasome in human liver. Part I: Absence in fetuses, presence in normal subjects, and increased levels in chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Vasuri, Francesco; Capizzi, Elisa; Bellavista, Elena; Mishto, Michele; Santoro, Aurelia; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Capri, Miriam; Cescon, Matteo; Grazi, Gian Luca; Grigioni, Walter Franco; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Franceschi, Claudio

    2010-06-25

    Despite the central role of proteasomes in relevant physiological pathways and pathological processes, this topic is unexpectedly largely unexplored in human liver. Here we present data on the presence of proteasome and immunoproteasome in human livers from normal adults, fetuses and patients affected by major hepatic diseases such as cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis. Immunohistochemistry for constitutive ({alpha}4 and {beta}1) and inducible (LMP2 and LMP7) proteasome subunits, and for the PA28{alpha}{beta} regulator, was performed in liver samples from 38 normal subjects, 6 fetuses, 2 pediatric cases, and 19 pathological cases (10 chronic active hepatitis and 9 cirrhosis). The immunohistochemical data have been validated and quantified by Western blotting analysis. The most striking result we found was the concomitant presence in hepatocyte cytoplasm of all healthy subjects, including the pediatric cases, of constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome subunits, as well as PA28{alpha}{beta}. At variance, immunoproteasome was not present in hepatocytes from fetuses, while a strong cytoplasmic and nuclear positivity for LMP2 and LMP7 was found in pathological samples, directly correlated to the histopathological grade of inflammation. At variance from other organs such as the brain, immunoproteasome is present in livers from normal adult and pediatric cases, in apparent absence of pathological processes, suggesting the presence of a peculiar regulation of the proteasome/immunoproteasome system, likely related to the physiological stimuli derived from the gut microbiota after birth. Other inflammatory stimuli contribute in inducing high levels of immunoproteasome in pathological conditions, where its role deserve further attention.

  7. Abortion (Amendment) Bill.

    PubMed

    Dundon, S

    1980-02-23

    Your editorial of Jan. 26 and the multi-signatory letter in your issue of Feb. 2 support the 1967 Abortion Act and suggest that Mr. Corrie's Bill is a retrograde step. The implication is that our professional knowledge should lead us to that conclusion. To take the opposite view risks being regarded as a member of a pressure group or a conscientious objector, but to remain silent might be construed as being in agreement. As I see it the great majority of people of varying ethnic groups, including those adhering to the Jewish, Muslim, and Christian faiths, subscribe to a behavioral code which regards human life as sacred: to take a life is to be countenanced only to save another. Abortion should be regarded as taking human life and morally wrong; making abortion legal does not make it morally right. Doctors are in a very difficult position, and cannot, no more than politicians can, make moral decisions for other people. Traditionally, however, the profession has a role in the responsibility for protection of life, and perhaps the public have a right to expect this protection. Human life begins at conception and some human rights begin at this time. Life (and its protection) seems to be a most basic right. The World Medical Association, in the Declaration of Oslo (1970), stated: "1. The first moral principle imposed upon the doctor is respect for human life as expressed in a clause of the Declaration of Geneva: 'I will maintain the utmost respect for human life from the time of conception.'" The 1967 Abortion Act did not result from a general referendum, much less a medical referendum. If the Corrie Bill is passed and abortions are cut by 2/3 as you suggest, this would, in my view, be a step, not back, but in the right direction.

  8. Fixed-Base Simulator Studies of the Ability of the Human Pilot to Provide Energy Management Along Abort and Deep-Space Entry Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. W.; Goode, M. W.

    1962-01-01

    A simulation study has been made to determine a pilot's ability to control a low L/D vehicle to a desired point on the earth with initial conditions ranging from parabolic orbits to abort conditions along the boost phase of a deep-space mission. The program was conducted to develop procedures which would allow the pilot to perform the energy management functions required while avoiding the high deceleration or skipout region and to determine the information display required to aid the pilot in flying these procedures. The abort conditions studied extend from a region of relatively high flight-path angles at suborbital velocities while leaving the atmosphere to a region between orbital and near-escape velocity outside the atmosphere. The conditions studied included guidance from suborbital and superorbital aborts as well as guidance following return from a deepspace mission. In this paper, the role of the human pilot?s ability to combine safe return abort procedures with guidance procedures has been investigated. The range capability from various abort and entry conditions is also presented.

  9. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  10. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  11. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  12. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  13. Human rights accountability for maternal death and failure to provide safe, legal abortion: the significance of two ground-breaking CEDAW decisions.

    PubMed

    Kismödi, Eszter; de Mesquita, Judith Bueno; Ibañez, Ximena Andión; Khosla, Rajat; Sepúlveda, Lilian

    2012-06-01

    In 2011, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) issued two landmark decisions. In Alyne da Silva Pimentel v. Brazil, the first maternal death case decided by an international human rights body, it confirms that States have a human rights obligation to guarantee that all women, irrespective of their income or racial background, have access to timely, non-discriminatory, and appropriate maternal health services. In L.C. v. Peru, concerning a 13-year-old rape victim who was denied a therapeutic abortion and had an operation on her spine delayed that left her seriously disabled as a result, it established that the State should guarantee access to abortion when a woman's physical or mental health is in danger, decriminalise abortion when pregnancy results from rape or sexual abuse, review its restrictive interpretation of therapeutic abortion and establish a mechanism to ensure that reproductive rights are understood and observed in all health care facilities. Both cases affirm that accessible and good quality health services are vital to women's human rights and expand States' obligations in relation to these. They also affirm that States must ensure national accountability for sexual and reproductive health rights, and provide remedies and redress in the event of violations. And they reaffirm the importance of international human rights bodies as sources of accountability for sexual and reproductive rights violations, especially where national accountability is absent or ineffective.

  14. Spontaneous abortion and unexpected death: a critical discussion of Marquis on abortion.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Mary Clayton

    2013-02-01

    In his classic paper, 'Why abortion is immoral', Don Marquis argues that what makes killing an adult seriously immoral is that it deprives the victim of the valuable future he/she would have otherwise had. Moreover, Marquis contends, because abortion deprives a fetus of the very same thing, aborting a fetus is just as seriously wrong as killing an adult. Marquis' argument has received a great deal of critical attention in the two decades since its publication. Nonetheless, there is a potential challenge to it that seems to have gone unnoticed. A significant percentage of fetuses are lost to spontaneous abortion. Once we bring this fact to our attention, it becomes less clear whether Marquis can use his account of the wrongness of killing to show that abortion is the moral equivalent of murder. In this paper, I explore the relevance of the rate of spontaneous abortion to Marquis' classic anti-abortion argument. I introduce a case I call Unexpected Death in which someone is about to commit murder, but, just as the would-be murderer is about to strike, his would-be victim dies unexpectedly. I then ask: what does Marquis' account of killing imply about the moral status of what the would-be murderer was about to do? I consider four responses Marquis could give to this question, and I examine what implications these responses have for Marquis' strategy of using his account of the wrongness of killing an adult to show that abortion is in the same moral category. PMID:23038800

  15. Two steps back: Poland's new abortion law.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, W

    1993-06-01

    After the fall of Communism in Poland, the Catholic church exerted pressure to increase its influence in public life. One way in which this pressure has manifested itself has been in the passing of a restrictive abortion bill which was signed into law on February 15, 1993. Abortion had been legalized in Poland in 1956 and was used as a means of birth control because of a lack of availability and use of contraceptives. The number of abortions performed was variously reported as 60,000 - 300,000/year. In 1990, the Ministry of Health imposed restrictions on abortions at publicly funded hospitals, and 3 deaths were reported from self-induced abortions. In 1 year (1989-90), the number of induced abortions at 1 hospital dropped from 71 to 19, while the number of self-induced abortions increased from 48 to 85. Further restrictions were introduced in May 1992 as part of the "Ethical Code for Physicians," which allows abortions only in cases where the mother's life or health is in danger or in cases or rape. This code brought abortions to a halt at publicly funded hospitals and doubled or even tripled the cost of private abortions. Women have been refused abortions in tragic and life=threatening situations since the code was adopted. When an outright anti family planning bill was drafted in November 1992, the Polish citizenry collected 1,300,000 signatures to force a referendum. The referendum was not held, but the bill was defeated. The amended bill which passed allows abortions in publicly funded hospitals only when the mother's life or health is in danger and in cases of rape, incest, or incurable deformity of the fetus. The implications of this law remain unclear, since its language is strange and vague. The reproductive rights of Polish women face a further threat because the Catholic church is working to limit the availability of contraceptive methods which they deem to be "early abortives." On the other side of the issue, the Federation for Women and Planned

  16. Genome-wide epigenetic alterations in cloned bovine fetuses.

    PubMed

    Cezar, Gabriela Gebrin; Bartolomei, Marisa S; Forsberg, Erik J; First, Neal L; Bishop, Michael D; Eilertsen, Kenneth J

    2003-03-01

    To gain a better understanding of global methylation differences associated with development of nuclear transfer (NT)-generated cattle, we analyzed the genome-wide methylation status of spontaneously aborted cloned fetuses, cloned fetuses, and adult clones that were derived from transgenic and nontransgenic cumulus, genital ridge, and body cell lines. Cloned fetuses were recovered from ongoing normal pregnancies and were morphologically normal. Fetuses generated by artificial insemination (AI) were used as controls. In vitro fertilization (IVF) fetuses were compared with AI controls to assess effects of in vitro culture on the 5-methylcytosine content of fetal genomes. All of the fetuses were female. Skin biopsies were obtained from cloned and AI-generated adult cows. All of the adult clones were phenotypically normal and lactating and had no history of health or reproductive disorders. Genome-wide cytosine methylation levels were monitored by reverse-phase HPLC, and results indicated reduced levels of methylated cytosine in NT-generated fetuses. In contrast, no differences were observed between adult, lactating clones and similarly aged lactating cows produced by AI. These data imply that survivability of cloned cattle may be closely related to the global DNA methylation status. This is the first report to indicate that global methylation losses may contribute to the developmental failure of cloned bovine fetuses. PMID:12604655

  17. Is there a trans-abdominal testicular descent during the second gestational trimester? Study in human fetuses between 13 and 23 weeks post conception

    PubMed Central

    Favorito, Luciano A.; Bernardo, Fabio O.; Costa, Suelen F.; Sampaio, Francisco J. B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To confirm if a real inner descend of testis occurs, correlating the testicular position with fetal parameters and analyzing the position of the testes relative to the internal ring. Material and Methods Twenty nine human fetuses between 13 and 23 weeks post conception (WPC) were studied. The fetuses were carefully dissected with the aid of a stereoscopic lens with 16/25X magnification and testicular position observed. With the aid of a digital pachymeter the distance between the lower pole of the kidney and the upper extremity of the testis (DK-T) was measured to show the position of the testis. During the dissection we also indicated the position of the testes relative to the internal ring. Means were statistically compared using simple linear regression and the paired T-test. Results The 58 testes had abdominal position. The DK-T in the right side measured between 0.17 and 1.82cm (mean=0.79cm) and in the left side it was between 0.12 and 1.84cm (mean=0.87cm), without statistically differences (p=0.0557). The linear regression analysis indicated that DK-T in both sides correlated significantly and positively with fetal age. All fetuses with more than 20 WPC, heavier than 350g and with CRL over 22cm had a greater distance than the average DK-T. We xobserved that the 58 testis remains adjacent to the internal ring throughout the period studied. Conclusions The testes remains adjacent to the internal ring throughout the period studied, indicating that there is no real trans-abdominal testicular descent during the second gestational trimester. PMID:27286121

  18. Human Non-persons, Feticide, and the Erosion of Dignity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Feticide, the practice of terminating the life of an otherwise viable fetus in utero, has become an increasingly common practice in obstetric centres around the globe, a concomitant of antenatal screening technologies. This paper examines this expanding practice in light of the concept of human dignity. Although it is assumed from the outset that even viable human fetuses are not persons and as such do not enjoy full membership in the moral community, it is argued that the fact that these are nevertheless human fetuses affords them prima facie moral status. Thus even those who accept a liberal position with regard to therapeutic abortion, should be concerned about these more recent developments. Indeed, how we treat viable human fetuses has implications for our prospective treatment of other human non-persons and could undermine the common human dignity we all share. PMID:21212811

  19. Human Non-persons, Feticide, and the Erosion of Dignity.

    PubMed

    Pullman, Daryl

    2010-12-01

    Feticide, the practice of terminating the life of an otherwise viable fetus in utero, has become an increasingly common practice in obstetric centres around the globe, a concomitant of antenatal screening technologies. This paper examines this expanding practice in light of the concept of human dignity. Although it is assumed from the outset that even viable human fetuses are not persons and as such do not enjoy full membership in the moral community, it is argued that the fact that these are nevertheless human fetuses affords them prima facie moral status. Thus even those who accept a liberal position with regard to therapeutic abortion, should be concerned about these more recent developments. Indeed, how we treat viable human fetuses has implications for our prospective treatment of other human non-persons and could undermine the common human dignity we all share. PMID:21212811

  20. [Ontological and ethical status of anencephalic fetus].

    PubMed

    Besio R, Mauricio; Besio H, Francisca

    2008-06-01

    Due to advances in prenatal techniques, it is now possible to diagnose malformations in utero, such as anencephaly, which in the past was only known at birth. Having knowledge of a malformation before birth, the moment in which almost every individual obtains social and legal protection, puts the malformed fetus in a vulnerable situation toward possible actions that lead to the interruption of pregnancy. The aim of this article is to analyze different positions about the quality and reality of the anencephalic fetus, its human condition and the care that the fetus and mother deserve. PMID:18769837

  1. Orion Abort Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Peggy Sue

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of NASA's Constellation project is to create the new generation of spacecraft for human flight to the International Space Station in low-earth orbit, the lunar surface, as well as for use in future deep-space exploration. One portion of the Constellation program was the development of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) to be used in spaceflight. The Orion spacecraft consists of a crew module, service module, space adapter and launch abort system. The crew module was designed to hold as many as six crew members. The Orion crew exploration vehicle is similar in design to the Apollo space capsules, although larger and more massive. The Flight Test Office is the responsible flight test organization for the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office originally proposed six tests that would demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests were to be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and were similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. The first flight test of the launch abort system was a pad abort (PA-1), that took place on 6 May 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Primary flight test objectives were to demonstrate the capability of the launch abort system to propel the crew module a safe distance away from a launch vehicle during a pad abort, to demonstrate the stability and control characteristics of the vehicle, and to determine the performance of the motors contained within the launch abort system. The focus of the PA-1 flight test was engineering development and data acquisition, not certification. In this presentation, a high level overview of the PA-1 vehicle is given, along with an overview of the Mobile Operations Facility and information on the White Sands tracking sites for radar & optics. Several lessons learned are presented, including detailed information on the lessons learned in the development of wind

  2. Detection of cytomegalovirus, human parvovirus B19, and herpes simplex virus-1/2 in women with first-trimester spontaneous abortions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ya; Bian, Guohui; Zhou, Qiongxiu; Gao, Zhan; Liao, Pu; Liu, Yu; He, Miao

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between viral infections and first-trimester spontaneous abortions is not well-understood. The study aim was to investigate the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV), human parvovirus B19 (B19V), and herpes simplex virus-1/2 (HSV-1/2) infection by molecular and serological techniques in women experiencing spontaneous miscarriage in the first trimester of pregnancy. Plasma samples were examined for CMV, B19V, and HSV-1/2 DNA using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time qPCR), and for specific IgG antibodies against B19V, CMV, and HSV-1/2 using serological assays. The abortion group consisted of women (n = 1,716) with a history of two or more first-trimester spontaneous abortions. Women younger than 30 years possess higher portion to experience spontaneous abortion. No specimens were positive for B19V or CMV DNA. Seven out of the 1,716 specimens were positive for HSV-1/2 DNA. By serology, 47.24% of patients were positive for B19V IgG, 39.66% for HSV IgG, 79.31% for CMV IgG, and 9.31% for B19V IgM. The high rate of positivity for CMV IgG suggests that the majority of women with first-trimester spontaneous abortions are not susceptible to primary CMV infection. The lack of virus DNA in the majority of cases indicates that B19V, CMV, and HSV-1/2 infection is not commonly associated with first-trimester spontaneous abortion.

  3. Abortion in Croatia and Slovenia.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In Slovenia abortion will continue to be available during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy as it has been since 1978. The Slovenian Constitutional Court passed this decision in December, 1991 calling the right to abortion a basic human right. T he ruling was a setback both for the government's conservative parties and the Catholic church. In Croatia, where the Catholic church is campaigning against abortion, the situation is quite different. Zagreb is full of stickers and posters with anti-abortion messages branding abortion murder and spreading inaccurate information in announcements. In 1990, there were 56,000 abortions. For every child that was born, one was aborted. The largest Croatian newspaper publicizes the Catholic view. They want pro-choice women of the volunteer group Tresnjevka to stop their struggle. The church and conservative women's groups press for inclusion of abortion in the Constitution. They are very powerful, and the fear is that might soon succeed in restricting or outlawing abortion. Tresnjevka is making efforts to organize a coordination and information center for women in Zagreb where there are 350,000 women and children refugees. Informative brochures are printed on natural healing methods in gynecology, as drugs are very scarce, and addresses for gynecological emergency care are also provided. Abortion has been legally available on demand during the 1st 10 weeks of pregnancy since 1978. Fore year Tresnjevka has worked for women, trying to raise funds from personal donations and from the government for their activities. Funds from foreign countries have never been received. At present many of the group's activities are on hold because of lack of funds, nevertheless the determination to continue fighting is alive. PMID:12285925

  4. Spanish cabinet moves to liberalize abortion law.

    PubMed

    1995-07-14

    On July 7 (1995), the cabinet of Spain's socialist prime minister Felipe Gonzalez approved a measure to expand the country's abortion law by permitting a woman to obtain the procedure during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy in circumstances not currently allowed. Since 1985, abortion has been legal throughout pregnancy in the following situations: when a medical specialist not associated with the procedure determines that an abortion is necessary to "avert a serious risk to [a woman's] physical or mental health;" during the first 12 weeks if the pregnancy results from reported rape; and within the first 22 weeks when two physicians not associated with the abortion certify that the fetus would develop "severe physical or mental defects." The new legislation, which also requires women to receive nonbinding counseling, permits abortions when a health care professional determines that carrying to term will cause a woman severe anxiety for social or economic reasons. Before the measure can become law, it must be approved by the Spanish Parliament, which is expected to vote on the proposal in September. The Catalan nationalist grouping, which has been a key supporter of the socialist government, is among the forces opposing liberalization of the abortion statute. Partly due to the abortion controversy, the Catalan coalition is expected to vote on July 17 to decide whether to continue its backing.

  5. Staphylococcus hyicus abortion in a sow.

    PubMed

    Onet, G E; Pommer, J L

    1991-08-01

    Five aborted fetuses from a mature sixth-parity sow with severe greasy pig disease as a gilt, were submitted for diagnostic evaluation. Necropsy of the fetuses revealed serogelatinous edema in the SC connective tissue of the ventral abdominal region (especially around the umbilicus), exaggerated amounts of serohemorrhagic fluid in the abdominal, pleural, and pericardial cavities, and hemorrhagic kidneys, with diminished consistency. Staphylococcus hyicus was isolated in pure culture from liver, lung, kidney, and brain tissues and from abdominal, pleural, pericardial, and gastric fluids.

  6. Increased CD56(+) NK cells and enhanced Th1 responses in human unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y; Wang, P L

    2015-12-22

    Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is reported to be associated with immune imbalance at the maternal-fetal interface. Immune cells in the decidual tissue are involved in maintaining immune tolerance during pregnancy; however, whether natural killer (NK) and T cells are altered in unexplained RSA (URSA) remains unknown. In this study, we compared the number and percentage of CD56(+) NK cells, CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells by flow cytometry in 30 URSA patients and 30 normal pregnant controls. We found that there are a higher proportion of CD4(+) T cells and CD16(+)CD56(+) NK cells and a lower number of CD8(+) T cells in the decidual tissue of URSA patients compared to normal controls. In addition, the number of T helper type 1 (Th1) cells and the Th1/Th2 ratio were higher in URSA patients compared to normal pregnant controls. In conclusion, our results indicate that the changes in the proportion of local T lymphocyte subsets, NK and Th1 cells, in the maternal-fetal interface may be related to occurrence of URSA.

  7. Conflicting perceptions of the fetus: person, patient, 'nobody', commodity?

    PubMed

    Williams, C; Alderson, P; Farsides, B

    2001-01-01

    Different constructions of the fetus lie at the centre of reproductive, abortion and disability politics. Recent developments mean that, within the same hospital, a fetus may be perceived in contrasting and potentially conflicting ways. It is also argued that the status given to the fetus is directly relevant to the status given to pregnant women. During group discussions facilitated by an ethicist, health-care staff highlighted various perceptions of the fetus which included: person; patient; 'nobody'; commodity. Perhaps not surprisingly in view of the current legal situation, staff tended to claim that it is usually the pregnant women who decides how her fetus will be constructed, and the practitioner who responds to this. However, various ways in which practitioners might influence women's perceptions of their fetus are highlighted, as are some ways in which the perceptions of staff might be influenced. This paper illustrates how sensitive health-care staff will need to be if they are indeed to respond to, rather than shape, women's constructions of their fetus. PMID:15584143

  8. Lessons learnt from many years of experience using anti-D in humans for prevention of RhD immunization and haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn

    PubMed Central

    Kumpel, B M

    2008-01-01

    For 40 years prophylactic anti-D has been given to D-negative women after parturition to prevent haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Monoclonal or recombinant anti-D may provide alternatives to the current plasma-derived polyclonal IgG anti-D, although none of them have yet proved as effective in phase 1 clinical trials. The variation in efficacy of the antibodies may have been influenced by heterogeneity in glycosylation of anti-D produced from different cell lines. Some aspects of the conduct of the human studies, most notably the use of low doses of anti-D and target D positive red cells in vivo, may aid the design of the clinical development of other immunomodulatory drugs in order to minimize adverse effects. PMID:18727626

  9. [Recurrent spontaneous abortions].

    PubMed

    Salat-Baroux, J

    1988-01-01

    The process of fertilization in humans, is remarkably inefficient. Spontaneous abortion is estimated to be between 15 and 20% of all clinical pregnancies, and the early spontaneous abortion rate is closer to 30-50% of fertilized ova. Not all authors agree on the definition of "recurrent spontaneous abortion" (RSA), so the frequency of repeated pregnancy wastage is difficult to determine; from empirically derived data, it has been estimated to range between 0.4 and 0.8%. Because of the various etiologies of RSA, their association in determining an abortive event, it is difficult to evaluate their exact incidence. Moreover, their is no prospective study on this subject, so it is advisable to distinguish between the admitted causes, the likely factors, and the etiologies to be evaluated. In the first group, the congenital or acquired müllerian anomalies (especially the septate uterus), represent about 25% of the RSA, but a lot of problems concerning the physiopathology are still debated, even if the rate of pregnancies after surgery ranges around 50% in certain series. On the other hand, the genetic factors, identified especially with the banding technique, are undeniable: however, although the rate of chromosomal aberrations in the offspring (Monosomy X, Trisony 16, Triploidy) is very high (50 to 60% of spontaneous abortions in the first trimester of pregnancy), when couples with usual abortions are subjected to karyotypic analysis, genetic anomalies (especially translocations) are been noted in only 6.2% of the women and 2.6% of the men. In the second group, the infective factors (chlamydiae, toxoplasma and mycoplasma) are difficult to analyse since the serology is not sufficient without a real proof of an endometrial colonization. Among the endocrinological causes, the classical luteal phase deficiency remains a subject of controversy (estimated between 3 and 30%) not only for the establishment of the diagnosis, but also for the efficiency of progesterone

  10. Model-Based Estimation of Aortic and Mitral Valves Opening and Closing Timings in Developing Human Fetuses.

    PubMed

    Marzbanrad, Faezeh; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Funamoto, Kiyoe; Oshio, Sayaka; Endo, Miyuki; Sato, Naoaki; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Khandoker, Ahsan H

    2016-01-01

    Electromechanical coupling of the fetal heart can be evaluated noninvasively using doppler ultrasound (DUS) signal and fetal electrocardiography (fECG). In this study, an efficient model is proposed using K-means clustering and hybrid Support Vector Machine-Hidden Markov Model (SVM-HMM) modeling techniques. Opening and closing of the cardiac valves were detected from peaks in the high frequency component of the DUS signal decomposed by wavelet analysis. It was previously proposed to automatically identify the valve motion by hybrid SVM-HMM based on the amplitude and timing of the peaks. However, in the present study, six patterns were identified for the DUS components which were actually variable on a beat-to-beat basis and found to be different for the early gestation (16-32 weeks), compared to the late gestation fetuses (36-41 weeks). The amplitude of the peaks linked to the valve motion was different across the six patterns and this affected the precision of valve motion identification by the previous hybrid SVM-HMM method. Therefore in the present study, clustering of the DUS components based on K-means was proposed and the hybrid SVM-HMM was trained for each cluster separately. The valve motion events were consequently identified more efficiently by beat-to-beat attribution of the DUS component peaks. Applying this method, more than 98.6% of valve motion events were beat-to-beat identified with average precision and recall of 83.4% and 84.2% respectively. It was an improvement compared to the hybrid method without clustering with average precision and recall of 79.0% and 79.8%. Therefore, this model would be useful for reliable screening of fetal wellbeing. PMID:27123499

  11. Selective Abortion and the Diagnosis of Fetal Damage: Issues and Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Libby G.

    1986-01-01

    Legal rights of the fetus and selective abortion are the major focus of a review of legal cases and educational literature concerning fetuses that may be handicapped or have the potential to be handicapped at birth. Related issues include parental immunity, protection of an unborn child, and quality of life. (Author/JW)

  12. Recent developments in abortion law in industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Boland, R

    1990-01-01

    An effort to bring new insights into the US abortion debate, this article reviews recent legal developments concerning abortion in 7 other industrialized countries. In addition to the US, the author examines developments in Canada, England, Ireland, France, Belgium, Romania, and Bulgaria. In the US, the Supreme Court has become the battleground for an increasingly bitter abortion debate. The 1989 ruling in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services has setback the 1973 Roe v. Wade ruling which guaranteed a woman's right to an abortion. Although the Webster did not overturn Roe, it did significantly weaken the trimester approach to abortion regulation and open the door to further restrictions. In Canada, however, the court has overturned a previously burdensome abortion law. The abortion debate in England has centered around the standard that says that an abortion may not take place when the fetus is "capable of being born alive." Conforming to present scientific knowledge, English law now allows abortions on demand during the 1st 12 weeks of pregnancy -- bringing England closer to the practice of other European countries. Belgium has also recently approved of unimpeded abortions during the 1st 12 weeks. In France, the governments has ordered the manufacturer of RU486 to make the abortifacient available to French women. Ireland, however, remains the only industrialized country in the world where abortion is still illegal. The cases of Bulgaria and Romania show what can happen when abortion becomes the pawn of social policy and ideology. Romania is the extreme case. Prior to his downfall in 1989, President Ceaucescu had instituted one of the most restrictive abortion laws as part of a pronatalist policy. This resulted in widespread misery for women and created a great number of unwanted children, which the author warns is the result of restrictive abortions laws.

  13. Rhetorical Strategies for a Culture War: Abortion in the 1992 Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Richard B.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the general strategies of Bill Clinton and George Bush in the 1992 presidential campaign regarding the abortion issue among the complex of family values appeals and in the context of the "culture war." Analyzes the rhetorical power of the dead fetus image shown in campaign advertising. Speculates on the influence of the abortion issue in…

  14. Abortion politics and the production of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lisa H

    2013-08-01

    It is common to think of scientific research and the knowledge it generates as neutral and value free. Indeed, the scientific method is designed to produce "objective" data. However, there are always values built into science, as historians of science and technology have shown over and over. The relevant question is not how to rid science of values but, instead, to ask which values and whose values belong? Currently, antiabortion values consistently determine US research policy. Abortion research is declared illegitimate in covert and overt ways, at the level of individual researchers and research policy broadly. Most importantly, federal policy impedes conduct of both basic and clinical research in abortion. However, it is not just research in abortion that is deemed "illegitimate;" research in infertility and in vitro fertilization is as well. Federal funding of any reproductive health research agenda that would pose more than minimal risk to a fetus or embryo is banned. This leaves unanswered scientific questions about abortion, infertility, miscarriage and contraception among other areas. Since moral ground is occupied not just by abortion opponents but also by people who support abortion rights, there is at the very least a competing moral claim to consider changing federal research funding policy. Women and families deserve access to knowledge across the spectrum of reproductive health issues, whether they seek to end or start a pregnancy. Thus, research funding is an issue of reproductive justice. PMID:23815965

  15. Abortion politics and the production of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lisa H

    2013-08-01

    It is common to think of scientific research and the knowledge it generates as neutral and value free. Indeed, the scientific method is designed to produce "objective" data. However, there are always values built into science, as historians of science and technology have shown over and over. The relevant question is not how to rid science of values but, instead, to ask which values and whose values belong? Currently, antiabortion values consistently determine US research policy. Abortion research is declared illegitimate in covert and overt ways, at the level of individual researchers and research policy broadly. Most importantly, federal policy impedes conduct of both basic and clinical research in abortion. However, it is not just research in abortion that is deemed "illegitimate;" research in infertility and in vitro fertilization is as well. Federal funding of any reproductive health research agenda that would pose more than minimal risk to a fetus or embryo is banned. This leaves unanswered scientific questions about abortion, infertility, miscarriage and contraception among other areas. Since moral ground is occupied not just by abortion opponents but also by people who support abortion rights, there is at the very least a competing moral claim to consider changing federal research funding policy. Women and families deserve access to knowledge across the spectrum of reproductive health issues, whether they seek to end or start a pregnancy. Thus, research funding is an issue of reproductive justice.

  16. Framing the fetus in medical work: rituals and practices.

    PubMed

    Williams, Clare

    2005-05-01

    What does it mean to investigate the fetus, and what might be the potential consequences? Although a number of feminists have engaged with the debate around the status of the fetus in terms of the possible implications for women, discussion of fetuses has been avoided by many feminists, in response to the politics around the abortion debate. However, there has recently been a move to explore the ways in which the meanings and significance of the fetus can be socially constructed. Set within a United Kingdom context, this paper focuses on two areas which are arguably changing perceptions of the fetus: the recent 'discovery' of fetal 'pain'; and the growing recognition of the fetus as a patient. One of the key concerns of those who support the autonomy of women is that any increasing discourse around the concept of fetal patienthood may promote the notion of fetal personhood, which in turn may affect the status of pregnant women. In exploring perceptions of the fetus, this article firstly cites some of the key policy documents and medical articles which were published during the 1990s, looking at apparent shifts in the ways in which the fetus is discussed in terms of pain and patienthood. It then explores how practitioners from different disciplines talked about fetal pain and patienthood in relation to the clinical setting. Although this paper does not provide conclusive evidence of a wholesale shift in terms of how the fetus is perceived by practitioners, it does point to subtle shifts occurring, which may or may not be significant. It is important to track such shifts closely, primarily because of the potential impact on women, but also for others involved, including practitioners. Such tracking needs to be set within specific cultural and policy contexts. PMID:15743656

  17. Teenage pregnancies and abortion.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, J E

    1984-01-01

    The issue of abortion, except when it is rendered moot because the fetus endangers the life of the mother, is not really a medical issue. The physician's role is to help patients achieve and maintain their maximum potential for physical, mental, and social well-being. To accomplish this, the physician must acquire a constantly evolving database of scientific knowledge, must evaluate this information in a critical and ethical manner, and must be prepared to apply what is learned. In the realm of applied ethics, no particular religion, profession, culture, class, or sex should be thought of as having all the answers in the realm of applied ethics. This physician's actions are predicated on the belief that, to a large extent, ethical precepts reflect the broader social and economic issues of the period in which they are articulated. If this is the case, then in today's world the population explosion, the postindustrial society, the women's rights movement, inequality of access, and the ability to perform prenatal diagnosis are all factors which have molded the approach to the issue of abortion. Only the last 3 of these can in any way be considered as medical. When considering the role of a physician in dealing with the issue of abortion in the adolescent, this individual relies on the concept articulated by the World Health Association (WHA): promoting the physical, emotional, and social well-being of one's patients. Each year in the US over 1 million 15-19 year olds become pregnant, resulting in over 600,000 births. Most of these pregnancies are unintentional, yet approximately 90% of the infants are kept in the home by mothers who are ill prepared to be parents. What is most disturbing is that the pregnancy rate for the younger mother, 16 years or under, is accounting for an ever increasing percentage of the total. Studies at the Adolescent Health Center of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City as well as national studies suggest that the younger teens are more

  18. In utero infection of swine fetuses with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (bovine herpesvirus-1).

    PubMed

    Joo, H S; Dee, S A; Molitor, T W; Thacker, B J

    1984-10-01

    The pathogenesis of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus (bovine herpesvirus-1) was studied in porcine fetuses after in utero inoculation. Laparotomies were performed on 8 seronegative pregnant sows at 34 to 86 days of gestation, and all fetuses in 1 uterine horn of each sow were exposed to IBR virus via inoculation into the amniotic sacs. Fetuses in the other horn served as controls. Clinical signs of infection were not observed in the sows, except for 2 sows that aborted at postinoculation days (PID) 11 and 15. Fetuses of the remaining 6 sows were collected at slaughter on PID 15 to 28. Fetuses were examined for gross abnormalities, presence of IBR virus in tissues, and the formation of neutralizing antibodies to IBR virus. Of 33 inoculated fetuses from 6 sows, 10 were mummified, 11 were hemorrhagic and/or edematous, and 12 were alive. Necrotic lesions were observed on the skin and in the liver of dead and live fetuses. Virus was recovered from 29 of 33 inoculated fetuses. Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus was isolated from fetal skin, liver, lungs, kidney, spleen, stomach contents, brain, amniotic fluid, and placenta. Virus was isolated from 4 of 11 fetuses recovered from 1 aborting sow. Antibodies to IBR virus were not detected in sera from the sows. However, antibodies were detected in 6 of 15 fetuses inoculated at 63 to 86 days of gestation and collected at slaughter at 86 to 112 days of gestation. The youngest fetus with detectable IBR antibody was estimated to be 74 days of gestation by measuring crown-rump length of the fetus.

  19. [Morphological changes in ventricular germinal zone and neocortex of the cerebral hemispheres in human fetuses and newborns on weeks 22-40 of prenatal development].

    PubMed

    Protsenko, E V; Vasil'eva, M E; Peretiatko, L P; Malyshkina, A I

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the morphology of the ventricular germinal zone and neocortex of the cerebral hemispheres in the projection field no. 4 of the motor area in human fetuses in dynamics from week 22 to 40 of fetal development. Morphological study allowed us to clarify the following patterns of prenatal ontogeny of the human CNS. On weeks 22-27, an intensive formation of the main sulci of the first order, differentiating the brain into lobes, is observed. By weeks 28-32, the formation of all sulci of the first order is completed; and on weeks 33-37, additional sulci characteristic of an individual are formed. The spurt of gyrification of the cortex (weeks 22-27) practically coincides with the completion of neuronal differentiation and formation of the motor neocortex. The structure of the latter is characterized by a clear stratification of cytoarchitectonic layers and modular organization of neurons with their vertical orientation in cell columns (weeks 25-27). In subsequent weeks of prenatal development until birth, no significant changes in the topography and structure of the neocortex are observed. Structural rearrangement of the ventricular germinal zone on weeks 22-40 of prenatal development consists in its gradual reduction and is completed on weeks 37-40. The criteria of physiological reduction of this area are the zonal location of glioblasts and a progressive decrease in its thickness on weeks 33-37 of prenatal development.

  20. [Virulence and biochemical activity of Aspergillus fumigatus strains isolated from cow fetuses].

    PubMed

    Venev, S

    1977-01-01

    Tested was the virulence of 20 strains of Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from cow fetuses. All laboratory mice injected with them died, and the pregnant guinea pigs aborted. It was demonstrated that these strains contain exogenic and endotoxic substances which are extracted effectively with alcohol and ether. The mould cultures showed proteolytic, amylolytic, cellulose, and organic acid activity. The biochemical and pathogenic potential of the strains were of great importance for causing abortion. PMID:339512

  1. Genetics, amniocentesis, and abortion.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, K

    1984-01-01

    At this time a rather large number of congenital abnormalities still occur. About 2-3% of pregnancies will result in children with major congenital abnormalities that cannot be detected prenatally. Yet, with the availability of prenatal diagnosis for an ever increasing number of genetic problems and, more recently, for developmental problems as well, a new option was offered to couples at risk when they took the risk of pregnancy: finding out whether the fetus was abnormal. An early argument regarding the ethics of this option was formulated by Dan Callahan, director of the Hastings Institute for Ethics, Society and the Life Sciences, when he indicated the need to be careful about the term "option." A need exists to be careful about societal pressures in favor of the new medical options--on, for example, a pregnant woman who is over 35 and does not get a prenatal diagnosis; or on a woman carrying a Down's syndrome child identified by prenatal diagnosis not to have an abortion. This was the 1st specter raised when prenatal diagnosis was introduced. The most common indication for amniocentesis is the risk of chromosomal abnormalities. The risk of discovering a chromosomal abnormality by amniocentesis is about double the risk at birth because a number of chromosomally abnormal fetuses are lost late in the 2nd trimester by spontaneous abortion. The age cutoff at 35 raises an immediate ethical question: since the total number of births to women over age 35 seems to be increasing, and at the same time a greater and greater percentage of children with Down's syndrome are born to women under age 35, the question arises as to whether amniocentesis should be done on all pregnancies, and whether all births with Down's syndrome should be selectively aborted or avoided. Amniocentesis in all pregnancies is impractical at this time from the technological and the cost perspective, but the ethical question should be raised. Among the X-linked disorders, 1 group cannot be

  2. Morphological classification of nuchal skin in human fetuses with trisomy 21, 18, and 13 at 12-18 weeks and in a trisomy 16 mouse.

    PubMed

    von Kaisenberg, C S; Krenn, V; Ludwig, M; Nicolaides, K H; Brand-Saberi, B

    1998-02-01

    An increase in the nuchal translucency that can be detected at 10-14 weeks of gestation by ultrasound forms the basis for a screening test for chromosomal abnormality. Several mechanisms leading to this increase in skin thickness have been proposed, including changes of the extracellular matrix, cardiac defects and abnormalities of the large vessels. This study examines the composition of the extracellular matrix of the skin in gestational age-matched fetuses with trisomy 21, 18 and 13 from 12-18 weeks. Immunohistochemistry was applied with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against collagen type I, III, IV, V and VI and against laminin and fibronectin. Collagen type VI gene expression was further studied by in situ hybridization to detect differences in expression patterns of COL6A1, COL6A3 and COL1A1 between normal fetuses and those with trisomy 21. The ultrastructure of tissue samples was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and additionally by immunogold TEM. Further, we examined the morphology of the skin in an animal model for Down's syndrome, the murine trisomy 16, by light and TEM. The dermis of trisomy 21 fetuses was richer in collagen type VI than that of normal fetuses and other trisomies, and COL6A1, located on chromosome 21, was expressed in a wider area than COL6A3, which is located on chromosome 2. Collagen type I was less abundant in the skin of trisomy 18 fetuses, while the skin of all three trisomies contained a dense network of collagen type III and V in comparison with normal fetuses. Collagen type IV, of which two genes are located on chromosome 13, was expressed in the basement membranes of the skin in all fetuses and additionally in the dermal fibroblasts only of trisomy 13 fetuses. Likewise, laminin was present in all basement membranes of normal and trisomic fetuses as well as in dermal fibroblasts of fetuses with trisomy 18. LAMA1 and LAMA3 genes are located on chromosome 18. Dermal cysts were found in the skin of trisomy 18

  3. Toward an Abortion Counseling Strategy for Pro-Life Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Phillip James

    1976-01-01

    What do counselors do when involved in a counseling encounter that brings two of their principal values, student freedom and the fetus' right to life, into contact? The author feels if a counselor makes his commitment regarding abortion known. Students will choose a counselor who reinforces their own feelings. (Author)

  4. [Chemical methods of abortion].

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Matthiesen, H

    1979-07-20

    Medicaments are used to prepare for instrument abortions in the 1st trimester and as inducers of abortion in the 2nd trimester. The effects, side effects, and dangers depend on the substances used and the route of application, which can be vaginal, cervical, injection, instillation, extraamniotic, intraamniotic, intravenous, or intramuscular. In the past, intraamniotic instillation of a 20% salt solution was the most common 2nd trimester method in Japan, the US, and Eastern Europe, giving a success rate of 90%. Serious side effects prompted substitution of extraamniotic instillation, which rarely produces serious side effects. Instillation of a 60% urea solution into the amniotic fluid in combination with oxytocin or prostaglandin produces an abortion in 13-21 hours, with a failure rate of 3% and a frequency of cervical laceration of under 1%. Extraamniotic use of a .1% solution of rivanol yields a success rate of about 85%, with a relatively long average time to explusion of 24-41 hours. In case of failure the procedure can be repeated. The advantage of the Rivanol method is the rarity of infectious complications. Alcohol is not used as a human abortifacient because it produces necrosis in the decidua and placenta. Prostaglandins are used in most 2nd trimester abortions. Research is underway to identify derivatives that will have an extended uterine impact without serious side effects. Different routes of administration have different effectiveness rates and dangers. All prostaglandins cause side effects including pain during uterine contractions, gastro-intestinal reactions, nausea, vomiting, fever, and headaches. Specific preparations are associated with other effects, some of them life-threatening. Emergency treatment should be available when these substances are used. Adjuvant measures may be employed before adminstration of an abortifacient agent to soften the cervix, or after administration to hasten the procedure. The choice of procedure depends upon the

  5. Three-dimensional reconstruction and morphologic measurements of human embryonic hearts: a new diagnostic and quantitative method applicable to fetuses younger than 13 weeks of gestation

    PubMed Central

    Schleich, Jean-Marc; Dillenseger, Jean-Louis; Loeuillet, Laurence; Moulinoux, Jacques-Philippe; Almange, Claude

    2005-01-01

    Improvements in the diagnosis of congenital malformations explain the increasing early termination of pregnancies. Before 13 weeks of gestation, an accurate in vivo anatomical diagnosis cannot currently be made in all fetuses with the imaging instrumentation available. Anatomo-pathological examinations remain the gold standard to make accurate diagnoses, although they reach limits between 9 and 13 weeks of gestation. We present the first results of a methodology that can be applied routinely, using standard histological section, enabling the reconstruction, visual estimate and quantitative analysis of 13 weeks of age human embryonic cardiac structures. The cardiac blocks were fixed, included in paraffin and entirely sliced by a microtome. One slice out of 10 was topographically colored and digitized on an optical microscope. The cardiac volume was recovered by a semi-automatic realignment of the sections. Another semi-automatic procedure allowed extracting and labeling of the cardiac structures from the volume. The structures were studied with display tools, disclosing the internal and external cardiac components, and enabling the determination of size, thickness and precise position of the ventricles, atria and large vessels. This pilot study confirmed that a new 3-D reconstruction and visualization method enabled to make accurate diagnoses, including in embryos <13 weeks old. Its implementation at earlier stages of embryogenesis will provide a clearer view of cardiac development. PMID:16211458

  6. [HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTION IN PREGNANT WOMEN OF I AND II TRIMESTER].

    PubMed

    Cheshik, S G; Kisteneva, L B

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was the evaluation of the frequency of human CMV infection among the women, whose pregnancy ended in miscarriage, detection of active forms of infection and treatment before pregnancy. Virological and sero-immunological techniques were used. A total of 116 women who had miscarriages before the 28 week of pregnancy were submitted to the CMV test. 109 women (94.0%) demonstrated positive results. 49 women (42.2%) had active form of the cytomegalovirus infection. 13 women (26.5%) had the recurrent form and 36 patients (73.5%) had the persistent form of CMV infection (stage of productive replication). All the women with active CMVI were treated before the next pregnancy. Immunomodulatory therapy for the treatment was used. PMID:27451499

  7. [HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTION IN PREGNANT WOMEN OF I AND II TRIMESTER].

    PubMed

    Cheshik, S G; Kisteneva, L B

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was the evaluation of the frequency of human CMV infection among the women, whose pregnancy ended in miscarriage, detection of active forms of infection and treatment before pregnancy. Virological and sero-immunological techniques were used. A total of 116 women who had miscarriages before the 28 week of pregnancy were submitted to the CMV test. 109 women (94.0%) demonstrated positive results. 49 women (42.2%) had active form of the cytomegalovirus infection. 13 women (26.5%) had the recurrent form and 36 patients (73.5%) had the persistent form of CMV infection (stage of productive replication). All the women with active CMVI were treated before the next pregnancy. Immunomodulatory therapy for the treatment was used.

  8. Abortion Before & After Roe

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu

    2013-01-01

    We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971–1975 to demonstrate that women travelled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A100- mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services. PMID:23811233

  9. Abortion before & after Roe.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu

    2013-09-01

    We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971 to 1975 to demonstrate that women traveled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A 100-mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services.

  10. Abortion and the search for public policy.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, R L

    1993-01-01

    The social policy towards abortion determined by the Roe vs. Wade decision can be overturned at any time depending upon how the US Supreme Court reacts to challenges to its earlier ruling. Roe vs. Wade was decided by a 7 to 2 vote, and the members of the Supreme Court appointed by Presidents Reagan and Bush were chosen to uphold a conservative (anti-abortion) ideology. Although more than half of the present Court was appointed by these presidents, President Clinton now has the opportunity to appoint 2 more Justices. The public policy positions which are currently available to the Supreme Court or to Congress can be ranked on a chart from liberal to conservative. In this article, 7 different positions are described in detail, and the public policy implications of the implementation of each position are described. The first position considered is the extreme conservative position of "no abortion; no exceptions" as defined by author and Roman Catholic theologian Gerald Kelly. The only procedures allowed which would end the life of a fetus would be those to remove an ovary or fallopian tube in the case of an extrauterine pregnancy (permissible under the doctrine of double effect). In the most extreme interpretation of this situation (which Kelly does not seem to hold), those who perform abortions would be prosecuted for murder. The next position considered is the most liberal position, which is espoused by Michael Tooley, and which holds that abortion and early infanticide are both permissible. The third position is that which allows no abortion but has limited exceptions in cases of rape or incest. The appropriate consideration for abortion presented next is that of the late Joseph Fletcher who believed that whatever love requires is the proper response to the situation. Philosopher Dan Callahan espouses the notion that abortion should be performed for compelling reasons only (after effective counseling). The trimester approach to the problem of abortion is that set

  11. The history of abortion-related acts and current issues in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Michiko

    2007-12-01

    In Japan abortion is categorized into two types by law; one is illegal feticide and the other is legal abortion. The present criminal law forbids feticide in principle and the life of a fetus is protected. However, abortion can be practiced under the "Eugenic Protection Act" established in 1948 (currently referred to as the "Maternal Protection Act"), and is readily available in Japan. In this paper, I have traced the historical origins of abortion law and attempted to clarify the problems related to the current laws relating to artificial abortion. As a result, the existence of contradictions between attitudes toward the life of the fetus and that of the mother, women's right to self determination, and women's rights under current legislation has been clarified. PMID:18284118

  12. A cross-cultural history of abortion.

    PubMed

    Shain, R N

    1986-03-01

    Abortion is a universal phenomenon, occurring throughout recorded history and at all levels of societal organization. Techniques are highly varied, as are the circumstances under which it is practised. The status of and attitudes towards abortion in Western civilization are variable and have, in most cases, been changing. As of 1982, 10% and 18% of the world's population respectively, lived in countries where abortion was totally prohibited or where it was permitted only to save the mother's life. In the USA, various national surveys indicate liberalization of public attitudes towards pregnancy termination between 1965 and the years immediately following the Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision (1973) which legalized abortion. More recent polls demonstrate little attitudinal change since 1972-1973: between 80% and 90% of Americans approve of abortion in the case of poor health, a seriously defective fetus, or rape, and between 40% and 50% indicate approval for all other reasons as well. Only 10% of the American population would like to see abortion prohibited under all circumstances. Sociodemographic analyses indicate that individuals who disapprove of abortion differ from those who approve of its availability in that they are more likely to be Roman Catholic or fundamentalist Protestant; are, in general, more strongly committed to organized religion; are on the traditional/conservative end of the spectrum with regard to women's role in life, premarital sex, sex education and civil liberties; and tend to have achieved a relatively low educational level. 'Pro-life' and 'pro-choice' activists tend to be women who are completely different from one another in sociodemographic characteristics and in overall values, particularly as these relate to traditional versus modern female roles.

  13. Plasticity of marrow mesenchymal stem cells from human first-trimester fetus: from single-cell clone to neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yihua; Shen, Wenzheng; Sun, Bingjie; Lv, Changrong; Dou, Zhongying

    2011-02-01

    Recent results have shown that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) from human first-trimester abortus (hfBMSCs) are closer to embryonic stem cells and perform greater telomerase activity and faster propagation than mid- and late-prophase fetal and adult BMSCs. However, no research has been done on the plasticity of hfBMSCs into neuronal cells using single-cell cloned strains without cell contamination. In this study, we isolated five single cells from hfBMSCs and obtained five single-cell cloned strains, and investigated their biological property and neuronal differentiation potential. We found that four of the five strains showed similar expression profile of surface antigen markers to hfBMSCs, and most of them differentiated into neuron-like cells expressing Nestin, Pax6, Sox1, β-III Tubulin, NF-L, and NSE under induction. One strain showed different expression profile of surface antigen markers from the four strains and hfBMSCs, and did not differentiate toward neuronal cells. We demonstrated for the first time that some of single-cell cloned strains from hfBMSCs can differentiate into nerve tissue-like cell clusters under induction in vitro, and that the plasticity of each single-cell cloned strain into neuronal cells is different.

  14. Unsafe abortion in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Olukoya, A A; Kaya, A; Ferguson, B J; AbouZahr, C

    2001-11-01

    Every year, an estimated 2.0-4.4 million adolescents resort to abortion. In comparison with adults, adolescents are more likely to delay the abortion, resort to unskilled persons to perform it, use dangerous methods and present late when complications arise. Adolescents are also more likely to experience complications. Consequently, adolescents seeking abortion or presenting with complications of abortion should be considered as a medical emergency. Issues requiring special attention in the management of abortion complications in adolescents are identified. Approaches to adolescent abortion should involve all levels of the health care system, as well as the community, and should include not only management of the consequences of unsafe abortion, but also post-abortion contraception and counseling. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy by providing information on sexuality, ensuring that reproductive health services are adolescent-friendly, creating a supportive environment, building young people's social and decision-making skills, and offering counseling in times of crisis are highlighted.

  15. Post abortion contraception.

    PubMed

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp, Helena Kallner

    2015-11-01

    A safe induced abortion has no impact on future fertility. Ovulation may resume as early as 8 days after the abortion. There is no difference in return to fertility after medical or surgical abortion. Most women resume sexual activity soon after an abortion. Contraceptive counseling and provision should therefore be an integrated part of the abortion services to help women avoid another unintended pregnancy and risk, in many cases an unsafe, abortion. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods that includes implants and intrauterine contraception have been shown to be the most effective contraceptive methods to help women prevent unintended pregnancy following an abortion. However, starting any method is better than starting no method at all. This Special Report will give a short guide to available methods and when they can be started after an induced abortion.

  16. Post abortion contraception.

    PubMed

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp, Helena Kallner

    2015-11-01

    A safe induced abortion has no impact on future fertility. Ovulation may resume as early as 8 days after the abortion. There is no difference in return to fertility after medical or surgical abortion. Most women resume sexual activity soon after an abortion. Contraceptive counseling and provision should therefore be an integrated part of the abortion services to help women avoid another unintended pregnancy and risk, in many cases an unsafe, abortion. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods that includes implants and intrauterine contraception have been shown to be the most effective contraceptive methods to help women prevent unintended pregnancy following an abortion. However, starting any method is better than starting no method at all. This Special Report will give a short guide to available methods and when they can be started after an induced abortion. PMID:26619082

  17. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  18. Conceptualising abortion stigma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuradha; Hessini, Leila; Mitchell, Ellen M H

    2009-08-01

    Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies upon power disparities and inequalities for its formation. In this paper, we identify social and political processes that favour the emergence, perpetuation and normalisation of abortion stigma. We hypothesise that abortion transgresses three cherished 'feminine' ideals: perpetual fecundity; the inevitability of motherhood; and instinctive nurturing. We offer examples of how abortion stigma is generated through popular and medical discourses, government and political structures, institutions, communities and via personal interactions. Finally, we propose a research agenda to reveal, measure and map the diverse manifestations of abortion stigma and its impact on women's health.

  19. Prenatal diagnosis, selective abortion, and the Abortion (Amendment) Bill.

    PubMed

    Laurence, K M

    1980-02-01

    The rapid development of early prenatal diagnostic tests for some fetal malformations and abnormalities and the introduction of this approach to malformation into clinical practice in most areas of the United Kingdom has, to a great extent, been made possible by the 1967 Abortion Act. Although at least 30 of every 1000 pregnancies will end in a seriously malformed infant with reduced survival, or survival with impaired quality of life, only less than 1/3 of these abnormal fetuses are currently amenable to early antenatal detection. Yet, it has been estimated that about 10% of all pregnancies can be identified as having a risk of 1 of these detectable abnormalities of more than 1 in 100. Most prenatal diagnostic tests available at this time involve an amniocentesis, which cannot generally be carried out safely and successfully before 15 or 16 weeks' gestation. Laboratory tests on the amniotic fluid itself or on the cells it contains must follow, generally after a period of cell culture. Fetosocopy at about 18 weeks or later is at present rarely used because of its technical difficulties as well as its relatively high risk of complications. Ultrasound is largely used as a preliminary to amniocentesis or to identify anencephaly. 1 of the problems of these prenatal tests often involving lengthy laboratory techniques is reflected in the late termination times reported from 1 large center, where barely 1/2 the terminations for fetal malformations could be performed before 20 weeks' gestation. 2 provisions of John Corrie's Bill now before Parliament may have a profound effect on prenatal diagnosis and related aspects of secondary prevention of fetal malformation. These are the suggested lowering of the gestational age at which abortions can normally be performed, and the strengthening of the conscience clause enabling physicians to refuse to provide a certificate for abortion.

  20. A comparison of the human buccal cell assay and the pollen abortion assay in assessing genotoxicity in an urban-rural gradient.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Alan da Silveira; Vieira, Mariana; Amantéa, Sergio Luís; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2014-08-27

    Air pollution is exacerbated near heavy traffic roads in cities. Air pollution concentration and composition vary by region and depend on urban-rural gradients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of air pollution in areas of varying population densities and to compare plant biomonitoring with an established biomarker of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution in children. The areas of study were selected near a major street in 3 different regions. Areas A, B and C represent high, intermediate and low population densities, respectively. Micronucleus assay, an established biomarker of human exposure, was performed in children from these areas. For a plant biomonitoring assay, the pollen abortion assay was performed on Bauhinia variegata in these areas. NO2 and O3 concentrations were determined by passive sampling. We report here that the pollen abortion frequency in Bauhinia variegata is correlated with NO2 concentration (P = 0.004) and is strongly associated with vehicular flow and population density in the studied areas. Micronuclei frequency in buccal cells of children was higher in the regions with more degree of urbanization (P < 0.001) following the same pattern of O3 concentrations (P = 0.030). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that high concentrations of air pollutants in Porto Alegre are related to both human and plant genotoxicity. Areas with different concentration of pollutants demonstrated to have an urbanization gradient dependent pattern which also reflected on genotoxic damage among these areas.

  1. A Comparison of the Human Buccal Cell Assay and the Pollen Abortion Assay in Assessing Genotoxicity in an Urban-Rural Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Fleck, Alan da Silveira; Vieira, Mariana; Amantéa, Sergio Luís; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution is exacerbated near heavy traffic roads in cities. Air pollution concentration and composition vary by region and depend on urban-rural gradients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of air pollution in areas of varying population densities and to compare plant biomonitoring with an established biomarker of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution in children. The areas of study were selected near a major street in 3 different regions. Areas A, B and C represent high, intermediate and low population densities, respectively. Micronucleus assay, an established biomarker of human exposure, was performed in children from these areas. For a plant biomonitoring assay, the pollen abortion assay was performed on Bauhinia variegata in these areas. NO2 and O3 concentrations were determined by passive sampling. We report here that the pollen abortion frequency in Bauhinia variegata is correlated with NO2 concentration (P = 0.004) and is strongly associated with vehicular flow and population density in the studied areas. Micronuclei frequency in buccal cells of children was higher in the regions with more degree of urbanization (P < 0.001) following the same pattern of O3 concentrations (P = 0.030). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that high concentrations of air pollutants in Porto Alegre are related to both human and plant genotoxicity. Areas with different concentration of pollutants demonstrated to have an urbanization gradient dependent pattern which also reflected on genotoxic damage among these areas. PMID:25166920

  2. A comparison of the human buccal cell assay and the pollen abortion assay in assessing genotoxicity in an urban-rural gradient.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Alan da Silveira; Vieira, Mariana; Amantéa, Sergio Luís; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2014-09-01

    Air pollution is exacerbated near heavy traffic roads in cities. Air pollution concentration and composition vary by region and depend on urban-rural gradients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of air pollution in areas of varying population densities and to compare plant biomonitoring with an established biomarker of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution in children. The areas of study were selected near a major street in 3 different regions. Areas A, B and C represent high, intermediate and low population densities, respectively. Micronucleus assay, an established biomarker of human exposure, was performed in children from these areas. For a plant biomonitoring assay, the pollen abortion assay was performed on Bauhinia variegata in these areas. NO2 and O3 concentrations were determined by passive sampling. We report here that the pollen abortion frequency in Bauhinia variegata is correlated with NO2 concentration (P = 0.004) and is strongly associated with vehicular flow and population density in the studied areas. Micronuclei frequency in buccal cells of children was higher in the regions with more degree of urbanization (P < 0.001) following the same pattern of O3 concentrations (P = 0.030). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that high concentrations of air pollutants in Porto Alegre are related to both human and plant genotoxicity. Areas with different concentration of pollutants demonstrated to have an urbanization gradient dependent pattern which also reflected on genotoxic damage among these areas. PMID:25166920

  3. Prenatal diagnosis and fetopathological findings in five fetuses with trisomy 9

    SciTech Connect

    Chitayat, D.; Hodgkinson, K.; Luke, A.

    1995-04-10

    Five male fetuses with trisomy 9 are discussed. Three were detected prenatally and terminated, 1 aborted spontaneously, and the fifth delivered prematurely and died soon after. Multiple congenital abnormalities characteristic of trisomy 9 were detected in all 5 cases and are compared to those of previous reports. 16 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Ethical Considerations Relating to Prenatal Diagnosis of Fetuses with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M.

    1991-01-01

    Prenatal diagnostic procedures that can determine the existence of genetic diseases or chromosome disorders such as Down's syndrome are described, and legal considerations are outlined. Arguments for and against aborting fetuses with Down's syndrome are presented, and the need for genetic counseling for prospective parents is emphasized.…

  5. Roe v. Wade. On abortion.

    PubMed

    French, M

    1998-01-01

    In ancient Assyria, fathers held the right of life or death over their newborn infants, but women found to have performed an abortion on themselves or others were impaled and denied burial. This punishment was otherwise reserved for crimes against the state such as high treason or assault on the king. Likewise, in Babylon if a wife arranged her husband's death so that she could marry another man, she was convicted of treason and impaled or crucified. Thus, ancient thought paralleled the husband-wife relationship with that of the state-subject. The small group of men who generally dominate institutions such as the state, the church, or a corporation have a primary demand for obedience and deference to their supreme authority from their underlings. These groups did not condemn abortion because it involved questions of life or death. After all, many states have permitted infanticide, many still sanction execution, and all are willing to sacrifice the lives of their soldiers in war. Patriarchs condemn abortion because they consider it treasonous for a woman to assert the right to use her own judgement and to treat her body as if it were her own and not the property of her husband. This denies the supremacy of the male, which is the first principle of patriarchs. Because patriarchal institutions depend upon the subjection of women, women's bodies become important markers in the struggle for human freedom. This explains why patriarchal institutions in the US have continuously attacked women's right to abortion by fragmenting the statute allowing abortion and attempting to render the fragments illegal. While US women have won other rights that can be protected legally, women require the right to abortion in order to possess the right to physical integrity and to be able to undo what men have done to them. Otherwise, men would be able to create a set-back in women's human rights by forcing women into motherhood.

  6. Late-term abortion.

    PubMed

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed. PMID:9728645

  7. Late-term abortion.

    PubMed

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed.

  8. Abortion among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  9. [Therapeutic abortion, unjustified absence in health policy].

    PubMed

    Chávez-Alvarado, Susana

    2013-07-01

    Although abortion for health reasons is not considered a crime in Peru, the State does not allow its inclusion in public policy, thus violating women's right to terminate a pregnancy when it affects their health. When examining the article in the Criminal Code which decriminalizes this type of abortion, provisions are identified which protect women and set the conditions to offer this type of service. This document sets the debate about the arguments used by the Peruvian State for not approving a therapeutic abortion protocol which would regulate the provision and financing of therapeutic abortion in public services, and explains why this obligation should be complied with, based on the conceptual framework of "health exception" In addition, it presents two cases brought before the judicial court in which the Peruvian State was found guilty of violating the human rights of two adolescents to whom a therapeutic abortion was denied.

  10. [The fetus and noise].

    PubMed

    Brezinka, C; Lechner, T; Stephan, K

    1997-01-01

    From 23 weeks of gestation some and from 28 weeks all healthy fetuses are capable of reacting to sound stimulation. The intrauterine acoustic environment is dominated by maternal sounds--heartbeat, breathing, the mother's voice, borborygmi and sounds caused by body movements. Background noise is never below 28 dB and can rise to 84 dB when the mother is singing. Noises that are meant to reach the fetus must be louder than the background noise and must be of low frequency as high frequency sounds are damped by maternal tissue. Vibroacoustic stimulation tests (VAST) have become popular in pregnancy surveillance over the last 20 years, mostly using an artificial larynx. Advantages and problems of the various VAST protocols in fetal monitoring are discussed in the light of animal experiments and clinical studies. Health legislation laws in most countries forbid pregnant women to work in surroundings with a high noise level (80 dB continuous noise and/or rapid impulse noise changes of 40 dB). Whereas regulations for pregnant women are easy to enforce in industry, pregnant women employed in discos or performing as musicians spend most of their working day exposed to noise impact higher than the recommended limit.

  11. "After birth" abortion: a biomedical and conceptual nonsense.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Landeweerd, Laurens; Brosens, Ivo

    2013-07-01

    Recently, two authors suggested that killing a healthy newborn might be morally permissible, subsuming it under the heading of 'after birth abortion'. Their proposed new definition implies that infanticide should be permitted whenever II trimester abortion for social reasons is. The suggestion stirred public outcry; nonetheless it needs to be analyzed since some 20% of countries allow II trimester abortion for social reasons and 5% do this on demand. A proper delimitation of the definition of "abortion" is thus very important to ensure careful application; for this reason we have attempted a critical analysis of their arguments. In the area of pregnancy termination different moral standards are apparently applied in different countries, but many reasons exist why the equation between II trimester abortion for social reasons and the killing of healthy neonates is to be morally rejected in all cases. The "inversed reification" of the concept of infanticide as a more abstract, euphemistic 'after birth abortion' blurs the fundamental difference between a non-viable fetus and a viable neonate. The best-known and most widely utilized (although illegal) "social reason" for "late abortion" and "infanticide" is a pregnancy with a female fetus or neonate. If infanticide for neonates were to be considered morally permissible, specifically it is this practice that would be applied. And this should be rejected on two levels: conceptual, through a critique of the exclusive use of one specific notion of personhood, and pragmatic through refusal of gender-discriminatory forms of infanticide (the killing of female neonates). In conclusion, having investigated the new concept we have concluded that the term "after birth abortion" is biologically and conceptually nonsensical.

  12. "After birth" abortion: a biomedical and conceptual nonsense.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Landeweerd, Laurens; Brosens, Ivo

    2013-07-01

    Recently, two authors suggested that killing a healthy newborn might be morally permissible, subsuming it under the heading of 'after birth abortion'. Their proposed new definition implies that infanticide should be permitted whenever II trimester abortion for social reasons is. The suggestion stirred public outcry; nonetheless it needs to be analyzed since some 20% of countries allow II trimester abortion for social reasons and 5% do this on demand. A proper delimitation of the definition of "abortion" is thus very important to ensure careful application; for this reason we have attempted a critical analysis of their arguments. In the area of pregnancy termination different moral standards are apparently applied in different countries, but many reasons exist why the equation between II trimester abortion for social reasons and the killing of healthy neonates is to be morally rejected in all cases. The "inversed reification" of the concept of infanticide as a more abstract, euphemistic 'after birth abortion' blurs the fundamental difference between a non-viable fetus and a viable neonate. The best-known and most widely utilized (although illegal) "social reason" for "late abortion" and "infanticide" is a pregnancy with a female fetus or neonate. If infanticide for neonates were to be considered morally permissible, specifically it is this practice that would be applied. And this should be rejected on two levels: conceptual, through a critique of the exclusive use of one specific notion of personhood, and pragmatic through refusal of gender-discriminatory forms of infanticide (the killing of female neonates). In conclusion, having investigated the new concept we have concluded that the term "after birth abortion" is biologically and conceptually nonsensical. PMID:23495749

  13. Certainty and agnosticism about lethal injection in late abortion.

    PubMed

    Spielman, B

    1995-01-01

    This article was written in support of a claim forwarded by Joan Callahan that fetal intracardiac potassium chloride injection (KCl injection) should be offered to women undergoing second-trimester abortion. Callahan provides three positive arguments for use of the technique: maternal safety, the short-term interests of fetuses, and the longterm interests of fetuses who survive the abortion. The author of this article notes that the fact that KCl injection is currently the safest procedure for the mother is argument enough in favor of offering the procedure. Even physicians who object to the procedure are obligated to inform their patients about it and should be encouraged to help their patients locate a physician willing to perform KCl injection. Callahan's argument about fetal pain is sound but unnecessary as long as KCl injection remains the safest procedure for the mother. The argument about preventing longterm suffering for fetuses who survive late abortion is the weakest because it is impossible to determine whether the fetuses would be better off dead or alive. Hospitals can resolve some of the dilemmas which are associated with KCl injection by having a well thought out and clearly communicated policy about resuscitation of an aborted fetus. Callahan argues that the policy should be a blanket "do not resuscitate." The author is less sure that a blanket policy in either direction would be correct. Since it is impossible to know in advance what is best for the child, other factors must determine whether one policy is preferable to another. These include legal considerations such as the Americans with Disabilities Act which prohibits discrimination against disabled individuals in hospitals.

  14. The need for routine sonography prior to late abortion.

    PubMed

    Chervenak, F A; Dorfman, S F; Bowers, C; Berkowitz, R L; Holder, A R; Ehrenkranz, R A; Furlong, R; Hobbins, J C

    1985-01-01

    The routine use of sonographic assessment of gestational age prior to elective late abortions should be encouraged for both fetal and maternal interests. The Supreme Court has upheld the right to abortion before viability and has held that not all second trimester abortions must be performed in hospitals. Viability is a presumptive and predictive term when used to describe a fetus in utero. In very premature newborn infants, survival is usually expressed as a function of birth weight because of the lack of standardization of gestational age assessment. It is very unusual for an infant with a birth weight less than 600 g to live, but a healthy infant with a birth weight greater than 600 g has a reasonable chance of survival if a modern intensive care unit is available. According to intrauterine and extrauterine growth curves, this birth weight corresponds to a gestational age of 23-24 weeks, but infants surviving at very low birth weights probably represent more mature fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation. For late abortions, the inherent inaccuracies of menstrual history and clinical sizing do not preclude the possibility of confusing a fetus that is not yet viable with a potentially viable fetus. Determination of biparietal diameter prior to late 2nd trimester abortion seems warranted since obstetric ultrasound is now readily available. A biparietal diameter measurement between 18-24 menstrual weeks is reliable within 10 days using 95% confidence limits. Based on biometric studies, a biparietal diameter of 57 mm to 61 mm and a femur length of 42 mm to 44 mm correspond to a mean gestational age of 24 weeks. Other sonographic measurements such as head perimeter and orbital measurements could also be used. In case of pregnancy termination, the method of termination should be based on accurate assessment of the duration of pregnancy.

  15. Detection by PCR of Neospora caninum in Fetal Tissues from Spontaneous Bovine Abortions

    PubMed Central

    Baszler, Timothy V.; Gay, Lawrence J. C.; Long, Maureen T.; Mathison, Bruce A.

    1999-01-01

    The routine diagnosis of Neospora caninum abortion is based upon histopathologic changes in fetal tissues and identification of tissue parasites by immunohistochemistry. Confirmation of N. caninum infection by immunohistochemistry has low sensitivity. In the present study, we examined the utility of PCR in detecting N. caninum infection in fetal tissues from spontaneous bovine abortion. DNA was obtained from fresh and formalin-fixed tissues from 61 bovine fetuses submitted for abortion diagnosis. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry determined the true status of N. caninum infection in each fetus. In formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, PCR detected N. caninum DNA in 13 of 13 true-positive fetuses (100%) and in 1 of 16 true-negative fetuses (6%). In fresh or frozen tissues, PCR detected N. caninum DNA in 10 of 13 true-positive fetuses (77%) and 0 of 11 true-negative fetuses (0%). PCR also detected N. caninum DNA in 6 of 8 fetuses that had typical lesions of N. caninum but were immunohistochemistry negative, indicating a higher sensitivity of PCR in comparison to that of immunohistochemistry. N. caninum DNA was amplified most consistently from brain tissue. PCR detection of N. caninum DNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues was superior to that in fresh tissues, presumably because of the increased accuracy of sample selection inherent in histologic specimens. PMID:10565932

  16. RU-486: the "abortion pill".

    PubMed

    Herranz, G

    1991-05-23

    A report sent by the Vatican to bishops' conferences throughout the world calls RU-486, the so-called abortion pill currently available in France, "a new, serious threat to human life." The report was developed at the Vatican's request by Gonzalo Herranz, a Spanish bioethicist. A cover letter to bishops' conferences from Cardinal Alfonso Lopez Trujillo, president of the Pontifical Council for the Family, suggested that the report be used "to resist the introduction of the abortion pill RU-486 into your country." Related to TU-486 and to new terminology some use to characterize its non-surgical approach to abortion is an intention "to amoralize and thereby place the transmission of human life into an ethically neutral terrain and reduce it to pure biology," says the report. The report discusses possible future uses of RU-486 as a contraceptive, stating: "Women would no longer have to worry themselves about whether they have conceived or not. Each month they would proceed to clean out their uterus chemically." The report refers to RU-486 as "a technical step forward in an area that did not need it." It says, "The abortion pill favors a woman's privacy and secret, but it condemns her to solitude." The English text from the Vatican follows. PMID:16145821

  17. Abortion: a reader's guide.

    PubMed

    Hisel, L M

    1996-01-01

    This review traces the discussion of abortion in the US through 10 of the best books published on the subject in the past 25 years. The first book considered is Daniel Callahan's "Abortion: Law, Choice and Morality," which was published in 1970. Next is book of essays also published in 1970: "The Morality of Abortion: Legal and Historical Perspectives," which was edited by John T. Noonan, Jr., who became a prominent opponent to the Roe decision. It is noted that Roman Catholics would find the essay by Bernard Haring especially interesting since Haring supported the Church's position on abortion but called for acceptance of contraception. Third on the list is historian James C. Mohr's review of "Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy," which was printed five years after the Roe decision. Selection four is "Enemies of Choice: The Right-to-Life Movement and Its Threat to Abortion" by Andrew Merton. This 1981 publication singled out a concern about sexuality as the overriding motivator for anti-abortion groups. Two years later, Beverly Wildung Harrison published a ground-breaking, feminist, moral analysis of abortion entitled "Our Right to Choose: Toward a New Ethic of Abortion. This was followed by a more empirical and sociopolitical feminist analysis in Kristin Luker's 1984 "Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood." The seventh book is by another feminist, Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, whose work "Abortion and Women's Choice: The State, Sexuality, and Reproductive Freedom" was first published in 1984 and reprinted in 1990. The eighth important book was "Abortion and Catholicism: The American Debate," edited by Thomas A. Shannon and Patricia Beattie Jung. Rounding out the list are the 1992 work "Life Itself: Abortion in the American Mind" by Roger Rosenblatt and Ronald Dworkin's 1993 "Life's Dominion: An Argument About Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom."

  18. Abortion: a reader's guide.

    PubMed

    Hisel, L M

    1996-01-01

    This review traces the discussion of abortion in the US through 10 of the best books published on the subject in the past 25 years. The first book considered is Daniel Callahan's "Abortion: Law, Choice and Morality," which was published in 1970. Next is book of essays also published in 1970: "The Morality of Abortion: Legal and Historical Perspectives," which was edited by John T. Noonan, Jr., who became a prominent opponent to the Roe decision. It is noted that Roman Catholics would find the essay by Bernard Haring especially interesting since Haring supported the Church's position on abortion but called for acceptance of contraception. Third on the list is historian James C. Mohr's review of "Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy," which was printed five years after the Roe decision. Selection four is "Enemies of Choice: The Right-to-Life Movement and Its Threat to Abortion" by Andrew Merton. This 1981 publication singled out a concern about sexuality as the overriding motivator for anti-abortion groups. Two years later, Beverly Wildung Harrison published a ground-breaking, feminist, moral analysis of abortion entitled "Our Right to Choose: Toward a New Ethic of Abortion. This was followed by a more empirical and sociopolitical feminist analysis in Kristin Luker's 1984 "Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood." The seventh book is by another feminist, Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, whose work "Abortion and Women's Choice: The State, Sexuality, and Reproductive Freedom" was first published in 1984 and reprinted in 1990. The eighth important book was "Abortion and Catholicism: The American Debate," edited by Thomas A. Shannon and Patricia Beattie Jung. Rounding out the list are the 1992 work "Life Itself: Abortion in the American Mind" by Roger Rosenblatt and Ronald Dworkin's 1993 "Life's Dominion: An Argument About Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom." PMID:12178914

  19. Abortion and neonaticide: ethics, practice, and policy in four nations.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael L

    2002-06-01

    Abortion, particularly later-term abortion, and neonaticide, selective non-treatment of newborns, are feasible management strategies for fetuses or newborns diagnosed with severe abnormalities. However, policy varies considerably among developed nations. This article examines abortion and neonatal policy in four nations: Israel, the US, the UK and Denmark. In Israel, late-term abortion is permitted while non-treatment of newborns is prohibited. In the US, on the other hand, later-term abortion is severely restricted, while treatment to newborns may be withdrawn. Policy in the UK and Denmark bridges some of these gaps with liberal abortion and neonatal policy. Disparate policy within and between nations creates practical and ethical difficulties. Practice diverges from policy as many practitioners find it difficult to adhere to official policy. Ethically, it is difficult to entirely justify perinatal policy in these nations. In each nation, there are elements of ethically sound policy, while other aspects cannot be defended. Ethical policy hinges on two underlying normative issues: the question of fetal/newborn status and the morality of killing and letting die. While each issue has been the subject of extensive debate, there are firm ethical norms that should serve as the basis for coherent and consistent perinatal policy. These include 1) a grant of full moral and legal status to the newborn but only partial moral and legal status to the late-term fetus 2) a general prohibition against feticide unless to save the life of the mother or prevent the birth of a fetus facing certain death or severe pain or suffering and 3) a general endorsement of neonaticide subject to a parent's assessment of the newborn's interest broadly defined to consider physical harm as well as social, psychological and or financial harm to related third parties. Policies in each of the nations surveyed diverging from these norms should be the subject of public discourse and, where possible

  20. Abortion 1982: the Supreme Court once again.

    PubMed

    Healey, J M

    1982-11-01

    Clearly, abortion in the US continues to be a major medico-legal issue which will not go away. 5 major abortion cases are scheduled for review by the US Supreme Court during its 1982-83 term. Taken together, these 5 cases challenge several of the key conclusions of the Court's review of the abortion question. The primary focus of the cases is the state's power to regulate the abortion decision during the 1st and 2nd trimester of the pregnancy. 2 cases involve ordinances passed by the City of Akron regulating access to abortion in areas such as consent and notification requirements and the location of abortions after the 1st trimester. 2 of the cases involve a Missouri statute also dealing with the requirement that abortions after the 1st trimester be performed in a hospital. The final case involves a Virginia criminal prosecution of a physician accused of violating the state's requirement of in-hospital performance of a 2nd trimester abortion. In the case of Roe v. Wade, the Court had established the "trimester trilogy" governing state regulation of the abortion procedure. For the stage of the pregnancy prior to the end of the 1st trimester, the Court held that the abortion decision and its effectuation must be left to the medical judgment of the pregnant women's attending physician. For the stage of the pregnancy subsequent to the end of the 1st trimester, the Court ruled that the state may promote its interest in the health of the mother by regulating the abortion procedure in ways reasonably related to maternal health. For the stage of pregnancy subsequent to viability, the state may promote its interest in the potentiality of human life by regulation, even prohibiting abortion, except where it is necessary to preserve the mother's life or health. These 5 cases challenge the role of the Court in determining the scope of appropriate state regulation at various stages of the pregnancy. Suffering a loss of prestige in the 10 years since the Roe v. Wade and Doe v

  1. States rebel against Federal abortion orders.

    PubMed

    Kent, C; Tokarski, C

    1994-01-01

    Despite the ascent of Bill Clinton to Presidential power in the US and his early successful repeals of bans on abortion counseling at federally funded clinics, abortions in military hospitals, and fetal tissue research, the controversy and debate over a woman's right to abortion continues in the US. The Hyde Amendment, named after Representative Henry Hyde, Republican from Illinois, has been in effect since 1976 barring Medicaid from funding abortions except to save the life of the pregnant woman. Congress in 1993, however, eased the amendment to allow states to use Medicaid funds to pay for abortions for low-income women in the cases of rape or incest. Anti-abortion lawmakers were assured by the provision's sponsors that the Clinton Administration would not force states to comply. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) instead sent a letter to state Medicaid directors on December 28, 1993, ordering them to use Medicaid funds to pay for abortions for low-income women who were the victims of rape or incest. President Clinton subsequently complained that HHS had bypassed his office in issuing the directive, state Medicaid directors protested that the directive had been imposed without the usual notice and allowance of time for public comment, and states claimed that the order clashes with existing state laws which ban the public funding of abortions not required to save the life of the mother. Officials from Arkansas, Colorado, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, and Utah have stated that they may fight the directive, while the HHS will most likely not move to rescind or change its directive. The issue will probably be resolved in the courts. The authors note that this state/federal battle over Medicaid-funded abortions is only part of a larger war scheduled to take place in Congress over whether pregnancy-related services, including abortion, will be covered in the Administration's Health Security Act.

  2. The impact of Mississippi's mandatory delay law on the timing of abortion.

    PubMed

    Joyce, T; Kaestner, R

    2000-01-01

    This article examined the effect of Mississippi's mandatory delay law on the timing of abortion. This mandate imposes that a woman seeking abortion must first receive in person information about the fetus and alternatives to abortion. She must then wait at least 24 hours before having an abortion. The Mississippi abortion data were stratified by location of the nearest provider, and the effects on the likelihood of a second-trimester abortion and on gestational age at the time of abortion were assessed. Results of the analysis of data for the 34,748 abortions revealed that the proportion of second-trimester procedures were at least 2.6% points greater among women whose nearest abortion provider was in-state than among those whose nearest provider was out-of-state. The overall effect of the law on mean gestation was to delay an abortion by about 4 days (0.61 weeks). In conclusion, the proportion of abortions performed later in pregnancy will probably increase if more states impose mandatory delay laws with in-person counseling requirements. PMID:10710701

  3. France: late abortion.

    PubMed

    Gaudry, D; Sadan, G

    1989-01-01

    In France, under the terms of a law passed by Parliament in 1975, a woman may have an abortion up to 12 weeks of pregnancy if she is a French resident and, in the event that she is a minor, she has parental consent. The woman must also have 2 medical consultations, a week apart. The woman is reimbursed by the state up to 70% of the cost of the abortion. After 12 weeks, abortion, except for therapeutic abortion, under the terms of Article 317 of the Criminal Code, is a crime, punishable by 6 months to 10 years in prison, a fine of between 1800 and 250,000 Francs, and loss of professional license. Moreover, Article 647 of the Health Code bans any advertising, incitement or propaganda for abortion or abortion-inducing products. Many French women go to Britain or Holland for abortions after 12 weeks, but they face the financial burden of traveling as well as the difficulties of getting help in a strange country and the stigma of having done something illegal. The Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial, which won the legalization of contraception in 1967, is now fighting for legal abortion as well as the distribution of information about sexuality, contraception, and abortion in the schools. 2 charges of incitement to abortion have been brought against the organization.

  4. Reproductive health and the question of abortion in Botswana: a review.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephanie S

    2013-12-01

    The complications of unsafe, illegal abortions are a significant cause of maternal mortality in Botswana. The stigma attached to abortion leads some women to seek clandestine procedures, or alternatively, to carry the fetus to term and abandon the infant at birth. I conducted research into perceptions of abortion in urban Botswana in order to understand the social and cultural obstacles to women's reproductive autonomy, focusing particularly on attitudes to terminating a pregnancy. I carried out 21 interviews with female and male urban adult Batswana. This article constitutes a review of the abortion issue in Botswana based on my research. Restrictive laws must eventually be abolished to allow women access to safe, timely abortions. My findings however, suggest that socio-cultural factors, not punitive laws, present the greatest barriers to women seeking to terminate an unwanted pregnancy. These factors must be addressed so that effective local solutions to unsafe abortion can be generated. PMID:24558779

  5. Psychological aspects of therapeutic abortion after early prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Di Giusto, M; Lazzari, R; Giorgetti, T; Paesano, R; Pachi, A

    1991-01-01

    The early discovery of a fetal pathology creates a "crisis" situation fraught with psychic problems for the couple who must live through it. The Authors observed a group of patients in the second trimester of pregnancy. They had all requested therapeutic abortion since serious malformation of the fetus had been confirmed. By means of a questionnaire constructed for the purpose, certain characteristics of fetal malformation and of pregnancy were evidenced, as well as the way these were experienced by the patients. The immediate and delayed reactions to the diagnosis of malformation were also studied, as was the experience lived when faced with the choice of abortion. PMID:1752049

  6. Screening for genetic disorders: therapeutic abortion and IVF.

    PubMed

    Michael, M; Buckle, S

    1990-03-01

    This paper examines a proposal to make use of IVF techniques to provide an alternative to therapeutic abortion of fetuses with genetic abnormalities. We begin by describing the proposed procedure, and then show that, considered in itself, it is morally on a par with therapeutic abortion. However, once the wider practical implications are brought into view, the proposed new procedure loses its initial appeal. The pros and cons are not sufficiently clear-cut entirely to rule out the IVF procedure, so the paper concludes by indicating some further complications which may follow, should the procedure come to be adopted. PMID:2319572

  7. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L.; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J.; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus was performed. The genomes of C. fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C. fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C. fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C. fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C. fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus. Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C. fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C. fetus subspecies. PMID:27333878

  8. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was performed. The genomes of C fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C fetus subspecies. PMID:27333878

  9. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-07-02

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was performed. The genomes of C fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C fetus subspecies.

  10. Letter: The Canadian abortion law.

    PubMed

    Coffey, P G

    1976-08-01

    Removing abortion from the Criminal Code in Canada will mean that more and more abortions will be performed for nonmedical reasons which will result in an abortion-on-demand situation similar to that in Japan. Early complications of abortion include death, hemorrhage, shock, cervical injury, and infection. Later complications include premature births, spontaneous abortions, ectopic pregnancies, pelvic inflammation, and infertility. Legalized abortion does not seem to reduce the incidence of illegal abortion. There are also psychological, moral, and sociological consequences of legalized abortion. It would seem that liberal abortion makes bad medicine and leads to far-reaching consequences.

  11. Algorithm for Determination of Orion Ascent Abort Mode Achievability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    For human spaceflight missions, a launch vehicle failure poses the challenge of returning the crew safely to earth through environments that are often much more stressful than the nominal mission. Manned spaceflight vehicles require continuous abort capability throughout the ascent trajectory to protect the crew in the event of a failure of the launch vehicle. To provide continuous abort coverage during the ascent trajectory, different types of Orion abort modes have been developed. If a launch vehicle failure occurs, the crew must be able to quickly and accurately determine the appropriate abort mode to execute. Early in the ascent, while the Launch Abort System (LAS) is attached, abort mode selection is trivial, and any failures will result in a LAS abort. For failures after LAS jettison, the Service Module (SM) effectors are employed to perform abort maneuvers. Several different SM abort mode options are available depending on the current vehicle location and energy state. During this region of flight the selection of the abort mode that maximizes the survivability of the crew becomes non-trivial. To provide the most accurate and timely information to the crew and the onboard abort decision logic, on-board algorithms have been developed to propagate the abort trajectories based on the current launch vehicle performance and to predict the current abort capability of the Orion vehicle. This paper will provide an overview of the algorithm architecture for determining abort achievability as well as the scalar integration scheme that makes the onboard computation possible. Extension of the algorithm to assessing abort coverage impacts from Orion design modifications and launch vehicle trajectory modifications is also presented.

  12. [Umberto Eco and abortion].

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    The Cardinal of Milan and the linguist and writer Umberto Eco maintained a correspondence in the mid-1990s in connection with the Italian magazine ¿Liberal¿. One of the issues discussed was the conflict between belief in the value of human life and existing abortion legislation. Umberto Eco stated that he would do all in his power to dissuade a woman pregnant with his child from having an abortion, regardless of the personal cost to the parents, because the birth of a child is a miracle. He would not, however, feel capable of imposing his ethical position on anyone else. Terrible moments occur in which women have a right to make autonomous decisions concerning their bodies, their feelings, their futures. Those who disagree cite the right to life, a rather vague concept about which even atheists can be enthusiastic. The moment at which a new human being is formed has been brought to the center of Catholic theology, despite its uncertainty; the beginning of a new life may always need to be understood as a process whose end result is the newborn. Only the mother should decide at what moment the process may be interrupted. The cardinal¿s response distinguished between psychic and physical life, on the one hand, and life participating in the life of God on the other. The threshold is the moment of conception, reflecting a continuity of identity. The new being is worthy of respect. Any violation of the affection and care owed to the being can only be experienced as a profound suffering and painful laceration that may never heal. The response of Eco is unknown. PMID:12349541

  13. [Umberto Eco and abortion].

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    The Cardinal of Milan and the linguist and writer Umberto Eco maintained a correspondence in the mid-1990s in connection with the Italian magazine ¿Liberal¿. One of the issues discussed was the conflict between belief in the value of human life and existing abortion legislation. Umberto Eco stated that he would do all in his power to dissuade a woman pregnant with his child from having an abortion, regardless of the personal cost to the parents, because the birth of a child is a miracle. He would not, however, feel capable of imposing his ethical position on anyone else. Terrible moments occur in which women have a right to make autonomous decisions concerning their bodies, their feelings, their futures. Those who disagree cite the right to life, a rather vague concept about which even atheists can be enthusiastic. The moment at which a new human being is formed has been brought to the center of Catholic theology, despite its uncertainty; the beginning of a new life may always need to be understood as a process whose end result is the newborn. Only the mother should decide at what moment the process may be interrupted. The cardinal¿s response distinguished between psychic and physical life, on the one hand, and life participating in the life of God on the other. The threshold is the moment of conception, reflecting a continuity of identity. The new being is worthy of respect. Any violation of the affection and care owed to the being can only be experienced as a profound suffering and painful laceration that may never heal. The response of Eco is unknown.

  14. Abortion in early America.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Z

    1979-01-01

    This piece describes abortion practices in use from the 1600s to the 19th century among the inhabitants of North America. The abortive techniques of women from different ethnic and racial groups as found in historical literature are revealed. Thus, the point is made that abortion is not simply a "now issue" that effects select women. Instead, it is demonstrated that it is a widespread practice as solidly rooted in our past as it is in the present.

  15. Fetal Vegf Genotype is More Important for Abortion Risk than Mother Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Yalcintepe, Sinem Atik; Silan, Fatma; Hacivelioglu, Servet Ozden; Uludag, Ahmet; Cosar, Emine; Ozdemir, Ozturk

    2014-01-01

    VEGF gene has been reported to be related with many diseases and recurrent pregnancy loss in various studies. Concerning the role of VEGF polymorphisms in pregnancy losses, generally mothers genotypes have been analyzed. To evaluate the association between VEGF A +405G/C (rs2010963), −460T/C (rs833061), +936C/T (rs3025039) and - 2578A/C (rs699947) polymorphisms and spontaneous abortion, we studied the genotypes of spontaneously aborted fetuses, their mothers and healthy controls. 23 spontaneously aborted fetal materials, 22 mothers who had these abortions and 86 healthy controls were included in this study. rs2010963, rs833061, rs3025039 and rs699947 polymorphisms were analyzed by Real Time PCR technique after genomic DNA isolation from all subjects. The frequencies of VEGF A rs2010963 GG genotype and rs2010963 G allele were higher in fetuses compared both with mothers and healthy controls. VEGF A rs3025039 TT genotype and rs3025039 T allele frequencies were higher in fetuses comparing with mothers. VEGF A rs833061 CT and TT genotypes frequencies were higher in fetuses comparing with mothers. We ascertained that VEGF A rs2010963, rs833061 and rs3025039 are the risk factors for spontaneous abortion in fetal genotypes comparing with their mothers and healthy controls. PMID:25035858

  16. How to understand a woman's obligations to the fetus in unwanted pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Hine, Kristen

    2013-06-01

    Some have challenged Thomson's case of the famous unconscious violinist (UV) by arguing that in cases of consensual sex a woman is partially morally responsible for the existence of a needy fetus; since she is partially responsible she ought to assist the fetus, and so abortion is morally wrong. Call this the Responsibility Objection (RO) to UV. In this paper, I briefly criticize one of the most widely discussed objections to RO and then suggest a new way to challenge RO. In so doing, I investigate the plausibility of the moral principle that appears to be driving RO: If a woman is partially morally responsible for the existence of a needy fetus, she has a moral obligation to assist the fetus. I argue that this principle is false. I suggest modified versions of this principle but argue that, even on the most plausible version, RO does not persuade.

  17. [Induced abortion: a vulnerable public health problem].

    PubMed

    Requena, M

    1991-03-01

    Induced abortion is an urgent public health problem that can be controlled if it is approached in its true complexity and with a social and humanist perspective. Induced abortion has been discussed in Chile since the last century, but not always openly. Abortion is not just an individual and collective medical problem, it is also an ethical, religious, legal, demographic, political, and psychological problem. Above all it is a problem of human rights. In the past 60 years, more than 50 countries representing 76% of the world population have liberalized their abortion legislation. Around 980 million women have some degrees of access of legal abortion. The magnitude of illegal abortion is difficult to determine because of the desire of women to hide their experiences. Estimates of the incidence of abortion in Chile made some 25 years ago are no longer valid because of the numerous social changes in the intervening years. The number of abortions in Chile in 1987 was estimated using an indirect residual method at 195,441, of which 90%, or 175,897, were induced. By this estimate, 38.8% of pregnancies in Chile end in abortion. Data on hospitalizations for complications of induced abortion show an increase from 13.9/1000 fertile aged women in 1940 to 29.1 in 1965. By 1987, with increased contraceptive usage, the rate declined to 10.5 abortions per 1000 fertile aged women. The cost of hospitalization for abortion complications in 1987, despite the decline, was still estimated at US $4.3 million, a large sum in an era of declining health resources. The problem of induced abortion can be analyzed by placing it in the context of elements affecting the desire to control fertility. 4 complexes of variables are involved: those affecting the supply of contraceptive, the demand for contraceptives, the various costs of fertility control measure, and alternatives to fertility control for satisfying various needs. The analysis is further complicated when efforts are made to

  18. Abortion politics in the United States, 1972-1994: from single issue to ideology.

    PubMed

    Hout, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses issues of legal abortion and women's rights in the US. Abortion has been a political issue since the 1970s in the US. Following the Supreme Court's decision in the case of Roe vs. Wade, conservatives and liberals were divided based on their stand on abortion laws. Moreover, gender affects the range of opinions. Gender gap in abortion attitudes is most evident among conservatives. Conservative and extremely conservative women are against legal abortion more strongly than men with those same political views. Liberal and extremely liberal women have about the same amount of support for legal abortion as liberal men do. Labor force participation, marriage, education, and religion have impact on women and men's attitudes toward abortion; yet none of these explain the politicization of abortion. The change in support for legal abortion by political views and time period (1974-93) is shown in this paper. Women's rights are at the core when issues on abortion are to be discussed; the circumstances of the pregnancy and not the fetus become the focus. Although some women¿s groups support this stand, it faces a continuing debate with pro-life groups. The prevailing ideologies attempt to accommodate the new ideas expressed by the movement, while some of its stronger views are tempered in order to win a measure of political success. PMID:12349270

  19. Differences between spontaneous and induced abortions as risk factors for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J

    1996-05-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have found that spontaneous abortion has no association with breast cancer, while induced abortion is associated with a moderately increased risk. Although this finding may, in part, reflect confounding and ascertainment bias, there are credible biologic reasons for a difference in risk between these two events. Experiments with rats have indicated that proliferated but not differentiated terminal duct and lobular cells increase the susceptibility of breast tissue to carcinogens. Since ductal and lobuloalveolar breast cells proliferate in the first two trimesters of pregnancy and differentiate in the third, it would follow that the later (up through the late second trimester) the pregnancy is terminated, the greater the risk. Although there is a trend toward induced abortion at earlier gestational ages, spontaneous abortion tends to be the earlier event. Even when induced and spontaneous abortions occur at the same gestational age, dead embryos or fetuses are probably retained in utero for several weeks before expulsion, meaning hormone levels drop appreciably earlier than is the case with induced abortion, where the hormone profile drops only after termination. Moreover, since the average time to another pregnancy is significantly shorter after spontaneous abortion (12 months), the protective effect of subsequent full-term pregnancies may dilute the risk effect of spontaneous abortion to a greater extent than is the case with induced abortion. Now that most induced abortions occur in the first trimester, the implications for breast cancer risk should become minimal for both types of interrupted pregnancies.

  20. Abortion and the ethics of genetic sexual orientation research.

    PubMed

    Murphy, T F

    1995-01-01

    Research is being conducted to determine whether there is a genetic basis for homoerotic sexual orientation in adults. Reports indicate that such a basis may exist. Some homosexual men and women have welcomed the possibility of biological confirmation of their sexual orientation and subsequent behavior. If human sexual orientation were proven to be genetically determined, many homosexuals would not feel compelled to justify their sexuality. One would simply be born either homosexual or heterosexual. Others, however, worry that the ability to identify homosexuality through genetic markers may be used prejudicially against homosexuals. German sexologist Gunter Schmidt has argued that since society has yet to fully accept homosexuals and homosexuality, research into the possible causes of homosexuality is potentially dangerous to gay men and women. In the same vein, gay studies scholar David Halperin argues that the search for a scientific etiology of sexual orientation is a homophobic venture which should be clearly seen as such. Considerable concern therefore exists that sexual orientation research may lead to genocide against homosexuals through the practice of selective abortion on the basis of a fetus's genetically identified sexual orientation. The author, however, is skeptical that a simple genetic test is on the horizon which is capable of determining an individual's sexual orientation, and were such a test available, that it would necessarily be used only to the detriment of homosexuals. He does acknowledge that such a test could be used prejudicially with regard to access to employment, insurance, and other social goods, but it nonetheless remains unjustified to completely forbid genetic sexual orientation research. A sexual orientation test and abortion, and the ethics of sexual orientation research are discussed.

  1. Abortion in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szawarski, Z

    1991-12-01

    As of July 1991 abortion is still legal in Poland. Currently the Polish Parliament has taken a break from the debate because the issue is so important that any decision must not be made in past. There is strong pressure from the Catholic Church to eliminate access to abortion. In the fall the Polish people will vote for and elect their first truly democratic Parliament. Abortion does not seem to be playing as important a role as other political issues. In 1956 a law was passed that allowed a woman to have an abortion for medical or social reasons. This law resulted in allowing women in Poland to use abortion as their primary form of contraception. The vast majority of the abortions were performed under the social justification. Then, when democracy same to Poland with the help of the Catholic Church, an unprecedented debate in the mass media, churches, and educational institutions was stirred up. The government attempted to stay out of the debate at first. But as people from different side of the debate saw that they had an opportunity to influence things in their favor, they began to politicize the issue. Currently there are 4 different drafts of the new Polish abortion law. 3 of them radically condemn abortion while the 4th condemns it as a method of family planning, but allows to terminate pregnancies in order to save the life of the mother. PMID:1777450

  2. Psychosocial aspects of abortion

    PubMed Central

    Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users. PMID:1085671

  3. Abortion in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Nancy B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored differences between 35 women who had abortions as teenagers and 36 women who had abortions as adults. Respondents reported on their premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and postabortion distress symptoms. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders, drug abuse, and psychotic delusions were significantly…

  4. Resolving the abortion controversy.

    PubMed

    Rosoff, J I

    1989-01-01

    This article addresses legislative attempts to reverse Roe v. Wade, U.S. abortion laws vis-á-vis those of other developed nations, socioeconomic factors figuring into the decision (or option) to abort, and the positive potential impact of improved contraceptive use.

  5. Expression of the human ETS-2 oncogene in normal fetal tissues and in the brain of a fetus with trisomy 21.

    PubMed

    Baffico, M; Perroni, L; Rasore-Quartino, A; Scartezzini, P

    1989-10-01

    The expression of the ETS-2 proto-oncogene, located on chromosome 21, in normal fetal tissues and in neural tissue of a fetus affected by Down syndrome has been investigated. The results show that the ETS-2 proto-oncogene is expressed in almost all the tissues examined and that it is transcribed at constant levels in neural tissue between the 13th and 24th weeks. ETS-2 expression appeared to be slightly increased in Down syndrome brain compared with that of normal controls of the same gestational age.

  6. Expression of the human ETS-2 oncogene in normal fetal tissues and in the brain of a fetus with trisomy 21.

    PubMed

    Baffico, M; Perroni, L; Rasore-Quartino, A; Scartezzini, P

    1989-10-01

    The expression of the ETS-2 proto-oncogene, located on chromosome 21, in normal fetal tissues and in neural tissue of a fetus affected by Down syndrome has been investigated. The results show that the ETS-2 proto-oncogene is expressed in almost all the tissues examined and that it is transcribed at constant levels in neural tissue between the 13th and 24th weeks. ETS-2 expression appeared to be slightly increased in Down syndrome brain compared with that of normal controls of the same gestational age. PMID:2529204

  7. Teenage abortion in Germany: with reference to the legal system in the United States.

    PubMed

    Belling, D W; Eberl, C

    1996-01-01

    This document compares the legal aspects of induced abortion in the US and Germany with a focus on how each country treats minors who wish to undergo abortion. After a short introduction, the second section describes the legal approach to abortion in the US where women (including minors) have an implicitly recognized constitutional right to abortion until compelling state interest intervenes at a point where the unborn child would be viable outside of the womb. States, however, may permit parents to participate in their daughter's abortion decisions as long as a "judicial bypass procedure" exists to protect the minor's rights. Section 3 describes the situation in Germany, where no constitutional right to abortion exists and where the fetus is protected by the constitution. A minor's right to abortion is determined by the provisions governing whether or not an abortion can be performed, by age limitations, and by the custody rights of the parents. Relevant decisions of the Federal Constitutional Court in 1975 and 1993 are reviewed to show that women have a duty to carry a pregnancy to term unless the woman requests the abortion within 12 weeks of conception and submits to counseling which seeks to protect the fetus (such an abortion would be illegal but immune from prosecution). German court rulings on the competency of minors to render consent are then noted to show that even minors have ultimate responsibility with regard to abortion. Analysis of the legal situation in Germany continues with a look at the personal custody rights of parents and the limitations on those rights imposed by the constitutional rights of the child, by the child's age, and by the child's self-reliance and capacity to assume responsibility. The conclusion contrasts the US and German legal sources of limitation of parental rights over the decisions of minors and the ways each system determines the competency of a minor to make such a decision.

  8. Roe v. Wade and "partial birth abortion" bans.

    PubMed

    1998-01-22

    The US Supreme Court crafted its Roe vs. Wade ruling based on privacy protections embedded in the US Constitution and the competing interests of the states to protect maternal health and potential life. In its later Casey decision, the Court allowed states to promote their interest in potential life by surrounding abortion with obstacles as long as these did not pose an "undue burden" on the woman's privacy rights. Recent "partial-birth" abortion bans enacted by 17 states seek to weaken Roe by 1) including such broad definitions that they in effect ban all abortions, 2) seeking to create constitutional rights for fetuses, and 3) forwarding states' interests not recognized by Roe. In addition, "partial-birth" abortion bans that outlaw medically-accepted abortion methods do not further any state interest recognized by Roe because 1) they are not designed to dissuade the woman, 2) fetal survival is impossible, and 3) they undermine protection of maternal health. Such bans ignore the distinction between pre- and postviability abortions called for in Roe and flout Roe's protection of the life and health of women. In effect, such bans attack every important aspect of the Roe vs. Wade ruling.

  9. Induced abortion: epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Baird, D

    1975-01-01

    Sir Dugald Baird sketches the history of abortion legislation in Great Britain from the beginning of the century. In his views the 1967 Abortion Act has been one of the most important and beneficial pieces of social legislation enacted in Britain in the last 100 years. It has, however, brought problems both of administration in the hospitals and to individual doctors and nurses, particularly when the patients are young single women and even schoolgirls. One of the consequences of the Abortion Act has been a fall in maternal mortality and perinatal mortality rates. Abortion does not seem to be followed by serious emotional sequelae. Nevertheless recent changes in sexual mores have introduced new and serious social problems which are discussed in relation to the role of the doctor in his relationship with patients seeking abortion. PMID:765461

  10. Walking the abortion tightrope.

    PubMed

    Simms, M

    1971-03-01

    The abortion controversy in England was partially resolved on February 23, 1971, when Sir Keith Joseph, Secretary of State for Social Services, announced that an inquiry into the 1967 Abortion Act would be established, but one which would be concerned with the way the Act was working rather than the principles underlying it. Regional inequalities exist in the implementation of the Act (as with substandard services in Birmingham, Liverpool and Sheffield) due to opposition of the local gynecological establishment and a genuine shortage of facilities. These can be eliminated only through time and retirement and with public finance for more equal abortion facilities. The addition of a consultant clause into the Act would probably reduce the number of abortions in smaller private nursing homes, flood the National Health Service with abortion requests, and drive women back to criminal abortionists.

  11. Catholicism and abortion since Roe v. Wade.

    PubMed

    Hisel, L M

    1998-01-01

    This document summarizes a sample of significant activities and events undertaken by Roman Catholics in response to the US Supreme Court's Roe vs. Wade decision legalizing induced abortion. The summaries begin with the 1966 creation of the National Right to Life Committee and cover opposition of Catholic bishops to the Roe decision, the organization of the National Committee for a Human Life Amendment (NCHLA), the mock investiture of a female pope by Catholics for a Free Choice, dismissal of a pro-life priest from the Jesuits, excommunication of various women because of their work with pro-choice agencies or ones that provided abortion services, meetings of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) with presidential candidates, NCHLA lobbying for the Hyde Amendment, open letters and advertisements published by CFC, the effort of Abortion Rights Mobilization to strip the Catholic church of its tax-exempt status, the Vatican order for all priests to leave political office, actions taken by nuns to support the pro-choice position, the proposal of the "seamless garment" argument under the principle of the "consistent ethic of life," initiation of the post-abortion reconciliation project, the actions of Catholic politicians, the filing of amicus curiae briefs, support of bishops for Operation Rescue, forums on abortion conducted by an Archbishop, the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion, targeting by bishops of pro-choice candidates for sanctions and excommunication, testimony and lobbying in opposition of the Freedom of Choice Act, false accusations about the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development leveled by bishops, lobbying by bishops in support of a ban on late-term abortions, lobbying to increase the access of low-income women to abortion, and consideration by the bishops of reinstituting "meatless Fridays" to express Catholic opposition to "attacks on human life and dignity." PMID:12178893

  12. Catholicism and abortion since Roe v. Wade.

    PubMed

    Hisel, L M

    1998-01-01

    This document summarizes a sample of significant activities and events undertaken by Roman Catholics in response to the US Supreme Court's Roe vs. Wade decision legalizing induced abortion. The summaries begin with the 1966 creation of the National Right to Life Committee and cover opposition of Catholic bishops to the Roe decision, the organization of the National Committee for a Human Life Amendment (NCHLA), the mock investiture of a female pope by Catholics for a Free Choice, dismissal of a pro-life priest from the Jesuits, excommunication of various women because of their work with pro-choice agencies or ones that provided abortion services, meetings of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) with presidential candidates, NCHLA lobbying for the Hyde Amendment, open letters and advertisements published by CFC, the effort of Abortion Rights Mobilization to strip the Catholic church of its tax-exempt status, the Vatican order for all priests to leave political office, actions taken by nuns to support the pro-choice position, the proposal of the "seamless garment" argument under the principle of the "consistent ethic of life," initiation of the post-abortion reconciliation project, the actions of Catholic politicians, the filing of amicus curiae briefs, support of bishops for Operation Rescue, forums on abortion conducted by an Archbishop, the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion, targeting by bishops of pro-choice candidates for sanctions and excommunication, testimony and lobbying in opposition of the Freedom of Choice Act, false accusations about the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development leveled by bishops, lobbying by bishops in support of a ban on late-term abortions, lobbying to increase the access of low-income women to abortion, and consideration by the bishops of reinstituting "meatless Fridays" to express Catholic opposition to "attacks on human life and dignity."

  13. Endocrine alterations around the time of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen.

    PubMed

    Boeta, M; Zarco, L

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor and compare the concentrations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), progesterone and estrone sulphate during normal and failed pregnancies of mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen, relating their individual endocrine profiles to the time of pregnancy loss, and to the histopathologic findings in the aborted fetuses and placenta. Mares (n=54) were used, 32 of them impregnated with donkey semen and 22 impregnated with horse semen. Blood samples were taken twice a week from Day 35 to 120 of pregnancy. Ultrasonographic observations of the fetus were carried out twice a week. The incidence of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey semen (30%) was greater (P<0.05) than the 5% observed in mares impregnated with horse semen. From Week 8 to the end of the sampling period, the mean progesterone concentrations of mares with normal mule pregnancies were less (P<0.05) than those of mares with normal pregnancies with equine fetuses. The concentrations of eCG were less (P<0.05) in mule pregnancies from Week 6. Estrone sulphate concentrations were only different (P<0.05) between types of pregnancy on Weeks 13 and 14, being in this case greater with the mule pregnancies. Most of the abortions of mule fetuses were associated with lesser progesterone concentrations than the average for mares with successful mule pregnancies. Four of the abortions of mule fetuses and the only abortion of horse fetus occurred in mares with lesser progesterone and very low eCG concentrations, and were classified as caused by luteal impairment secondary to eCG deficiency; estrone sulphate concentrations were less than normal or absent before these abortions. Two mares aborted after several weeks of low progesterone concentrations in the presence of eCG concentrations that were normal for mule pregnancies, suggesting primary luteal deficiency. In three mares carrying a mule fetus, the concentrations of progesterone and estrone sulphate decreased

  14. Endocrine alterations around the time of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen.

    PubMed

    Boeta, M; Zarco, L

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor and compare the concentrations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), progesterone and estrone sulphate during normal and failed pregnancies of mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen, relating their individual endocrine profiles to the time of pregnancy loss, and to the histopathologic findings in the aborted fetuses and placenta. Mares (n=54) were used, 32 of them impregnated with donkey semen and 22 impregnated with horse semen. Blood samples were taken twice a week from Day 35 to 120 of pregnancy. Ultrasonographic observations of the fetus were carried out twice a week. The incidence of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey semen (30%) was greater (P<0.05) than the 5% observed in mares impregnated with horse semen. From Week 8 to the end of the sampling period, the mean progesterone concentrations of mares with normal mule pregnancies were less (P<0.05) than those of mares with normal pregnancies with equine fetuses. The concentrations of eCG were less (P<0.05) in mule pregnancies from Week 6. Estrone sulphate concentrations were only different (P<0.05) between types of pregnancy on Weeks 13 and 14, being in this case greater with the mule pregnancies. Most of the abortions of mule fetuses were associated with lesser progesterone concentrations than the average for mares with successful mule pregnancies. Four of the abortions of mule fetuses and the only abortion of horse fetus occurred in mares with lesser progesterone and very low eCG concentrations, and were classified as caused by luteal impairment secondary to eCG deficiency; estrone sulphate concentrations were less than normal or absent before these abortions. Two mares aborted after several weeks of low progesterone concentrations in the presence of eCG concentrations that were normal for mule pregnancies, suggesting primary luteal deficiency. In three mares carrying a mule fetus, the concentrations of progesterone and estrone sulphate decreased

  15. Late termination of pregnancy in cases of severe abnormalities in the fetus.

    PubMed

    Gevers, S

    1998-01-01

    Developments in medical technology have increased the possibility of diagnosing severe structural abnormalities in the fetus. In such circumstances, the woman may request termination of her pregnancy. This raises serious ethical and legal questions, in particular if the abnormalities are discovered after 24 weeks of gestation, when the fetus is considered viable. This article discusses the legal aspects of this problem, with particular reference to the Netherlands. If one accepts that, in exceptional circumstances, third trimester abortion may be justified on medical grounds, the law should make provision for it. However, the general protection provided by the law to fetal life-especially in the third trimester--should remain firmly in place.

  16. A dualist analysis of abortion: personhood and the concept of self qua experiential subject

    PubMed Central

    Himma, K

    2005-01-01

    In this essay, I argue that, under dualist assumptions about the nature of mind, the fetus is not a person until brain activity has begun.i First, I argue it is a necessary condition for a thing to be a moral person that it is (or has) a self. Second, I argue it is a necessary condition for a fetus to be (or have) a self, under dualist assumptions, that there has been some electrical activity in the brain. I conclude that a dualist can take the position that abortion ought to be legally permitted at least until the beginning of brain activity in the fetus. PMID:15634753

  17. Neural-Dural Transition at the Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Nerve Roots: A Histological Study of Human Late-Stage Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kwang Ho; Jin, Zhe Wu; Abe, Hiroshi; Shibata, Shunichi; Murakami, Gen; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Epidural blocks have been used extensively in infants. However, little histological information is available on the immature neural-dural transition. The neural-dural transition was histologically investigated in 12 late-stage (28–30 weeks) fetuses. The dural sheath of the spinal cord was observed to always continue along the nerve roots with varying thicknesses between specimens and segments, while the dorsal root ganglion sheath was usually very thin or unclear. Immature neural-dural transitions were associated with effective anesthesia. The posterior radicular artery was near the dorsal root ganglion and/or embedded in the nerve root, whereas the anterior radicular artery was separated from the nearest nerve root. The anterior radicular artery was not associated with the dural sheath but with thin mesenchymal tissue. The numbers of radicular arteries tended to become smaller in larger specimens. Likewise, larger specimens of the upper thoracic and lower lumbar segments did not show the artery. Therefore, elimination of the radicular arteries to form a single artery of Adamkiewicz was occurring in late-stage fetuses. The epidural space was filled with veins, and the loose tissue space extended ventrolaterally to the subpleural tissue between the ribs. Consequently, epidural blocks in infants require special attention although immature neural-dural transitions seemed to increase the effect. PMID:27069926

  18. The development of anticipation in the fetus: a longitudinal account of human fetal mouth movements in reaction to and anticipation of touch.

    PubMed

    Reissland, N; Francis, B; Aydin, E; Mason, J; Schaal, B

    2014-07-01

    Research suggests that fetuses open or close their mouth in relation to directed movements but it is unclear whether mouth opening anticipates the touch or is a reaction to touch, as there has been no analysis so far of (1) the facial area of touch and (2) the sequential ordering of touch and mouth movements. If there is prenatal development of the anticipation of touch we would expect the frequency of fetal mouth opening immediately preceding the arriving hand at the mouth area to increase with fetal age. Fifteen healthy fetuses, eight girls and seven boys, underwent four additional 4-D scans at 24, 28, 32, and 36 weeks gestation. Changes in the frequency of touch for different facial regions indicated a significant decline in touch of the upper and side parts of the face and a significant increase in touching lower and perioral regions of the face with increasing gestational age. Results supporting the hypothesis showed a significant increase in the proportion of anticipatory mouth movements before touch increasing by around 8% with each week of gestational age. Additionally there was a decrease in the proportion of reactive mouth movements decreasing by around 3% for each week of gestational age.

  19. Fertility after contraception or abortion.

    PubMed

    Huggins, G R; Cullins, V E

    1990-10-01

    There is a very small correlation, if any, between the prior use of OCs and congenital malformations, including Down's syndrome. There are few, if any, recent reports on masculinization of a female fetus born to a mother who took an OC containing 1 mg of a progestogen during early pregnancy. However, patients suspected of being pregnant and who are desirous of continuing that pregnancy should not continue to take OCs, nor should progestogen withdrawal pregnancy tests be used. Concern still exists regarding the occurrence of congenital abnormalities in babies born to such women. The incidence of postoperative infection after first trimester therapeutic abortion in this country is low. However, increasing numbers of women are undergoing repeated pregnancy terminations, and their risk for subsequent pelvic infections may be multiplied with each succeeding abortion. The incidence of prematurity due to cervical incompetence or surgical infertility after first trimester pregnancy terminations is not increased significantly. Asherman's syndrome may occur after septic therapeutic abortion. The pregnancy rate after treatment of this syndrome is low. The return of menses and the achievement of a pregnancy may be slightly delayed after OCs are discontinued, but the fertility rate is within the normal range by 1 year. The incidence of postpill amenorrhea of greater than 6 months' duration is probably less than 1%. The occurrence of the syndrome does not seem to be related to length of use or type of pill. Patients with prior normal menses as well as those with menstrual abnormalities before use of OCs may develop this syndrome. Patients with normal estrogen and gonadotropin levels usually respond with return of menses and ovulation when treated with clomiphene. The rate for achievement of pregnancy is much lower than that for patients with spontaneous return of menses. The criteria for defining PID or for categorizing its severity are diverse. The incidence of PID is higher

  20. Third trimester abortion: is compassion enough?

    PubMed

    Chervenak, F A; McCullough, L B; Campbell, S

    1999-04-01

    One comprehensive ethical framework that can be applied to cases of third trimester abortion is based on the following notion: patient trust depends upon physicians developing specific virtues and basing their professional actions on these virtues. One such virtue, as described by Dr. John Gregory in 1772, is sympathy for the distress of others that overcomes self-interest. This application of sympathy and desire to relieve suffering can justify late term abortion in some cases. The compassionate response to sympathy forwarded by Gregory, however, must be properly regulated by reason, as Gregory himself recognized. Thomas Percival (1740-1803), author of the classic text "Medical Ethics," charged physicians with uniting "tenderness" (Gregory's "sympathy") with "steadiness." This combination of virtues reoccurs in the contemporary work of bioethicists Edmund Pellegrino and David Thomasma. The intellectual component of compassion requires physicians to exhibit compassion towards their patients, and this includes fetal patients. Thus, third trimester abortion is only justified in cases where fetal abnormalities are associated with the certainty or near certainty of early death or of a complete absence of cognitive developmental capacity. Most anomalies fail to meet these criteria, and physicians must exhibit the virtues of self-effacement and integrity to make rigorous, clinical, ethical judgements and properly balance the interests of the pregnant woman and the fetus.

  1. Divergent views on abortion and the period of ensoulment.

    PubMed

    Khitamy, Badawy A B

    2013-02-01

    A Muslim woman in her sixteenth week of pregnancy was informed that her ultrasound scan showed spina bifida, and laboratory results confirmed the diagnosis. The child would have various complications and, most probably, would need medical care for life. With the consent of her husband she decided to terminate the pregnancy. Her decision sparked controversy among Muslim clerics in her community, sparking debate between those who would allow abortion for medical reasons and those who oppose abortion for any reason. This paper will review the philosophical and theological arguments of the pro-life and pro-choice groups as well as the Islamic perspective concerning a woman's autonomy over her reproductive system, the sanctity of the fetus and the embryo, therapeutic abortion, and ensoulment. PMID:23573379

  2. Divergent Views on Abortion and the Period of Ensoulment

    PubMed Central

    Khitamy, Badawy A. B.

    2013-01-01

    A Muslim woman in her sixteenth week of pregnancy was informed that her ultrasound scan showed spina bifida, and laboratory results confirmed the diagnosis. The child would have various complications and, most probably, would need medical care for life. With the consent of her husband she decided to terminate the pregnancy. Her decision sparked controversy among Muslim clerics in her community, sparking debate between those who would allow abortion for medical reasons and those who oppose abortion for any reason. This paper will review the philosophical and theological arguments of the pro-life and pro-choice groups as well as the Islamic perspective concerning a woman’s autonomy over her reproductive system, the sanctity of the fetus and the embryo, therapeutic abortion, and ensoulment. PMID:23573379

  3. Divergent views on abortion and the period of ensoulment.

    PubMed

    Khitamy, Badawy A B

    2013-02-01

    A Muslim woman in her sixteenth week of pregnancy was informed that her ultrasound scan showed spina bifida, and laboratory results confirmed the diagnosis. The child would have various complications and, most probably, would need medical care for life. With the consent of her husband she decided to terminate the pregnancy. Her decision sparked controversy among Muslim clerics in her community, sparking debate between those who would allow abortion for medical reasons and those who oppose abortion for any reason. This paper will review the philosophical and theological arguments of the pro-life and pro-choice groups as well as the Islamic perspective concerning a woman's autonomy over her reproductive system, the sanctity of the fetus and the embryo, therapeutic abortion, and ensoulment.

  4. Two puzzles for Marquis's conservative view on abortion.

    PubMed

    Card, Robert F

    2006-09-01

    Don Marquis argues that abortion is morally wrong in most cases since it deprives the fetus of the value of its future. I criticize Marquis's argument for the modified conservative view by adopting an argumentative strategy in which I work within his basic account: if it is granted that his fundamental idea is sound, what follows about the morality of abortion? I conclude that Marquis is faced with a dilemma: either his position must shift towards the extreme conservative view on which abortion is never morally permissible, or he must abandon any recognizably conservative view. This dilemma suggests that Marquis's view is either deeply implausible or that he cannot use this argument to successfully support his preferred position. PMID:17100010

  5. Autonomous abortions: the inhibiting of women's autonomy through legal ultrasound requirements.

    PubMed

    Rocha, James

    2012-03-01

    Recently, we have seen various proposed laws that would require that women considering abortions be given ultrasounds along with explanations of these ultrasounds. Proponents of these laws could argue that they are assisting with autonomous abortion choices by providing needed information, especially about the ontological status of the fetus. Arguing against these proposed laws, I first claim that their supporters fail to appreciate how personalized an abortion choice must be. Second, I argue that these laws would provide the pregnant woman no control over when and to what extent emotion is inserted into her deliberation. This unjustly inhibits her autonomy, making these ultrasound laws unjustified. PMID:22787957

  6. Seroprevalence and molecular characterization of Chlamydia abortus in frozen fetal and placental tissues of aborting ewes in northeastern Algeria.

    PubMed

    Hireche, Sana; Ababneh, Mustafa Mohammed Kheir; Bouaziz, Omar; Boussena, Sabrina

    2016-02-01

    Enzootic abortion of ewes is one of the most serious health problems in sheep flocks worldwide. It has a significant economic impact because abortion, decrease in milk production and weak lambs. Besides, the bacteria is zoonotic. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Chlamydia abortus infection in 552 ewes in Constantine using a C. abortus-specific indirect ELISA kit. Chlamydial DNA was investigated in ten ovine fetuses and eight placentas using PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing. The study concluded that 7.2 % of ewes were seropositive and 33.3 % of sheep flocks had at least one seropositive ewe. Adjacent farmworker visits (OR = 7.667, 95 % CI (OR) = 2.307; 27.203) was defined as a risk factor. Deliveries of weak lambs (OR = 2.920, 95 % CI (OR) = 1.022; 8.342) and septicemia in lambs (OR = 9.971, 95 % CI (OR) = 2.383; 41.713) were significantly associated with chlamydial infection. PCR-RFLP analysis revealed positive signals to C. abortus in six fetuses and four placentas. Sequencing of the omp2 gene revealed that the Algerian strain is 96 % similar with C. abortus FAS strain. C. abortus plays a major role in abortion in northeastern Algeria. Appropriate control measures must be implemented to reduce economic losses and to avoid human contamination.

  7. Should we clone human beings? Cloning as a source of tissue for transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Savulescu, J

    1999-01-01

    The most publicly justifiable application of human cloning, if there is one at all, is to provide self-compatible cells or tissues for medical use, especially transplantation. Some have argued that this raises no new ethical issues above those raised by any form of embryo experimentation. I argue that this research is less morally problematic than other embryo research. Indeed, it is not merely morally permissible but morally required that we employ cloning to produce embryos or fetuses for the sake of providing cells, tissues or even organs for therapy, followed by abortion of the embryo or fetus. PMID:10226910

  8. Should we clone human beings? Cloning as a source of tissue for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Savulescu, J

    1999-04-01

    The most publicly justifiable application of human cloning, if there is one at all, is to provide self-compatible cells or tissues for medical use, especially transplantation. Some have argued that this raises no new ethical issues above those raised by any form of embryo experimentation. I argue that this research is less morally problematic than other embryo research. Indeed, it is not merely morally permissible but morally required that we employ cloning to produce embryos or fetuses for the sake of providing cells, tissues or even organs for therapy, followed by abortion of the embryo or fetus.

  9. When Is an Abortion Not an Abortion?

    PubMed

    Mutcherson, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Discussion about the similarities and differences between abortion and multi-fetal pregnancy reduction, including the tug-of-war over naming, highlights ongoing contestation about the relationship between the law, ethics, and women's bodies. Ultimately, the law must root itself in the realities of pregnancy including the physical and social consequences that any pregnancy creates for the woman who carries it.

  10. Prevalence and mortality rate of peste des petitis ruminant (PPR): possible association with abortion in goat.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, Muhammad; Ali, Qurban; Khan, Haider A

    2008-06-01

    Present study was designed to investigate the prevalence and mortality (%) caused by Peste des Petitis Ruminant (PPR) and its possible association with abortion in goat flocks at different areas of Pakistan. A total of 140 animals were samples in the population of 650 which was having 185 deaths (Mortality rate = 28 %) from three different regions of the country. There were 58 abortions in the 140 pregnant goats of above said population One hundred & ten (110) serum samples from diseased, recovered and apparently healthy animals were tested for the presence of PPR antibodies by competitive ELISA (c ELISA). Eighty-four (84) animals were positive for PPR antibodies whereas in apparently healthy adult goats in the same flock, no PPR antibodies were detected. Twenty-four (24) tissue samples collected from the dead animals and six samples from aborted fetus were tested for the presence of PPR antigen by Immuno-capture ELISA (Ic ELISA). Nineteen (19) out of thirty (30) organ samples mainly from lung, spleen, lymph node were found positive for PPR antigen but negative from lungs of aborted fetus. There was a high rate of abortions (28-45%) in each of the outbreak and it was highest in the outbreak of Golra Sharif, Islamabad (No. = 21 in total population of 100). As the serum samples from the aborted dams were found positive for PPR antibodies so the study provides the possible association of mortality and prevalence of PPR disease with high rate of abortions in goat.

  11. Abortion and abortifacients.

    PubMed

    King, T M

    1978-01-01

    It is argued that abortion research is needed to improve existing techniques and to develop new ones to overcome logistical, financial, and political obstacles to wider availability. Such developments are reviewed, including early pregnancy tests, menstrual regulation, improved cervical dilatation methods, new second trimester abortifacients (e.g., urea and prostaglandins), and new first trimester abortifacients (e.g., injection of ethanol into the uterus and prostaglandin pills or vaginal suppositories). This last is quite promising because of the possibility of self-administration, removing much of the need for medical intervention. Further research is urged on 1) long-term side effects of abortion, particularly late or multiple abortions; and 2) ways to improve the delivery and integration of abortions into family planning programs. It is noted that because abortion seekers demonstrate by the fact itself a strong motivation to control fertility and are therefore enthusiastic acceptors of contraceptive methods, the widespread availability of early pregnancy tests and abortion could be the most effective way of increasing contraceptive practice and reducing abortion itself.

  12. Avoidance of late abortion.

    PubMed

    1979-11-24

    Induced abortion is now a common procedure in the United States and Britain. Methods for performing induced abortion are reviewed. Menstrual regulation, aspiration with a hand-held syringe and a flexible cannula within 6 weeks of the last period, is not often practiced in Britain. Several developing countries are using this simple technique to advantage. Vacuum aspiration in the 1st 12 weeks of pregnancy is the main method being used everywhere for 1st trimester procedures. Mortality rates with this method are low and, in well-organized clinics with experienced personnel, the rates can be reduced even further. It is agreed that 2nd trimester procedures are more complex, both physically and emotionally. In the last several years, dilatation and evacuation (D&E) has increased in popularity for 2nd trimester procedures. Dilation of the cervix is generally accomplished with laminaria, evacuation of the uterus with forceps, and then suction curettage applied. This procedure has replaced intraamniotic infusion, hysterotomy, and hysterectomy as the most commonly - practiced method, despite its need for special surgical skills and good clinical backup. Follow-up of abortions is difficult. Different long-term effects have been noted with different abortion procedures. Early abortion seems to have only a modest effect, if that. Whether late abortion has long-lasting effects remains open to question. Late abortion should be avoided.

  13. The Relationship of Abortion and Violence Against Women: Violence Prevention Strategies and Research Needs.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Catherine T; Shuping, Martha W; Speckhard, Anne; Brightup, Jennie E

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of peace psychology, the role of abortion in acts of violence against women is explored, with a focus on violence-prevention strategies. Setting aside the political debate, this task force report takes the conflict-transformation approach of considering all perspectives that have concern for the right of women to avoid being victims of violence. The evidence that victims of Intimate Partner Violence are disproportionately represented in women presenting for abortion suggests a need for screening at clinics. Coerced abortion is a form of violence and has occurred by government policy in China and as a result of other violence against women: sex trafficking and war situations. Sex-selection abortion of female fetuses, referred to as "gendercide," has reached pandemic proportions and caused a gender imbalance in some countries. Psychology, through empirical research, can make unique contributions to understanding the relationship between abortion and violence and in developing prevention strategies. PMID:26710370

  14. The Relationship of Abortion and Violence Against Women: Violence Prevention Strategies and Research Needs.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Catherine T; Shuping, Martha W; Speckhard, Anne; Brightup, Jennie E

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of peace psychology, the role of abortion in acts of violence against women is explored, with a focus on violence-prevention strategies. Setting aside the political debate, this task force report takes the conflict-transformation approach of considering all perspectives that have concern for the right of women to avoid being victims of violence. The evidence that victims of Intimate Partner Violence are disproportionately represented in women presenting for abortion suggests a need for screening at clinics. Coerced abortion is a form of violence and has occurred by government policy in China and as a result of other violence against women: sex trafficking and war situations. Sex-selection abortion of female fetuses, referred to as "gendercide," has reached pandemic proportions and caused a gender imbalance in some countries. Psychology, through empirical research, can make unique contributions to understanding the relationship between abortion and violence and in developing prevention strategies.

  15. Anatomy of Inferior Mesenteric Artery in Fetuses.

    PubMed

    Nuzhat, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To analyze Inferior Mesenteric Artery in fetuses through its site of origin, length, diameter, and variation of its branches. Method. 100 fetuses were collected from various hospitals in Warangal at Kakatiya Medical College in Andhra Pradesh, India, and were divided into two groups, group I (second-trimester fetuses) and group II (third-trimester fetuses), followed by dissection. Result. (1) Site of Origin. In group I fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra in 33 out of 34 fetuses (97.2%). In one fetus it was at first lumbar vertebra, 2.8%. In all group II fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra. (2) Length. In group I fetuses it ranged between 18 and 30 mm, average being 24 mm except in one fetus where it was 48 mm. In group II fetuses the length ranged from 30 to 34 mm, average being 32 mm. (3) Diameter. In group I fetuses it ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm, and in group II fetuses it ranged from 1 to 2 mm, average being 1.5 mm. (4) Branches. Out of 34 fetuses of group I, 4 fetuses showed variation. In one fetus left colic artery was arising from abdominal aorta, 2.9%. In 3 fetuses, Inferior Mesenteric Artery was giving a branch to left kidney, 8.8%. Out of 66 fetuses in group II, 64 had normal branching. In one fetus left renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery, 1.5%, and in another fetus one accessory renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery and entering the lower pole of left kidney. Conclusion. Formation, course, and branching pattern of an artery depend on development and origin of organs to attain the actual adult position. PMID:27313956

  16. Worth the wait? A critique of the Abortion Act 2008 (Vic).

    PubMed

    Oreb, Naomi

    2009-10-01

    This article offers a critique of the likely impact of the Abortion Act 2008 (Vic) in light of the fact that the Act was intended to reflect rather than alter current clinical practice surrounding abortion. The author traces the development of abortion law in Victoria and compares the two models for regulating abortion: the "common law model" and the "legislative model". The author argues in favour of legislative intervention. The author also discusses current uncertainties that exist due to the unclear effect of the Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006 (Vic) on abortion legislation, focusing on the intersection between women's rights to an abortion and doctors' rights to freedom of conscience.

  17. Human life symposium: a synopsis and critique.

    PubMed

    Taub, S

    1982-06-01

    A brief summary of the major issues raised by each address during the Human Life Symposium is presented and critiqued by the author. Multidisciplinary perspectives were solicited concerning the possibility of ascribing personhood status to a fetus. Several speakers addressed the issue of the ability of science to define "person." Science may be able to define stages in an organism's development, but cannot decide what rights and obligations should be accrued at any given stage. In philosophy, a single concept of person does not exist, however science, according to 1 speaker, should be able to develop a definition. The author points out that scientific definitions are generally utilitarian and are molded to fit their eventual purpose and questions the role of science in solving the abortion debate in the US. Waste in the reproductive process was reviewed in terms of the number of ova, sperm, fertilized ova, and implanted embryos that nature prohibits from attaining full reproductive potential as a viable pregnancy. Medical technology has allowed many parents to selectively have offspring free of genetic disease who would not have opted to conceive or continue a pregnancy. Medical advances in fetal treatment and surgery raise new ethical dilemmas including the right of the mother to not consent to treatment or in the case of multiple pregnancy, the right of other fetuses not to be jeopardized to save the life of one fetus. The expected impact of bestowing personhood on a fetus would be seen in the abolition of screening programs, of parents' rights to bear only healthy children, in the increased prevalence of children with abnormalities, in the dilemma which would arise in providing necessary treatment to a woman that would endanger the fetus, in the banning of contraceptives which act after fertilization, and in the incidence of illegal abortion. Attempts to define life in terms of legally accepted definitions of death, i.e., loss of capacity and future potential of

  18. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  19. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  20. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  1. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  2. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare Department of Health... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  3. Euthanasia, Selective Abortion and Educability: A Survey of the Literature and the TASH Membership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Fredda

    The study explored what sources were responsible for exposing professionals to issues of euthanasia of handicapped infants, selective abortion of severely handicapped fetuses and the educability of profoundly retarded persons, and what sources professionals thought were most appropriate for the dissemination of information. The study consisted of…

  4. Toxoplasma-induced abortion in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P

    1981-04-01

    Fifteen pregnant goats serologically negative for Toxoplasma gondii were inoculated orally with 10, 100, or 1,000 infective oocysts of the GT-1 strain of T gondii. Four goats received 10 oocysts, 6 received 100 oocysts, and 5 received 1,000 oocysts. Six pregnant goats served as noninoculated controls. All inoculated goats became pyretic (40-41 C) and were dyspneic between 4 and 12 days after inoculation (DAI). Two goats inoculated in early pregnancy (68 and 70 days) with 100 oocysts had enlarged uteri; fetal membranes but no fetuses were found when they were killed 86 and 88 DAI. Three goats aborted or had a stillborn kid 9, 10, and 11 DAI. The remaining 10 goats delivered kids infected with T gondii; 8 goats had at least 1 stillborn kid, and 2 goats had infected but otherwise normal kids at birth. Placenta and tissues of fetuses and kids were inoculated into mice for determination of Toxoplasma infectivity. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from the fetal placenta of 6 of 7 goats as early as 10 DAI and as late as 62 DAI. The organism was isolated from every fetus or kid that was born 18 DAI but not from fetuses or kids born 9, 10, and 11 DAI. Two kids were born 15 DAI; T gondii was isolated from 1 kid but not from the other, suggesting that T gondii invaded fetal tissues between 11 and 15 DAI. Of the 20 transplacentally infected kids, T gondii was isolated more frequently from the skeletal muscle, heart, lung, and brain than from other tissues.

  5. Abortions, fetal death, and stillbirths in pregnant pygmy goats inoculated with tachyzoites of Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, D S; Rippey, N S; Powe, T A; Sartin, E A; Dubey, J P; Blagburn, B L

    1995-09-01

    Neospora caninum-induced abortion is a major production problem in the dairy cattle industry in the United States and worldwide. Abortions attributable to naturally acquired N caninum infection also have been observed in pygmy goats. We studied experimentally induced infections with N caninum in pregnant pygmy does to determine whether abortions attributable to N caninum infection would occur after inoculation. Seven pregnant pygmy does (1 control doe and 6 inoculated with N caninum) were studied. The control doe remained clinically normal throughout the study and delivered 2 healthy kids. Abortion, fetal death, and stillbirths were observed in some pregnant does inoculated with N caninum. Two pregnant pygmy does inoculated with N caninum early in gestation (day 51) had fetuses that died and were aborted, or died and were reabsorbed. Neospora caninum tachyzoites and lesions were observed in the brain, spinal cord, and heart of aborted fetuses; parasites also were isolated from the placenta. Four additional pregnant pygmy does (2 inoculated at mid-gestation [day 85], and 2 at late gestation [day 127]) did not abort after inoculation. However, 1 doe inoculated during mid-gestation delivered a stillborn fetus that had died about 1 week prior to parturition. This kid was congenitally infected with N caninum. Neospora caninum was isolated from the placentas of all inoculated does examined. Neonatal neosporosis was not observed in live-born kids, nor were stages of N caninum isolated from any live-born kid. Does did not undergo abortion or have congenitally infected kids when they were rebred and evaluated for neosporosis.

  6. Botswana: abortion "debate" dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mogwe, A

    1992-01-01

    The Penal Code (Amendment) Bill or the abortion bill has the objective of liberalizing the current law on the regulation of abortion. Abortion had been strictly prohibited and carried stiff penalties. Anyone who attempted to assists a woman to procure an abortion could be liable to 7 years' imprisonment. However, medical abortions were distinguished as being medically determined to save the health of the mother. Demands for a reevaluation of the law came from the medical profession, and in response the Minister for Presidential Affairs submitted a bill to Parliament in November, 1990. The expressed government rationale for these proposed amendments was concern about the health of women. In Botswana about 200 women die yearly because of pregnancy. According to the proposed law: an abortion could be carried out within the first 16 weeks of pregnancy if: 1) the pregnancy were a result of rape, incest, or defilement (the impregnation of a girl aged 16 or less, the impregnation of imbeciles or idiots), 2) the physical or mental health of the woman were at risk because of the pregnancy, 3) the child would be born with a serious physical or mental abnormality. The abortion could be carried out only if 2 medical doctors approved it. The amendments fall far short of increasing women's control over their bodies. The Botswana Christian Council issued a statement early in the public debate. While it did not oppose the bill in its entirety, clear concern was expressed concerning the apparent right of determining who lives and who dies depending on the handicap of the child. This rather liberal position was challenged by the Roman Catholic Church which interpreted abortion as the murder of God-given life. The bill was nevertheless passed by Parliament in September 1991, and the President signed it on October 11, 1991. PMID:12288837

  7. Abortion and regret.

    PubMed

    Greasley, Kate

    2012-12-01

    The article considers three theses about postabortion regret which seek to illustrate its pertinence to reasoning about abortion, and which are often deployed, either explicitly or implicitly, to dissuade women out of that reproductive choice. The first is that postabortion regret renders an abortion morally unjustified. The second is that that a relatively high incidence of postabortion regret-compared with a lower incidence of postnatal regret in the relevant comparator field-is good evidence for the moral impermissibility of abortion choice. The third is that high rates of postabortion regret suggest that abortion is not the most prudent or welfare-maximising choice for the woman concerned. All three theses argue for the compellingness of knowledge about postabortion regret in moral and practical reasoning about abortion, especially from the pregnant woman's point of view. This article argues that all three theses are flawed. In particular, it seeks to remind readers that feelings of regret directed at past decisions are often decoupled from the fact of the matter about their moral or rational justification. Moreover, certain features of reproductive decisions in particular make regret an especially unsuitable yardstick for actual justification in this context, and even less epistemically reliable as evidence for a lack of justification than it may be in other fields of decision-making. The implication is that rates of postabortion regret, even if they can be presumed to be higher than rates of postnatal regret, are not as pertinent to moral and practical reasoning about abortion as is sometimes suggested.

  8. Politics and abortion.

    PubMed

    Rosoff, J I

    1985-01-01

    The legalization of abortion in the United States by the Supreme Court in 1973 bypassed the political process in the majority of the states. Since then, however, political controversy and agitation in relation to abortion has become nationwide. From largely Catholic-based opposition, it has grown to encompass religious fundamentalists and to be a major part of the New Right's agenda. Abortion is now, pro and con, part of the platform of both political parties. The sweeping nature of the Supreme Court's decisions leaves the opposition with very little room to restrict abortion, short of overturning the decisions through a constitutional amendment. Such an amendment requires a two-thirds majority of Congress and passage is unlikely. However, funding bans on scores of federal programmes have succeeded in restricting access to abortion for the poor, the young and minorities. These restrictions are part of a long-term strategy to educate the public as to the evils of abortion with the aim of making it illegal again, either through the adoption of a constitutional amendment or by obtaining a reversal by a hoped-for change in membership of the Supreme Court.

  9. a Biokinetic Model for CESIUM-137 in the Fetus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Karen Lynn

    1995-01-01

    Previously, there was no method to determine the dose to the embryo, fetus, fetal organs or placenta from radionuclides within the embryo, fetus, or placenta. In the past, the dose to the fetus was assumed to be equivalent to the dose to the uterus. Watson estimated specific absorbed fractions from various maternal organs to the uterine contents which included the fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid and Sikov estimated the absorbed dose to the embryo/fetus after assuming 1 uCi of radioactivity was made available to the maternal blood.^{1,2} However, this method did not allow for the calculation of a dose to individual fetal organs or the placenta. The radiation dose to the embryo or fetus from Cs-137 in the fetus and placenta due to a chronic ingestion by the mother was determined. The fraction of Cs-137 in the maternal plasma crossing the placenta to the fetal plasma was estimated. The absorbed dose from Cs-137 in each modelled fetal organ was estimated. Since there has been more research regarding potassium in the human body, and particularly in the pregnant woman, a biokinetic model for potassium was developed first and used as a basis and confirmation of the cesium model. Available pertinent information in physiology, embryology, biokinetics, and radiation dosimetry was utilized. Due to the rapid growth of the fetus and placenta, the pregnancy was divided into four gestational periods. The numerous physiological changes that occurred during pregnancy were considered and an appropriate biokinetic model was developed for each of the gestational periods. The amount of cesium in the placenta, embryo, and fetus was estimated for each period. The dose to the fetus from cesium deposited in the embryo or fetus and in the placenta was determined for each period using Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) methodology. An uncertainty analysis was also performed to account for the variability of the parameters in the biokinetic model based on the experimental data

  10. Abortion and legal process in the United States: an overview of the post-Webster legal landscape.

    PubMed

    Baron, C H

    1989-01-01

    The Webster decision has not satisfied either side of the abortion debate. The pro-choice groups view this decision as indicating a change in the Court's position on abortion. The decision renders Roe's trimester system invalid and creates more room of abortion regulation at the state level. It will change the battle ground from the federal to the state level. The pro-life groups view it as not being restrictive enough. The state's interest in the fetus has been strengthened, but it is not yet as strong as they would like it to be. Most Americans are neither strongly pro-choice or strongly pro-life, they believe that abortion is a very serious matter that deserves careful consideration of the maternal and fetal rights. Looking to France's abortion legislation reveals the fact that compromise is probably the best solution. In 1975 they adopted a law that recognizes both maternal and fetal rights and value. The law allows for abortion up to week 10, but requires proper respect be paid to the fetus. After week 10 the law becomes more restrictive. Also the law encourages the use of contraceptives in order to avoid unwanted pregnancies, and thus abortions. This law satisfies no one, but keeps everyone happy enough that abortion is no longer apolitical issue. In the US, the Roe decision stated that the fetus had no rights or value in the beginning. It also implied that thinking that life begins at conception was wrong. This is not an example of compromise. The Roe decision only enraged the pro-life groups because they felt that the Court had invalidated their position. If however, the Court had admitted that their position had merit, but that there were other, conflicting positions that also had merit and that a compromise was in order, the abortion controversy would not be one of the biggest political issues to date. Some states will have very restrictive laws, other will continue to have liberal access to abortion.

  11. Of course the baby should live: against 'after-birth abortion'.

    PubMed

    Rini, Regina A

    2013-05-01

    In a recent paper, Giubilini and Minerva argue for the moral permissibility of what they call 'after-birth abortion', or infanticide. Here I suggest that they actually employ a confusion of two distinct arguments: one relying on the purportedly identical moral status of a fetus and a newborn, and the second giving an independent argument for the denial of moral personhood to infants (independent of whatever one might say about fetuses). After distinguishing these arguments, I suggest that neither one is capable of supporting Giubilini and Minerva's conclusion. The first argument is at best neutral between permitting infanticide and prohibiting abortion, and may in fact more strongly support the latter. The second argument, I suggest, contains an ambiguity in its key premise, and can be shown to fail on either resolution of that ambiguity. Hence, I conclude that Giubilini and Minerva have not demonstrated the permissibility of infanticide, or even great moral similarity between abortion and infanticide. PMID:23637452

  12. Of course the baby should live: against 'after-birth abortion'.

    PubMed

    Rini, Regina A

    2013-05-01

    In a recent paper, Giubilini and Minerva argue for the moral permissibility of what they call 'after-birth abortion', or infanticide. Here I suggest that they actually employ a confusion of two distinct arguments: one relying on the purportedly identical moral status of a fetus and a newborn, and the second giving an independent argument for the denial of moral personhood to infants (independent of whatever one might say about fetuses). After distinguishing these arguments, I suggest that neither one is capable of supporting Giubilini and Minerva's conclusion. The first argument is at best neutral between permitting infanticide and prohibiting abortion, and may in fact more strongly support the latter. The second argument, I suggest, contains an ambiguity in its key premise, and can be shown to fail on either resolution of that ambiguity. Hence, I conclude that Giubilini and Minerva have not demonstrated the permissibility of infanticide, or even great moral similarity between abortion and infanticide.

  13. New reproductive technologies, genetic counselling and the standing of the fetus: views from Germany and Israel.

    PubMed

    Hashiloni-Dolev, Yael; Weiner, Noga

    2008-11-01

    This paper reports findings from a comparative study of Israeli and German genetic counsellors' perceptions of the moral standing of the fetus. Data collected through in-depth interviews with counsellors in both countries (N=32) are presented, and their moral practices are analysed. The paper's findings suggest that while German counsellors perceive the fetus as an autonomous being and debate the particular biological stages through which this autonomy is acquired; Israeli counsellors do not consider the moral status of the fetus independently of its relations with its family hence, deploying a 'relational ethics'. It is suggested that these differences are influenced by historical, political, legal, and religious traditions in Germany and Israel regarding abortions and the fetus. It is concluded that the deployment of a 'biological ethics' by German counsellors reproduces the model of fetal developmental stages (in itself a construction), and hence goes hand in hand with perceptions of the fetus as a 'life', and thus as the bearer of autonomous rights which are understood to contradict those of its mother. On the other hand, the rejection of 'biological ethics' by Israeli counsellors enables a perception of fetuses that is first and foremost defined by their relationships with others. PMID:18565149

  14. Ethical and legal issues relating to abortion in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Silber, T J

    1989-04-01

    At least 1 million teenagers in the United States get pregnant every year; 350,000 teenagers choose to terminate their pregnancies by abortion. Doctors who examine teenagers usually find that their patients come in fairly late, and some teenagers may carry their pregnancy to term while others request abortions as late as the 2nd trimester. Abortion as well as full-term pregnancy are procedures that carry extreme mental stress. Many teenagers that go through with either procedure suffer mental breakdowns. Adolescents' stages of moral development can be classified into a 3 major categories: preconventional; conventional; or postconventional. Preconventional behavior may consist of worry about the reactions of individuals holding power over the adolescent's life; conventional behavior may consist of the adolescent conforming, as well as maintaining societal rules; and postconventional behavior may consist of the wishes of the adolescent outweighing societal expectations in their decision-making. The legal aspects concerning adolescents seeking abortions are governed by the "mature minor doctrine". Some abortions can be performed on adolescents without parental support; however, recent court decisions have provided certain measures for "immature minors." Recent debates on ethical and moral issues have been on the autonomy of the adolescent to make decisions on their own and the rights of the fetus versus the mother. Counseling is available for adolescents unsure of what decisions to make the unable to get support from their families.

  15. [Toward constructing a research agenda: the threat posed by induced abortion in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Mundigo, A

    1994-01-01

    This work calls attention to the need for constructing a research agenda on induced abortion, which constitutes a serious pubic health problem in Latin America because of its illegality, clandestine practice, and ramifications for women's health, their families, and the health services. The incidence of abortion in Latin America is estimated, in the absence of reliable statistics, at 4-6 million annually. Over half the women in some countries are believed to resort to abortion during their reproductive lives. The concept of reproductive health emerged in the past decade from two distinct sources, the field of health and the feminist movement, as contraception became an increasingly accepted component of primary care. Reproductive aspects acquired a central role in the expanded concept of women's health, and reproductive health was converted into a new objective of service programs. The World Health Organization in 1988 for the first time unofficially defined reproductive health, and in 1994 an official definition was proposed. The definition did not mention abortion directly. Abortion is increasingly a topic of political debate in Latin America, where it is legal only in Cuba. The resolute opposition of the Catholic Church undoubtedly affects health policies. The feminist movement is perhaps alone in raising the issue and seeking means of legalizing abortion, based on human rights and public health considerations. The new definition of reproductive health challenges researchers from many disciplines to provide reliable information on poorly known aspects of abortion. The ultimate goal of the research is to reduce the frequency of abortion and eliminate morbidity and mortality caused by illegal abortions. Recommended topics for research include the incidence of abortion, undesired adolescent pregnancy and abortion, abortion and working women, the influence of cultural and social patterns on abortion, the role of men in reproductive decisions and abortion, the

  16. [Toward constructing a research agenda: the threat posed by induced abortion in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Mundigo, A

    1994-01-01

    This work calls attention to the need for constructing a research agenda on induced abortion, which constitutes a serious pubic health problem in Latin America because of its illegality, clandestine practice, and ramifications for women's health, their families, and the health services. The incidence of abortion in Latin America is estimated, in the absence of reliable statistics, at 4-6 million annually. Over half the women in some countries are believed to resort to abortion during their reproductive lives. The concept of reproductive health emerged in the past decade from two distinct sources, the field of health and the feminist movement, as contraception became an increasingly accepted component of primary care. Reproductive aspects acquired a central role in the expanded concept of women's health, and reproductive health was converted into a new objective of service programs. The World Health Organization in 1988 for the first time unofficially defined reproductive health, and in 1994 an official definition was proposed. The definition did not mention abortion directly. Abortion is increasingly a topic of political debate in Latin America, where it is legal only in Cuba. The resolute opposition of the Catholic Church undoubtedly affects health policies. The feminist movement is perhaps alone in raising the issue and seeking means of legalizing abortion, based on human rights and public health considerations. The new definition of reproductive health challenges researchers from many disciplines to provide reliable information on poorly known aspects of abortion. The ultimate goal of the research is to reduce the frequency of abortion and eliminate morbidity and mortality caused by illegal abortions. Recommended topics for research include the incidence of abortion, undesired adolescent pregnancy and abortion, abortion and working women, the influence of cultural and social patterns on abortion, the role of men in reproductive decisions and abortion, the

  17. Abortion caused by Brucella abortus biovar 1 in a free-ranging bison (Bison bison) from Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Rhyan, J C; Quinn, W J; Stackhouse, L S; Henderson, J J; Ewalt, D R; Payeur, J B; Johnson, M; Meagher, M

    1994-07-01

    A near-term aborted bison (Bison bison) fetus was collected near Old Faithful geyser in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (USA). On necropsy, the fetus liver had a small capsular tear, and there was a small quantity of blood in the peritoneal cavity. Microscopic lesions included mild, purulent bronchopneumonia and mild, multifocal, interstitial pneumonia. Brucella abortus biovar 1 was isolated from fetal abomasal contents, lung, and heart blood.

  18. Abortion caused by Brucella abortus biovar 1 in a free-ranging bison (Bison bison) from Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Rhyan, J C; Quinn, W J; Stackhouse, L S; Henderson, J J; Ewalt, D R; Payeur, J B; Johnson, M; Meagher, M

    1994-07-01

    A near-term aborted bison (Bison bison) fetus was collected near Old Faithful geyser in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (USA). On necropsy, the fetus liver had a small capsular tear, and there was a small quantity of blood in the peritoneal cavity. Microscopic lesions included mild, purulent bronchopneumonia and mild, multifocal, interstitial pneumonia. Brucella abortus biovar 1 was isolated from fetal abomasal contents, lung, and heart blood. PMID:7933293

  19. The responsibility objection to abortion: rejecting the notion that the responsibility objection successfully refutes a woman's right to choose.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Ian

    2015-05-01

    This article considers the objection to abortion that a woman who voluntarily engages in sexual activity is responsible for her fetus and so cannot have an abortion. The conclusion argued for is that the conceptions of responsibility that can ground the objection that are considered do not necessitate a requirement on the part of a pregnant woman to carry her pregnancy to term. Thus, the iterations of the responsibility objection presented cannot be used to curtail reproductive choice. PMID:24720545

  20. The responsibility objection to abortion: rejecting the notion that the responsibility objection successfully refutes a woman's right to choose.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Ian

    2015-05-01

    This article considers the objection to abortion that a woman who voluntarily engages in sexual activity is responsible for her fetus and so cannot have an abortion. The conclusion argued for is that the conceptions of responsibility that can ground the objection that are considered do not necessitate a requirement on the part of a pregnant woman to carry her pregnancy to term. Thus, the iterations of the responsibility objection presented cannot be used to curtail reproductive choice.

  1. Abortion Law Around the World: Progress and Pushback

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There is a global trend toward the liberalization of abortion laws driven by women’s rights, public health, and human rights advocates. This trend reflects the recognition of women’s access to legal abortion services as a matter of women’s rights and self-determination and an understanding of the dire public health implications of criminalizing abortion. Nonetheless, legal strategies to introduce barriers that impede access to legal abortion services, such as mandatory waiting periods, biased counseling requirements, and the unregulated practice of conscientious objection, are emerging in response to this trend. These barriers stigmatize and demean women and compromise their health. Public health evidence and human rights guarantees provide a compelling rationale for challenging abortion bans and these restrictions. PMID:23409915

  2. Abortion law around the world: progress and pushback.

    PubMed

    Finer, Louise; Fine, Johanna B

    2013-04-01

    There is a global trend toward the liberalization of abortion laws driven by women's rights, public health, and human rights advocates. This trend reflects the recognition of women's access to legal abortion services as a matter of women's rights and self-determination and an understanding of the dire public health implications of criminalizing abortion. Nonetheless, legal strategies to introduce barriers that impede access to legal abortion services, such as mandatory waiting periods, biased counseling requirements, and the unregulated practice of conscientious objection, are emerging in response to this trend. These barriers stigmatize and demean women and compromise their health. Public health evidence and human rights guarantees provide a compelling rationale for challenging abortion bans and these restrictions.

  3. Partial-birth abortion, Congress, and the Constitution.

    PubMed

    Annas, G J

    1998-07-23

    In the US, a new antiabortion strategy of using legislative and judicial forums to change the rhetoric of abortion rather than using abortion rhetoric to change the law arose out of disappointment when the 1992 Casey decision failed to overturn Roe. This new approach is crystallized by the 1995 introduction of federal legislation (vetoed by the President) to ban so-called "partial-birth" abortions. Opponents to this late-term procedure undertaken to preserve a women's life or health distinguish intact dilatation and extraction from induced labor to terminate a nonviable pregnancy (failing to recognize the lack of ethical difference) and make inaccurate political statements linking the abortion procedure to infanticide. When the ban was reintroduced to Congress in 1997, the previously silent American Medical Association agreed to support the bill if two "physician-friendly" amendments were added, but the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists made it clear that it is "inappropriate, ill advised, and dangerous" for legislative bodies to intervene into medical decision-making. The new version of the bill shifted the focus to all abortions after viability unless they are necessary to protect the mother from grievous harm to her physical (not mental) health, thus limiting the reach of the Roe decision. Clinton vetoed this bill also. Such legislation would be unlikely to prevent even one abortion, and its importance rests in its view of the proper role of government in regulating health care. This follows previous efforts to reframe the abortion debate by creating a dichotomy that marginalizes either women or fetuses and shifts the focus to another issue.

  4. The fetus in maternal hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Perelman, A H; Clemons, R D

    1992-01-01

    A recent article in the New England Journal of Medicine reported the successful diagnosis and treatment of fetal goitrous hypothyroidism in a mother with Graves' disease. The fetus is being recognized as an important patient in its own right in terms of thyroid disease. The fetal thyroid system develops independently of the normal maternal thyroid axis. Presence of feedback suppression of TSH by T4 has been demonstrated in a 35-week fetus. Information learned from congenital hypothyroidism suggests that lack of fetal thyroid hormones may have a negative impact on the developing fetal brain with lack of normal myelination. It is uncertain at what gestational age the fetus and the developing central nervous system become adversely affected by thyroid hormone deficiency. Since congenital hypothyroidism is sporadic and since there is no current method for easily screening all pregnancies for hypothyroidism, the thrust in fetal diagnosis and therapy has been in those pregnancies suspected of having a hypothyroid fetus when a fetal goiter is detected by ultrasonography or in a hyperthyroid mother who may be on antithyroid therapy. Intraamniotic injections of L-thyroxine have proven successful for fetal therapy. Amniotic fluid TSH may prove useful in the diagnosis and treatment of a hypothyroid fetus. Previous studies have suggested that the period of thyroxine dependency of the fetal central nervous system is limited predominantly to the last 4-8 weeks of gestation. Fetal hyperthyroidism due to transplacental transmission of thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins may occur in a mother with a history of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Abortion and rape.

    PubMed

    Barry-Martin, P

    1977-10-26

    The letter is an answer to a previous letter which appeared in the same journal and which was discrediting, according to the author of this letter, the Royal Commission on Contraception, Sterilization, and Abortion. The earlier letter refutes a quote from "Abortion and Social Justice" used by the Commission, regarding the situation in Colorado after rape became an indication for abortion. The quote reports that although between 1967-1971 the number of abortions for rape totalled 290, no rapist was charged or convicted for the crime. However, according to the author of this letter, the actual quote reads somewhat differently, and states that, during the same period, "no rapist was ever charged with his crime, much less convicted of it, which casts some real doubts on the reality of the alleged rapes." The meaning of this passage is that none of the alleged rapists had actually caused the 290 pregnancies. From records and government statistics it is possible to count about 3300 cases of rape known to the police in Colorado for the years 1967-1971. To suggest that none of these cases were charged or convicted is ridiculous. The author also states that rape as an indication for abortion will lead to abuse of the law, and that pregnancy for actual rape is rare.

  6. Religion and abortion: Roman Catholicism lost in the pelvic zone.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    behavior caused even more alienation of middle-of-the-road Catholics from the bishops' position. The bishops tried to recover by hiring a professional public relations firm and the pollster used by the Reagan administration. The public relations firm was dismissed within a year. Religious observers wonder why the church is so adamantly against abortion in every circumstance, despite the beliefs of its members. In fact, in 1974, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith noted the church's opposition to abortion but fell short of calling it murder and was honest about the church's ambiguity over the personhood of a fetus or at what stage in development the creator endows a fetus with a soul. This question has been debated by theologians since the early centuries of the church. Even the current Pope favors the term "that which is in the process of becoming" when discussing a fetus. In addition, church history and positions regarding the possibility of a "just war" make the church's adherence to the impossibility of a "just abortion" hard to justify. This hard-line position has removed the church from a position in which it could help women and society understand the values which must underly every decision to have an abortion.

  7. Religion and abortion: Roman Catholicism lost in the pelvic zone.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    behavior caused even more alienation of middle-of-the-road Catholics from the bishops' position. The bishops tried to recover by hiring a professional public relations firm and the pollster used by the Reagan administration. The public relations firm was dismissed within a year. Religious observers wonder why the church is so adamantly against abortion in every circumstance, despite the beliefs of its members. In fact, in 1974, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith noted the church's opposition to abortion but fell short of calling it murder and was honest about the church's ambiguity over the personhood of a fetus or at what stage in development the creator endows a fetus with a soul. This question has been debated by theologians since the early centuries of the church. Even the current Pope favors the term "that which is in the process of becoming" when discussing a fetus. In addition, church history and positions regarding the possibility of a "just war" make the church's adherence to the impossibility of a "just abortion" hard to justify. This hard-line position has removed the church from a position in which it could help women and society understand the values which must underly every decision to have an abortion. PMID:8274867

  8. [The ultrasonic antenatal diagnosis of rarely encountered tumors in fetuses and the procedure for managing the pregnancy and labor].

    PubMed

    Mysiakov, V B

    1992-01-01

    Ultrasonic examinations of 3000 pregnant women revealed congenital developmental defects in 22 (0.7%) fetuses: in 4 cases tumors of various sites were detected and in 2 cases the tumors were found in one of the twins. Pathologic and histologic examinations carried out after delivery revealed a sacrococcygeal teratoma and a retroperitoneal dermoid cyst in one fetus, a ganglioneuroma of the retroperitoneal space, located between the bladder and rectum, an intrapericardial teratoblastoma, and a cystic cervical lymphangioma. The latter three tumors were responsible for nonimmune fetal edema. In one case an abortion was induced at pregnancy term of 22 weeks. Three fetuses died after deliveries in various terms. Based on his own experience and the literature data, the author suggests recommendations on the policy of following up the pregnancy and labor in various periods of gestation with different number of fetuses with due consideration for the tumor size and the fetal state, as well as on the possible correction after birth.

  9. Rates of mutant structural chromosome rearrangements in human fetuses: data from prenatal cytogenetic studies and associations with maternal age and parental mutagen exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Hook, E B; Schreinemachers, D M; Willey, A M; Cross, P K

    1983-01-01

    In 27,225 prenatal cytogenetic studies of amniotic fluid reported to the New York State Chromosome Registry and the United States Interregional Chromosome Register System, there were 61 cases with a structural chromosomal abnormality not known inherited, a rate per 1,000 of 2.24. Of these 33, 1.21 per 1,000 were known de novo and nonmosaic; consequently, the rate of events resulting from germinal mutation is highly likely to be between these two limits. The rates per 1,000 of unbalanced abnormalities were 0.59-1.29; of balanced abnormalities, 0.62-0.96; of balanced Robertsonian translocations, 0.22-0.29; and of unbalanced Robertsonian translocations, 0.07-0.11. The rates of fetuses with supernumerary markers and fragments were unexpectedly high: 0.26-0.70 per 1,000. These abnormalities were associated with increased maternal age (38.0 +/- 5.4 to 38.4 +/- 3.6 compared to 35.6 +/- 4.3 in controls), but even after adjustment for the bias to preferential study of older women, the observed rates of these supernumerary abnormalities were greater than would be expected from live-birth studies or rates estimated in all recognized conceptuses. There were trends to elevated maternal age for the group of all balanced rearrangements, and to diminished maternal age for the nonsupernumerary, non-Robertsonian unbalanced rearrangements. In 136 women studied primarily because of exposure to a putative mutagen, a de novo deletion and an inversion not known inherited were detected. The rate of abnormality in these 136, 1.47%, was significantly greater than the rate of abnormality in the remainder: 0.14%-0.22%. PMID:6823977

  10. The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

  11. Addressing barriers to safe abortion.

    PubMed

    Culwell, Kelly R; Hurwitz, Manuelle

    2013-05-01

    The latest World Health Organization data estimate that the total number of unsafe abortions globally has increased to 21.6 million in 2008. There is increasing recognition by the international community of the importance of the contribution of unsafe abortion to maternal mortality. However, the barriers to delivery of safe abortion services are many. In 68 countries, home to 26% of the world's population, abortion is prohibited altogether or only permitted to save a woman's life. Even in countries with more liberal abortion legal frameworks, additional social, economic, and health systems barriers and the stigma surrounding abortion prevent adequate access to safe abortion services and postabortion care. While much has been achieved to reduce the barriers to comprehensive abortion care, much remains to be done. Only through the concerted action of public, private, and civil society partners can we ensure that women have access to services that are safe, affordable, confidential, and stigma free. PMID:23477700

  12. A compromise on abortion?

    PubMed

    Rhoden, N K

    1989-01-01

    Rhoden's article is one of three on "Abortion: searching for common ground" in this issue of the Hastings Center Report. Her article, together with those by M. Mahowald and M. Glendon, was prompted by the expectation that the impending U.S. Supreme Court decision in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (3 July 1989) would overturn or restrict Roe v. Wade (1973). Rhoden, an advocate for the pro-choice position, asks whether a compromise leading to an acceptable regulatory policy is possible or desirable among those on opposite sides of the abortion issue. She identifies several reasons why the Roe decision is vulnerable to review, but argues that effective education about sexuality and comprehensive social support of women are better approaches to abortion than restrictive legislation. PMID:2663778

  13. Intraventricular twin fetuses in fetu.

    PubMed

    Huddle, Lauren N; Fuller, Christine; Powell, Tiffany; Hiemenga, Judith A; Yan, Jia; Deuell, Brian; Lyders, Eric M; Bodurtha, Joann N; Papenhausen, Peter R; Jackson-Cook, Colleen K; Pandya, Arti; Jaworski, Margie; Tye, Gary W; Ritter, Ann M

    2012-01-01

    The authors report a rare case of multiple intracranial fetuses in fetu, fulfilling Willis' traditional criteria, which include an axial and appendicular skeleton with surrounding organized tissue. This case was ascertained from studies of a full-term female neonate who presented with ventriculomegaly. A CT scan showed intracranial calcifications that were suggestive of an axial skeleton. Her birth weight was 3.176 kg (50th-75th percentile), length was 52 cm (90th percentile), head circumference was 35 cm (50th-75th percentile), and Apgar scores were 7 and 8 at 1 and 5 minutes, respectively. Prenatal ultrasonography studies performed at 12 weeks and 5 days, and 19 weeks and 6 days revealed normal findings. A 37-week prenatal ultrasonography study showed ventriculomegaly and obstructive hydrocephalus, with a possible intracranial teratoma. Cranial imaging at birth with ultrasonography, CT and MR imaging, and MR angiography demonstrated 2 complex intraventricular masses with cystic, solid, and bony elements. A craniotomy with resection of the masses was performed at 3 months of age. The infant survived and is now 12 months old with some developmental progress. Two axial skeletons, with accompanying rib cage and extremities, including well-formed feet and toes, were noted. Both anencephalic structures had skin with hair, fat, skeletal and smooth muscle, and bony structures with bone marrow and focal areas of calcification. Multiple viscera were present and included thymus, bowel, stomach, salivary gland, kidney, adrenal gland, lung, and presumed adnexal structures. A diagnosis of fetuses in fetu was rendered. Chromosomal studies of the child and tissue from the 2 fetuses in fetu showed normal female karyotypes. A single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis from the proband infant and tissue from the 2 identified fetuses in fetu appeared to be genetically identical. These results are consistent with a monozygotic twin embryonic origin of the fetus in fetu tissue

  14. Fate and Development of Human Vomeronasal Organ – A Microscopic Fetal Study

    PubMed Central

    Fenn, T.K. Aleyemma; Devi, M. Nirmala; Hebzibah, T. Deborah Joy; Jamuna, M.; Sundaram, K. Kalyana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The existence of Vomeronasal organ in human is a controversial subject. Presence of Vomeronasal organ and its structure was not reported in standard text books. The presence of Vomeronasal organ in fetal life is doubtful. Hence identification of the organ by histological examination was planned. Materials and Methods A study was conducted on resected specimens of nasal septum obtained from 45 spontaneously aborted fetuses from Obstetrics and Gynaecology department, PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Coimbatore, after ethical clearance. Results The histological structure of Vomeronasal organ was observed from 11 weeks old fetus. The epithelial lining of the organ, presence of cilia, presence of lamina propria, acini and the blood vessel and the types of cells were observed. The organ was lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium. The organ showed Lamina propria with serous acini from 18 weeks fetus. Vomeronasal duct opening into the nasal cavity and three types of cells were observed in 28 weeks fetus. Conclusion Knowledge about the persistence of Vomeronasal organ in fetuses and its structure need to be known. The organ may be found as a putative pit posterior to anterior nasal spine. The organ may be damaged in nasal septal surgeries and nasal endoscopic procedures. The organ may not be seen on gross examination in all human fetuses and cadavers. PMID:27134849

  15. Connecticut's new abortion statute.

    PubMed

    Healey, J M

    1990-08-01

    Amid the raging controversy on whether minors should have the same access to abortion as adults, the Connecticut legislature has passed a compromise statues that recognizes a minor's right seek an abortion, while imposing certain requirements. Those who seek to regulate access argue that because minors may lack the maturity to make a valid decision, parental notification is necessary; advocates of minors' right to access hold that it should be the minor who makes such personal decision. In an effort to resolve the conflict, Connecticut's law says that young women under the age of 16 must receive pregnancy-related information before an abortion can take place. Specifically., a physician or counselor is required to: 1) explain to the minor that the information provided is not intended to coerce or persuade her into making a particular choice; 2) explain that she may consider her decision any time prior to the operation or during the time period when abortion is legally permitted; 3) explain the alternatives of either carrying out the pregnancy or getting an abortion, including information on public and private agencies that may assist in carrying out the decision; 4) inform her that pubic and private agencies provide information on birth control; 5) discuss the possibility of involving the minor's parents(s), guardian(s), or other adult family member in the decision; and 6) allow the minor to ask questions and to obtain useful information. After the completion of the process, the minor must sign a form that attests that the requirements have been met, and -- if applicable -- that the minor has decided to involve a parent or relative. In cases where the health or safety of a minor requires and abortion, the Connecticut statute allows for the provisions to be waived.

  16. Multiple Induced Abortions: Danish Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Mogens; David, Henry P.; Morgall, Janine M.

    1997-01-01

    Women having an induced abortion in an urban clinic were studied. First, second, and third time aborters (N=150) were interviewed. Variables including reasons for choosing abortion, life situations, contraceptive risk-taking, and ease of becoming pregnant were examined. Related studies and suggestions for postabortion counseling are discussed.…

  17. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. PMID:25846035

  18. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading.

  19. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  20. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM RECENTLY INFECTED ABORTED EGYPTIAN WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Badr, Mohamed S; Attia, Samar S; El-Sherbiny, Walid S; Abd-Allah M A, El Ebidi; Hefny, Hesham M; Salem, Ahmed N M

    2016-04-01

    Toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in human beings. Human toxoplasmosis can be associated with serious clinical manifestations, particularly in developing fetus. The aim of the current study was to identify the possible lineage type of Toxoplasma gondii, molecularly detected in placental samples of women whose pregnancies were spontaneously terminated in the first trimester. Preliminary detection of Toxoplasma genomic materials was done by a SYBR green qPCR technology. Subsequent identification of Toxoplasma strain was done for the positive samples using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) at the SAG2 loci of T. gondii using restriction enzymes HhaI and Sau3AI. Out of 72 tested samples, Toxoplasma B1 gene was detected in 9 cases. Toxoplasma genotypes I and II in addition to unknown type were identified in 4, 3 and 2 cases respectively, while type III was not detected in our samples, hence excluded as a leading cause of abortion in humans in our preliminary study. Nevertheless, it remains uncertain to what extent the genotype of the parasite directly contributes to the clinical severity of human toxoplasmosis. Certainly, advanced molecular techniques targeting different Toxoplasma strains are crucial for better understanding of human toxoplasmosis. For more elucidation, additional studies are recommended intended for genetic characterization of such serious parasitic infection using larger number of samples. PMID:27363040

  1. In Mexico, abortion rights strictly for the books.

    PubMed

    Farmer, A

    2000-06-01

    This paper characterizes the Mexican abortion laws using the case of a girl aged 14 years, Paulina Ramirez Jacinta, who was raped, became pregnant, and chose to terminate the unwanted pregnancy, yet was denied an abortion. This case clearly showed that Mexican abortion law, despite its legality, is highly restrictive in nature and, in a way, violated the human rights of Paulina. Even though it permits first-trimester abortion procedures for rape victims or women whose lives are endangered by the pregnancy, many pregnant women still resort to illegal abortion. To further aggravate the restrictive nature of the law, Baja California state Rep. Martin Dominguez Rocha made a proposal to eliminate the rape exception in the state's penal code. The case of Paulina will be handled by the lawyers at the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy in order to arrive at a settlement favorable to Paulina. PMID:12322531

  2. Stumbling on status: abortion, stem cells, and faulty reasoning.

    PubMed

    Lebacqz, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Common arguments from the abortion debate have set the stage for the debate on stem cell research. Unfortunately, those arguments demonstrate flawed reasoning-jumping to unfounded conclusions, using value laden language rather than careful argument, and ignoring morally relevant aspects of the situation. The influence of flawed abortion arguments on the stem cell debate results in failures of moral reasoning and in lack of attention to important morally relevant differences between abortion and human embryonic stem cells. Among those differences are whose interests are at stake and the difference between an embryo in and out of the womb. Stem cell research differs from abortion in morally relevant ways and should be freed from the abortion debate and its flawed reasoning.

  3. Detection of Campylobacter antibodies in sheep sera by a Dot-ELISA using acid extracts from c. fetus ssp. fetus and c. jejuni strains and comparison with a complement fixation test.

    PubMed

    Gürtürk, K; Ekin, I H; Aksakal, A; Solmaz, H

    2002-04-01

    In this study, a dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Dot-ELISA) was evaluated in comparison with a complement fixation test (CFT) for the detection of Campylobacter antibodies in sheep sera. Acid glycine extracts (AGE) of both Campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus and Campylobacter jejuni strains that had been isolated from the gall-bladder of slaughtered sheep was used as antigen in both tests. A total of 153 sheep sera from aborted (74) and slaughtered (79) sheep were examined by both Dot-ELISA and CFT. Twenty-two sera showed anti-complementary activity were not suitable for CFT. Of the 22 sera showing anti-complementary activity, two sera were found to be positive in Dot-ELISA. Eighty-eight (67.2%) of the remaining 131 sera were negative by both Dot-ELISA and CFT using AGE of both Campylobacter strains whereas 43 sera (32.8%) gave different reaction patterns in Dot-ELISA and CFT with the extracts of both Campylobacter strains. Twelve sera were positive by both tests using AGE of C. fetus ssp. fetus but CFT failed to detect antibodies in nine of these sera when AGE of C. jejuni was used. Twelve sera were positive by both tests only when AGE of C. fetus ssp. fetus was used. Eleven sera were positive only by CFT. Seven of these reacted only with the AGE of C. fetus ssp. fetus and four sera were positive by using AGE of both Campylobacter strains. The remaining eight sera were found to be positive only by dot-immunobinding assay either with the AGE of both Campylobacter strains or with the AGE of one of the Campylobacter strains. It is concluded that Dot-ELISA using AGE from C. fetus ssp. fetus could be employed for the detection of Campylobacter antibodies in sheep sera and the additional use of AGE from C. jejuni as antigen appeared not to be profitable for this purpose.

  4. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  9. The fetus as a patient. Surgical considerations.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, M R; Adzick, N S

    1991-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of human fetal defects has evolved rapidly over the past decade due to improved fetal imaging techniques and better understanding of fetal pathophysiology derived from animal models. The detection of a fetal anomaly may now lead to a change in the timing of delivery, a change in the mode of delivery, or prenatal treatment. Because most therapeutic maneuvers involve some risk to the fetus and mother, there must be a reasonable expectation that the procedure is feasible, safe, and effective before it can be attempted in humans. This requires reliable information about the pathophysiology and natural history of the disease process, the efficacy of fetal surgical intervention in ameliorating the disease, and the feasibility and safety of the proposed intervention. This paper focuses on the rationale and initial clinical experience with fetal surgery for a variety of life-threatening fetal anatomic defects. PMID:2009009

  10. Overexpression of esterase D in kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses

    SciTech Connect

    Loughna, S.; Moore, G. ); Gau, G.; Blunt, S. ); Nicolaides, K. )

    1993-10-01

    Human trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) occurs in approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. It is compatible with life, but prolonged survival is rare. Anomalies often involve the urogenital, cardiac, craniofacial, and central nervous systems. It is possible that these abnormalities may be due to the overexpression of developmentally important genes on chromosome 13. The expression of esterase D (localized to chromosome 13q14.11) has been investigated in both muscle and kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses and has been compared with normal age- and sex-matched fetal tissues, by using northern analysis. More than a twofold increase in expression of esterase D was found in the kidney of two trisomy 13 fetuses, with normal levels in a third. Overexpression was not seen in the muscle tissues from these fetuses. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  12. [Abortion and conscientious objection].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion.

  13. Observations on abortion in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Castle, M A; Likwa, R; Whittaker, M

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the findings of a preliminary investigation of women who sought treatment for abortion from the Gynecological Emergency Ward at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia. Barriers to obtaining legal abortions are identified and the harsh experiences of women seeking treatment for complications of illegally induced abortion are discussed. The data contribute to an understanding of the intensity of abortion for Zambian women and draw attention to the value of small-scale, qualitative research on women's reproductive health care needs. It is suggested that a study be planned at UTH to determine how health care delivery can be improved for women who seek abortion.

  14. Anti-abortion movement.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K

    1985-01-01

    At the same time that American women celebrate the freedoms won thus far for so many Americans, American women must realize they face some of the greatest threats to liberty in recent memory. To understand this movement against American women, it is necessary to first understand the roots of the historic movement for women's rights. Reproductive freedom for many years topped the agenda of the modern women's movement. At a time and in a land where rights were being enriched and liberty prized, choice took a prominent role, specifically, the right to abortion but also generally to repdocuctive freedom and the many underlying issues involved. This is why the various efforts to criminalize abortion effect every citizen, because they pose a serious threat to the constitutional rights of each individual. This is the intellectual view, or the "head" argument. The Constitution states that: "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and no state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US." Each of these clauses expresses the philosophy on which the Constitution was founded -- individual liberty. While there has been some legitimate disagreement over what constitutes an inalienable right, the concept is clear: the government should not become involved in personal philosophical or religious matters, except to permit the freedom of personal philosophical or religious expression. The anti-abortion contignent makes its case by claiming that a fertilized egg is a cona fide person and should, therefore, be guaranteed the Constitution's full roster of protections. In its landmark Roe v. Wade opinion, the Supreme Court held what pro-choice activities have been claiming for years. Since there is no empirical test by which measure

  15. International developments in abortion law from 1988 to 1998.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M; Bliss, L E

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In 2 successive decades since 1967, legal accommodation of abortion has grown in many countries. The objective of this study was to assess whether liberalizing trends have been maintained in the last decade and whether increased protection of women's human rights has influenced legal reform. METHODS: A worldwide review was conducted of legislation and judicial rulings affecting abortion, and legal reforms were measured against governmental commitments made under international human rights treaties and at United Nations conferences. RESULTS: Since 1987, 26 jurisdictions have extended grounds for lawful abortion, and 4 countries have restricted grounds. Additional limits on access to legal abortion services include restrictions on funding of services, mandatory counseling and reflection delay requirements, third-party authorizations, and blockades of abortion clinics. CONCLUSIONS: Progressive liberalization has moved abortion laws from a focus on punishment toward concern with women's health and welfare and with their human rights. However, widespread maternal mortality and morbidity show that reform must be accompanied by accessible abortion services and improved contraceptive care and information. PMID:10191808

  16. A Rapid Method for the Diagnosis of Equine Virus Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Correa, W. M.

    1970-01-01

    Smears and imprints were made from the liver of 27 equine fetuses, believed to have aborted as a result of Equine Virus Abortion (EVA) infection. Several different fixatives and staining techniques were employed for the demonstration of typical intra-nuclear inclusion bodies in these preparations, and the following conclusions were reached. Methanol proved to be the best fixative and Pappenheim's panoptic method was the best staining technique, giving good contrast and definition of the inclusion bodies. Cytological methods provided a simple and rapid means of diagnosis, but histological sections provided evidence of lesions which was most useful when inclusion bodies were very difficult to find. However, cytological methods proved better than histological sections for the demonstration of EVA intranuclear inclusion bodies. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:4192198

  17. Marijuana impairs growth in mid-gestation fetuses.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Y L; Wang, X; Anderson, V; Beck, O; Minkoff, H; Dow-Edwards, D

    2005-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is the most commonly used illicit drug by pregnant women, but information is limited about the effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development. The present study evaluated the influence of early maternal marijuana use on fetal growth. Women electing voluntary saline-induced abortions were recruited at a mid-gestational stage of pregnancy (weeks 17-22), and detailed drug use and medical histories were obtained. Toxicological assays (maternal urine and fetal meconium) were used in conjunction with the maternal report to assign groups. Subjects with documented cocaine and opiate use were excluded. Main developmental outcome variables were fetal weight, foot length, body length, and head circumference; ponderal index was also examined. Analyses were adjusted for maternal alcohol and cigarette use. Marijuana (n=44)- and nonmarijuana (n=95)-exposed fetuses had similar rates of growth with increased age. However, there was a 0.08-cm (95% CI -0.15 to -0.01) and 14.53-g (95% CI -28.21 to 0.86) significant reduction of foot length and body weight, respectively, for marijuana-exposed fetuses. Moreover, fetal foot length development was negatively correlated with the amount and frequency of marijuana use reported by the mothers. These findings provide evidence of a negative impact of prenatal marijuana exposure on the mid-gestational fetal growth even when adjusting for maternal use of other substances well known to impair fetal development.

  18. Abortion health services in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Wendy V.; Guilbert, Edith R.; Okpaleke, Christopher; Hayden, Althea S.; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; White, Katharine O’Connell; Jones, Heidi E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the location of Canadian abortion services relative to where reproductive-age women reside, and the characteristics of abortion facilities and providers. Design An international survey was adapted for Canadian relevance. Public sources and professional networks were used to identify facilities. The bilingual survey was distributed by mail and e-mail from July to November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures The number and location of services were compared with the distribution of reproductive-age women by location of residence. Results We identified 94 Canadian facilities providing abortion in 2012, with 48.9% in Quebec. The response rate was 83.0% (78 of 94). Facilities in every jurisdiction with services responded. In Quebec and British Columbia abortion services are nearly equally present in large urban centres and rural locations throughout the provinces; in other Canadian provinces services are chiefly located in large urban areas. No abortion services were identified in Prince Edward Island. Respondents reported provision of 75 650 abortions in 2012 (including 4.0% by medical abortion). Canadian facilities reported minimal or no harassment, in stark contrast to American facilities that responded to the same survey. Conclusion Access to abortion services varies by region across Canada. Services are not equitably distributed in relation to the regions where reproductive-age women reside. British Columbia and Quebec have demonstrated effective strategies to address disparities. Health policy and service improvements have the potential to address current abortion access inequity in Canada. These measures include improved access to mifepristone for medical abortion; provincial policies to support abortion services; routine abortion training within family medicine residency programs; and increasing the scope of practice for nurses and midwives to include abortion

  19. Evidence mounts for sex-selective abortion in Asia.

    PubMed

    Westley, S B

    1995-01-01

    In Korea, China, and Taiwan--countries where son preference persists--the availability of prenatal screening techniques and induced abortion has produced an imbalance in the naturally occurring sex ratios of 104-107 male births for every 100 female births. Policy responses to sex-selective abortion were the focus of a 1994 International Symposium on Sex Preference for Children in the Rapidly Changing Demographic Dynamics in Asia sponsored by the United Nations Population Fund and the Government of the Republic of Korea. Modern technology (i.e., amniocentesis, ultrasound, and chorionic villi sampling) enables couples to control both family size and sex selection. According to data from the 1990 Korean Census, 80,000 female fetuses were aborted from 1986-90 as a result of son preference. In the late 1980s, the Governments of Korea, China, and India imposed bans on the use of medical technology for prenatal sex determination, but many observers maintain that regulations have served only to make the procedures clandestine and more expensive. To remedy the problems underlying sex-selective abortion, the Symposium recommended the following government actions: 1) implement policies and programs to diminish gender discrimination; 2) establish guidelines for the monitoring and regulation of prenatal testing; 3) utilize mass and folk media, interpersonal channels, and school curricula to promote gender equality; 4) strengthen the ethics curriculum of medical schools to address son preference; and 5) increase the capability of statistical and research organizations to collect gender-disaggregated data.

  20. Ultrasound and estradiol plasma levels in threatened abortion.

    PubMed

    Melis, G B; Strigini, F; Fruzzetti, F; Paoletti, A M; Battistelli, P; Boldrini, A

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasound examination and unconjugated estriol assay were performed in 111 women with threatened abortion between the 6th and the 20th week of pregnancy. In viable pregnancies, fetal echoes and fetal heart movements were always observed by sonar from the 10th week onward and estradiol levels always increased above 30 pg/ml from the 13th week. Both ultrasound and estriol assay showed high percentages of uncertain prognostic indication on pregnancy outcome when examinations were performed during the first weeks of pregnancy. However, in the same period estriol levels higher than 30 pg/ml were always correlated with the favourable outcome of pregnancy, since no abortion occurred in subjects with detectable estriol values. During the second trimester ultrasound and estradiol results were normal in all viable pregnancies, while they were abnormal in 71.4% of pregnancies which failed to continue. Estriol values were always undetectable when fetuses could not be identified by sonar or they were dead. These data seem to demonstrate that both methods have similar prognostic value in patients with threatened abortion. However both sonar examination and estriol levels sometimes failed in predicting subsequent pregnancy interruptions, suggesting that abortions were not related to either fetal or placental alterations.

  1. A Triplet Pregnancy with Spontaneous Delivery of a Fetus at Gestational Age of 20 Weeks and Pregnancy Continuation of Two Other Fetuses until Week 33

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Maryam; Moghadam, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of pregnancies with triplet or more has been increased due to using assisted reproductive treatments. Meanwhile, multiple pregnancies have higher risks and long-term maternal-fetal complications compared to twin and singleton pregnancies. Delayed interval delivery (DID) is a new approach in the management of multiple pregnancies following delivery or abortion. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the benefits of DID and presents a case that used this method. Methods: This paper covers a report on a case of triplet pregnancy resulting from assisted reproductive techniques with spontaneous delivery of a fetus at gestational age of 20 weeks and the use of conservative DID for two other fetuses until the 33rd week. Results: In our case, the delivery of two other fetuses occurred spontaneously at gestational age of 33 weeks after the delivery of the first fetus at week 20. Conclusions: Using DID is a useful and reliable method, but requires careful monitoring, especially in patients with a history of infertility. PMID:26383220

  2. Comment on a proposed draft protocol for the European Convention on Biomedicine relating to research on the human embryo and fetus.

    PubMed

    Lebech, M M

    1998-10-01

    Judge Christian Byk renders service to the Steering Committee on Bioethics of the Council of Europe (CDBI) by proposing a draft of the protocol destined to fill in a gap in international law on the status of the human embryo. This proposal, printed in a previous issue of the Journal of Medical Ethics deserves nevertheless to be questioned on important points. Is Christian Byk proposing to legalise research on human embryos not only in vitro but also in utero?

  3. Ethical issues in neurografting of human embryonic cells.

    PubMed

    Boer, G J

    1999-09-01

    During the last decade neurotransplantation has developed into a technique with the possible potential to repair damaged or degenerating human brain. Effective neurotransplantation has so far been based on the use of fetal brain tissue derived from aborted embryos or fetuses. The ethical issues related to this new therapeutic approach therefore not only concern the possible adverse side effects for a neural graft-receiving patient, but also the relationship between the requirements for fetal tissue and the decision-making process for induced abortion. Although for decades human embryos and fetuses have been the subject of biomedical studies, and, in principle, their use has therefore not been seen as ethically objectionable, the above points made it necessary to reconsider the moral issues. The present paper points out several of these issues, both from the donor and acceptor (patient) point of view. The conclusion is that under a series of restrictions intended to prevent the use of grafts from encouraging induced abortions and to maintain high standards of respect for life and human dignity, neurotransplantation using embryonic or fetal brain tissue parts cannot be rejected on moral grounds.

  4. Abortion and distortion of justice in the law.

    PubMed

    Dickens, B M

    1989-01-01

    Examples are cited of how the current policy in the U.S. favoring the pro-life philosophy is distorting government and court judgements. Appointment of Supreme Court justices and executive officials higher than assistant cabinet secretaries is subject to political ideology. Pro-life activists oppose wrongful birth tort actions, with the result that handicapped children are denied damages. In contrast they support legal action on behalf of stillborn fetuses. Similarly since "Webster" the pro-life movement disallows wrongful birth suits, so financial expenses cannot be recovered to help pay for a handicapped child. This may paradoxically force couples into abortion if they cannot risk supporting a severely handicapped child. Again, the trend is the same for wrongful life claims where handicapped children as a result of professional negligence seek compensation to provide for their care. Stillborn fetuses in this case can recover damages, resulting in windfall gains to their estate. The possibility of finding on behalf of a stillborn fetus may prompt doctors to induce abortion rather than have to pay damages. Another distortion of the notion of the transcending blessing of life valued more in the abstract than an individual's suffering or insentience is the judgement that comatose persons must continue to receive forced life-support against their family's claim of right to decline care. There have been a few cases where pregnant women have been charged as criminals, forcibly hospitalized and operated on to legally protect the fetus. This trend may cause pregnant women to avoid prenatal care rather than be forced to live a state-prescribed life style. Other examples of misdirected compassion of the pro-life movement are loss of practicing obstetricians, of RU 486 and other contraceptive methods, of fetal tissue research, and potential loss of in vitro fertilization to couples who wish to have 1 or 2 babies only.

  5. Fetal tissue transplantation: can it be morally insulated from abortion?

    PubMed

    Strong, C

    1991-06-01

    Ethical controversy over transplantation of human fetal tissue has arisen because the source of tissue is induced abortions. Opposition to such transplants has been based on various arguments, including the following: rightful informed consent cannot be obtained for use of fetal tissue from induced abortions, and fetal tissue transplantation might result in an increase in the number of abortions. These arguments were not accepted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Human Fetal Tissue Transplantation Research Panel. The majority opinion of the panel stated that abortion and fetal tissue use are entirely separate issues, and that tissue use is ethically acceptable because it can be morally insulated from the issue of abortion. In support of this view, panel members and others have replied to the arguments put forward by opponents of fetal tissue use. However, replies to the two arguments mentioned above have been unsatisfactory, and the shortcomings of those replies are identified herein. Examination of the arguments pro and con suggests that fetal tissue use cannot be completely insulated from the issue of abortion. Thus, in seeking an ethical justification for fetal tissue transplantation we must consider reasons other than those put forward by the NIH panel. In this paper it is argued that whatever wrong is involved in using fetal tissue from induced abortions must be balanced against the benefits for patients, and it is on this basis that fetal tissue transplantation can be ethically justified.

  6. Direct and indirect abortion in the Roman Catholic tradition: a review of the Phoenix case.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Gerald D

    2013-06-01

    In Roman Catholic Moral Theology, a direct abortion is never permitted. An indirect abortion, in which a life threatening pathology is treated, and the treatment inadvertently leads to the death of the fetus, may be permissible in proportionately grave situations. In situations in which a mother's life is endangered by the pregnancy before the fetus is viable, there is some debate about whether the termination of the pregnancy is a direct or indirect abortion. In this essay a recent case from a Roman Catholic sponsored hospital in Phoenix is reviewed along with the justifications for and arguments against viewing the pregnancy termination as an indirect abortion. After review of several arguments on both sides of the debate, it is concluded that termination of the pregnancy itself as the means of saving the mother cannot be considered an indirect abortion and that the principle of "double effect" does not justify the termination. In addition, the importance of a breakdown in communication between the local bishop and the administration of the hospital is shown to have contributed to the ultimate loss of Catholic sponsorship of the hospital.

  7. [Acute complications of abortion].

    PubMed

    Obel, E

    1976-02-01

    The complications accompanying the various methods of abortion as studied in different surveys are reported. In studies of dilation and curettage (D and C) and vaccuum aspiration (VA), lethality ranges from .5 to 2.9 deaths/100,000 cases. Metrorrhagia occurred in 2.5-6% of the D and C cases studied and in 2.9-3.5% of the VA cases. The bleeding was accompanied by infection in most cases where abortive tissue remained in the uterus, which occured in .4-.8% of the D and C cases and in .6-.9% of the VA cases studied. Postabortive bleeding occurred through the 10th day in up to 25% of the patients and was related to the length of the gestation period before abortion. Pelvic infection, mostly of the endometrium, occurred in about 1.4% of the D and C patients and in .3-1.2% of the VA patients. 1.4% of the D and C patients and .6% of the VA patients experienced a rise in body temperature as the only complication of abortion. Perforation of the uterus occurred in about .8% of the D and C patients and in .1-.6% of VA patients. Lesions of the cervix had to be sutured in .1% of the D and C group and .3% of the VA group. Saline instillation, used for abortions in the second trimest er, had a mortality rate of about 20/100,000 cases. Since the success rate of saline instillation is 90-98%, complications are more frequent, often requiring treatment with oxytocin or curettage. Extensive bleeding occurred in 2.3-4%. Curettage of the placenta was required in about 2.1-16.9% of the cases. Pelvic inflammation occurred in about 2.5% and temperature elevation in 1-3.4%. Abdominal hysterotomies had a lethality of 208/100,000. Pelvic hemorrhage occurred in 31%, inflammation in 4.7%, temperature elevation in 13%, and febrile reactions in 31% of the abdominal hysterotomies studied. It is necessary to establish international definitions of abortion complications for better documentation, and postoperative observations should be recorded more conscientiously. PMID:1251502

  8. Getting the story straight. The press and "partial-birth abortion".

    PubMed

    Farmer, A

    2000-06-01

    This paper discusses the controversy of the banning of ¿partial-birth abortion¿ in the state of Nebraska. This controversy arises as a result of how several major news sources described the Nebraska statute--that is, as a pre-viability abortion ban, and not a ban on late-term abortion procedures. This issue did not only occur in Nebraska, but also in Michigan when abortion opponents simultaneously initiated a publicity scheme to mislead the public into believing the ban was about ¿gruesome¿ late-term procedures. The deceptive term ¿partial-birth abortion¿, also seemed to suggest abortions performed on viable fetuses and the language describing the ban was confusing and slippery. In response to this controversy, Janet Benshoof, the president of the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy (CRLP) immediately made a statement to counteract the allegation imposed by abortion opponents. Also, CRLP Communications Deputy Director Margie Kelly spends a considerable amount of time informing the press of the extreme measures of the laws.

  9. Epizootic abortion related to infections by Chlamydophila abortus and Chlamydophila pecorum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Greco, G; Corrente, M; Buonavoglia, D; Campanile, G; Di Palo, R; Martella, V; Bellacicco, A L; D'Abramo, M; Buonavoglia, C

    2008-06-01

    Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) are affected by high rates of embryonic mortality and abortion related to infectious diseases and non-infectious factors. A number of viral and bacterial infections have been associated with reproductive failure, but there is limited information on the role of chlamydial infections. In order to investigate the presence and the role of Chlamydiaceae in water buffalo a retrospective study was performed in a herd with a history of reproductive failure. During an 11-month period, the pregnant heifers suffered an abortion rate of 36.8% between the 3rd and 7th month of pregnancy. Antibodies to Chlamydiaceae were detected in 57% of the aborted cows, and in 0% of the overtly healthy cows used as control. By a nested-PCR assay, three of 14 vaginal swabs from aborted animals tested positive for Chlamydophila agents and, additionally, three out of seven aborted fetuses tested positive for Chlamydophila spp., with two being co-infections by Cp. abortus and Cp. pecorum and one being characterised as Cp. abortus. Sequence analysis of the amplicons confirmed the results of the nested-PCR. The presence of anti-Chlamydiaceae antibodies in more than half of the aborting animals (P<0.002) and the detection of Chlamydophila agents in several fetal organs and in the vaginal swabs are consistent with the history of abortions observed in the herd and suggest an abortifacient role by Chlamydophila spp. in water buffalo (B. Bubalis) herds.

  10. Metabolism of fatty acid-labeled cerebroside sulfate in cultured cells from controls and metachromatic leukodystrophy patients. Use in the prenatal identification of a false positive fetus.

    PubMed

    Kudoh, T; Sattler, M; Malmstrom, J; Bitter, M A; Wenger, D A

    1981-11-01

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy is the name given to a group of diseases in patients having a deficiency of CS sulfatase activity. The diagnosis usually can be made by using leukocytes, urine, and cultured skin fibroblasts. The low level of enzyme activity can be measured with an artificial substrate, NCS, or suitably labeled CS. In a number of families, healthy carriers of this autosomal recessive disease have been found to have enzyme levels near those of affected patients. We prepared (14)C-stearic acid-labeled CS and studied its metabolism in cultured human cells from patients and controls, In vitro, CS sulfatase requires bile salts to stimulate the enzymatic reaction. The (14)C-CS also can be added to the medium on cultured cells, and its metabolism in the cells can be followed without the addition of bile salts. A child with late infantile MLD was identified by studies on urine and leukocytes. Studies on leukocytes from the parents revealed a very low enzyme level in the father (false positive) and a typical carrier level in the mother. A pregnancy in this family was monitored, and in vitro studies on cultured AFC revealed low CS and NCS sulfatase levels. However, the addition of (14)C-CS to the culture medium revealed normal metabolism in these cells. An unaffected fetus was predicted on the basis of the cell feeding studies. The couple elected to abort this pregnancy, and studies on the fetus confirmed it would not have been affected with MLD.

  11. Abortion research in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gaslonde Sainz, S

    1976-08-01

    Surveys dealing with abortion in Latin America have provided useful information despite problems in the collection and use of the data. Considerations that should be taken into account in designing abortion surveys and using the resultant information have been discussed here. Special attention has been paid to the need for a broad definition of "abortion" in order to overcome difficulties in gathering information about abortion in Latin America. Surveys have shown increasing incidence of abortion throughout Latin America in the recent past. In examining changes over time it is crucial to interpret clearly and carefully the summary measures of proportion of pregnancies ending in abortion and abortion rates per 1,000 women. It is also important to realize that the level and direction of change of the abortion rate depends on both the rate at which women are becoming pregnant and the proportion of pregnancies ending in abortion. Better survey design and techniques and more careful use of the resulting information will aid in the planning and evaluation of programs aimed at reducing abortion in Latin America. PMID:960180

  12. Abortion: taking the debate seriously.

    PubMed

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2015-05-19

    Voluntarily induced abortion has been under permanent dispute and legal regulations, because societies invariably condemn extramarital pregnancies. In recent decades, a measure of societal tolerance has led to decriminalize and legalize abortion in accordance with one of two models: a more restricted and conservative model known as therapeutic abortion, and the model that accepts voluntary abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy. Liberalization of abortion aims at ending clandestine abortions and decriminalizes the practice in order to increase reproductive education and accessibility of contraceptive methods, dissuade women from interrupting their pregnancy and, ultimately, make abortion a medically safe procedure within the boundaries of the law, inspired by efforts to reduce the incidence of this practice. The current legal initiative to decriminalize abortion in Chile proposes a notably rigid set of indications which would not resolve the three main objectives that need to be considered: 1) Establish the legal framework of abortion; 2) Contribute to reduce social unrest; 3) Solve the public health issue of clandestine, illegal abortions. Debate must urgently be opened to include alternatives in line with the general tendency to respect women's decision within the first trimester of pregnancy.

  13. Religion and attitudes toward abortion and abortion policy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the association between religion and attitudes toward the practice of abortion and abortion policy in Brazil. Drawing upon data from the 2002 Brazilian Social Research Survey (BSRS), we test a number of hypotheses with regard to the role of religion on opposition to the practice of abortion and its legalization. Findings indicate that frequently attending Pentecostals demonstrate the strongest opposition to the practice of abortion and both frequently attending Pentecostals and Catholics demonstrate the strongest opposition to its legalization. Additional religious factors, such as a commitment to biblical literalism, were also found to be significantly associated with opposition to both abortion issues. Ultimately, the findings have implications for the future of public policy on abortion and other contentious social issues in Brazil.

  14. The Politicization of Abortion and the Evolution of Abortion Counseling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The field of abortion counseling originated in the abortion rights movement of the 1970s. During its evolution to the present day, it has faced significant challenges, primarily arising from the increasing politicization and stigmatization of abortion since legalization. Abortion counseling has been affected not only by the imposition of antiabortion statutes, but also by the changing needs of patients who have come of age in a very different era than when this occupation was first developed. One major innovation—head and heart counseling—departs in significant ways from previous conventions of the field and illustrates the complex and changing political meanings of abortion and therefore the challenges to abortion providers in the years following Roe v Wade. PMID:23153144

  15. Psychiatric aspects of therapeutic abortion.

    PubMed

    Doane, B K; Quigley, B G

    1981-09-01

    A search of the literature on the psychiatric aspects of abortion revealed poor study design, a lack of clear criteria for decisions for or against abortion, poor definition of psychologic symptoms experienced by patients, absence of control groups in clinical studies, and indecisiveness and uncritical attitudes in writers from various disciplines. A review of the sequelae of therapeutic abortion revealed that although the data are vague, symptoms of depression were reported most frequently, whereas those of psychosis were rare. Positive emotional responses and a favourable attitude toward therapeutic abortion were often reported, although again the statistical bases for these reports were inadequate. There was a lack of evidence that the reported effects were due to having an abortion rather than to other variables.Other areas dealt with inadequately in most of the articles reviewed included analyses of symptoms and of the evidence on the duration of sequelae, descriptions of the criteria for approving abortions, investigation of the psychiatric histories of the patients, presentation of data on the effects of refusing abortion requests, systematic study of a number of epidemiologic factors, and analyses of the circumstances leading to pregnancy in patients having abortions. The evidence was found to be sparse on the effects of supportive relationships, different abortion techniques and the length of gestation on the psychologic status of patients. Little attention was paid to the consequences of psychiatric labelling of patients, or to the effect of having an abortion on factors that may influence future pregnancies.The potential roles of health care professionals appear to deserve more study, and little research seems to have been done to compare the psychologic factors associated with abortion and those associated with live birth. As well, there is little evidence that differences in abortion legislation account for significant differences in the psychologic

  16. Late abortion meeting, Paris / France.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, A

    1989-01-01

    On January 27 and 28, 1989 a workshop and a meeting were organized in Paris by Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial (MFPF/France) and the IPPF Europe Region. The workshop was held on the first day. 24 staff and volunteers from Planned Parenthood Associations of 15 countries attended, reviewing abortion laws, the definition of therapeutic abortion, and the incidence and problems of second trimester abortion. Second trimester abortion is available in only a few European countries. Second trimester abortions are rare in France (about 2000 per annum), and in 1986 1717 French women travelled to England in order to seek an abortion. All late abortions are performed for serious reasons. Older women may mistake signs of pregnancy for the onset of the menopause; and women fearful of social or familial punishment, especially teenagers, may be reluctant to consult a doctor. The experiences of Denmark and Sweden, where the problem is partially solved, suggest some strategies: optimize accessibility of contraceptive services, particularly for women at higher risk of late abortion; diminish the taboo surrounding abortion, so that women are less frightened to seek help at an early stage of pregnancy; make abortion services available in all regions of the country; avert time-consuming enforced waiting periods or consent for minors; and stimulate public information campaigns on the importance of seeking help early. On January 28 a meeting involving about 200 participants took place at the Universite Paris Dauphine, Salle Raymond Aron. Speakers at the meeting discussed the issue of late abortion in Europe, the difficulties of obtaining late abortions, counseling, medical problems, the woman's point of view, and possible solutions. At the close of the meeting, the MFPF called on the French government to modify some of the articles in the Penal Code that restrict women's access to safe and legal abortion.

  17. Toxoplasmosis as a suspected cause of abortion in a Greenland muskox (Ovibos moshatus wardi).

    PubMed

    Crawford, G C; Dunker, F H; Dubey, J P

    2000-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were seen in the placenta of a late-term aborted Greenland muskox (Ovibos moschatus wardi) fetus in a captive herd at the San Francisco Zoo. The organism stained with anti-T. gondii polyclonal rabbit serum but not with anti-Neospora caninum serum. The dam had a Toxoplasma titer of > or =1:3,200 at the time of abortion and in each of the previous 3 yr (modified agglutination test). The muskox is a new host record for T. gondii.

  18. Toxoplasmosis as a suspected cause of abortion in a Greenland muskox (Ovibos moshatus wardi).

    PubMed

    Crawford, G C; Dunker, F H; Dubey, J P

    2000-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were seen in the placenta of a late-term aborted Greenland muskox (Ovibos moschatus wardi) fetus in a captive herd at the San Francisco Zoo. The organism stained with anti-T. gondii polyclonal rabbit serum but not with anti-Neospora caninum serum. The dam had a Toxoplasma titer of > or =1:3,200 at the time of abortion and in each of the previous 3 yr (modified agglutination test). The muskox is a new host record for T. gondii. PMID:10982143

  19. Austerity and Abortion in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Billari, Francesco; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Economic hardship accompanying large recessions can lead families to terminate unplanned pregnancies. To assess whether abortions have risen during the recession, we collected crude abortion data from 2000 to 2012 from Eurostat for countries that had legal abortions and complete data. Declining trends in abortion ratios between 2000 and 2009 have been reversing. Excess abortions between 2010 and 2012 totaled 10.6 abortions per 1000 pregnancies ending in abortion or birth or 6701 additional abortions (95% CI 1190–9240) with stronger effects in younger ages. Economic shocks may increase recourse to abortion. Further research should explore causal pathways and protective factors. PMID:27009038

  20. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  1. Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) Propulsion on Pad Abort 1 (PA-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides a concise overview of the highly successful Orion Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) flight test, and the three rocket motors that contributed to this success. The primary purpose of the Orion PA-1 flight was to help certify the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS), which can be utilized in the unlikely event of an emergency on the launchpad or during mission vehicle ascent. The PA-1 test was the first fully integrated flight test of the Orion LAS, one of the primary systems within the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The Orion MPCV is part of the architecture within the Space Launch System (SLS), which is being designed to transport astronauts beyond low-Earth orbit for future exploration missions. Had the Orion PA-1 flight abort occurred during launch preparations for a real human spaceflight mission, the PA-1 LAS would have saved the lives of the crew. The PA-1 flight test was largely successful due to the three solid rocket motors of the LAS: the Attitude Control Motor (ACM); the Jettison Motor (JM); and the Abort Motor (AM). All three rocket motors successfully performed their required functions during the Orion PA-1 flight test, flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, culminating in a successful demonstration of an abort capability from the launchpad.

  2. Critical notice--defending life: a moral and legal case against abortion choice by Francis J Beckwith.

    PubMed

    Stretton, D

    2008-11-01

    Francis Beckwith's Defending life: a moral and legal case against abortion choice defends the pro-life position on moral, legal and political grounds. In this critical notice I consider three key issues and argue that Beckwith's treatment of each of them is unpersuasive. The issues are: (1) whether abortion is politically justified by the principle that we should err on the side of liberty in the face of reasonable disagreement over the moral status of the fetus; (2) whether the fetus's natural capacity or genetic propensity to develop rationality and communication is sufficient to give it a moral right to life; and (3) whether abortion is morally justified on the basis of bodily rights. I also show that Beckwith's book fails to consider several important issues and arguments. PMID:18974412

  3. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742

  4. Anti-abortion movement.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K

    1985-01-01

    At the same time that American women celebrate the freedoms won thus far for so many Americans, American women must realize they face some of the greatest threats to liberty in recent memory. To understand this movement against American women, it is necessary to first understand the roots of the historic movement for women's rights. Reproductive freedom for many years topped the agenda of the modern women's movement. At a time and in a land where rights were being enriched and liberty prized, choice took a prominent role, specifically, the right to abortion but also generally to repdocuctive freedom and the many underlying issues involved. This is why the various efforts to criminalize abortion effect every citizen, because they pose a serious threat to the constitutional rights of each individual. This is the intellectual view, or the "head" argument. The Constitution states that: "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and no state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US." Each of these clauses expresses the philosophy on which the Constitution was founded -- individual liberty. While there has been some legitimate disagreement over what constitutes an inalienable right, the concept is clear: the government should not become involved in personal philosophical or religious matters, except to permit the freedom of personal philosophical or religious expression. The anti-abortion contignent makes its case by claiming that a fertilized egg is a cona fide person and should, therefore, be guaranteed the Constitution's full roster of protections. In its landmark Roe v. Wade opinion, the Supreme Court held what pro-choice activities have been claiming for years. Since there is no empirical test by which measure

  5. Stewardship challenges abortion: A proposed means to mitigate abortion's social divisiveness

    PubMed Central

    Tardiff, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1973 the legislated constitutional right to abortion has produced a political dichotomy (anti-abortion versus pro-abortion) within the United States, even while witnessing a gradual decline in the rate of abortions. A third paradigm, moral stewardship, is advanced as an effective means to ameliorate this social divisiveness. Incorporating the concept of stewardship into deliberations of pregnancy termination would require recognition, through fact-based education programs, of the life circumstances that prompt the consideration to terminate a pregnancy. Based on collective responsibility, policies, and programs are needed to foster social justice for parents and for the offspring brought to term, without creating excessive burdens on women faced with an unwanted pregnancy. Moral stewardship is perceived as humanitarian to family and community and advantageous to society overall. It also offers a serious opportunity to reshape our society from divisiveness to inclusiveness, and to guide science policy judgment that enhances and strengthens social justice. Lay summary: Differing opinions over the ethics of human abortion have been legion since Roe v. Wade (1973). The disputes between pro- and anti-abortion factions have segregated society with few improvements in social justice. This study offers an alternative approach, one capable of social assimilation and justice for unwanted offspring and pregnant mothers bearing them. It promotes moral stewardship toward the unborn whose humanity and personhood are recognized genetically and supported philosophically by long-standing ethical principles. Stewardship incorporates all people at all levels of society based on collective responsibility, supported by government policies, yet not restricting a mother's choices for the future of her unborn offspring. PMID:26912934

  6. Stewardship challenges abortion: A proposed means to mitigate abortion's social divisiveness.

    PubMed

    Tardiff, Robert G

    2015-08-01

    Since 1973 the legislated constitutional right to abortion has produced a political dichotomy (anti-abortion versus pro-abortion) within the United States, even while witnessing a gradual decline in the rate of abortions. A third paradigm, moral stewardship, is advanced as an effective means to ameliorate this social divisiveness. Incorporating the concept of stewardship into deliberations of pregnancy termination would require recognition, through fact-based education programs, of the life circumstances that prompt the consideration to terminate a pregnancy. Based on collective responsibility, policies, and programs are needed to foster social justice for parents and for the offspring brought to term, without creating excessive burdens on women faced with an unwanted pregnancy. Moral stewardship is perceived as humanitarian to family and community and advantageous to society overall. It also offers a serious opportunity to reshape our society from divisiveness to inclusiveness, and to guide science policy judgment that enhances and strengthens social justice. Lay summary: Differing opinions over the ethics of human abortion have been legion since Roe v. Wade (1973). The disputes between pro- and anti-abortion factions have segregated society with few improvements in social justice. This study offers an alternative approach, one capable of social assimilation and justice for unwanted offspring and pregnant mothers bearing them. It promotes moral stewardship toward the unborn whose humanity and personhood are recognized genetically and supported philosophically by long-standing ethical principles. Stewardship incorporates all people at all levels of society based on collective responsibility, supported by government policies, yet not restricting a mother's choices for the future of her unborn offspring. PMID:26912934

  7. Stewardship challenges abortion: A proposed means to mitigate abortion's social divisiveness.

    PubMed

    Tardiff, Robert G

    2015-08-01

    Since 1973 the legislated constitutional right to abortion has produced a political dichotomy (anti-abortion versus pro-abortion) within the United States, even while witnessing a gradual decline in the rate of abortions. A third paradigm, moral stewardship, is advanced as an effective means to ameliorate this social divisiveness. Incorporating the concept of stewardship into deliberations of pregnancy termination would require recognition, through fact-based education programs, of the life circumstances that prompt the consideration to terminate a pregnancy. Based on collective responsibility, policies, and programs are needed to foster social justice for parents and for the offspring brought to term, without creating excessive burdens on women faced with an unwanted pregnancy. Moral stewardship is perceived as humanitarian to family and community and advantageous to society overall. It also offers a serious opportunity to reshape our society from divisiveness to inclusiveness, and to guide science policy judgment that enhances and strengthens social justice. Lay summary: Differing opinions over the ethics of human abortion have been legion since Roe v. Wade (1973). The disputes between pro- and anti-abortion factions have segregated society with few improvements in social justice. This study offers an alternative approach, one capable of social assimilation and justice for unwanted offspring and pregnant mothers bearing them. It promotes moral stewardship toward the unborn whose humanity and personhood are recognized genetically and supported philosophically by long-standing ethical principles. Stewardship incorporates all people at all levels of society based on collective responsibility, supported by government policies, yet not restricting a mother's choices for the future of her unborn offspring.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a strain of Lichtheimia corymbifera (ex Absidia corymbifera) from a case of bovine abortion

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Lichtheimia corymbifera (previously Absidia corymbifera) is a filamentous zygomycetes belonging to the order Mucorales and to the family Lichtheimiaceae. Members of genus Lichtheimia spp. are cosmopolitan and ubiquitous in nature. Lichtheimia corymbifera is a recognized agent of diseases in man and animals. In cattle it causes abortion and mastitis. Three cases of bovine abortion occurred in a herd located in the Po Valley. Serological examinations were performed on fetal and mother's blood. One of the aborted fetus was referred to our laboratory. The paper describes the isolation and characterization of Lichtheimia corymbifera from a bovine aborted fetus. Methods Serological examinations were performed on fetal and mother's blood. Lesions on fetal tissues and placenta leaded the diagnostic suspect towards a mycotic aetiology. Tissues were then put in culture, and at the same time an histological examination was performed, together with bacteriological and virological tests. The isolate from placenta and fetal tissues was identified and characterized by PCR and RFLP, using the ITS region as a target sequence and AclI restriction site within the amplicon to distinguish Lichtheimia corymbifera among the other fungi. Results Serological, bacteriological and virological tests gave aspecific results. Histological examination evidenced numerous PAS positive hyphae within the necrotic cotiledons and numerous fungal nonseptate hyphae to the GMS stain. Colonies with typical morphological features of fungi grew up on Sabouraud agar from fetal skin and placenta. On the developed colonies the microscopic examination has shown a large number of nonseptate hyphae and sporangia consistent with Mucorales. PCR and RFLP allowed the identification of the isolate as Lichtheimia corymbifera. Conclusion The present report describes the isolation and the molecular characterisation of a fungal isolate from bovine aborted fetus and placenta. The diagnostic protocol allowed to

  9. The abortion struggle in America.

    PubMed

    Warren, Mary Anne

    1989-10-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court's July 1989 decision in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services, while not overturning Roe v. Wade, extended the power of state and local governments to regulate abortion. Warren situates the Webster decision in a larger context of 19th and 20th century American anti-abortion legislation, the Court's 1973 Roe decision and its predecessors, and the anti-abortion campaign that followed Roe. She then discusses Webster and its legal, practical, and political implications, concluding that the future of legal abortion in the United States is radically uncertain.

  10. God's bullies: attacks on abortion.

    PubMed

    Hadley, J

    1994-01-01

    National politics in the US, Poland, and Ireland have in recent years been afire with debate over abortion. Conflicting abortion laws almost scuttled the reunification of Germany. This paper describes how the abortion debate took hold in post-Communist Poland and how the issue came to be so entrenched in US politics in the wake of the US Supreme Court's 1973 decision on abortion in the case of Roe vs. Wade. It focuses upon abortion mainly as a method of birth control which women have always sought when needed regardless of the procedure's legal status. The controversies and campaigns recorded and the ideas offered focus upon women's access to affordable, safe, and legal abortion. The author argues that Poland is no place to be a woman and presents sections on the country's church, government, and medical profession; Roe vs. Wade; who opposes abortion rights and their broad success; the 1992 US presidential election; Bill Clinton's presidency; why the abortion debate has been different in Britain; and new issues on abortion.

  11. Prophylactic antibiotics for curettage abortion.

    PubMed

    Grimes, D A; Schulz, K F; Cates, W

    1984-11-15

    Opinion is divided as to the advisability of routine use of prophylactic antibiotics for curettage abortion. Six studies, including three randomized clinical trials, suggest that prophylaxis reduces infectious morbidity associated with curettage abortions by about one half. Three other studies, two involving prophylaxis for instillation abortions and one involving a vaginal antiseptic for curettage abortion, support the hypothesis that antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces morbidity. Tetracyclines are commonly used for this purpose. The cost of routine prophylaxis even with an expensive tetracycline would appear to be offset by the savings in direct and indirect costs. Prophylaxis may help prevent both short-term morbidity and potential late sequelae, such as ectopic pregnancy and infertility.

  12. Controversy over abortion funding increases.

    PubMed

    1980-03-01

    The controversy surrounding the question of public financing of Medicaid abortions in the U.S. was fanned through 5 separate court decisions in January 1980. In 3 of the decisions--directed against the Connecticut, Minnesota, and Missouri Medicaid abortion programs--the courts invalidated the state laws on the grounds that they limited federal funding of abortions for poor women too narrowly. Another decision stated that the Missouri law violated the equal protection clause of th Constitution. A decision in the U.S. District Court in Brooklyn, New York, stated that the 1976 Hyde amendment's restrictions on federal payment for abortions under Medicaid are unconstitutional. Each case is briefly analyzed.

  13. The problem of fetal pain and abortion: toward an ethical consensus for appropriate behavior.

    PubMed

    Brugger, E Christian

    2012-09-01

    Debate exists over whether fetuses feel pain, and if so what to do about it. Because they cannot provide self-report, certitude on the question cannot be reached. The essay argues that a presumption of reasonable doubt is adequate to inform moral behavior. It looks at the most recent evidence from fetal anatomical, neurochemical, physiological and behavioral research and concludes that a reasonable doubt exists that fetuses from 20 to 23 weeks do not feel pain. It proposes that where abortion is legal, providers should be legally required both to provide full disclosure of the possibility of fetal pain starting at 20 weeks and to offer pain-relief measures to suppress fetal pain to all women seeking an abortion.

  14. Orion Launch Abort System Performance During Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, Rachel; Davidson, John; Gonzalez, Guillo

    2015-01-01

    The Orion Launch Abort System Office is taking part in flight testing to enable certification that the system is capable of delivering the astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Module to a safe environment during both nominal and abort conditions. Orion is a NASA program, Exploration Flight Test 1 is managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched on a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. Although the Launch Abort System Office has tested the critical systems to the Launch Abort System jettison event on the ground, the launch environment cannot be replicated completely on Earth. During Exploration Flight Test 1, the Launch Abort System was to verify the function of the jettison motor to separate the Launch Abort System from the crew module so it can continue on with the mission. Exploration Flight Test 1 was successfully flown on December 5, 2014 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's Space Launch Complex 37. This was the first flight test of the Launch Abort System preforming Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. The abort motor and attitude control motors were inert for Exploration Flight Test 1, since the mission did not require abort capabilities. Exploration Flight Test 1 provides critical data that enable engineering to improve Orion's design and reduce risk for the astronauts it will protect as NASA continues to move forward on its human journey to Mars. The Exploration Flight Test 1 separation event occurred at six minutes and twenty seconds after liftoff. The separation of the Launch Abort System jettison occurs once Orion is safely through the most dynamic portion of the launch. This paper will present a brief overview of the objectives of the Launch Abort System during a nominal Orion flight. Secondly, the paper will present the performance of the Launch Abort System at it fulfilled those objectives. The lessons learned from Exploration Flight Test 1 and the other Flight Test Vehicles will certainly

  15. [Fatal air embolism during an attempt at criminal abortion].

    PubMed

    Srch, M

    1978-09-01

    Despite laws permitting legal abortions, death due to illegal procedures sometimes occurs. One such case is described. On Aug. 26, 1969, a 65 year old Mrs. B.K. reported the rapid death of a young woman in her home. The cause of death could not be determined by topical exam. Mrs. B.K. said the young woman had come to her requesting an abortion, but became ill during the ensuing conversation. She denied doing anything to the young woman other than attempting to revive her. She said she called for help when her efforts failed. Because Mrs. B.K. had a previous criminal record for performing illegal abortions, because spots of the victims blood were found on her clothing, because spots of blood were also found on the victim though external genitals were suspiciously clean (as was the kitchen floor on which the victim was lying), an autopsy was performed. During the autopsy, a massive air embolism in the lungs was found. The air entered the circulatory system during perforation of the cervix and part of the uterus. Damage to surrounding tissues was also found. It was determined that the damage was caused by a blunt instrument. The 4 month old fetus and anmiotic sac were not damaged. Bubbles of air and coagulated blood were found in the damaged tissues. Mrs. B.K. than admitted to trying to induce the abortion by inserting a rubber tube into the uterus through the cervix, and blowing air into and out of the uterus. She had admitted to using this method in 1943 and 1954, when she was criminally prosecuted. She began performing abortions during World War 2 and had performed a great many of them since then.

  16. Spontaneous abortion in multiple pregnancy: focus on fetal pathology.

    PubMed

    Joó, József Gábor; Csaba, Ákos; Szigeti, Zsanett; Rigó, János

    2012-08-15

    Multiple pregnancy with its wide array of medical consequences poses an important condition during pregnancy. We performed perinatal autopsy in 49 cases of spontaneous abortion resulting from multiple pregnancies during the study period. Twenty-seven of the 44 twin pregnancies ending in miscarriage were conceived naturally, whereas 17 were conceived through assisted reproductive techniques. Each of the 5 triplet pregnancies ending in miscarriage was conceived through assisted reproductive techniques. There was a positive history of miscarriage in 22.4% of the cases. Monochorial placentation occurred more commonly in multiple pregnancies terminating with miscarriage than in multiple pregnancies without miscarriage. A fetal congenital malformation was found in 8 cases. Three of these cases were conceived through assisted reproductive techniques, and 5 were conceived naturally. Miscarriage was due to intrauterine infection in 36% of the cases. Our study confirms that spontaneous abortion is more common in multiple than in singleton pregnancies. Monochorial placentation predicted a higher fetal morbidity and mortality. In pregnancies where all fetuses were of male gender, miscarriage was more common than in pregnancies where all fetuses were female. Assisted reproductive techniques do not predispose to the development of fetal malformations.

  17. The medicolegal aspects of abortion.

    PubMed

    Hall, R E

    1972-01-01

    There was little demand for abortion in the 19th century. There was no population explosion and large families were needed to tend the farm. People were more religious; women were 2nd class citizens; and abortions in those days were medically unsafe. The movement to reform abortion laws in the United States stemmed largely from 3 events in the early 1960s: 1) the request in 1963 of Sherri Finkbine for an abortion after she had taken thalidomide and then learned of its teratogenic potential; 2) a rubella epidemic in 1964 and 1965; and 3) the 1965 Supreme Court decision declaring the Connecticut birth control law to be unconstitutional. In 1970 abortion was completely legalized in the states of Hawaii, Alaska, New York and Washington -- the first 3 by legislation and the last by popular referendum. With 4 states operating under repeal laws, 12 under reform laws, and 34 under restrictive laws, the current practice of abortion in the U.S. at this time is chaotic. In order to cope with the tremendous new demand for abortions, doctors have had to learn new techniques and hospitals have had to modify their procedures and adapt their facilities. An obstacle in the transition to universally available abortion has been the resistance of attending physicians, house staff, paramedical personnel, and hospital administrators and trustees. The legal future of abortion lies more in the courts than in the legislatures. With the impetus provided by the 4 new repeal laws, other states will now revise their abortion statutes at an accelerated pace, but it will not be possible to achieve universal repeal by this state-by-state route. Medical practitioners need to prepare for the eventuality of legalized abortion on a national scale.

  18. Supreme Court issues limited ruling in challenge to Utah abortion ban.

    PubMed

    1996-06-28

    A law passed in Utah in 1991 which prohibited abortion except in cases of life endangerment, rape, incest, risk of grave damage to a woman's medical health, or grave fetal defects. The exceptions for women who had been sexually abused were eliminated after 20 weeks gestation. In December 1992, US District Court Judge J. Thomas Greene found the ban unconstitutional as applied to abortions prior to 20 weeks but upheld it as applied to procedures after that point in pregnancy. A three-judge appellate panel later reversed the district court decision in August 1995 on the argument that the prohibition on post-20-week abortions could not stand independent of the ban on earlier procedures. The appeals court also struck down a requirement that physicians performing those abortions allowed after viability use the method most likely to give the fetus the best chance of survival, unless it would endanger a woman's life or cause grave damage to her medical health. In an unsigned opinion issued on June 17, 1996, the US Supreme Court reversed the appeals court decision which struck down Utah's original 1991 ban on abortions. Five justices ruling in Leavitt v. Jane L. found that the US Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit misapplied Utah precedent when it found that the criminal abortion statute could not be divided into two separate abortion bans, one before and one after 20 weeks gestation. Health care providers will now argue that the ban on post-20-week abortions should be struck down on constitutional grounds. This is the first challenge to a state abortion law to come under High Court review since Planned Parenthood v. Casey in 1992.

  19. Moral obligations to the not-yet born: the fetus as patient.

    PubMed

    Murray, T H

    1987-06-01

    The fetus destined to be born rather than aborted has become increasingly an object of medical and moral concern. With considerable justification, women view this concern--which they share to a great degree--with suspicion that it will serve as a pretext for denying them social and economic equality with men. This article attempts to show that practical moral judgments about our obligations to not-yet-born children can be made without falling into the abyss of controversy surrounding abortion. By stressing the similarities in fathers' duties to their born children, we can also counter a measure of our historical propensity to view women's moral duties to their not-yet-born children as the overwhelmingly important feature of their moral lives, and resist the temptation to impose coercive public policies.

  20. Contraception following abortion and the treatment of incomplete abortion.

    PubMed

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp Kallner, Helena; Faúndes, Anibal

    2014-07-01

    Family planning counseling and the provision of postabortion contraception should be an integrated part of abortion and postabortion care to help women avoid another unplanned pregnancy and a repeat abortion. Postabortion contraception is significantly more effective in preventing repeat unintended pregnancy and abortion when it is provided before women leave the healthcare facility where they received abortion care, and when the chosen method is a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) method. This article provides evidence supporting these two critical aspects of postabortion contraception. It suggests that gynecologists and obstetricians have an ethical obligation to do everything necessary to ensure that postabortion contraception, with a focus on LARC methods, becomes an integral part of abortion and postabortion care, in line with the recommendations of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and of several other organizations.

  1. Denial of abortion in legal settings

    PubMed Central

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePiñeres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-01-01

    Background Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. Methods In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic characteristics of legal abortion seekers, as well as the frequency and reasons that women are denied abortion care. Results The proportion of women denied abortion services and the reasons for which they were denied varied widely by country. In Colombia, 2% of women surveyed did not receive the abortions they were seeking; in South Africa, 45% of women did not receive abortions on the day they were seeking abortion services. In both Tunisia and Nepal, 26% of women were denied their wanted abortions. Conclusions The denial of legal abortion services may have serious consequences for women's health and wellbeing. Additional evidence on the risk factors for presenting later in pregnancy, predictors of seeking unsafe illegal abortion, and the health consequences of illegal abortion and childbirth after an unwanted pregnancy is needed. Such data would assist the development of programmes and policies aimed at increasing access to and utilisation of safe abortion services where abortion is legal, and harm reduction models for women who are unable to access legal abortion services. PMID:25511805

  2. [Comments and the diagnosis of vitality of early pregnancy in threatening abortion].

    PubMed

    Jung, H; Janik, M; Friedrich, E

    1979-06-01

    In a series of 79 consecutive patients examined by sonar and assays of human chorionic gonadotrophin in the first half of pregnancy 41 ultimately aborted. On analysis of the sonar and post abortion findings it was found, that the aborted pregnancies fell into 3 clearly defined groups: blighted ova, missed abortions and hydatidiform moles. Strict diagnostic sonar criteria of abnormality were established for these groups. Assays of human chorionic gonadotrophin have shown to be useful guides. But the overlap between their normal and abnormal ranges does not permit their use as sole arbitors of which pregnancies should be terminated.

  3. Experimental infection of goat fetuses in utero with a stable, rough mutant of Brucella abortus.

    PubMed

    Roop, R M; Jeffers, G; Bagchi, T; Walker, J; Enright, F M; Schurig, G G

    1991-09-01

    Fetuses of goats in their last trimester of pregnancy were experimentally infected with Brucella abortus strain RB51, a stable rough mutant deficient in the perosamine O-chain content of its lipopolysaccharide. RB51 maintained its rough phenotype in vivo and did not induce abortion. Infection with RB51 resulted in the production of significant levels of IgG type antibodies specific for B abortus cellular antigens distinct from the perosamine O-chain. These findings suggest that strain RB51 will be useful in the pregnant goat for studying the role of brucella antigens other than the lipopolysaccharide O-chain in the immune response to brucellosis.

  4. Detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus from three water buffalo fetuses (Bubalus bubalis) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Martucciello, Alessandra; De Mia, Gian Mario; Giammarioli, Monica; De Donato, Immacolata; Iovane, Giuseppe; Galiero, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important pathogen that primarily infects ruminants, leading to several clinical problems including abortion. BVDV-specific antibodies were reported in a wide range of hosts within domestic and wildlife animal populations, and serological studies also indicated BVDV infection in buffaloes. The purpose of this study was to analyze the presence of BVDV in 2 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) herds with a history of abortion. Virus isolation from aborted fetuses and from maternal buffy coat and the molecular characterization of the isolates confirmed the presence of BVDV in these animals. The sequence analysis based on the 5' UTR and N(pro) coding regions of the Pestivirus genome revealed that the isolates belong to subgenotype 1b of BVDV. The findings of this study also suggest a possible role of BVDV in causing congenital infection in water buffalo. Its presence in fetal tissues as well as in maternal blood raises questions about the possible development of clinical disease or its influence in abortions in water buffalo.

  5. The relationship between congenital cardiovascular malformations and spontaneous abortion in preceding pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sheiner, E; Katz, M; Fraser, D; Gohar, J; Carmi, R

    1998-04-01

    Previous studies have shown an increased frequency of spontaneous abortions in the pregnancy preceding a fetus or a newborn with neural tube defect (NTD) compared with a normal newborn. One explanation of this observation is the trophoblastic cell rest hypothesis put forward by Knox and Clarke, suggesting a teratogenic interaction between the developing embryo and pathological remnants of a previous pregnancy. The other explanation is that the previously lost fetus was also affected with neural tube defect. The aim of this study was to verify whether this observation is also valid for congenital cardiovascular malformations (CCVM). Demographic and obstetric data of 99 mothers (58 Jewish and 41 Bedouin) of newborns who died in the neonatal period from isolated CCVM were compared with those of 103 mothers (48 Jewish and 55 Bedouin) of newborns who died of congenital defects other than NTD and CCVM. Spontaneous abortions in the preceding pregnancy were found in 32% of the cases with CCVM compared with 14% of cases with other defects (ODs) (P=0.0012; odds ratio=3.1, 95% confidence interval 1.5-6.4). This significant difference was independent of maternal age and number of pregnancies or deliveries. No difference was found between Jews and Bedouins. As there is no indication in the literature that fetuses with isolated CCVM tend to be spontaneously aborted, our findings are more supportive of the trophoblastic cell rest theory. PMID:9620563

  6. Abortion Information: A Guidance Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolleat, Patricia L.

    1975-01-01

    A number of questions relating to providing abortion information to teenagers can be raised from legal, ethical and philosophical standpoints. The purpose of this article is to examine abortion information-giving from the perspective of counseling and guidance theory and practice. (Author)

  7. Abortion, Birthright and the Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadale, Vincent E.; And Others

    This transcript is the result of panel presentation given on the implications of liberalized abortion laws for counselors. A new law which went into effect in July, 1970, in New York State presented women with the option of obtaining a legal abortion up to the 24th week of pregnancy. Counselors in New York State were, therefore, presented with new…

  8. Advice in the Abortion Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luscutoff, Sidney A.; Elms, Alan C.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects in this study were asked to report the number of contacts-for-advice they had made when forming decisions to have a therapeutic abortion, or to carry a pregnancy to term. As predicted, the abortion group differed strongly from both other groups on most questions. (Author)

  9. Partner violence and abortion characteristics.

    PubMed

    Colarossi, Lisa; Dean, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study using randomly selected medical charts of women reporting a history of partner violence and women with no history of partner violence at the time of a family planning or abortion appointment (n = 6,564 per group). We analyzed lifetime history of partner violence for odds of lifetime history of abortion and miscarriage number, and birth control problems. To more closely match timing, we analyzed a subsample of 2,186 women reporting current violence versus not at the time of an abortion appointment for differences in gestational age, medical versus surgical method choice, and return for follow-up visit. After adjusting for years at risk and demographic characteristics, women with a past history of partner violence were not more likely to have ever had one abortion, but they were more likely to have had problems with birth control, repeat abortions, and miscarriages than women with no history of violence. Women with current partner violence were also more likely to be receiving an abortion at a later gestational age. We found no differences between the groups in return for abortion follow-up visit or choice of surgical versus medication abortion. Findings support screening for the influence of partner violence on reproductive health and related safety planning. PMID:24580133

  10. Tooley's immodest proposal: Abortion and Infanticide.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Christina Hoff

    1985-06-01

    Sommers takes strong issue with the thesis of Michael Tooley's book, Abortion and Infanticide (New York: Oxford University Press; 1984)--that there is nothing seriously wrong with painlessly killing human infants, even those that are healthy and normal. She reviews Tooley's arguments about what constitutes personhood and his contention that human infants first become "quasi-persons" at the age of three months, then recommmends that opponents of infanticide meet his challenge on different grounds--that the human infant is distinctive in being the product of responsible persons who are morally committed to its care "on arrival."

  11. Tooley's immodest proposal: Abortion and Infanticide.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Christina Hoff

    1985-06-01

    Sommers takes strong issue with the thesis of Michael Tooley's book, Abortion and Infanticide (New York: Oxford University Press; 1984)--that there is nothing seriously wrong with painlessly killing human infants, even those that are healthy and normal. She reviews Tooley's arguments about what constitutes personhood and his contention that human infants first become "quasi-persons" at the age of three months, then recommmends that opponents of infanticide meet his challenge on different grounds--that the human infant is distinctive in being the product of responsible persons who are morally committed to its care "on arrival." PMID:11643787

  12. Frequency and causes of infectious abortion in a dairy herd in Queretaro, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Escamilla, H. Patricia; Martínez, M. José Juan; Medina, C. Mario; Morales, S. Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of infectious bovine abortion and to identify some of its causes, specifically brucellosis, leptospirosis, bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and neosporosis. The study was carried out in a dairy herd in the state of Queretaro, Mexico, between September 2002 and March 2003. At the beginning of the study, blood samples were taken from a random 33% of the 300 lactating or pregnant cows; antibodies against Leptospira interrogans were the most commonly identified, in 91% of the 99 samples. Blood samples were also taken 14 to 28 d after the 26 subsequent abortions in the herd in the 6-mo study period, as well as from 22 cows that had not aborted within 5 d after the abortions in the other group. Seroconversion was most frequent for L. hardjo, occurring in 8 (67%) of the 12 dams that aborted after the initial serologic sampling and for which paired serum samples were therefore available. Of the 16 collected fetuses, 10 had histologic lesions suggesting infection in various organs, the features correlating with the serologic results for the dams in 7 cases. Thus, the abortions may have been caused by more than 1 infectious agent. PMID:17955907

  13. Frequency and causes of infectious abortion in a dairy herd in Queretaro, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, H Patricia; Martínez, M José Juan; Medina, C Mario; Morales, S Elizabeth

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of infectious bovine abortion and to identify some of its causes, specifically brucellosis, leptospirosis, bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and neosporosis. The study was carried out in a dairy herd in the state of Queretaro, Mexico, between September 2002 and March 2003. At the beginning of the study, blood samples were taken from a random 33% of the 300 lactating or pregnant cows; antibodies against Leptospira interrogans were the most commonly identified, in 91% of the 99 samples. Blood samples were also taken 14 to 28 d after the 26 subsequent abortions in the herd in the 6-mo study period, as well as from 22 cows that had not aborted within 5 d after the abortions in the other group. Seroconversion was most frequent for L. hardjo, occurring in 8 (67%) of the 12 dams that aborted after the initial serologic sampling and for which paired serum samples were therefore available. Of the 16 collected fetuses, 10 had histologic lesions suggesting infection in various organs, the features correlating with the serologic results for the dams in 7 cases. Thus, the abortions may have been caused by more than 1 infectious agent.

  14. Abortion: epidemiology, safety, and technique.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, P D

    1992-08-01

    In 1991, the abortion literature was characterized by articles relating to 1) epidemiologic issues in abortion care, 2) advances in knowledge and experience with medical abortifacients such as mifepristone (RU 486), and 3) cervical ripening prior to abortion with the use of both mifepristone and prostaglandins. Technical methods of achieving termination of pregnancy continue to be similar in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Europe, although induction-abortion times are generally slower in Europe than in the United States. Surgically, dilatation and evacuation procedures continue to be more common in the United States than in other countries. The effectiveness of mifepristone is undisputed, and the recommended dose for early first-trimester termination is being compared with lower dose alternative regimens. There is additional evidence that at least in the short term, the negative psychological sequelae of abortion are infrequent and are inconsequential as a public health issue. PMID:1504270

  15. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong.

  16. [Induced abortion: a world perspective].

    PubMed

    Henshaw, S K

    1987-01-01

    This article presents current estimates of the number, rate, and proportion of abortions for all countries which make such data available. 76% of the world's population lives in countries where induced abortion is legal at least for health reasons. Abortion is legal in almost all developed countries. Most developing countries have some laws against abortion, but it is permitted at least for health reasons in the countries of 67% of the developing world's population. The other 33%--over 1 billion persons--reside mainly in subSaharan Africa, Latin America, and the most orthodox Muslim countries. By the beginning of the 20th century, abortion had been made illegal in most of the world, with rules in Africa, Asia, and Latin America similar to those in Europe and North America. Abortion legislation began to change first in a few industrialized countries prior to World War II and in Japan in 1948. Socialist European countries made abortion legal in the first trimester in the 1950s, and most of the industrialized world followed suit in the 1960s and 1970s. The worldwide trend toward relaxed abortion restrictions continues today, with governments giving varying reasons for the changes. Nearly 33 million legal abortions are estimated to be performed annually in the world, with 14 million of them in China and 11 million in the USSR. The estimated total rises to 40-60 million when illegal abortions added. On a worldwide basis some 37-55 abortions are estimated to occur for each 1000 women aged 15-44 years. There are probably 24-32 abortions per 100 pregnancies. The USSR has the highest abortion rate among developed countries, 181/1000 women aged 15-44, followed by Rumania with 91/1000, many of them illegal. The large number of abortions in some countries is due to scarcity of modern contraception. Among developing countries, China apparently has the highest rate, 62/1000 women aged 15-44. Cuba's rate is 59/1000. It is very difficult to calculate abortion rates in countries

  17. 'To arrive where we started, and know the place for the first time': Heidegger, phenomenology, the way human beings first appear in the world, and fresh perspectives on the abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Mumford, James

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual stalemate in the abortion debate can be traced in part to its being framed as a standoff between religion and secular philosophy. While the former is thought to generate a broadly 'pro-life' position, the latter is associated with more 'pro-choice' thinking. This essay attempts to break free of this framing by criticising the philosophy informing 'pro-choice' positions, but not by resorting immediately to religious arguments but rather by drawing upon a rival philosophical tradition--the movement within twentieth and twenty-first Continental philosophy which was and is phenomenology. A phenomenological approach to human 'emergence', and in particular an application of the framework Heidegger developed in Being and Time (1927), leads to a radical questioning of whether contemporary English-speaking beginning-of-life ethics have adequately taken into account the way human beings come forth in the world. PMID:25109125

  18. 'To arrive where we started, and know the place for the first time': Heidegger, phenomenology, the way human beings first appear in the world, and fresh perspectives on the abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Mumford, James

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual stalemate in the abortion debate can be traced in part to its being framed as a standoff between religion and secular philosophy. While the former is thought to generate a broadly 'pro-life' position, the latter is associated with more 'pro-choice' thinking. This essay attempts to break free of this framing by criticising the philosophy informing 'pro-choice' positions, but not by resorting immediately to religious arguments but rather by drawing upon a rival philosophical tradition--the movement within twentieth and twenty-first Continental philosophy which was and is phenomenology. A phenomenological approach to human 'emergence', and in particular an application of the framework Heidegger developed in Being and Time (1927), leads to a radical questioning of whether contemporary English-speaking beginning-of-life ethics have adequately taken into account the way human beings come forth in the world.

  19. 16S rRNA and omp31 gene based molecular characterization of field strains of B. melitensis from aborted foetus of goats in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Vikas Kumar; Nayakwadi, Shivasharanappa

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is a reemerging infectious zoonotic disease of worldwide importance. In human, it is mainly caused by Brucella melitensis, a natural pathogen for goats. In India, a large number of goats are reared in semi-intensive to intensive system within the close vicinity of human being. At present, there is no vaccination and control strategy for caprine brucellosis in the country. Thus, to formulate an effective control strategy, the status of etiological agent is essential. To cope up with these, the present study was conducted to isolate and identify the prevalent Brucella species in caprine brucellosis in India. The 30 samples (fetal membrane, fetal stomach content and vaginal swabs) collected throughout India from the aborted fetus of goats revealed the isolation of 05 isolates all belonging to Brucella melitensis biovars 3. All the isolates produced amplification products of 1412 and 720 bp in polymerase chain reaction with genus and species specific 16S rRNA and omp31 gene based primers, respectively. Moreover, the amplification of omp31 gene in all the isolates confirmed the presence of immuno dominant outer membrane protein (31 kDa omp) in all the field isolates of B. melitensis in aborted foetus of goats in India. These findings can support the development of omp31 based specific serodiagnostic test as well as vaccine for the control of caprine brucellosis in India.

  20. 16S rRNA and omp31 gene based molecular characterization of field strains of B. melitensis from aborted foetus of goats in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Vikas Kumar; Nayakwadi, Shivasharanappa

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is a reemerging infectious zoonotic disease of worldwide importance. In human, it is mainly caused by Brucella melitensis, a natural pathogen for goats. In India, a large number of goats are reared in semi-intensive to intensive system within the close vicinity of human being. At present, there is no vaccination and control strategy for caprine brucellosis in the country. Thus, to formulate an effective control strategy, the status of etiological agent is essential. To cope up with these, the present study was conducted to isolate and identify the prevalent Brucella species in caprine brucellosis in India. The 30 samples (fetal membrane, fetal stomach content and vaginal swabs) collected throughout India from the aborted fetus of goats revealed the isolation of 05 isolates all belonging to Brucella melitensis biovars 3. All the isolates produced amplification products of 1412 and 720 bp in polymerase chain reaction with genus and species specific 16S rRNA and omp31 gene based primers, respectively. Moreover, the amplification of omp31 gene in all the isolates confirmed the presence of immuno dominant outer membrane protein (31 kDa omp) in all the field isolates of B. melitensis in aborted foetus of goats in India. These findings can support the development of omp31 based specific serodiagnostic test as well as vaccine for the control of caprine brucellosis in India. PMID:24453799

  1. Abortion and death in goats inoculated with Sarcocystis sporocysts from coyote feces.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P

    1981-04-01

    Ten 75- to 105-day-pregnant does each were inoculated orally within 1 million (2 does), 10,000 (4 does), or 1,000 (4 does) sporocysts of Sarcocystis from coyote feces. Two does not inoculated with sporocysts served as controls. The 2 does inoculated with 1 million sporocysts died from acute sarcocystosis 21 and 22 days after inoculation (DAI), and each had 2 dead fetuses. The 4 does inoculated with 10,000 sporocysts were ill 19 to 33 DAI but survived; 1 aborted at 33 DAI, 1 had a live kid that died within 2 hours of birth 31 DAI, 1 aborted 2 dead fetuses 23 DAI, and 1 had a normal kid 56 DAI. The 4 does inoculated with 1,000 sporocysts and the 2 control does remained clinically normal and had normal kids. Does and their offspring were killed within 24 hours of parturition, and their tissues were examined histologically and microbiologically. Meronts of Sarcocystis were found in the maternal placenta of does inoculated with 1 million sporocysts. Sarcocystis was not found in the placenta, fetuses, or tissues of kids from does inoculated with 10,000 or 1,000 sporocysts, or from control does. Other abortifacient agents were not found in the placenta, fetuses, or kids from any does.

  2. [The value of placental histology for the detection of genetically-induced abortions].

    PubMed

    Horn, L C; Rosenkranz, M; Bilek, K

    1991-01-01

    The majority of early spontaneous abortions is caused by genetic disorders. Chromosomal aberrations do not only imply characteristical morphologic alterations in embryo/fetus, but also in chorionic villi. Its possible to draw conclusions through the combination of a small amount of histological findings on chorionic villi to explain the kind of aneuploidy. Among 968 early spontaneous abortions 18.3% were defined as genetically caused by histological examination. 87.6% are probably trisomies, 7.3% polyploidies. 5.1% were diagnosed as complete hydatidiform moles with a diploid, androgenetic chromosome set. The value of histological examination of early spontaneous abortion tissue are discussed and it is pointed out to remaining problems. In a different percentage it is possible to establish the type of aneuploid by microscopic examination alone. Frequently there are sings to allow the conclusion there is a developmental disorder like genetic aberration. PMID:1887651

  3. Molecular investigation of Coxiella burnetii infections in aborted sheep in eastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kılıç, A.; Kalender, H.; Koç, O.; Kılınç, Ü.; Irehan, B.; Berri, M.

    2016-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide and is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. burnetii infection in aborted sheep in eastern Turkey using PCR. A total of 200 fetuses were collected from aborted sheep belonging to 200 herds in different locations in the eastern part of Turkey. Foetal organ samples such as liver, spleen, lung and stomach were taken and the DNA was purified from two hundred pooled samples. PCR analysis of C. burnetii presence in infected organs was performed, and 4 samples (2%) were found positive. In addition, the pooled organ suspensions were inoculated to embryonated chicken eggs, and PCR analysis of yolk sacs showed C. burnetii DNA in 5 samples (2.5%). This study shows that C. burnetii infection has an important role in sheep abortions in eastern Anatolia region. PMID:27656228

  4. Molecular investigation of Coxiella burnetii infections in aborted sheep in eastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, A; Kalender, H; Koç, O; Kılınç, Ü; Irehan, B; Berri, M

    2016-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide and is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. burnetii infection in aborted sheep in eastern Turkey using PCR. A total of 200 fetuses were collected from aborted sheep belonging to 200 herds in different locations in the eastern part of Turkey. Foetal organ samples such as liver, spleen, lung and stomach were taken and the DNA was purified from two hundred pooled samples. PCR analysis of C. burnetii presence in infected organs was performed, and 4 samples (2%) were found positive. In addition, the pooled organ suspensions were inoculated to embryonated chicken eggs, and PCR analysis of yolk sacs showed C. burnetii DNA in 5 samples (2.5%). This study shows that C. burnetii infection has an important role in sheep abortions in eastern Anatolia region. PMID:27656228

  5. Why postnatal abortion throws the baby out with the bath water.

    PubMed

    Loi, Michele

    2013-09-01

    This paper articulates a careful and detailed objection to the moral permissibility of postnatal abortion. Giubilini and Minerva (2012) claim that if being unable to nurture one's newborn child without significant burdens to oneself, family or society, is a proper moral ground for the demand that the life of a fetus be terminated, then 'after-birth abortion should be considered a permissible option for women who would be damaged by [rearing the child or] giving up their newborns for adoption.' It will be shown that the permissibility of postnatal abortion does not follow from the argument's premises, in particular, the premise that the newborn is not a person in the morally relevant sense.

  6. Campylobacter jejuni as a cause of canine abortions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Orhan; Burrough, Eric R; Pavlovic, Nada; Frana, Tim S; Madson, Darin M; Zhang, Qijing

    2014-09-01

    Although Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of ruminant abortion with great economic impact, the organism has rarely been implicated in canine pregnancy loss, with only 2 documented cases to date. In the current report, 2 cases of perinatal death in adult female Bulldogs associated with C. jejuni infection of fetoplacental organs are described. Fetuses and placentas were received at the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Ames, Iowa) from 3 puppies that died soon after the birth (case 1) and from an aborted fetus (case 2). Microscopic examination of tissues was generally unremarkable; however, multifocal hemorrhage and infiltrates of macrophages and neutrophils were observed in placental sections from the first case (case 1), and low to moderate numbers of degenerate neutrophils were apparent within multifocal alveoli in the fetal lung in the second case (case 2). Ancillary diagnostics for common infectious causes of reproductive failure in dogs were negative. However, C. jejuni was isolated from the submitted placentas in high numbers in both cases as well as from the fetal lungs and livers. Genotyping of the abortion isolates indicated that the isolates were distinct from each other as well as from selected canine enteric C. jejuni isolates included herein for comparison. Both abortion strains were sensitive to all 9 antimicrobials tested, except the isolate from case 2, which displayed resistance to tetracycline. These findings provide convincing evidence for the inclusion of C. jejuni culture in routine diagnostic testing for causes of canine pregnancy loss.

  7. Prenatal nutrition and the human fetus.

    PubMed

    1971-09-01

    Although animal studies show that impaired maternal nutrition can cause congenital anomalies, intrauterine death, and a reduction in birthweight, it is not definitely known whether the same applies to man. A major factor in neonatal and infant mortality in man is low birthweight. Low birthweight in man has been correlated with height and weight of the mother, weight gain during pregnancy, her socioeconomic status, and smoking habits. With respect to nutrition, data on birthweight of infants born in times of wartime famine showed that timing of nutritional deprivation was a critical factor; analysis of winter 1944-45 Dutch experience showed that babies born to mothers whose famine exposure occurred only during the first half of pregnancy were, on the average, of normal birthweight; those whose mothers had nutritional deprivation during the last half of pregnancy, had average birthweight reduced by about 10%. Studies on the effects of less extreme degrees of nutritional deprivation (e.g., dietary supplementation of mothers from lower socioeconomic groups) have so far yielded inconclusive results. This is because of the technical difficulties, such as subject compliance, inherent in such studies. Charney et al reported that only 2/3 to 3/4 of patients take drugs as prescribed by their physicians. Degree of compliance with dietary advice, especially of the pregnant woman with a capricious appetite, is understandably difficult to assess. It was concluded that unless the mother is grossly malnourished, it is not easy to detect the influence of prenatal nutrition on fetal growth performance. A well-designed, unbiased experimental approach to the problem should throw light into the subject.

  8. Second trimester abortion as a cause of maternal death: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Avcioglu, Sümeyra Nergiz; Altinkaya, Sündüz Özlem; Küçük, Mert; Zafer, Emre; Sezer, Selda Demircan; Yüksel, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Each year, an estimated 529 000 maternal deaths occur worldwide. In literature, it is known that maternal mortality can occur during pregnancy, peripartum and also in postpartum period. Although very rare, maternal deaths may occur after spontaneous abortion. In present case, 37 year old G5P4 (Caesarean Section) women was admitted to Adnan Menderes University, Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic with diagnosis of missed abortion at 18 weeks’ gestation. She had been hospitalized in the public maternity hospital for five days due to abortus incipience and prolapse of amnion membranes but had no contractions. Fetal heart beats ceased at the second day of hospitalization. Medically induced abortion was recommended but not accepted by the patient. At the fifth day of hospitalization, she was referred to our clinic due to deterioration of general health condition, low blood pressure and tachycardia. In emergency department, it was determined that she was not oriented, had confusion, had blood pressure of 49/25 mmHg and tachycardia. In ultrasonographic examination, 18 week in utero ex fetus was determined and there was free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. The free fluid was suspected to be amniotic fluid due to rupture of uterus. Laparotomy was performed, no uterine rupture, hematoma or atony was observed. However during laparotomy, a very bad smelling odor, might be due to septicemia, was felt in the operation room. Cardiac arrest occurred during that operation. In autopsy report, it was concluded that maternal death was because of remaining of inutero ex fetus for a long time. In conclusion, although very rare, maternal deaths after spontaneous abortion may occur. Because spontaneous abortion is a common outcome of pregnancy, continued careful, strict monitoring and immediate treatment of especially second trimester spontaneous abortion is recommended to prevent related, disappointing, unexpected maternal deaths. PMID:26958124

  9. Smoking habits and spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Sandahl, B

    1989-04-01

    Smoking habits have been compared in three samples of pregnancies: (1) spontaneous abortions (n = 610); (2) induced abortions (n = 800); and (3) deliveries (n = 1337). The variables studied were, besides smoking habits, day of LMP, outcome of earlier pregnancies, maternal age, and, for the delivery sample, also diagnoses of mother and child, gestational length, sex, and birthweight. A statistical analysis of the association between smoking and the risk of having a spontaneous abortion was made. The comparisons were made with all types of intra-uterine pregnancies but spontaneous abortions, e.g., deliveries and induced abortions. The effects and consequences of that are discussed. The smoking rates according to pregnancy outcome differ among the samples. In the induced abortion sample 58% smoked compared with 50% in the spontaneous abortion sample and 44% in the delivery sample. The well-known effect of smoking on gestational length and birthweight was shown. No significant effect of smoking on the miscarriage risk was seen. The only trend was the opposite. Possible explanations for this are discussed.

  10. Republic of Ireland: abortion controversy.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The problems associated with illegal abortion dominate public discussion in Ireland. While abortion is illegal in Ireland, the Supreme Court directed in 1992 that Irish women can go to Britain for abortions when their lives are thought to be at risk. Abortion was a constant feature during the Irish Presidential election campaign in October, while a dispute about the future of a 13-year-old girl's pregnancy dominated the headlines in November. The presidential election on October 30 resulted in a victory for one of the two openly anti-choice candidates, Mary McAleese, a lawyer from Northern Ireland. With a voter turnout of 47.6%, McAleese polled 45.2% of the votes cast. Although the president may refuse to sign bills which have been passed by parliament, McAleese has said that she will sign whatever bill is placed before her, even if it liberalizes abortion law in the republic. As for the case of the 13-year-old pregnant girl, she was taken into the care of Irish health authority officials once the case was reported to the police. However, the health board, as a state agency, is prevented by Irish law from helping anyone travel abroad for abortion. The girl was eventually given leave in a judgement by a High Court Judicial Review on November 28 to travel to England for an abortion.

  11. Histopathological Changes in the Chorionic Villi and Endometrial Decidual Tissues in the Product of Conception of Spontaneous Abortion Cases.

    PubMed

    Makaju, R; Shrestha, S; Sharma, S; Dhakal, R; Bhandari, S; Shrestha, A; Tamrakar, S

    2015-01-01

    Background Spontaneous abortion refers to a pregnancy that ends spontaneously before the fetus has reached a viable gestational age or expulsion or extraction of an embryo or fetus weighing 500 g or less from its mother. The Maternal Mortality Morbidity Survey of Nepal 2008/09 reported that 7% of maternal deaths in Nepal were due to complications related to abortion. Objective The main objective of this study was to examine the histopathological changes in the chorionic villi and endometrial decidual tissue in products of conception obtained from women with spontaneous abortion. Method This is a retrospective study of 111 patients admitted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital (DH-KUH) with the diagnosis of spontaneous abortion during the period of January 2013 to January 2014. Result Among 111 cases of spontaneous abortions, products of conception was seen in 73 (65.77%) and with only one cases of choriocarcinoma. Majority of cases belongs to age group 21-30 years. The most common decidual changes were inflammation (41.4%) followed by fibrin deposition 29.7%. Majority of the cases shows hydropic changes as histopathological changes in chorionic villi. In the present study, minimum age of lady was 15 years and the maximum age was 45 years and the mean age was 25.09±5.58 years at the time of abortion. Among the cases, maximum 69 (62.2%) of them belonged to age group 21-30 years. Correlating the age group with number of abortions was found to be significantly different (Chi-square= 92.35, df= 3, p < 0.001) among four different age groups. Conclusion The histopathological diagnosis of spontaneous abortion will help in further management of the patient. Further study is required to know the cause of different histopathlogical changes in villi as well as in the decidua. PMID:27423288

  12. Histopathological Changes in the Chorionic Villi and Endometrial Decidual Tissues in the Product of Conception of Spontaneous Abortion Cases.

    PubMed

    Makaju, R; Shrestha, S; Sharma, S; Dhakal, R; Bhandari, S; Shrestha, A; Tamrakar, S

    2015-01-01

    Background Spontaneous abortion refers to a pregnancy that ends spontaneously before the fetus has reached a viable gestational age or expulsion or extraction of an embryo or fetus weighing 500 g or less from its mother. The Maternal Mortality Morbidity Survey of Nepal 2008/09 reported that 7% of maternal deaths in Nepal were due to complications related to abortion. Objective The main objective of this study was to examine the histopathological changes in the chorionic villi and endometrial decidual tissue in products of conception obtained from women with spontaneous abortion. Method This is a retrospective study of 111 patients admitted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital (DH-KUH) with the diagnosis of spontaneous abortion during the period of January 2013 to January 2014. Result Among 111 cases of spontaneous abortions, products of conception was seen in 73 (65.77%) and with only one cases of choriocarcinoma. Majority of cases belongs to age group 21-30 years. The most common decidual changes were inflammation (41.4%) followed by fibrin deposition 29.7%. Majority of the cases shows hydropic changes as histopathological changes in chorionic villi. In the present study, minimum age of lady was 15 years and the maximum age was 45 years and the mean age was 25.09±5.58 years at the time of abortion. Among the cases, maximum 69 (62.2%) of them belonged to age group 21-30 years. Correlating the age group with number of abortions was found to be significantly different (Chi-square= 92.35, df= 3, p < 0.001) among four different age groups. Conclusion The histopathological diagnosis of spontaneous abortion will help in further management of the patient. Further study is required to know the cause of different histopathlogical changes in villi as well as in the decidua.

  13. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the...

  14. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the...

  15. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the...

  16. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the...

  17. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  18. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  19. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  20. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  1. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  2. Abortion in Chile: the practice under a restrictive regime.

    PubMed

    Casas, Lidia; Vivaldi, Lieta

    2014-11-01

    This article examines, from a human rights perspective, the experience of women, and the practices of health care providers regarding abortion in Chile. Most abortions, as high as 100,000 a year, are obtained surreptitiously and clandestinely, and income and connections play a key role. The illegality of abortion correlates strongly with vulnerability, feelings of guilt and loneliness, fear of prosecution, physical and psychological harm, and social ostracism. Moreover, the absolute legal ban on abortion has a chilling effect on health care providers and endangers women's lives and health. Although misoprostol use has significantly helped to prevent greater harm and enhance women's agency, a ban on sales created a black market. Against this backdrop, feminists have taken action in aid of women. For instance, a feminist collective opened a telephone hotline, Linea Aborto Libre (Free Abortion Line), which has been crucial in informing women of the correct and safe use of misoprostol. Chile is at a crossroads. For the first time in 24 years, abortion law reform seems plausible, at least when the woman's life or health is at risk and in cases of rape and fetal anomalies incompatible with life. The political scenario is unfolding as we write. Congressional approval does not mean automatic enactment of a new law; a constitutional challenge is highly likely and will have to be overcome. PMID:25555764

  3. Abortion in Chile: the practice under a restrictive regime.

    PubMed

    Casas, Lidia; Vivaldi, Lieta

    2014-11-01

    This article examines, from a human rights perspective, the experience of women, and the practices of health care providers regarding abortion in Chile. Most abortions, as high as 100,000 a year, are obtained surreptitiously and clandestinely, and income and connections play a key role. The illegality of abortion correlates strongly with vulnerability, feelings of guilt and loneliness, fear of prosecution, physical and psychological harm, and social ostracism. Moreover, the absolute legal ban on abortion has a chilling effect on health care providers and endangers women's lives and health. Although misoprostol use has significantly helped to prevent greater harm and enhance women's agency, a ban on sales created a black market. Against this backdrop, feminists have taken action in aid of women. For instance, a feminist collective opened a telephone hotline, Linea Aborto Libre (Free Abortion Line), which has been crucial in informing women of the correct and safe use of misoprostol. Chile is at a crossroads. For the first time in 24 years, abortion law reform seems plausible, at least when the woman's life or health is at risk and in cases of rape and fetal anomalies incompatible with life. The political scenario is unfolding as we write. Congressional approval does not mean automatic enactment of a new law; a constitutional challenge is highly likely and will have to be overcome.

  4. Maternal origin of extra haploid set of chromosomes in third trimester triploid fetuses

    SciTech Connect

    Dietzsch, E.; Ramsay, M.; Ravel, T.J.L. de

    1995-09-25

    Twenty-six highly polymorphic markers were used to determine the origin of the extra haploid chromosome set in 6 triploid fetuses of type 11 phenotype. All had reached the third trimester of pregnancy. The extra set was maternal in origin in all cases, supporting previous research indicating longer in utero survival of maternally-derived triploid fetuses. These findings provide evidence for an instance of genomic imprinting in humans. 34 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Fathers and abortion.

    PubMed

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-08-01

    I argue that it is possible for prospective mothers to wrong prospective fathers by bearing their child; and that lifting paternal liability for child support does not correct the wrong inflicted to fathers. It is therefore sometimes wrong for prospective mothers to bear a child, or so I argue here. I show that my argument for considering the legitimate interests of prospective fathers is not a unique exception to an obvious right to procreate. It is, rather, part of a growing consensus that procreation can be morally problematic and that generally talking of rights in this context might not be warranted. Finally, I argue that giving up a right to procreate does not imply nor suggest giving up on women's absolute right to abort, which I defend.

  6. Magnitude and risk factors of abortion among regular female students in Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Induced abortion is one of the greatest human rights dilemmas of our time. Yet, abortion is a very common experience in every culture and society. According to the World Health Organization, Ethiopia had the fifth largest number of maternal deaths in 2005 and unsafe abortion was estimated to account for 32% of all maternal deaths in Ethiopia. Youth are disproportionately affected by the consequences of unsafe abortion. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the magnitude and identify factors associated with abortion among female Wolaita Sodo University students. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolaita Sodo University between May and June 2011. Data were collected from 493 randomly selected female students using structured and pre-tested questionnaires. Results The rate of abortion among students was found to be 65 per 1000 women, making it three fold the national rate of abortion for Ethiopia (23/1000 women aged 15–44). Virtually all of the abortions (96.9%) were induced and only half (16) were reported to be safe. Students with history of alcohol use, who are first-year and those enrolled in faculties with no post-Grade 10 Natural Science background had higher risk of abortion than their counterparts. About 23.7% reported sexual experience. Less than half of the respondents (44%) ever heard of emergency contraception and only 35.9% of those who are sexually experienced ever used condom. Conclusions High rate of abortion was detected among female Wolaita Sodo University students and half of the abortions took place/initiated under unsafe circumstances. Knowledge of students on legal and safe abortion services was found to be considerably poor. It is imperative that improved sexual health education, with focus on safe and legal abortion services is rendered and wider availability of Youth Friendly family planning services are realized in Universities and other places where young men and women congregate

  7. Psychological sequelae of induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Romans-Clarkson, S E

    1989-12-01

    This article reviews the scientific literature on the psychological sequelae of induced abortion. The methodology and results of studies carried out over the last twenty-two years are examined critically. The unanimous consensus is that abortion does not cause deleterious psychological effects. Women most likely to show subsequent problems are those who were pressured into the operation against their own wishes, either by relatives or because their pregnancy had medical or foetal contraindications. Legislation which restricts abortion causes problems for women with unwanted pregnancies and their doctors. It is also unjust, as it adversely most affects lower socio-economic class women.

  8. Abortion research: attitudes, sexual behavior, and problems in a community college population.

    PubMed

    Bryan, J W; Freed, F W

    1993-02-01

    150 (80 females and 70 males) community college students were surveyed regarding their attitudes toward abortion, their sexual behavior, and their problems. The profile of the students was Caucasian (95%), young (18-24 years = 87%), single (87%), middle and lower middle class, and Catholic (70%). 82% supported abortion choice, 86% had engaged in premarital sex, 70% used contraception, and 26% had premarital pregnancies. The hard reasons for abortion (rape, the woman's life, is endangered, and the fetus is defective) received high support. The soft reasons (the family cannot afford more children or the woman does not want to marry the man) received lower support. The students were divided into 3 groups of 50 students based on the number of abortion reasons they supported out of 43 reasons. The low-group that accepted 0-10 reasons was called anti-abortion. 50% of them still believed a woman has a right to an abortion vs. 97% of the pro-abortion students. The students reported many problems in their families: alcoholic home (39%), loss of a parent through death, divorce, or separation (33%), victims of severe corporal punishment (31%), one or more family members physically abused (20%), and deprived of parental affection while growing up (20%). When the anti-abortion females (N=30) were compared with the pro-abortion females (N=50), they reported significantly (p.01) more hospitalization, a greater number of physical handicaps, and more shyness (p.1). When the anti-abortion males (N=20) were compared with the pro-abortion males (N=50), they reported significantly more obesity and agoraphobia (p.05) and more convictions for a crime (p.1). Comparison of women who had abortion (N=13) with the women who had their baby (N=8) indicated that the latter reported significantly (p.01) more battering by their boyfriend or husband, significantly (p.05) more battering in their family of origin and childhood sexual abuse, and a greater tendency (p.1) to have been raped.

  9. Association between HLA-E gene polymorphism and unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) in Iranian women

    PubMed Central

    Fotoohi, Maryam; Ghasemi, Nasrin; Mirghanizadeh, Seyed Ali; Vakili, Mahmood; Samadi, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human leukocyte antigen-E (HLA-E)is a non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens which expressed on extra villous cytotrophoblast, which interacts with NKG2A, is an inhibitory receptor on natural killer (NK) cells and leading to down regulation of immune response in the maternal-fetal interface and provides maternal immune tolerance of the fetus. Objective: This study was designated to investigate the gene frequencies of E0101 and E0103 in HLA-E gene in Iranian women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Materials and Methods: Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS-PCR) technique was carried out to detect polymorphism in exon 3 of the HLA-E gene in women with RSA and controls (n=200). Differences between groups were analyzed by SPSS19 software using 2 test. Results: There was no significant difference in the allele frequencies of the HLA-E polymorphism between RSA and fertile controls but HLA-E 0101/0103 heterozygous genotype was found to be significantly higher in RSA group (p=0.006, OR=1.73), so this genotype might confer susceptibility to RSA. Conclusion: Our results suggest that HLA-E 0101/0103 heterozygous genotype leads to increase of RSA risk. It seems that by genotyping of HLA-E polymorphism, we can predict the risk of RSA in infertile women. PMID:27525333

  10. Abortion incidence in Cambodia, 2005 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Fetters, Tamara; Samandari, Ghazaleh

    2015-01-01

    Although Cambodia now permits elective abortion, scarcity of research on this topic means that information on abortion incidence is limited to regional estimates. This estimation model combines national survey data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) with national prospective data of abortion procedures from government health facilities, collected in 2005 and 2010, to calculate the national incidence of safe and unsafe abortion. According to DHS, the proportion of all induced abortions that took place in a health facility in the five years preceding each survey increased from almost 52% to 60%. Projecting from facility-based abortions to national estimates, the national abortion rate increased from 21 to 28 per 1000 women aged 15-44. The abortion ratio also increased from 19 to 28 per 100 live births. This research quantifies an increase in safely induced abortions in Cambodia and provides a deeper understanding of induced abortion trends in Cambodia.

  11. Isolation of Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni from zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Luechtefeld, N W; Cambre, R C; Wang, W L

    1981-12-01

    Over a 1-year period, 619 fecal specimens from animals at the Denver Zoo were cultured for Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni. The organism was isolated from 35 animals, including 12 primates, 2 felids, a red panda, 13 hooved animals, 6 birds, and 1 reptile. Of 44 cultured fecal specimens from diarrheal animals, 31.8% were positive for Campylobacter, whereas only 5.6% of 575 specimens from animals without diarrhea were positive (P less than 0.001). Among 25 isolates tested, 12 serotypes were represented; several of these serotypes are commonly associated with Campylobacter enteritis in human beings. Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni was isolated from 8% of 75 wild pigeons trapped on the zoo premises during winter months and from 26% of 75 trapped during March and April (P less than 0.01).

  12. Ultrasound, normal fetus - head measurements (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many health care providers like to have fetal measurements to verify the size of the fetus and ... any abnormalities. This ultrasound is of a head measurement, indicated by the cross hairs and dotted lines.

  13. Ultrasound, normal fetus - abdomen measurements (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many health care providers like to have fetal measurements to verify the size of the fetus and ... any abnormalities. This ultrasound is of an abdominal measurement. It shows a cross-section of the abdomen, ...

  14. Abortion and legal process in the United States: an overview of the post-Webster legal landscape.

    PubMed

    Baron, C H

    1989-01-01

    The Webster decision has not satisfied either side of the abortion debate. The pro-choice groups view this decision as indicating a change in the Court's position on abortion. The decision renders Roe's trimester system invalid and creates more room of abortion regulation at the state level. It will change the battle ground from the federal to the state level. The pro-life groups view it as not being restrictive enough. The state's interest in the fetus has been strengthened, but it is not yet as strong as they would like it to be. Most Americans are neither strongly pro-choice or strongly pro-life, they believe that abortion is a very serious matter that deserves careful consideration of the maternal and fetal rights. Looking to France's abortion legislation reveals the fact that compromise is probably the best solution. In 1975 they adopted a law that recognizes both maternal and fetal rights and value. The law allows for abortion up to week 10, but requires proper respect be paid to the fetus. After week 10 the law becomes more restrictive. Also the law encourages the use of contraceptives in order to avoid unwanted pregnancies, and thus abortions. This law satisfies no one, but keeps everyone happy enough that abortion is no longer apolitical issue. In the US, the Roe decision stated that the fetus had no rights or value in the beginning. It also implied that thinking that life begins at conception was wrong. This is not an example of compromise. The Roe decision only enraged the pro-life groups because they felt that the Court had invalidated their position. If however, the Court had admitted that their position had merit, but that there were other, conflicting positions that also had merit and that a compromise was in order, the abortion controversy would not be one of the biggest political issues to date. Some states will have very restrictive laws, other will continue to have liberal access to abortion. PMID:2628652

  15. Contraception and abortion: Fruits of the same rotten tree?

    PubMed Central

    Newton, William

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to show how contraception, when generally accepted in a society, helps to bring about a radical change in social perceptions of sexual intercourse, human life, the human person, science, and morality in general. On account of this, contraception helps to ingrain abortion and other anti-life practices into the culture that accepts it and, therefore, in no sense can be considered as a panacea for abortion. Particular attention is given to the thought of John Paul II on this matter who noted that “despite their differences of nature and moral gravity, contraception and abortion are often closely connected, as fruits of the same tree” (Evangelium vitae, n. 13). Lay summary: The article considers the connection between contraception and abortion and defends Pope John Paul II's claim that “despite their differences of nature and moral gravity, contraception and abortion are often closely connected, as fruits of the same tree.” The thesis is that contraception is a “game-changer” in the sense that it changes the way we think about some very fundamental realities such as attitudes to sex, to life, to science, to the human person, and to morality. Any one of these changes would have a significant impact on a society in terms of promoting a culture of death: together they are devastating. PMID:25999612

  16. Contraception and abortion: Fruits of the same rotten tree?

    PubMed

    Newton, William

    2015-05-01

    This article seeks to show how contraception, when generally accepted in a society, helps to bring about a radical change in social perceptions of sexual intercourse, human life, the human person, science, and morality in general. On account of this, contraception helps to ingrain abortion and other anti-life practices into the culture that accepts it and, therefore, in no sense can be considered as a panacea for abortion. Particular attention is given to the thought of John Paul II on this matter who noted that "despite their differences of nature and moral gravity, contraception and abortion are often closely connected, as fruits of the same tree" (Evangelium vitae, n. 13). Lay summary: The article considers the connection between contraception and abortion and defends Pope John Paul II's claim that "despite their differences of nature and moral gravity, contraception and abortion are often closely connected, as fruits of the same tree." The thesis is that contraception is a "game-changer" in the sense that it changes the way we think about some very fundamental realities such as attitudes to sex, to life, to science, to the human person, and to morality. Any one of these changes would have a significant impact on a society in terms of promoting a culture of death: together they are devastating.

  17. [Pharmacology for the fetus and the newborn].

    PubMed

    Juárez-Olguín, Hugo; Buendía-Soto, Erick; Lares-Asseff, Ismael

    2015-01-01

    During intrauterine life, the fetus can be exposed to a series of substances ingested by the mother, some of which are necessary for her health but detrimental to fetus. The noxious effects of such exposure could present immediately after exposure in the fetus or be manifested at the time of delivery and sometimes weeks after birth. The passage of drugs or nutrients across the placenta depends on some physicochemicals that have the ability to cross the placenta barrier, and thus get in contact with the fetus and produce harmful effects. Considering the physicochemical properties of the substances, the possibility of such compounds to cross the placenta barrier and thence to the fetus can be predicted. Equally, it is important to consider the characteristics of the newborn as an immature being, different from adults, when carrying out pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes. Based on the latter, it is important to know the behavior or characteristics of the fetus and the newborn in the face of drug management and above all consider the advantages and disadvantages of the use of such drugs for the care of a being yet in development, as is described in this work.

  18. Evaluation of bovine abortion cases and tissue suitability for identification of infectious agents in California diagnostic laboratory cases from 2007 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Clothier, K; Anderson, M

    2016-03-15

    Establishing a definitive cause of bovine abortion is a challenging problem faced by veterinary practitioners and diagnosticians. Detection of an infectious or noninfectious source for abortion may facilitate interventions that mitigate future fetal loss in the herd. The purposes of this study were to identify the most common causes of bovine abortion in cases submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, Davis (CAHFS) from 2007 to 2013 and to determine if detection of infectious pathogens differed with the fetal tissue evaluated. Records of 665 bovine abortion cases of 709 animals were reviewed for pathologic diagnoses, test methods used to identify causative conditions, and which tissues yielded successful identification of infectious agents associated with abortion. Over 58% of abortions were attributed to an infectious cause and 46.9% had an infectious agent identified. The most common infectious conditions were Epizootic Bovine Abortion (EBA) (16.2% of all fetuses), other fetal bacterial infections (14.7% of all fetuses), and Neospora caninum (9.3% of all fetuses.) The bacterium associated with EBA (currently named Pajaroellobacter abortibovis) was most commonly identified by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in lymphoid organs (thymus and spleen); N. caninum IHC was most frequently positive in brain, kidney, and placenta. In cases of pathogenic and opportunistic bacterial infections, abomasal samples yielded a significantly greater proportion of definitive aerobic culture results than lung or liver tissues. Direct fluorescent antibody test results for Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus testing were identical between lung and kidney tissues and nearly identical (96.0%) for Bovine Herpesvirus I. Noninfectious abortive conditions included fetal stress (10.5%), dystocia (3.9%), congenital defects (3.3%), toxicological or mineral problems (1.8%), and death of the cow (1.1%). Just over 20% of the aborted fetuses had no gross or histopathological

  19. Launch Abort System Pathfinder Arrival

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Orion Launch Abort System, or LAS, pathfinder returned home to NASA Langley on Oct. 18 on its way to NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The hardware was built at Langley and was used in preparation f...

  20. Abortion: the antithesis of womanhood?

    PubMed

    Timpson, J

    1996-04-01

    The debate regarding the practice and role of abortion has been an enduring and problematic area of discourse within the nursing literature, with a tendency towards a polarized and inevitably simplistic analysis of what, for many practitioners, women and families, remains a highly complex and morally fraught concept. This paper attempts to explore the concept of abortion from within a feminist epistemology, to present a review of the literature as regards women's reproductive health and responsibilities, and thereby to contribute to the process of better understanding the role of abortion within contemporary health care practice. In order to facilitate the study it has been necessary to explore the wide spectrum of historical, philosophical, legal, moral and political imperatives pertaining to the meaning of abortion as represented within contemporary society, not only in relation to women and their reproductive health, but to feminism, women's well-being and self-determinism per se. PMID:8675897