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Sample records for abortion medical procedures

  1. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePlus

    ... womb (uterus). There are different types of medical abortions: Therapeutic medical abortion is done because the woman has ... Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion

  2. Abortion and Medicaid: courts reject limits on funding medically necessary procedures.

    PubMed

    Kalivoda, P

    1979-12-01

    This article discusses the legislative and judicial background of issues involving the constitutionality of state and federal restrictions on funding of medically necessary abortions prior to fetal viability. These issues will be decided by the Supreme Court as the culmination of a controversy that began prior to the Court's landmark abortion decisions in 1973. Specific laws and decisions discussed include: 1) the Supreme Court's 1977 decision that neither federal law nor the Constitution require states to pay Medicaid benefits for nontherapeutic abortion, or prohibits a state from adopting a policy favoring normal childbirth over abortion and using its public funds to further that policy; 2) the Hyde amendment for fiscal years 1977 through 1980; 3) recent litigation involving the states funding obligation for medically necessary abortions under the federal Medicaid statute and/or the Constitution and in light of the Hyde amendment. The article concludes that "the preponderance of lower courts believe that under the federal Medicaid statute and/or the Constitution, states must fund such abortions regardless of limitations on federal funding," but that lower court opinions cannot be taken as an indication of what the Court will ultimately decide.

  3. Group A Streptococcus endometritis following medical abortion.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Poyart, Claire; Kernéis, Solen

    2014-07-01

    Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol. PMID:24829245

  4. Group A Streptococcus Endometritis following Medical Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Kernéis, Solen

    2014-01-01

    Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol. PMID:24829245

  5. Medical abortion: the hidden revolution.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Phil

    2015-07-01

    While the medical abortion (MA) drugs, mifepristone and misoprostol, have radically altered reproductive health practices around the world, there has been little field research on the sales and use of these drugs, especially in developing countries. This leaves the family planning community with many unanswered questions. While good profiles of contraceptive use are available for many countries and we have good technical data on the MA drugs' efficacy, dosages and regimens such as home dosage of misoprostol versus clinic dosage, we have very little information about the quantities of MA drugs sold, how they are used, where they are used, and, in the case of misoprostol, for what purposes. Sales data are available from one excellent commercial survey and from social marketing sales of mifepristone and misoprostol and these are presented. Acknowledging the sensitivity of the issue, especially in countries where abortion is severely restricted, the author makes a plea for careful additional research to shed light on an important and growing part of the international reproductive health picture.

  6. Medical abortion in Australia: a short history.

    PubMed

    Baird, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Surgical abortion has been provided liberally in Australia since the early 1970s, mainly in privately owned specialist clinics. The introduction of medical abortion, however, was deliberately obstructed and consequently significantly delayed when compared to similar countries. Mifepristone was approved for commercial import only in 2012 and listed as a government subsidised medicine in 2013. Despite optimism from those who seek to improve women's access to abortion, the increased availability of medical abortion has not yet addressed the disadvantage experienced by poor and non-metropolitan women. After telling the story of medical abortion in Australia, this paper considers the context through which it has become available since 2013. It argues that the integration of medical abortion into primary health care, which would locate abortion provision in new settings and expand women's access, has been constrained by the stigma attached to abortion, overly cautious institutionalised frameworks, and the lack of public health responsibility for abortion services. The paper draws on documentary sources and oral history interviews conducted in 2013 and 2015. PMID:26719008

  7. Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most healthcare providers advise counseling.

  8. Issues in second trimester induced abortion (medical/surgical methods).

    PubMed

    Lee, Vivian C Y; Ng, Ernest H Y; Ho, P C

    2010-08-01

    Second trimester abortion remains a common procedure worldwide. Dilatation and evacuation (D&E) is the surgical method of choice, if the surgical expertise and facilities are available. Adequate cervical dilatation preoperatively is a prerequisite for a safe D&E. Medical abortion using misoprostol together with mifepristone is the medical method of choice. The recommended regimen is 200mg mifepristone followed by 800 microg of vaginal misoprostol 36-48 h later. Subsequent doses of 400 microg of misoprostol can be given orally every 3h up to a maximum of four more doses. Proper preoperative assessment would not only help to provide safe abortion treatment, but it also guides the choice of method. If the expertise and facilities of both methods are available, both methods should be discussed and offered to the patient so that the patient can make an informed choice.

  9. Medical abortion options may advance in 1998.

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    The US debut of mifepristone (RU-486) was delayed in 1997 by legal and manufacturer problems. However, the Population Council is searching worldwide for companies to produce mifepristone for the US market. In the meantime, women in a number of US cities can obtain mifepristone through clinical trials coordinated by the New York City-based Abortion Rights Mobilization. The trials are evaluating the effectiveness of a 200 mg dosage of the drug and will continue until there is a commercial product. New developments in medical abortion will be announced in 1998. Currently, 29 Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA) affiliates are recruiting women for its study of methotrexate and misoprostol. By midsummer 1998, the organization expects to have data from what is the largest multicenter trial to date of a methotrexate and misoprostol medical abortion regimen. PMID:12348221

  10. Medical Students’ Attitudes toward Abortion Education: Malaysian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tey, Nai-peng; Yew, Siew-yong; Low, Wah-yun; Su’ut, Lela; Renjhen, Prachi; Huang, M. S. L.; Tong, Wen-ting; Lai, Siow-li

    2012-01-01

    Background Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students’ attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. Methods and Results A survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward abortion among medical students was conducted in two public universities and a private university in Malaysia in 2011. A total of 1,060 students returned the completed questionnaires. The survey covered about 90% of medical students in Years 1, 3, and 5 in the three universities. About 90% of the students wanted more training on the general knowledge and legal aspects of abortion, and pre-and post-abortion counseling. Overall, 75.9% and 81.0% of the students were in favor of including in medical education the training on surgical abortion techniques and medical abortion, respectively. Only 2.4% and 1.7% were opposed to the inclusion of training of these two methods in the curriculum. The remaining respondents were neutral in their stand. Desire for more abortion education was associated with students’ pro-choice index, their intention to provide abortion services in future practice, and year of study. However, students’ attitudes toward abortion were not significantly associated with gender, type of university, or ethnicity. Conclusions Most students wanted more training on abortion. Some students also expressed their intention to provide abortion counseling and services in their future practice. Their desire for more training on abortion should be taken into account in the new curriculum. Abortion education is an important step towards making available safe abortion services to enable women to exercise their reproductive rights. PMID:23300600

  11. Medical Evidence and Expertise in Abortion Jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Aziza

    2015-01-01

    For another thing, the division of medical opinion about the matter at most means uncertainty, a factor that signals the presence of risk, not its absence. That division here involves highly qualified knowledgeable experts on both sides of the issue.--Stenberg v. Carhart, 2000. While we find no reliable data to measure the phenomenon, it seems unexceptionable to conclude some women come to regret their choice to abort the infant life they once created and sustained.--Gonzales v. Carhart, 2007.

  12. Medical Evidence and Expertise in Abortion Jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Aziza

    2015-01-01

    For another thing, the division of medical opinion about the matter at most means uncertainty, a factor that signals the presence of risk, not its absence. That division here involves highly qualified knowledgeable experts on both sides of the issue.--Stenberg v. Carhart, 2000. While we find no reliable data to measure the phenomenon, it seems unexceptionable to conclude some women come to regret their choice to abort the infant life they once created and sustained.--Gonzales v. Carhart, 2007. PMID:26237984

  13. Medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration for legal abortion protect women's health and reduce costs to the health system: findings from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Maria Isabel; Mendoza, Willis Simancas; Guerra-Palacio, Camilo; Guzman, Nelson Alvis; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2015-02-01

    The majority of abortions in Colombia continue to take place outside the formal health system under a range of conditions, with the majority of women obtaining misoprostol from a thriving black market for the drug and self-administering the medication. We conducted a cost analysis to compare the costs to the health system of three approaches to the provision of abortion care in Colombia: post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortions, and for legal abortions in a health facility, misoprostol-only medical abortion and vacuum aspiration abortion. Hospital billing records from three institutions, two large maternity hospitals and one specialist reproductive health clinic, were analysed for procedure and complication rates, and costs by diagnosis. The majority of visits (94%) were to the two hospitals for post-abortion care; the other 6% were for legal abortions. Only one minor complication was found among the women having legal abortions, a complication rate of less than 1%. Among the women presenting for post-abortion care, 5% had complications during their treatment, mainly from infection or haemorrhage. Legal abortions were associated not only with far fewer complications for women, but also lower costs for the health system than for post-abortion care. We calculated based on our findings that for every 1,000 women receiving post-abortion care instead of a legal abortion within the health system, 16 women experienced avoidable complications, and the health system spent US $48,000 managing them. Increasing women's access to safe abortion care would not only reduce complications for women, but would also be a cost-saving strategy for the health system. PMID:25702076

  14. Medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration for legal abortion protect women's health and reduce costs to the health system: findings from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Maria Isabel; Mendoza, Willis Simancas; Guerra-Palacio, Camilo; Guzman, Nelson Alvis; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2015-02-01

    The majority of abortions in Colombia continue to take place outside the formal health system under a range of conditions, with the majority of women obtaining misoprostol from a thriving black market for the drug and self-administering the medication. We conducted a cost analysis to compare the costs to the health system of three approaches to the provision of abortion care in Colombia: post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortions, and for legal abortions in a health facility, misoprostol-only medical abortion and vacuum aspiration abortion. Hospital billing records from three institutions, two large maternity hospitals and one specialist reproductive health clinic, were analysed for procedure and complication rates, and costs by diagnosis. The majority of visits (94%) were to the two hospitals for post-abortion care; the other 6% were for legal abortions. Only one minor complication was found among the women having legal abortions, a complication rate of less than 1%. Among the women presenting for post-abortion care, 5% had complications during their treatment, mainly from infection or haemorrhage. Legal abortions were associated not only with far fewer complications for women, but also lower costs for the health system than for post-abortion care. We calculated based on our findings that for every 1,000 women receiving post-abortion care instead of a legal abortion within the health system, 16 women experienced avoidable complications, and the health system spent US $48,000 managing them. Increasing women's access to safe abortion care would not only reduce complications for women, but would also be a cost-saving strategy for the health system.

  15. [Abortion].

    PubMed

    Dourlen-rollier, A M

    1971-01-01

    The historical and current (1969) abortion laws in France as well as those in other Western countries are analyzed. France has had a series of punitive abortion codes since the Napoleonic Code of 1810 prescribing solitary confinement for the woman. The reforms of 1920 and 1923 made provocation of abortion or contraceptional propaganda a "crime" (felony), later a "delit" (misdemeanor), called for trial before magistr ate instead of jury, but resulted in only about 200 convictions a year. The decree of 1939 extended the misdemeanor to women who aborted even if they were not pregnant, and provided for professional licenses such as that of surgeon or pharmacist to be suspended. The law of 1942 made abortion a social crime and increased the maximum penalty to capital punishment, which was exercised in 2 cases. About 4000 per year were convicted from 1942-1944. Now the law still applies to all who intend to abort, whether or not pregnant or successful, but punishemnt is limited to 1-5 years imprisonment, and 72,000 francs fine, or suspension of medical practice for 5 years. About 500 have been convicted per year. Since 1955 legal abortion has been available (to about 130 women over 4 years) if it is the only means to save the woman's life. Although pregnancy tests are controlled, the population desregards the law by resorting to clandestine abortion. The wealthy travel to Switzerland (where 68% of legal abortions are done on French women) or to England. Numbers are estimated by the French government at 250,000-300,000 per year, or 1 for every 2 live births, but by hospital statistics at 400,000-1,000,000 per year. The rest of the review covers abortion laws in Scandinavian, Central European, and individual US states as of 1969.

  16. Medical and surgical options for induced abortion in first trimester.

    PubMed

    Hamoda, Haitham; Templeton, Allan

    2010-08-01

    Medical abortion has been shown to be an effective alternative to surgery for termination of pregnancy in the late as well as the early first trimester of pregnancy. This review discusses the development, application and the current issues with medical and surgical abortion in the first trimester. Studies comparing the two approaches are also assessed as well as potential research directions in this area.

  17. Latin American women’s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades. This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women’s experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal. Women’s personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support. Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and

  18. The law, the AMA, and partial-birth abortion. American Medical Association.

    PubMed

    Benshoof, J

    1999-07-01

    The three articles by Dr. Gans Epner, Drs. Sprang and Neerhof, and Dr. Grimes centered around the issue that criminal laws against so-called partial-birth abortion go beyond banning any one abortion procedure or just "late-term" procedures. It is noted that even the authors gave different definitions of "late term". In addition, neither the phrase "late term" nor "intact dilation" and evacuation is present or defined in any of the partial-birth abortion laws passed in 27 states or in the federal bill. Evidence shows that 17 courts across the US have blocked partial-birth abortion laws as unconstitutional, finding such laws could, at any point in a pregnancy, outlaw an abortion performed using the most common and safest procedures. In these terms, the endorsement of the federal partial-birth abortion law by the American Medical Association gave credibility to the deception that partial-birth abortion legislation is a ban on the intact dilation and extraction procedure. Moreover, it has endorsed government intrusion in a private medical decision and sanctioned a law that subjects physicians to criminal prosecution for providing necessary health care.

  19. The introduction of first trimester medical abortion in Armenia.

    PubMed

    Louie, Karmen S; Chong, Erica; Tsereteli, Tamar; Avagyan, Gayane; Vardanyan, Susanna; Winikoff, Beverly

    2015-02-01

    In Armenia, abortion is the main means of fertility regulation; however, before research activities were initiated only surgical methods were available and the quality of services was low in some areas. Our clinical study from 2008-2011 aimed to show that early medical abortion is an acceptable and feasible option. A total of 700 eligible women with pregnancies up to 63 days LMP presenting for abortion were recruited for the study in five locations. Participants took 200 mg mifepristone and 800 μg buccal misoprostol 24-48 hours later. They returned for a follow-up visit two weeks after mifepristone administration. 95% of the women had successful abortions and 95% were satisfied with the method. In 2012-2013, we conducted a follow-up assessment to examine the ongoing provision and quality of medical abortion services at the former research sites. Medical record reviews, interviews and observations were carried out three times approximately six months apart. The assessment found that all five sites had continued providing medical abortion, with about half of eligible women choosing the medical method. Four of the five sites were achieving high success rates. Staff turnover and the lack of trained providers likely contributed to the higher failure rate at the fifth site. These findings provide evidence that first trimester medical abortion is an acceptable and feasible option for Armenian women and providers, and that high quality services are being delivered. PMID:25702069

  20. Late-term abortion.

    PubMed

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed. PMID:9728645

  1. Late-term abortion.

    PubMed

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed.

  2. Expansion of Safe Abortion Services in Nepal Through Auxiliary Nurse‐Midwife Provision of Medical Abortion, 2011‐2013

    PubMed Central

    Basnett, Indira; Shrestha, Dirgha Raj; Shrestha, Meena Kumari; Shah, Mukta; Aryal, Shilu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The termination of unwanted pregnancies up to 12 weeks’ gestation became legal in Nepal in 2002. Many interventions have taken place to expand access to comprehensive abortion care services. However, comprehensive abortion care services remain out of reach for women in rural and remote areas. This article describes a training and support strategy to train auxiliary nurse‐midwives (ANMs), already certified as skilled birth attendants, as medical abortion providers and expand geographic access to safe abortion care to the community level in Nepal. Methods This was a descriptive program evaluation. Sites and trainees were selected using standardized assessment tools to determine minimum facility requirements and willingness to provide medical abortion after training. Training was evaluated via posttests and observational checklists. Service statistics were collected through the government's facility logbook for safe abortion services (HMIS‐11). Results By the end of June 2014, medical abortion service had been expanded to 25 districts through 463 listed ANMs at 290 listed primary‐level facilities and served 25,187 women. Providers report a high level of confidence in their medical abortion skills and considerable clinical knowledge and capacity in medical abortion. Discussion The Nepali experience demonstrates that safe induced abortion care can be provided by ANMs, even in remote primary‐level health facilities. Post‐training support for providers is critical in helping ANMs handle potential barriers to medical abortion service provision and build lasting capacity in medical abortion. PMID:26860072

  3. Early medical abortion in Cairns, Queensland: July 2006 - April 2007.

    PubMed

    de Costa, Caroline M; Russell, Darren B; de Costa, Naomi R; Carrette, Michael; McNamee, Heather M

    2007-08-01

    Mifepristone (RU486), which is used for early medical abortion, can only be obtained in Australia under the Authorised Prescriber legislation (Section 19[5] of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 [Cwlth]); two of the authors have permission to obtain, prescribe and administer this drug in Cairns, Queensland. From July 2006 to April 2007, 10 women who fulfilled the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) criteria of "life-threatening or otherwise serious" indications underwent medical abortion with mifepristone/misoprostol, and 12 women conforming with abortion requirements of Queensland law, but not TGA legislation for mifepristone administration, had medical abortions with the less preferable methotrexate/misoprostol combination. Although it is now more than a year since the cross-party vote in federal Parliament in February 2006 confirmed wide support for the right of Australian women to a medical abortion, we believe we are at present the only medical practitioners in Australia with permission to use mifepristone. Obtaining Authorised Prescriber status from the TGA is of necessity a complex and protracted process, involving ethics committee approval and auditing, and regular reporting to the TGA. Because of the current restrictions, we believe that women seeking medical abortion in Australia face barriers not experienced by women in other comparable countries, and that drug manufacturing and distributing companies may be discouraged from seeking to market mifepristone in Australia.

  4. Self-management of medical abortion: a qualitative evidence synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Megan; Colvin, Christopher J; Swartz, Alison; Leon, Natalie

    2016-05-01

    Medical abortion is a method of pregnancy termination that by its nature enables more active involvement of women in the process of managing, and sometimes even administering the medications for, their abortions. This qualitative evidence synthesis reviewed the global evidence on experiences with, preferences for, and concerns about greater self-management of medical abortion with lesser health professional involvement. We focused on qualitative research from multiple perspectives on women's experiences of self-management of first trimester medical abortion (<12weeks gestation). We included research from both legal and legally-restricted contexts whether medical abortion was accessed through formal or informal systems. A review team of four identified 36 studies meeting inclusion criteria, extracted data from these studies, and synthesized review findings. Review findings were organized under the following themes: general perceptions of self-management, preparation for self-management, logistical considerations, issues of choice and control, and meaning and experience. The synthesis highlights that the qualitative evidence base is still small, but that the available evidence points to the overall acceptability of self-administration of medical abortion. We highlight particular considerations when offering self-management options, and identify key areas for future research. Further qualitative research is needed to strengthen this important evidence base.

  5. Self-management of medical abortion: a qualitative evidence synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Megan; Colvin, Christopher J; Swartz, Alison; Leon, Natalie

    2016-05-01

    Medical abortion is a method of pregnancy termination that by its nature enables more active involvement of women in the process of managing, and sometimes even administering the medications for, their abortions. This qualitative evidence synthesis reviewed the global evidence on experiences with, preferences for, and concerns about greater self-management of medical abortion with lesser health professional involvement. We focused on qualitative research from multiple perspectives on women's experiences of self-management of first trimester medical abortion (<12weeks gestation). We included research from both legal and legally-restricted contexts whether medical abortion was accessed through formal or informal systems. A review team of four identified 36 studies meeting inclusion criteria, extracted data from these studies, and synthesized review findings. Review findings were organized under the following themes: general perceptions of self-management, preparation for self-management, logistical considerations, issues of choice and control, and meaning and experience. The synthesis highlights that the qualitative evidence base is still small, but that the available evidence points to the overall acceptability of self-administration of medical abortion. We highlight particular considerations when offering self-management options, and identify key areas for future research. Further qualitative research is needed to strengthen this important evidence base. PMID:27578349

  6. First-trimester medical abortion practices in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Guilbert, Edith R.; Hayden, Althea S.; Jones, Heidi E.; White, Katharine O’Connell; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; Norman, Wendy V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To understand the current availability and practice of first-trimester medical abortion (MA) in Canada. Design Using public sources and professional networks, abortion facilities across Canada were identified for a cross-sectional survey on medical and surgical abortion. English and French surveys were distributed by surface or electronic mail between July and November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures Descriptive statistics on MA practice and facility and provider characteristics, as well as comparisons of MA practice by facility and provider characteristics using χ2 and t tests. Results A total of 78 of 94 (83.0%) facilities responded. Medical abortion represented 3.8% of first-trimester abortions reported (2706 of 70 860) in 2012. Among the facilities offering MA, 45.0% performed fewer than 500 first-trimester abortions a year, while 35.0% performed more than 1000. More MAs were performed in private offices or ambulatory health centres than in hospitals. Sixty-two physicians from 28 of 78 facilities reported providing first-trimester MA; 87.1% also provided surgical abortion. More than three-quarters of MA physicians were female and 56.5% were family physicians. A preponderance (85.2%) of providers offered methotrexate with misoprostol. Nearly all physicians (90.3%) required patients to have an ultrasound before MA, and 72.6% assessed the completion of the abortion with ultrasonography. Most physicians (74.2%) offered MA through 49 days after the onset of the last menstrual period, and 21.0% offered MA through 50 to 56 days; 37.1% reported providing MA to patients who lived more than 2 hours away. Four physicians from 1 site provided MA via telemedicine. Conclusion In Canada, MA provision using methotrexate and misoprostol is consistent with best-practice guidelines, but MA is rare and its availability is unevenly distributed.

  7. Abortion.

    PubMed

    Churchill, M

    1979-09-15

    I would like to take issue with Dr Colin Brewer's statements concerning intrauterine contraceptive devices and abortion (11 August, p 389). I agree that logically there is no distinction between IUCDs, and other abortifacients used early in pregnancy, and abortion methods used later in pregnancy. However, I disagree with his statement that to make illegal IUCDs and similar methods out of an "obsessive concern for microscopic forms of life" would be "absurd." Firstly, size has never been a criterion for the presence or absence of life, or of its importance. Surely Dr Brewer, MPs, and the public would be outraged by anything less than obsessively careful handling of, say, rabies or smallpox viruses in laboratories. Do not the products of conception, with the full potential of a human being unless actively interfered with by other men (neglecting normal fetal wastage), deserve any less concern? Secondly, mortality should not be determined by practicalities; rather morality should determine one's actions. The question of whether IUCDs and other such procedures should remain legal or be made illegal should not be determined by their efficacy, popularity, or economy. I agree fully with Dr Brewer--abortion is a moral issue and it is a pity that the BMF has not raised the moral issues at stake. Particularly so, as Lord Denning put it "...without morality there can be no law." I personally subscribe to the Hippocratic Oath. PMID:497769

  8. Investigation of abort procedures for space shuttle-type vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, R. W.; Eide, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation has been made of abort procedures for space shuttle-type vehicles using a point mass trajectory optimization program known as POST. This study determined the minimum time gap between immediate and once-around safe return to the launch site from a baseline due-East launch trajectory for an alternate space shuttle concept which experiences an instantaneous loss of 25 percent of the total main engine thrust.

  9. Surgical and medical second trimester abortion in South Africa: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A high percentage of abortions performed in South Africa are in the second trimester. However, little research focuses on women's experiences seeking second trimester abortion or the efficacy and safety of these services. The objectives are to document clinical and acceptability outcomes of second trimester medical and surgical abortion as performed at public hospitals in the Western Cape Province. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of women undergoing abortion at 12.1-20.9 weeks at five hospitals in Western Cape Province, South Africa in 2008. Two hundred and twenty women underwent D&E with misoprostol cervical priming, and 84 underwent induction with misoprostol alone. Information was obtained about the procedure and immediate complications, and women were interviewed after recovery. Results Median gestational age at abortion was earlier for D&E clients compared to induction (16.0 weeks vs. 18.1 weeks, p < 0.001). D&E clients reported shorter intervals between first clinic visit and abortion (median 17 vs. 30 days, p < 0.001). D&E was more effective than induction (99.5% vs. 50.0% of cases completed on-site without unplanned surgical procedure, p < 0.001). Although immediate complications were similar (43.8% D&E vs. 52.4% induction), all three major complications occurred with induction. Early fetal expulsion occurred in 43.3% of D&E cases. While D&E clients reported higher pain levels and emotional discomfort, most women were satisfied with their experience. Conclusions As currently performed in South Africa, second trimester abortions by D&E were more effective than induction procedures, required shorter hospital stay, had fewer major immediate complications and were associated with shorter delays accessing care. Both services can be improved by implementing evidence-based protocols. PMID:21929811

  10. Medication Abortion within a Student Health Care Clinic: A Review of the First 46 Consecutive Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Emily M.; Bordoloi, Anita; Moorthie, Mydhili; Pela, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Medication abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol has been available in the United States since 2000. The authors reviewed the first 46 medication abortion cases conducted at a university-based student health care clinic to determine the safety and feasibility of medication abortion in this type of clinical setting. Participants:…

  11. First-trimester medical abortion service in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lo, Sue S T; Ho, P C

    2015-10-01

    Research on medical abortion has been conducted in Hong Kong since the 1990s. It was not until 2011 that the first-trimester medical abortion service was launched. Mifepristone was registered in Hong Kong in April 2014 and all institutions that are listed in the Gazette as a provider for legal abortion can purchase mifepristone from the local provider. This article aimed to share our 3-year experience of this service with the local medical community. Our current protocol is safe and effective, and advocates 200-mg mifepristone and 400-µg sublingual misoprostol 24 to 48 hours later, followed by a second dose of 400-µg sublingual misoprostol 4 hours later if the patient does not respond. The complete abortion rate is 97.0% and ongoing pregnancy rate is 0.4%. Some minor side-effects have been reported and include diarrhoea, fever, abdominal pain, and allergy. There have been no serious adverse events such as heavy bleeding requiring transfusion, anaphylactic reaction, septicaemia, or death. PMID:26493078

  12. First-trimester medical abortion service in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lo, Sue S T; Ho, P C

    2015-10-01

    Research on medical abortion has been conducted in Hong Kong since the 1990s. It was not until 2011 that the first-trimester medical abortion service was launched. Mifepristone was registered in Hong Kong in April 2014 and all institutions that are listed in the Gazette as a provider for legal abortion can purchase mifepristone from the local provider. This article aimed to share our 3-year experience of this service with the local medical community. Our current protocol is safe and effective, and advocates 200-mg mifepristone and 400-µg sublingual misoprostol 24 to 48 hours later, followed by a second dose of 400-µg sublingual misoprostol 4 hours later if the patient does not respond. The complete abortion rate is 97.0% and ongoing pregnancy rate is 0.4%. Some minor side-effects have been reported and include diarrhoea, fever, abdominal pain, and allergy. There have been no serious adverse events such as heavy bleeding requiring transfusion, anaphylactic reaction, septicaemia, or death.

  13. Medical abortion practices among private providers in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min Hae; Nguyen, Thang Huu; Dang, Anh Thi Ngoc; Ngo, Thoai Dinh

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe medical abortion (MA) practices among private providers in Vietnam. Methods The study subjects were women (n = 258) undergoing early MA through 12 private providers in Hanoi during February–June 2012. The women were interviewed on the day of their procedure and were followed up by telephone 14 days after mifepristone administration. Results Of the 258 women in the study, 97% used a regimen of mifepristone plus misoprostol; 80% were instructed to administer misoprostol at home. MA resulted in a complete termination in 90.8% of cases. All women were provided with information on potential complications and were instructed to return for a follow-up visit. We successfully followed up 77.5% (n = 200) of participants by telephone, while nearly two-thirds of women returned to the clinic for a follow-up visit. At follow-up, 39.5% of women reported having used a Help line service, while 7% had sought help from a health provider. A high unmet need for postabortion family planning was identified. Conclusion Follow-up of women, postabortion care, and the provision of family planning have been identified as important areas to address for strengthening MA services in the private sector in Vietnam. PMID:24082795

  14. Medical Abortion Provided by Nurse-Midwives or Physicians in a High Resource Setting: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kopp Kallner, Helena; Simeonova, Emilia; Madestam, Andreas; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of the present study is to calculate the cost-effectiveness of early medical abortion performed by nurse-midwifes in comparison to physicians in a high resource setting where ultrasound dating is part of the protocol. Non-physician health care professionals have previously been shown to provide medical abortion as effectively and safely as physicians, but the cost-effectiveness of such task shifting remains to be established. Study design A cost effectiveness analysis was conducted based on data from a previously published randomized-controlled equivalence study including 1180 healthy women randomized to the standard procedure, early medical abortion provided by physicians, or the intervention, provision by nurse-midwifes. A 1.6% risk difference for efficacy defined as complete abortion without surgical interventions in favor of midwife provision was established which means that for every 100 procedures, the intervention treatment resulted in 1.6 fewer incomplete abortions needing surgical intervention than the standard treatment. The average direct and indirect costs and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were calculated. The study was conducted at a university hospital in Stockholm, Sweden. Results The average direct costs per procedure were EUR 45 for the intervention compared to EUR 58.3 for the standard procedure. Both the cost and the efficacy of the intervention were superior to the standard treatment resulting in a negative ICER at EUR -831 based on direct costs and EUR -1769 considering total costs per surgical intervention avoided. Conclusion Early medical abortion provided by nurse-midwives is more cost-effective than provision by physicians. This evidence provides clinicians and decision makers with an important tool that may influence policy and clinical practice and eventually increase numbers of abortion providers and reduce one barrier to women’s access to safe abortion. PMID:27362270

  15. [Medical claims and women's experience. Physician-performed abortions in the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Usborne, C

    2000-01-01

    The campaign for abortion reform in the Weimar Republic occasioned passionate disputes between factions supporting and opposing liberalization of abortion laws. Nevertheless, both camps agreed on one issue: that doctors, and only doctors, should be authorized to terminate a pregnancy. The implication was that an operation induced by a registered medical practitioner was safe, while so-called back-street operations were always dangerous. By and large, this view has also been accepted by historians, often uncritically. This article shows that evidence of the very real risks of terminating a pregnancy was open to cultural and political manipulation. The claims of academic physicians were often contradictory: on the one hand, they dismissed the risks of medical procedures as a way of fighting lay abortions; on the other hand, they exaggerated these risks as a way of explaining unsuccessful surgeries. Using a case study from Bavaria at the beginning of the Republic, this article shows the ambiguous role doctors played and the biased view of the courts. It also sheds light on the experience of abortion-seeking women, whose interests were largely ignored by the law enforcement agencies. PMID:14674407

  16. [Medical claims and women's experience. Physician-performed abortions in the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Usborne, C

    2000-01-01

    The campaign for abortion reform in the Weimar Republic occasioned passionate disputes between factions supporting and opposing liberalization of abortion laws. Nevertheless, both camps agreed on one issue: that doctors, and only doctors, should be authorized to terminate a pregnancy. The implication was that an operation induced by a registered medical practitioner was safe, while so-called back-street operations were always dangerous. By and large, this view has also been accepted by historians, often uncritically. This article shows that evidence of the very real risks of terminating a pregnancy was open to cultural and political manipulation. The claims of academic physicians were often contradictory: on the one hand, they dismissed the risks of medical procedures as a way of fighting lay abortions; on the other hand, they exaggerated these risks as a way of explaining unsuccessful surgeries. Using a case study from Bavaria at the beginning of the Republic, this article shows the ambiguous role doctors played and the biased view of the courts. It also sheds light on the experience of abortion-seeking women, whose interests were largely ignored by the law enforcement agencies.

  17. Medical Students and Abortion: Reconciling Personal Beliefs and Professional Roles at One Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dans, Peter E.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of first- and fourth-year Johns Hopkins University (Maryland) medical students found little change in attitudes about abortion over four years. Attitudes correlated most strongly with personal beliefs about when a fetus is considered human life and somewhat with student gender. Results are used in a medical ethics course to illuminate…

  18. Rewriting abortion: deploying medical records in jurisdictional negotiation over a forbidden practice in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Siri

    2014-01-01

    Boundary work refers to the strategies deployed by professionals in the arenas of the public, the law and the workplace to define and defend jurisdictional authority. Little attention has been directed to the role of documents in negotiating professional claims. While boundary work over induced abortion has been extensively documented, few studies have examined jurisdictional disputes over the treatment of abortion complications, or post-abortion care (PAC). This study explores how medical providers deploy medical records in boundary work over the treatment of complications of spontaneous and induced abortion in Senegal, where induced abortion is prohibited under any circumstance. Findings are based on an institutional ethnography of Senegal’s national PAC program over a period of 13 months between 2010 and 2011. Data collection methods included in-depth interviews with 36 health care professionals, observation of PAC services at three hospitals, a review of abortion records at each hospital, and a case review of illegal abortions prosecuted by the state. Findings show that health providers produce a particular account of the type of abortion treated through a series of practices such as the patient interview and the clinical exam. Providers obscure induced abortion in medical documents in three ways: the use of terminology that does not differentiate between induced and spontaneous abortion in PAC registers, the omission of data on the type of abortion altogether in PAC registers, and reporting the total number but not the type of abortions treated in hospital data transmitted to state health authorities. The obscuration of suspected induced abortion in the record permits providers to circumvent police inquiry at the hospital. PAC has been implemented in nearly 50 countries worldwide. This study demonstrates the need for additional research on how medical professionals negotiate conflicting medical and legal obligations in the daily practice of treating abortion

  19. Abortion.

    PubMed

    Hume, K

    1979-04-21

    The review by Aileen F. Connon of Abortion by Potts, Diggory and Peel (Journal, February 10) made interesting reading, especially her quotation of the "facinating statistical information" that Australia has 11.5 million people and 45,000 to 90,000 criminal abortions a year. These are rather wide upper and lower confidence limits. One wonders what other information the authors have included that is of the same standard of accuracy. On the other hand, Malcolm Potts told me some years ago that the experience of his parent organization, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, with the IUD in India was a disaster. That I could well believe. Seeing some of the victims, the sight would indeed be enough to stir the stony heart of the most inhuman consultant gynaecologist. There is in Australia, and indeed in the world, an increasing number of doctors who are revolted by the activities of the International Planned Parenthood Federation and its affiliates which aggressively promote abortion as "an acceptable method of fertility control," and even as the primary method. These are a cross-section of the profession and include some of its most distinguished and erudite members who would be both competent and happy to review a book such as Abortion by Potts et alii from a pro-life point of view. Could I suggest that in future your book reviews and editorials include some well informed commentaries from doctors representing that heretofore silent group? I am holding a long and growing list of Australian doctors who have signed the "Declaration of Doctors," thus explicitly spelling out their respect for human life from the first moment of biological existence to that of natural death. Their services are available on request.

  20. The role of auxiliary nurse-midwives and community health volunteers in expanding access to medical abortion in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Puri, Mahesh; Tamang, Anand; Shrestha, Prabhakar; Joshi, Deepak

    2015-02-01

    Medical abortion was introduced in Nepal in 2009, but rural women's access to medical abortion services remained limited. We conducted a district-level operations research study to assess the effectiveness of training 13 auxiliary nurse-midwives as medical abortion providers, and 120 female community health volunteers as communicators and referral agents for expanding access to medical abortion for rural women. Interviews with service providers and women who received medical abortion were undertaken and service statistics were analysed. Compared to a neighbouring district with no intervention, there was a significant increase in the intervention area in community health volunteers' knowledge of the legal conditions for abortion, the advantages and disadvantages of medical abortion, safe places for an abortion, medical abortion drugs, correct gestational age for home use of medical abortion, and carrying out a urine pregnancy test. In a one-year period in 2011-12, the community health volunteers did pregnancy tests for 584 women and referred 114 women to the auxiliary nurse-midwives for abortion; 307 women in the intervention area received medical abortion services from auxiliary nurse-midwives. There were no complications that required referral to a higher-level facility except for one incomplete abortion. Almost all women who opted for medical abortion were happy with the services provided. The study demonstrated that auxiliary nurse-midwives can independently and confidently provide medical abortion safely and effectively at the sub-health post level, and community health volunteers are effective change agents in informing women about medical abortion. PMID:25702073

  1. Laboratory Procedures for Medical Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Pauline

    The purpose of the manual is to provide the medical assisting student a text which presents the common laboratory procedures in use today in physician's offices. The procedures for performing a complete urinalysis are outlined, along with those for carrying out various hematological tests. Information is also presented to help the student learn to…

  2. Electronic Procedures for Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Electronic procedures are replacing text-based documents for recording the steps in performing medical operations aboard the International Space Station. S&K Aerospace, LLC, has developed a content-based electronic system-based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML) standard-that separates text from formatting standards and tags items contained in procedures so they can be recognized by other electronic systems. For example, to change a standard format, electronic procedures are changed in a single batch process, and the entire body of procedures will have the new format. Procedures can be quickly searched to determine which are affected by software and hardware changes. Similarly, procedures are easily shared with other electronic systems. The system also enables real-time data capture and automatic bookmarking of current procedure steps. In Phase II of the project, S&K Aerospace developed a Procedure Representation Language (PRL) and tools to support the creation and maintenance of electronic procedures for medical operations. The goal is to develop these tools in such a way that new advances can be inserted easily, leading to an eventual medical decision support system.

  3. Emotional Sequelae of Abortion: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemkau, Jeanne Parr

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes literature on normative reactions to abortion and factors that increase risk of negative emotional sequelae. Discusses characteristics of woman, social support and cultural milieu around the abortion, the medical environment and abortion procedure itself, and events subsequent to abortion which may cause conflict. Discusses implications…

  4. Medication Abortion Through Telemedicine: Implications of a Ruling by the Iowa Supreme Court.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y Tony; Kozhimannil, Katy B

    2016-02-01

    In summer 2015, the Iowa Supreme Court unanimously struck down a restriction that would have prevented physicians from administering a medication abortion remotely through video teleconferencing. In its ruling, the Iowa Supreme Court stated that the restriction would have placed an undue burden on a woman's right to access abortion services. It is crucially important for clinicians--especially primary care clinicians, obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyns), and all health care providers of telemedicine services--to understand the implications of this recent ruling, especially in rural settings. The Court's decision has potential ramifications across the country, for both women's access to abortion and the field of telemedicine. Today telemedicine abortion is available only in Iowa and Minnesota; 18 states have adopted bans on it. If telemedicine abortions are indeed being unconstitutionally restricted as the Iowa Supreme Court determined, court decisions reversing these bans could improve access to abortion services for the 21 million reproductive-age women living in these 18 states, which have a limited supply of ob-gyns, mostly concentrated in urban, metropolitan areas. Beyond the potential effects on abortion access, we argue that the Court's decision also has broader implications for telemedicine, by limiting the role of state boards of medicine regarding the restriction of politically controversial medical services when provided through telemedicine. The interplay between telemedicine policy, abortion politics, and the science of medicine is at the heart of the Court's decision and has meaning beyond Iowa's borders for reproductive-age women across the United States.

  5. Progestin-based contraceptive on the same day as medical abortion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeanna; Robinson, Nuriya; Wessels, Ursula; Turner, James; Geller, Stacie

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the success rate of medical abortion when a progestin-based contraceptive—either an etonogestrel implant or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) injection—is given on the same day as mifepristone for medical abortion. Methods In a retrospective chart review, data were assessed for women aged 15–49 years who underwent medical abortion (≤63 days of pregnancy) at two hospitals in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, between August 2013 and July 2014. The women were given oral mifepristone (200 mg) and buccal misoprostol (800 µg), and received an etonogestrel implant or DMPA injection on the same day as mifepristone. The primary outcome was the success rate of medical abortion. Comparative data were obtained through a PubMed search. Results A total of 89 women were included. Complete termination was achieved in 87 (98%, 95% confidence interval 95%–100%) women. This success rate is similar to that reported in a previous systematic review of the rate of medical abortion success without progestin contraceptive administration (94.8%). Conclusions Administration of a progestin-based contraceptive such as an etonogestrel implant or DMPA injection on the same day as mifepristone for medical abortion did not alter the success rates. PMID:26868071

  6. Procedural abortion rights: Ireland and the European Court of Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Erdman, Joanna N

    2014-11-01

    The Irish Protection of Life During Pregnancy Act seeks to clarify the legal ground for abortion in cases of risk to life, and to create procedures to regulate women's access to services under it. This article explores the new law as the outcome of an international human rights litigation strategy premised on state duties to implement abortion laws through clear standards and procedural safeguards. It focuses specifically on the Irish law reform and the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, including A. B. and C. v. Ireland (2010). The article examines how procedural rights at the international level can engender domestic law reform that limits or expands women's access to lawful abortion services, serving conservative or progressive ends.

  7. Abortion.

    PubMed

    Rice-Oxley, C P

    1979-09-15

    Professor Peter Hungerford (25 August, p 496) says that he is fed up with semantic arguments about abortion which ignore reality. He then invokes two major fantasies of the last decade, those of sexual equality and the woman's right to choose. The second of these has become an article of faith to many pro-abortionists and its credentials should be examined. Whence does this right derive? A woman takes part in a more or less pleasurable activity with a man and then, without her volition, with no conscious effort on her part at all, the miraculous occurs and a new life comes into being. How does she have the right to destroy this new life? The argument is usually to the effect that it belongs to her and could not survive without her: "It's mine and I can do what I like with it." Of course, it is true that a fetus cannot survive without the support of its mother; no more could Professor Hungerford or I survive without the support of our fellow men who provide us with food, drink, and clothing, but that does not give them the right to kill us. The claim to possession, the assumption that the fetus is owned by its mother involves, I believe, a semantic error. In a sense, the fetus is "hers" in that it is growing inside her, even though she did not create it. Likewise, her husband is hers because joined to her by marriage and her country is hers because she lives there, although she does not own either of them and certainly has no right to destroy them. The life growing inside the mother is not hers in the same way that a cardigan she has bought or knitted for herself is hers. It is the consideration of semantics that protects us from the "realities" of such as Professor Hungerford.

  8. [Abortion in Colombia. Medical, legal and socioeconomic aspects].

    PubMed

    Umaña, A O

    1973-01-01

    Abortion is a social problem and criminal sanctions are very ineffective in limiting it and are seldom applied (133 legal actions vs. 65,600 cases of induced abortion in 1965). Abortion is a social disease, as are prostitution, juvenile delinquency, drug abuse, and so far has been an insoluble problem. Colombian laws should be modified to reflect reality. Sex education must be emphasized, because ignorance is one of the main causes of abortion. Leniency should be applied toward women who cooperate with the authorities in identifying the person who performed an abortion. Legalization of abortion and enforcement of strict laws against it are considered as possible solutions, but both are rejected. The former is regarded as morally unacceptable and as imposing an excessive burden on scarce health services, the latter as even worse, imposing an equivalent burden on the court system, without s olving either health or social problems. The best and probably only solution is to improve education in family planning, to promote knowledge and motivation to enable the population to make sound and responsible decisions. PMID:4804875

  9. Marmara University Medical Students’ Perception on Sexual Violence against Women and Induced Abortion in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Lüleci, Nimet Emel; Kaya, Eda; Aslan, Ece; Şenkal, Ece Söylem; Çiçek, Zehra Nadide

    2016-01-01

    Background: Historically, sexual assault is a common issue in Turkey. As doctors are one of the steps to help sexually assaulted women, medical students should have basic knowledge of and sensitivity regarding this subject. Another common women’s public health issue is induced abortion. In countries where access to abortion is restricted, there is a tendency towards unhealthy abortion. Aims: The aims of this study are: (1) to determine the attitudes and opinions of Marmara University Medical Faculty students about sexual assault against women and induced abortion and (2) to propose an educational program for medical students about sexual assault and abortion. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: The questionnaires were self-administered and the data were analyzed using SPSS v.15.0. First, the descriptive statistics were analyzed, followed by Chi-square for contingency tests assessing differences in attitudes toward sexual assault and induced abortion by factors such as gender and educational term. Differences were considered statistically significant at p<0.05. Results: About 89.6% of the participants (n=266) reported that they had never been sexually assaulted and about 11.5% of the women (n=19) had been sexually assaulted. There was no significant relationship between previous sexual assault and gender (p>0.05). Although there was no significant difference regarding the extent of punishment by victim’s status as a virgin, 21.3% (n=63) agreed that punishment should be more severe when the victim was a virgin. About 40.7% (n=120) agreed that the legal period of abortion in Turkey (10 weeks) should be longer. The majority (86.1%, n=255) agreed that legally prohibiting abortions causes an increase in unhealthy abortions. Conclusion: An educational program on these issues should be developed for medical students. PMID:27403386

  10. [Abortion liberation: the opinion of medical and law students, São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Meira, A R; Ferraz, F R

    1989-12-01

    The results of a survey carried out with the participation of 155 medical and 141 law students are given. Of the total of 296 students, 142 agreed with the freeing of abortion from legal restrictions, 144 agreed with such restrictions and 6 gave no opinion. Of the 144, 12 rejected abortion under any circumstances. The differences were analysed by sex and school. The statistical analysis did not show significance at the level of 5%.

  11. Medical liability insurance as a barrier to the provision of abortion services in family medicine.

    PubMed

    Dehlendorf, Christine E; Grumbach, Kevin

    2008-10-01

    Family physicians who wish to provide abortions have been subject to both denial of coverage by medical liability insurers and the imposition of large premium increases. These policy decisions by insurance companies raise questions about the role of family physicians in abortion care and about the autonomy of medical specialties in defining their scope of practice. We review the issues specific to abortion services in the primary care setting and examine the broader implications for the medical profession. Finally, we review how advocacy and improved regulation of the insurance industry could help to ensure that clinicians who are trained and willing to provide services to their patients are not limited by the decisions of medical liability insurers.

  12. Roles of pharmacists in expanding access to safe and effective medical abortion in developing countries: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Sneeringer, Robyn K; Billings, Deborah L; Ganatra, Bela; Baird, Traci L

    2012-01-01

    Unsafe abortion continues to be a major contributor to maternal mortality and morbidity around the world. This article examines the role of pharmacists in expanding women's access to safe medical abortion in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Available research shows that although pharmacists and pharmacy workers often sell abortion medications to women, accurate information about how to use the medications safely and effectively is rarely offered. No publication covered effective interventions by pharmacists to expand access to medical abortion, but lessons can be learned from successful interventions with other reproductive health services. To better serve women, increasing awareness and improving training for pharmacists and pharmacy workers about unsafe abortion – and medications that can safely induce abortion – are needed. PMID:22402571

  13. [Abortion and physicians in training: the opinion of medical students in Mexico City

    PubMed

    González De León Aguirre D; Salinas Urbina AA

    1997-04-01

    This research project explores doctors' views regarding induced abortion. Abortion's penalization in Mexico greatly conditions its relevance as a social and public health problem. Physicians constitute a professional sector that can play an important role in reforming current laws on abortion. As a professional group, they have taken a conservative stance towards abortion. Their attitudes are to a great extent influenced by the medical training they receive. In this article we present results from a survey of 96 medical students from the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Xochimilco, in Mexico City. Data were processed with the SPSS program. Simple frequencies show that students have limited knowledge concerning the legal status of abortion and that they tolerate it with restrictions and in limited situations. Women students apparently take a more conservative stance, but statistical analysis with the c-square test did not show significant differences by gender. The article poses the need to modify doctors' training in the reproductive health field, allowing future doctors to acquire a broader view of health problems related to sexuality and reproduction. In the long run, this should also promote a kind of comprehensive health care practice in medical services, thus responding more satisfactorily to women's needs.

  14. Evidence of global demand for medication abortion information An analysis of www.medicationabortion.com

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Angel M.; Wynn, L. L.; Trussell, James

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The worldwide expansion of the Internet offers an important modality of disseminating medically accurate information about medication abortion. We chronicle the story of www.medicationabortion.com, an English-, Spanish-, Arabic-, and French-language website dedicated to three early abortion regimens. Methods We evaluated the website use patterns from 2005 through 2009. We also conducted a content and thematic analysis of 1,910 emails submitted during this period. Results The website experienced steady growth in use. In 2009, it received 35,000 visits each month from more than 20,000 unique visitors and was accessed by users in 208 countries and territories. More than half of all users accessed the website from a country in which abortion is legally restricted. Users from more than 40 countries sent emails with individual questions. Women often wrote in extraordinary detail about the circumstances of their pregnancies and attempts to obtain an abortion. These emails also reflect considerable demand for information about the use of misoprostol for self-induction. Conclusion The use patterns of www.medicationabortion.com indicate that there is significant demand for online information about abortion, and the findings suggest future priorities for research, collaboration, and educational outreach. PMID:24360644

  15. 'The trial the world is watching': the 1972 prosecution of Derk Crichton and James Watts, abortion, and the regulation of the medical profession in apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Klausen, Susanne M

    2014-04-01

    After its formation in 1910 as a self-governing dominion within the British empire, the Union of South Africa followed a combination of English and Roman-Dutch common laws on abortion that decreed the procedure permissible only when necessary to save a woman's life. The government continued doing so after South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and became a republic in 1961. In 1972 a sensational trial took place in the South African Supreme Court that for weeks placed clandestine abortion on the front pages of the country's newspapers. Two men, one an eminent doctor and the other a self-taught abortionist, were charged with conspiring to perform illegal abortions on twenty-six white teenagers and young unmarried women. The prosecution of Dr Derk Crichton and James Watts occurred while the National Party government was in the process of drafting abortion legislation and was perceived by legal experts as another test of the judiciary's stance on the common law on abortion. The trial was mainly intended to regulate the medical profession and ensure doctors ceased helping young white women evade their 'duty' to procreate within marriage. Ultimately, the event encapsulated a great deal about elites' attempt to buttress apartheid culture and is significant for, among other reasons, contributing to the production of South Africa's extremely restrictive Abortion and Sterilisation Act (1975).

  16. 'The trial the world is watching': the 1972 prosecution of Derk Crichton and James Watts, abortion, and the regulation of the medical profession in apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Klausen, Susanne M

    2014-04-01

    After its formation in 1910 as a self-governing dominion within the British empire, the Union of South Africa followed a combination of English and Roman-Dutch common laws on abortion that decreed the procedure permissible only when necessary to save a woman's life. The government continued doing so after South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and became a republic in 1961. In 1972 a sensational trial took place in the South African Supreme Court that for weeks placed clandestine abortion on the front pages of the country's newspapers. Two men, one an eminent doctor and the other a self-taught abortionist, were charged with conspiring to perform illegal abortions on twenty-six white teenagers and young unmarried women. The prosecution of Dr Derk Crichton and James Watts occurred while the National Party government was in the process of drafting abortion legislation and was perceived by legal experts as another test of the judiciary's stance on the common law on abortion. The trial was mainly intended to regulate the medical profession and ensure doctors ceased helping young white women evade their 'duty' to procreate within marriage. Ultimately, the event encapsulated a great deal about elites' attempt to buttress apartheid culture and is significant for, among other reasons, contributing to the production of South Africa's extremely restrictive Abortion and Sterilisation Act (1975). PMID:24775430

  17. Medical and social aspects of pregnancy among adolescents. Part II. Comparative study of abortions and deliveries.

    PubMed

    Rautanen, E; Kantero, R L; Widholm, O

    1977-01-01

    Socio-medical aspects concerning 193 pregnant patients under the age of 18 were analysed. Of these patients 131 had an interruption of the pregnancy and 62 gave birth to a baby. All the abortion patients were unmarried. The mean age in the abortion group was 16.8 years and in the delivery group 17.2 years. The girls of this study had their first experience of sexual intercourse very early, 32% under the age of 15. The frequency of complications after abortion was 18.5%. In the delivery group the prematurity and prenatal mortality were at least twice as great as in the general population. The girls who gave birth to their babies often came from lower social strata and the relationships in their families were more harmonious than in those who had had abortions. The birth of the baby or the decision to have an abortion is not accidental. The different behaviour patterns have a different background regarding both the personal and the environmental characteristics. The decision of the patient whether to abort or not was influenced by the attitude of the immediate family. The relations between family members were better in the homes of the girls who had a baby than in the homes of those who belonged to the abortion group. In both groups more than 40% of the subjects had suffered the risk of being emotionally deprived because of environmental conditions, including crowded housing and limited economic means. Almost all the subjects knew about the means of prevention, although they may not have had proper instruction and sufficient knowledge of their use. The services given by the goverment to adolescent pregnant patients are insufficient and require immediate attention by society.

  18. The use of real-time ultrasound as an aid during difficult therapeutic abortion procedures.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, R L; Davis, R O; Hill, D

    1984-03-15

    For elective abortion, ultrasound is helpful in the determination of gestational age prior to elective procedures and in the localization of the amniotic sac prior to midtrimester intraamniotic injection. According to various reports, ultrasound is potentially useful in determining whether products of conception remain after an elective procedure. 2 cases are described in which the use of real-time ultrasound during an elective abortion procedure aided the operator and very likely reduced the risk of significant complications. In the 1st case of a 43-year-old white, married woman, para 2-0-0-2, the cervix was dilated and an 8 mm suction catheter was introduced. Despite multiple attempts, no products of conception were obtained. With the use of ultrasound direction, the catheter (visible on ultrasound) was reintroduced and directed toward the gestational sac past the leiomyomas that protruded into the cavity. The uterus was evacuated without further difficulty, and the patient subsequently did well. The 2nd case was that of a 26-year-old, black primigravid woman who presented for an elective therapeutic abortion at 17 weeks' gestation. With the patient under local anesthesia, the cervix was dilated to 14 mm and a 14 mm plastic suction catheter was introduced. The procedure was performed without difficulty, except that, despite the use of various extraction instruments, the vertex could not be located and removed. With the use of ultrasound visualization, the grasping forceps (visible on ultrasound) were introduced and directed toward the vertex, enabling its removal with minimal difficulty. The patient tolerated the procedure well and had no further difficulty. As illustrated by these 2 case reports, the use of ultrasound to guide the suction catheter or other extraction instruments has proved to be very useful. Although direct sonar visualization may be needed only occasionally, this technique should be valuable in reducing the incidence of retained products of

  19. Abortion: taking the debate seriously.

    PubMed

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2015-05-19

    Voluntarily induced abortion has been under permanent dispute and legal regulations, because societies invariably condemn extramarital pregnancies. In recent decades, a measure of societal tolerance has led to decriminalize and legalize abortion in accordance with one of two models: a more restricted and conservative model known as therapeutic abortion, and the model that accepts voluntary abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy. Liberalization of abortion aims at ending clandestine abortions and decriminalizes the practice in order to increase reproductive education and accessibility of contraceptive methods, dissuade women from interrupting their pregnancy and, ultimately, make abortion a medically safe procedure within the boundaries of the law, inspired by efforts to reduce the incidence of this practice. The current legal initiative to decriminalize abortion in Chile proposes a notably rigid set of indications which would not resolve the three main objectives that need to be considered: 1) Establish the legal framework of abortion; 2) Contribute to reduce social unrest; 3) Solve the public health issue of clandestine, illegal abortions. Debate must urgently be opened to include alternatives in line with the general tendency to respect women's decision within the first trimester of pregnancy.

  20. Comparison of Outcomes before and after Ohio's Law Mandating Use of the FDA-Approved Protocol for Medication Abortion: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Combellick, Sarah L.; Kohn, Julia E.; Roberts, Sarah C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background In February 2011, an Ohio law took effect mandating use of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved protocol for mifepristone, which is used with misoprostol for medication abortion. Other state legislatures have passed or enacted similar laws requiring use of the FDA-approved protocol for medication abortion. The objective of this study is to examine the association of this legal change with medication abortion outcomes and utilization. Methods and Findings We used a retrospective cohort design, comparing outcomes of medication abortion patients in the prelaw period to those in the postlaw period. Sociodemographic and clinical chart data were abstracted from all medication abortion patients from 1 y prior to the law’s implementation (January 2010–January 2011) to 3 y post implementation (February 2011–October 2014) at four abortion-providing health care facilities in Ohio. Outcome data were analyzed for all women undergoing abortion at ≤49 d gestation during the study period. The main outcomes were as follows: need for additional intervention following medication abortion (such as aspiration, repeat misoprostol, and blood transfusion), frequency of continuing pregnancy, reports of side effects, and the proportion of abortions that were medication abortions (versus other abortion procedures). Among the 2,783 medication abortions ≤49 d gestation, 4.9% (95% CI: 3.7%–6.2%) in the prelaw and 14.3% (95% CI: 12.6%–16.0%) in the postlaw period required one or more additional interventions. Women obtaining a medication abortion in the postlaw period had three times the odds of requiring an additional intervention as women in the prelaw period (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.11, 95% CI: 2.27–4.27). In a mixed effects multivariable model that uses facility-months as the unit of analysis to account for lack of independence by site, we found that the law change was associated with a 9.4% (95% CI: 4.0%–18.4%) absolute increase in

  1. Combatting the "partial-birth abortion" myth.

    PubMed

    1998-11-01

    Despite the efforts of pro-choice activists in the US to point out the critical differences between so-called "partial-birth abortions" and late-term abortions, the public remains confused about the issue. Proposed federal legislation banning "partial-birth abortions" excludes any language defining late-term abortions (time period or fetal viability). Thus, such a ban would apply to any abortion at any stage of pregnancy. Only the states of Kansas and Utah have passed legislation that limit the ban to late-term abortions. The term "partial-birth abortion" also has no independent meaning: it is not a medical term nor does it refer to a medical procedure. The correct term, "intact dilation and extraction," is never mentioned in most proposed legislation, much of which is written in broad enough language to outlaw all abortions. Most states that passed bans on "partial-birth abortions," in fact, had previously banned late-term abortions. In Georgia, a court order revised a "partial-birth abortion" law by limiting it to post-viability dilation and extraction and insisting on exceptions to protect the pregnant women's life and health. The courts have severely limited or enjoined "partial-birth abortion" legislation in 19 of the 20 states where challenges were mounted. Because an educated public overwhelmingly rejects the bans, reproductive rights activists are attempting to educate the public despite the inability or unwillingness of the media to make the crucial distinction. PMID:12294330

  2. Combatting the "partial-birth abortion" myth.

    PubMed

    1998-11-01

    Despite the efforts of pro-choice activists in the US to point out the critical differences between so-called "partial-birth abortions" and late-term abortions, the public remains confused about the issue. Proposed federal legislation banning "partial-birth abortions" excludes any language defining late-term abortions (time period or fetal viability). Thus, such a ban would apply to any abortion at any stage of pregnancy. Only the states of Kansas and Utah have passed legislation that limit the ban to late-term abortions. The term "partial-birth abortion" also has no independent meaning: it is not a medical term nor does it refer to a medical procedure. The correct term, "intact dilation and extraction," is never mentioned in most proposed legislation, much of which is written in broad enough language to outlaw all abortions. Most states that passed bans on "partial-birth abortions," in fact, had previously banned late-term abortions. In Georgia, a court order revised a "partial-birth abortion" law by limiting it to post-viability dilation and extraction and insisting on exceptions to protect the pregnant women's life and health. The courts have severely limited or enjoined "partial-birth abortion" legislation in 19 of the 20 states where challenges were mounted. Because an educated public overwhelmingly rejects the bans, reproductive rights activists are attempting to educate the public despite the inability or unwillingness of the media to make the crucial distinction.

  3. Abortion: a legal and public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Kunins, H; Rosenfield, A

    1991-01-01

    Abortion is an issue of great public concern and debate. The majority of US citizens support a woman's right to choose, but it has not always been that way. Abortion was made legal in 1973 but women have been abortions for hundreds of years before that. The history of abortion is therefore a history of women breaking the law and subjecting themselves to great physical and social risk. Abortion law in the US has been changed mostly by the Supreme Court. After Roe v Wade (1973) there were many other cases brought before the Court involving federal and state funding of abortion, father's rights, parental consent for minors, and many other finer points of law and policy regarding abortion. Abortion is commonly practiced in many developing countries including the ones where it is illegal. The data collected from these countries gives researchers here a great deal of information on the clinical and sociological aspects of abortion. Medical technology has broadened the scope of abortion by introducing medication to induce abortion such as RU486. Abortion is no longer an exclusively surgical procedure. Since it can performed now with a pill it will be almost impossible to regulate it as strictly as before.

  4. 'Miscarriage or abortion?' Understanding the medical language of pregnancy loss in Britain; a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Moscrop, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    Clinical language applied to early pregnancy loss changed in late twentieth century Britain when doctors consciously began using the term 'miscarriage' instead of 'abortion' to refer to this subject. Medical professionals at the time and since have claimed this change as an intuitive empathic response to women's experiences. However, a reading of medical journals and textbooks from the era reveals how the change in clinical language reflected legal, technological, professional and social developments. The shift in language is better understood in the context of these historical developments, rather than as the consequence of more empathic medical care for women who experience miscarriage.

  5. Reaching women where they are: eliminating the initial in-person medical abortion visit.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Elizabeth G; Grossman, Daniel; Wiebe, Ellen; Winikoff, Beverly

    2015-09-01

    The requirement that every woman desiring medical abortion must come in person to a clinical facility to obtain the drugs is a substantial barrier for many women. To eliminate this requirement in the United States, two key components of the standard initial visit would need to be restructured. First, alternatives to ultrasound and pelvic exam would need to be identified for ensuring that gestational age is within the limit for safe and effective treatment. This is probably feasible: for example, data from a large study suggest that in selected patients menstrual history is highly sensitive for this purpose. Second, the Food and Drug Administration would need to remove the medically unwarranted restriction on distribution of mifepristone. These two changes could allow provision of the service by a broader range of providers in nontraditional venues or even by telemedicine. Such options could have profound benefits in reducing cost and expanding access to abortion. PMID:26134280

  6. Acceptability of Home-Assessment Post Medical Abortion and Medical Abortion in a Low-Resource Setting in Rajasthan, India. Secondary Outcome Analysis of a Non-Inferiority Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Mandira; Iyengar, Kirti; Essén, Birgitta; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Iyengar, Sharad D.; Bring, Johan; Soni, Sunita; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies evaluating acceptability of simplified follow-up after medical abortion have focused on high-resource or urban settings where telephones, road connections, and modes of transport are available and where women have formal education. Objective To investigate women’s acceptability of home-assessment of abortion and whether acceptability of medical abortion differs by in-clinic or home-assessment of abortion outcome in a low-resource setting in India. Design Secondary outcome of a randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial. Setting Outpatient primary health care clinics in rural and urban Rajasthan, India. Population Women were eligible if they sought abortion with a gestation up to 9 weeks, lived within defined study area and agreed to follow-up. Women were ineligible if they had known contraindications to medical abortion, haemoglobin < 85mg/l and were below 18 years. Methods Abortion outcome assessment through routine clinic follow-up by a doctor was compared with home-assessment using a low-sensitivity pregnancy test and a pictorial instruction sheet. A computerized random number generator generated the randomisation sequence (1:1) in blocks of six. Research assistants randomly allocated eligible women who opted for medical abortion (mifepristone and misoprostol), using opaque sealed envelopes. Blinding during outcome assessment was not possible. Main Outcome Measures Women’s acceptability of home-assessment was measured as future preference of follow-up. Overall satisfaction, expectations, and comparison with previous abortion experiences were compared between study groups. Results 731 women were randomized to the clinic follow-up group (n = 353) or home-assessment group (n = 378). 623 (85%) women were successfully followed up, of those 597 (96%) were satisfied and 592 (95%) found the abortion better or as expected, with no difference between study groups. The majority, 355 (57%) women, preferred home-assessment in the event of a future

  7. God's bullies: attacks on abortion.

    PubMed

    Hadley, J

    1994-01-01

    National politics in the US, Poland, and Ireland have in recent years been afire with debate over abortion. Conflicting abortion laws almost scuttled the reunification of Germany. This paper describes how the abortion debate took hold in post-Communist Poland and how the issue came to be so entrenched in US politics in the wake of the US Supreme Court's 1973 decision on abortion in the case of Roe vs. Wade. It focuses upon abortion mainly as a method of birth control which women have always sought when needed regardless of the procedure's legal status. The controversies and campaigns recorded and the ideas offered focus upon women's access to affordable, safe, and legal abortion. The author argues that Poland is no place to be a woman and presents sections on the country's church, government, and medical profession; Roe vs. Wade; who opposes abortion rights and their broad success; the 1992 US presidential election; Bill Clinton's presidency; why the abortion debate has been different in Britain; and new issues on abortion.

  8. Abortion: epidemiology, safety, and technique.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, P D

    1992-08-01

    In 1991, the abortion literature was characterized by articles relating to 1) epidemiologic issues in abortion care, 2) advances in knowledge and experience with medical abortifacients such as mifepristone (RU 486), and 3) cervical ripening prior to abortion with the use of both mifepristone and prostaglandins. Technical methods of achieving termination of pregnancy continue to be similar in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Europe, although induction-abortion times are generally slower in Europe than in the United States. Surgically, dilatation and evacuation procedures continue to be more common in the United States than in other countries. The effectiveness of mifepristone is undisputed, and the recommended dose for early first-trimester termination is being compared with lower dose alternative regimens. There is additional evidence that at least in the short term, the negative psychological sequelae of abortion are infrequent and are inconsequential as a public health issue. PMID:1504270

  9. The medicolegal aspects of abortion.

    PubMed

    Hall, R E

    1972-01-01

    There was little demand for abortion in the 19th century. There was no population explosion and large families were needed to tend the farm. People were more religious; women were 2nd class citizens; and abortions in those days were medically unsafe. The movement to reform abortion laws in the United States stemmed largely from 3 events in the early 1960s: 1) the request in 1963 of Sherri Finkbine for an abortion after she had taken thalidomide and then learned of its teratogenic potential; 2) a rubella epidemic in 1964 and 1965; and 3) the 1965 Supreme Court decision declaring the Connecticut birth control law to be unconstitutional. In 1970 abortion was completely legalized in the states of Hawaii, Alaska, New York and Washington -- the first 3 by legislation and the last by popular referendum. With 4 states operating under repeal laws, 12 under reform laws, and 34 under restrictive laws, the current practice of abortion in the U.S. at this time is chaotic. In order to cope with the tremendous new demand for abortions, doctors have had to learn new techniques and hospitals have had to modify their procedures and adapt their facilities. An obstacle in the transition to universally available abortion has been the resistance of attending physicians, house staff, paramedical personnel, and hospital administrators and trustees. The legal future of abortion lies more in the courts than in the legislatures. With the impetus provided by the 4 new repeal laws, other states will now revise their abortion statutes at an accelerated pace, but it will not be possible to achieve universal repeal by this state-by-state route. Medical practitioners need to prepare for the eventuality of legalized abortion on a national scale.

  10. Induced abortion--a global health problem.

    PubMed

    Odlind, V

    1997-01-01

    Every year around 500,000 women are estimated to die from pregnancy-related causes, the majority in the developing world and many as a consequence of unsafe abortion. Around 25 per cent of maternal deaths in Asia and 30-50 per cent of maternal deaths in Africa and Latin America occur as a result of induced abortion. Data on abortion related maternal morbidity is less reliable than mortality but suggests that for every maternal death 10-15 women suffer significant pregnancy-related morbidity, i.e. infertility, genito-urinary problems and/or chronic pain. Induced abortion occurs in practically every society in the world but only 40 per cent of the women in the world live in countries where abortion is legally free. A permissive legislation is an important prerequisite for medically safe and early abortion. Oppositely, with a restrictive law, abortion is difficult to obtain, costly and possibly unsafe, in particular to the least affluent women in the society. Induced abortion in a developed country with legal and easy access to services is a safe procedure with hardly any mortality and very low morbidity. The best strategy to reduce the number of unsafe abortions is prevention of unwanted pregnancy. The consequences of unsafe abortion on women's health need to be acknowledged by everybody in the society in order to improve abortion care. It is necessary to adjust legal and other barriers to medically safe abortion in order to follow the declaration at the UN conference on population in Cairo, 1994, which stated that abortion, wherever legal, should be safe. It is also necessary to introduce preventive measures where abortions are performed, i.e. good and easily accessible family planning services.

  11. Level of awareness about legalization of abortion in Nepal: a study at Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Tuladhar, H; Risal, A

    2010-06-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 25.0% of all pregnancies worldwide end in induced abortion, approximately 50 million each year. More than half of these abortions are performed under unsafe conditions resulting in high maternal mortality ratio specially in developing countries like Nepal. Abortion was legalized under specified conditions in March 2002 in Nepal. But still a large proportion of population are unaware of the legalization and the conditions under which it is permitted. Legal reform alone cannot reduce abortion related deaths in our country. This study was undertaken with the main objective to study the level of awareness about legalization of abortion in women attending gyne out patients department of Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital (NMCTH), which will give a baseline knowledge for further dissemination and advocacy about abortion law. Total 200 women participated in the study. Overall 133 (66.5%) women said they were aware of legalization of abortion in Nepal. Women of age group 20-34 years, urban residents, service holders, Brahmin/Chhetri caste and with higher education were more aware about it. Majority (92.0%) of the women received information from the media. Detail knowledge about legal conditions under which abortion can be performed specially in second trimester was found to be poor. Large proportion (71.0%) of the women were still unaware of the availability of comprehensive abortion care services at our hospital, which is being provided since last seven years. Public education and advocacy campaigns are crucial to create awareness about the new legislation and availability of services. Unless the advocacy and awareness campaign reaches women, they are not likely to benefit from the legal reform and services.

  12. Medical Office Laboratory Procedures: Course Proposal. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eleanor

    A proposal is presented for a Community College of Philadelphia course, entitled "Medical Office Laboratory Procedures," which provides a laboratory introduction to microscopic and chemical analysis of blood and urine as performed in the physician's office. Following a standard cover form, a statement of the purpose of the course discusses course…

  13. [PTSD in young children after medical procedure].

    PubMed

    Sepers, J W; van der Boon, N; Landsmeer-Beker, N E A

    2016-01-01

    An eight-year-old boy with spastic type bilateral cerebral palsy and a two-year-old girl with biliary atresia were referred to a psycho-trauma centre. Both children developed post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a result of the medical procedure. Because of their symptoms, they were resisting further medical treatment. The children were given trauma-focused treatment (eye movement and desensitisation reprocessing and cognitive behavioural therapy). This article argues that hypnosis and distraction can play a role in preventing PTSD symptoms after undergoing a medical procedure. If PTSD is unavoidable, it is important to recognise the symptoms and to treat these children. Furthermore, their parents might also be traumatised. PTSD symptoms in children and their parents can be successfully treated. Also children with sub-threshold PTSD can benefit from trauma treatment. PMID:27353156

  14. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  15. ‘The Trial the World is Watching’: The 1972 Prosecution of Derk Crichton and James Watts, Abortion, and the Regulation of the Medical Profession in Apartheid South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Klausen, Susanne M.

    2014-01-01

    After its formation in 1910 as a self-governing dominion within the British empire, the Union of South Africa followed a combination of English and Roman-Dutch common laws on abortion that decreed the procedure permissible only when necessary to save a woman’s life. The government continued doing so after South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and became a republic in 1961. In 1972 a sensational trial took place in the South African Supreme Court that for weeks placed clandestine abortion on the front pages of the country’s newspapers. Two men, one an eminent doctor and the other a self-taught abortionist, were charged with conspiring to perform illegal abortions on twenty-six white teenagers and young unmarried women. The prosecution of Dr Derk Crichton and James Watts occurred while the National Party government was in the process of drafting abortion legislation and was perceived by legal experts as another test of the judiciary’s stance on the common law on abortion. The trial was mainly intended to regulate the medical profession and ensure doctors ceased helping young white women evade their ‘duty’ to procreate within marriage. Ultimately, the event encapsulated a great deal about elites’ attempt to buttress apartheid culture and is significant for, among other reasons, contributing to the production of South Africa’s extremely restrictive Abortion and Sterilisation Act (1975). PMID:24775430

  16. Patient experience of sexual hallucinations after propofol-induced painless abortion may lead to violence against medical personnel.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyong; Yi, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Painless abortion is an outpatient surgical procedure performed under general anesthesia, which requires an appropriate anesthetic reagent that must be safe, comfortable for the patient, and highly controllable. At present, fentanyl and propofol are first-choice anesthetic reagents in clinical applications. However, both have various side effects, including the inhibition of respiration and circulation and the occurrence of postoperative sexual fantasies and amorous behavior. In this report, we will demonstrate three cases of allegations of assault and violence caused by sexual hallucinations in patients who were anesthetized with propofol and fentanyl during painless abortion surgery.

  17. Assessment of completion of early medical abortion using a text questionnaire on mobile phones compared to a self-administered paper questionnaire among women attending four clinics, Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Constant, Deborah; de Tolly, Katherine; Harries, Jane; Myer, Landon

    2015-02-01

    In-clinic follow-up to assess completion of medical abortion is no longer a requirement according to World Health Organization guidance, provided adequate counselling is given. However, timely recognition of ongoing pregnancy, complications or incomplete abortion, which require treatment, is important. As part of a larger trial, this study aimed to establish whether women having a medical abortion could self-assess whether their abortion was complete using an automated, interactive questionnaire on their mobile phones. All 469 participants received standard abortion care and all returnees filled in a self-assessment on paper at clinic follow-up 2-3 weeks later. The 234 women allocated to receive the phone messages were also asked to do a mobile phone assessment at home ten days post-misoprostol. Completion of the mobile assessment was tracked by computer and all completed assessments, paper and mobile, were compared to providers' assessments at clinic follow-up. Of the 226 women able to access the mobile phone assessment, 176 (78%) completed it; 161 of them (93%) reported it was easy to do so. Neither mobile nor paper self-assessments predicted all cases needing additional treatment at follow-up. Prediction of complete procedures was good; 71% of mobile assessments and 91% of paper assessments were accurate. We conclude that an interactive questionnaire assessing completion of medical abortion on mobile phones is feasible in the South African setting; however, it should be done later than day 10 and combined with an appropriate pregnancy test to accurately detect incomplete procedures. PMID:25702072

  18. [Abortion. Spain: the keys to the controversy].

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    For many years, illegal abortion has been denounced in Spain. The estimate of 300,000 abortions annually is widely quoted but poorly founded in fact. Weekend "charters" to London and Amsterdam for women seeking abortions have been commented upon, denounced, and caricatured. The evidence indicates that abortions occur in Spain despite their illegality, just as they occur in every other country and have always occurred. Poor women abort in a poor way, with traditional healers, while rich women abort in a rich way, with physicians. "Charters" are the solution of the middle class. Proposed legislation in Spain would permit abortion on 3 grounds: rape, fetal malformation, and risk to the woman's life if the pregnancy continued. Excesses have been committed both by those opposing abortion and by those struggling for liberalization of laws. Defenders of abortion, such as radical feminists, appear to forget that abortion is a medical procedure with possible dangerous psychophysical consequences, and that preventive measures such as sex education and diffusion of contraception or social measures such as assistance for unwed mothers and their children would be preferrable to abortion. There is the question of whether medical personnel should be excused from assisting in abortions on grounds of conscience and whether those who do assist in abortions automatically become "progressive" by doing so. The staunchest defenders of fetal life are not moved to contribute anything beyond words to improvement of the plight of the many millions of already born who live in miserable conditions of hunger and want. Abortion is a violent act against the fetus and the pregnant woman. Its criminalization is a violent act against the woman and a social intrusion into matters better left to personal ethics. The government which proposes abortion on a few grounds fails to initiate a program to promote life through social protection of single mothers and their children or of families in general

  19. Health benefits of legal abortion: an analysis.

    PubMed

    Tyrer, L B

    1985-01-01

    The abolition of legal abortion in the US would seriously threaten the health, and even the lives, of women and children. Statistics on the relationship between abortion and health attained before and after abortion was legalized were used to project some of the probable consequences of reversing the US Supreme Court's 1973 Roe v. Wade decision. Abortion has been widely practiced throughout US history, but the actual number of procedures performed before some states legalized abortion is unknown. Few legal procedures were performed for medical reasons, yet many illegal abortions took place. In 1955, a panel of experts could only provide a "best estimate" of between 200,000 and 1,200,000 illegally induced abortions occurring annually in the US. The actual number was most likely closer to the higher figure. The complication rates for illegal abortions, most of which were performed by unskilled practitioners in unsafe settings, were much higher than the rates for legal abortion now. Complications were related to ineffective or unsafe methods, Sepsis, particularly with the bacterium "Clostridium prefringens," which causes gas gangrene, was a major problem that has virtually disappeared. Each year prior to the 1970s, more than 100 women in the US died of abortion complications. Due to the fact that vital statistics reflect an incomplete ascertainment of deaths, the actual number of deaths is probably larger, possibly by as much as 50%. In 1983 more than 1.3 million procedures were performed -- a figure close to the estimated number of illegal abortions performed before 1970. In comparison, 672,000 hysterectomies and 424,000 tonsillectomy operations were performed the same year. The number of abortion-related deaths in the US decreased between 1972 and 1980, from 90 to 16. Most of this decrease resulted from the availability and safety of legal abortion. Legal abortion carries an especially low risk of death, particularly when performed in the 1st trimester. For the 1972

  20. [Pregnancy termination in Bulgaria – past, present and future perspectives. Drugs induced abortion – guidelines by WHO].

    PubMed

    Marinov, B; Andreeva, A

    2013-01-01

    There are still too many unsafe abortions performed worldwide. Together with the efforts to reduce the abortion by choice, we note a rise in the need for mid trimester pregnancy termination for medical reasons. The article looks at the past present and future perspective of the abortion as a procedure in Bulgaria. States the fact that medical abortion is officially not widely performed. We reckon that with the existing guidelines by WHO and with Mifepriston and Misoprostol recently registered in Bulgaria, it is time for the medical abortion to become part of the clinical practice in Bulgaria. We believe that early medical abortion as well as mid trimester induced abortion is and adequate if not better alternative to the existing in Bulgaria procedures.

  1. Partial-birth abortion: the final frontier of abortion jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Bopp, J; Cook, C R

    1998-01-01

    Partial-birth abortion bans patterned after the federal bill passed by both houses of Congress are constitutional. The clear legislative definition can be easily distinguished from other abortion procedures. Abortion precedents do not apply to such bans because the abortion right pertains to unborn human beings, not to those partially delivered. Such bans are also rationally-related to legitimate state interests. Even if abortion jurisprudence is deemed to apply in the partial-birth abortion context, a ban is still constitutional under Casey because a ban on partial-birth abortions does not impose an undue burden on the abortion right.

  2. Monitoring medical procedures by exponential smoothing.

    PubMed

    Spliid, Henrik

    2007-01-15

    A new exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart well suited for 'online' routine surveillance of medical procedures is introduced. The chart is based on inter-event counts for failures recorded when the failures occur. The method can be used for many types of hospital procedures and activities, such as problems or errors in surgery, hospital-acquired infections, erroneous handling or prescription of medicine, deviations from scheduled treatments causing inconveniences for patients. The construction, the use and the effectiveness of the control chart are demonstrated by two well-known examples about wound infection in orthopaedic surgery and neonatal arterial switch surgery. The method is easy to implement and apply, it illustrates, estimates and tests the current failure rate. Comparisons with two examples from the literature indicate that its ability to quickly detect an increased failure rate is comparable to that of other well-established methods.

  3. Women’s Experience Obtaining Abortion Care in Texas after Implementation of Restrictive Abortion Laws: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Sarah E.; White, Kari; Hopkins, Kristine; Potter, Joseph E.; Grossman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background In November 2013, Texas implemented three abortion restrictions included in House Bill 2 (HB 2). Within six months, the number of facilities providing abortion decreased by almost half, and the remaining facilities were concentrated in large urban centers. The number of medication abortions decreased by 70% compared to the same period one year prior due to restrictions on this method imposed by HB 2. The purpose of this study was to explore qualitatively the experiences of women who were most affected by the law: those who had to travel farther to reach a facility and those desiring medication abortion. Methods In August and September 2014, we conducted 20 in-depth interviews with women recruited from ten abortion clinics across Texas. The purposive sample included women who obtained or strongly preferred medication abortion or traveled ≥50 miles one way to the clinic. The interview guide focused on women’s experiences with obtaining services following implementation of HB 2, and a thematic analysis was performed. Results Women faced informational, cost and logistical barriers seeking abortion services, and these obstacles were often compounded by poverty. Two women found the process of finding or getting to a clinic so onerous that they considered not having the procedure, although they ultimately had an abortion; another woman decided to continue her pregnancy, in part because of challenges in getting to the clinic. For two women, arranging travel required disclosure to more people than desired. Women who strongly preferred medication abortion were frustrated by the difficulty or inability to obtain their desired method, especially among those who were near or just beyond the gestational age limit. The restricted eligibility criteria for medication abortion and difficulty finding clinics offering the method created substantial access barriers. Conclusions Medication abortion restrictions and clinic closures following HB 2 created substantial

  4. [Abortion and conscientious objection].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion.

  5. 12 CFR 310.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 310.6 Section 310.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 310.6 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records shall be disclosed on request to the individuals to whom...

  6. 12 CFR 310.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 310.6 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records shall be disclosed on... information to a medical doctor named by the requesting individual for release of the patient....

  7. 12 CFR 310.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 310.6 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records shall be disclosed on... information to a medical doctor named by the requesting individual for release of the patient....

  8. 37 CFR 102.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical... Special procedures: Medical records. (a) No response to any request for access to medical records by an... routine use, for all systems of records containing medical records, consultations with an...

  9. 12 CFR 310.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 310.6... PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 310.6 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records shall be disclosed on... transmission of the medical information directly to the requesting individual could have an adverse effect...

  10. 12 CFR 310.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 310.6... PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 310.6 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records shall be disclosed on... transmission of the medical information directly to the requesting individual could have an adverse effect...

  11. 37 CFR 102.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical... Special procedures: Medical records. (a) No response to any request for access to medical records by an... routine use, for all systems of records containing medical records, consultations with an...

  12. Unsafe abortion in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Olukoya, A A; Kaya, A; Ferguson, B J; AbouZahr, C

    2001-11-01

    Every year, an estimated 2.0-4.4 million adolescents resort to abortion. In comparison with adults, adolescents are more likely to delay the abortion, resort to unskilled persons to perform it, use dangerous methods and present late when complications arise. Adolescents are also more likely to experience complications. Consequently, adolescents seeking abortion or presenting with complications of abortion should be considered as a medical emergency. Issues requiring special attention in the management of abortion complications in adolescents are identified. Approaches to adolescent abortion should involve all levels of the health care system, as well as the community, and should include not only management of the consequences of unsafe abortion, but also post-abortion contraception and counseling. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy by providing information on sexuality, ensuring that reproductive health services are adolescent-friendly, creating a supportive environment, building young people's social and decision-making skills, and offering counseling in times of crisis are highlighted.

  13. Post abortion contraception.

    PubMed

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp, Helena Kallner

    2015-11-01

    A safe induced abortion has no impact on future fertility. Ovulation may resume as early as 8 days after the abortion. There is no difference in return to fertility after medical or surgical abortion. Most women resume sexual activity soon after an abortion. Contraceptive counseling and provision should therefore be an integrated part of the abortion services to help women avoid another unintended pregnancy and risk, in many cases an unsafe, abortion. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods that includes implants and intrauterine contraception have been shown to be the most effective contraceptive methods to help women prevent unintended pregnancy following an abortion. However, starting any method is better than starting no method at all. This Special Report will give a short guide to available methods and when they can be started after an induced abortion.

  14. Post abortion contraception.

    PubMed

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp, Helena Kallner

    2015-11-01

    A safe induced abortion has no impact on future fertility. Ovulation may resume as early as 8 days after the abortion. There is no difference in return to fertility after medical or surgical abortion. Most women resume sexual activity soon after an abortion. Contraceptive counseling and provision should therefore be an integrated part of the abortion services to help women avoid another unintended pregnancy and risk, in many cases an unsafe, abortion. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods that includes implants and intrauterine contraception have been shown to be the most effective contraceptive methods to help women prevent unintended pregnancy following an abortion. However, starting any method is better than starting no method at all. This Special Report will give a short guide to available methods and when they can be started after an induced abortion. PMID:26619082

  15. Conceptualising abortion stigma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuradha; Hessini, Leila; Mitchell, Ellen M H

    2009-08-01

    Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies upon power disparities and inequalities for its formation. In this paper, we identify social and political processes that favour the emergence, perpetuation and normalisation of abortion stigma. We hypothesise that abortion transgresses three cherished 'feminine' ideals: perpetual fecundity; the inevitability of motherhood; and instinctive nurturing. We offer examples of how abortion stigma is generated through popular and medical discourses, government and political structures, institutions, communities and via personal interactions. Finally, we propose a research agenda to reveal, measure and map the diverse manifestations of abortion stigma and its impact on women's health.

  16. Children's anxious reactions to an invasive medical procedure: The role of medical and non-medical fears.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jeremy K; Halpern, Leslie F; Dangman, Barbara C; Giramonti, Karla M; Kogan, Barry A

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship of medical and non-medical fears to children's anxiety, pain, and distress during an invasive medical procedure, the voiding cystourethrogram. Parents of 34 children completed the Fear Survey Schedule-II prior to their child's procedure. Child distress behaviors during the procedure were audiotaped and coded using the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised. Ratings of child procedural anxiety and pain were obtained from children, parents, and examining technologists within minutes following the procedure. Associations were observed between medical fears, procedural anxiety (parent and staff reports), and coded distress behaviors. Findings may inform preparation efforts to reduce anxiety around invasive medical procedures.

  17. Medical versus surgical methods of early abortion: protocol for a systematic review and environmental scan of patient decision aids

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Kyla Z; Thompson, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Currently, we lack understanding of the content, quality and impact of patient decision aids to support decision-making between medical and surgical methods of early abortion. We plan to undertake a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature to identify, appraise and describe the impact of early abortion method decision aids evaluated quantitatively (Part I), and an environmental scan to identify and appraise other early abortion method decision aids developed in the US (Part II). Methods and analysis For the systematic review, we will search PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases for articles describing experimental and observational studies evaluating the impact of an early abortion method decision aid on women's decision-making processes and outcomes. For the environmental scan, we will identify decision aids by supplementing the systematic review search with Internet-based searches and key informant consultation. The primary reviewer will assess all studies and decision aids for eligibility, and a second reviewer will also assess a subset of these. Both reviewers will independently assess risk of bias in the studies and abstract data using a piloted form. Finally, both reviewers will assess decision aid quality using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards criteria, ease of readability using Flesch/Flesch-Kincaid tests, and informational content using directed content analysis. Ethics and dissemination As this study does not involve human subjects, ethical approval will not be sought. We aim to disseminate the findings in a scientific journal, via academic and/or professional conferences and among the broader community to contribute knowledge about current early abortion method decision-making support. Trial registration number This protocol is registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42015016717). PMID:26173718

  18. Late-term abortion: what can be learned from Royal Women's Hospital v Medical Practitioners Board of Victoria?

    PubMed

    Gerber, Paul

    2007-04-01

    In 2001, the Medical Practitioners Board of Victoria received a complaint from an Australian Government Senator regarding a late-term abortion carried out in February 2000 at the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne. Five years later, the complaint of professional misconduct was finally dismissed by the Board as being frivolous and vexatious. The action highlights a number of deficiencies in the way medical practitioner boards deal with complaints against medical practitioners; in particular, the Board's lack of discretion to deal with complaints lacking substance. Early mediation of the dispute between the Royal Women's Hospital and the Medical Practitioners Board could have avoided a great deal of suffering and expense. As a result of this case, it is likely that the Victorian Medical Practitioners Board will be given additional powers in the future to deal with complaints without merit.

  19. Abortion - surgical

    MedlinePlus

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  20. Spanish cabinet moves to liberalize abortion law.

    PubMed

    1995-07-14

    On July 7 (1995), the cabinet of Spain's socialist prime minister Felipe Gonzalez approved a measure to expand the country's abortion law by permitting a woman to obtain the procedure during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy in circumstances not currently allowed. Since 1985, abortion has been legal throughout pregnancy in the following situations: when a medical specialist not associated with the procedure determines that an abortion is necessary to "avert a serious risk to [a woman's] physical or mental health;" during the first 12 weeks if the pregnancy results from reported rape; and within the first 22 weeks when two physicians not associated with the abortion certify that the fetus would develop "severe physical or mental defects." The new legislation, which also requires women to receive nonbinding counseling, permits abortions when a health care professional determines that carrying to term will cause a woman severe anxiety for social or economic reasons. Before the measure can become law, it must be approved by the Spanish Parliament, which is expected to vote on the proposal in September. The Catalan nationalist grouping, which has been a key supporter of the socialist government, is among the forces opposing liberalization of the abortion statute. Partly due to the abortion controversy, the Catalan coalition is expected to vote on July 17 to decide whether to continue its backing.

  1. 5 CFR 2412.7 - Special procedures; medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special procedures; medical records. 2412.7 Section 2412.7 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... Special procedures; medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection which, in...

  2. 32 CFR 319.7 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 319.7... (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 319.7 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records, requested pursuant to § 319.5 of this part, will be disclosed to the...

  3. 7 CFR 1.115 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1.115 Section 1... Regulations § 1.115 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event an agency receives a request pursuant to § 1.112 for access to medical records (including psychological records) whose disclosure it...

  4. 15 CFR 4.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 4... GOVERNMENT INFORMATION Privacy Act § 4.26 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) No response to any request for access to medical records from an individual will be issued by the Privacy Officer for a period...

  5. 15 CFR 4.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 4... GOVERNMENT INFORMATION Privacy Act § 4.26 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) No response to any request for access to medical records from an individual will be issued by the Privacy Officer for a period...

  6. 19 CFR 201.27 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 201.27... APPLICATION Safeguarding Individual Privacy Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552a § 201.27 Special procedures: Medical... maintained by the Commission which pertain to him or her, medical and psychological records merit...

  7. 29 CFR 1410.5 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1410.5 Section 1410.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PRIVACY § 1410.5 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection...

  8. 7 CFR 1.115 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1.115 Section 1... Regulations § 1.115 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event an agency receives a request pursuant to § 1.112 for access to medical records (including psychological records) whose disclosure it...

  9. 5 CFR 2412.7 - Special procedures; medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special procedures; medical records. 2412.7 Section 2412.7 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... Special procedures; medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection which, in...

  10. 40 CFR 16.8 - Special procedures: Medical Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical Records. 16... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 16.8 Special procedures: Medical Records. Should EPA receive a request for access to medical records (including psychological records) disclosure of which the system manager decides would...

  11. 32 CFR 319.7 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 319.7... (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 319.7 Special procedures: Medical records. Medical records, requested pursuant to § 319.5 of this part, will be disclosed to the...

  12. 29 CFR 1611.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1611.6 Section 1611.6... REGULATIONS § 1611.6 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event the Commission receives a request pursuant to § 1611.3 for access to medical records (including psychological records) whose disclosure...

  13. 29 CFR 1611.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1611.6 Section 1611.6... REGULATIONS § 1611.6 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event the Commission receives a request pursuant to § 1611.3 for access to medical records (including psychological records) whose disclosure...

  14. 15 CFR 4.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 4... GOVERNMENT INFORMATION Privacy Act § 4.26 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) No response to any request for access to medical records from an individual will be issued by the Privacy Officer for a period...

  15. 29 CFR 1410.5 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1410.5 Section 1410.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PRIVACY § 1410.5 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection...

  16. 7 CFR 1.115 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1.115 Section 1... Regulations § 1.115 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event an agency receives a request pursuant to § 1.112 for access to medical records (including psychological records) whose disclosure it...

  17. 5 CFR 2412.7 - Special procedures; medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special procedures; medical records. 2412.7 Section 2412.7 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... Special procedures; medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection which, in...

  18. 19 CFR 201.27 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 201.27... APPLICATION Safeguarding Individual Privacy Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552a § 201.27 Special procedures: Medical... maintained by the Commission which pertain to him or her, medical and psychological records merit...

  19. 40 CFR 16.8 - Special procedures: Medical Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical Records. 16... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 16.8 Special procedures: Medical Records. Should EPA receive a request for access to medical records (including psychological records) disclosure of which the system manager decides would...

  20. 37 CFR 102.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 102.26 Section 102.26 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK... Special procedures: Medical records. (a) No response to any request for access to medical records by...

  1. 40 CFR 16.8 - Special procedures: Medical Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical Records. 16... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 16.8 Special procedures: Medical Records. Should EPA receive a request for access to medical records (including psychological records) disclosure of which the system manager decides would...

  2. 5 CFR 2412.7 - Special procedures; medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special procedures; medical records. 2412.7 Section 2412.7 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... Special procedures; medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection which, in...

  3. 29 CFR 1611.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1611.6 Section 1611.6... REGULATIONS § 1611.6 Special procedures: Medical records. In the event the Commission receives a request pursuant to § 1611.3 for access to medical records (including psychological records) whose disclosure...

  4. 29 CFR 1410.5 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 1410.5 Section 1410.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PRIVACY § 1410.5 Special procedures: Medical records. (a) If medical records are requested for inspection...

  5. Abortion 1982: the Supreme Court once again.

    PubMed

    Healey, J M

    1982-11-01

    Clearly, abortion in the US continues to be a major medico-legal issue which will not go away. 5 major abortion cases are scheduled for review by the US Supreme Court during its 1982-83 term. Taken together, these 5 cases challenge several of the key conclusions of the Court's review of the abortion question. The primary focus of the cases is the state's power to regulate the abortion decision during the 1st and 2nd trimester of the pregnancy. 2 cases involve ordinances passed by the City of Akron regulating access to abortion in areas such as consent and notification requirements and the location of abortions after the 1st trimester. 2 of the cases involve a Missouri statute also dealing with the requirement that abortions after the 1st trimester be performed in a hospital. The final case involves a Virginia criminal prosecution of a physician accused of violating the state's requirement of in-hospital performance of a 2nd trimester abortion. In the case of Roe v. Wade, the Court had established the "trimester trilogy" governing state regulation of the abortion procedure. For the stage of the pregnancy prior to the end of the 1st trimester, the Court held that the abortion decision and its effectuation must be left to the medical judgment of the pregnant women's attending physician. For the stage of the pregnancy subsequent to the end of the 1st trimester, the Court ruled that the state may promote its interest in the health of the mother by regulating the abortion procedure in ways reasonably related to maternal health. For the stage of pregnancy subsequent to viability, the state may promote its interest in the potentiality of human life by regulation, even prohibiting abortion, except where it is necessary to preserve the mother's life or health. These 5 cases challenge the role of the Court in determining the scope of appropriate state regulation at various stages of the pregnancy. Suffering a loss of prestige in the 10 years since the Roe v. Wade and Doe v

  6. Making abortions safe: a matter of good public health policy and practice.

    PubMed Central

    Berer, M.

    2000-01-01

    Globally, abortion mortality accounts for at least 13% of all maternal mortality. Unsafe abortion procedures, untrained abortion providers, restrictive abortion laws and high mortality and morbidity from abortion tend to occur together. Preventing mortality and morbidity from abortion in countries where these remain high is a matter of good public health policy and medical practice, and constitutes an important part of safe motherhood initiatives. This article examines the changes in policy and health service provision required to make abortions safe. It is based on a wide-ranging review of published and unpublished sources. In order to be effective, public health measures must take into account the reasons why women have abortions, the kind of abortion services required and at what stages of pregnancy, the types of abortion service providers needed, and training, cost and counselling issues. The transition from unsafe to safe abortions demands the following: changes at national policy level; abortion training for service providers and the provision of services at the appropriate primary level health service delivery points; and ensuring that women access these services instead of those of untrained providers. Public awareness that abortion services are available is a crucial element of this transition, particularly among adolescent and single women, who tend to have less access to reproductive health services generally. PMID:10859852

  7. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    PubMed

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited. PMID:6913282

  8. [Abortion and rights. Legal thinking about abortion].

    PubMed

    Perez Duarte, A E

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of abortion in Mexico from a juridical perspective requires recognition that Mexico as a national community participates in a double system of values. Politically it is defined as a liberal, democratic, and secular state, but culturally the Judeo-Christian ideology is dominant in all social strata. This duality complicates all juridical-penal decisions regarding abortion. Public opinion on abortion is influenced on the 1 hand by extremely conservative groups who condemn abortion as homicide, and on the other hand by groups who demand legislative reform in congruence with characteristics that define the state: an attitude of tolerance toward the different ideological-moral positions that coexist in the country. The discussion concerns the rights of women to voluntary maternity, protection of health, and to making their own decisions regarding their bodies vs. the rights of the fetus to life. The type of analysis is not objective, and conclusions depend on the ideology of the analyst. Other elements must be examined for an objective consideration of the social problem of abortion. For example, aspects related to maternal morbidity and mortality and the demographic, economic, and physical and mental health of the population would all seem to support the democratic juridical doctrine that sees the clandestine nature of abortion as the principal problem. It is also observed that the illegality of abortion does not guarantee its elimination. Desperate women will seek abortion under any circumstances. The illegality of abortion also impedes health and educational policies that would lower abortion mortality. There are various problems from a strictly juridical perspective. A correct definition of the term abortion is needed that would coincide with the medical definition. The discussion must be clearly centered on the protected juridical right and the definition of reproductive and health rights and rights to their own bodies of women. The experiences of other

  9. Safety, efficacy and acceptability of outpatient mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion through 70 days since last menstrual period in public sector facilities in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza Smith, Patricio; Peña, Melanie; Dzuba, Ilana G; García Martinez, María Laura; Aranguré Peraza, Ana Gabriela; Bousiéguez, Manuel; Shochet, Tara; Winikoff, Beverly

    2015-02-01

    Extensive evidence exists regarding the efficacy and acceptability of medical abortion through 63 days since last menstrual period (LMP). In Mexico City's Secretariat of Health (SSDF) outpatient facilities, mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion is the first-line approach for abortion care in this pregnancy range. Recent research demonstrates continued high rates of complete abortion through 70 days LMP. To expand access to legal abortion services in Mexico City (where abortion is legal through 12 weeks LMP), this study sought to assess the efficacy and acceptability of the standard outpatient approach through 70 days in two SSDF points of service. One thousand and one women seeking pregnancy termination were enrolled and given 200 mg mifepristone followed by 800 μg misoprostol 24-48 hours later. Women were asked to return to the clinic one week later for evaluation. The great majority of women (93.3%; 95% CI: 91.6-94.8) had complete abortions. Women with pregnancies ≤ 8 weeks LMP had significantly higher success rates than women in the 9th or 10th weeks (94.9% vs. 90.5%; p = 0.01). The difference in success rates between the 9th and 10th weeks was not significant (90.0% vs. 91.2%; p = 0.71). The majority of women found the side effects (82.9%) and the use of misoprostol (84.4%) to be very acceptable or acceptable. This study provides additional evidence supporting an extended outpatient medical abortion regimen through 10 weeks LMP. PMID:25702071

  10. Safety, efficacy and acceptability of outpatient mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion through 70 days since last menstrual period in public sector facilities in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza Smith, Patricio; Peña, Melanie; Dzuba, Ilana G; García Martinez, María Laura; Aranguré Peraza, Ana Gabriela; Bousiéguez, Manuel; Shochet, Tara; Winikoff, Beverly

    2015-02-01

    Extensive evidence exists regarding the efficacy and acceptability of medical abortion through 63 days since last menstrual period (LMP). In Mexico City's Secretariat of Health (SSDF) outpatient facilities, mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion is the first-line approach for abortion care in this pregnancy range. Recent research demonstrates continued high rates of complete abortion through 70 days LMP. To expand access to legal abortion services in Mexico City (where abortion is legal through 12 weeks LMP), this study sought to assess the efficacy and acceptability of the standard outpatient approach through 70 days in two SSDF points of service. One thousand and one women seeking pregnancy termination were enrolled and given 200 mg mifepristone followed by 800 μg misoprostol 24-48 hours later. Women were asked to return to the clinic one week later for evaluation. The great majority of women (93.3%; 95% CI: 91.6-94.8) had complete abortions. Women with pregnancies ≤ 8 weeks LMP had significantly higher success rates than women in the 9th or 10th weeks (94.9% vs. 90.5%; p = 0.01). The difference in success rates between the 9th and 10th weeks was not significant (90.0% vs. 91.2%; p = 0.71). The majority of women found the side effects (82.9%) and the use of misoprostol (84.4%) to be very acceptable or acceptable. This study provides additional evidence supporting an extended outpatient medical abortion regimen through 10 weeks LMP.

  11. Medical confidentiality and patient safety: reporting procedures.

    PubMed

    Abbing, Henriette Roscam

    2014-06-01

    Medical confidentiality is of individual and of general interest. Medical confidentiality is not absolute. European countries differ in their legislative approaches of consent for data-sharing and lawful breaches of medical confidentiality. An increase of interference by the legislator with medical confidentiality is noticeable. In The Netherlands for instance this takes the form of new mandatory duties to report resp. of legislation providing for a release of medical confidentiality in specific situations, often under the condition that reporting takes place on the basis of a professional code that includes elements imposed by the legislator (e.g. (suspicion of) child abuse, domestic violence). Legislative interference must not result in the patient loosing trust in healthcare. To avoid erosion of medical confidentiality, (comparative) effectiveness studies and privacy impact assessments are necessary (European and national level). Medical confidentiality should be a subject of permanent education of health personnel.

  12. Medical Service Clinical Laboratory Procedures--Bacteriology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    This manual presents laboratory procedures for the differentiation and identification of disease agents from clinical materials. Included are procedures for the collection of specimens, preparation of culture media, pure culture methods, cultivation of the microorganisms in natural and simulated natural environments, and procedures in…

  13. 22 CFR 215.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 215.6... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 215.6 Special procedures: Medical records. If the Assistant Director for Administration or the Privacy Liaison Officer, determines that the release directly to the individual of...

  14. 22 CFR 215.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 215.6... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 215.6 Special procedures: Medical records. If the Assistant Director for Administration or the Privacy Liaison Officer, determines that the release directly to the individual of...

  15. 18 CFR 701.306 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special procedure: Medical records. 701.306 Section 701.306 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.306 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) An...

  16. 18 CFR 701.306 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special procedure: Medical records. 701.306 Section 701.306 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.306 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) An...

  17. 22 CFR 215.6 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 215.6... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 215.6 Special procedures: Medical records. If the Assistant Director for Administration or the Privacy Liaison Officer, determines that the release directly to the individual of...

  18. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis: Case report with history of urticaria, petechiae and palpable pinpoint purpura triggered by medical abortion.

    PubMed

    Mbonile, Lumuli

    2016-04-01

    Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis (APD) is a rare autoimmune response to raised endogenous progesterone levels that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Cutaneous, mucosal lesions and other systemic manifestations develop cyclically during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle when progesterone levels are elevated. APD symptoms usually start 3 - 10 days before menstruation and resolve 1 - 2 days after menstruation ceases. A 30-year-old woman presented with urticaria, petechiae and palpable pinpoint purpura lesions of the legs, forearms, neck and buttocks 1 week prior to her menses starting and 2 months after a medical abortion. She was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis and topical steroids were prescribed. Her skin conditions did not improve and were associated with her menstrual cycle. We performed an intradermal test using progesterone, which was positive. She was treated with oral contraceptive pills and the symptoms were resolved. This is a typical case of APD triggered by increased sensitivity to endogenous progesterone induced a few months after medical abortion. PMID:27032848

  19. Induced Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Induced Abortion Patient Education FAQs Induced Abortion Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  20. 18 CFR 701.306 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: Medical records. 701.306 Section 701.306 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.306 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) An individual requesting disclosure of a record which contains medical or psychological information may name a...

  1. 18 CFR 1301.16 - Special procedures-medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-medical records. 1301.16 Section 1301.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Privacy Act § 1301.16 Special procedures—medical records. If, in the judgment of TVA, the transmission of medical records, including psychological records, directly to a...

  2. 18 CFR 701.306 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: Medical records. 701.306 Section 701.306 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.306 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) An individual requesting disclosure of a record which contains medical or psychological information may name a...

  3. 18 CFR 1301.16 - Special procedures-medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-medical records. 1301.16 Section 1301.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Privacy Act § 1301.16 Special procedures—medical records. If, in the judgment of TVA, the transmission of medical records, including psychological records, directly to a...

  4. 18 CFR 701.306 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...: Medical records. 701.306 Section 701.306 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.306 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) An individual requesting disclosure of a record which contains medical or psychological information may name a...

  5. 18 CFR 1301.16 - Special procedures-medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-medical records. 1301.16 Section 1301.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Privacy Act § 1301.16 Special procedures—medical records. If, in the judgment of TVA, the transmission of medical records, including psychological records, directly to a...

  6. Abortion: the continuing controversy.

    PubMed

    Behrens, C E

    1972-08-01

    While most countries of the world practice abortion, government policy, medical opinion, private opinion and actual practice vary widely. Although mortality from legal abortions is quite low, complications rise sharply after 12 gestational weeks. No conclusive proof shows adverse postabortion psychological effects. Romania, Japan and the Soviet Union experienced declining birth rates when abortion was made available and New York City saw a decline in illegitimacy of approximately 12% from 1970 to 1971. Throughout the world abortion laws vary from restrictive to moderate to permissive. Where laws are restrictive, as in France and Latin America, illegal abortions are estimated in the millions. The controversy over abortion centers around the arguments of what constitutes a human life, and the rights of the fetus versus the right of a woman to control her reproductive life. A review of state abortion laws as of August 1972 shows pressure on state legislatures to change existing laws. The future of abortion depends upon technological advances in fertility control, development of substitutes like menstral extraction, prostaglandins and reversible sterilization. Development of these techniques will take time. At present only through education and improved delivery of contraceptives can dependence on abortion as a method of fertility control be eased. Citizen education in the United States, both sex education and education for responsbile parenthood, is in a poor state according to the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future. If recourse to abortion is to be moderated, it is the next generation of parents who will have to be educated.

  7. France: late abortion.

    PubMed

    Gaudry, D; Sadan, G

    1989-01-01

    In France, under the terms of a law passed by Parliament in 1975, a woman may have an abortion up to 12 weeks of pregnancy if she is a French resident and, in the event that she is a minor, she has parental consent. The woman must also have 2 medical consultations, a week apart. The woman is reimbursed by the state up to 70% of the cost of the abortion. After 12 weeks, abortion, except for therapeutic abortion, under the terms of Article 317 of the Criminal Code, is a crime, punishable by 6 months to 10 years in prison, a fine of between 1800 and 250,000 Francs, and loss of professional license. Moreover, Article 647 of the Health Code bans any advertising, incitement or propaganda for abortion or abortion-inducing products. Many French women go to Britain or Holland for abortions after 12 weeks, but they face the financial burden of traveling as well as the difficulties of getting help in a strange country and the stigma of having done something illegal. The Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial, which won the legalization of contraception in 1967, is now fighting for legal abortion as well as the distribution of information about sexuality, contraception, and abortion in the schools. 2 charges of incitement to abortion have been brought against the organization.

  8. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. PMID:25846035

  9. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading.

  10. Avoidance of late abortion.

    PubMed

    1979-11-24

    Induced abortion is now a common procedure in the United States and Britain. Methods for performing induced abortion are reviewed. Menstrual regulation, aspiration with a hand-held syringe and a flexible cannula within 6 weeks of the last period, is not often practiced in Britain. Several developing countries are using this simple technique to advantage. Vacuum aspiration in the 1st 12 weeks of pregnancy is the main method being used everywhere for 1st trimester procedures. Mortality rates with this method are low and, in well-organized clinics with experienced personnel, the rates can be reduced even further. It is agreed that 2nd trimester procedures are more complex, both physically and emotionally. In the last several years, dilatation and evacuation (D&E) has increased in popularity for 2nd trimester procedures. Dilation of the cervix is generally accomplished with laminaria, evacuation of the uterus with forceps, and then suction curettage applied. This procedure has replaced intraamniotic infusion, hysterotomy, and hysterectomy as the most commonly - practiced method, despite its need for special surgical skills and good clinical backup. Follow-up of abortions is difficult. Different long-term effects have been noted with different abortion procedures. Early abortion seems to have only a modest effect, if that. Whether late abortion has long-lasting effects remains open to question. Late abortion should be avoided.

  11. Unintended Consequences: Abortion Training in the Years After Roe v Wade

    PubMed Central

    Fein, Lydia; Ketterer, Em; Young, Emily; Backus, Lois

    2013-01-01

    The US Supreme Court’s 1973 Roe v Wade decision had clear implications for American women’s reproductive rights and physician ability to carry out patient choices. Its effect on physician abortion training was less apparent. In an effort to increase patient access to abortions after Roe, provision shifted from hospitals to nonhospital clinics. However, these procedures and patients were taken out of the medical education realm, and physicians became vulnerable to intimidation. The consequent provider shortage created an unexpected barrier to abortion access. Medical Students for Choice was founded in 1993 to increase abortion-training opportunities for medical students and residents. Its mission ensures that motivated medical students will learn and a growing number of physicians will commit to comprehensive abortion provision. PMID:23327239

  12. Unintended consequences: abortion training in the years after Roe v Wade.

    PubMed

    Aksel, Sarp; Fein, Lydia; Ketterer, Em; Young, Emily; Backus, Lois

    2013-03-01

    The US Supreme Court's 1973 Roe v Wade decision had clear implications for American women's reproductive rights and physician ability to carry out patient choices. Its effect on physician abortion training was less apparent. In an effort to increase patient access to abortions after Roe, provision shifted from hospitals to nonhospital clinics. However, these procedures and patients were taken out of the medical education realm, and physicians became vulnerable to intimidation. The consequent provider shortage created an unexpected barrier to abortion access. Medical Students for Choice was founded in 1993 to increase abortion-training opportunities for medical students and residents. Its mission ensures that motivated medical students will learn and a growing number of physicians will commit to comprehensive abortion provision.

  13. Distinctions in Disclosure: Mandated Informed Consent in Abortion and ART.

    PubMed

    Daar, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Enactment of mandated pre-procedure disclosures in abortion and assisted reproductive technology (ART) services has swelled in recent years. Calls to equally regard these mandates as neutral tools in furtherance of patient protection fail to acknowledge key substantive and structural differences in these reproduction-affecting mandates. While ART mandates permit physicians to use their medical judgment to protect presumptively vulnerable egg donors and gestational carriers, abortion disclosures impart scientifically suspect messaging aimed at dissuading women from pursuing pregnancy termination. These and other distinctions counsel in favor of regarding and analyzing abortion and ART mandated disclosures as separate and distinguishable informed consent tools.

  14. The Carhart case and late-term abortions -- what's next in Australia?

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas; Jefferys, Susannah

    2007-08-01

    A recent case in the United States Supreme Court has indicated a change in course on the issue of abortion rights. In Gonzales v Carhart 127 S Ct 1610 (2007), the Supreme Court, in April 2007, upheld federal legislation banning a particular late-term abortion procedure with no exceptions (even to preserve the mother's life). This column examines the case in the context of recent Australian cases involving abortion issues. It extrapolates from Carhart to consider the potential for the Australian High Court to disrupt access to safe, medically supervised and performed abortion.

  15. 32 CFR 564.40 - Procedures for obtaining medical care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procedures for obtaining medical care. 564.40... care. (a) When a member of the ARNG incurs a disease or an injury, while performing training duty under... benefits. (b) Authorization for care in civilian facility. (1) An individual who desires medical or...

  16. 12 CFR 1403.6 - Special procedures for medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 1403.6 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 1403.6 Special procedures for medical records. Medical records in the custody of the Farm Credit System Insurance... the individual to whom they pertain or that person's authorized or legal representative or to...

  17. 32 CFR 319.7 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 319.7 Section 319.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 319.7 Special procedures:...

  18. 32 CFR 319.7 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 319.7 Section 319.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 319.7 Special procedures:...

  19. 32 CFR 319.7 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical records. 319.7 Section 319.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 319.7 Special procedures:...

  20. The Supreme Court, liberty, and abortion.

    PubMed

    Annas, G J

    1992-08-27

    While the issue of abortion has fueled a great deal of personal and political debate and controversy in the US, few have actually read the Supreme Court's rulings on Roe v. Wade and Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, which are central to the debate. This essay summarizes both rulings, examines the difference between the 2, and discusses implications for medical practice. Casey is important to states, physicians, and patients. Of central import is the ruling's restriction against states to outlaw abortion before viability. Other measures are, however, included which will complicate record keeping and securing consent. Restrictions against and/or steps required by the physician practicing abortion may also spread to apply to other medical procedures. The essay considers the future of Roe v. Wade. Whether or not a Freedom of Choice Act is ultimately passed in Congress, abortion will continue to divide large segments of the American population. Anti-abortionists will continue to attempt to overthrow women's right of free choice to abortion.

  1. Access to abortion services: abortions performed by mid-level practitioners.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, E A

    1993-01-01

    Because the number of physicians available to perform abortions in the US is dwindling, certified nurse-midwives, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants should be trained and permitted to perform abortions. Roadblocks to this change are the fact that the Supreme Court would likely allow states to prevent mid-level practitioners from performing abortions in the name of protecting the health of the mother. Also, existing statutes would probably not be interpreted by courts to allow mid-level practitioners to perform abortions. However, physician assistants have been performing abortions in Vermont since 1975, and a 1981-82 comparative study affirmed that physician assistants are well-equipped to perform abortions (of 2458 procedures, the complication rate/1000 was 27.4 for physician assistants and 30.8 for physicians). However, controversy surrounds the provision of abortion by these physician assistants in Vermont, since the relevant statute suggests that abortion is illegal unless performed by a physician. However, the statute has not been changed since Roe vs. Wade and is likely unconstitutional. Court cases in Missouri and Tennessee suggest that courts may be willing to include abortion within the scope of progressive nursing practice acts, but a recent similar case in Massachusetts resulted in a narrow interpretation of nursing practice statutes. Because the definition of professional nursing varies with each state statute, it will be a formidable task to convince every jurisdiction to include abortion as a permissible mid-level practice. Even in Vermont, the nursing practice statute defines in an exclusive list what services the professional nurse may perform (whereas the physician assistant regulations limit their scope of practice only to that delegated by a supervising physician). States could, of course, pass statutes which include abortion as a permissible practice for the mid-level practitioner. However, specific legislation would provide a clear

  2. Abortion in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szawarski, Z

    1991-12-01

    As of July 1991 abortion is still legal in Poland. Currently the Polish Parliament has taken a break from the debate because the issue is so important that any decision must not be made in past. There is strong pressure from the Catholic Church to eliminate access to abortion. In the fall the Polish people will vote for and elect their first truly democratic Parliament. Abortion does not seem to be playing as important a role as other political issues. In 1956 a law was passed that allowed a woman to have an abortion for medical or social reasons. This law resulted in allowing women in Poland to use abortion as their primary form of contraception. The vast majority of the abortions were performed under the social justification. Then, when democracy same to Poland with the help of the Catholic Church, an unprecedented debate in the mass media, churches, and educational institutions was stirred up. The government attempted to stay out of the debate at first. But as people from different side of the debate saw that they had an opportunity to influence things in their favor, they began to politicize the issue. Currently there are 4 different drafts of the new Polish abortion law. 3 of them radically condemn abortion while the 4th condemns it as a method of family planning, but allows to terminate pregnancies in order to save the life of the mother. PMID:1777450

  3. US poised to outlaw late abortion technique.

    PubMed

    Bozalis, D

    1995-11-18

    The House of Representatives passed a bill, by a two-thirds majority (288-139), prohibiting late (at 19-20 weeks gestation) abortion using intrauterine cranial decompression. The bill now awaits judgment from the Senate Judiciary Committee for hearings. If the bill becomes law, physicians performing the procedure could face up to two years in prison. Chris Smith, Republican cochairman of the House Pro-Life Caucus, who introduced the bill in the House, described the vote as historic. During his emotional speech, the procedure was described in order to desanitize a form of abortion that he called barbaric torture. Patricia Schroeder, Colorado House Representative, argued that the wording of the bill allowed the procedure only when it was the only possible way of saving the mother's life; the woman's health and future fertility were, in effect, set aside. There is no exception clause for when the woman's life or health is endangered. Schroeder fears women will be forced to choose more dangerous methods of abortion and believes more discussion is required regarding health risks and a more precise definition of when the procedure may be used. She is joined by the California Medical Association, the American Medical Women's Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, and the American Medical Association.

  4. US poised to outlaw late abortion technique.

    PubMed

    Bozalis, D

    1995-11-18

    The House of Representatives passed a bill, by a two-thirds majority (288-139), prohibiting late (at 19-20 weeks gestation) abortion using intrauterine cranial decompression. The bill now awaits judgment from the Senate Judiciary Committee for hearings. If the bill becomes law, physicians performing the procedure could face up to two years in prison. Chris Smith, Republican cochairman of the House Pro-Life Caucus, who introduced the bill in the House, described the vote as historic. During his emotional speech, the procedure was described in order to desanitize a form of abortion that he called barbaric torture. Patricia Schroeder, Colorado House Representative, argued that the wording of the bill allowed the procedure only when it was the only possible way of saving the mother's life; the woman's health and future fertility were, in effect, set aside. There is no exception clause for when the woman's life or health is endangered. Schroeder fears women will be forced to choose more dangerous methods of abortion and believes more discussion is required regarding health risks and a more precise definition of when the procedure may be used. She is joined by the California Medical Association, the American Medical Women's Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, and the American Medical Association. PMID:7496271

  5. [Abortion in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, Y; Hayase, T

    1993-01-01

    In Japan, the artificial abortion is a penal offence; only in the presence of certain conditions it is authorized under the provision of the Eugenic Protection Law which was promulgated in 1948. According to the law, the artificial abortion is restricted to the period, in which the fetus is not viable outside of the uterus. This period is prescribed by notification from the Ministry of Public Welfare; up to now it has been shortened twice (1976, 1991). Due to the introduction of economic reasons in the list of conditions and the simplification of the procedure the artificial abortion in Japan was virtually liberalized. Prosecution for illegal abortion is very rare in recent years. The number of reported artificial abortions decreases; in the about last 30 years it reduced by half. However, the increase in the number of abortions in women younger than 20 years of age is a problem. The abortion in teenagers is late compared with that in other age groups. Although the number of neonaticides does not seem to increase, the increase in the number of abortions in teenagers remains a serious problem in Japan. PMID:8352642

  6. [Nursing care of clients in an abortion clinic].

    PubMed

    Corstiaensen, J; Kruiswijk, C

    1981-08-25

    The nursing care of clients visiting an abortion clinic for induced abortion is discussed. Generally good care of patients, psychosocially as well as somatically, is essential. For clients in an abortion clinic it is important that psychosocial care is optimal and technical procedures are medically responsible. The initial contact is very important to the client because first impressions of the clinic can be significant in the further course of the entire treatment. Both nurse and doctor are usually involved in the admission interview and preliminary examination. After the physician's anamnesis and internal examination to determine gestational age, patient and doctor determine future contraception. Both abortion and contraception problems are discussed and the treatment procedure explained. It is important to recognize possible patient coercion or ambivalence in which case the client is sometimes advised to think things over. The actual intervention is generally fairly short, from 5 to 15 minutes. The abortion can be emotionally taxing for the client. The nurse's role in providing reassurance and understanding is important. 30 to 60 minutes following intervention the patient can go home. Follow-up, usually 3-5 weeks after intervention, is the final phase of treatment. During this check-up and internal examination the client can discuss her experience and progress in contraception. Case studies are included giving insight into the background of abortion seekers. Abortion clinic nurses must possess specific characteristics and attitudes, such as: 1) a nonjudgmental attitude towards sexuality and induced abortion; 2) empathy in her relationship with clients; 3) personal warmth and ability to help client overcome fear; 4) ability to discuss sexuality and abortion sympathetically; 5) assessment of possible interpersonal relational problems of client; 6) ability to relate to and understand different ethnic groups; 7) be informed on contraceptive methods and agents; and 8

  7. Abortion in Adolescence: The Ethical Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silber, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    This essay, addressed to medical personnel and counselors, presents a bioethical approach to adolescent abortion. Topics include an overview of abortion in the U.S., related medical issues, data pertinent to adolescent abortions, ethical theory, adolescent moral development, and moral aspects of treatment of adolescents. (Author/DB)

  8. Botswana: abortion "debate" dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mogwe, A

    1992-01-01

    The Penal Code (Amendment) Bill or the abortion bill has the objective of liberalizing the current law on the regulation of abortion. Abortion had been strictly prohibited and carried stiff penalties. Anyone who attempted to assists a woman to procure an abortion could be liable to 7 years' imprisonment. However, medical abortions were distinguished as being medically determined to save the health of the mother. Demands for a reevaluation of the law came from the medical profession, and in response the Minister for Presidential Affairs submitted a bill to Parliament in November, 1990. The expressed government rationale for these proposed amendments was concern about the health of women. In Botswana about 200 women die yearly because of pregnancy. According to the proposed law: an abortion could be carried out within the first 16 weeks of pregnancy if: 1) the pregnancy were a result of rape, incest, or defilement (the impregnation of a girl aged 16 or less, the impregnation of imbeciles or idiots), 2) the physical or mental health of the woman were at risk because of the pregnancy, 3) the child would be born with a serious physical or mental abnormality. The abortion could be carried out only if 2 medical doctors approved it. The amendments fall far short of increasing women's control over their bodies. The Botswana Christian Council issued a statement early in the public debate. While it did not oppose the bill in its entirety, clear concern was expressed concerning the apparent right of determining who lives and who dies depending on the handicap of the child. This rather liberal position was challenged by the Roman Catholic Church which interpreted abortion as the murder of God-given life. The bill was nevertheless passed by Parliament in September 1991, and the President signed it on October 11, 1991. PMID:12288837

  9. Abortion health services in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Wendy V.; Guilbert, Edith R.; Okpaleke, Christopher; Hayden, Althea S.; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; White, Katharine O’Connell; Jones, Heidi E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the location of Canadian abortion services relative to where reproductive-age women reside, and the characteristics of abortion facilities and providers. Design An international survey was adapted for Canadian relevance. Public sources and professional networks were used to identify facilities. The bilingual survey was distributed by mail and e-mail from July to November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures The number and location of services were compared with the distribution of reproductive-age women by location of residence. Results We identified 94 Canadian facilities providing abortion in 2012, with 48.9% in Quebec. The response rate was 83.0% (78 of 94). Facilities in every jurisdiction with services responded. In Quebec and British Columbia abortion services are nearly equally present in large urban centres and rural locations throughout the provinces; in other Canadian provinces services are chiefly located in large urban areas. No abortion services were identified in Prince Edward Island. Respondents reported provision of 75 650 abortions in 2012 (including 4.0% by medical abortion). Canadian facilities reported minimal or no harassment, in stark contrast to American facilities that responded to the same survey. Conclusion Access to abortion services varies by region across Canada. Services are not equitably distributed in relation to the regions where reproductive-age women reside. British Columbia and Quebec have demonstrated effective strategies to address disparities. Health policy and service improvements have the potential to address current abortion access inequity in Canada. These measures include improved access to mifepristone for medical abortion; provincial policies to support abortion services; routine abortion training within family medicine residency programs; and increasing the scope of practice for nurses and midwives to include abortion

  10. Abortion incidence in Cambodia, 2005 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Fetters, Tamara; Samandari, Ghazaleh

    2015-01-01

    Although Cambodia now permits elective abortion, scarcity of research on this topic means that information on abortion incidence is limited to regional estimates. This estimation model combines national survey data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) with national prospective data of abortion procedures from government health facilities, collected in 2005 and 2010, to calculate the national incidence of safe and unsafe abortion. According to DHS, the proportion of all induced abortions that took place in a health facility in the five years preceding each survey increased from almost 52% to 60%. Projecting from facility-based abortions to national estimates, the national abortion rate increased from 21 to 28 per 1000 women aged 15-44. The abortion ratio also increased from 19 to 28 per 100 live births. This research quantifies an increase in safely induced abortions in Cambodia and provides a deeper understanding of induced abortion trends in Cambodia.

  11. Abortion and abortifacients.

    PubMed

    King, T M

    1978-01-01

    It is argued that abortion research is needed to improve existing techniques and to develop new ones to overcome logistical, financial, and political obstacles to wider availability. Such developments are reviewed, including early pregnancy tests, menstrual regulation, improved cervical dilatation methods, new second trimester abortifacients (e.g., urea and prostaglandins), and new first trimester abortifacients (e.g., injection of ethanol into the uterus and prostaglandin pills or vaginal suppositories). This last is quite promising because of the possibility of self-administration, removing much of the need for medical intervention. Further research is urged on 1) long-term side effects of abortion, particularly late or multiple abortions; and 2) ways to improve the delivery and integration of abortions into family planning programs. It is noted that because abortion seekers demonstrate by the fact itself a strong motivation to control fertility and are therefore enthusiastic acceptors of contraceptive methods, the widespread availability of early pregnancy tests and abortion could be the most effective way of increasing contraceptive practice and reducing abortion itself.

  12. 12 CFR 1102.104 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Subcommittee § 1102.104 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement of physician or mental health... or a mental health professional indicating that, in his or her opinion, disclosure of the requested...) Designation of physician or mental health professional to receive records. If the ASC believes, in good...

  13. 12 CFR 1102.104 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Subcommittee § 1102.104 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement of physician or mental health... or a mental health professional indicating that, in his or her opinion, disclosure of the requested...) Designation of physician or mental health professional to receive records. If the ASC believes, in good...

  14. 12 CFR 1102.104 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Subcommittee § 1102.104 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement of physician or mental health... or a mental health professional indicating that, in his or her opinion, disclosure of the requested...) Designation of physician or mental health professional to receive records. If the ASC believes, in good...

  15. 12 CFR 1102.104 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Subcommittee § 1102.104 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement of physician or mental health... or a mental health professional indicating that, in his or her opinion, disclosure of the requested...) Designation of physician or mental health professional to receive records. If the ASC believes, in good...

  16. 12 CFR 1102.104 - Special procedure: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Subcommittee § 1102.104 Special procedure: Medical records. (a) Statement of physician or mental health... or a mental health professional indicating that, in his or her opinion, disclosure of the requested...) Designation of physician or mental health professional to receive records. If the ASC believes, in good...

  17. Stigma in abortion care: application to a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Allyson

    2011-02-01

    A recent research study found that being more directly involved in medical abortion places greater demands on the nurses. The demands required by nurses working in abortion care may be increased by the stigma attached to such an antisocial action. This paper presents an application of stigma theory, as espoused by Goffman, based on a qualitative research study on abortion. It is argued that women attending for abortion are stigmatised and nurses, although 'wise', have an affiliate stigma through their close association with the procedure. It is proposed that the situation can be ameliorated by addressing stigma at policy, local and personal levels. Examples from other areas of practice are outlined for possible application to practice.

  18. Drug combination adds fuel to US abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Rutter, T L

    1995-09-16

    A recent study in the US showed that abortion was achieved in 171/178 women aged 18 to 47 with pregnancies of 63 days or less duration through the administration of an intramuscular injection of methotrexate (a drug used to treat cancer) followed five to seven days later with a dose of misoprostol (used to treat ulcers). The report of this study prompted the founder of the anti-abortion group Operation Rescue to threaten the report's author with being "hunted down and tried for genocide" should abortion ever be made illegal. While the National Abortion Rights Action League urged that the procedure be judged on medical not political terms, a spokesperson for the National Right to Life Committee expressed concern for the reproductive and psychological health of women undergoing medical abortions. The Population Council is currently completing clinical trials of the regimen which employs RU-486 to achieve medical abortion and expects to file a new drug application with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1996. The methotrexate/misoprostol combination would be much less expensive than RU-486 (approximately $10 compared to $250 at current prices), and a pharmaceutical company is currently attempting to raise the six million dollars necessary to fund the large-scale clinical trials which must precede FDA approval. While the availability of medical abortions would make the procedure much more accessible and private for women, proper counseling must be given to the women to avoid unwanted side effects and so that the women know what to expect.

  19. Drug combination adds fuel to US abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Rutter, T L

    1995-09-16

    A recent study in the US showed that abortion was achieved in 171/178 women aged 18 to 47 with pregnancies of 63 days or less duration through the administration of an intramuscular injection of methotrexate (a drug used to treat cancer) followed five to seven days later with a dose of misoprostol (used to treat ulcers). The report of this study prompted the founder of the anti-abortion group Operation Rescue to threaten the report's author with being "hunted down and tried for genocide" should abortion ever be made illegal. While the National Abortion Rights Action League urged that the procedure be judged on medical not political terms, a spokesperson for the National Right to Life Committee expressed concern for the reproductive and psychological health of women undergoing medical abortions. The Population Council is currently completing clinical trials of the regimen which employs RU-486 to achieve medical abortion and expects to file a new drug application with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1996. The methotrexate/misoprostol combination would be much less expensive than RU-486 (approximately $10 compared to $250 at current prices), and a pharmaceutical company is currently attempting to raise the six million dollars necessary to fund the large-scale clinical trials which must precede FDA approval. While the availability of medical abortions would make the procedure much more accessible and private for women, proper counseling must be given to the women to avoid unwanted side effects and so that the women know what to expect. PMID:7549678

  20. Hypnosis before diagnostic or therapeutic medical procedures: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cheseaux, Nicole; de Saint Lager, Alix Juillet; Walder, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to estimate the efficiency of hypnosis prior to medical procedures. Different databases were analyzed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing hypnosis to control interventions. All RCTs had to report pain or anxiety. Eighteen RCTs with a total of 968 patients were included; study size was from 20 to 200 patients (14 RCTs ≤ 60 patients). Fourteen RCTs included 830 adults and 4 RCTs included 138 children. Twelve of 18 RCTs had major quality limitations related to unclear allocation concealments, provider's experience in hypnosis, patient's adherence to hypnotic procedures, and intention-to-treat design. This systematic review observed major methodological limitations in RCTs on hypnosis prior to medical procedures.

  1. Medical Tourism: The Trend toward Outsourcing Medical Procedures to Foreign Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Diane

    2008-01-01

    The rising costs of medical treatment in the United States are fueling a movement to outsource medical treatment. Estimates of the number of Americans traveling overseas for treatment range from 50,000 to 500,000. Charges for common procedures such as heart bypass can be $11,000 in Thailand compared to $130,000 in the United States. Knee…

  2. Clinical Outcomes and Women’s Experiences before and after the Introduction of Mifepristone into Second-Trimester Medical Abortion Services in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Harries, Jane; Malaba, Thokozile; Myer, Landon; Patel, Malika; Petro, Gregory; Grossman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To document clinical outcomes and women’s experiences following the introduction of mifepristone into South African public sector second-trimester medical abortion services, and compare with historic cohorts receiving misoprostol-only. Methods Repeated cross-sectional observational studies documented service delivery and experiences of women undergoing second-trimester medical abortion in public sector hospitals in the Western Cape, South Africa. Women recruited to the study in 2008 (n = 84) and 2010 (n = 58) received misoprostol only. Those recruited in 2014 (n = 208) received mifepristone and misoprostol. Consenting women were interviewed during hospitalization by study fieldworkers with respect to socio-demographic information, reproductive history, and their experiences with the abortion. Clinical details were extracted from medical charts following discharge. Telephone follow-up interviews to record delayed complications were conducted 2–4 weeks after discharge for the 2014 cohort. Results The 2014 cohort received 200 mg mifepristone, which was self-administered 24–48 hours prior to admission. For all cohorts, following hospital admission, initial misoprostol doses were generally administered vaginally: 800 mcg in the 2014 cohort and 600 mcg in the earlier cohorts. Women received subsequent doses of misoprostol 400 mcg orally every 3–4 hours until fetal expulsion. Thereafter, uterine evacuation of placental tissue was performed as needed. With one exception, all women in all cohorts expelled the fetus. Median time-to-fetal expulsion was reduced to 8.0 hours from 14.5 hours (p<0.001) in the mifepristone compared to the 2010 misoprostol-only cohort (time of fetal expulsion was not recorded in 2008). Uterine evacuation of placental tissue using curettage or vacuum aspiration was more often performed (76% vs. 58%, p<0.001) for those receiving mifepristone; major complication rates were unchanged. Hospitalization duration and extreme pain levels

  3. Abortion-Related Mortality in the United States 1998–2010

    PubMed Central

    Zane, Suzanne; Creanga, Andreea A.; Berg, Cynthia J.; Pazol, Karen; Suchdev, Danielle B.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Callaghan, William M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine characteristics and causes of legal induced abortion–related deaths in the United States between 1998 and 2010. METHODS Abortion-related deaths were identified through the national Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System with enhanced case-finding. We calculated the abortion mortality rate by race, maternal age, and gestational age and the distribution of causes of death by gestational age and procedure. RESULTS During the period from 1998–2010, of approximately 16.1 million abortion procedures, 108 women died, for a mortality rate of 0.7 deaths per 100,000 procedures overall, 0.4 deaths for non-Hispanic white women, 0.5 deaths for Hispanic women, and 1.1 deaths for black women. The mortality rate increased with gestational age, from 0.3 to 6.7 deaths for procedures performed at 8 weeks or less and at 18 weeks or greater, respectively. A majority of abortion-related deaths at 13 weeks of gestation or less were associated with anesthesia complications and infection, whereas a majority of abortion-related deaths at more than 13 weeks of gestation were associated with infection and hemorrhage. In 20 of the 108 cases, the abortion was performed as a result of a severe medical condition where continuation of the pregnancy threatened the woman’s life. CONCLUSION Deaths associated with legal induced abortion continue to be rare events—less than 1 per 100,000 procedures. Primary prevention of unintended pregnancy, including those in women with serious pre-existing medical conditions, and increased access to abortion services at early gestational ages may help to further decrease abortion-related mortality in the United States. PMID:26241413

  4. Is selective abortion for a genetic disease an issue for the medical profession? A comparative study of Quebec and France.

    PubMed

    Renaud, M; Bouchard, L; Kremp, O; Dallaire, L; Labadie, J F; Bisson, J; Trugeon, A

    1993-08-01

    This article discusses the results of a study of the stand and attitudes of physicians from the Picardie, Nord-Pas-de-Calais region in France and the province of Quebec (Canada) regarding abortion following the diagnosis of a fetal anomaly by ultrasound, amniocentesis, or chorionic villus sampling. The study examined the degree of acceptability of abortion for several specific conditions as well as the physicians' perceptions of their role in the women's decision to abort. The study shows a consensus (over 75 per cent of the physicians surveyed) for aborting a fetus with trisomy 21. There is a similar consensus, except among Francophones in Quebec, for muscular dystrophy, cystic fibrosis, and Huntington disease. Conversely, there is no consensus (below 60 per cent) for several anomalies. In these cases, Quebec Anglophone physicians find abortion more acceptable than Quebec Francophone or French physicians. Concerning the role of the practitioners in the decision to abort, physicians in France tend to be much more directive than their overseas colleagues. Several hypotheses are suggested to explain the difference between the three groups surveyed. PMID:8284288

  5. If we can do it for misoprostol, why not for mifepristone? The case for taking mifepristone out of the office in medical abortion.

    PubMed

    Gold, Marji; Chong, Erica

    2015-09-01

    Given the highly political nature of abortion in the United States, the provision of medical abortion with mifepristone (Mifeprex®) and misoprostol has always occurred under a unique set of circumstances. The Food and Drug Administration-approved regimen requires clinicians to administer the mifepristone in the office and also requires women to return to the office for the misoprostol. In the US, where off-label drug use is an accepted practice when supportive evidence exists, most clinicians give women the misoprostol at the initial visit for her to take at home, eliminating an unnecessary visit to the office. This commentary suggests that, based on current studies, there is also enough evidence to offer women the option to self-administer mifepristone out of the office and that this is just another feature of off-label use. Six studies, enrolling over 1800 women, found that the option of taking mifepristone out of the office was popular and acceptable among women and providers. Given that it is safe, highly acceptable and not burdensome on providers, outside-office-use of mifepristone should be offered to all women as part of routine medical abortion services. PMID:26093187

  6. [Misoprostol: pathways, mediation and social networks for access to abortion using medication in the context of illegality in the State of Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Arilha, Margareth Martha

    2012-07-01

    The scope of this article is to discuss the commercialization and use of misoprostol for abortion purposes in the illegal contexts that still persist in Brazil. The information presented was collected through case studies conducted with two young women who aborted using medication - one successfully and one unsuccessfully - and two adult women who have close ties with women who used misoprostol. The study confirms the hypothesis that the diffusion and expansion of the use of misoprostol outside the hospital context is associated with the decision of women who seek lower costs, lower risks to their health and privacy. It also permits examination of the interpretation that this increase in consumption is linked to the inclusion of the medication in a set of goods that are illegally traded in Brazil, in different ways and in different contexts. As a result, women are exposed to different degrees of vulnerability depending directly on the steps taken, types of mediation used and social networks they belong to. These are the ways in which women and men obtain access to the use of misoprostol for abortion, the outcome of which may be successful or not. PMID:22872340

  7. Medical devices and procedures in the hyperbaric chamber.

    PubMed

    Kot, Jacek

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present current controversies concerning the safety of medical devices and procedures under pressure in a hyperbaric chamber including: defibrillation in a multiplace chamber; implantable devices during hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) and the results of a recent European questionnaire on medical devices used inside hyperbaric chambers. Early electrical defibrillation is the only effective therapy for cardiac arrest caused by ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia. The procedure of defibrillation under hyperbaric conditions is inherently dangerous owing to the risk of fire, but it can be conducted safely if certain precautions are taken. Recently, new defibrillators have been introduced for hyperbaric medicine, which makes the procedure easier technically, but it must be noted that sparks and fire have been observed during defibrillation, even under normobaric conditions. Therefore, delivery of defibrillation shock in a hyperbaric environment must still be perceived as a hazardous procedure. Implantable devices are being seen with increasing frequency in patients referred for HBOT. These devices create a risk of malfunction when exposed to hyperbaric conditions. Some manufacturers support patients and medical practitioners with information on how their devices behave under increased pressure, but in some cases an individual risk-benefit analysis should be conducted on the patient and the specific implanted device, taking into consideration the patient's clinical condition, the indication for HBOT and the capability of the HBOT facility for monitoring and intervention in the chamber. The results of the recent survey on use of medical devices inside European hyperbaric chambers are also presented. A wide range of non-CE-certified equipment is used in European chambers. PMID:25596835

  8. Medical devices and procedures in the hyperbaric chamber.

    PubMed

    Kot, Jacek

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present current controversies concerning the safety of medical devices and procedures under pressure in a hyperbaric chamber including: defibrillation in a multiplace chamber; implantable devices during hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) and the results of a recent European questionnaire on medical devices used inside hyperbaric chambers. Early electrical defibrillation is the only effective therapy for cardiac arrest caused by ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia. The procedure of defibrillation under hyperbaric conditions is inherently dangerous owing to the risk of fire, but it can be conducted safely if certain precautions are taken. Recently, new defibrillators have been introduced for hyperbaric medicine, which makes the procedure easier technically, but it must be noted that sparks and fire have been observed during defibrillation, even under normobaric conditions. Therefore, delivery of defibrillation shock in a hyperbaric environment must still be perceived as a hazardous procedure. Implantable devices are being seen with increasing frequency in patients referred for HBOT. These devices create a risk of malfunction when exposed to hyperbaric conditions. Some manufacturers support patients and medical practitioners with information on how their devices behave under increased pressure, but in some cases an individual risk-benefit analysis should be conducted on the patient and the specific implanted device, taking into consideration the patient's clinical condition, the indication for HBOT and the capability of the HBOT facility for monitoring and intervention in the chamber. The results of the recent survey on use of medical devices inside European hyperbaric chambers are also presented. A wide range of non-CE-certified equipment is used in European chambers.

  9. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742

  10. Patterns of postoperative pain medication prescribing after invasive dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Barasch, Andrei; Safford, Monika M; McNeal, Sandre F; Robinson, Michelle; Grant, Vivian S; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2011-01-01

    We investigated disparities in the prescription of analgesics following dental procedures that were expected to cause acute postoperative pain. Patients over the age of 19 years who had been treated by surgical and/or endodontic dental procedures were included in this study. We reviewed 900 consecutive charts and abstracted data on procedures, patients, and providers. We used chi-square and logistic regression models for analyses. There were 485 White subjects, 357 African American subjects included in this review; 81% of the African American and 78% of White patients received a postoperative narcotic prescription (p = .56). In multivariate regression models, patients over age 45 (p = .003), those with insurance that covered medication and those with preexisting pain (p = .004) were more likely to receive narcotic analgesics. Students prescribed more narcotics than residents (p = .001). No differences were found by race in prescribing analgesics.

  11. Late abortion meeting, Paris / France.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, A

    1989-01-01

    On January 27 and 28, 1989 a workshop and a meeting were organized in Paris by Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial (MFPF/France) and the IPPF Europe Region. The workshop was held on the first day. 24 staff and volunteers from Planned Parenthood Associations of 15 countries attended, reviewing abortion laws, the definition of therapeutic abortion, and the incidence and problems of second trimester abortion. Second trimester abortion is available in only a few European countries. Second trimester abortions are rare in France (about 2000 per annum), and in 1986 1717 French women travelled to England in order to seek an abortion. All late abortions are performed for serious reasons. Older women may mistake signs of pregnancy for the onset of the menopause; and women fearful of social or familial punishment, especially teenagers, may be reluctant to consult a doctor. The experiences of Denmark and Sweden, where the problem is partially solved, suggest some strategies: optimize accessibility of contraceptive services, particularly for women at higher risk of late abortion; diminish the taboo surrounding abortion, so that women are less frightened to seek help at an early stage of pregnancy; make abortion services available in all regions of the country; avert time-consuming enforced waiting periods or consent for minors; and stimulate public information campaigns on the importance of seeking help early. On January 28 a meeting involving about 200 participants took place at the Universite Paris Dauphine, Salle Raymond Aron. Speakers at the meeting discussed the issue of late abortion in Europe, the difficulties of obtaining late abortions, counseling, medical problems, the woman's point of view, and possible solutions. At the close of the meeting, the MFPF called on the French government to modify some of the articles in the Penal Code that restrict women's access to safe and legal abortion.

  12. Abortion Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brashear, Diane B.

    1973-01-01

    The author discusses the characteristics and feelings of women undergoing abortion. She mentions the decisions which counselors must help such women face, the information they must be given, and the types of support they need. Increased counseling services are needed, she feels, for the markedly increased number of women seeking abortions. (EK)

  13. Partner violence and abortion characteristics.

    PubMed

    Colarossi, Lisa; Dean, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study using randomly selected medical charts of women reporting a history of partner violence and women with no history of partner violence at the time of a family planning or abortion appointment (n = 6,564 per group). We analyzed lifetime history of partner violence for odds of lifetime history of abortion and miscarriage number, and birth control problems. To more closely match timing, we analyzed a subsample of 2,186 women reporting current violence versus not at the time of an abortion appointment for differences in gestational age, medical versus surgical method choice, and return for follow-up visit. After adjusting for years at risk and demographic characteristics, women with a past history of partner violence were not more likely to have ever had one abortion, but they were more likely to have had problems with birth control, repeat abortions, and miscarriages than women with no history of violence. Women with current partner violence were also more likely to be receiving an abortion at a later gestational age. We found no differences between the groups in return for abortion follow-up visit or choice of surgical versus medication abortion. Findings support screening for the influence of partner violence on reproductive health and related safety planning. PMID:24580133

  14. Abortion restrictions may undermine welfare reform.

    PubMed

    1999-02-01

    Results from a study conducted by Pennsylvania State University's Population Research Institute indicate that more restrictive abortion laws in the US may have led to an increase in the number of single mothers, even given new welfare reform laws which make unmarried childbearing more costly. Study findings are based upon county rates of female-headed families from the 1980 and 1990 censuses, excluding those in Alaska and Hawaii. By making unmarried childbearing more costly, welfare reform has sparked a demand for abortion, while at the same time abortion laws have restricted access to abortion. An increasing number of unmarried women on welfare have therefore chosen childbearing over abortion. The study found a decline in the number of abortions in counties where abortion laws had become more strict. That states can now require abortion providers to notify the parents of minors who have abortions, to restrict Medicaid funding for abortions, and to establish 24-hour waiting periods has made abortion either a difficult or impossible option for some women. These restrictive abortion laws and geographic barriers to abortion have discouraged women from undergoing the procedure, increasing the number of female-headed families and single mothers. The public policy goal of reducing unmarried childbearing and female-headed families is being undermined by the growing geographic and legal barriers designed to discourage abortion. PMID:12348920

  15. Partial-birth abortion, Congress, and the Constitution.

    PubMed

    Annas, G J

    1998-07-23

    In the US, a new antiabortion strategy of using legislative and judicial forums to change the rhetoric of abortion rather than using abortion rhetoric to change the law arose out of disappointment when the 1992 Casey decision failed to overturn Roe. This new approach is crystallized by the 1995 introduction of federal legislation (vetoed by the President) to ban so-called "partial-birth" abortions. Opponents to this late-term procedure undertaken to preserve a women's life or health distinguish intact dilatation and extraction from induced labor to terminate a nonviable pregnancy (failing to recognize the lack of ethical difference) and make inaccurate political statements linking the abortion procedure to infanticide. When the ban was reintroduced to Congress in 1997, the previously silent American Medical Association agreed to support the bill if two "physician-friendly" amendments were added, but the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists made it clear that it is "inappropriate, ill advised, and dangerous" for legislative bodies to intervene into medical decision-making. The new version of the bill shifted the focus to all abortions after viability unless they are necessary to protect the mother from grievous harm to her physical (not mental) health, thus limiting the reach of the Roe decision. Clinton vetoed this bill also. Such legislation would be unlikely to prevent even one abortion, and its importance rests in its view of the proper role of government in regulating health care. This follows previous efforts to reframe the abortion debate by creating a dichotomy that marginalizes either women or fetuses and shifts the focus to another issue.

  16. Medical tourism: the trend toward outsourcing medical procedures to foreign countries.

    PubMed

    York, Diane

    2008-01-01

    The rising costs of medical treatment in the United States are fueling a movement to outsource medical treatment. Estimates of the number of Americans traveling overseas for treatment range from 50,000 to 500,000. Charges for common procedures such as heart bypass can be $11,000 in Thailand compared to $130,000 in the United States. Knee replacement in the United States can cost $40,000 compared to $13,000 in Singapore.A new industry, medical tourism, has been created to advise patients on the appropriate facility in the right country for their condition, handle all travel arrangements, teleconference with physicians, and send medical records. To respond to the growth in medical travel, the Joint Commission (formerly the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations) initiated the Joint Commission International (JCI) to accredit hospitals worldwide. Although outcome statistics from hospitals outside the United States are rare, first-person reports on quality are numerous. Making surgery possible for uninsured and underinsured individuals or self-insured state, municipal, and private entities is a major benefit of medical tourism. Mitigating against medical travel are the lack of legal remedies in place for malpractice and the possibility that travel itself can impose risk to patients. For example, lengthy air flights where the patient is in a fixed position for hours at a time can cause embolisms. If the trend toward medical tourism continues, continuing education, credentialing, and certification services may be required to help assure patient safety. PMID:18521877

  17. Photoacoustic monitoring of circulating tumor cells released during medical procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juratli, Mazen A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Galanzha, Ekaterina; Suen, James Y.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2013-03-01

    Many cancer deaths are related to metastasis to distant organs due to dissemination of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) shed from the primary tumor. For many years, oncologists believed some medical procedures may provoke metastasis; however, no direct evidence has been reported. We have developed a new, noninvasive technology called in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC), which provides ultrasensitive detection of CTCs. When CTCs with strongly light-absorbing intrinsic melanin pass through a laser beam aimed at a peripheral blood vessel, laser-induced acoustic waves from CTCs were detected using an ultrasound transducer. We focused on melanoma as it is one of the most metastatically aggressive malignancies. The goal of this research was to determine whether melanoma manipulation, like compression, incisional biopsy, or tumor excision, could enhance penetration of cancer cells from the primary tumor into the circulatory system. The ears of nude mice were inoculated with melanoma cells. Blood vessels were monitored for the presence of CTCs using in vivo PAFC. We discovered some medical procedures, like compression of the tumor, biopsy, and surgery may either initiate CTC release in the blood which previously contained no CTCs, or dramatically increased (10-30-fold) CTC counts above the initial level. Our results warn oncologists to use caution during physical examination, and surgery. A preventive anti-CTC therapy during or immediately after surgery, by intravenous drug administration could serve as an option to treat the resulting release of CTCs.

  18. Decision-Making for Induced Abortion in the Accra Metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Gbagbo, Fred Yao; Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Laar, Amos

    2015-06-01

    Decision-making for induced abortion can be influenced by various circumstances including those surrounding onset of a pregnancy. There are various dimensions to induced abortion decision-making among women who had an elective induced abortion in a cosmopolitan urban setting in Ghana, which this paper examined. A cross-sectional mixed method study was conducted between January and December 2011 with 401 women who had undergone an abortion procedure in the preceding 12 months. Whereas the quantitative data were analysed with descriptive statistics, thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data. The study found that women of various profiles have different reasons for undergoing abortion. Women considered the circumstances surrounding onset of pregnancy, person responsible for the pregnancy, gestational age at decision to terminate, and social, economic and medical considerations. Pressures from partners, career progression and reproductive intentions of women reinforced these reasons. First time pregnancies were mostly aborted regardless of gestational ages and partners' consent. Policies and programmes targeted at safe abortion care are needed to guide informed decisions on induced abortions.

  19. Brazilian adolescents’ knowledge and beliefs about abortion methods: a school-based internet inquiry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet surveys that draw from traditionally generated samples provide the unique conditions to engage adolescents in exploration of sensitive health topics. Methods We examined awareness of unwanted pregnancy, abortion behaviour, methods, and attitudes toward specific legal indications for abortion via a school-based internet survey among 378 adolescents aged 12–21 years in three Rio de Janeiro public schools. Results Forty-five percent knew peers who had undergone an abortion. Most students (66.0%) did not disclose abortion method knowledge. However, girls (aOR 4.2, 95% CI 2.4-7.2), those who had experienced their sexual debut (aOR1.76, 95% CI 1.1-3.0), and those attending a prestigious magnet school (aOR 2.7 95% CI 1.4-6.3) were more likely to report methods. Most abortion methods (79.3%) reported were ineffective, obsolete, and/or unsafe. Herbs (e.g. marijuana tea), over-the-counter medications, surgical procedures, foreign objects and blunt trauma were reported. Most techniques (85.2%) were perceived to be dangerous, including methods recommended by the World Health Organization. A majority (61.4%) supported Brazil’s existing law permitting abortion in the case of rape. There was no association between gender, age, sexual debut, parental education or socioeconomic status and attitudes toward legal abortion. However, students at the magnet school supported twice as many legal indications (2.7, SE.27) suggesting a likely role of peers and/or educators in shaping abortion views. Conclusions Abortion knowledge and attitudes are not driven simply by age, religion or class, but rather a complex interplay that includes both social spaces and gender. Prevention of abortion morbidity and mortality among adolescents requires comprehensive sexuality and reproductive health education that includes factual distinctions between safe and unsafe abortion methods. PMID:24521075

  20. Women's Medical Professional Corporation v. Taft.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    Court Decision: 353 Federal Reporter, 3d Series 436; 2003 Dec 17 (date of decision). The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit reversed a lower court decision and held that Ohio's partial-birth abortion law was constitutional because the law permitted the procedure in the event of significant maternal health risk and did not prohibit dilation and evacuation (a lawful abortion procedure). Women's Medical Professional Corporation challenged the constitutionality of Ohio's ban on partial-birth abortion, claiming that the law did not contain an adequate exception for maternal health and that it unduly burdened a woman's right to abort a nonviable fetus by dilation and evacuation (D&E). The Sixth Circuit held that the law's maternal health exception was valid under the Fourteenth Amendment because it allowed partial-birth abortion when there is significant maternal health risk. The court rejected the plaintiff's assertion that partial-birth abortion should be allowed at any physician's discretion and noted that precedent allows states to "restrict an abortion procedure except when the procedure is necessary to prevent a significant health risk." The court also held that the law did not ban D&E, the most common second-trimester abortion procedure, because the law explicitly tracked the medical differences between D&E and partial-birth abortion, it provided an exception for D&E, and it focused on other distinctions between D&E and partial-birth abortion. For these reasons, Ohio's partial-birth abortion ban did not unduly burden a woman's right to terminate a pregnancy and was therefore constitutional. PMID:16477714

  1. Supreme Court issues limited ruling in challenge to Utah abortion ban.

    PubMed

    1996-06-28

    A law passed in Utah in 1991 which prohibited abortion except in cases of life endangerment, rape, incest, risk of grave damage to a woman's medical health, or grave fetal defects. The exceptions for women who had been sexually abused were eliminated after 20 weeks gestation. In December 1992, US District Court Judge J. Thomas Greene found the ban unconstitutional as applied to abortions prior to 20 weeks but upheld it as applied to procedures after that point in pregnancy. A three-judge appellate panel later reversed the district court decision in August 1995 on the argument that the prohibition on post-20-week abortions could not stand independent of the ban on earlier procedures. The appeals court also struck down a requirement that physicians performing those abortions allowed after viability use the method most likely to give the fetus the best chance of survival, unless it would endanger a woman's life or cause grave damage to her medical health. In an unsigned opinion issued on June 17, 1996, the US Supreme Court reversed the appeals court decision which struck down Utah's original 1991 ban on abortions. Five justices ruling in Leavitt v. Jane L. found that the US Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit misapplied Utah precedent when it found that the criminal abortion statute could not be divided into two separate abortion bans, one before and one after 20 weeks gestation. Health care providers will now argue that the ban on post-20-week abortions should be struck down on constitutional grounds. This is the first challenge to a state abortion law to come under High Court review since Planned Parenthood v. Casey in 1992.

  2. [Septic abortion in the Hospital de Ginecología y Obstetricia no. 3 del Instituto Mexicana de Seguridad Social. Late and early morbidity].

    PubMed

    López Ortiz, E; Sandoval Sevilla, S; Arteaga, V M; Rosas Arceo, J; Ortíz Arroyo, R

    1974-02-01

    268 cases of septic abortion which occurred between 1964-72 in a large metropolitan hospital in Mexico were analyzed retrospecively. There cases represented 0.88% of all cases of abortion during the same time. Most patients were between 21-30, and 48% with parity 2-5; 63% were at their first abortion; only 16 patients declared to have attempted abortion, and most cases were first trimester abortion. Pre- and postoperative procedures and vital signs were carefully taken, and time elapsed from medical treatment to surgery was 4-12 hours. There were 237 curettages, and 28 hysterectomies. Complication from surgery were 4.1%; there were 19 deaths, i.e. 7.5% of patients, of which 10 only 24 hours after hospitalization. Protocol of treatment of septic abortion is discussed, and surgical treatment highly recommended.

  3. Sociology and abortion: legacies and strategies.

    PubMed

    Imber, J B

    1979-11-01

    A survey essay sees the sociological view of abortion practice in 1979 appearing as a dense web of philosophical conundrums and at times violent political strategies; with abortion still not typically seen as 1 form of birth control among others. Attention is called to the variety of approaches to abortion in books and articles about its medical, demographic, religious, historical, political, philosophical, psychological, practical, and personal aspects. These include: James C. Mohr's Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy 1800-1900; Abortion, by Potts, Diggory, and Peel; Abortion in Psychosocial Perspective: Trends in Transnational Research, edited by Davis, Friedman, Van der Tak, and Seville; Linda Francke's The Ambivalence of Abortion; Mary K. Zimmerman's Passage Through Abortion: The Personal and Social Reality of Women's Experiences; Abortion Politics: The Hawaii Experience, by Steinhoff and Diamond; John Connery's Abortion: the Development of the Roman Catholic Perspective; Abortion: New Directions for Policy Studies, by Manier, Liu, and Solomon; and Harry Harris' Prenatal Diagnosis and Selective Abortion.

  4. Abortion ethics.

    PubMed

    Fromer, M J

    1982-04-01

    Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view

  5. Psychological sequelae of induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Romans-Clarkson, S E

    1989-12-01

    This article reviews the scientific literature on the psychological sequelae of induced abortion. The methodology and results of studies carried out over the last twenty-two years are examined critically. The unanimous consensus is that abortion does not cause deleterious psychological effects. Women most likely to show subsequent problems are those who were pressured into the operation against their own wishes, either by relatives or because their pregnancy had medical or foetal contraindications. Legislation which restricts abortion causes problems for women with unwanted pregnancies and their doctors. It is also unjust, as it adversely most affects lower socio-economic class women.

  6. A prospective survey of cases of complications of induced abortion presenting to Goroka Hospital, Papua New Guinea, 2011.

    PubMed

    Asa, Isaac; de Costa, Caroline; Mola, Glen

    2012-10-01

    Induced abortion on demand or for socio-economic indications is illegal in Papua New Guinea under the 1974 Criminal Code. Nevertheless, the procedure is known to be widely practised. This prospective study examines the demographic and medical features of women presenting with complications of induced abortion to Goroka Hospital in a 6-month period. It was noted that abortion was most commonly induced using the synthetic prostaglandin analogue misoprostol. Although illegal induced abortion cannot be condoned, it appears that misoprostol, much safer in this context than mechanical or traditional herbal methods, is now being widely used for the purpose of induced abortion in Papua New Guinea, as it is in other developing countries.

  7. Unusual Complication of Surgical Abortion with Pelvic Extrusion of Fetal Head: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Sunita; Ghose, Seetesh

    2015-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in developing countries. The complications mostly results following unsafe abortion procedure done by unskilled provider with or without minimal medical knowledge in rural part of developing countries. These complications can endanger the life of mother if proper medical or surgical interventions are not offered in time. A majority of these complications remains confidential. The uterine perforation is one of the serious but preventable complications of surgical abortion. A 21-year-old woman G4P2L2A1, presented in the emergency ward with complaints of lower abdominal pain for four days after attempting twice surgical termination of pregnancy at 19 weeks of gestation for an unwanted pregnancy. Transabdominal sonography and MRI revealed uterine rent with pelvic extrusion of fetal head. Emergency laparotomy with removal of fetal head and uterine rent repair was done. This case illustrates the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion by the gynaecologist for uterine perforation in patient presenting with abdominal pain a few days after undergoing surgical abortion, also shows the complementary role of sonography and MRI in evaluation of the similar patient and this case also highlights the rampant illegal unsafe abortion procedure in rural India despite of legalization of abortion act. PMID:26675988

  8. Unusual Complication of Surgical Abortion with Pelvic Extrusion of Fetal Head: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Begum, Jasmina; Samal, Sunita; Ghose, Seetesh

    2015-11-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in developing countries. The complications mostly results following unsafe abortion procedure done by unskilled provider with or without minimal medical knowledge in rural part of developing countries. These complications can endanger the life of mother if proper medical or surgical interventions are not offered in time. A majority of these complications remains confidential. The uterine perforation is one of the serious but preventable complications of surgical abortion. A 21-year-old woman G4P2L2A1, presented in the emergency ward with complaints of lower abdominal pain for four days after attempting twice surgical termination of pregnancy at 19 weeks of gestation for an unwanted pregnancy. Transabdominal sonography and MRI revealed uterine rent with pelvic extrusion of fetal head. Emergency laparotomy with removal of fetal head and uterine rent repair was done. This case illustrates the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion by the gynaecologist for uterine perforation in patient presenting with abdominal pain a few days after undergoing surgical abortion, also shows the complementary role of sonography and MRI in evaluation of the similar patient and this case also highlights the rampant illegal unsafe abortion procedure in rural India despite of legalization of abortion act. PMID:26675988

  9. Abortion (Amendment) Bill.

    PubMed

    Dundon, S

    1980-02-23

    Your editorial of Jan. 26 and the multi-signatory letter in your issue of Feb. 2 support the 1967 Abortion Act and suggest that Mr. Corrie's Bill is a retrograde step. The implication is that our professional knowledge should lead us to that conclusion. To take the opposite view risks being regarded as a member of a pressure group or a conscientious objector, but to remain silent might be construed as being in agreement. As I see it the great majority of people of varying ethnic groups, including those adhering to the Jewish, Muslim, and Christian faiths, subscribe to a behavioral code which regards human life as sacred: to take a life is to be countenanced only to save another. Abortion should be regarded as taking human life and morally wrong; making abortion legal does not make it morally right. Doctors are in a very difficult position, and cannot, no more than politicians can, make moral decisions for other people. Traditionally, however, the profession has a role in the responsibility for protection of life, and perhaps the public have a right to expect this protection. Human life begins at conception and some human rights begin at this time. Life (and its protection) seems to be a most basic right. The World Medical Association, in the Declaration of Oslo (1970), stated: "1. The first moral principle imposed upon the doctor is respect for human life as expressed in a clause of the Declaration of Geneva: 'I will maintain the utmost respect for human life from the time of conception.'" The 1967 Abortion Act did not result from a general referendum, much less a medical referendum. If the Corrie Bill is passed and abortions are cut by 2/3 as you suggest, this would, in my view, be a step, not back, but in the right direction.

  10. Prevention of infection after induced abortion: release date October 2010: SFP guideline 20102.

    PubMed

    Achilles, Sharon L; Reeves, Matthew F

    2011-04-01

    One known complication of induced abortion is upper genital tract infection, which is relatively uncommon in the current era of safe, legal abortion. Currently, rates of upper genital tract infection in the setting of legal induced abortion in the United States are generally less than 1%. Randomized controlled trials support the use of prophylactic antibiotics for surgical abortion in the first trimester. For medical abortion, treatment-dose antibiotics may lower the risk of serious infection. However, the number-needed-to-treat is high. Consequently, the balance of risk and benefits warrants further investigation. Perioperative oral doxycycline given up to 12 h before a surgical abortion appears to effectively reduce infectious risk. Antibiotics that are continued after the procedure for extended durations meet the definition for a treatment regimen rather than a prophylactic regimen. Prophylactic efficacy of antibiotics begun after abortion has not been demonstrated in controlled trials. Thus, the current evidence supports pre-procedure but not post-procedure antibiotics for the purpose of prophylaxis. No controlled studies have examined the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for induced surgical abortion beyond 15 weeks of gestation. The risk of infection is not altered when an intrauterine device is inserted immediately post-procedure. The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae or acute cervicitis carries a significant risk of upper genital tract infection; this risk is significantly reduced with antibiotic prophylaxis. Women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) also have an elevated risk of post-procedural infection as compared with women without BV; however, additional prophylactic antibiotics for women with known BV has not been shown to reduce their risk further than with use of typical pre-procedure antibiotic prophylaxis. Accordingly, evidence to support pre-procedure screening for BV is lacking. Neither povidone-iodine nor chlorhexidine have

  11. 32 CFR 1801.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special procedures for medical and psychological... Special procedures for medical and psychological records. (a) In general. When a request for access or amendment involves medical or psychological records and when the originator determines that such records...

  12. [Induced abortion--a historical outline].

    PubMed

    Glenc, F

    1974-11-11

    An historical review of the use of induced abortion is presented, beginning with early eras. The Chinese were the 1st to record the practice of induced abortion, with this operation being administered to royal concubines recorded at 500-515 B.C. Induced abortion was not used in ancient Greece, either for criminal or ethical reason. However, the ancient Greeks did utilize compulsory abortion for serious economic indications, as a means of controlling natural growth. Greek medical, gyneoclogigcal instruments for adminsitering abortions were described by Hippocrates. The Greek moral attitudes on abortion were largely adopted by the Romans, which were later altered by the appearance of Christianity and new ethical ideas. These ideas dominated European attitudes, along with the Church of Rome, limiting induced abortion to cases where the life of the mother was threatened. This attitude has existed until the present century, when these moral ideas are being challanged seriously for the 1st time in modern history. PMID:4610534

  13. Surrogate motherhood as a medical treatment procedure for women's infertility.

    PubMed

    Jovic, Olga S

    2011-03-01

    The content of this work is conceived on the research of the consequences of surrogate motherhood as a process of assisted procreation, which represent a way of parenthood in cases when it is not possible to realize parenthood through a natural way. Surrogate motherhood is a process in which a woman (surrogate mother) agrees to carry a pregnancy with the intent to give the child to the couple with whom she has made a contract on surrogate maternity after the birth. This process of conception and birth makes the determination of the child's origin on its mother's side hard to determine, because of the distinction of the genetic and gestation phases of the two women. The concept of surrogate motherhood is to appear in two forms, depending on the existence or the non-existence of the genetic link between the surrogate mother and the child she gives birth to. There are gestation (full) and genetic (partial) surrogates each with different modalities and legal and ethical implications. In Serbia, Infertility Treatment and the Bio-medically Assisted Procreation Act from 2009 explicitly forbids surrogate motherhood, despite the fact that an infertile couple decides to use it, as a rule, after having tried all other treatment procedures, in cases when there is a diagnosis but the conventional treatment applied has not produced the desired results. Given the fact that no one has the right to ignore the sufferings of people who cannot procreate naturally, the medical practice and legal science in our country plead for a formulation of a legal framework in which to apply surrogate motherhood as an infertility treatment, under particular conditions. PMID:21528795

  14. [Induced abortion: a world perspective].

    PubMed

    Henshaw, S K

    1987-01-01

    where the procedure is illegal. On the basis of hospital reports and other fragmentary information, the true rate appears to be relatively high in Latin America and the Far East. The abortion rate for Latin America in the mid-1970s was estimated at 65/1000 fertile aged women, and rates were believed to be higher in urban areas. Sub-Saharan Africa, where women desire very large families, apparently had the lowest rates. Up to 68% of pregnancies in the USSR, 57% in Rumania, and 55% in Japan may end in abortion. The proportion in developing countries ranged from 8% in Vietnam to 43% in China. Women undergoing abortion in developed countries tend to be young, childless, and single, while those in developing countries tend to be older, high parity, and married. Abortion mortality is still high in countries where large numbers of illegal abortions are performed by unqualified personnel, as in many parts of Latin America.

  15. 20 CFR 10.304 - Are there any exceptions to these procedures for obtaining medical care?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Medical and Related Benefits Emergency Medical Care § 10.304 Are there any exceptions to these procedures for obtaining medical care? In cases involving emergencies or... for obtaining medical care? 10.304 Section 10.304 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS'...

  16. The abortion decision: reasons and ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Allanson, S; Astbury, J

    1995-09-01

    Self-in-relation theory and pilot data responses to an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet by 20 women attending an abortion-providing clinic challenge previous formulations of the abortion decision. Pilot data suggest that: women may make an abortion decision based primarily on pragmatics, a belief in their right to choose and knowledge of the safety and simplicity of the procedure. A discrepancy may exist for a significant minority of women between their abstract beliefs/knowledge and the personal meaning for them of the pregnancy, abortion and its safety. Important links may exist between maternal attachment and anxiety about the safety of the abortion procedure. Ramifications for counselling and future research are discussed. PMID:8528379

  17. [Chemical methods of abortion].

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Matthiesen, H

    1979-07-20

    Medicaments are used to prepare for instrument abortions in the 1st trimester and as inducers of abortion in the 2nd trimester. The effects, side effects, and dangers depend on the substances used and the route of application, which can be vaginal, cervical, injection, instillation, extraamniotic, intraamniotic, intravenous, or intramuscular. In the past, intraamniotic instillation of a 20% salt solution was the most common 2nd trimester method in Japan, the US, and Eastern Europe, giving a success rate of 90%. Serious side effects prompted substitution of extraamniotic instillation, which rarely produces serious side effects. Instillation of a 60% urea solution into the amniotic fluid in combination with oxytocin or prostaglandin produces an abortion in 13-21 hours, with a failure rate of 3% and a frequency of cervical laceration of under 1%. Extraamniotic use of a .1% solution of rivanol yields a success rate of about 85%, with a relatively long average time to explusion of 24-41 hours. In case of failure the procedure can be repeated. The advantage of the Rivanol method is the rarity of infectious complications. Alcohol is not used as a human abortifacient because it produces necrosis in the decidua and placenta. Prostaglandins are used in most 2nd trimester abortions. Research is underway to identify derivatives that will have an extended uterine impact without serious side effects. Different routes of administration have different effectiveness rates and dangers. All prostaglandins cause side effects including pain during uterine contractions, gastro-intestinal reactions, nausea, vomiting, fever, and headaches. Specific preparations are associated with other effects, some of them life-threatening. Emergency treatment should be available when these substances are used. Adjuvant measures may be employed before adminstration of an abortifacient agent to soften the cervix, or after administration to hasten the procedure. The choice of procedure depends upon the

  18. First-trimester surgical abortion technique.

    PubMed

    Yonke, Nicole; Leeman, Lawrence M

    2013-12-01

    New data have emerged to support changes in first-trimester abortion practice in regard to antibiotic prophylaxis, cervical ripening, the use of manual vacuum aspiration, and pain management. This article addresses these new recommendations and reviews techniques in performing manual and electric vacuum uterine aspiration procedures before 14 weeks' gestation, including very early abortion (<7 weeks' gestation), technically difficult abortions, management of complications, and postabortal contraception. The information discussed also applies to miscarriage management.

  19. 37 CFR 102.26 - Special procedures: Medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... routine use, for all systems of records containing medical records, consultations with an individual's... record to USPTO's medical expert for review and a determination on whether consultation with or... be warranted, USPTO's medical expert shall so consult or transmit. Whether or not such a...

  20. Evidence mounts for sex-selective abortion in Asia.

    PubMed

    Westley, S B

    1995-01-01

    In Korea, China, and Taiwan--countries where son preference persists--the availability of prenatal screening techniques and induced abortion has produced an imbalance in the naturally occurring sex ratios of 104-107 male births for every 100 female births. Policy responses to sex-selective abortion were the focus of a 1994 International Symposium on Sex Preference for Children in the Rapidly Changing Demographic Dynamics in Asia sponsored by the United Nations Population Fund and the Government of the Republic of Korea. Modern technology (i.e., amniocentesis, ultrasound, and chorionic villi sampling) enables couples to control both family size and sex selection. According to data from the 1990 Korean Census, 80,000 female fetuses were aborted from 1986-90 as a result of son preference. In the late 1980s, the Governments of Korea, China, and India imposed bans on the use of medical technology for prenatal sex determination, but many observers maintain that regulations have served only to make the procedures clandestine and more expensive. To remedy the problems underlying sex-selective abortion, the Symposium recommended the following government actions: 1) implement policies and programs to diminish gender discrimination; 2) establish guidelines for the monitoring and regulation of prenatal testing; 3) utilize mass and folk media, interpersonal channels, and school curricula to promote gender equality; 4) strengthen the ethics curriculum of medical schools to address son preference; and 5) increase the capability of statistical and research organizations to collect gender-disaggregated data.

  1. Is Induced Abortion Really Declining in Armenia?

    PubMed

    Jilozian, Ann; Agadjanian, Victor

    2016-06-01

    As in other post-Soviet settings, induced abortion has been widely used in Armenia. However, recent national survey data point to a substantial drop in abortion rates with no commensurate increase in modern contraceptive prevalence and no change in fertility levels. We use data from in-depth interviews with women of reproductive age and health providers in rural Armenia to explore possible underreporting of both contraceptive use and abortion. While we find no evidence that women understate their use of modern contraception, the analysis suggests that induced abortion might indeed be underreported. The potential for underreporting is particularly high for sex-selective abortions, for which there is growing public backlash, and medical abortion, a practice that is typically self-administered outside any professional supervision. Possible underreporting of induced abortion calls for refinement of both abortion registration and relevant survey instruments. Better measurement of abortion dynamics is necessary for successful promotion of effective modern contraceptive methods and reduction of unsafe abortion practices.

  2. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Allahbedashti, Neda

    2014-02-01

    Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas) as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA) and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  3. [Abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy and the risk of malpractice].

    PubMed

    Soutoul, J H; Boog, G; Michaux, P; Lansac, J; Froge, E; Beaumont, E

    1983-01-01

    Although the legalization of abortion in France has led to a reduction in the grave complications generally associated with illegal abortion, abortion legislation has left open the possibility of malpractice complaints. A study of 81 trial records and communications from insurance compaines and the National Council of the Order of Physicians, as well as personal observations, forms the basis for a new classification of malpractice complaints. 39% of cases concerned 1 or more infractions of the abortion legislation, of which only failure to observe required conditions, such as performance by a physician, performance in a hospital or other approved facility, and limiting procedures to the allowable gestational age, can lead to penal sanctions. In 12% of the records (10 cases), maternal deaths from various causes were followed by civil suits. 2 cases were in process and 3 had led to penal sanctions. The conditions of anesthesia were involved in about 1/4 of the cases. In about 20% of cases, the complications were immediate and nonfatal, such as retention, hemorrhage, and perforation. Only 3 in 16 such cases were brought to trail and most of the others were settled by insurance compaines. 6% of cases resulted from medical errors without serious consequences, and 19 cases, or 22%, from unsuccessful abortions. Although parents of children born after unsuccessful abortions have not been awarded any indemnification, the existence of means for avoiding such a failure has been cited in 1 case and the treat of a fertility effect after unsuccessful abortion could possibly be admitted in French law in the future. Abortion practitioners should exercise the greatest prudence in following the law and in performing abortions.

  4. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  5. A Comparison of Standard-Setting Procedures for an OSCE in Undergraduate Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, David M.; Mann, Karen V.; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2000-01-01

    Compared four standard-setting procedures for an objective structure clinical examination (OSCE) in medical education. Applied Angoff, borderline, relative, and holistic procedures to the data used to establish a cutoff score for a pass/fail decision. The Angoff and borderline procedures gave similar results; however, the relative and holistic…

  6. Using GOMS models and hypertext to create representations of medical procedures for online display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gugerty, Leo; Halgren, Shannon; Gosbee, John; Rudisill, Marianne

    1991-01-01

    This study investigated two methods to improve organization and presentation of computer-based medical procedures. A literature review suggested that the GOMS (goals, operators, methods, and selecton rules) model can assist in rigorous task analysis, which can then help generate initial design ideas for the human-computer interface. GOMS model are hierarchical in nature, so this study also investigated the effect of hierarchical, hypertext interfaces. We used a 2 x 2 between subjects design, including the following independent variables: procedure organization - GOMS model based vs. medical-textbook based; navigation type - hierarchical vs. linear (booklike). After naive subjects studies the online procedures, measures were taken of their memory for the content and the organization of the procedures. This design was repeated for two medical procedures. For one procedure, subjects who studied GOMS-based and hierarchical procedures remembered more about the procedures than other subjects. The results for the other procedure were less clear. However, data for both procedures showed a 'GOMSification effect'. That is, when asked to do a free recall of a procedure, subjects who had studies a textbook procedure often recalled key information in a location inconsistent with the procedure they actually studied, but consistent with the GOMS-based procedure.

  7. The persistence of induced abortion in Cuba: exploring the notion of an "abortion culture".

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Danièle; Flynn, Andrea

    2009-03-01

    Cuba's annual induced abortion rate persistently ranks among the highest in the world, and abortion plays a prominent role in Cuban fertility regulation despite widespread contraceptive prevalence and state promotion of modern contraceptives. We explore this phenomenon using the concept of an "abortion culture," typically used in reference to Soviet and post-Soviet countries. We synthesize existing literature to provide a historical account of abortion and contraception in Cuba. We also provide a qualitative analysis of abortion and contraceptive use based on in-depth interviews conducted in 2005 in Havana with 24 women who have had an abortion and 10 men whose partners have had an abortion. Information gained from a focus-group discussion with medical professionals also informed the study. Our four principal findings are: (a) longstanding awareness of abortion, (b) the view of abortion as a personal decision, (c) the influence of economic constraints on the decision to induce an abortion, and (d) general skepticism toward contraceptives. We discuss our results on abortion in Cuba in relation to the notion of social diffusion, an approach commonly used to explain the spread of fertility control throughout a population.

  8. Strategies for the prevention of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2012-10-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the main causes of maternal mortality and severe morbidity in countries with restrictive abortion laws. In 2007, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) created a Working Group on the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences (WGPUA). This led to a FIGO initiative with that aim which has the active participation of 43 FIGO member societies. The WGPUA has recommended that the plans of action of the countries participating in the initiative consider several levels of prevention shown to have the potential to successfully reduce unsafe abortions: (1) primary prevention of unintended pregnancy and induced abortion; (2) secondary prevention to ensure the safety of an abortion procedure that could not be avoided; (3) tertiary prevention of further complications of an unsafe abortion procedure that has taken place already, through high-quality postabortion care; and (4) quaternary prevention of repeated abortion procedures through postabortion family planning counseling and contraceptive services. This paper reviews these levels of prevention and the evidence that they can be effective.

  9. From analogue to apps--developing an app to prepare children for medical imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gigi; Greene, Siobhan

    2015-01-01

    The Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) in Melbourne has launched a world-first app for children that will help reduce anxiety and the need for anesthesia during medical imaging procedures. The free, game-based app, "Okee in Medical Imaging", helps children aged from four to eight years to prepare for all medical imaging procedures--X-ray, CT, MRI, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, and fluoroscopy. The app is designed to reduce anticipatory fear of imaging procedures, while helping to ensure that children attend imaging appointments equipped with the skills required for efficient and effective scans to be performed. This paper describes how the app was developed. PMID:26828544

  10. From analogue to apps--developing an app to prepare children for medical imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gigi; Greene, Siobhan

    2015-01-01

    The Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) in Melbourne has launched a world-first app for children that will help reduce anxiety and the need for anesthesia during medical imaging procedures. The free, game-based app, "Okee in Medical Imaging", helps children aged from four to eight years to prepare for all medical imaging procedures--X-ray, CT, MRI, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, and fluoroscopy. The app is designed to reduce anticipatory fear of imaging procedures, while helping to ensure that children attend imaging appointments equipped with the skills required for efficient and effective scans to be performed. This paper describes how the app was developed.

  11. Informed or Misinformed Consent? Abortion Policy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Cynthia R; Ferguson, Janna; Howard, Grace; Roberti, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    Since 2010, the United States has witnessed a dramatic expansion of state-based restrictions on abortion. The most common of these are informed consent statutes, which require that a woman seeking an abortion receive a state-authored informational packet before the abortion procedure can be performed. These laws, in addition to requiring the provision of information about alternatives to and risks of abortion, all also require details of embryological and fetal development. This article presents the findings of a comprehensive study of state-authored informed consent materials regarding embryological and fetal development. To conduct this study, we recruited a panel of experts in human anatomy to assess the accuracy of these materials in the context of the constitutional standard established inPlanned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania et al. v. Robert P. Casey et al.(505 U.S. 833 (1992)): that such information must be "truthful" and "nonmisleading." We find that nearly one-third of the informed consent information is medically inaccurate, that inaccurate information is concentrated primarily in the earlier weeks of pregnancy and is clustered around particular body systems. We discuss the implications of our findings for the question of the constitutionality of informed consent laws as they have been implemented in practice. PMID:26732319

  12. How technology is reframing the abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Callahan, D

    1986-02-01

    Since the 1973 Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion, medical and scientific developments have focused greater public and professional attention on the status of the fetus. Their cumulative effect may influence legal, social, and moral thought and set the stage for a change in public opinion and a challenge to legalized abortion. There is as yet no inexorable convergence of medical data and legal opinion that would undermine the rational of Roe v. Wade. But the prochoice movement must find room for an open airing of the moral questions if abortion is to remain what it should be--a legally acceptable act.

  13. Abortion: a guide to making ethical choices.

    PubMed

    Maguire, M R; Maguire, D C

    1983-09-01

    A mature attitude toward abortion rests on responsible decision-making and action taking, not on the belief in irreversible events. Abortion is therefore a choice which should be made if it is the most correct and responsible action in view of one's own circumstances. There are a number of doubts, concerns and moral--as opposed to medical--questions that women may be asking themselves as they face this serious choice. The guide addresses these issues to help women think through that choice. It is important to know, for instance, that the Pope has never formally proclaimed a doctrine of faith on the matter of abortion. The Catholic Church, when considered in its diversity, teaches that some abortions can be moral; the conscience of a person is the final arbiter of any abortion decision. Conscience is humans' progressively refined ability to think about situations and evaluate their moral goodness/badness. With respect to abortion, this means that a woman should make the choice that seems best to her. The fear that having an abortion will result in excommunication from the Church is dismissed here. A distinction must be made between committing the sin of abortion and having an abortion. The former obtains when people act against their own conscience. The attitude toward abortion as murder and the issue of the fetus' afterlife are responded to in terms of personhood, a complicated concept on which there is no legal, scientific or religious consensus. Instead, the answer is a function of the time period and its prevalent beliefs. Today, the viability of the fetus has become an important determinant of life. Having an abortion, giving birth, and use of contraceptives when no children are wanted, are responses to which a woman is entitled. Her choice is moral when based on responsible and conscious decisions and actions. The views of Protestantism and Judaism on abortion are clarified briefly.

  14. Husbands' involvement in abortion in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Johansson, A; Nga, N T; Huy, T Q; Dat, D D; Holmgren, K

    1998-12-01

    This study analyzes the involvement of men in abortion in Vietnam, where induced abortion is legal and abortion rates are among the highest in the world. Twenty men were interviewed in 1996 about the role they played in their wives' abortions and about their feelings and ethical views concerning the procedure. The results showed that both husbands and wives considered the husband to be the main decisionmaker regarding family size, which included the decision to have an abortion, but that, in fact, some women had undergone an abortion without consulting their husbands in advance. Parents and in-laws were usually not consulted; the couples thought they might object to the decision on moral grounds. Respondents' ethical perspectives on abortion are discussed. When faced with an unwanted pregnancy, the husbands adopted an ethics of care and responsibility toward family and children, although some felt that abortion was immoral. The study highlights the importance of understanding husbands' perspectives on their responsibilities and rights in reproductive decisionmaking and their ethical and other concerns related to abortion.

  15. Uncomplicated abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol in a hemophilia A carrier.

    PubMed

    Hou, Melody Y

    2016-08-01

    Little evidence exists regarding medical abortion for women with inherited bleeding disorders. A 21-year-old primigravid hemophilia A carrier desired a medical abortion. After counseling, she chose medical abortion, which occurred without excess bleeding or surgical intervention. PMID:27085601

  16. Distress Behavior in Children With Leukemia Undergoing Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Ernest R.

    Improving prognosis for many forms of childhood cancer has resulted in increased attention on the quality-of-life experience. Conditioned anxiety and pain associated with recurrent diagnostic and treatment procedures have been identified as major sources of distress in children with malignant disease. To evaluate the efficacy of various…

  17. Cavitational Iron Microparticles Generation By Plasma Procedures For Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bica, Ioan; Bunoiu, Madalin; Chirigiu, Liviu; Spunei, Marius; Juganaru, Iulius

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents the experimental installation for the production, in argon plasma, of cavitational iron microparticles (pore microspheres, microtubes and octopus-shaped microparticles). Experimental results are presented and discussed and it is shown that absorbant particles with a minimum iron content are obtained by the plasma procedures

  18. Improving abortion care in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Bradley, J; Sikazwe, N; Healy, J

    1991-01-01

    In this commentary, the impact of the introduction of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) for incomplete abortion patients and for early uterine evacuation is discussed for the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. This 3-year training and service delivery program was begun in 1988 after it was clear that 15% of maternal deaths were due to illegally induced abortion. The prior procedure of dilation and curettage (D and C) required use of the main operating room and general anesthesia, which resulted in severe congestion and treatment delays. As a result of the new MVA procedure, congestion has decreased substantially, treatment is safer and more timely, and the staff's ability to provide abortions has increased. Family planning counseling is provided to postabortion patients in a more thorough fashion, and the savings in time has improved the quality of patient-staff interactions. Specifically, the patient flow has improved from a 12-hour wait to a 4-6 hour wait and rarely requires overnight hospitalization. The demand for the main operating room had decreased which frees space, time, and commodities for other gynecological treatment. The shorter procedure and release time means a minimal loss of earnings and productivity, and allows for greater privacy in explaining absences to families, schools, or employers. The improved quality of are is reflected in the figures for number treated, i.e., in 1989, 74% were treated with MVA for incomplete abortion 12 weeks and pregnancy termination 8 weeks compared with 26% treated with D and C. In 1990, the figures were 86% with MVA and 14% with D and C. The likelihood of complications from hemorrhage and sepsis have also been reduced. The MVA procedure is also less traumatic for the patient. The increased access to safe legal abortion services is reflected in the ratio of induced to incomplete abortions between 1988-1990 (1:25 to 1:5). Family planning counseling is provided by a full-time counselor who counsels preabortion

  19. Recent changes in Criminal Procedure Code and Indian Penal Code relevant to medical profession.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Swapnil S; Kumar, Lavlesh; Mestri, S C

    2010-02-01

    Some sections in Criminal Procedure Code and Indian Penal Code have a direct binding on medical practitioner. With changing times, few of them have been revised and these changes are presented in this article.

  20. Patient characteristics and service trends following abortion legalization in Mexico City, 2007-10.

    PubMed

    Mondragón y Kalb, Manuel; Ahued Ortega, Armando; Morales Velazquez, Jorge; Díaz Olavarrieta, Claudia; Valencia Rodríguez, Jorge; Becker, Davida; García, Sandra G

    2011-09-01

    Legal abortion services have been available in public and private health facilities in Mexico City since April 2007 for pregnancies of up to 12 weeks gestation. As of January 2011, more than 50,000 procedures have been performed by Ministry of Health hospitals and clinics. We researched trends in service users' characteristics, types of procedures performed, post-procedure complications, repeat abortions, and postabortion uptake of contraception in 15 designated hospitals from April 2007 to March 2010. The trend in procedures has been toward more medication and manual vacuum aspiration abortions and fewer done through dilation and curettage. Percentages of post-procedure complications and repeat abortions remain low (2.3 and 0.9 percent, respectively). Uptake of postabortion contraception has increased over time; 85 percent of women selected a method in 2009-10, compared with 73 percent in 2007-08. Our findings indicate that the Ministry of Health's program provides safe services that contribute to the prevention of repeat unintended pregnancies.

  1. Patient characteristics and service trends following abortion legalization in Mexico City, 2007-10.

    PubMed

    Mondragón y Kalb, Manuel; Ahued Ortega, Armando; Morales Velazquez, Jorge; Díaz Olavarrieta, Claudia; Valencia Rodríguez, Jorge; Becker, Davida; García, Sandra G

    2011-09-01

    Legal abortion services have been available in public and private health facilities in Mexico City since April 2007 for pregnancies of up to 12 weeks gestation. As of January 2011, more than 50,000 procedures have been performed by Ministry of Health hospitals and clinics. We researched trends in service users' characteristics, types of procedures performed, post-procedure complications, repeat abortions, and postabortion uptake of contraception in 15 designated hospitals from April 2007 to March 2010. The trend in procedures has been toward more medication and manual vacuum aspiration abortions and fewer done through dilation and curettage. Percentages of post-procedure complications and repeat abortions remain low (2.3 and 0.9 percent, respectively). Uptake of postabortion contraception has increased over time; 85 percent of women selected a method in 2009-10, compared with 73 percent in 2007-08. Our findings indicate that the Ministry of Health's program provides safe services that contribute to the prevention of repeat unintended pregnancies. PMID:21972668

  2. International developments in abortion laws: 1977-88.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1988-01-01

    During the period between 1977 and the first quarter of 1988, 35 countries liberalized their abortion laws and four countries limited grounds for the procedure. Most legislation has extended abortion eligibility through traditional indications such as danger to maternal health or fetal handicap, but a number of other indications have been created such as adolescence, advanced maternal age, family circumstances, and AIDS or HIV infection. A number of countries have redesigned their abortion laws as part of a comprehensive package to facilitate access to and delivery of contraception, voluntary sterilization, and abortion services. Abortion litigation has increased and stimulated the liberalization of abortion provisions and the support of women's autonomous choice within the law. In Canada, the entire criminal prohibition of abortion was held unconstitutional for violating women's integrity and security. In contrast, Latin American and other constitutional developments may limit legal abortion to instances of danger to women's lives. PMID:3048126

  3. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lamina, Mustafa Adelaja

    2015-01-01

    Background. Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. Method. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. Results. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. Conclusion. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high. PMID:26078881

  4. Ethics of Practicing Medical Procedures on Newly Dead and Nearly Dead Patients

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Jeffrey T; Rosner, Fred; Cassell, Eric J

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the ethical issues raised by physicians performing, for skill development, medically nonindicated invasive medical procedures on newly dead and dying patients. DESIGN Literature review; issue analysis employing current normative ethical obligations, and evaluation against moral rules and utilitarian assessments manifest in other common perimortem practices. RESULTS Practicing medical procedures for training purposes is not uncommon among physicians in training. However, empiric information is limited or absent evaluating the effects of this practice on physician competence and ethics, assessing public attitudes toward practicing medical procedures and requirements for consent, and discerning the effects of a consent requirement on physicians' clinical competence. Despite these informational gaps, there is an obligation to secure consent for training activities on newly and nearly dead patients based on contemporary norms for informed consent and family respect. Paradigms of consent-dependent societal benefits elsewhere in health care support our determination that the benefits from physicians practicing procedures does not justify setting aside the informed consent requirement. CONCLUSION Current ethical norms do not support the practice of using newly and nearly dead patients for training in invasive medical procedures absent prior consent by the patient or contemporaneous surrogate consent. Performing an appropriately consented training procedure is ethically acceptable when done under competent supervision and with appropriate professional decorum. The ethics of training on the newly and nearly dead remains an insufficiently examined area of medical training. PMID:12390553

  5. [Abortion-related mortality in Brazil: decrease in spatial inequality].

    PubMed

    Lima, B G

    2000-03-01

    Abortion is not only a major cause of obstetric hospitalization in poor countries, but it also represents the failure of the public health system to provide enough information about contraceptive methods and thus prevent pregnancies. In Brazil, the high utilization rates of health facilities due to abortions reflect the ongoing difficulties with family planning and contraception. In addition, mortality resulting from abortions serves as an indicator of the quality of abortion procedures, an important point in a country where the practice is illegal and therefore done clandestinely. In this study, we analyzed the rates of mortality resulting from abortions among women 10 to 54 years old, including women who died from spontaneous and induced abortion, from 1980 to 1995, for the various regions of the country. The information we used came from the mortality data bank of the public health system of the Ministry of Health. Population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics. We studied 2,602 deaths, 15% of which were due to missed abortion, spontaneous abortion, or legally permitted induced abortion. The other 85% of the deaths were due to illegal induced abortions or to nonspecified abortions. The mortality rates from abortion-related causes have steadily decreased in all the regions of Brazil, but this improvement has been unevenly distributed in the country. The region with the smallest decrease in this rate (38% over 15 years) was the Northeast. The age of women dying from abortions progressively declined over the period studied.

  6. Rhode Island Medical Society v. Whitehouse.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    The United States District Court for the District of Rhode Island, on 30 August 1999, enjoined enforcement of Rhode Island's partial-birth abortion ban act. The act defined partial-birth abortion as "an abortion in which the person performing the abortion vaginally delivers a living human fetus before killing the infant and completing the delivery." The act also provided that a physician could perform an aborton on a viable fetus if necessary to save the mother's life only if "no other medical procedure would suffice for that purpose." The United States District Court found Rhode Island's statute to be constitutionally flawed in four respects. First, the court ruled that the definition of partial-birth abortion was unconstitutionally vague within the meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution since it implicitly banned the legally protected D & E procedure along with the impermissible D & X procedure. Secondly, following the United States Supreme Court precedent, the court invalidated the statute because it lacked a provision that would permit a partial-birth abortion to preserve the mother's health. Thirdly, the court concluded that the section of the statute permitting a partial-birth abortion to save the mother's life was inadequate. Finally, the court found that the statute placed an undue burden on a woman's right to an abortion within the meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment. Its provision for a civil action against an abortion provider by the father of a fetus or by a minor's parents could involve third parties in the abortion decision against a woman's will. PMID:15584139

  7. Rhode Island Medical Society v. Whitehouse.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    The United States District Court for the District of Rhode Island, on 30 August 1999, enjoined enforcement of Rhode Island's partial-birth abortion ban act. The act defined partial-birth abortion as "an abortion in which the person performing the abortion vaginally delivers a living human fetus before killing the infant and completing the delivery." The act also provided that a physician could perform an aborton on a viable fetus if necessary to save the mother's life only if "no other medical procedure would suffice for that purpose." The United States District Court found Rhode Island's statute to be constitutionally flawed in four respects. First, the court ruled that the definition of partial-birth abortion was unconstitutionally vague within the meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution since it implicitly banned the legally protected D & E procedure along with the impermissible D & X procedure. Secondly, following the United States Supreme Court precedent, the court invalidated the statute because it lacked a provision that would permit a partial-birth abortion to preserve the mother's health. Thirdly, the court concluded that the section of the statute permitting a partial-birth abortion to save the mother's life was inadequate. Finally, the court found that the statute placed an undue burden on a woman's right to an abortion within the meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment. Its provision for a civil action against an abortion provider by the father of a fetus or by a minor's parents could involve third parties in the abortion decision against a woman's will.

  8. [Induced abortions in the Third Reich. Legal basis and provision].

    PubMed

    Link, G

    2000-01-01

    This article analyses, after introductory comments on the legal situation in the German Empire and the Weimar Republic, the legal basis for induced abortions during National Socialist rule in Germany. During this period the first legal definition for eugenically and medically indicated abortions was established. At the same time the prohibition of induced abortions outside these criteria was controlled more strictly and violations were punished more severely. This concerned abortions mainly for social reasons. The intention was to legalize abortion for those deemed "less worthy" while, at the same time, to minimise the number of abortions of those considered as "more valuable" to society. The main thrust of this policy was to increase the birth rate of "valuable" citizens. The second part of this paper focuses on eugenic and medical abortions at the University of Freiburg's Maternity Hospital. PMID:11050762

  9. [Induced abortions in the Third Reich. Legal basis and provision].

    PubMed

    Link, G

    2000-01-01

    This article analyses, after introductory comments on the legal situation in the German Empire and the Weimar Republic, the legal basis for induced abortions during National Socialist rule in Germany. During this period the first legal definition for eugenically and medically indicated abortions was established. At the same time the prohibition of induced abortions outside these criteria was controlled more strictly and violations were punished more severely. This concerned abortions mainly for social reasons. The intention was to legalize abortion for those deemed "less worthy" while, at the same time, to minimise the number of abortions of those considered as "more valuable" to society. The main thrust of this policy was to increase the birth rate of "valuable" citizens. The second part of this paper focuses on eugenic and medical abortions at the University of Freiburg's Maternity Hospital.

  10. Public opinion about abortion-related stigma among Mexican Catholics and implications for unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    McMurtrie, Stephanie M; García, Sandra G; Wilson, Kate S; Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Fawcett, Gillian M

    2012-09-01

    A nationally representative survey was conducted among 3000 Catholics in Mexico during 2009 and 2010. Respondents were presented with a hypothetical situation about a young woman who decided to have an abortion and were asked their personal opinion of her. On the basis of a stigma index, it was found that the majority (61%) had stigmatizing attitudes about abortion; however, 81% believed that abortion should be legal in at least some circumstances. Respondents were significantly more likely to stigmatize abortion if they disagreed with the Mexico City law legalizing the procedure (odds ratio 1.66; 95% CI, 1.30-2.11) and believed that abortion should be prohibited in all cases (odds ratio 3.13; 95% CI, 2.28-4.30). Such stigma can lead women to seek unsafe abortions to avoid judgment by society.

  11. 32 CFR 1701.13 - Special procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .../psychological records. 1701.13 Section 1701.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense... procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records. Current and former ODNI employees, including... access to their medical, psychiatric or psychological testing records by writing to: Information...

  12. 32 CFR 1701.13 - Special procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .../psychological records. 1701.13 Section 1701.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense... procedures for medical/psychiatric/psychological records. Current and former ODNI employees, including... access to their medical, psychiatric or psychological testing records by writing to: Information...

  13. A project to improve the quality of abortion services in Moldova.

    PubMed

    Comendant, Rodica

    2005-11-01

    Abortion has been available legally in Moldova since 1955, and since then the abortion rate has gradually declined. The quality of abortion care remains low, however, and there is a high level of maternal mortality related to unsafe abortion. The goals of the 2005-2015 National Reproductive Health Strategy are to reduce unwanted pregnancy, reduce abortion-related morbidity and mortality, improve access to and quality of abortion care, including the methods of vacuum aspiration and medical abortion. This paper presents information on the current abortion law, policy and services in Moldova. It describes a project whose aim is to improve the quality of abortion services, including the introduction of medical abortion through training of service providers and community education. Manual vacuum aspiration has also recently been introduced. The drugs for medical abortion are officially approved, a clinical study evaluating the efficacy and acceptability of medical abortion in a low-resource setting has been completed, and training of providers has been carried out. However, institutionalisation of medical abortion faces many problems in relation to organisation of service delivery, the higher cost of medical than aspiration abortion, and doctors' reluctance to use new methods.

  14. Abortion Before & After Roe

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu

    2013-01-01

    We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971–1975 to demonstrate that women travelled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A100- mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services. PMID:23811233

  15. Abortion before & after Roe.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu

    2013-09-01

    We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971 to 1975 to demonstrate that women traveled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A 100-mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services.

  16. Abortion Providers' Experiences with Medicaid Abortion Coverage Policies: A Qualitative Multistate Study

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Amanda; Blanchard, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the implementation of state Medicaid abortion policies and the impact of these policies on abortion clients and abortion providers. Data Source From 2007 to 2010, in-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of 70 abortion-providing facilities in 15 states. Study Design In-depth interviews focused on abortion providers' perceptions regarding Medicaid and their experiences working with Medicaid and securing reimbursement in cases that should receive federal funding: rape, incest, and life endangerment. Data Extraction Data were transcribed verbatim before being coded. Principal Findings In two study states, abortion providers reported that 97 percent of submitted claims for qualifying cases were funded. Success receiving reimbursement was attributed to streamlined electronic billing procedures, timely claims processing, and responsive Medicaid staff. Abortion providers in the other 13 states reported reimbursement for 36 percent of qualifying cases. Providers reported difficulties obtaining reimbursement due to unclear rejections of qualifying claims, complex billing procedures, lack of knowledgeable Medicaid staff with whom billing problems could be discussed, and low and slow reimbursement rates. Conclusions Poor state-level implementation of Medicaid coverage of abortion policies creates barriers for women seeking abortion. Efforts to ensure policies are implemented appropriately would improve women's health. PMID:22742741

  17. 45 CFR 5b.6 - Special procedures for notification of or access to medical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... professional designated by the parent or guardian in all cases. If disclosure of the record would constitute an... component of the Department. Therefore, components may follow the paragraph (b) procedure for notification... purposes. The special procedure set forth in paragraph (c) of this section relating to medical records...

  18. Informatics-based Medical Procedure Assistance during Space Missions

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, M S; Carruth, T N; Florez-Arango, J; Dunn, K

    2008-01-01

    Currently, paper-based and/or electronic together with telecommunications links to Earth-based physicians are used to assist astronaut crews perform diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions during space travel. However, these have limitations, especially during long duration missions in which telecommunications to earth-based physicians can be delayed. We describe an experimental technology called GuideView in which clinical guidelines are presented in a structured, interactive, multi-modal format and, in each step, clinical instructions are provided simultaneously in voice, text, pictures video or animations. An example application of the system to diagnosis and treatment of space Decompression Sickness is presented. Astronauts performing space walks from the International Space Station are at risk for decompression sickness because the atmospheric pressure of the Extra-vehicular Activity space- suit is significantly less that that of the interior of the Station. PMID:19048089

  19. Informatics-based medical procedure assistance during space missions.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, M S; Carruth, T N; Florez-Arango, J; Dunn, K

    2008-08-01

    Currently, paper-based and/or electronic together with telecommunications links to Earth-based physicians are used to assist astronaut crews perform diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions during space travel. However, these have limitations, especially during long duration missions in which telecommunications to earth-based physicians can be delayed. We describe an experimental technology called GuideView in which clinical guidelines are presented in a structured, interactive, multi-modal format and, in each step, clinical instructions are provided simultaneously in voice, text, pictures video or animations. An example application of the system to diagnosis and treatment of space Decompression Sickness is presented. Astronauts performing space walks from the International Space Station are at risk for decompression sickness because the atmospheric pressure of the Extra-vehicular Activity space- suit is significantly less that that of the interior of the Station.

  20. Developing Physiologic Models for Emergency Medical Procedures Under Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Nigel; O'Quinn, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    Several technological enhancements have been made to METI's commercial Emergency Care Simulator (ECS) with regard to how microgravity affects human physiology. The ECS uses both a software-only lung simulation, and an integrated mannequin lung that uses a physical lung bag for creating chest excursions, and a digital simulation of lung mechanics and gas exchange. METI s patient simulators incorporate models of human physiology that simulate lung and chest wall mechanics, as well as pulmonary gas exchange. Microgravity affects how O2 and CO2 are exchanged in the lungs. Procedures were also developed to take into affect the Glasgow Coma Scale for determining levels of consciousness by varying the ECS eye-blinking function to partially indicate the level of consciousness of the patient. In addition, the ECS was modified to provide various levels of pulses from weak and thready to hyper-dynamic to assist in assessing patient conditions from the femoral, carotid, brachial, and pedal pulse locations.

  1. Developing Physiologic Models for Emergency Medical Procedures Under Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Nigel; OQuinn, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    Several technological enhancements have been made to METI's commercial Emergency Care Simulator (ECS) with regard to how microgravity affects human physiology. The ECS uses both a software-only lung simulation, and an integrated mannequin lung that uses a physical lung bag for creating chest excursions, and a digital simulation of lung mechanics and gas exchange. METI's patient simulators incorporate models of human physiology that simulate lung and chest wall mechanics, as well as pulmonary gas exchange. Microgravity affects how O2 and CO2 are exchanged in the lungs. Procedures were also developed to take into affect the Glasgow Coma Scale for determining levels of consciousness by varying the ECS eye-blinking function to partially indicate the level of consciousness of the patient. In addition, the ECS was modified to provide various levels of pulses from weak and thready to hyper-dynamic to assist in assessing patient conditions from the femoral, carotid, brachial, and pedal pulse locations.

  2. Mifepristone and first trimester abortion.

    PubMed

    Murray, S; Muse, K

    1996-06-01

    The development of safe, effective, nonsurgical methods of pregnancy termination has the potential to avert significant maternal mortality and morbidity, especially in developing countries. RU-486 blocks the action of progesterone and cortisol, leading to structural changes in the endothelium of decidual capillaries, decidual necrosis, and subsequent detachment of the products of conception. When RU-486 is administered in conjunction with a low dose of a prostaglandin such as misoprostol, the abortion rate is comparable to that for vacuum aspiration (e.g., 94-96%). This regimen is contraindicated, however, in women aged 35 years and older, smokers, and those with medical problems such as diabetes, hypertension, clotting disorders, or anemia. In countries with strict abortion laws, RU-486 has been used to induce menstrual bleeding in women whose periods are delayed up to 10 days. An obstacle to more widespread acceptance of RU-486 has been its medicalization through national guidelines that stipulate waiting periods or require multiple visits to an approved abortion clinic. Women are likely to prefer RU-486 over surgical abortion because it allows the patient more control over her pregnancy termination and is less invasive. As political controversy continues to delay RU-486's introduction to the US and most developing countries, there are concerns that the drug will become a black market commodity used for self-induction.

  3. Ultrasound-guided procedures in medical education: a fresh look at cadavers.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Riley; Means, Russel; Robertson, Jeffrey; Rappaport, Douglas; Schmier, Charles; Jones, Travis; Stolz, Lori Ann; Kaplan, Stephen Jerome; Adamas-Rappaport, William Joaquin; Amini, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Demand for bedside ultrasound in medicine has created a need for earlier exposure to ultrasound education during the clinical years of undergraduate medical education. Although bedside ultrasound is often used for invasive medical procedures, there is no standardized educational model for procedural skills that can provide the learner a real-life simulated experience. The objective of our study was to describe a unique fresh cadaver preparation model, and to determine the impact of a procedure-focused ultrasound training session. This study was a cross-sectional study at an urban academic medical center. A sixteen-item questionnaire was administered at the beginning and end of the session. Fifty-five third year medical students participated in this 1-day event during their surgical clerkship. Students were trained to perform the following ultrasound-guided procedures: internal jugular vein cannulation, femoral vein cannulation femoral artery cannulation and pericardiocentesis. Preparation of the fresh cadaver is easily replicated and requires minor manipulation of cadaver vessels and pericardial space. Fifty-five medical students in their third year participated in this study. All of the medical students agreed that US could help increase their confidence in performing procedures in the future. Eighty percent (95 % CI 70-91 %) of students felt that there was a benefit of learning ultrasound-based anatomy in addition to traditional methods. Student confidence was self-rated on a five-point Likert scale. Student confidence increased with statistical significance in all of the skills taught. The most dramatic increase was noted in central venous line placement, which improved from 1.95 (SD = 0.11) to 4.2 (SD = 0.09) (p < 0.001). The use of fresh cadavers for procedure-focused US education is a realistic method that improves the confidence of third year medical students in performing complex but critical procedures.

  4. House seeks restrictions on "bogus" abortion clinics.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    Recent Congressional hearings have identified over 2000 pro-life counseling centers that deceptively portray themselves as abortion clinics. The issue has now become regulating these facilities referred to as bogus clinics. The bogus clinics enjoy a good deal of protection from the Federal Trade Commission because they are all registered as non-profit organizations. Many people investigating the situation feel that the issues of pro-life and pro-choice are not central. What is most important is the fact that these bogus clinics are able to attract people who think they can obtain abortions when in fact these facilities do not offer such services. The staff at the bogus clinics have been reported to detain, harass, and coerce women who want to have abortions. They often show graphic films and employ psychological pressure in an attempt to convince the woman not to have an abortion. The Pearson Foundation published a 93 page manual titled, "How to Start and Operate Your Own Pro-Life Crisis Pregnancy Center". The manual outlines all the steps and procedures necessary to run an operation committed into deceiving women into thinking they offer abortion services. So far, proposed legislation would either require Yellow Pages publishers to list abortion alternatives and abortion services separately, or make facilities that do not provide abortions declare it in a disclaimer. However, federal authority in this situation is unclear. other proposals would give the FTC control of non-profits, or only deceptive non-profits.

  5. Legal abortion: the impending obsolescence of the trimester framework.

    PubMed

    Mangel, C P

    1988-01-01

    Women who wish to terminate a pregnancy, and physicians willing to perform abortions, are subject to increasing harassment from groups which challenge the constitutional abortion right upheld by the Supreme Court in Roe v. Wade. Their vulnerability, in fact, parallels the vulnerability of the abortion right. This Article analyzes the inherent weakness and impending obsolescence of the trimester framework established in Roe. Present medical evidence of maternal health risks and fetal viability demonstrates that the trimester framework is inconsistent with current medical knowledge, and will likely be rendered obsolete by developments in medical technology. The Article suggests that adoption of an alternative constitutional basis for legal abortion is necessary to preserve the abortion right, and explores the utility of two arguments grounded in the equal protection doctrine. Finally, it discusses means of preserving legal abortion within the confines of the trimester framework established in Roe v. Wade.

  6. Medical Operations Console Procedure Evaluation: BME Response to Crew Call Down for an Emergency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Troop; Pettys, Marianne; Hurst, Victor, IV; Smaka, Todd; Paul, Bonnie; Rosenquist, Kevin; Gast, Karin; Gillis, David; McCulley, Phyllis

    2006-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Mission Operations are managed by multiple flight control disciplines located at the lead Mission Control Center (MCC) at NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC). ISS Medical Operations are supported by the complementary roles of Flight Surgeons (Surgeon) and Biomedical Engineer (BME) flight controllers. The Surgeon, a board certified physician, oversees all medical concerns of the crew and the BME provides operational and engineering support for Medical Operations Crew Health Care System. ISS Medical Operations is currently addressing the coordinated response to a crew call down for an emergent medical event, in particular when the BME is the only Medical Operations representative in MCC. In this case, the console procedure BME Response to Crew Call Down for an Emergency will be used. The procedure instructs the BME to contact a Surgeon as soon as possible, coordinate with other flight disciplines to establish a Private Medical Conference (PMC) for the crew and Surgeon, gather information from the crew if time permits, and provide Surgeon with pertinent console resources. It is paramount that this procedure is clearly written and easily navigated to assist the BME to respond consistently and efficiently. A total of five BME flight controllers participated in the study. Each BME participant sat in a simulated MCC environment at a console configured with resources specific to the BME MCC console and was presented with two scripted emergency call downs from an ISS crew member. Each participant used the procedure while interacting with analog MCC disciplines to respond to the crew call down. Audio and video recordings of the simulations were analyzed and each BME participant's actions were compared to the procedure. Structured debriefs were conducted at the conclusion of both simulations. The procedure was evaluated for its ability to elicit consistent responses from each BME participant. Trials were examined for deviations in procedure task

  7. Thomson, the right to life, and partial birth abortion or two MULES for Sister Sarah.

    PubMed

    Alward, P

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, I argue that Thomson's famous attempt to reconcile the fetus's putative right to life with robust abortion rights is not tenable. Given her view, whether or not an abortion violates the fetus's right to life depends on the abortion procedure utilised. And I argue that Thomson's view implies that any late term abortion that involves feticide is impermissible. In particular, this would rule out the partial birth abortion technique which has been so controversial of late.

  8. The Marquis de Sade and induced abortion.

    PubMed Central

    Farr, A D

    1980-01-01

    In 1795 the Marquis de Sade published his La Philosophic dans le boudoir, in which he proposed the use of induced abortion for social reasons and as a means of population control. It is from this time that medical and social acceptance of abortion can be dated, although previously the subject had not been discussed in public in modern times. It is suggested that it was largely due to de Sade's writing that induced abortion received the impetus which resulted in its subsequent spread in western society. PMID:6990001

  9. Lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster: in minor dermatological and needle puncture procedures.

    PubMed

    Croxtall, Jamie D

    2010-11-12

    The lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster comprises a lidocaine/tetracaine 70 mg/70 mg patch and a controlled heat-assisted drug delivery pod that increases the diffusion of lidocaine and tetracaine into the dermis. Following a 1-hour application period, systemic absorption of lidocaine or tetracaine from the plaster was minimal. The lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster provided effective pain relief for adult (including elderly) patients undergoing minor dermatological procedures and for adult and paediatric patients undergoing vascular access procedures. In randomized, double-blind clinical trials, patient-reported median pain scores were significantly lower with the lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster than with an identical plaster containing placebo in patients undergoing minor dermatological or vascular access procedures. Furthermore, patient-reported median pain scores were significantly lower with the lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster than with a lidocaine/prilocaine cream in patients undergoing vascular access procedures. In a large, randomized, double-blind trial in paediatric patients undergoing venipuncture, the overall incidence of pain was significantly lower with the lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster than with a lidocaine/prilocaine plaster. The lidocaine/tetracaine medicated plaster was well tolerated, with the most frequent treatment-related adverse events resolving spontaneously.

  10. Abortion among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  11. Abortion and religion.

    PubMed

    Howell, N R

    1997-01-01

    This paper argues that religious communities should pose new questions about abortion in an attempt to reinvigorate the abortion debate and make it more constructive. Such questions would break the current impasse, enlarge the global and ecological scope of abortion inquiry, and engage plural religious perspectives in an interreligious dialogue about justice and abortion. After an introduction, the paper discusses the first impasse in the abortion debate, which is caused by conflicting definitions of personhood that create a fetus/pregnant woman dualism and artificially separate the fetus from its interdependence with the mother. Section 2 looks at how the abortion impasse results from the assertions of competing fetal and maternal rights and from conflict over who controls nature and women's bodies. The third section seeks alternatives to the dichotomizing of individual and community in the abortion debate in Christian theology, such as the notion of the relational self that demands attention to the wider social implications of reproduction. By examining theories that presume that people are relational, section 4 locates the abortion debate in a wider ecological context with concerns about overpopulation and environmental degradation. Section 5 explores questions of what authority can be used to determine whether abortion is ever justifiable for Christians and what authority is relevant for determining a Christian theological ethic of abortion. This section also looks at Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist views of abortion in the belief that the complex ethical issues relating to abortion may be explored through religious ritual. PMID:12348325

  12. The individual level cost of pregnancy termination in Zambia: a comparison of safe and unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Leone, Tiziana; Coast, Ernestina; Parmar, Divya; Vwalika, Bellington

    2016-09-01

    Zambia has one of the most liberal abortion laws in sub-Saharan Africa. However, rates of unsafe abortion remain high with negative health and economic consequences. Little is known about the economic burden on women of abortion care-seeking in low income countries. The majority of studies focus on direct costs (e.g. hospital fees). This article estimates the individual-level economic burden of safe and unsafe abortion care-seeking in Zambia, incorporating all indirect and direct costs. It uses data collected in 2013 from a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, (n = 112) with women who had an abortion. Three treatment routes are identified: (1) safe abortion at the hospital, (2) unsafe clandestine medical abortion initiated elsewhere with post-abortion care at the hospital and (3) unsafe abortion initiated elsewhere with post-abortion care at the hospital. Based on these three typologies, we use descriptive analysis and linear regression to estimate the costs for women of seeking safe and unsafe abortion and to establish whether the burden of abortion care-seeking costs is equally distributed across the sample. Around 39% of women had an unsafe abortion, incurring substantial economic costs before seeking post-abortion care. Adolescents and poorer women are more likely to use unsafe abortion. Unsafe abortion requiring post-abortion care costs women 27% more than a safe abortion. When accounting for uncertainty this figure increases dramatically. For safe and unsafe abortions, unofficial provider payments represent a major cost to women.This study demonstrates that despite a liberal legislation, Zambia still needs better dissemination of the law to women and providers and resources to ensure abortion service access. The policy implications of this study include: the role of pharmacists and mid-level providers in the provision of medical abortion services; increased access to contraception, especially for adolescents; and elimination of demands for unofficial provider

  13. Family planning is reducing abortions.

    PubMed

    Clinton, H R

    1997-01-01

    This news brief presents the US President's wife's statement on the association between use of family planning and a decline in abortions worldwide. Hillary Rodham Clinton attended the Sixth Conference of Wives of Heads of State and Government of the Americas held in La Paz, Bolivia. The conference was suitably located in Bolivia, a country with the highest rates of maternal mortality in South America. Bolivia has responded by launching a national family planning campaign coordinated between government, nongovernmental, and medical organizations. Half of Bolivian women experience pregnancy and childbirth without the support of trained medical staff. Mortality from abortion complications account for about half of all maternal deaths in Bolivia. Voluntary family planning workers teach women about the benefits of child spacing, breast feeding, nutrition, prenatal and postpartum care, and safe deliveries. Bolivia has succeeded in increasing its contraceptive use rates and decreasing the number of safe and unsafe abortions. Bolivia's program effort was supported by USAID. USAID provided technical assistance and funds for the establishment of a network of primary health care clinics. Mrs. Clinton visited one such clinic in a poor neighborhood in La Paz, which in its first six months of operation provided 2200 consultations, delivered 200 babies, registered 700 new family planning users, and immunized 2500 children. Clinics such as this one will be affected by the US Congress's harsh cuts in aid, which reduce funding by 35% and delay program funding by 9 months. These US government cuts in foreign aid are expected to result in an additional 1.6 million abortions, over 8000 maternal deaths, and 134,000 infant deaths in developing countries. An investment in population assistance represents a sensible, cost-effective, and long-term strategy for improving women's health, strengthening families, and reducing abortion.

  14. Family planning is reducing abortions.

    PubMed

    Clinton, H R

    1997-01-01

    This news brief presents the US President's wife's statement on the association between use of family planning and a decline in abortions worldwide. Hillary Rodham Clinton attended the Sixth Conference of Wives of Heads of State and Government of the Americas held in La Paz, Bolivia. The conference was suitably located in Bolivia, a country with the highest rates of maternal mortality in South America. Bolivia has responded by launching a national family planning campaign coordinated between government, nongovernmental, and medical organizations. Half of Bolivian women experience pregnancy and childbirth without the support of trained medical staff. Mortality from abortion complications account for about half of all maternal deaths in Bolivia. Voluntary family planning workers teach women about the benefits of child spacing, breast feeding, nutrition, prenatal and postpartum care, and safe deliveries. Bolivia has succeeded in increasing its contraceptive use rates and decreasing the number of safe and unsafe abortions. Bolivia's program effort was supported by USAID. USAID provided technical assistance and funds for the establishment of a network of primary health care clinics. Mrs. Clinton visited one such clinic in a poor neighborhood in La Paz, which in its first six months of operation provided 2200 consultations, delivered 200 babies, registered 700 new family planning users, and immunized 2500 children. Clinics such as this one will be affected by the US Congress's harsh cuts in aid, which reduce funding by 35% and delay program funding by 9 months. These US government cuts in foreign aid are expected to result in an additional 1.6 million abortions, over 8000 maternal deaths, and 134,000 infant deaths in developing countries. An investment in population assistance represents a sensible, cost-effective, and long-term strategy for improving women's health, strengthening families, and reducing abortion. PMID:12293000

  15. Teenage pregnancies and abortion.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, J E

    1984-01-01

    The issue of abortion, except when it is rendered moot because the fetus endangers the life of the mother, is not really a medical issue. The physician's role is to help patients achieve and maintain their maximum potential for physical, mental, and social well-being. To accomplish this, the physician must acquire a constantly evolving database of scientific knowledge, must evaluate this information in a critical and ethical manner, and must be prepared to apply what is learned. In the realm of applied ethics, no particular religion, profession, culture, class, or sex should be thought of as having all the answers in the realm of applied ethics. This physician's actions are predicated on the belief that, to a large extent, ethical precepts reflect the broader social and economic issues of the period in which they are articulated. If this is the case, then in today's world the population explosion, the postindustrial society, the women's rights movement, inequality of access, and the ability to perform prenatal diagnosis are all factors which have molded the approach to the issue of abortion. Only the last 3 of these can in any way be considered as medical. When considering the role of a physician in dealing with the issue of abortion in the adolescent, this individual relies on the concept articulated by the World Health Association (WHA): promoting the physical, emotional, and social well-being of one's patients. Each year in the US over 1 million 15-19 year olds become pregnant, resulting in over 600,000 births. Most of these pregnancies are unintentional, yet approximately 90% of the infants are kept in the home by mothers who are ill prepared to be parents. What is most disturbing is that the pregnancy rate for the younger mother, 16 years or under, is accounting for an ever increasing percentage of the total. Studies at the Adolescent Health Center of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City as well as national studies suggest that the younger teens are more

  16. Eliminating the phrase "elective abortion": why language matters.

    PubMed

    Janiak, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2016-02-01

    The phrase "elective abortion" is often used to describe induced abortions performed for reasons other than a direct, immediate threat to maternal physical health. We argue that the term "elective abortion" is variably defined, misrepresents the complexity and multiplicity of indications for abortion and perpetuates stigma. In practice, restricting access to abortion at the legal, regulatory or institutional level based on subjective perceptions of patient need constrains health care providers' ability to act according to their best clinical judgments and limits patient access to care. The phrase "elective abortion" should be eliminated from scientific and medical discourse to prevent further damage to the public understanding of the variety of indications for which women require expeditious and equitable access to induced abortion. PMID:26480889

  17. Eliminating the phrase "elective abortion": why language matters.

    PubMed

    Janiak, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2016-02-01

    The phrase "elective abortion" is often used to describe induced abortions performed for reasons other than a direct, immediate threat to maternal physical health. We argue that the term "elective abortion" is variably defined, misrepresents the complexity and multiplicity of indications for abortion and perpetuates stigma. In practice, restricting access to abortion at the legal, regulatory or institutional level based on subjective perceptions of patient need constrains health care providers' ability to act according to their best clinical judgments and limits patient access to care. The phrase "elective abortion" should be eliminated from scientific and medical discourse to prevent further damage to the public understanding of the variety of indications for which women require expeditious and equitable access to induced abortion.

  18. Academic medical libraries' policies and procedures for notifying library users of retracted scientific publications.

    PubMed

    Hughes, C

    1998-01-01

    Academic medical libraries have a responsibility to inform library users regarding retracted publications. Many have created policies and procedures that identify flawed journal articles. A questionnaire was sent to the 129 academic medical libraries in the United States and Canada to find out how many had policies and procedures for identifying retracted publications. Of the returned questionnaires, 59% had no policy and no practice for calling the attention of the library user to retracted publications. Forty-one percent of the libraries called attention to retractions with or without a formal policy for doing so. Several responding libraries included their policy statement with the survey. The increasing number of academic medical libraries that realize the importance of having policies and practices in place highlights the necessity for this procedure.

  19. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.; AHRENS,L.; III FLILLER,R.; GASSNER,D.; MCINTYRE,G.T.; MICHNOFF,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.

    2002-06-03

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  20. Regulatory policy and abortion clinics: implications for planning.

    PubMed

    Kay, B J; Neal, J R

    1978-01-01

    The practicalities of formulating regulatory policy associated with elective abortion often place public health officials at the center of political controversy. Resulting conflicts can inhibit a rational consideration of long-term objectives in implementing a national policy which assures legal accessibility to all who would select abortion as an alternative to term birth. Regulation which uses primarily structural criteria for monitoring and evaluating services tends to de-emphasize the importanc of contraceptive counseling as a component of abortion services. Our process/outcome evaluation of abortion clinics located in Chicago suggests that contraceptive counseling provided at the time of the abortion procedure has a potential long-term impact in terms of reducing the need for elective abortion. We suggest that regulation policy should include process and outcome criteria which support the eventual reduction in need for abortion as a long-range policy goal and suggest key issues for consideration when such a policy is formulated.

  1. Use of Preclinical Drug vs. Food Choice Procedures to Evaluate Candidate Medications for Cocaine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Matthew L; Hutsell, Blake A; Schwienteck, Kathryn L; Negus, S. Stevens

    2015-01-01

    Opinion Statement Drug addiction is a disease that manifests as an inappropriate allocation of behavior towards the procurement and use of the abused substance and away from other behaviors that produce more adaptive reinforcers (e.g. exercise, work, family and social relationships). The goal of treating drug addiction is not only to decrease drug-maintained behaviors, but also to promote a reallocation of behavior towards alternative, nondrug reinforcers. Experimental procedures that offer concurrent access to both a drug reinforcer and an alternative, nondrug reinforcer provide a research tool for assessment of medication effects on drug choice and behavioral allocation. Choice procedures are currently the standard in human laboratory research on medications development. Preclinical choice procedures have been utilized in biomedical research since the early 1940’s, and during the last 10–15 years, their use for evaluation of medications to treat drug addiction has increased. We propose here that parallel use of choice procedures in preclinical and clinical studies will facilitate translational research on development of medications to treat cocaine addiction. In support of this proposition, a review of the literature suggests strong concordance between preclinical effectiveness of candidate medications to modify cocaine choice in nonhuman primates and rodents and clinical effectiveness of these medications to modify either cocaine choice in human laboratory studies or metrics of cocaine abuse in patients with cocaine use disorder. The strongest evidence for medication effectiveness in preclinical choice studies has been obtained with maintenance on the monoamine releaser d-amphetamine, a candidate agonist medication for cocaine use analogous to use of methadone to treat heroin abuse or nicotine formulations to treat tobacco dependence. PMID:26009706

  2. [Civil prodedure or penal procedure in the event of medical fault].

    PubMed

    du Jardin, J

    2004-01-01

    The author specifies the rules and the vocabulary of the civil and penal procedures. He points out the characteristics of the medical act and the failures that a medical practitioner can be blamed for. He defines the notions of the duty of best efforts and the duty to achieve a specific result. The role of the expert is touched upon. The article is supplemented by significant case-law decisions and a list of recent textbooks.

  3. [Abortion in Brazil: a household survey using the ballot box technique].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Medeiros, Marcelo

    2010-06-01

    This study presents the first results of the National Abortion Survey (PNA, Pesquisa Nacional de Aborto), a household random sample survey fielded in 2010 covering urban women in Brazil aged 18 to 39 years. The PNA combined two techniques, interviewer-administered questionnaires and self-administered ballot box questionnaires. The results of PNA show that at the end of their reproductive health one in five women has performed an abortion, with abortions being more frequent in the main reproductive ages, that is, from 18 to 29 years old. No relevant differentiation was observed in the practice of abortion among religious groups, but abortion was found to be more common among people with lower education. The use of medical drugs to induce abortion occurred in half of the abortions, and post-abortion hospitalization was observed among approximately half of the women who aborted. Such results lead to conclude that abortion is a priority in the Brazilian public health agenda. PMID:20640252

  4. [Abortion in Brazil: a household survey using the ballot box technique].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Medeiros, Marcelo

    2010-06-01

    This study presents the first results of the National Abortion Survey (PNA, Pesquisa Nacional de Aborto), a household random sample survey fielded in 2010 covering urban women in Brazil aged 18 to 39 years. The PNA combined two techniques, interviewer-administered questionnaires and self-administered ballot box questionnaires. The results of PNA show that at the end of their reproductive health one in five women has performed an abortion, with abortions being more frequent in the main reproductive ages, that is, from 18 to 29 years old. No relevant differentiation was observed in the practice of abortion among religious groups, but abortion was found to be more common among people with lower education. The use of medical drugs to induce abortion occurred in half of the abortions, and post-abortion hospitalization was observed among approximately half of the women who aborted. Such results lead to conclude that abortion is a priority in the Brazilian public health agenda.

  5. Role of laparoscopy as a minimally invasive procedure in treatment of ruptured uterine scar during second-trimester induction of abortion.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanmei; Jiang, Qiaoying; Lv, Ya-Er; Liu, Feng; Yang, Liwei

    2016-04-01

    Uterine rupture is an uncommon complication following termination of pregnancy and is usually accompanied by severe lower abdominal pain and shock caused by intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Laparotomy should be carried out promptly in order to repair the uterus or even to resect the uterus. Here we present a case of uterine rupture of a scarred uterus, which occurred during a second-trimester induced abortion. The patient was successfully treated by laparoscopy with the help of laparoscopic ultrasound. This case suggests an alternative, effective approach to the diagnosis and treatment of uterine rupture. PMID:26695381

  6. Second trimester abortion provision: breaking the silence and changing the discourse.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lisa H

    2008-05-01

    How do abortion providers determine how late in pregnancy they will provide abortion services? While law, training and socio-political factors likely play a part, this essay considers additional factors, including: personal and psychological aspects, visceral responses to the fetus and fetal parts at later gestations, feelings that second trimester abortion is violent, and ethical concerns with second trimester abortion. Providers may censor themselves with respect to these issues, fearing that honest acknowledgement of difficult aspects may be dangerous to the pro-choice movement; that is, such acknowledgements could appear to legitimise the anti-abortion stance that second trimester abortion is gruesome and morally unacceptable. I argue that this silence is harmful to providers, the pro-choice movement and the women who need abortion services. I make the case for pro-choice discourse that is honest about the nature of abortion procedures and uses this honesty to strengthen abortion care, including second trimester abortion. PMID:18772087

  7. Ending pregnancy with medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... clinic abortion. Some clinics will go beyond 9 weeks for a medication abortion. Be very certain that you want to end ... aspirin. Expect to bleed for up to 4 weeks after a medical abortion. You will need to have pads to wear. ...

  8. Abortion: a reader's guide.

    PubMed

    Hisel, L M

    1996-01-01

    This review traces the discussion of abortion in the US through 10 of the best books published on the subject in the past 25 years. The first book considered is Daniel Callahan's "Abortion: Law, Choice and Morality," which was published in 1970. Next is book of essays also published in 1970: "The Morality of Abortion: Legal and Historical Perspectives," which was edited by John T. Noonan, Jr., who became a prominent opponent to the Roe decision. It is noted that Roman Catholics would find the essay by Bernard Haring especially interesting since Haring supported the Church's position on abortion but called for acceptance of contraception. Third on the list is historian James C. Mohr's review of "Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy," which was printed five years after the Roe decision. Selection four is "Enemies of Choice: The Right-to-Life Movement and Its Threat to Abortion" by Andrew Merton. This 1981 publication singled out a concern about sexuality as the overriding motivator for anti-abortion groups. Two years later, Beverly Wildung Harrison published a ground-breaking, feminist, moral analysis of abortion entitled "Our Right to Choose: Toward a New Ethic of Abortion. This was followed by a more empirical and sociopolitical feminist analysis in Kristin Luker's 1984 "Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood." The seventh book is by another feminist, Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, whose work "Abortion and Women's Choice: The State, Sexuality, and Reproductive Freedom" was first published in 1984 and reprinted in 1990. The eighth important book was "Abortion and Catholicism: The American Debate," edited by Thomas A. Shannon and Patricia Beattie Jung. Rounding out the list are the 1992 work "Life Itself: Abortion in the American Mind" by Roger Rosenblatt and Ronald Dworkin's 1993 "Life's Dominion: An Argument About Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom."

  9. Abortion: a reader's guide.

    PubMed

    Hisel, L M

    1996-01-01

    This review traces the discussion of abortion in the US through 10 of the best books published on the subject in the past 25 years. The first book considered is Daniel Callahan's "Abortion: Law, Choice and Morality," which was published in 1970. Next is book of essays also published in 1970: "The Morality of Abortion: Legal and Historical Perspectives," which was edited by John T. Noonan, Jr., who became a prominent opponent to the Roe decision. It is noted that Roman Catholics would find the essay by Bernard Haring especially interesting since Haring supported the Church's position on abortion but called for acceptance of contraception. Third on the list is historian James C. Mohr's review of "Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy," which was printed five years after the Roe decision. Selection four is "Enemies of Choice: The Right-to-Life Movement and Its Threat to Abortion" by Andrew Merton. This 1981 publication singled out a concern about sexuality as the overriding motivator for anti-abortion groups. Two years later, Beverly Wildung Harrison published a ground-breaking, feminist, moral analysis of abortion entitled "Our Right to Choose: Toward a New Ethic of Abortion. This was followed by a more empirical and sociopolitical feminist analysis in Kristin Luker's 1984 "Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood." The seventh book is by another feminist, Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, whose work "Abortion and Women's Choice: The State, Sexuality, and Reproductive Freedom" was first published in 1984 and reprinted in 1990. The eighth important book was "Abortion and Catholicism: The American Debate," edited by Thomas A. Shannon and Patricia Beattie Jung. Rounding out the list are the 1992 work "Life Itself: Abortion in the American Mind" by Roger Rosenblatt and Ronald Dworkin's 1993 "Life's Dominion: An Argument About Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom." PMID:12178914

  10. Abortion in Europe, 1920-91: a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    David, H P

    1992-01-01

    This article grew out of a keynote address prepared for the conference, "From Abortion to Contraception: Public Health Approaches to Reducing Unwanted Pregnancy and Abortion Through Improved Family Planning Services," held in Tbilisi, Georgia, USSR in October 1990. The article reviews the legal, religious, and medical situation of induced abortion in Europe in historical perspective, and considers access to abortion services, attitudes of health professionals, abortion incidence, morbidity and mortality, the new antiprogestins, the characteristics of abortion seekers, late abortions, postabortion psychological reactions, effects of denied abortion, and repeat abortion. Special attention is focused on the changes occurring in Romania, Albania, and the former Soviet Union, plus the effects of the new conservatism elsewhere in the formerly socialist countries of central and eastern Europe, particularly Poland. Abortion is a social reality that can no more be legislated out of existence than the controversy surrounding it can be stilled. No matter how effective family planning services and practices become, there will always be a need for access to safe abortion services.

  11. Human Factors and ISS Medical Systems: Highlights of Procedures and Equipment Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, V. E.; Hudy, C.; Smith, D.; Whitmore, M.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Space Human Factors Engineering Critical Questions Roadmap, a three year Technology Development Project (TDP) was funded by NASA Headquarters to examine emergency medical procedures on ISS. The overall aim of the emergency medical procedures project was to determine the human factors issues in the procedures, training, communications and equipment, and to recommend solutions that will improve the survival rate of crewmembers in the event of a medical emergency. Currently, each ISS crew remains on orbit for six month intervals. As there is not standing requirement for a physician crewmember, during such time, the maintenance of crew health is dependant on individual crewmembers. Further, in the event of an emergency, crew will need to provide prolonged maintenance care, as well as emergency treatment, to an injured crewmember while awaiting transport to Earth. In addition to the isolation of the crew, medical procedures must be carried out within the further limitations imposed by the physical environment of the space station. For example, in order to administer care on ISS without the benefit of gravity, the Crew Medical Officers (CMOs) must restrain the equipment required to perform the task, restrain the injured crewmember, and finally, restrain themselves. Both the physical environment and the physical space available further limit the technology that can be used onboard. Equipment must be compact, yet able to withstand high levels of radiation and function without gravity. The focus here is to highlight the human factors impacts from our three year project involving the procedures and equipment areas that have been investigated and provided valuable to ISS and provide groundwork for human factors requirements for medical applications for exploration missions.

  12. Exploring the pathways of unsafe abortion in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sushanta K; Andersen, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 40 years after enactment of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act of 1971, unsafe abortion continues to be a neglected women's health issue in India. This prospective study of women presenting for post-abortion care in 10 selected hospitals in Madhya Pradesh, India, aimed to understand the incidence, types and severity of post-abortion complications, probable causes of complications and consequences to women in terms of hospitalisation and incurred costs. Among 1565 women presenting for induced abortion-related services between July and November 2007, 381 women with post-abortion complications consented to participate. Data reveal a high prevalence of post-abortion complications (29%). Approximately half of women originally attempted to induce abortion at home using medication, home-made concoctions or traditional methods. Ninety percent sought care from either qualified (37%) or unqualified providers. More than half of the women were hospitalised as a result of post-abortion complications. This study suggests that supporting access to safely induced abortion services and improving community awareness on legal aspects, safe methods and approved providers are all necessary to reduce morbidity associated with unsafe abortion.

  13. Medical Management of Tumor Lysis Syndrome, Postprocedural Pain, and Venous Thromboembolism Following Interventional Radiology Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzalian, Ali; Armitage, Keith B.; Kapoor, Baljendra; Kalva, Sanjeeva P.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid expansion of minimally invasive image-guided procedures has led to their extensive use in the interdisciplinary management of patients with vascular, hepatobiliary, genitourinary, and oncologic diseases. Given the increased availability and breadth of these procedures, it is important for physicians to be aware of common complications and their management. In this article, the authors describe management of select common complications from interventional radiology procedures including tumor lysis syndrome, acute on chronic postprocedural pain, and venous thromboembolism. These complications are discussed in detail and their medical management is outlined according to generally accepted practice and evidence from the literature. PMID:26038627

  14. Medical management of tumor lysis syndrome, postprocedural pain, and venous thromboembolism following interventional radiology procedures.

    PubMed

    Faramarzalian, Ali; Armitage, Keith B; Kapoor, Baljendra; Kalva, Sanjeeva P

    2015-06-01

    The rapid expansion of minimally invasive image-guided procedures has led to their extensive use in the interdisciplinary management of patients with vascular, hepatobiliary, genitourinary, and oncologic diseases. Given the increased availability and breadth of these procedures, it is important for physicians to be aware of common complications and their management. In this article, the authors describe management of select common complications from interventional radiology procedures including tumor lysis syndrome, acute on chronic postprocedural pain, and venous thromboembolism. These complications are discussed in detail and their medical management is outlined according to generally accepted practice and evidence from the literature. PMID:26038627

  15. 'High profile health facilities can add to your trouble': Women, stigma and un/safe abortion in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Izugbara, Chimaraoke O; Egesa, Carolyne; Okelo, Rispah

    2015-09-01

    Public health discourses on safe abortion assume the term to be unambiguous. However, qualitative evidence elicited from Kenyan women treated for complications of unsafe abortion contrasted sharply with public health views of abortion safety. For these women, safe abortion implied pregnancy termination procedures and services that concealed their abortions, shielded them from the law, were cheap and identified through dependable social networks. Participants contested the notion that poor quality abortion procedures and providers are inherently dangerous, asserting them as key to women's preservation of a good self, management of stigma, and protection of their reputation, respect, social relationships, and livelihoods. Greater public health attention to the social dimensions of abortion safety is urgent.

  16. Serious infection associated with induced abortion in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Angela

    2012-12-01

    Though serious infection after induced abortion is rare, infections account for one third of abortion-related deaths in the United States. Most fatal cases of infection after induced medical abortion have involved clostridial species. These reported cases share important clinical features that may guide clinicians to earlier recognition and institution of therapy. This article reviews our current knowledge regarding serious clostridial infections postabortion including the typical clinical presentation, pathophysiology, modes of diagnosis, and available treatment.

  17. Needs for laws dealing with abortion in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ojo, S L

    1976-09-01

    This paper reviews from the point of view of a lawyer, the need for abortion, the state of the laws in Africa and hazards of illegal abortion encouraged by restrictive laws. The author then examines the trends in the liberalization of laws in Africa and poses the problem of intention towards liberalization and the tendency of the governments to continue retaining some aspects of the restrictive laws. It is concluded that restrictive abortion laws in many African countries have proved ineffective and should therefore be liberalized. Miller's 8 stages in a woman's reproductive career when she is especially vulnerable psychologically to unwanted pregnancy and the 5 aspects of ego psychology to explain these stages are delineated. Hazards of illegal abortions include use of unqualified personnel, unsanitary conditions, high mortality rate and a sense of punishment conveyed especially to the poor and uneducated which may deter them from seeking medical assistance and contraceptive advice after the operation. 7% of the world's population live in countries where abortion is prohibited; for 12% abortion is permitted only to save the life of the mother; 15% must have broad medical grounds for abortion; for 22% social factors are taken into consideration; 36% can have abortions at their own request, 8% are subject to restrictive abortion laws. Only Tunisia and Zambia in Africa have so far liberalized their abortion laws. Liberalization will substantially reduce frequency of illegal and/or self induced abortions and the incidence of illegitimate births. Women who practice contraception are more likely to accept abortion and those who have an abortion are more likely to accept contraceptive methods when available. Since Potts predicts that 1/3 of all married couples will have at least 1 unplanned pregnancy, liberalization of abortion laws cannot be denied on the argument that instead emphasis should be placed on prevention through family planning education and services. The

  18. A Stress Inoculation Program for Parents Whose Children Are Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, Susan M.; Elliott, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    Compared program efficacy in helping parents cope with children's painful medical procedures. Parents (n=72) of pediatric leukemia patients participated in either stress inoculation program or observed child participating in cognitive behavior therapy. Found parents in stress inoculation program reported lower anxiety scores and higher positive…

  19. 32 CFR 1801.31 - Special procedures for medical and psychological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special procedures for medical and psychological records. 1801.31 Section 1801.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL... the identity of the physician, and agreement by the physician: (1) To review the documents with...

  20. [Induced abortion: a vulnerable public health problem].

    PubMed

    Requena, M

    1991-03-01

    Induced abortion is an urgent public health problem that can be controlled if it is approached in its true complexity and with a social and humanist perspective. Induced abortion has been discussed in Chile since the last century, but not always openly. Abortion is not just an individual and collective medical problem, it is also an ethical, religious, legal, demographic, political, and psychological problem. Above all it is a problem of human rights. In the past 60 years, more than 50 countries representing 76% of the world population have liberalized their abortion legislation. Around 980 million women have some degrees of access of legal abortion. The magnitude of illegal abortion is difficult to determine because of the desire of women to hide their experiences. Estimates of the incidence of abortion in Chile made some 25 years ago are no longer valid because of the numerous social changes in the intervening years. The number of abortions in Chile in 1987 was estimated using an indirect residual method at 195,441, of which 90%, or 175,897, were induced. By this estimate, 38.8% of pregnancies in Chile end in abortion. Data on hospitalizations for complications of induced abortion show an increase from 13.9/1000 fertile aged women in 1940 to 29.1 in 1965. By 1987, with increased contraceptive usage, the rate declined to 10.5 abortions per 1000 fertile aged women. The cost of hospitalization for abortion complications in 1987, despite the decline, was still estimated at US $4.3 million, a large sum in an era of declining health resources. The problem of induced abortion can be analyzed by placing it in the context of elements affecting the desire to control fertility. 4 complexes of variables are involved: those affecting the supply of contraceptive, the demand for contraceptives, the various costs of fertility control measure, and alternatives to fertility control for satisfying various needs. The analysis is further complicated when efforts are made to

  1. Letter: The Canadian abortion law.

    PubMed

    Coffey, P G

    1976-08-01

    Removing abortion from the Criminal Code in Canada will mean that more and more abortions will be performed for nonmedical reasons which will result in an abortion-on-demand situation similar to that in Japan. Early complications of abortion include death, hemorrhage, shock, cervical injury, and infection. Later complications include premature births, spontaneous abortions, ectopic pregnancies, pelvic inflammation, and infertility. Legalized abortion does not seem to reduce the incidence of illegal abortion. There are also psychological, moral, and sociological consequences of legalized abortion. It would seem that liberal abortion makes bad medicine and leads to far-reaching consequences.

  2. ['Do not worry, it hurts!'--psychological preparation for medical procedures in pediatric oncology].

    PubMed

    Schepper, F; Schachtschabel, S; Christiansen, H

    2012-04-01

    In the last decades the chances of surviving childhood cancer have increased. Nowadays psychological and psychosocial long term side effects become more spotlighted. Especially the posttraumatic stress disorder is focused at the moment as a possible side effect of childhood cancer. Cancer as a life-threatening illness is unpredictable and associated with repeating loads, such as medical procedures or treatment. Most of the patients report anxiety, especially young children have an increased risk of making a traumatic experience while undergoing medical treatment. A psychological support before, meanwhile and after can ensure compliance as well as reducing emotional and behavioral disorders. Even preventive impact is conceivable. Therefore psychological support has become a standard in pediatric cancer treatment. The current case report of the 10 year old Tom is a practical example how to support has undergoing medical procedures. The interventions described have the aim of stabilizing the patient and reducing his anxiety and discomfort. They also show an effect on self-efficacy.

  3. The development of audio-visual materials to prepare patients for medical procedures: an oncology application.

    PubMed

    Carey, M; Schofield, P; Jefford, M; Krishnasamy, M; Aranda, S

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes a systematic process for the development of educational audio-visual materials that are designed to prepare patients for potentially threatening procedures. Literature relating to the preparation of patients for potentially threatening medical procedures, psychological theory, theory of diffusion of innovations and patient information was examined. Four key principles were identified as being important: (1) stakeholder consultation, (2) provision of information to prepare patients for the medical procedure, (3) evidence-based content, and (4) promotion of patient confidence. These principles are described along with an example of the development of an audio-visual resource to prepare patients for chemotherapy treatment. Using this example, practical strategies for the application of each of the principles are described. The principles and strategies described may provide a practical, evidence-based guide to the development of other types of patient audio-visual materials.

  4. Scientific evaluation and pricing of medical devices and associated procedures in France.

    PubMed

    Gilard, Martine; Debroucker, Frederique; Dubray, Claude; Allioux, Yves; Aper, Eliane; Barat-Leonhardt, Valérie; Brami, Michèle; Carbonneil, Cédric; Chartier-Kastler, Emmanuel; Coqueblin, Claire; Fare, Sandrine; Giri, Isabelle; Goehrs, Jean-Marie; Levesque, Karine; Maugendre, Philippe; Parquin, François; Sales, Jean-Patrick; Szwarcensztein, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Medical devices are many and various, ranging from tongue spatulas to implantable or invasive devices and imaging machines; their lifetimes are short, between 18 months and 5 years, due to incessant incremental innovation; and they are operator-dependent: in general, the clinical user performs a fitting procedure (hip implant or pacemaker), a therapeutic procedure using a non-implantable invasive device (arrhythmic site ablation probe, angioplasty balloon, extension spondyloplasty system, etc.) or follow-up of an active implanted device (long-term follow-up of an implanted cardiac defibrillator or of a deep brain stimulator in Parkinson's patients). A round-table held during the XXVIII(th) Giens Workshops meeting focused on the methodology of scientific evaluation of medical devices and the associated procedures with a view to their pricing and financing by the French National Health Insurance system. The working hypothesis was that the available data-set was sufficient for and compatible with scientific evaluation with clinical benefit. Post-registration studies, although contributing to the continuity of assessment, were not dealt with. Moreover, the focus was restricted to devices used in health establishments, where the association between devices and technical medical procedures is optimally representative. An update of the multiple regulatory protocols governing medical devices and procedures is provided. Issues more specifically related to procedures as such, to non-implantable devices and to innovative devices are then dealt with, and the proposals and discussion points raised at the round-table for each of these three areas are presented.

  5. Physician provision of abortion before Roe v. Wade.

    PubMed

    Joffe, C

    1991-01-01

    With the possibility of the Supreme Court overturning the landmark Roe v. Wade (1973) case legalizing abortion, a review of abortion practices pre-Roe is instructive. Abortion became criminalized in the US around 1870, yet many abortions were performed. While estimates for the yearly number of pre-Roe illegal abortions roughly resemble today's number of legal abortions, the difference between legal and illegal abortion rests in the difference between the large number of women who died or were injured then, and the very few women who now die from illegal abortions. Along with the self-induced abortion, different categories of providers performed illegal abortions: physicians, nonphysicians, nurses, midwives, and lay people; all with varying skill, experience, and motives. While there were "butchers" and sexual exploiters, there were also competent, beloved physicians. There were the financially motivated physicians providing abortions full time, and the occasional providers acting with a sense of conscience, risking successful practices and jail. Within this "conscience" group of 44 interviewees gathered through personal networks, ads, etc., abortions were: performed outside of hospitals, reducing the risk of discovery, but creating greater medical risks; begun outside of a hospital with the intrusion into the uterus of an object, provoking a "spontaneous abortion" (miscarriage) needing completion by D and C (dilation and curettage) within a hospital, but only a limited number of such patients could be referred before arousing suspicion; and in a hospital under disguised circumstances, a very tricky undertaking with severe limitations, available only a few times before risking detection. Avoidance and lack of training by today's physicians and the well organized antiabortion groups will undoubtedly make illegal abortions even more difficult to engage in than the pre-Roe days.

  6. Abortion in early America.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Z

    1979-01-01

    This piece describes abortion practices in use from the 1600s to the 19th century among the inhabitants of North America. The abortive techniques of women from different ethnic and racial groups as found in historical literature are revealed. Thus, the point is made that abortion is not simply a "now issue" that effects select women. Instead, it is demonstrated that it is a widespread practice as solidly rooted in our past as it is in the present.

  7. [Therapeutic abortion: a difficult choice].

    PubMed

    Gratton-Jacob, F

    1981-01-01

    showed that nurses were among the last people they would consider consulting about personal difficulties. Although fewer than 10% of women have serious psychiatric problems following an abortion, it is a stressful event for all who undergo it, and nurses can offer several types of assistance, including offering support and helping the patient to explore her feelings and reactions and to make firm decisions. Nurses should provide patients with all needed information on the procedure and subsequent contraception, and they should make themselves available after the procedure.

  8. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  9. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  10. Time to follow guidelines, protocols, and structured procedures in medical care and time to leap out.

    PubMed

    Kobo-Greenhut, Ayala; Notea, Amos; Ruach, Meir; Onn, Erez; Hasin, Yehunatan

    2014-01-01

    Present medical practice encourages management according to written guidelines, protocols, and structured procedures (GPPs). Daily medical practice includes instances in which "leaping" from one patient management routine to another is a must. We define "frozen patient management", when patient management leaping was required but was not performed. Frozen patient management may cause significant damage to patient safety and health and the treatment quality. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of GPP-guided medical practice and gives an explanation of the problem of frozen patient management in light of quality engineering, control engineering, and learning processes. Our analysis of frozen patient management is based on consideration of medical care as a process. By considering medical care processes as a closed-loop control process, it is possible to explain why, when an indication for deviation from the expected occurs, it does not necessarily attract the medical teams' attention, thereby preventing the realization that leaping to an alternative patient management is needed. We suggest that working according to GPPs intensifies the frozen patient management problem since working according to GPPs relates to "exploitation learning behavior", while leaping to new patient management relates to "exploration learning behavior". We indicate practice routines to be incorporated into GPP-guided medical care, to reduce frozen patient management.

  11. RU 486: an alternative to surgical abortion.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, K; Briggs, J; McMaster, D

    1994-09-01

    After 5 years of use in more than 100,000 European women, RU 486, an antiprogestin medication used as a medical abortifacient, has recently come under scrutiny in the United States. This article discusses the current and potential uses of RU 486. Also addressed are the history, advantages, and disadvantages of medical abortion (including the acceptability of the method from a woman-centered perspective); new clinical trials; and ethical issues.

  12. [The psychological (long-term) sequelae of abortion].

    PubMed

    Shadmi, N; Bloch, M; Hermoni, D

    2002-10-01

    This article aims to review the available literature on the short and long-term psychological sequelae of abortion. This subject remains controversial. The most common reactions women experienced after pregnancy loss were grief, depression and anxiety. From the reviewed literature it seems that those reactions are more common following spontaneous abortion than after therapeutic abortion. Risk factors for these reactions include past psychiatric history, social and cultural attitude, poor social support, history of previous therapeutic abortion, the fact that the current abortion is the result of medical or genetic problem, no living children, or being a single woman. Most of the reviewed papers deal with short-term reactions and raise the need for long term research (more than 2 years). Only one such paper was found. It is recommended that all those who treat women that had an abortion should be aware of its psychological consequences and help identify and refer high-risk women for treatment.

  13. Abortion issue goes to US courts.

    PubMed

    Charatan, F B

    1995-04-22

    The antiabortion groups and their lawyers have added a new weapon to their arsenal against physicians who perform abortions in the US: malpractice lawsuits. The nonprofit educational organization Life Dynamics generates material for personal injury lawyers and is participating in 80 cases. It has assembled 642 lawyers and 500 physicians in its abortion malpractice program. Life Dynamics calls for persons to support lawsuits to increase malpractice insurance rates of abortionists, thereby forcing them out of business. Its 2-day 1994 seminar in Texas addressed abortion injuries, an alleged link between abortion and breast cancer, and abortion as a likely source of post-traumatic stress disorder. A lawyer and general counsel of the Arizona Right-to-Life has filed two lawsuits against a Phoenix physician who performs abortion. The trial judge dismissed both cases and fined the lawyer for frivolous lawsuits. An appeal overturned the fines. The lawyer has three more lawsuits on the docket. The physician had complained to the Arizona Bar Association about the lawyer. Even though the physician's insurance company did not pay any claims, its underwriters deemed him an actuarial risk, thereby making him essentially uninsurable. Local medical associations have failed to take a position on the lawyer's legal misconduct because they do not want to alienate some members. The Planned Parenthood Federation of America agreed that the lawsuits brought against the Phoenix physician were fraudulent and that they do not aim to protect women but to revoke their right to choose. PMID:7728049

  14. It Is Time to Integrate Abortion Into Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Roe v Wade decision made safe abortion available but did not change the reality that more than 1 million women face an unwanted pregnancy every year. Forty years after Roe v Wade, the procedure is not accessible to many US women. The politics of abortion have led to a plethora of laws that create enormous barriers to abortion access, particularly for young, rural, and low-income women. Family medicine physicians and advanced practice clinicians are qualified to provide abortion care. To realize the promise of Roe v Wade, first-trimester abortion must be integrated into primary care and public health professionals and advocates must work to remove barriers to the provision of abortion within primary care settings. PMID:23153160

  15. A urinary test procedure for identification of cannabidiol in patients undergoing medical therapy with marijuana.

    PubMed

    Wertlake, Paul T; Henson, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as Schedule I, drugs having no accepted medical value. Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have legalized medical marijuana. This conflict inhibits physicians from prescribing marijuana and the systematic study of marijuana in medical care. This study concerns the use of the clinical laboratory as a resource for physicians recommending cannabidiol (CBD) to patients, or for patients using medical marijuana. Marijuana containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is psychoactive. CBD is not psychoactive. CBD is reported to have medical benefit for seizure control, neurologic disorders including multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain and pain associated with cancer. Use of opiates leads to increasing dosage over time that may cause respiratory depression. The Medical Board of California has termed this a serious public health crisis of addiction, overdose, and death. Is it feasible that CBD might alleviate persistent, severe pain and therefore diminished opiate use? Further study is needed to determine medical effectiveness of CBD including the effect on concurrent opiate therapy due to competition for receptor sites. This study is the application of a gas chromatography mass spectrometry procedure adapted for use in our laboratory, to detect CBD in urine. The intended use is as a tool for physicians to assess that marijuana being used by a patient is of a composition likely to be medically effective. A law ensuring physicians freedom from federal prosecution would provide confidence essential to formal study of medical uses of marijuana and treatment of clinical problems. Detection of CBD in a urine sample would be a convenient test for such confirmation. PMID:26929665

  16. A urinary test procedure for identification of cannabidiol in patients undergoing medical therapy with marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Wertlake, Paul T; Henson, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as Schedule I, drugs having no accepted medical value. Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have legalized medical marijuana. This conflict inhibits physicians from prescribing marijuana and the systematic study of marijuana in medical care. This study concerns the use of the clinical laboratory as a resource for physicians recommending cannabidiol (CBD) to patients, or for patients using medical marijuana. Marijuana containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is psychoactive. CBD is not psychoactive. CBD is reported to have medical benefit for seizure control, neurologic disorders including multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain and pain associated with cancer. Use of opiates leads to increasing dosage over time that may cause respiratory depression. The Medical Board of California has termed this a serious public health crisis of addiction, overdose, and death. Is it feasible that CBD might alleviate persistent, severe pain and therefore diminished opiate use? Further study is needed to determine medical effectiveness of CBD including the effect on concurrent opiate therapy due to competition for receptor sites. This study is the application of a gas chromatography mass spectrometry procedure adapted for use in our laboratory, to detect CBD in urine. The intended use is as a tool for physicians to assess that marijuana being used by a patient is of a composition likely to be medically effective. A law ensuring physicians freedom from federal prosecution would provide confidence essential to formal study of medical uses of marijuana and treatment of clinical problems. Detection of CBD in a urine sample would be a convenient test for such confirmation. PMID:26929665

  17. A urinary test procedure for identification of cannabidiol in patients undergoing medical therapy with marijuana.

    PubMed

    Wertlake, Paul T; Henson, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as Schedule I, drugs having no accepted medical value. Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have legalized medical marijuana. This conflict inhibits physicians from prescribing marijuana and the systematic study of marijuana in medical care. This study concerns the use of the clinical laboratory as a resource for physicians recommending cannabidiol (CBD) to patients, or for patients using medical marijuana. Marijuana containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is psychoactive. CBD is not psychoactive. CBD is reported to have medical benefit for seizure control, neurologic disorders including multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain and pain associated with cancer. Use of opiates leads to increasing dosage over time that may cause respiratory depression. The Medical Board of California has termed this a serious public health crisis of addiction, overdose, and death. Is it feasible that CBD might alleviate persistent, severe pain and therefore diminished opiate use? Further study is needed to determine medical effectiveness of CBD including the effect on concurrent opiate therapy due to competition for receptor sites. This study is the application of a gas chromatography mass spectrometry procedure adapted for use in our laboratory, to detect CBD in urine. The intended use is as a tool for physicians to assess that marijuana being used by a patient is of a composition likely to be medically effective. A law ensuring physicians freedom from federal prosecution would provide confidence essential to formal study of medical uses of marijuana and treatment of clinical problems. Detection of CBD in a urine sample would be a convenient test for such confirmation.

  18. Radiological health risks to astronauts from space activities and medical procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Leif E.; Nachtwey, D. Stuart

    1990-01-01

    Radiation protection standards for space activities differ substantially from those applied to terrestrial working situations. The levels of radiation and subsequent hazards to which space workers are exposed are quite unlike anything found on Earth. The new more highly refined system of risk management involves assessing the risk to each space worker from all sources of radiation (occupational and non-occupational) at the organ level. The risk coefficients were applied to previous space and medical exposures (diagnostic x ray and nuclear medicine procedures) in order to estimate the radiation-induced lifetime cancer incidence and mortality risk. At present, the risk from medical procedures when compared to space activities is 14 times higher for cancer incidence and 13 times higher for cancer mortality; however, this will change as the per capita dose during Space Station Freedom and interplanetary missions increases and more is known about the risks from exposure to high-LET radiation.

  19. Radiological health risks to astronauts from space activities and medical procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, L.E.; Nachtwey, D.S.

    1990-08-01

    Radiation protection standards for space activities differ substantially from those applied to terrestrial working situations. The levels of radiation and subsequent hazards to which space workers are exposed are quite unlike anything found on Earth. The new more highly refined system of risk management involves assessing the risk to each space worker from all sources of radiation (occupational and non-occupational) at the organ level. The risk coefficients were applied to previous space and medical exposures (diagnostic x ray and nuclear medicine procedures) in order to estimate the radiation-induced lifetime cancer incidence and mortality risk. At present, the risk from medical procedures when compared to space activities is 14 times higher for cancer incidence and 13 times higher for cancer mortality; however, this will change as the per capita dose during Space Station Freedom and interplanetary missions increases and more is known about the risks from exposure to high-LET radiation.

  20. Cambodia passes new limits on abortion.

    PubMed

    1997-10-17

    According to international news sources, Cambodia's parliament approved a law limiting the circumstances under which abortions can be performed on October 6 [1997]. Members of parliament say the new law, the first ever passed regulating abortion in Cambodia, is intended to reduce maternal morality rates from abortions performed by unlicensed health practitioners under unsanitary conditions. Local news outlets report that the Cambodian Health Ministry estimates the maternal mortality at 4.7 deaths per 1000 live births. The rate in the US is 0.12 deaths per 1000 live births. The law requires that abortions be performed by licensed health professionals in hospitals and certified clinics within the first trimester of pregnancy, and that women under the age of 18 must obtain parental consent. The new law also sets harsh penalties for those who harm women during illegal procedures--up to 5 years in prison if a woman is injured and up to 10 years if she dies. Opponents of the law say they fear that the new restrictions will push abortion even further underground, as the hospital system cannot handle the current demand for abortion. PMID:12292784

  1. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    PubMed

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve.

  2. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    PubMed

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve. PMID:7716799

  3. Psychosocial aspects of abortion

    PubMed Central

    Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users. PMID:1085671

  4. CMA abortion survey.

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Responses to the question as to whether abortions should be performed at the woman's request during the first trimester of pregnancy were evenly divided. There was support for abortion on socioeconomic grounds, during the first trimester, from 61.5% of the respondents. Termination of pregnancy beyond the first trimester was supported by a majority of the respondents only in cases in which the woman's life is in danger (73.9%) or in which there is evidence of a severe physical abnormality in the fetus (70.6%) or in cases in which the woman's physical health is in danger (55.5%). Those who said they would not support abortion under any circumstances constitute, at most, 5.1% of the respondents. Support for the maintenance or the elimination of therapeutic abortion committees was addressed in two questions and in both cases the respondents were evenly divided. The responses to these two questions were compared and found to be logically consistent. Only physicians should perform abortions, and they should be performed in hospitals with the woman either as an inpatient or, during the first trimester, as an outpatient. The performance of first-trimester abortions in provincially approved abortion clinics was supported by 47.3% of the respondents. Of the 885 respondents who wished to see some amendment to the Criminal Code, 409 stated that the term "health" as used in the Criminal Code relative to the legal grounds for therapeutic abortion should be defined. PMID:6861064

  5. Abortion in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Nancy B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored differences between 35 women who had abortions as teenagers and 36 women who had abortions as adults. Respondents reported on their premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and postabortion distress symptoms. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders, drug abuse, and psychotic delusions were significantly…

  6. Resolving the abortion controversy.

    PubMed

    Rosoff, J I

    1989-01-01

    This article addresses legislative attempts to reverse Roe v. Wade, U.S. abortion laws vis-á-vis those of other developed nations, socioeconomic factors figuring into the decision (or option) to abort, and the positive potential impact of improved contraceptive use.

  7. Applications of statistics to medical science, II overview of statistical procedures for general use.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Procedures of statistical analysis are reviewed to provide an overview of applications of statistics for general use. Topics that are dealt with are inference on a population, comparison of two populations with respect to means and probabilities, and multiple comparisons. This study is the second part of series in which we survey medical statistics. Arguments related to statistical associations and regressions will be made in subsequent papers.

  8. Abortion: a history.

    PubMed

    Hovey, G

    1985-01-01

    This review of abortion history considers sacred and secular practice and traces abortion in the US, the legacy of the 19th century, and the change that occurred in the 20th century. Abortion has been practiced since ancient times, but its legality and availability have been threatened continuously by forces that would denigrate women's fundamental rights. Currently, while efforts to decrease the need for abortion through contraception and education continue, access to abortion remains crucial for the well-being of millions of women. That access will never be secure until profound changes occur in the whole society. Laws that prohibit absolutely the practice of abortion are a relatively recent development. In the early Roman Catholic church, abortion was permitted for male fetuses in the first 40 days of pregnancy and for female fetuses in the first 80-90 days. Not until 1588 did Pope Sixtus V declare all abortion murder, with excommunication as the punishment. Only 3 years later a new pope found the absolute sanction unworkable and again allowed early abortions. 300 years would pass before the Catholic church under Pius IX again declared all abortion murder. This standard, declared in 1869, remains the official position of the church, reaffirmed by the current pope. In 1920 the Soviet Union became the 1st modern state formally to legalize abortion. In the early period after the 1917 revolution, abortion was readily available in state operated facilities. These facilities were closed and abortion made illegal when it became clear that the Soviet Union would have to defend itself against Nazi Germany. After World War II women were encouraged to enter the labor force, and abortion once again became legal. The cases of the Catholic church and the Soviet Union illustrate the same point. Abortion legislation has never been in the hands of women. In the 20th century, state policy has been determined by the rhythms of economic and military expansion, the desire for cheap

  9. Induced abortion: epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Baird, D

    1975-01-01

    Sir Dugald Baird sketches the history of abortion legislation in Great Britain from the beginning of the century. In his views the 1967 Abortion Act has been one of the most important and beneficial pieces of social legislation enacted in Britain in the last 100 years. It has, however, brought problems both of administration in the hospitals and to individual doctors and nurses, particularly when the patients are young single women and even schoolgirls. One of the consequences of the Abortion Act has been a fall in maternal mortality and perinatal mortality rates. Abortion does not seem to be followed by serious emotional sequelae. Nevertheless recent changes in sexual mores have introduced new and serious social problems which are discussed in relation to the role of the doctor in his relationship with patients seeking abortion. PMID:765461

  10. Walking the abortion tightrope.

    PubMed

    Simms, M

    1971-03-01

    The abortion controversy in England was partially resolved on February 23, 1971, when Sir Keith Joseph, Secretary of State for Social Services, announced that an inquiry into the 1967 Abortion Act would be established, but one which would be concerned with the way the Act was working rather than the principles underlying it. Regional inequalities exist in the implementation of the Act (as with substandard services in Birmingham, Liverpool and Sheffield) due to opposition of the local gynecological establishment and a genuine shortage of facilities. These can be eliminated only through time and retirement and with public finance for more equal abortion facilities. The addition of a consultant clause into the Act would probably reduce the number of abortions in smaller private nursing homes, flood the National Health Service with abortion requests, and drive women back to criminal abortionists.

  11. Patterns of post-operative pain medication prescribing after invasive dental procedures

    PubMed Central

    Barasch, Andrei; Safford, Monika M.; McNeal, Sandre F.; Robinson, Michelle; Grant, Vivian S.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated disparities in the prescription of analgesics following dental procedures that were expected to cause acute post-operative pain. Patients over the age of 19 years who had been treated by surgical and/or endodontic dental procedures were included in this study. We reviewed 900 consecutive charts and abstracted data on procedures, patients, and providers. We used chi-square and logistic regression models for analyses. There were 485 White subjects 357 African-American subjects included in this review; 81% of the African-American and 78% of White patients received a post-operative narcotic prescription (p=0.56). In multivariate regression models, patients over age 45 (p=0.003), those with insurance that covered medication and those with pre-existing pain (p=0.004) were more likely to receive narcotic analgesics. Students prescribed more narcotics than residents (p=0.001). No differences were found by race in prescribing analgesics. PMID:21371065

  12. Confidence level in performing clinical procedures among medical officers in nonspecialist government hospitals in Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Othman, Mohamad Sabri; Merican, Hassan; Lee, Yew Fong; Ch'ng, Kean Siang; Thurairatnam, Dharminy

    2015-03-01

    A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at 3 government hospitals over 6 months to evaluate the confidence level of medical officers (MOs) to perform clinical procedure in nonspecialist government hospitals in Penang. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire in English was designed based on the elective and emergency procedures stated in the houseman training logbook. The questionnaire was distributed to the MOs from Penang State Health Department through the respective hospital directors and returned to Penang State Health Department on completion. The results showed that there was statistically significant difference between those who had undergone 12 months and 24 months as houseman in performing both elective and emergency procedures. MOs who had spent 24 months as housemen expressed higher confidence level than those who had only 12 months of experience. We also found that the confidence level was statistically and significantly influenced by visiting specialist and working together with cooperative experienced paramedics.

  13. Abortion and the search for public policy.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, R L

    1993-01-01

    The social policy towards abortion determined by the Roe vs. Wade decision can be overturned at any time depending upon how the US Supreme Court reacts to challenges to its earlier ruling. Roe vs. Wade was decided by a 7 to 2 vote, and the members of the Supreme Court appointed by Presidents Reagan and Bush were chosen to uphold a conservative (anti-abortion) ideology. Although more than half of the present Court was appointed by these presidents, President Clinton now has the opportunity to appoint 2 more Justices. The public policy positions which are currently available to the Supreme Court or to Congress can be ranked on a chart from liberal to conservative. In this article, 7 different positions are described in detail, and the public policy implications of the implementation of each position are described. The first position considered is the extreme conservative position of "no abortion; no exceptions" as defined by author and Roman Catholic theologian Gerald Kelly. The only procedures allowed which would end the life of a fetus would be those to remove an ovary or fallopian tube in the case of an extrauterine pregnancy (permissible under the doctrine of double effect). In the most extreme interpretation of this situation (which Kelly does not seem to hold), those who perform abortions would be prosecuted for murder. The next position considered is the most liberal position, which is espoused by Michael Tooley, and which holds that abortion and early infanticide are both permissible. The third position is that which allows no abortion but has limited exceptions in cases of rape or incest. The appropriate consideration for abortion presented next is that of the late Joseph Fletcher who believed that whatever love requires is the proper response to the situation. Philosopher Dan Callahan espouses the notion that abortion should be performed for compelling reasons only (after effective counseling). The trimester approach to the problem of abortion is that set

  14. Debate: Should Abortion Be Available on Request?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Bernard; Lawrence, George

    1971-01-01

    Two physicians debate whether abortions should be available on request regardless of medical indications. The crux of the issue is whether the fetus should be considered body tissue over which the woman has complete control or whether society has an interest in the embryo and should protect it. (Author/BY)

  15. A decade of international change in abortion law: 1967-1977.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1978-01-01

    Modern thinking on abortion, reflected in recent legal developments around the world, has turned from concentration upon criminality in favor of female and family well-being. New laws enacted during the last decade are coming to focus upon conditions of health and social welfare of women and their existing families as indications for lawful termination of pregnancy. Regulations governing the delivery of services may be restrictive, however, so as to limit in practice access to means of safe, legal abortion made available in theory. Requirements may be imposed that only medical personnel with unduly high qualifications perform procedures, or that they be undertaken only in institutions meeting standards higher than similar health care requires. Approval procedures may be established involving second medical opinions or committees to monitor observance of the law, which may delay abortions and therefore increase their hazards. Parental and spousal consent requirements may exist in addition with the same effects, or to veto a pregnant female's request. Regulations may be employed more positively, however, to encourage contraceptive practice. A disappointment with legislative reform is that it may fail to improve circumstances if public resources are not applied to achieve the supply of services newly rendered legitimate, and illegal practice may persist. PMID:665881

  16. When Is an Abortion Not an Abortion?

    PubMed

    Mutcherson, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Discussion about the similarities and differences between abortion and multi-fetal pregnancy reduction, including the tug-of-war over naming, highlights ongoing contestation about the relationship between the law, ethics, and women's bodies. Ultimately, the law must root itself in the realities of pregnancy including the physical and social consequences that any pregnancy creates for the woman who carries it.

  17. Incidence and socioeconomic determinants of abortion in rural Upper Egypt.

    PubMed

    Yassin, K M

    2000-07-01

    Because of a growing cultural and religious sensitivity and controversy over reproductive health issues, particularly abortion, this area remains relatively unexplored in Egypt. This study was conducted using a participatory approach to determine the morbidity and determinants of abortion in rural Upper Egypt. In all, 1025 women from six villages in Upper Egypt were included in the study. Information regarding the incidence of abortion, patterns of health care utilization and risk factors was obtained using a structured interview format. The local dialect was used in formulating questions and they were revised and amended by a panel of local leaders, interviewers and representatives of the study population. Interviewers were local educated (secondary or university level) female volunteers. Information about exposure to 17 risk factors was also collected and statistical analysis was done by estimating the odds ratio and applying a test of statistical significance. Then, a multivariate logistic regression model was applied to control for possible interactions and confounding effects. The results were that 40.6% (n=416) had aborted at least once; of them 24.6% (n=252) had aborted more than once and were designated as recurrent aborters. The lifetime prevalence of recurrent abortion was estimated to be 25% and nearly 21% of pregnancies were aborted. The incidence of abortion was estimated to be 265 per 1000 live birth. Only 21.9% (n=91) of women received medical care for the last abortion. The vast majority of women (92%, n=299) who did not seek medical help received help from traditional and domestic sources. These sources are midwife (59.9%, n=179), relative or neighbour (29.8%, n=89), and traditional practitioner (10.4%, n=31). The multivariate analysis revealed that the incidence of abortion is significantly associated with gravidity, consanguinity, and mother occupation, while recurrent abortion is associated with gravidity, consanguinity and woman's age at

  18. Impact of Clinic Closures on Women Obtaining Abortion Services After Implementation of a Restrictive Law in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Liza; Grossman, Daniel; White, Kari; Keefe-Oates, Brianna; Baum, Sarah E.; Hopkins, Kristine; Stolp, Chandler W.; Potter, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the additional burdens experienced by Texas abortion patients whose nearest in-state clinic was one of more than half of facilities providing abortion that had closed after the introduction of House Bill 2 in 2013. Methods. In mid-2014, we surveyed Texas-resident women seeking abortions in 10 Texas facilities (n = 398), including both Planned Parenthood–affiliated clinics and independent providers that performed more than 1500 abortions in 2013 and provided procedures up to a gestational age of at least 14 weeks from last menstrual period. We compared indicators of burden for women whose nearest clinic in 2013 closed and those whose nearest clinic remained open. Results. For women whose nearest clinic closed (38%), the mean one-way distance traveled was 85 miles, compared with 22 miles for women whose nearest clinic remained open (P ≤ .001). After adjustment, more women whose nearest clinic closed traveled more than 50 miles (44% vs 10%), had out-of-pocket expenses greater than $100 (32% vs 20%), had a frustrated demand for medication abortion (37% vs 22%), and reported that it was somewhat or very hard to get to the clinic (36% vs 18%; P < .05). Conclusions. Clinic closures after House Bill 2 resulted in significant burdens for women able to obtain care. PMID:26985603

  19. Abortion cases worrying.

    PubMed

    Mwanza, G

    1994-01-01

    The writer believes that life begins the instant that an human sperm cell and ovule fuse. This life must be respected and preserved. Abortion is shameful, but tolerated when either the mother or would-be baby's life is at stake. As the number of abortions continue to increase, the controversy over a woman's right to abortion rages on. The author wonders whether questions about abortion will ever be resolved and considers some possible solutions with reference to Zambia. There are many early pregnancies among Zambian youths. A 1993 study found 207 abortions per year in the country among 15-19 year olds; this includes illegal, incomplete, and induced abortions. The Coordinator for the Young Women Christian Association in Lusaka thinks that inadequate sex education is one of the factors contributing to the ever-rising number of abortions today. Youths have sexual intercourse without understanding the possible consequences. Parents, community leaders, and school authorities should instead become more involved and teach children about sex to lessen the incidence of abortion. Specifically, parents should talk to their children about sex as they mature, teaching them about their biological reproductive features and functions. The author is convinced that once children and youths understand their bodies, it will be very easy for them to control their desires. Most male and female teens do, however, cite love and sexual desire as the primary motives for their first relationships. The writer also mentions how pregnant girls get expelled from school and that women experience mental and physical side effects from induced abortion.

  20. Genetics, amniocentesis, and abortion.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, K

    1984-01-01

    At this time a rather large number of congenital abnormalities still occur. About 2-3% of pregnancies will result in children with major congenital abnormalities that cannot be detected prenatally. Yet, with the availability of prenatal diagnosis for an ever increasing number of genetic problems and, more recently, for developmental problems as well, a new option was offered to couples at risk when they took the risk of pregnancy: finding out whether the fetus was abnormal. An early argument regarding the ethics of this option was formulated by Dan Callahan, director of the Hastings Institute for Ethics, Society and the Life Sciences, when he indicated the need to be careful about the term "option." A need exists to be careful about societal pressures in favor of the new medical options--on, for example, a pregnant woman who is over 35 and does not get a prenatal diagnosis; or on a woman carrying a Down's syndrome child identified by prenatal diagnosis not to have an abortion. This was the 1st specter raised when prenatal diagnosis was introduced. The most common indication for amniocentesis is the risk of chromosomal abnormalities. The risk of discovering a chromosomal abnormality by amniocentesis is about double the risk at birth because a number of chromosomally abnormal fetuses are lost late in the 2nd trimester by spontaneous abortion. The age cutoff at 35 raises an immediate ethical question: since the total number of births to women over age 35 seems to be increasing, and at the same time a greater and greater percentage of children with Down's syndrome are born to women under age 35, the question arises as to whether amniocentesis should be done on all pregnancies, and whether all births with Down's syndrome should be selectively aborted or avoided. Amniocentesis in all pregnancies is impractical at this time from the technological and the cost perspective, but the ethical question should be raised. Among the X-linked disorders, 1 group cannot be

  1. José Barzelatto lecture: Vision on unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2010-04-01

    José Barzelatto first distinguished himself as a leader with a vision in his years as a medical student. Later, principally as Director of the Reproductive Health Program at the World Health Organization and of the Ford Foundation program for women's sexual and reproductive rights, he contributed immensely toward the recognition of women's sexual and reproductive rights as part of their basic human rights. José Barzelatto's vision on abortion reflects his drive to promote social justice and respect individual rights, respect diversity, and promote a social consensus for a peaceful society. He believed that the fetus has moral value and did not accept abortion as a method of fertility control, but understood that abortion is a social phenomenon that cannot be changed with legal or moral condemnation. He accepted that condemning women who abort does not prevent abortion, is unfair, and causes great human suffering at a high social cost. José proposed nine points to form the basis for an overlapping consensus on abortion, on which to base a practical consensus that would allow societies to reduce the number of abortions and minimize their consequences. If we can agree on all or most of those points we would achieve the common objectives of: fewer women confronting the dilemma of how to deal with an unwanted pregnancy; fewer induced abortions; and fewer women suffering the consequences of unsafe abortion.

  2. José Barzelatto lecture: Vision on unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2010-04-01

    José Barzelatto first distinguished himself as a leader with a vision in his years as a medical student. Later, principally as Director of the Reproductive Health Program at the World Health Organization and of the Ford Foundation program for women's sexual and reproductive rights, he contributed immensely toward the recognition of women's sexual and reproductive rights as part of their basic human rights. José Barzelatto's vision on abortion reflects his drive to promote social justice and respect individual rights, respect diversity, and promote a social consensus for a peaceful society. He believed that the fetus has moral value and did not accept abortion as a method of fertility control, but understood that abortion is a social phenomenon that cannot be changed with legal or moral condemnation. He accepted that condemning women who abort does not prevent abortion, is unfair, and causes great human suffering at a high social cost. José proposed nine points to form the basis for an overlapping consensus on abortion, on which to base a practical consensus that would allow societies to reduce the number of abortions and minimize their consequences. If we can agree on all or most of those points we would achieve the common objectives of: fewer women confronting the dilemma of how to deal with an unwanted pregnancy; fewer induced abortions; and fewer women suffering the consequences of unsafe abortion. PMID:20064638

  3. Single and repeated elective abortions in Japan: a psychosocial study.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, T; Toda, M A; Shima, S; Sugawara, M

    1998-09-01

    Despite its social, legal and medical importance, termination of pregnancy (TOP) (induced abortion) has rarely been the focus of psychosocial research. Of a total of 1329 women who consecutively attended the antenatal clinic of a general hospital in Japan, 635 were expecting their first baby. Of these 635 women, 103 (16.2%) had experienced TOP once previously (first aborters), while 47 (7.4%) had experienced TOP two or more times (repeated aborters). Discriminant function analysis was performed using psychosocial variables found to be significantly associated with either first abortion or repeated abortion in bivariate analyses. This revealed that both first and repeated aborters could be predicted by smoking habits and an unwanted current pregnancy while the repeated aborters appear to differ from first aborters in having a longer pre-marital dating period, non-arranged marriages, smoking habits, early maternal loss experience or a low level of maternal care during childhood. These findings suggest that both the frequency of abortion and its repetition have psychosocial origins.

  4. Abortion laws in African Commonwealth countries.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1981-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the range of current (1981) abortion laws in the African Commonwealth countries, traces the origins of the laws to their colonial predecessors, and discusses legal reform that would positively provide for legal termination of pregnancy. The authors claim that the range of these laws demonstrates an evolution that leads from customary/common law (Lesotho and Swaziland) to basic law (Botswana, The Gambia, Malawi, Mauritius, Nigeria's Northern States and Seychelles) to developed law (Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria's Southern States, Sierra Leone, and Uganda), and, finally, to advanced law (Zambia and Zimbabwe). The authors call for treating abortion as an issue of health and welfare as opposed to one of crime and punishment. Since most of the basic law de jure is treated and administered as developed law de facto, the authors suggest decriminalizing abortion and propose ways in which to reform the law: clarifying existing law; liberalizing existing law to allow abortion based upon certain indications; limiting/removing women's criminal liability for seeking an abortion; allowing hindsight contraception; protecting providers treating women in good faith; publishing recommended fees for services to protect poor women; protecting providers who treat women with incomplete abortion; and punishing providers who fail to provide care to women in need, with the exception of those seeking protection under a conscience clause. The authors also suggest clarifying the means by which health services involving pregnancy termination may be delivered, including: clarification of the qualifications of practitioners who may treat women; specification of the facilities that may treat women, perhaps broken down by gestational duration of the pregnancy; specifying gestational limits during which the procedure can be performed; clarifying approval procedures and consents; and allowing for conscientious objections to performing the procedure.

  5. Brazilians have different views on when abortion should be legal, but most do not agree with imprisoning women for abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Aníbal; Duarte, Graciana Alves; de Sousa, Maria Helena; Soares Camargo, Rodrigo Paupério; Pacagnella, Rodolfo Carvalho

    2013-11-01

    Unsafe abortions remain a major public health problem in countries with very restrictive abortion laws. In Brazil, parliamentarians - who have the power to change the law - are influenced by "public opinion", often obtained through surveys and opinion polls. This paper presents the findings from two studies. One was carried out in February-December 2010 among 1,660 public servants and the other in February-July 2011 with 874 medical students from three medical schools, both in São Paulo State, Brazil. Both groups of respondents were asked two sets of questions to obtain their opinion about abortion: 1) under which circumstances abortion should be permitted by law, and 2) whether or not women in general and women they knew who had had an abortion should be punished with prison, as Brazilian law mandates. The differences in their answers were enormous: the majority of respondents were against putting women who have had abortions in prison. Almost 60% of civil servants and 25% of medical students knew at least one woman who had had an illegal abortion; 85% of medical students and 83% of civil servants thought this person(s) should not be jailed. Brazilian parliamentarians who are currently reviewing a reform in the Penal Code need to have this information urgently.

  6. Abortion: pro and contra.

    PubMed

    Jebereanu, Laura; Jebereanu, Diana; Alaman, Roxana; Tofan, Andra; Jebereanu, Sorin; Pauncu, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    To kill a new life before it's born, to do an abortion. This is a problem of many generations. In the evolution of human civilization, the attitude concerning abortion was different in different cultures, periods, societies. The aim of our study is to evaluate the actual opinion and attitude of young persons, students, and residents in medicine in Timisoara city, and the situation of the whole country. We performed a questionnaire for 400 people, between the ages of 19 and 28 with superior studies. The group is composed of 320 (80%) women and 80 (20%) men. We accepted for recording and analyzing all the the completed questionnaires. The questions referred to the topic of abortion in the antecedents, and asked if they had had one, how it affected the life of the women and her family, the circumstances of acceptance of abortion today, religious aspects and different other aspects. PMID:17146907

  7. [Experimental, innovative and standard procedures. Ethics and science in the introduction of medical technology].

    PubMed

    Pons, J M V

    2003-01-01

    The dividing lines between experimental, innovative and standard medical procedures are frequently blurred in current clinical practice. This is even more true in the fields of surgery and implantable devices. These differ substantially from pharmacological interventions, which are better regulated.However, the character of the various medical interventions applied in human subjects should be ethically and scientifically delimited as clearly as possible. This task cannot be abandoned to personal discretion and criteria, which are currently used, especially in the field of surgical innovation. External and independent review of the risk-benefit ratio of proposed innovations should enable specification of the particular features of a technique in the patient-doctor relationship, as well as the ethical and scientific requirements for more appropriate evaluation.

  8. Use of analgesic agents for invasive medical procedures in pediatric and neonatal intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Bauchner, H; May, A; Coates, E

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the use of analgesic agents for invasive medical procedures in pediatric and neonatal intensive care units. The directors of 38 pediatric units and 31 neonatal units reported that analgesics were infrequently used for intravenous cannulation (10%), suprapubic bladder aspiration (8%), urethral catheterization (2%), or venipuncture (2%). Analgesics were used significantly more regularly in pediatric than in neonatal intensive care units for arterial line placement, bone marrow aspiration, central line placement, chest tube insertion, paracentesis, and lumbar puncture. PMID:1403404

  9. Moderate views of abortion.

    PubMed

    Sumner, L W

    1997-01-01

    This essay offers a moderate view of abortion that imposes a time limit for unrestricted abortion and specific indications for later abortions. The introduction notes that the discussion will provide a defense for this policy based on a moral analysis but that other options for moderates, especially options provided by freestanding views (the defense of which does not rest on any prior commitment about the morality of abortion), will also be considered. The next section considers the moral status of the fetus grounded in a criterion of moral standing that stipulates the necessary characteristics to achieve moral standing. This discussion concludes that a fetus acquires moral standing only when it becomes sentient. Section 3 moves the argument from ethics to politics to prove that a moderate policy must place no limitations on abortion before the time the fetus becomes sentient because before that time the fetus has no interest for the state to protect. The final section notes that some pro-choice advocates may be happier with the moderate policy proposed than with its controversial defense based on the moral status of the fetus and that another defense of a moderate policy could be based on a finding that the ethical issue can not be decided and that no view about abortion ethics is more reasonable than any other. The essay concludes that the ethical debate is ultimately unavoidable. PMID:12348328

  10. Abortion and regret.

    PubMed

    Greasley, Kate

    2012-12-01

    The article considers three theses about postabortion regret which seek to illustrate its pertinence to reasoning about abortion, and which are often deployed, either explicitly or implicitly, to dissuade women out of that reproductive choice. The first is that postabortion regret renders an abortion morally unjustified. The second is that that a relatively high incidence of postabortion regret-compared with a lower incidence of postnatal regret in the relevant comparator field-is good evidence for the moral impermissibility of abortion choice. The third is that high rates of postabortion regret suggest that abortion is not the most prudent or welfare-maximising choice for the woman concerned. All three theses argue for the compellingness of knowledge about postabortion regret in moral and practical reasoning about abortion, especially from the pregnant woman's point of view. This article argues that all three theses are flawed. In particular, it seeks to remind readers that feelings of regret directed at past decisions are often decoupled from the fact of the matter about their moral or rational justification. Moreover, certain features of reproductive decisions in particular make regret an especially unsuitable yardstick for actual justification in this context, and even less epistemically reliable as evidence for a lack of justification than it may be in other fields of decision-making. The implication is that rates of postabortion regret, even if they can be presumed to be higher than rates of postnatal regret, are not as pertinent to moral and practical reasoning about abortion as is sometimes suggested.

  11. Politics and abortion.

    PubMed

    Rosoff, J I

    1985-01-01

    The legalization of abortion in the United States by the Supreme Court in 1973 bypassed the political process in the majority of the states. Since then, however, political controversy and agitation in relation to abortion has become nationwide. From largely Catholic-based opposition, it has grown to encompass religious fundamentalists and to be a major part of the New Right's agenda. Abortion is now, pro and con, part of the platform of both political parties. The sweeping nature of the Supreme Court's decisions leaves the opposition with very little room to restrict abortion, short of overturning the decisions through a constitutional amendment. Such an amendment requires a two-thirds majority of Congress and passage is unlikely. However, funding bans on scores of federal programmes have succeeded in restricting access to abortion for the poor, the young and minorities. These restrictions are part of a long-term strategy to educate the public as to the evils of abortion with the aim of making it illegal again, either through the adoption of a constitutional amendment or by obtaining a reversal by a hoped-for change in membership of the Supreme Court.

  12. Conservative management of spontaneous abortions. Women's experiences.

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, E.; Janssen, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe women's experiences with expectant management of spontaneous abortions. DESIGN: Descriptive survey using questionnaires with fixed-choice and open-ended questions. The latter were analyzed for themes, using qualitative methods. SETTING: Urban and suburban private primary care family practices. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of family practice patients (59 of 80 eligible) pregnant for less than 12 weeks who had spontaneous abortions without surgery. Response rate was 84.7%; 50 questionnaires were received from the 59 women. METHOD: Women were asked about their physical experiences, including amount of pain and bleeding; emotional effects; their satisfaction with medical care; and their suggestions for improving care. MAIN FINDINGS: The mean worst pain experienced during a spontaneous abortion on an 11-point scale was 5.9. Bleeding varied, but was often very heavy. Satisfaction rate was 92.9% with family physician care and 84.6% with hospital care. Women described the emotional effect of "natural" spontaneous abortions and made recommendations for improving care. CONCLUSIONS: A better understanding of the physical and emotional experiences of the women in this study might help physicians better prepare and support patients coping with expectant management of spontaneous abortions. PMID:10540695

  13. Abortion in Brazil: legislation, reality and options.

    PubMed

    Guedes, A C

    2000-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Brazil except when performed to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. This paper gives a brief history of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary efforts to change abortion-related legislation in Brazil in the past 60 years, the contents of some of the 53 bills that have been tabled in that time, the non-governmental stakeholders involved and the debate itself in recent decades. The authorities in Brazil have never assumed full public responsibility for reproductive health care or family planning, let alone legal abortion; the ambivalence of the medical profession is an important obstacle. Most politicians avoid getting involved in the abortion debate, but the majority of bills in the 1990s have favoured less restrictive legislation. Incremental legislative and health service changes could help to improve the situation for women. Advocacy is probably the most important action, to promote an environment conducive to change. Clandestine abortion is a serious public health problem in Brazil, and the inadequacy of family planning services is one of the causes of this problem. The solutions should be made a priority for the Brazilian public health system.

  14. Mexican women seeking safe abortion services in San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Daniel; Garcia, Sandra G; Kingston, Jessica; Schweikert, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Except for in Mexico City, abortion is legally restricted throughout Mexico, and unsafe abortion is prevalent. We surveyed 1,516 women seeking abortions in San Diego, California. Of these, 87 women (5.7%) self-identified as Mexican residents. We performed in-depth interviews with 17 of these women about their experiences seeking abortions in California. The Mexican women interviewed were generally well-educated and lived near the U.S.-Mexican border; most sought care in the United States due to mistrust of services in Mexico, and the desire to access mifepristone, a drug registered in the United States for early medical abortion. Several reported difficulties obtaining health care in Mexico or reentering the United States when they had postabortion complications. Several areas for improvement were identified, including outreach to clinics in Mexico. PMID:23066967

  15. Social and psychological consequences of abortion in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Chavoshi, Meimanat; Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal; Glazebrook, Diana; McDonald, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Iran has had replacement fertility since 2000. Upholding a small family size has led some couples to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Abortion is, however, permitted only on medical grounds in Iran. Using data from the Iran Low Fertility Survey, this study assessed sociodemographic correlates of abortion among a random sample of 5526 ever-married women aged 15-54 years, and used in-depth interviews to explore reasons for and psychological consequences of abortion among 40 women who had experienced an unintended pregnancy. Although social and economic concerns were the main reasons cited for seeking abortion, women experienced anxiety and depression when seeking pregnancy termination and thereafter. Social stigmatization arose from a belief that abortion is sinful and that misfortune experienced thereafter is punishment. Inadequate knowledge and misunderstanding of relevant Sharia laws discouraged women from seeking care when they experienced complications. Iran's reproductive health policies should be revised to integrate pre- and postabortion counseling. PMID:22920623

  16. Abortion applicants in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Henker, F O

    1973-03-01

    The article reports upon the characteristics of 300 abortion applicants in Arkansas manifesting significant stress from unwanted pregnancy between May 1, 1970 and June 30, 1971. The sample is limited by the fact that all of these women had been willing to seek medical aid. Patients ranged from ages 13-47, 131 of them ages 17-21. 35% had had some college education; another 29% were high school graduates. 50.6%, 20.6%, and 27.3% were single, divorced, and married, respectively. 59.6% of the patients were primiparas. 18.3%, 9.6%, and 12.3% were classified as being neurotic, having psychophysiologic tendencies (gastrointestinal problems, obesity, chronic headaches), and having sociopathic features (passive-aggressive, frankly rebellious, delinquent, antisocial, alcoholic), respectively. 12 women had noticeable schizoid features; 4 women had mildly active schizophrenia. Fathers of the women were usually blue-collar workers (55.3%) or white-collar workers (24.6%). The most frequent ordinal sibling position among the women was oldest child (38%). Parental instability (1 or both parents lost through death, divorce, father usually away working, chronic alcoholism, etc.) was reported by 39.6% of the patients. Patients' attitudes toward the unwanted pregnancy included dislike of inexpediency of the situation (82.6%), self-depreciation (55.6%), and aversion (28.6%). Precipitated psychiatric disorders were for the greatest part mild. Manifesting symptoms included depression (66.7%), anxiety (21%), and mixed anxiety and depression (12.2%). Suicidal threats and gestures were made by 22 and 8 patients, respectively. In summary, the study reveals a group of predominantly Caucasian women from unstable, middle-class urban families who were going through an adjustment reaction to adolescence or adult life.

  17. Daily cardiac catheterization procedural volume and complications at an academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Slicker, Kipp; Lane, Wesley G.; Oyetayo, Ola O.; Copeland, Laurel A.; Stock, Eileen M.; Erwin, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Over 1,000,000 cardiac catheterizations (CC) are performed annually in the United States. There is a small risk of complication that has persisted despite advances in technology. It is unknown whether daily CC procedural volume can influence this risk. In an effort to improve outcomes at our academic medical center, we investigated the relationship between daily CC volume and complication rates. Methods We obtained data from both the National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) Cath-PCI and Lumedx© databases reviewing the records of patients undergoing scheduled, non-emergent CC at our facility between January 2005 to June 2013. Daily CC volume was analyzed as were complications including death, post-procedure MI, cardiogenic shock, heart failure, stroke, tamponade, bleeding, hematoma and acute kidney injury (AKI). Results 12,773 patients were identified who underwent 16,612 CCs on 2,118 days. The average age was 63 years (SD 12.4; range, 18–95). 61% were men. A total of 326 complications occurred in 243 patients on 233 separate days (2.0% CC complication rate). The average volume per day was 7.8 CCs. We found a low correlation between daily complications and CC volume (Spearman’s rho =0.11; P<0.01) though complication rates were lowest on days with 6–11 procedures; higher rates were found on slower and busier days. Conclusions We observed a U-shaped association between CC volume and rates of CC complications. The lowest complication rates were found on days with 6–11 procedures a day. The highest complication rate was seen with >11 procedures a day. PMID:27747168

  18. In Mexico, abortion rights strictly for the books.

    PubMed

    Farmer, A

    2000-06-01

    This paper characterizes the Mexican abortion laws using the case of a girl aged 14 years, Paulina Ramirez Jacinta, who was raped, became pregnant, and chose to terminate the unwanted pregnancy, yet was denied an abortion. This case clearly showed that Mexican abortion law, despite its legality, is highly restrictive in nature and, in a way, violated the human rights of Paulina. Even though it permits first-trimester abortion procedures for rape victims or women whose lives are endangered by the pregnancy, many pregnant women still resort to illegal abortion. To further aggravate the restrictive nature of the law, Baja California state Rep. Martin Dominguez Rocha made a proposal to eliminate the rape exception in the state's penal code. The case of Paulina will be handled by the lawyers at the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy in order to arrive at a settlement favorable to Paulina. PMID:12322531

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in "sine causa" recurrent abortion.

    PubMed

    Olliaro, P; Regazzetti, A; Gorini, G; Milano, F; Marchetti, A; Rondanelli, E G

    One hundred and one women suffering from "sine causa" recurrent abortion were screened for Chlamydia trachomatis (C.T.) infection by using direct examination, cultural and serological procedures. In this series, C.T. infection did not appear to be related to increased risk of recurrent abortion. The culture-positive and serology-positive rates (14.85% and 34.65%, respectively) did not differ from other unselected populations. Neither time from last abortion nor type of abortion were significantly related to C.T. infection. Nonetheless, the women who underwent examination within one year from last abortion and had a culture-positive partner as well, were more likely to present with a C.T.-positive culture.

  20. A practical procedure to prevent electromagnetic interference with electronic medical equipment.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Eisuke; Takano, Kyoko; Antoku, Yasuaki; Matsumura, Kouji; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Nose, Yoshiaki

    2002-02-01

    Problems involving electromagnetic interference (EMI) with electronic medical equipment are well-documented. However, no systematic investigation of EMI has been done. We have systematically investigated the causes of EMI. The factors involved in EMI were determined as follows: 1) Electric-field intensity induced by invasive radio waves from outside a hospital. 2) Residual magnetic-flux density at welding points in a building. 3) Electric-field intensity induced by conveyance systems with a linear motor. 4) The shielding capacity of hospital walls. 5) The shielding capacity of commercial shields against a wide range frequency radio waves. 6) The immunity of electronic medical equipment. 7) EMI by cellular telephone and personal handy-phone system handsets. From the results of our investigation, we developed a following practical procedure to prevent EMI. 1) Measurement of electric-field intensity induced by invasive radio waves from outside the hospital and industrial systems in the hospital. 2) Measurement of residual magnetic-flux density at electric welding points of hospital buildings with steel frame structures. 3) Control of the electromagnetic environment by utilizing the shielding capacity of walls. 4) Measurement of the immunity of electronic medical equipment. And 5) Installation of electronic gate equipment at the building entrance to screen for handsets.

  1. Evaluation of the admission procedure and academic performance on the Medical Faculty in Ljubljana, Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Susec-Michieli, M; Kalisnik, M

    1983-07-01

    The data about the applicants and medical students who matriculated at the Medical Faculty of Ljubljana during the period from 1962-63 to 1969-70 by admission procedure were reviewed. A higher proportion of women than men was accepted, but men went on from year to year more regularly (P less than 0.05). Women graduated significantly later (P less than 0.05). More than half the students came from Ljubljana and its surrounding area. Academic success was correlated with general success in secondary school and with the raw scores at the admission examinations. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated and their values varied greatly between men and women, as well as among single cohorts. The multiple regression analysis showed that the best predictor for academic performance was the average success in secondary school (gymnasium) and in addition, the raw scores in biology and foreign language obtained at the admission examination. The results also showed the standardized regression coefficients beta and these variables should therefore be retained in the admission procedure in future. The cumulated coefficient of determination could explain about 11% to 15% of the variability of dependent variables--i.e., average academic success (mean mark of all examinations) and average academic success standardized to the duration of study. The psychological test was of the least importance and could be omitted in future admission procedures. The mean mark in mathematics in secondary school and the mean mark in somatology (the study of the anatomy and physiology of the body) at the admission examination correlated highly with other admission criteria and could also be omitted in future. PMID:6877106

  2. A Web Terminology Server Using UMLS for the Description of Medical Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Burgun, Anita; Denier, Patrick; Bodenreider, Olivier; Botti, Geneviève; Delamarre, Denis; Pouliquen, Bruno; Oberlin, Philippe; Lévéque, Jean M.; Lukacs, Bertrand; Kohler, François; Fieschi, Marius; Le Beux, Pierre

    1997-01-01

    Abstract The Model for Assistance in the Orientation of a User within Coding Systems (MAOUSSC) project has been designed to provide a representation for medical and surgical procedures that allows several applications to be developed from several viewpoints. It is based on a conceptual model, a controlled set of terms, and Web server development. The design includes the UMLS knowledge sources associated with additional knowledge about medico-surgical procedures. The model was implemented using a relational database. The authors developed a complete interface for the Web presentation, with the intermediary layer being written in PERL. The server has been used for the representation of medico-surgical procedures that occur in the discharge summaries of the national survey of hospital activities that is performed by the French Health Statistics Agency in order to produce inpatient profiles. The authors describe the current status of the MAOUSSC server and discuss their interest in using such a server to assist in the coordination of terminology tasks and in the sharing of controlled terminologies. PMID:9292841

  3. Medicine and abortion law: complicating the reforming profession.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Sheelagh; Thomson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The complicated intra-professional rivalries that have contributed to the current contours of abortion law and service provision have been subject to limited academic engagement. In this article, we address this gap. We examine how the competing interests of different specialisms played out in abortion law reform from the early twentieth-century, through to the enactment of the Abortion Act 1967, and the formation of the structures of abortion provision in the early 1970s. We demonstrate how professional interests significantly shaped the landscape of abortion law in England, Scotland, and Wales. Our analysis addresses two distinct and yet related fields where professional interests were negotiated or asserted in the journey to law reform. Both debates align with earlier analysis that has linked abortion law reform with the market development of the medical profession. We argue that these two axes of debate, both dominated by professional interests, interacted to help shape law's treatment of abortion, and continue to influence the provision of abortion services today.

  4. Soft Tissue Infection Caused by Rapid Growing Mycobacterium following Medical Procedures: Two Case Reports and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Sen; Lee, Chin-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Non-tubecrulosis mycobacterium infections were increasingly reported either pulmonary or extrapulmonary in the past decades. In Taiwan, we noticed several reports about the soft tissue infections caused by rapid growing mycobacterium such as Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium chelonae, on newspaper, magazines, or the multimedia. Most of them occurred after a plastic surgery, and medical or non-medical procedures. Here, we reported two cases of these infections following medical procedures. We also discussed common features and the clinical course of the disease, the characteristics of the infected site, and the treatment strategy. The literatures were also reviewed, and the necessity of the treatment guidelines was discussed. PMID:24882980

  5. Abortion and rape.

    PubMed

    Barry-Martin, P

    1977-10-26

    The letter is an answer to a previous letter which appeared in the same journal and which was discrediting, according to the author of this letter, the Royal Commission on Contraception, Sterilization, and Abortion. The earlier letter refutes a quote from "Abortion and Social Justice" used by the Commission, regarding the situation in Colorado after rape became an indication for abortion. The quote reports that although between 1967-1971 the number of abortions for rape totalled 290, no rapist was charged or convicted for the crime. However, according to the author of this letter, the actual quote reads somewhat differently, and states that, during the same period, "no rapist was ever charged with his crime, much less convicted of it, which casts some real doubts on the reality of the alleged rapes." The meaning of this passage is that none of the alleged rapists had actually caused the 290 pregnancies. From records and government statistics it is possible to count about 3300 cases of rape known to the police in Colorado for the years 1967-1971. To suggest that none of these cases were charged or convicted is ridiculous. The author also states that rape as an indication for abortion will lead to abuse of the law, and that pregnancy for actual rape is rare.

  6. Abortion a business hurdle for nation's Catholic hospitals.

    PubMed

    Burda, D

    1989-08-25

    Abortion is the foremost moral issue for 626 Catholic hospitals nationwide since church teachings prohibit the performance of elective abortions. This and the fact that Catholic hospitals can not do voluntary sterilizations can hinder their ability to get managed care contracts. In some cases a hospital will not join a network because abortions and sterilizations are done in other hospitals in the network. In other cases they have been in plans where abortions are performed in other contract facilities; this does not violate the Catholic church policy since the abortions are not performed in their facility. When a Catholic and secular hospital plan a merger, Catholic ideals seem to take precedence. A Catholic hospital that went bankrupt in Philadelphia, was turned over to investors, and was under no obligation to follow the Catholic church's directives, but did not perform abortions anyway. In Washington state there are merger talks going on between a secular facility and the Franciscan Health System. The cessation of abortion and sterilization services appear to be outweighed by the financial benefits. Besides, these procedures can be performed through other providers in the area. In Michigan similar merger talks may fail because of the abortion issue. The government justice system is investigating and is likely to challenge any merger there.

  7. Reproductive failure due to spontaneous abortion and recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Bulletti, C; Flamigni, C; Giacomucci, E

    1996-01-01

    The epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and clinical management of spontaneous and recurrent abortion and of the failure of embryo implantation are discussed in a retrospective overview of the major studies conducted since 1975 identified through a Medline search. Infertile women who experienced spontaneous single (32%) and recurrent (0.5%) abortion as well as those who became pregnant after induction of ovulation with gonadotrophins (abortion rate 17-31%) and those who underwent assisted fertilization programmes (abortion rate 18-34%) are considered. Causes and treatments are here reported. Medical treatments for immunologically mediated abortion (IMA) are based on prednisolone, heparin, aspirin and intravenous immunoglobulin. Efficacy of the medical treatment of patients with a history of IMA has yet to be completely demonstrated. Genetic disorders are possible causes of both failure in implantation and early abortion; this cause is more prominent with advanced age and currently cannot be treated. Endocrine factors may also be responsible for miscarriage, and correction of hormone abnormalities is discussed. Infections, endometriosis and psychological factors are other possible important causes of embryo loss without specific widely accepted treatments. Prominent areas of research are the identification of genetic preimplantation abnormalities, and pharmacological intervention for abnormal spontaneous uterine contractility. The data here reported are encouraging, but the efficacy of different treatments is still not convincing. The information available is sufficient to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic tools to evaluate their efficacy in reducing spontaneous abortion at an early stage.

  8. The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

  9. Interventional therapy procedures assisted by medical imaging and simulation. The experience of U 703 Inserm (Lille France).

    PubMed

    Vermandel, M; Betrouni, N; Rousseau, J; Dubois, P

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, minimally invasive techniques have been increasingly used in ever more and diversified fields of application. These techniques have some shared characteristics (predominant role of medical imaging, intensive use of new communication technologies, a multidisciplinary medical and scientific framework, etc.) but also shared specific problems (high-tech tools unfamiliar to the medical users, a major and long period of time for technological development, unavailability of training systems, difficulties in obtaining regulatory approval). For a long time, our Laboratory of Medical Physics (U 703 Inserm) has developed an innovative research activity in biomedical engineering in the field of assisted therapy, medical imaging and medical simulation. This paper presents the general context of interventional therapy procedures assisted by image and simulation and describes our scientific activities based on realistic objectives close to medical practice.

  10. Addressing barriers to safe abortion.

    PubMed

    Culwell, Kelly R; Hurwitz, Manuelle

    2013-05-01

    The latest World Health Organization data estimate that the total number of unsafe abortions globally has increased to 21.6 million in 2008. There is increasing recognition by the international community of the importance of the contribution of unsafe abortion to maternal mortality. However, the barriers to delivery of safe abortion services are many. In 68 countries, home to 26% of the world's population, abortion is prohibited altogether or only permitted to save a woman's life. Even in countries with more liberal abortion legal frameworks, additional social, economic, and health systems barriers and the stigma surrounding abortion prevent adequate access to safe abortion services and postabortion care. While much has been achieved to reduce the barriers to comprehensive abortion care, much remains to be done. Only through the concerted action of public, private, and civil society partners can we ensure that women have access to services that are safe, affordable, confidential, and stigma free. PMID:23477700

  11. Abortion and human rights.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus. PMID:20303830

  12. A compromise on abortion?

    PubMed

    Rhoden, N K

    1989-01-01

    Rhoden's article is one of three on "Abortion: searching for common ground" in this issue of the Hastings Center Report. Her article, together with those by M. Mahowald and M. Glendon, was prompted by the expectation that the impending U.S. Supreme Court decision in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (3 July 1989) would overturn or restrict Roe v. Wade (1973). Rhoden, an advocate for the pro-choice position, asks whether a compromise leading to an acceptable regulatory policy is possible or desirable among those on opposite sides of the abortion issue. She identifies several reasons why the Roe decision is vulnerable to review, but argues that effective education about sexuality and comprehensive social support of women are better approaches to abortion than restrictive legislation. PMID:2663778

  13. Screening for genetic disorders: therapeutic abortion and IVF.

    PubMed

    Michael, M; Buckle, S

    1990-03-01

    This paper examines a proposal to make use of IVF techniques to provide an alternative to therapeutic abortion of fetuses with genetic abnormalities. We begin by describing the proposed procedure, and then show that, considered in itself, it is morally on a par with therapeutic abortion. However, once the wider practical implications are brought into view, the proposed new procedure loses its initial appeal. The pros and cons are not sufficiently clear-cut entirely to rule out the IVF procedure, so the paper concludes by indicating some further complications which may follow, should the procedure come to be adopted. PMID:2319572

  14. Abortion Liberalization in World Society, 1960-2009

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Elizabeth H.; Kim, Minzee; Longhofer, Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Controversy sets abortion apart from other issues studied by world society theorists, who consider the tendency for policies institutionalized at the global level to diffuse across very different countries. We conduct an event history analysis of the spread (however limited) of abortion liberalization policies from 1960 to 2009. After identifying three dominant frames (a women's rights frame, a medical frame, and a religious, natural family frame), we find that indicators of a scientific, medical frame show consistent association with liberalization of policies specifying acceptable grounds for abortion. Women's leadership roleshave a stronger and more consistent liberalizing effect than do countries' links to a global women's rights discourse. Somewhat different patterns emerge around the likelihood of adopting an additional policy, controlling for first policy adoption. Even as support for women's autonomy has grown globally, with respect to abortion liberalization, persistent, powerful frames compete at the global level, preventing robust policy diffusion. PMID:26900619

  15. Abortion Liberalization in World Society, 1960-2009.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Elizabeth H; Kim, Minzee; Longhofer, Wesley

    2015-11-01

    Controversy sets abortion apart from other issues studied by world society theorists, who consider the tendency for policies institutionalized at the global level to diffuse across very different countries. The authors conduct an event history analysis of the spread (however limited) of abortion liberalization policies from 1960 to 2009. After identifying three dominant frames (a women's rights frame, a medical frame, and a religious, natural family frame), the authors find that indicators of a scientific, medical frame show consistent association with liberalization of policies specifying acceptable grounds for abortion. Women's leadership roles have a stronger and more consistent liberalizing effect than do countries' links to a global women's rights discourse. Somewhat different patterns emerge around the likelihood of adopting an additional policy, controlling for first policy adoption. Even as support for women's autonomy has grown globally, with respect to abortion liberalization, persistent, powerful frames compete at the global level, preventing robust policy diffusion. PMID:26900619

  16. Abortion Liberalization in World Society, 1960-2009.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Elizabeth H; Kim, Minzee; Longhofer, Wesley

    2015-11-01

    Controversy sets abortion apart from other issues studied by world society theorists, who consider the tendency for policies institutionalized at the global level to diffuse across very different countries. The authors conduct an event history analysis of the spread (however limited) of abortion liberalization policies from 1960 to 2009. After identifying three dominant frames (a women's rights frame, a medical frame, and a religious, natural family frame), the authors find that indicators of a scientific, medical frame show consistent association with liberalization of policies specifying acceptable grounds for abortion. Women's leadership roles have a stronger and more consistent liberalizing effect than do countries' links to a global women's rights discourse. Somewhat different patterns emerge around the likelihood of adopting an additional policy, controlling for first policy adoption. Even as support for women's autonomy has grown globally, with respect to abortion liberalization, persistent, powerful frames compete at the global level, preventing robust policy diffusion.

  17. Connecticut's new abortion statute.

    PubMed

    Healey, J M

    1990-08-01

    Amid the raging controversy on whether minors should have the same access to abortion as adults, the Connecticut legislature has passed a compromise statues that recognizes a minor's right seek an abortion, while imposing certain requirements. Those who seek to regulate access argue that because minors may lack the maturity to make a valid decision, parental notification is necessary; advocates of minors' right to access hold that it should be the minor who makes such personal decision. In an effort to resolve the conflict, Connecticut's law says that young women under the age of 16 must receive pregnancy-related information before an abortion can take place. Specifically., a physician or counselor is required to: 1) explain to the minor that the information provided is not intended to coerce or persuade her into making a particular choice; 2) explain that she may consider her decision any time prior to the operation or during the time period when abortion is legally permitted; 3) explain the alternatives of either carrying out the pregnancy or getting an abortion, including information on public and private agencies that may assist in carrying out the decision; 4) inform her that pubic and private agencies provide information on birth control; 5) discuss the possibility of involving the minor's parents(s), guardian(s), or other adult family member in the decision; and 6) allow the minor to ask questions and to obtain useful information. After the completion of the process, the minor must sign a form that attests that the requirements have been met, and -- if applicable -- that the minor has decided to involve a parent or relative. In cases where the health or safety of a minor requires and abortion, the Connecticut statute allows for the provisions to be waived.

  18. What basic clinical procedures should be mastered by junior clerkship students? Experience at a single medical school in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Konje, Eveline T; Kabangila, Rodrick; Manyama, Mange; van Wyk, Jacqueline M

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical training in most medical schools, including the Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences (CUHAS), is offered in the form of junior and senior rotations. During these clinical rotations, students are expected to acquire and master the basic procedural skills. However, students’ learning process should be evaluated for quality improvement. Objectives This study was conducted to identify the basic medical procedural skills that third-year medical students should acquire and master and determine the level of students’ exposure on these procedures at the end of junior rotation in internal medicine. Identification of the gap between clinicians’ opinions, skills practiced by students, and third-year students’ curriculum in the medical department at CUHAS was also done. Methods The descriptive cross-sectional study was used to collect data through a self-administered, structured questionnaire from clinicians in medicine. A review of logbooks was considered to determine level of students’ exposure, and a document analysis was done using existing medical curriculum. Results The response of 71% (n=22) was obtained. Clinicians agreed on basic procedures that students should perform independently (ie, Foley catheter insertion, venipuncture, and intravenous drip insertion). Clinicians thought that lumbar punctures, abdominal paracentesis, and nasogastric tube insertion should be done under minimal supervision. A considerable number of students (25%, n=75) did not practice any procedure throughout their rotation. The majority of the students performed venipuncture independently (82.14%, n=56) and lumbar punctures (73.21%, n=56) under supervision. Less than 25% (n=56) of the students met the required number of exposures on the basic procedures. The procedures to be performed and the level of competency in the procedures are not specified in the current curriculum. Conclusion The study identified the procedures that should be taught and

  19. Brazilian obstetrician-gynecologists and abortion: a survey of knowledge, opinions and practices

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Lisa A; García, Sandra G; Díaz, Juan; Yam, Eileen A

    2005-01-01

    Background Abortion laws are extremely restrictive in Brazil. The knowledge, opinions of abortion laws, and abortion practices of obstetrician-gynecologists can have a significant impact on women's access to safe abortion. Methods We conducted a mail-in survey with a 10% random sample of obstetrician-gynecologists affiliated with the Brazilian Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. We documented participants' experiences performing abortion under a range of legal and illegal circumstances, and asked about which abortion techniques they had experience with. We used chi-square tests and crude logistic regression models to determine which sociodemographic, knowledge-related, or practice-related variables were associated with physician opinion. Results Of the 1,500 questionnaires that we mailed out, we received responses from 572 (38%). Less than half (48%) of the respondents reported accurate knowledge about abortion law and 77% thought that the law should be more liberal. One-third of respondents reported having previous experience performing an abortion, and very few of these physicians reported having experience with manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) or with misoprostol with either mifepristone or methotrexate. Physicians that favored liberalization of the law were more likely to have correct knowledge about abortion law, and to be in favor of public funding for abortion services. Conclusion Brazilian obstetrician-gynecologists need more information on abortion laws and on safe, effective abortion procedures. PMID:16288647

  20. Orion Abort Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Peggy Sue

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of NASA's Constellation project is to create the new generation of spacecraft for human flight to the International Space Station in low-earth orbit, the lunar surface, as well as for use in future deep-space exploration. One portion of the Constellation program was the development of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) to be used in spaceflight. The Orion spacecraft consists of a crew module, service module, space adapter and launch abort system. The crew module was designed to hold as many as six crew members. The Orion crew exploration vehicle is similar in design to the Apollo space capsules, although larger and more massive. The Flight Test Office is the responsible flight test organization for the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office originally proposed six tests that would demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests were to be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and were similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. The first flight test of the launch abort system was a pad abort (PA-1), that took place on 6 May 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Primary flight test objectives were to demonstrate the capability of the launch abort system to propel the crew module a safe distance away from a launch vehicle during a pad abort, to demonstrate the stability and control characteristics of the vehicle, and to determine the performance of the motors contained within the launch abort system. The focus of the PA-1 flight test was engineering development and data acquisition, not certification. In this presentation, a high level overview of the PA-1 vehicle is given, along with an overview of the Mobile Operations Facility and information on the White Sands tracking sites for radar & optics. Several lessons learned are presented, including detailed information on the lessons learned in the development of wind

  1. Space Shuttle Abort Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.

  2. Multiple Induced Abortions: Danish Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Mogens; David, Henry P.; Morgall, Janine M.

    1997-01-01

    Women having an induced abortion in an urban clinic were studied. First, second, and third time aborters (N=150) were interviewed. Variables including reasons for choosing abortion, life situations, contraceptive risk-taking, and ease of becoming pregnant were examined. Related studies and suggestions for postabortion counseling are discussed.…

  3. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  4. Monte Carlo calculations on extremity and eye lens dosimetry for medical staff at interventional radiology procedures.

    PubMed

    Carinou, E; Ferrari, P; Koukorava, C; Krim, S; Struelens, L

    2011-03-01

    There are many factors that can influence the extremity and eye lens doses of the medical staff during interventional radiology and cardiology procedures. Numerical simulations can play an important role in evaluating extremity and eye lens doses in correlation with many different parameters. In the present study, the first results of the ORAMED (Optimisation of Radiation protection of MEDical staff) simulation campaign are presented. The parameters investigated for their influence on eye lens, hand, wrist and leg doses are: tube voltage, filtration, beam projection, field size and irradiated part of the patient's body. The tube voltage ranged from 60 to 110 kV(p), filtration from 3 to 6 mm Al and from 0 to 0.9 mm Cu. For all projections, the results showed that doses received by the operator decreased with increasing tube voltage and filtration. The magnitude of the influence of the tube voltage and the filtration on the doses depends on the beam projection and the irradiated part of the patient's body. Finally, the influence of the field size is significant in decreasing the doses.

  5. Virtual Reality as an Adjunctive Non-pharmacologic Analgesic for Acute Burn Pain During Medical Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Gloria T.; Meyer, Walter J.; Arceneaux, Lisa L.; Russell, William J.; Seibel, Eric J.; Richards, Todd L.; Sharar, Sam R.; Patterson, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Excessive pain during medical procedures is a widespread problem but is especially problematic during daily wound care of patients with severe burn injuries. Methods Burn patients report 35–50% reductions in procedural pain while in a distracting immersive virtual reality, and fMRI brain scans show associated reductions in pain-related brain activity during VR. VR distraction appears to be most effective for patients with the highest pain intensity levels. VR is thought to reduce pain by directing patients’ attention into the virtual world, leaving less attention available to process incoming neural signals from pain receptors. Conclusions We review evidence from clinical and laboratory research studies exploring Virtual Reality analgesia, concentrating primarily on the work ongoing within our group. We briefly describe how VR pain distraction systems have been tailored to the unique needs of burn patients to date, and speculate about how VR systems could be tailored to the needs of other patient populations in the future. PMID:21264690

  6. Parents’ perspectives on supporting children during needle-related medical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Katarina; Englund, Ann-Charlotte Dalheim; Enskär, Karin; Rydström, Ingela

    2014-01-01

    When children endure needle-related medical procedures (NRMPs), different emotions arise for the child and his/her parents. Despite the parents’ own feelings, they have a key role in supporting their child through these procedures. The aim of this study is to describe the meanings of supporting children during NRMPs from the perspective of the parents. Twenty-one parents participated in this study. A reflective lifeworld research (RLR) approach was used and phenomenological analysis was applied. The essential meaning of the phenomenon—supporting children during an NRMP—is characterized as “keeping the child under the protection of one’s wings,” sometimes very close and sometimes a little further out under the wingtips. The essential meaning is additionally described through its constituents: paying attention to the child’s way of expressing itself, striving to maintain control, facilitating the child’s understanding, focusing the child’s attention, seeking additional support, and rewarding the child. The conclusion is that parents’ ability to be supportive can be affected when seeing their child undergo an NRMP. To regain the role as the child’s protector and to be able to keep the child “under the protection of one’s wings,” parents need support from the staff. PMID:25008196

  7. Applications of fluid MicroJets to medical and dental laser procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederickson, Christopher J.; Hayes, Donald J.; Wallace, David B.; Ussery, D.; Arcoria, Charles J.; Motamedi, Massoud; Jennett, E.; Diven, D.

    1995-05-01

    Many laser medical procedures can be improved by dispensing exogenous fluids onto the tissue during irradiation. Examples include the dispensing of coolants, photoabsorptive enhancers, photoreflective tissue shields, photoactivated tissue solders, fillers, or surface sealants. The main obstacle to the use of such auxiliary fluids is the difficulty of dispensing them in a convenient, interactive fashion while operating the laser. We have adapted ink-jet printing technology to this problem of dispensing auxiliary fluids during laser procedures. The technology can dispense fluids with exquisite volumetric, spatial, and temporal precision. In principle, one or more fluids can be dispensed interactively from nozzles similar in size to the optical fibers and microlenses that are used for the lasers. Compact handpieces or endoscopic tools that will incorporate fluid MicroJets and laser optics can be envisioned. The enhancements to laser surgical technology that could be afforded by the use of fluid jetting will be discussed. Examples from ongoing work in dentistry, orthopedics, and dermatology are presented. Supported in part by NIH SBIR's DE10687 and GM50602.

  8. Specific disgust sensitivities differentially predict interest in careers of varying procedural-intensity among medical students.

    PubMed

    Consedine, Nathan S; Windsor, John A

    2014-05-01

    Mismatches between the needs of public health systems and student interests have led to renewed study on the factors predicting career specializations among medical students. While most work examines career and lifestyle values, emotional proclivities may be important; disgust sensitivity may help explain preferences for careers with greater and lesser degrees of procedural content. In the study, 294 students completed measures assessing: (1) demographics, (2) career interest or intention regarding emergency medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, and pediatric medicine, (3) traditional determinants of career intention/interest, and (4) core/bodily product, animal reminder, contamination, and sexual/moral disgust sensitivity. As predicted, logistic regressions controlling for demographics and traditional career predictors, showed that greater animal reminder disgust predicted reduced interest in emergency medicine but greater interest in pediatric medicine. Conversely, greater core/bodily product disgust predicted lower interest in obstetrics/gynecology and pediatric medicine; greater contamination and sexual/moral disgust both predicted increased odds of interest in internal medicine. Overall, specific disgust sensitivities were the best predictors of specialization intention in multivariate models. Specific disgust sensitivities appear to differentially deter and/or predispose self-selection into specific trajectories varying in procedural content. Such findings may permit the early identification of specialty fit and provide guidance in career counseling.

  9. National abortion group begins education effort.

    PubMed

    1999-11-01

    This paper reports on the public awareness and education campaign of the National Abortion Federation (NAF) in the US. The campaign aims to prepare women and health care providers for the advent of mifepristone and other forms of medical abortion. This preparation includes the release of a provider manual, videotape, and CD-ROM that will coincide with the US approval of mifepristone. Once the manual, videotape, and CD-ROM are complete, NAF is planning a one-day training sessions in the year 2000 to coincide with various regional and national medical meetings. The education campaign will be made available through the Internet and possibly through satellite-based technology. NAF also provides public service messages to heighten the awareness of the Federation's toll-free hotline, in which it offers option counseling, referrals to qualified providers, help with funding, and information on dealing with individual state restrictions. PMID:12295330

  10. U.S. abortion policy since Roe v. Wade.

    PubMed

    Mcfarlane, D R

    1993-01-01

    Entrances Act, provision of additional Medicaid funding for abortions, and the introduction of RU-486 for medically induced abortions. Changes in the Court composition as a result of Clinton-appointed Supreme Court justices will also lead to changes in policy development.

  11. INDUCED ABORTION FROM AN ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE: IS IT CRIMINAL OR JUST ELECTIVE?

    PubMed Central

    Albar, Mohammed A.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Induced Abortion for social reasons is spreading all over the world. It is estimated that globally 50 million unborn babies are killed annually, resulting in the deaths of 200,000 pregnant women and the suffering of millions. The complications of illegal abortion are very serious. Abortion is still used in many countries as a means of family planning. The medical reasons for abortion are limited and con-sti-tute a small proportion of all abortion cases. This paper discusses the different views on abortion, its history, its evolution over time, and the present legal circumstances. The emphasis is on the situation in Islamic countries and the effect of Islamic Fatwas on abortion. PMID:23008648

  12. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  13. Observations on abortion in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Castle, M A; Likwa, R; Whittaker, M

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the findings of a preliminary investigation of women who sought treatment for abortion from the Gynecological Emergency Ward at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia. Barriers to obtaining legal abortions are identified and the harsh experiences of women seeking treatment for complications of illegally induced abortion are discussed. The data contribute to an understanding of the intensity of abortion for Zambian women and draw attention to the value of small-scale, qualitative research on women's reproductive health care needs. It is suggested that a study be planned at UTH to determine how health care delivery can be improved for women who seek abortion.

  14. Abortion policy and science: can controversy and evidence co-exist?

    PubMed

    Cates, Willard

    2012-08-01

    Abortion policies should be based on evidence. Over the past four decades in the United States, we have accumulated more data about the practice of legal abortion than any other surgical procedure. This evidence has documented the public health impact of increased access to safer abortion. In recent years, state laws to restrict abortion access have gained momentum. An accompanying article in this issue of JPHP uses extant data to examine whether two restrictive policies have had a measurable effect on abortion morbidity. The analysis found an unexpected result – states which imposed restrictions had lower levels of abortion complications than those who did not. Various explanations exist for these findings. Caution is needed to interpret observational findings, especially with polarizing issuess like abortion.

  15. Anti-abortion movement.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K

    1985-01-01

    At the same time that American women celebrate the freedoms won thus far for so many Americans, American women must realize they face some of the greatest threats to liberty in recent memory. To understand this movement against American women, it is necessary to first understand the roots of the historic movement for women's rights. Reproductive freedom for many years topped the agenda of the modern women's movement. At a time and in a land where rights were being enriched and liberty prized, choice took a prominent role, specifically, the right to abortion but also generally to repdocuctive freedom and the many underlying issues involved. This is why the various efforts to criminalize abortion effect every citizen, because they pose a serious threat to the constitutional rights of each individual. This is the intellectual view, or the "head" argument. The Constitution states that: "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and no state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US." Each of these clauses expresses the philosophy on which the Constitution was founded -- individual liberty. While there has been some legitimate disagreement over what constitutes an inalienable right, the concept is clear: the government should not become involved in personal philosophical or religious matters, except to permit the freedom of personal philosophical or religious expression. The anti-abortion contignent makes its case by claiming that a fertilized egg is a cona fide person and should, therefore, be guaranteed the Constitution's full roster of protections. In its landmark Roe v. Wade opinion, the Supreme Court held what pro-choice activities have been claiming for years. Since there is no empirical test by which measure

  16. [Recurrent spontaneous abortions].

    PubMed

    Salat-Baroux, J

    1988-01-01

    The process of fertilization in humans, is remarkably inefficient. Spontaneous abortion is estimated to be between 15 and 20% of all clinical pregnancies, and the early spontaneous abortion rate is closer to 30-50% of fertilized ova. Not all authors agree on the definition of "recurrent spontaneous abortion" (RSA), so the frequency of repeated pregnancy wastage is difficult to determine; from empirically derived data, it has been estimated to range between 0.4 and 0.8%. Because of the various etiologies of RSA, their association in determining an abortive event, it is difficult to evaluate their exact incidence. Moreover, their is no prospective study on this subject, so it is advisable to distinguish between the admitted causes, the likely factors, and the etiologies to be evaluated. In the first group, the congenital or acquired müllerian anomalies (especially the septate uterus), represent about 25% of the RSA, but a lot of problems concerning the physiopathology are still debated, even if the rate of pregnancies after surgery ranges around 50% in certain series. On the other hand, the genetic factors, identified especially with the banding technique, are undeniable: however, although the rate of chromosomal aberrations in the offspring (Monosomy X, Trisony 16, Triploidy) is very high (50 to 60% of spontaneous abortions in the first trimester of pregnancy), when couples with usual abortions are subjected to karyotypic analysis, genetic anomalies (especially translocations) are been noted in only 6.2% of the women and 2.6% of the men. In the second group, the infective factors (chlamydiae, toxoplasma and mycoplasma) are difficult to analyse since the serology is not sufficient without a real proof of an endometrial colonization. Among the endocrinological causes, the classical luteal phase deficiency remains a subject of controversy (estimated between 3 and 30%) not only for the establishment of the diagnosis, but also for the efficiency of progesterone

  17. Evaluation of stated motives for legal abortion.

    PubMed

    Törnbom, M; Ingelhammar, E; Lilja, H; Möller, A; Svanberg, B

    1994-03-01

    In a study of 404 women (simple random sample), 20-29 years of age, 201 (group A) applying for abortion and 203 (group B) continuing their pregnancies, the women were given a questionnaire and in addition were interviewed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the spontaneous personal motives of women for abortion at a time when age is not supposed to be a common reason. The results showed that more than half of the women expressed that a bad relationship with the partner in one way or another was a motive for the abortion. Other important motives included characteristics of the women and their partners, mainly immaturity, work/studies and unsuitable life situation for having a child. Less common motives seemed to be economy, dwelling and medical and health factors. It is obvious that women in this study wanted to have a stable relationship to the child's father before they dared or wanted to have a child. Social networks in modern society seem to be too weak. The women do not want to face social and emotional problems as lonely mothers. Political decisions in the society, for example with parental benefit according to your income discourage women from continuing their pregnancies during their studies. It also seems important for the woman to feel mature enough to have a child. The provision and encouragement of methods for safer sex may be a possible way by which to reduce the number of abortions.

  18. Induced termination of pregnancy before and after Roe v Wade. Trends in the mortality and morbidity of women. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    The mortality and morbidity of women who terminated their pregnancy before the 1973 Supreme Court decision in Roe v Wade are compared with post-Roe v Wade mortality and morbidity. Mortality data before 1973 are from the National Center for Health Statistics; data from 1973 through 1985 are from the Centers for Disease Control and The Alan Guttmacher Institute. Trends in serious abortion-related complications between 1970 and 1990 are based on data from the Joint Program for the Study of Abortion and from the National Abortion Federation. Deaths from illegally induced abortion declined between 1940 and 1972 in part because of the introduction of antibiotics to manage sepsis and the widespread use of effective contraceptives. Deaths from legal abortion declined fivefold between 1973 and 1985 (from 3.3 deaths to 0.4 death per 100,000 procedures), reflecting increased physician education and skills, improvements in medical technology, and, notably, the earlier termination of pregnancy. The risk of death from legal abortion is higher among minority women and women over the age of 35 years, and increases with gestational age. Legal-abortion mortality between 1979 and 1985 was 0.6 death per 100,000 procedures, more than 10 times lower than the 9.1 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births between 1979 and 1986. Serious complications from legal abortion are rare. Most women who have a single abortion with vacuum aspiration experience few if any subsequent problems getting pregnant or having healthy children. Less is known about the effects of multiple abortions on future fecundity. Adverse emotional reactions to abortion are rare; most women experience relief and reduced depression and distress. PMID:1433765

  19. Induced termination of pregnancy before and after Roe v Wade. Trends in the mortality and morbidity of women. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    The mortality and morbidity of women who terminated their pregnancy before the 1973 Supreme Court decision in Roe v Wade are compared with post-Roe v Wade mortality and morbidity. Mortality data before 1973 are from the National Center for Health Statistics; data from 1973 through 1985 are from the Centers for Disease Control and The Alan Guttmacher Institute. Trends in serious abortion-related complications between 1970 and 1990 are based on data from the Joint Program for the Study of Abortion and from the National Abortion Federation. Deaths from illegally induced abortion declined between 1940 and 1972 in part because of the introduction of antibiotics to manage sepsis and the widespread use of effective contraceptives. Deaths from legal abortion declined fivefold between 1973 and 1985 (from 3.3 deaths to 0.4 death per 100,000 procedures), reflecting increased physician education and skills, improvements in medical technology, and, notably, the earlier termination of pregnancy. The risk of death from legal abortion is higher among minority women and women over the age of 35 years, and increases with gestational age. Legal-abortion mortality between 1979 and 1985 was 0.6 death per 100,000 procedures, more than 10 times lower than the 9.1 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births between 1979 and 1986. Serious complications from legal abortion are rare. Most women who have a single abortion with vacuum aspiration experience few if any subsequent problems getting pregnant or having healthy children. Less is known about the effects of multiple abortions on future fecundity. Adverse emotional reactions to abortion are rare; most women experience relief and reduced depression and distress.

  20. Legal abortion services in Brazil--a national study.

    PubMed

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

    2016-02-01

    This article presents the results of a mixed methods study of 68 legal abortion services in Brazil. The services were analyzed in two stages. The first stage was a census, in which all the institutions were sent an electronic questionnaire about the organization of the legal abortion services. The second stage was conducted in a sample of 5 reference services, one for each region of the country. In this stage, a form was used to collect data about the women and the abortions in the medical records, and 82 interviews with health professionals were conducted. Thirty-seven of the services informed they performed legal abortions, and the services were inactive in 7 states. Police reports, forensic reports, and court orders were required by 14%, 8% and 8% of the services, respectively. Women who underwent abortions were predominantly aged 15-29, single and Catholic. Most abortions were performed until 14 weeks in the case of rape-related pregnancy, by means of manual vacuum aspiration. According to the health professionals, the main difficulties faced in the services are the low availability of physicians to perform abortions and the insufficient training of the staff. The data reveal a discrepancy between the legal provision and the reality of the services. The implementation of more services and the strengthening of the existing services available are necessary.

  1. "These things are dangerous": Understanding induced abortion trajectories in urban Zambia.

    PubMed

    Coast, Ernestina; Murray, Susan F

    2016-03-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant but preventable cause of global maternal mortality and morbidity. Zambia has among the most liberal abortion laws in sub-Saharan Africa, however this alone does not guarantee access to safe abortion, and 30% of maternal mortality is attributable to unsafe procedures. Too little is known about the pathways women take to reach abortion services in such resource-poor settings, or what informs care-seeking behaviours, barriers and delays. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted in 2013 with 112 women who accessed abortion-related care in a Lusaka tertiary government hospital at some point in their pathway. The sample included women seeking safe abortion and also those receiving hospital care following unsafe abortion. We identified a typology of three care-seeking trajectories that ended in the use of hospital services: clinical abortion induced in hospital; clinical abortion initiated elsewhere, with post-abortion care in hospital; and non-clinical abortion initiated elsewhere, with post-abortion care in hospital. Framework analyses of 70 transcripts showed that trajectories to a termination of an unwanted pregnancy can be complex and iterative. Individuals may navigate private and public formal healthcare systems and consult unqualified providers, often trying multiple strategies. We found four major influences on which trajectory a woman followed, as well as the complexity and timing of her trajectory: i) the advice of trusted others ii) perceptions of risk iii) delays in care-seeking and receipt of services and iv) economic cost. Even though abortion is legal in Zambia, girls and women still take significant risks to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Levels of awareness about the legality of abortion and its provision remain low even in urban Zambia, especially among adolescents. Unofficial payments required by some providers can be a major barrier to safe care. Timely access to safe abortion services depends on chance rather

  2. "These things are dangerous": Understanding induced abortion trajectories in urban Zambia.

    PubMed

    Coast, Ernestina; Murray, Susan F

    2016-03-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant but preventable cause of global maternal mortality and morbidity. Zambia has among the most liberal abortion laws in sub-Saharan Africa, however this alone does not guarantee access to safe abortion, and 30% of maternal mortality is attributable to unsafe procedures. Too little is known about the pathways women take to reach abortion services in such resource-poor settings, or what informs care-seeking behaviours, barriers and delays. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted in 2013 with 112 women who accessed abortion-related care in a Lusaka tertiary government hospital at some point in their pathway. The sample included women seeking safe abortion and also those receiving hospital care following unsafe abortion. We identified a typology of three care-seeking trajectories that ended in the use of hospital services: clinical abortion induced in hospital; clinical abortion initiated elsewhere, with post-abortion care in hospital; and non-clinical abortion initiated elsewhere, with post-abortion care in hospital. Framework analyses of 70 transcripts showed that trajectories to a termination of an unwanted pregnancy can be complex and iterative. Individuals may navigate private and public formal healthcare systems and consult unqualified providers, often trying multiple strategies. We found four major influences on which trajectory a woman followed, as well as the complexity and timing of her trajectory: i) the advice of trusted others ii) perceptions of risk iii) delays in care-seeking and receipt of services and iv) economic cost. Even though abortion is legal in Zambia, girls and women still take significant risks to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Levels of awareness about the legality of abortion and its provision remain low even in urban Zambia, especially among adolescents. Unofficial payments required by some providers can be a major barrier to safe care. Timely access to safe abortion services depends on chance rather

  3. Contraceptive use among women seeking repeat abortion in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Prata, Ndola; Holston, Martine; Fraser, Ashley; Melkamu, Yilma

    2013-12-01

    Limited access to modern contraceptives in populations that desire smaller families can lead to repeat unintended pregnancy and repeat abortions. We conducted an analysis of the medical records of 1,200 women seeking abortion-related services in public and private facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from October 2008 to February 2009. We examined the characteristics of initial and repeat abortion clients including prior contraceptive use and subsequent method selection. The incidence of repeat abortion was 30%. Compared with women seeking their first abortion, significantly more repeat abortion clients had ever used contraceptives and they were nearly twice as likely to leave the facility with a method. However, repeat abortion clients were significantly more likely to have ever used short-term reversible methods and to choose short-term methods post-abortion. Contraceptive counseling services for repeat abortion clients' should address reasons for previous contraceptive failure, discontinuation, or non-use. Post-abortion family planning services should be strengthened to help decrease repeat abortion. PMID:24558782

  4. Impact of vacuum aspiration abortion on future childbearing: a review.

    PubMed

    Hogue, C J; Cates, W; Tietze, C

    1983-01-01

    Ever since induced abortion was legalized in the United States, there has been a running controversy over whether induced abortion affects subsequent childbearing; for example, it has been claimed that women who terminate a pregnancy are at a greater risk of miscarrying a subsequent pregnancy or of having a low-birth-weight baby. Ten studies of the later impact of first-trimester induced abortion by vacuum aspiration (the dominant method in the United States) are examined here; they find that compared with women who carry their first pregnancy to term, women whose first pregnancy ends in induced abortion have no greater risk of bearing low-birth-weight babies, delivering prematurely or suffering spontaneous abortions in subsequent pregnancies. However, these studies also show that induced abortion of a woman's first pregnancy does not have the protective effect on her first live birth that carrying a first birth to term has on later deliveries. In addition, some evidence from other studies links dilatation and curettage (D&C) procedures with later infertility, but most studies have found no such association. No definite conclusions can be reached about the impact of multiple induced abortions, since the results of 13 different epidemiologic studies are almost evenly divided between those that show no effect and those reporting related reproductive problems.

  5. Abortion and Islam: policies and practice in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Hessini, Leila

    2007-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of legal, religious, medical and social factors that serve to support or hinder women's access to safe abortion services in the 21 predominantly Muslim countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, where one in ten pregnancies ends in abortion. Reform efforts, including progressive interpretations of Islam, have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. However, medical and social factors limit access to safe abortion services in all but Turkey and Tunisia. To address this situation, efforts are increasing in a few countries to introduce post-abortion care, document the magnitude of unsafe abortion and understand women's experience of unplanned pregnancy. Religious fatāwa have been issued allowing abortions in certain circumstances. An understanding of variations in Muslim beliefs and practices, and the interplay between politics, religion, history and reproductive rights is key to understanding abortion in different Muslim societies. More needs to be done to build on efforts to increase women's rights, engage community leaders, support progressive religious leaders and government officials and promote advocacy among health professionals. PMID:17512379

  6. ‘This Is Real Misery’: Experiences of Women Denied Legal Abortion in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Hajri, Selma; Raifman, Sarah; Gerdts, Caitlin; Baum, Sarah; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to accessing legal abortion services in Tunisia are increasing, despite a liberal abortion law, and women are often denied wanted legal abortion services. In this paper, we seek to explore the reasons for abortion denial and whether these reasons had a legal or medical basis. We also identify barriers women faced in accessing abortion and make recommendations for improved access to quality abortion care. We recruited women immediately after they had been turned away from legal abortion services at two facilities in Tunis, Tunisia. Thirteen women consented to participate in qualitative interviews two months after they were turned away from the facility. Women were denied abortion care on the day they were recruited due to three main reasons: gestational age, health conditions, and logistical barriers. Nine women ultimately terminated their pregnancies at another facility, and four women carried to term. None of the women attempted illegal abortion services or self-induction. Further research is needed in order to assess abortion denial from the perspective of providers and medical staff. PMID:26684189

  7. 'This Is Real Misery': Experiences of Women Denied Legal Abortion in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Hajri, Selma; Raifman, Sarah; Gerdts, Caitlin; Baum, Sarah; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to accessing legal abortion services in Tunisia are increasing, despite a liberal abortion law, and women are often denied wanted legal abortion services. In this paper, we seek to explore the reasons for abortion denial and whether these reasons had a legal or medical basis. We also identify barriers women faced in accessing abortion and make recommendations for improved access to quality abortion care. We recruited women immediately after they had been turned away from legal abortion services at two facilities in Tunis, Tunisia. Thirteen women consented to participate in qualitative interviews two months after they were turned away from the facility. Women were denied abortion care on the day they were recruited due to three main reasons: gestational age, health conditions, and logistical barriers. Nine women ultimately terminated their pregnancies at another facility, and four women carried to term. None of the women attempted illegal abortion services or self-induction. Further research is needed in order to assess abortion denial from the perspective of providers and medical staff.

  8. Hardware Design and Implementation of a Wavelet De-Noising Procedure for Medical Signal Preprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szi-Wen; Chen, Yuan-Ho

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based de-noising with its applications into the noise reduction for medical signal preprocessing is introduced. This work focuses on the hardware realization of a real-time wavelet de-noising procedure. The proposed de-noising circuit mainly consists of three modules: a DWT, a thresholding, and an inverse DWT (IDWT) modular circuits. We also proposed a novel adaptive thresholding scheme and incorporated it into our wavelet de-noising procedure. Performance was then evaluated on both the architectural designs of the software and. In addition, the de-noising circuit was also implemented by downloading the Verilog codes to a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based platform so that its ability in noise reduction may be further validated in actual practice. Simulation experiment results produced by applying a set of simulated noise-contaminated electrocardiogram (ECG) signals into the de-noising circuit showed that the circuit could not only desirably meet the requirement of real-time processing, but also achieve satisfactory performance for noise reduction, while the sharp features of the ECG signals can be well preserved. The proposed de-noising circuit was further synthesized using the Synopsys Design Compiler with an Artisan Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC, Hsinchu, Taiwan) 40 nm standard cell library. The integrated circuit (IC) synthesis simulation results showed that the proposed design can achieve a clock frequency of 200 MHz and the power consumption was only 17.4 mW, when operated at 200 MHz. PMID:26501290

  9. Nurses’ perspectives on supporting children during needle-related medical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Katarina; Rydström, Ingela; Enskär, Karin; Englund, Ann-Charlotte Dalheim

    2014-01-01

    Children state that among their worst fears during hospitalization are those related to various nursing procedures and to injections and needles. Nurses thus have a responsibility to help children cope with needle-related medical procedures (NRMP) and the potentially negative effects of these. The aim of the study is to describe the lived experience of supporting children during NRMP, from the perspective of nurses. Fourteen nurses took part in the study, six of whom participated on two occasions thus resulting in 20 interviews. A reflective lifeworld research approach was used, and phenomenological analysis was applied. The result shows that supporting children during NRMP is characterized by a desire to meet the child in his/her own world and by an effort to reach the child's horizon of understanding regarding these actions, based on the given conditions. The essential meaning of the phenomenon is founded on the following constituents: developing relationships through conversation, being sensitive to embodied responses, balancing between tact and use of restraint, being the child's advocate, adjusting time, and maintaining belief. The discussion focuses on how nurses can support children through various types of conversation and by receiving help from the parents’ ability to be supportive, and on whether restraint can be supportive or not for children during NRMP. Our conclusion is that nurses have to see each individual child, meet him/her in their own world, and decide on supportive actions while at the same time balancing their responsibility for the completion of the NRMP. This work can be described as “balancing on a tightrope” in an unpredictable situation. PMID:24646473

  10. Hardware design and implementation of a wavelet de-noising procedure for medical signal preprocessing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szi-Wen; Chen, Yuan-Ho

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based de-noising with its applications into the noise reduction for medical signal preprocessing is introduced. This work focuses on the hardware realization of a real-time wavelet de-noising procedure. The proposed de-noising circuit mainly consists of three modules: a DWT, a thresholding, and an inverse DWT (IDWT) modular circuits. We also proposed a novel adaptive thresholding scheme and incorporated it into our wavelet de-noising procedure. Performance was then evaluated on both the architectural designs of the software and. In addition, the de-noising circuit was also implemented by downloading the Verilog codes to a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based platform so that its ability in noise reduction may be further validated in actual practice. Simulation experiment results produced by applying a set of simulated noise-contaminated electrocardiogram (ECG) signals into the de-noising circuit showed that the circuit could not only desirably meet the requirement of real-time processing, but also achieve satisfactory performance for noise reduction, while the sharp features of the ECG signals can be well preserved. The proposed de-noising circuit was further synthesized using the Synopsys Design Compiler with an Artisan Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC, Hsinchu, Taiwan) 40 nm standard cell library. The integrated circuit (IC) synthesis simulation results showed that the proposed design can achieve a clock frequency of 200 MHz and the power consumption was only 17.4 mW, when operated at 200 MHz. PMID:26501290

  11. Hardware design and implementation of a wavelet de-noising procedure for medical signal preprocessing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szi-Wen; Chen, Yuan-Ho

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based de-noising with its applications into the noise reduction for medical signal preprocessing is introduced. This work focuses on the hardware realization of a real-time wavelet de-noising procedure. The proposed de-noising circuit mainly consists of three modules: a DWT, a thresholding, and an inverse DWT (IDWT) modular circuits. We also proposed a novel adaptive thresholding scheme and incorporated it into our wavelet de-noising procedure. Performance was then evaluated on both the architectural designs of the software and. In addition, the de-noising circuit was also implemented by downloading the Verilog codes to a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based platform so that its ability in noise reduction may be further validated in actual practice. Simulation experiment results produced by applying a set of simulated noise-contaminated electrocardiogram (ECG) signals into the de-noising circuit showed that the circuit could not only desirably meet the requirement of real-time processing, but also achieve satisfactory performance for noise reduction, while the sharp features of the ECG signals can be well preserved. The proposed de-noising circuit was further synthesized using the Synopsys Design Compiler with an Artisan Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC, Hsinchu, Taiwan) 40 nm standard cell library. The integrated circuit (IC) synthesis simulation results showed that the proposed design can achieve a clock frequency of 200 MHz and the power consumption was only 17.4 mW, when operated at 200 MHz.

  12. [Acute complications of abortion].

    PubMed

    Obel, E

    1976-02-01

    The complications accompanying the various methods of abortion as studied in different surveys are reported. In studies of dilation and curettage (D and C) and vaccuum aspiration (VA), lethality ranges from .5 to 2.9 deaths/100,000 cases. Metrorrhagia occurred in 2.5-6% of the D and C cases studied and in 2.9-3.5% of the VA cases. The bleeding was accompanied by infection in most cases where abortive tissue remained in the uterus, which occured in .4-.8% of the D and C cases and in .6-.9% of the VA cases studied. Postabortive bleeding occurred through the 10th day in up to 25% of the patients and was related to the length of the gestation period before abortion. Pelvic infection, mostly of the endometrium, occurred in about 1.4% of the D and C patients and in .3-1.2% of the VA patients. 1.4% of the D and C patients and .6% of the VA patients experienced a rise in body temperature as the only complication of abortion. Perforation of the uterus occurred in about .8% of the D and C patients and in .1-.6% of VA patients. Lesions of the cervix had to be sutured in .1% of the D and C group and .3% of the VA group. Saline instillation, used for abortions in the second trimest er, had a mortality rate of about 20/100,000 cases. Since the success rate of saline instillation is 90-98%, complications are more frequent, often requiring treatment with oxytocin or curettage. Extensive bleeding occurred in 2.3-4%. Curettage of the placenta was required in about 2.1-16.9% of the cases. Pelvic inflammation occurred in about 2.5% and temperature elevation in 1-3.4%. Abdominal hysterotomies had a lethality of 208/100,000. Pelvic hemorrhage occurred in 31%, inflammation in 4.7%, temperature elevation in 13%, and febrile reactions in 31% of the abdominal hysterotomies studied. It is necessary to establish international definitions of abortion complications for better documentation, and postoperative observations should be recorded more conscientiously. PMID:1251502

  13. The impact of Mississippi's mandatory delay law on the timing of abortion.

    PubMed

    Joyce, T; Kaestner, R

    2000-01-01

    This article examined the effect of Mississippi's mandatory delay law on the timing of abortion. This mandate imposes that a woman seeking abortion must first receive in person information about the fetus and alternatives to abortion. She must then wait at least 24 hours before having an abortion. The Mississippi abortion data were stratified by location of the nearest provider, and the effects on the likelihood of a second-trimester abortion and on gestational age at the time of abortion were assessed. Results of the analysis of data for the 34,748 abortions revealed that the proportion of second-trimester procedures were at least 2.6% points greater among women whose nearest abortion provider was in-state than among those whose nearest provider was out-of-state. The overall effect of the law on mean gestation was to delay an abortion by about 4 days (0.61 weeks). In conclusion, the proportion of abortions performed later in pregnancy will probably increase if more states impose mandatory delay laws with in-person counseling requirements. PMID:10710701

  14. Denial of Abortion Because of Provider Gestational Age Limits in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Weitz, Tracy A.; Jones, Rachel K.; Barar, Rana E.; Foster, Diana Greene

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the factors influencing delay in seeking abortion and the outcomes for women denied abortion care because of gestational age limits at abortion facilities. Methods. We compared women who presented for abortion care who were under the facilities’ gestational age limits and received an abortion (n = 452) with those who were just over the gestational age limits and were denied an abortion (n = 231) at 30 US facilities. We described reasons for delay in seeking services. We examined the determinants of obtaining an abortion elsewhere after being denied one because of facility gestational age limits. We then estimated the national incidence of being denied an abortion because of facility gestational age limits. Results. Adolescents and women who did not recognize their pregnancies early were most likely to delay seeking care. The most common reason for delay was having to raise money for travel and procedure costs. We estimated that each year more than 4000 US women are denied an abortion because of facility gestational limits and must carry unwanted pregnancies to term. Conclusions. Many state laws restrict abortions based on gestational age, and new laws are lowering limits further. The incidence of being denied abortion will likely increase, disproportionately affecting young and poor women. PMID:23948000

  15. "Reclaiming the white daughter's purity": Afrikaner nationalism, racialized sexuality, and the 1975 Abortion and Sterilization Act in apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Klausen, Susanne M

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the struggle over abortion law reform that preceded the enactment in 1975 of the first statutory law on abortion in South Africa. The ruling National Party government produced legislation intended to eliminate access to doctors willing to procure abortions in an attempt to prevent young, unmarried white women from engaging in premarital (hetero) sexual activity. It was also aimed at strictly regulating the medical profession’s actions with regards to abortion. The production of the abortion legislation was directly influenced by international struggles for accessible abortion and, more broadly, sexual liberation. The regime believed South Africa was being infiltrated by Western "immorality" and the abortion law was an attempt to buttress racist heteropatriarchal apartheid culture. Examining the abortion controversy highlights the global circulation of ideas about reproduction in the twentieth century and foregrounds a neglected dimension of the history of sexual regulation in apartheid South Africa: the disciplining and regulation of white female reproductive sexuality.

  16. "Reclaiming the white daughter's purity": Afrikaner nationalism, racialized sexuality, and the 1975 Abortion and Sterilization Act in apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Klausen, Susanne M

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the struggle over abortion law reform that preceded the enactment in 1975 of the first statutory law on abortion in South Africa. The ruling National Party government produced legislation intended to eliminate access to doctors willing to procure abortions in an attempt to prevent young, unmarried white women from engaging in premarital (hetero) sexual activity. It was also aimed at strictly regulating the medical profession’s actions with regards to abortion. The production of the abortion legislation was directly influenced by international struggles for accessible abortion and, more broadly, sexual liberation. The regime believed South Africa was being infiltrated by Western "immorality" and the abortion law was an attempt to buttress racist heteropatriarchal apartheid culture. Examining the abortion controversy highlights the global circulation of ideas about reproduction in the twentieth century and foregrounds a neglected dimension of the history of sexual regulation in apartheid South Africa: the disciplining and regulation of white female reproductive sexuality. PMID:20857591

  17. Adolescent women face triple jeopardy: unwanted pregnancy, HIV / AIDS and unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishna, A; Gringle, R; Greenslade, F

    1997-01-01

    This article reports the risks of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion relative to HIV/AIDS by adolescent women. Data presented at the XI International Conference on AIDS indicated that adolescents aged 15-19 years form the highest risk group for newly acquired HIV infections and also with the highest rate worldwide of unwanted pregnancy. Contributing factors of this high rate includes physical violence and other forms of coercion; an earlier age of sexual initiation for girls than boys; so-called "sexual mixing", wherein young girls may have sex with older men for a variety of cultural and economic reasons; social pressures faced by young girls; the lack of access to formal education including sex education; the lack of access to contraception and reproductive health services; the high-risk sexual behavior of adolescent female partners; and young women's lack of power to negotiate terms of sex with their partners. When faced with an unwanted pregnancy, adolescent women have always found it difficult to obtain appropriate services to meet their needs, including safe abortion care. The AIDS epidemic exacerbates these difficulties and adds new medical, legal and ethical dimensions to the practice of unsafe and illegal abortion procedures that put young women's health and lives in danger. PMID:12179733

  18. "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures" - Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Nikendei, C; Ganschow, P; Groener, J B; Huwendiek, S; Köchel, A; Köhl-Hackert, N; Pjontek, R; Rodrian, J; Scheibe, F; Stadler, A-K; Steiner, T; Stiepak, J; Tabatabai, J; Utz, A; Kadmon, M

    2016-01-01

    The competent physical examination of patients and the safe and professional implementation of clinical procedures constitute essential components of medical practice in nearly all areas of medicine. The central objective of the projects "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures", which were initiated by students, was to establish uniform interdisciplinary standards for physical examination and clinical procedures, and to distribute them in coordination with all clinical disciplines at the Heidelberg University Hospital. The presented project report illuminates the background of the initiative and its methodological implementation. Moreover, it describes the multimedia documentation in the form of pocketbooks and a multimedia internet-based platform, as well as the integration into the curriculum. The project presentation aims to provide orientation and action guidelines to facilitate similar processes in other faculties. PMID:27579354

  19. "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures" - Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Nikendei, C; Ganschow, P; Groener, J B; Huwendiek, S; Köchel, A; Köhl-Hackert, N; Pjontek, R; Rodrian, J; Scheibe, F; Stadler, A-K; Steiner, T; Stiepak, J; Tabatabai, J; Utz, A; Kadmon, M

    2016-01-01

    The competent physical examination of patients and the safe and professional implementation of clinical procedures constitute essential components of medical practice in nearly all areas of medicine. The central objective of the projects "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures", which were initiated by students, was to establish uniform interdisciplinary standards for physical examination and clinical procedures, and to distribute them in coordination with all clinical disciplines at the Heidelberg University Hospital. The presented project report illuminates the background of the initiative and its methodological implementation. Moreover, it describes the multimedia documentation in the form of pocketbooks and a multimedia internet-based platform, as well as the integration into the curriculum. The project presentation aims to provide orientation and action guidelines to facilitate similar processes in other faculties.

  20. Abortion research in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gaslonde Sainz, S

    1976-08-01

    Surveys dealing with abortion in Latin America have provided useful information despite problems in the collection and use of the data. Considerations that should be taken into account in designing abortion surveys and using the resultant information have been discussed here. Special attention has been paid to the need for a broad definition of "abortion" in order to overcome difficulties in gathering information about abortion in Latin America. Surveys have shown increasing incidence of abortion throughout Latin America in the recent past. In examining changes over time it is crucial to interpret clearly and carefully the summary measures of proportion of pregnancies ending in abortion and abortion rates per 1,000 women. It is also important to realize that the level and direction of change of the abortion rate depends on both the rate at which women are becoming pregnant and the proportion of pregnancies ending in abortion. Better survey design and techniques and more careful use of the resulting information will aid in the planning and evaluation of programs aimed at reducing abortion in Latin America. PMID:960180

  1. Religion and attitudes toward abortion and abortion policy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the association between religion and attitudes toward the practice of abortion and abortion policy in Brazil. Drawing upon data from the 2002 Brazilian Social Research Survey (BSRS), we test a number of hypotheses with regard to the role of religion on opposition to the practice of abortion and its legalization. Findings indicate that frequently attending Pentecostals demonstrate the strongest opposition to the practice of abortion and both frequently attending Pentecostals and Catholics demonstrate the strongest opposition to its legalization. Additional religious factors, such as a commitment to biblical literalism, were also found to be significantly associated with opposition to both abortion issues. Ultimately, the findings have implications for the future of public policy on abortion and other contentious social issues in Brazil.

  2. The Politicization of Abortion and the Evolution of Abortion Counseling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The field of abortion counseling originated in the abortion rights movement of the 1970s. During its evolution to the present day, it has faced significant challenges, primarily arising from the increasing politicization and stigmatization of abortion since legalization. Abortion counseling has been affected not only by the imposition of antiabortion statutes, but also by the changing needs of patients who have come of age in a very different era than when this occupation was first developed. One major innovation—head and heart counseling—departs in significant ways from previous conventions of the field and illustrates the complex and changing political meanings of abortion and therefore the challenges to abortion providers in the years following Roe v Wade. PMID:23153144

  3. Increase in obstacles to abortion: the American perspective in 2004.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Martin

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the barriers to abortion in the United States, including the determination of viability, cost and insurance coverage, waiting periods and parental consent laws, restrictions on medical abortion, provider unavailability, harassment, targeted regulation of abortion providers laws, refusal clauses, anti choice laws, and the fetal legal rights movement. Federally subsidized abstinence-only sex education, which has not been shown to decrease the rate of unintended pregnancy (and may increase it), has expanded and access to a full range of contraceptive options has been limited. The policies of the current and past administrations have strengthened barriers to abortion both at home and abroad. Preserving women's right to choose will require improved public and professional education, legislative and legal efforts, and advocacy by physicians and other health care professionals. PMID:16845763

  4. Psychiatric aspects of therapeutic abortion.

    PubMed

    Doane, B K; Quigley, B G

    1981-09-01

    A search of the literature on the psychiatric aspects of abortion revealed poor study design, a lack of clear criteria for decisions for or against abortion, poor definition of psychologic symptoms experienced by patients, absence of control groups in clinical studies, and indecisiveness and uncritical attitudes in writers from various disciplines. A review of the sequelae of therapeutic abortion revealed that although the data are vague, symptoms of depression were reported most frequently, whereas those of psychosis were rare. Positive emotional responses and a favourable attitude toward therapeutic abortion were often reported, although again the statistical bases for these reports were inadequate. There was a lack of evidence that the reported effects were due to having an abortion rather than to other variables.Other areas dealt with inadequately in most of the articles reviewed included analyses of symptoms and of the evidence on the duration of sequelae, descriptions of the criteria for approving abortions, investigation of the psychiatric histories of the patients, presentation of data on the effects of refusing abortion requests, systematic study of a number of epidemiologic factors, and analyses of the circumstances leading to pregnancy in patients having abortions. The evidence was found to be sparse on the effects of supportive relationships, different abortion techniques and the length of gestation on the psychologic status of patients. Little attention was paid to the consequences of psychiatric labelling of patients, or to the effect of having an abortion on factors that may influence future pregnancies.The potential roles of health care professionals appear to deserve more study, and little research seems to have been done to compare the psychologic factors associated with abortion and those associated with live birth. As well, there is little evidence that differences in abortion legislation account for significant differences in the psychologic

  5. A clinical procedures curriculum for undergraduate medical students: the eight-year history of a third-year immersive experience

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Laura; Exline, Matthew; Leung, Cynthia G.; Way, David P.; Clinchot, Daniel; Bahner, David P.; Khandelwal, Sorabh

    2016-01-01

    Background Procedural skills training is a critical component of medical education, but is often lacking in standard clinical curricula. We describe a unique immersive procedural skills curriculum for medical students, designed and taught primarily by emergency medicine faculty at The Ohio State University College of Medicine. Objectives The primary educational objective of this program was to formally introduce medical students to clinical procedures thought to be important for success in residency. The immersion strategy (teaching numerous procedures over a 7-day period) was intended to complement the student's education on third-year core clinical clerkships. Program design The course introduced 27 skills over 7 days. Teaching and learning methods included lecture, prereading, videos, task trainers, peer teaching, and procedures practice on cadavers. In year 4 of the program, a peer-team teaching model was adopted. We analyzed program evaluation data over time. Impact Students valued the selection of procedures covered by the course and felt that it helped prepare them for residency (97%). The highest rated activities were the cadaver lab and the advanced cardiac life support (97 and 93% positive endorsement, respectively). Lectures were less well received (73% positive endorsement), but improved over time. The transition to peer-team teaching resulted in improved student ratings of course activities (p<0.001). Conclusion A dedicated procedural skills curriculum successfully supplemented the training medical students received in the clinical setting. Students appreciated hands-on activities and practice. The peer-teaching model improved course evaluations by students, which implies that this was an effective teaching method for adult learners. This course was recently expanded and restructured to place the learning closer to the clinical settings in which skills are applied. PMID:27222103

  6. Congress, administration, clergy and activists react to abortion clinic murders.

    PubMed

    1995-01-25

    The murders of two abortion clinic workers in Brookline, Massachusetts, on December 30, 1994, have raised public awareness about the increasing violence against abortion clinics, their clients, and their employees. The US Justice Department immediately launched an investigation, while clinics have started to install metal detectors and bulletproof glass. Boston Archbishop Bernard Cardinal Law called for a moratorium on abortion protests in front of clinics in the wake of this incident and urged activists to take their vigils to churches to avoid any violence. In contrast, New York Archbishop John Cardinal O'Connor called for the protests to continue. The Brookline tragedy brings to five the number of abortion clinic workers killed in the previous 22 months, and it had prompted a national debate over inflammatory language inciting violence and whether mainstream anti-abortion groups are willing to assume the moral responsibility for such acts. To be sure at the annual anti-abortion march on Washington, DC, 45,000 protesters gathered peacefully, but they did not condemn violent tactics. After the March 1993 murder of Dr. David Gunn, President Clinton had established a task force to investigate these violent attacks and possible conspiracy implications. At the same time, the Attorney General pointed out that round-the-clock protection of all clinics would be prohibitively expensive for the US Marshall Service. In the House and Senate, measures were introduced calling for full enforcement of the Freedom of Access to Clinics Entrances Law (FACE). The Justice Department also brought several suits against anti-abortion protesters who blocked clinic entrances and stalked employees. All reproductive health clinics are grappling with these threats as well as the associated crisis of a decline in the number of physicians willing to provide abortion services. Medical education associations that set standards for residency programs are also under pressure whether to approve

  7. Austerity and Abortion in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Billari, Francesco; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Economic hardship accompanying large recessions can lead families to terminate unplanned pregnancies. To assess whether abortions have risen during the recession, we collected crude abortion data from 2000 to 2012 from Eurostat for countries that had legal abortions and complete data. Declining trends in abortion ratios between 2000 and 2009 have been reversing. Excess abortions between 2010 and 2012 totaled 10.6 abortions per 1000 pregnancies ending in abortion or birth or 6701 additional abortions (95% CI 1190–9240) with stronger effects in younger ages. Economic shocks may increase recourse to abortion. Further research should explore causal pathways and protective factors. PMID:27009038

  8. Design, Development and Evaluation of Collaborative Team Training Method in Virtual Worlds for Time-Critical Medical Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanal, Prabal

    2014-01-01

    Medical students acquire and enhance their clinical skills using various available techniques and resources. As the health care profession has move towards team-based practice, students and trainees need to practice team-based procedures that involve timely management of clinical tasks and adequate communication with other members of the team.…

  9. Public funding of abortions and abortion counseling for poor women.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R B

    1997-01-01

    This essay seeks to reveal the weakness in arguments against public funding of abortions and abortion counseling in the US based on economic, ethico-religious, anti-racist, and logical-consistency objections and to show that public funding of abortion is strongly supported by appeals to basic human rights, to freedom of speech, to informed consent, to protection from great harm, to justice, and to equal protection under the law. The first part of the article presents the case against public funding with detailed considerations of the economic argument, the ethico/religious argument, the argument that such funding supports racist genocide or eugenic quality control, and arguments that a logical inconsistency exists between the principles used to justify the legalization of abortions and arguments for public funding. The second part of the article presents the case for public funding by discussing the spending of public funds on morally offensive programs, arguments for public funding of abortion counseling for the poor, and arguments for public funding of abortions for the poor. It is concluded that it is morally unacceptable and rationally unjustifiable to refuse to expend public funds for abortions for low income women, because after all most money for legal abortions for the poor comes from welfare payments made to women. If conservative forces want to insure that no public funds pay for abortions, they must stop all welfare payments to pregnant women. PMID:12348330

  10. Future healthcare professionals’ knowledge about the Argentinean abortion law

    PubMed Central

    Oizerovich, Silvia; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We assessed healthcare students’ knowledge and opinions on Argentinian abortion law and identified differences between first- and final-year healthcare students. Methods In this cross-sectional study, self-administered anonymous questionnaires were administered to 760 first- and 695 final-year students from different fields of study (medicine, midwifery, nursing, radiology, nutrition, speech therapy, and physiotherapy) of the School of Medicine at the University of Buenos Aires, in 2011-2013. Results Compared to first-year students, a higher percentage of final-year students knew that abortion is legally restricted in Argentina (p < 0.001). A significantly higher percentage of final-year students could correctly identify the circumstances in which abortion is legal: woman´s life risk (87.4% last vs. 79.1% first year), rape of a woman with developmental disability (66.2% first vs. 85.4% last-year; p < 0.001). More final-year students chose severe foetal malformations (37.3% first year vs. 57.3% final year) despite its being illegal. Conclusions Although most final-year students knew that abortion is legally restricted in Argentina, misconceptions regarding circumstances of legal abortion were observed; this may be due to the fact that abortion is inadequately covered in the medical curricula. Medical schools should ensure that sexual and reproductive health topics are an integral part of their curricula. Healthcare providers who are aware of the legality of abortion are more likely to provide the public with sound information and ensure abortions are appropriately performed. PMID:27018552

  11. Operational and Medical Procedures for a Declared Contingency Shuttle (CSCS) Shuttle Mission Due to a Failure that Precludes a Safe Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Adrien; Patlach, Bob; Duchense, Ted; Chandler, Mike; Stepaniak, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    This poster paper outlines the operational and medical procedures for a shuttle mission that has a failure that precludes a safe return to Earth. Information about the assumptions, procedures and limiting consumables is included.

  12. [A mutation in the mechanisms of social control: the case of abortion].

    PubMed

    Horellou-lafarge, C

    1982-01-01

    This article examines the process by which the control and suppression of abortion shifted from the judicial domain to become an object of medical control in France. Abortion was a crime under the Napoleonic Code of 1810 and remained severely punishable for a century, but the law was regarded as too severe and prosecution was lax. The prescribed punishments became less stringent in 1923 but were later toughened again. Laws against abortion did not seem fair to much of the population concerned or to many of those charged with enforcing the laws, and they did not seem to uphold any inviolable moral principle. Increasing discontent with existing abortion laws, which were felt no longer to reflect the needs or mores of the society, and moreover to penalize poor women, who could not afford medically safe abortions abroad, and a belief that the law was doing nothing to reduce the numbers of abortions were among the stimuli that prompted the search for improved legislation. The public debate about the revised abortion law and the proper role of physicians and magistrates in determing access to abortion are traced though an exposition of opinions and quotations of the major participants in the controversy. The law of 1975 removed abortion from the control of magistrates and thereby liberalized access to it, but by entrusting access to abortion to the medical profession, the law embodied a bias toward preventing abortion. New social forces were behind the 1975 law, including pressure from women's groups which were developing a new consciousness of their rights and place in society, and a new role of medical practitioners, who occupy a privileged position in a social system based on knowledge rather than property. The new law still regards abortion as an evil and attempts to discourage it by imposing numerous constraints concerning when, where, and by whom it can be performed, by not requiring health personnel or facilities to make abortion available and by limiting the

  13. Of needles and skinned knees: children's coping with medical procedures and minor injuries for self and other.

    PubMed

    Peterson, L; Crowson, J; Saldana, L; Holdridge, S

    1999-03-01

    Children participated in four role-plays designed to assess what the children themselves would do and what they would suggest a friend should do when encountering a medical procedure and a minor injury. Open-ended responses were coded into an empirically derived continuum suggested by past research. Similar responses were given to cope with medical procedures and injuries. However, children suggested more reactive coping strategies (e.g., cry, pull away) for themselves and more proactive responses (e.g., think of something fun, take deep breaths) for friends. This finding questions the assumption that children choose the most effective coping strategy in their repertoire when they themselves confront an aversive stimulus, suggesting that preparation for invasive procedures should include motivational components. PMID:10194056

  14. [Contraception and abortion: an update in 2015].

    PubMed

    Chung, D; Ferro Luzzi, E; Bettoli Musy, L; Narring, F

    2015-09-23

    Family doctors can play an important role in preventing unplanned pregnancies. This article addresses the different contraceptives methods available in Switzerland, which are classified in 2 groups and recommends using the GATHER approach (Greet, Ask, Tell, Help, Explain, Return) to promote compliance. LARC (long acting reversible contraceptives) can be recommended to any woman who needs a reliable birth control method. These contraceptives require minimum effort for high efficiency. Further explanation regarding the use of an emergency contraception must be provided when short action contraceptives are chosen. Switzerland's abortion rate is one of the lowest in the world. Medical abortion tends to be more and more prominent. Under certain circumstances, it can be self-administered at home.

  15. [The modern indications for abortion (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stucki, D

    1980-01-15

    Within the Swiss legal code, somatic and psychiatric indications for interruption of pregnancy are very well indicated and codified. These days, however, only 8% of indications for abortion are based on purely medical reasons; the great majority of indications are "modern", a clear manifestation of a slipping away from classical indications toward a much more liberal intervention which often has nothing to do with the corporal integrity of the mother, but with that of the child, or which simply takes into consideration the future quality of life of everybody involved. This evolution is a reflection of the new role of women in society, and also the result of the recent progresses of the science of neonatology. Such enlarged indications for abortion are accepted by most doctors concerned with these problems, and they include such different reasons as IUD failure, hormonal contraception failure, very young or too old age, exposure to X-rays, divorce and exposure to chemotherapy.

  16. CONTINUOUS ABORT GAP CLEANING AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.FLILLER,R.III.FU,W.MICHNOFF,R.

    2004-07-05

    Since the RHIC Au-Au run in the year 2001 the 200 MHz cavity system was used at storage and a 28 MHz system during injection and acceleration. The rebucketing procedure potentially causes a higher debunching rate of heavy ion beams in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam can easily account for more than 50% of the total beam intensity. This effect is even stronger with the achieved high intensities of the RHIC Au-Au run in 2004. A beam abort at the presence of a lot of debunched beam bears the risk of magnet quenching and experimental detector damage due to uncontrolled beam losses. Thus it is desirable to avoid any accumulation of debunched beam from the beginning of each store, in particular to anticipate cases of unscheduled beam aborts due to a system failure. A combination of a fast transverse kickers and the new 2-stage copper collimator system are used to clean the abort gap continuously throughout the store with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. This report gives. an overview of the new gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  17. Medication double-checking procedures in clinical practice: a cross-sectional survey of oncology nurses' experiences

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Yvonne; Taxis, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Background Double-checking is widely recommended as an essential method to prevent medication errors. However, prior research has shown that the concept of double-checking is not clearly defined, and that little is known about actual practice in oncology, for example, what kind of checking procedures are applied. Objective To study the practice of different double-checking procedures in chemotherapy administration and to explore nurses' experiences, for example, how often they actually find errors using a certain procedure. General evaluations regarding double-checking, for example, frequency of interruptions during and caused by a check, or what is regarded as its essential feature was assessed. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, qualified nurses working in oncology departments of 3 hospitals were asked to rate 5 different scenarios of double-checking procedures regarding dimensions such as frequency of use in practice and appropriateness to prevent medication errors; they were also asked general questions about double-checking. Results Overall, 274 nurses (70% response rate) participated in the survey. The procedure of jointly double-checking (read-read back) was most commonly used (69% of respondents) and rated as very appropriate to prevent medication errors. Jointly checking medication was seen as the essential characteristic of double-checking—more frequently than ‘carrying out checks independently’ (54% vs 24%). Most nurses (78%) found the frequency of double-checking in their department appropriate. Being interrupted in one's own current activity for supporting a double-check was reported to occur frequently. Regression analysis revealed a strong preference towards checks that are currently implemented at the responders' workplace. Conclusions Double-checking is well regarded by oncology nurses as a procedure to help prevent errors, with jointly checking being used most frequently. Our results show that the notion of independent checking needs to be

  18. Dworkin and Casey on abortion.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Sarah

    1996-01-01

    This article responds to two important recent treatments of abortion rights. I will mainly discuss Ronald Dworkin's recent writings concerning abortion: his article "Unenumerated rights: whether and how Roe should be overruled," and his book Life's Dominion. In these writings Dworkin presents a novel view of what the constitutional and moral argument surronding abortion is really about. Both debates actually turn, he argues, on the question of how to interpret the widely shared idea that human life is sacred. At the heart of the abortion debate is the essentially religious notion that human life has value which transcends its value to any particular person; abortion is therefore at bottom a religious issue. Dworkin hopes to use this analysis to show that the religion clauses of the First Amendment provide a "textual home" for a woman's right to choose abortion. I wish to scrutinize this suggestion here; I want to probe the precise consequences for abortion rights of such an understanding of their basis. I will argue that the consequences are more radical than Dworkin seems to realize. The other work I will examine here is the important 1992 Supreme Court decision on abortion, Planned Parenthood v. Casey. The controlling opinion in that case, written jointly by Justices Kennedy, O'Connor, and Souter, strongly reaffirmed Roe v. Wade, but also upheld most of the provisions of a Pennsylvania statute that had mandated various restrictions on abortion. The justices' basis for upholding these restictions was their introduction of a new constitutional standard for abortion regulations, an apparently weaker standard than those that had governed previous Supreme Court abortion decisions. I think there is a flaw in Casey's new constitutional test for abortion regulations, and I will explain, when we turn to Casey, what it is and why it bears a close relation to Dworkin's reluctance to carry his argument as far as it seems to go.

  19. Abortion in a just society.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M E

    1993-01-01

    A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.

  20. [Medical errors in obstetrics].

    PubMed

    Marek, Z

    1984-08-01

    Errors in medicine may fall into 3 main categories: 1) medical errors made only by physicians, 2) technical errors made by physicians and other health care specialists, and 3) organizational errors associated with mismanagement of medical facilities. This classification of medical errors, as well as the definition and treatment of them, fully applies to obstetrics. However, the difference between obstetrics and other fields of medicine stems from the fact that an obstetrician usually deals with healthy women. Conversely, professional risk in obstetrics is very high, as errors and malpractice can lead to very serious complications. Observations show that the most frequent obstetrical errors occur in induced abortions, diagnosis of pregnancy, selection of optimal delivery techniques, treatment of hemorrhages, and other complications. Therefore, the obstetrician should be prepared to use intensive care procedures similar to those used for resuscitation.

  1. 49 CFR 390.115 - Procedure for removal from the National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Certified Medical Examiners, the medical examiner must explain the basis for his or her belief that FMCSA...) Emergency removal. In cases of either willfulness or in which public health, interest, or safety...

  2. Anti-abortion movement.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K

    1985-01-01

    At the same time that American women celebrate the freedoms won thus far for so many Americans, American women must realize they face some of the greatest threats to liberty in recent memory. To understand this movement against American women, it is necessary to first understand the roots of the historic movement for women's rights. Reproductive freedom for many years topped the agenda of the modern women's movement. At a time and in a land where rights were being enriched and liberty prized, choice took a prominent role, specifically, the right to abortion but also generally to repdocuctive freedom and the many underlying issues involved. This is why the various efforts to criminalize abortion effect every citizen, because they pose a serious threat to the constitutional rights of each individual. This is the intellectual view, or the "head" argument. The Constitution states that: "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and no state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US." Each of these clauses expresses the philosophy on which the Constitution was founded -- individual liberty. While there has been some legitimate disagreement over what constitutes an inalienable right, the concept is clear: the government should not become involved in personal philosophical or religious matters, except to permit the freedom of personal philosophical or religious expression. The anti-abortion contignent makes its case by claiming that a fertilized egg is a cona fide person and should, therefore, be guaranteed the Constitution's full roster of protections. In its landmark Roe v. Wade opinion, the Supreme Court held what pro-choice activities have been claiming for years. Since there is no empirical test by which measure

  3. 'High profile health facilities can add to your trouble': Women, stigma and un/safe abortion in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Izugbara, Chimaraoke O; Egesa, Carolyne; Okelo, Rispah

    2015-09-01

    Public health discourses on safe abortion assume the term to be unambiguous. However, qualitative evidence elicited from Kenyan women treated for complications of unsafe abortion contrasted sharply with public health views of abortion safety. For these women, safe abortion implied pregnancy termination procedures and services that concealed their abortions, shielded them from the law, were cheap and identified through dependable social networks. Participants contested the notion that poor quality abortion procedures and providers are inherently dangerous, asserting them as key to women's preservation of a good self, management of stigma, and protection of their reputation, respect, social relationships, and livelihoods. Greater public health attention to the social dimensions of abortion safety is urgent. PMID:26233296

  4. The abortion struggle in America.

    PubMed

    Warren, Mary Anne

    1989-10-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court's July 1989 decision in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services, while not overturning Roe v. Wade, extended the power of state and local governments to regulate abortion. Warren situates the Webster decision in a larger context of 19th and 20th century American anti-abortion legislation, the Court's 1973 Roe decision and its predecessors, and the anti-abortion campaign that followed Roe. She then discusses Webster and its legal, practical, and political implications, concluding that the future of legal abortion in the United States is radically uncertain.

  5. Prophylactic antibiotics for curettage abortion.

    PubMed

    Grimes, D A; Schulz, K F; Cates, W

    1984-11-15

    Opinion is divided as to the advisability of routine use of prophylactic antibiotics for curettage abortion. Six studies, including three randomized clinical trials, suggest that prophylaxis reduces infectious morbidity associated with curettage abortions by about one half. Three other studies, two involving prophylaxis for instillation abortions and one involving a vaginal antiseptic for curettage abortion, support the hypothesis that antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces morbidity. Tetracyclines are commonly used for this purpose. The cost of routine prophylaxis even with an expensive tetracycline would appear to be offset by the savings in direct and indirect costs. Prophylaxis may help prevent both short-term morbidity and potential late sequelae, such as ectopic pregnancy and infertility.

  6. Controversy over abortion funding increases.

    PubMed

    1980-03-01

    The controversy surrounding the question of public financing of Medicaid abortions in the U.S. was fanned through 5 separate court decisions in January 1980. In 3 of the decisions--directed against the Connecticut, Minnesota, and Missouri Medicaid abortion programs--the courts invalidated the state laws on the grounds that they limited federal funding of abortions for poor women too narrowly. Another decision stated that the Missouri law violated the equal protection clause of th Constitution. A decision in the U.S. District Court in Brooklyn, New York, stated that the 1976 Hyde amendment's restrictions on federal payment for abortions under Medicaid are unconstitutional. Each case is briefly analyzed.

  7. Using Functional Analysis Procedures To Monitor Medication Effects in an Outpatient and School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mark T.; Vu, Chau; Derby, K. Mark; Goris, Mary; McLaughlin, T. F.

    2002-01-01

    Functional analysis methods were used to monitor medication used to reduce vocal and physical tics of a child with Tourettes Syndrome. Post-medication results demonstrated a reduced level of tics by the participant. Although preliminary, the findings suggest that functional analysis methods can be used to monitor the effects of medication in…

  8. Induced Abortions and the Risk of Preeclampsia Among Nulliparous Women.

    PubMed

    Parker, Samantha E; Gissler, Mika; Ananth, Cande V; Werler, Martha M

    2015-10-15

    Induced abortion (IA) has been associated with a lower risk of preeclampsia among nulliparous women, but it remains unclear whether this association differs by method (either surgical or medical) or timing of IA. We performed a nested case-control study of 12,650 preeclampsia cases and 50,600 matched control deliveries identified in the Medical Birth Register of Finland from 1996 to 2010. Data on number, method, and timing of IAs were obtained through a linkage with the Registry of Induced Abortions. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Overall, prior IA was associated with a lower risk of preeclampsia, with odds ratios of 0.9 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9, 1.0) for 1 prior IA and 0.7 (95% CI: 0.5, 1.0) for 3 or more IAs. Differences in the associations between IA and preeclampsia by timing and method of IA were small, with odds ratios of 0.8 (95% CI: 0.6, 1.1) for late (≥12 gestation weeks) surgical abortion and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.7, 1.2) for late medical abortion. There was no association between IA in combination with a history of spontaneous abortion and risk of preeclampsia. In conclusion, prior IA only was associated with a slight reduction in the risk of preeclampsia.

  9. Living through some giant change: the establishment of abortion services.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Johanna

    2013-03-01

    This article traces the establishment of abortion clinics following Roe v Wade. Abortion clinics followed one of two models: (1) a medical model in which physicians emphasized the delivery of high quality medical services, contrasting their clinics with the back-alley abortion services that had sent many women to hospital emergency rooms prior to legalization, or (2) a feminist model in which clinics emphasized education and the dissemination of information to empower women patients and change the structure of women's health care. Male physicians and feminists came together in the newly established abortion services and argued over the priorities and characteristics of health care delivery. A broad range of clinics emerged, from feminist clinics to medical offices run by traditional male physicians to for-profit clinics. The establishment of the National Abortion Federation in the mid-1970s created a national forum of health professionals and contributed to the broadening of the discussion and the adoption of compromises as both feminists and physicians influenced each other's practices. PMID:23327251

  10. Living Through Some Giant Change: The Establishment of Abortion Services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the establishment of abortion clinics following Roe v Wade. Abortion clinics followed one of two models: (1) a medical model in which physicians emphasized the delivery of high quality medical services, contrasting their clinics with the back-alley abortion services that had sent many women to hospital emergency rooms prior to legalization, or (2) a feminist model in which clinics emphasized education and the dissemination of information to empower women patients and change the structure of women’s health care. Male physicians and feminists came together in the newly established abortion services and argued over the priorities and characteristics of health care delivery. A broad range of clinics emerged, from feminist clinics to medical offices run by traditional male physicians to for-profit clinics. The establishment of the National Abortion Federation in the mid-1970s created a national forum of health professionals and contributed to the broadening of the discussion and the adoption of compromises as both feminists and physicians influenced each other's practices. PMID:23327251

  11. Clinical experience and perception of abortion: A cross-sectional survey of gynecologists in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Maki

    2015-12-01

    This study describes aspects of early induced abortion from the experience and perspectives of a sample of gynecologists in Japan. The survey questionnaire data were collected from 343 gynecologists from September to October 2010. Approximately 83% of participants preferred using only dilation and curettage (D&C), and 10.4% used electric vacuum aspiration (EVA). The cost of surgical abortion was not covered by insurance. Most gynecologists used intravenous pain management during abortion. Approximately 50% of the gynecologists were opposed to introducing medical abortion in Japan.

  12. Clinical experience and perception of abortion: A cross-sectional survey of gynecologists in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Maki

    2015-12-01

    This study describes aspects of early induced abortion from the experience and perspectives of a sample of gynecologists in Japan. The survey questionnaire data were collected from 343 gynecologists from September to October 2010. Approximately 83% of participants preferred using only dilation and curettage (D&C), and 10.4% used electric vacuum aspiration (EVA). The cost of surgical abortion was not covered by insurance. Most gynecologists used intravenous pain management during abortion. Approximately 50% of the gynecologists were opposed to introducing medical abortion in Japan. PMID:26614610

  13. Complicated illegal induced abortions at a tertiary health institution in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ikeanyi, Maduabuchi Eugene; Okonkwo, Chukwunwendu Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Globally it is estimated that 26-53 million induced abortions occur annually. An estimated 20 million of these are unsafe especially in countries with restrictive abortion laws. Approximately 48% of all abortions worldwide were unsafe and more than 97% of these are in developing countries. Our objective was to find out complications of illegal induced abortions in a tertiary care institution. Methods : All cases of complicated induced abortion, seen over a 5 year period were reviewed. Relevant data relating to the socio-demographic profile of the patients, clinical presentation, abortion service providers and facilities and mode of termination of pregnancy were extracted. Results: One hundred and nineteen patients, constituting 3.4% of gynaecological admissions were studied. The mean age of the patients was 23.5±6.6 years with over 80% single. The mean gestational age at abortion was 12.8± 4.1 weeks. Incomplete abortion and postabortal sepsis formed the major indication for admission. About a fifth of the cases had abdominal visceral involvement. Twenty (18%) had laparotomy and 10(9%) had renal dialysis. Over 75% of patients were discharged in stable state. Conclusion: This study highlights the pressing need for an organised program for reproductive health education especially for the adolescents and unmarried who were most affected by abortion complications. In addition training and continuing medical education for doctors favourably disposed to abortion services is highly indicated from this study. PMID:25674146

  14. [Post-abortion contraception: effects of contraception services and reproductive intention].

    PubMed

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela

    2016-02-01

    Contraceptive counseling and the supply of contraceptive methods are part of post-abortion care and positively influence the subsequent use of contraceptive methods. Studies showing such evidence have been conducted predominantly in countries with no legal restrictions on abortion and with adequate care for women that terminate a pregnancy. However, little is known about contraceptive practices in contexts where abortion is illegal, as in Brazil, in which post-abortion contraceptive care is inadequate. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of contraceptive care on male condom use and oral and injectable contraceptives in the six months post-abortion, considering reproductive intention. The results showed that contraceptive care only has a positive effect on the use of oral contraceptives in the first six months post-abortion, as long as the woman had a medical consultation in the same month in which she received information on contraception. One or the other intervention alone had no significant impact.

  15. TRAP abortion laws and partisan political party control of state government.

    PubMed

    Medoff, Marshall H; Dennis, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Targeted Regulation of Abortion Providers (or TRAP) laws impose medically unnecessary and burdensome regulations solely on abortion providers in order to make abortion services more expensive and difficult to obtain. Using event history analysis, this article examines the determinants of the enactment of a TRAP law by states over the period 1974–2008. The empirical results find that Republican institutional control of a state's legislative/executive branches is positively associated with a state enacting a TRAP law, while Democratic institutional control is negatively associated with a state enacting a TRAP law. The percentage of a state's population that is Catholic, public anti-abortion attitudes, state political ideology, and the abortion rate in a state are statistically insignificant predictors of a state enacting a TRAP law. The empirical results are consistent with the hypothesis that abortion is a redistributive issue and not a morality issue.

  16. The stigmatisation of abortion: a qualitative analysis of print media in Great Britain in 2010.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Carrie; Hilton, Shona; McDaid, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The media play a significant part in shaping public perceptions of health issues, and abortion attracts continued media interest. Detailed examination of media constructions of abortion may help to identify emerging public discourse. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine if and how the print media in contributes to the stigmatisation of abortion. Articles from seven British and five Scottish national newspapers from 2010 were analysed for overall framings of abortion and emergent themes, including potentially stigmatising discursive constructs and language. Abortion was found to be presented using predominantly negative language and discursive associations as 'risky', and in association with other 'discredited' social practices. Key perspectives were found to be absent or marginalised, including those of women who have sought abortion. Few articles framed abortion as a positive and legitimate choice. Negative media representations of abortion contribute to the stigmatisation of the procedure and of women who have it, and reflect a discrediting of women's reproductive decision-making. There is a need to challenge the notion that abortion stigma is inevitable, and to encourage positive framings of abortion in the media and other public discourse. PMID:25115952

  17. Abortion reporting in the United States: an examination of the federal-state partnership.

    PubMed

    Saul, R

    1998-01-01

    In the US, lack of data on abortions has been increasingly recognized as a problem because it 1) frustrates debate about abortion procedures, late-term abortions, and the incidence and timing of abortions; 2) challenges the accurate establishment of a baseline for states to use when seeking new federal grants that reward decreases in abortion rates; and 3) will hinder documentation of a shift to earlier, drug-induced abortions. Criticism of the data collection efforts of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), however, ignores the fact that states have an independent responsibility for data collection and submission. Exploration of this topic begins by providing background information on the history of the US vital statistics system. Next, the collection of abortion data is traced from its origins in the 1960s with a consideration of the controversial nature of such reporting as well as of the impact of lack of data completeness and quality. The analysis continues with a review of the current state of abortion reporting that looks at laws, regulations, voluntary reporting, state data collection, and national data collection. The discussion concludes that a national abortion data collection system is largely in place but that variability among states affects the CDC's ability to accurately assess the data or to answer specific questions about abortion in the US. Policy-makers should match information needs with resources and investigate the limits of the current systems and data quality to improve state-level data collection and management.

  18. The stigmatisation of abortion: a qualitative analysis of print media in Great Britain in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Carrie; Hilton, Shona; McDaid, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The media play a significant part in shaping public perceptions of health issues, and abortion attracts continued media interest. Detailed examination of media constructions of abortion may help to identify emerging public discourse. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine if and how the print media in contributes to the stigmatisation of abortion. Articles from seven British and five Scottish national newspapers from 2010 were analysed for overall framings of abortion and emergent themes, including potentially stigmatising discursive constructs and language. Abortion was found to be presented using predominantly negative language and discursive associations as ‘risky’, and in association with other ‘discredited’ social practices. Key perspectives were found to be absent or marginalised, including those of women who have sought abortion. Few articles framed abortion as a positive and legitimate choice. Negative media representations of abortion contribute to the stigmatisation of the procedure and of women who have it, and reflect a discrediting of women's reproductive decision-making. There is a need to challenge the notion that abortion stigma is inevitable, and to encourage positive framings of abortion in the media and other public discourse. PMID:25115952

  19. The stigmatisation of abortion: a qualitative analysis of print media in Great Britain in 2010.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Carrie; Hilton, Shona; McDaid, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The media play a significant part in shaping public perceptions of health issues, and abortion attracts continued media interest. Detailed examination of media constructions of abortion may help to identify emerging public discourse. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine if and how the print media in contributes to the stigmatisation of abortion. Articles from seven British and five Scottish national newspapers from 2010 were analysed for overall framings of abortion and emergent themes, including potentially stigmatising discursive constructs and language. Abortion was found to be presented using predominantly negative language and discursive associations as 'risky', and in association with other 'discredited' social practices. Key perspectives were found to be absent or marginalised, including those of women who have sought abortion. Few articles framed abortion as a positive and legitimate choice. Negative media representations of abortion contribute to the stigmatisation of the procedure and of women who have it, and reflect a discrediting of women's reproductive decision-making. There is a need to challenge the notion that abortion stigma is inevitable, and to encourage positive framings of abortion in the media and other public discourse.

  20. Contraception following abortion and the treatment of incomplete abortion.

    PubMed

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp Kallner, Helena; Faúndes, Anibal

    2014-07-01

    Family planning counseling and the provision of postabortion contraception should be an integrated part of abortion and postabortion care to help women avoid another unplanned pregnancy and a repeat abortion. Postabortion contraception is significantly more effective in preventing repeat unintended pregnancy and abortion when it is provided before women leave the healthcare facility where they received abortion care, and when the chosen method is a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) method. This article provides evidence supporting these two critical aspects of postabortion contraception. It suggests that gynecologists and obstetricians have an ethical obligation to do everything necessary to ensure that postabortion contraception, with a focus on LARC methods, becomes an integral part of abortion and postabortion care, in line with the recommendations of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and of several other organizations.

  1. Publicly funded abortions in FY 1980 and FY 1981.

    PubMed

    Gold, R B

    1982-01-01

    In 1980 the state and federal government spent about 60 million dollars in aid to indigent women seeking abortion under the joint federal-state Medicaid program. The picture remained essentially the same in 1981. Since the implementation of the Hyde Amendment in 1977 (with the exception of a 7 month period in 1978) severe restrictions on federal funding of abortions have been the rule. As a result, state rather than federal funding has accounted for 82% and 92% of public funds spent to finance abortions for poor women in 1981 and 1982, respectively. In a recent survey by the Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) in which all states except Alaska, Nebraska, Oregon and Arizona responded, 14 states were found to have voluntarily paid for all or all medically necessary abortions for the entire 2-year period. Since the implementation of the Hyde Amendment the trend has been for the federal government to assume 90% of the cost of contraceptive and voluntary sterilization services for Medicaid recipients, with the vast majority of abortions being paid for by the state. Since the 1980 Supreme court decision upholding the constitutionality of the Hyde Amendment, and the 1980 elections which moved antiabortion supporters into power in the White House, prochoice supporters have been pessimistic about continued funding for abortions for indigent women. However, the AGI survey shows encouraging indications that the funding situation may have stabilized and may improve slightly in the future. PMID:6811313

  2. Roe v. Wade and "partial birth abortion" bans.

    PubMed

    1998-01-22

    The US Supreme Court crafted its Roe vs. Wade ruling based on privacy protections embedded in the US Constitution and the competing interests of the states to protect maternal health and potential life. In its later Casey decision, the Court allowed states to promote their interest in potential life by surrounding abortion with obstacles as long as these did not pose an "undue burden" on the woman's privacy rights. Recent "partial-birth" abortion bans enacted by 17 states seek to weaken Roe by 1) including such broad definitions that they in effect ban all abortions, 2) seeking to create constitutional rights for fetuses, and 3) forwarding states' interests not recognized by Roe. In addition, "partial-birth" abortion bans that outlaw medically-accepted abortion methods do not further any state interest recognized by Roe because 1) they are not designed to dissuade the woman, 2) fetal survival is impossible, and 3) they undermine protection of maternal health. Such bans ignore the distinction between pre- and postviability abortions called for in Roe and flout Roe's protection of the life and health of women. In effect, such bans attack every important aspect of the Roe vs. Wade ruling.

  3. Denial of abortion in legal settings

    PubMed Central

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePiñeres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-01-01

    Background Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. Methods In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic characteristics of legal abortion seekers, as well as the frequency and reasons that women are denied abortion care. Results The proportion of women denied abortion services and the reasons for which they were denied varied widely by country. In Colombia, 2% of women surveyed did not receive the abortions they were seeking; in South Africa, 45% of women did not receive abortions on the day they were seeking abortion services. In both Tunisia and Nepal, 26% of women were denied their wanted abortions. Conclusions The denial of legal abortion services may have serious consequences for women's health and wellbeing. Additional evidence on the risk factors for presenting later in pregnancy, predictors of seeking unsafe illegal abortion, and the health consequences of illegal abortion and childbirth after an unwanted pregnancy is needed. Such data would assist the development of programmes and policies aimed at increasing access to and utilisation of safe abortion services where abortion is legal, and harm reduction models for women who are unable to access legal abortion services. PMID:25511805

  4. Probable Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus transmission occurred after aerosol-generating medical procedures in Russia: nosocomial cluster.

    PubMed

    Pshenichnaya, Natalia Yurievna; Nenadskaya, Svetlana Alexeevna

    2015-04-01

    We report here a fatal case of laboratory confirmed Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), which caused nosocomial infection in eight health care workers (HCWs), who had provided medical care for the patient. All the HCWs survived. The report demonstrates that airborne transmission of CCHF is a real risk, at least when the CCHF patient is in a ventilator. During performance of any aerosol-generating medical procedures for any CCHF patient airborne precautions should always be added to standard precautions, in particular, airway protective N95 mask or equivalent standard, eye protection, single airborne precaution room, or a well-ventilated setting. PMID:25576827

  5. Reproductive health and the question of abortion in Botswana: a review.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephanie S

    2013-12-01

    The complications of unsafe, illegal abortions are a significant cause of maternal mortality in Botswana. The stigma attached to abortion leads some women to seek clandestine procedures, or alternatively, to carry the fetus to term and abandon the infant at birth. I conducted research into perceptions of abortion in urban Botswana in order to understand the social and cultural obstacles to women's reproductive autonomy, focusing particularly on attitudes to terminating a pregnancy. I carried out 21 interviews with female and male urban adult Batswana. This article constitutes a review of the abortion issue in Botswana based on my research. Restrictive laws must eventually be abolished to allow women access to safe, timely abortions. My findings however, suggest that socio-cultural factors, not punitive laws, present the greatest barriers to women seeking to terminate an unwanted pregnancy. These factors must be addressed so that effective local solutions to unsafe abortion can be generated. PMID:24558779

  6. Divergent views on abortion and the period of ensoulment.

    PubMed

    Khitamy, Badawy A B

    2013-02-01

    A Muslim woman in her sixteenth week of pregnancy was informed that her ultrasound scan showed spina bifida, and laboratory results confirmed the diagnosis. The child would have various complications and, most probably, would need medical care for life. With the consent of her husband she decided to terminate the pregnancy. Her decision sparked controversy among Muslim clerics in her community, sparking debate between those who would allow abortion for medical reasons and those who oppose abortion for any reason. This paper will review the philosophical and theological arguments of the pro-life and pro-choice groups as well as the Islamic perspective concerning a woman's autonomy over her reproductive system, the sanctity of the fetus and the embryo, therapeutic abortion, and ensoulment. PMID:23573379

  7. Divergent Views on Abortion and the Period of Ensoulment

    PubMed Central

    Khitamy, Badawy A. B.

    2013-01-01

    A Muslim woman in her sixteenth week of pregnancy was informed that her ultrasound scan showed spina bifida, and laboratory results confirmed the diagnosis. The child would have various complications and, most probably, would need medical care for life. With the consent of her husband she decided to terminate the pregnancy. Her decision sparked controversy among Muslim clerics in her community, sparking debate between those who would allow abortion for medical reasons and those who oppose abortion for any reason. This paper will review the philosophical and theological arguments of the pro-life and pro-choice groups as well as the Islamic perspective concerning a woman’s autonomy over her reproductive system, the sanctity of the fetus and the embryo, therapeutic abortion, and ensoulment. PMID:23573379

  8. Divergent views on abortion and the period of ensoulment.

    PubMed

    Khitamy, Badawy A B

    2013-02-01

    A Muslim woman in her sixteenth week of pregnancy was informed that her ultrasound scan showed spina bifida, and laboratory results confirmed the diagnosis. The child would have various complications and, most probably, would need medical care for life. With the consent of her husband she decided to terminate the pregnancy. Her decision sparked controversy among Muslim clerics in her community, sparking debate between those who would allow abortion for medical reasons and those who oppose abortion for any reason. This paper will review the philosophical and theological arguments of the pro-life and pro-choice groups as well as the Islamic perspective concerning a woman's autonomy over her reproductive system, the sanctity of the fetus and the embryo, therapeutic abortion, and ensoulment.

  9. Impact of North Atlantic Treaty Organization Policies and Procedures on Combined Medical Operations: Food and Water Safety and Veterinary Support.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Timothy H; Chevalier, Nicole A; Scher, Gregory R; Burke, Ronald L

    2016-01-01

    Effective multilateral military operations such as those conducted by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) require close cooperation and standardization between member nations to ensure interoperability. Failure to standardize policies, procedures, and doctrine prior to the commencement of military operations will result in critical interoperability gaps, which jeopardize the health of NATO forces and mission success. To prevent these gaps from occurring, US forces must be actively involved with NATO standardization efforts such as the Committee of the Chiefs of Medical Services to ensure US interests are properly represented when NATO standards are developed and US doctrine and procedures will meet the established NATO requirements. PMID:27215889

  10. Abortion, women and national development: the Nigeria experience.

    PubMed

    Ebijuwa, T

    1993-06-01

    The author argues that, if women have the right of self-determination, it is immoral of society to withhold or limit women's access to abortion services in Nigeria. Morality must pertain to society as well as women. In Nigeria, the abortion argument tends to focus on the rights of the fetus or the third party's interest. The abortion issue must involve understanding the rationale that is used by abortion-seeking women. Denial of access to abortion services dehumanizes women and reduces growth in national development. Women carry the burden of responsibility associated with child bearing and rearing. Unwanted pregnancies impose severe psychological, physical, social, and medical dangers on women. Impaired psychological and physical illness creates pain and suffering and limits productivity. "Doing good" is not necessarily accomplished by either abortion or unwanted childbearing. Society both discourages the taking of a human life and supports the health of its citizens, many of whom are women. A child brought into this world who is not adequately taken care of will be a burden to society. When society pursues its own self-interest in preventing abortion as a choice for women, then society becomes immoral and selfish. A woman pursuing her own self-interest is not necessarily immoral. The decision becomes immoral if the woman acts against the wishes of the father. Morality is not necessarily the opposite of the promotion of one's self-interest. Women who seek to terminate a pregnancy for health reasons seek a virtuous option of enhancing the well-being of every individual in society. The right to life for the fetus is very different from the right to self-determination for the abortion-seeking woman. When the Yoruba define a wife as a servant to the husband, the Yoruba deny women personhood. Women know best what serves their self-interest and that of society.

  11. Abortion Information: A Guidance Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolleat, Patricia L.

    1975-01-01

    A number of questions relating to providing abortion information to teenagers can be raised from legal, ethical and philosophical standpoints. The purpose of this article is to examine abortion information-giving from the perspective of counseling and guidance theory and practice. (Author)

  12. Abortion, Birthright and the Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadale, Vincent E.; And Others

    This transcript is the result of panel presentation given on the implications of liberalized abortion laws for counselors. A new law which went into effect in July, 1970, in New York State presented women with the option of obtaining a legal abortion up to the 24th week of pregnancy. Counselors in New York State were, therefore, presented with new…

  13. Advice in the Abortion Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luscutoff, Sidney A.; Elms, Alan C.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects in this study were asked to report the number of contacts-for-advice they had made when forming decisions to have a therapeutic abortion, or to carry a pregnancy to term. As predicted, the abortion group differed strongly from both other groups on most questions. (Author)

  14. Third trimester abortion: is compassion enough?

    PubMed

    Chervenak, F A; McCullough, L B; Campbell, S

    1999-04-01

    One comprehensive ethical framework that can be applied to cases of third trimester abortion is based on the following notion: patient trust depends upon physicians developing specific virtues and basing their professional actions on these virtues. One such virtue, as described by Dr. John Gregory in 1772, is sympathy for the distress of others that overcomes self-interest. This application of sympathy and desire to relieve suffering can justify late term abortion in some cases. The compassionate response to sympathy forwarded by Gregory, however, must be properly regulated by reason, as Gregory himself recognized. Thomas Percival (1740-1803), author of the classic text "Medical Ethics," charged physicians with uniting "tenderness" (Gregory's "sympathy") with "steadiness." This combination of virtues reoccurs in the contemporary work of bioethicists Edmund Pellegrino and David Thomasma. The intellectual component of compassion requires physicians to exhibit compassion towards their patients, and this includes fetal patients. Thus, third trimester abortion is only justified in cases where fetal abnormalities are associated with the certainty or near certainty of early death or of a complete absence of cognitive developmental capacity. Most anomalies fail to meet these criteria, and physicians must exhibit the virtues of self-effacement and integrity to make rigorous, clinical, ethical judgements and properly balance the interests of the pregnant woman and the fetus.

  15. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong.

  16. Sufficiency of clinical literature on the appropriate uses of six medical and surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Fink, A; Brook, R H; Kosecoff, J; Chassin, M R; Solomon, D H

    1987-11-01

    We reviewed the English-language clinical literature on carotid endarterectomy, cholecystectomy, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy, coronary angiography and coronary artery bypass graft procedure to identify the appropriateness of using these procedures in 1981. Most of the 803 relevant articles and textbooks were published after 1975; about 10% of the 571 research studies were randomized, controlled trials, while two thirds were retrospective studies. Incomplete or contradictory information was available on the indications for and efficacy of using the procedures; almost no data were available on costs and use; data on complications failed to specify patients' symptoms or the relationship between complications and reasons for doing the procedure. PMID:3501201

  17. Abortion in Croatia and Slovenia.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In Slovenia abortion will continue to be available during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy as it has been since 1978. The Slovenian Constitutional Court passed this decision in December, 1991 calling the right to abortion a basic human right. T he ruling was a setback both for the government's conservative parties and the Catholic church. In Croatia, where the Catholic church is campaigning against abortion, the situation is quite different. Zagreb is full of stickers and posters with anti-abortion messages branding abortion murder and spreading inaccurate information in announcements. In 1990, there were 56,000 abortions. For every child that was born, one was aborted. The largest Croatian newspaper publicizes the Catholic view. They want pro-choice women of the volunteer group Tresnjevka to stop their struggle. The church and conservative women's groups press for inclusion of abortion in the Constitution. They are very powerful, and the fear is that might soon succeed in restricting or outlawing abortion. Tresnjevka is making efforts to organize a coordination and information center for women in Zagreb where there are 350,000 women and children refugees. Informative brochures are printed on natural healing methods in gynecology, as drugs are very scarce, and addresses for gynecological emergency care are also provided. Abortion has been legally available on demand during the 1st 10 weeks of pregnancy since 1978. Fore year Tresnjevka has worked for women, trying to raise funds from personal donations and from the government for their activities. Funds from foreign countries have never been received. At present many of the group's activities are on hold because of lack of funds, nevertheless the determination to continue fighting is alive. PMID:12285925

  18. Consultant choice across decision contexts: are abortion decisions different?

    PubMed

    Finken, L L; Jacobs, J E

    1996-04-01

    A survey conducted among college students in the midwestern US indicated that abortion decision-making consultation patterns differ substantially from those associated with other types of decisions. Surveyed were 169 predominantly White, middle-income students (68 males and 101 females) 18-20 years of age recruited from an introductory psychology class. Participants were presented with vignettes that pertained to four types of decisions: abortion (unplanned pregnancy), medical (cancer treatment type), future (career move), and interpersonal (crisis with a friend). For each decision, students were asked who they would consult (specific family members, significant others, friends, various professionals) and the order in which they would consult them. The mean number of consultants selected was 3.72 for abortion, 5.54 for medical, 4.90 for future-oriented, and 2.41 for interpersonal decisions. Significant others were selected most often for all decision scenarios; however, the highest frequency of consultation and lowest mean rank order for the significant other was on the abortion decision. The next most important consultant for abortion decisions was friends, then family members, and, finally, professionals. The only gender difference was a greater tendency for females to consult their mothers. For every category of consultant (except best friend), the pattern differed depending on the type of decision. These findings underscore the importance of considering context and multifaceted approaches in the design of programs aimed at enhancing adolescents' decision-making skills. PMID:12347375

  19. Ethical and legal issues relating to abortion in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Silber, T J

    1989-04-01

    At least 1 million teenagers in the United States get pregnant every year; 350,000 teenagers choose to terminate their pregnancies by abortion. Doctors who examine teenagers usually find that their patients come in fairly late, and some teenagers may carry their pregnancy to term while others request abortions as late as the 2nd trimester. Abortion as well as full-term pregnancy are procedures that carry extreme mental stress. Many teenagers that go through with either procedure suffer mental breakdowns. Adolescents' stages of moral development can be classified into a 3 major categories: preconventional; conventional; or postconventional. Preconventional behavior may consist of worry about the reactions of individuals holding power over the adolescent's life; conventional behavior may consist of the adolescent conforming, as well as maintaining societal rules; and postconventional behavior may consist of the wishes of the adolescent outweighing societal expectations in their decision-making. The legal aspects concerning adolescents seeking abortions are governed by the "mature minor doctrine". Some abortions can be performed on adolescents without parental support; however, recent court decisions have provided certain measures for "immature minors." Recent debates on ethical and moral issues have been on the autonomy of the adolescent to make decisions on their own and the rights of the fetus versus the mother. Counseling is available for adolescents unsure of what decisions to make the unable to get support from their families.

  20. "If a woman has even one daughter, I refuse to perform the abortion": Sex determination and safe abortion in India.

    PubMed

    Potdar, Pritam; Barua, Alka; Dalvie, Suchitra; Pawar, Anand

    2015-05-01

    In India, safe abortion services are sought mainly in the private sector for reasons of privacy, confidentiality, and the absence of delays and coercion to use contraception. In recent years, the declining sex ratio has received much attention, and implementation of the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act (2003) has become stringent. However, rather than targeting sex determination, many inspection visits target abortion services. This has led to many private medical practitioners facing negative media publicity, defamation and criminal charges. As a result, they have started turning women away not only in the second trimester but also in the first. Samyak, a Pune-based, non-governmental organization, came across a number of cases of refusal of abortion services during its work and decided to explore the experiences of private medical practitioners with the regulatory mechanisms and what happened to the women. The study showed that as a fallout from the manner of implementation of the PCPNDT Act, safe abortion services were either difficult for women to access or outright denied to them. There is an urgent need to recognize this impact of the current regulatory environment, which is forcing women towards illegal and unsafe abortions. PMID:26278839

  1. Analysis of maternal and abortion-related mortality in Mexico over the last two decades, 1990-2008.

    PubMed

    Schiavon, Raffaela; Troncoso, Erika; Polo, Gerardo

    2012-09-01

    To document the relative contribution of abortion-related deaths to overall maternal deaths in Mexico, official mortality data were analyzed according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes. During 1990-2008, among 24 805 maternal deaths, 1786 (7.2%) were abortion related. Of these, 13.2% occurred in adolescents and 65% in uninsured women; 60% were probably associated with unsafely induced procedures. The study calculated the number of abortion-related deaths per 100,000 abortion-related hospitalizations, expressed as a modified abortion case-fatality rate. During 2000-2008, this rate was 48 at the national level, with wide variations among states: from 140 deaths in Guerrero to 8 in Baja California Sur per 100,000 abortion hospitalizations. Unsafe abortion continues to represent a significant proportion of all maternal deaths in Mexico.

  2. Smoking habits and spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Sandahl, B

    1989-04-01

    Smoking habits have been compared in three samples of pregnancies: (1) spontaneous abortions (n = 610); (2) induced abortions (n = 800); and (3) deliveries (n = 1337). The variables studied were, besides smoking habits, day of LMP, outcome of earlier pregnancies, maternal age, and, for the delivery sample, also diagnoses of mother and child, gestational length, sex, and birthweight. A statistical analysis of the association between smoking and the risk of having a spontaneous abortion was made. The comparisons were made with all types of intra-uterine pregnancies but spontaneous abortions, e.g., deliveries and induced abortions. The effects and consequences of that are discussed. The smoking rates according to pregnancy outcome differ among the samples. In the induced abortion sample 58% smoked compared with 50% in the spontaneous abortion sample and 44% in the delivery sample. The well-known effect of smoking on gestational length and birthweight was shown. No significant effect of smoking on the miscarriage risk was seen. The only trend was the opposite. Possible explanations for this are discussed.

  3. Republic of Ireland: abortion controversy.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The problems associated with illegal abortion dominate public discussion in Ireland. While abortion is illegal in Ireland, the Supreme Court directed in 1992 that Irish women can go to Britain for abortions when their lives are thought to be at risk. Abortion was a constant feature during the Irish Presidential election campaign in October, while a dispute about the future of a 13-year-old girl's pregnancy dominated the headlines in November. The presidential election on October 30 resulted in a victory for one of the two openly anti-choice candidates, Mary McAleese, a lawyer from Northern Ireland. With a voter turnout of 47.6%, McAleese polled 45.2% of the votes cast. Although the president may refuse to sign bills which have been passed by parliament, McAleese has said that she will sign whatever bill is placed before her, even if it liberalizes abortion law in the republic. As for the case of the 13-year-old pregnant girl, she was taken into the care of Irish health authority officials once the case was reported to the police. However, the health board, as a state agency, is prevented by Irish law from helping anyone travel abroad for abortion. The girl was eventually given leave in a judgement by a High Court Judicial Review on November 28 to travel to England for an abortion.

  4. [Code of civil procedure for medical workers -the essential principles of proceedings and expediting of trials-].

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Kyoko; Jimba, Koichi; Hashimoto, Satoru

    2013-04-01

    Code of civil procedure is started when a plaintiff appeals to the law. Conversely, if a suit is not appealed, it is not started. We explain the essential principles of the code of civil procedure, and present systems associated with expediting trials (a brief, preliminary oral arguments, preparatory proceedings, inquiry to opponent, organized proceedings, technical adviser system, etc.). Amendment of law is repeated for the purpose of aiming suitably expediting trials. We should utilize the present code of civil procedure suitably, and expect the quick conclusion of trials.

  5. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  6. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  7. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  8. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  9. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  10. Fathers and abortion.

    PubMed

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-08-01

    I argue that it is possible for prospective mothers to wrong prospective fathers by bearing their child; and that lifting paternal liability for child support does not correct the wrong inflicted to fathers. It is therefore sometimes wrong for prospective mothers to bear a child, or so I argue here. I show that my argument for considering the legitimate interests of prospective fathers is not a unique exception to an obvious right to procreate. It is, rather, part of a growing consensus that procreation can be morally problematic and that generally talking of rights in this context might not be warranted. Finally, I argue that giving up a right to procreate does not imply nor suggest giving up on women's absolute right to abort, which I defend.

  11. Uneasy allies: pro-choice physicians, feminist health activists and the struggle for abortion rights.

    PubMed

    Joffe, C E; Weitz, T A; Stacey, C L

    2004-09-01

    Abortion represents a particularly interesting subject for a social movements analysis of healthcare issues because of the involvement of both feminist pro-choice activists and a segment of the medical profession. Although both groups have long shared the same general goal of legal abortion, the alliance has over time been an uneasy one, and in many ways a contradictory one. This paper traces points of convergence as well as points of contention between the two groups, specifically: highlighting the tensions between the feminist view of abortion as a women-centred service, with a limited, 'technical' role for the physicians, and the abortion-providing physicians' logic of further medicalization/professional upgrading of abortion services as a response to the longstanding marginality and stigmatisation of abortion providers. Only by noting the evolving relationships between these two crucial sets of actors can one fully understand the contemporary abortion rights movement. We conclude by speculating about similar patterns in medical/lay relationships in other health social movements where 'dissident doctors' and lay activists are similarly seeking recognition for medical services that are controversial.

  12. Uneasy allies: pro-choice physicians, feminist health activists and the struggle for abortion rights.

    PubMed

    Joffe, C E; Weitz, T A; Stacey, C L

    2004-09-01

    Abortion represents a particularly interesting subject for a social movements analysis of healthcare issues because of the involvement of both feminist pro-choice activists and a segment of the medical profession. Although both groups have long shared the same general goal of legal abortion, the alliance has over time been an uneasy one, and in many ways a contradictory one. This paper traces points of convergence as well as points of contention between the two groups, specifically: highlighting the tensions between the feminist view of abortion as a women-centred service, with a limited, 'technical' role for the physicians, and the abortion-providing physicians' logic of further medicalization/professional upgrading of abortion services as a response to the longstanding marginality and stigmatisation of abortion providers. Only by noting the evolving relationships between these two crucial sets of actors can one fully understand the contemporary abortion rights movement. We conclude by speculating about similar patterns in medical/lay relationships in other health social movements where 'dissident doctors' and lay activists are similarly seeking recognition for medical services that are controversial. PMID:15383041

  13. [Umberto Eco and abortion].

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    The Cardinal of Milan and the linguist and writer Umberto Eco maintained a correspondence in the mid-1990s in connection with the Italian magazine ¿Liberal¿. One of the issues discussed was the conflict between belief in the value of human life and existing abortion legislation. Umberto Eco stated that he would do all in his power to dissuade a woman pregnant with his child from having an abortion, regardless of the personal cost to the parents, because the birth of a child is a miracle. He would not, however, feel capable of imposing his ethical position on anyone else. Terrible moments occur in which women have a right to make autonomous decisions concerning their bodies, their feelings, their futures. Those who disagree cite the right to life, a rather vague concept about which even atheists can be enthusiastic. The moment at which a new human being is formed has been brought to the center of Catholic theology, despite its uncertainty; the beginning of a new life may always need to be understood as a process whose end result is the newborn. Only the mother should decide at what moment the process may be interrupted. The cardinal¿s response distinguished between psychic and physical life, on the one hand, and life participating in the life of God on the other. The threshold is the moment of conception, reflecting a continuity of identity. The new being is worthy of respect. Any violation of the affection and care owed to the being can only be experienced as a profound suffering and painful laceration that may never heal. The response of Eco is unknown. PMID:12349541

  14. [Umberto Eco and abortion].

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    The Cardinal of Milan and the linguist and writer Umberto Eco maintained a correspondence in the mid-1990s in connection with the Italian magazine ¿Liberal¿. One of the issues discussed was the conflict between belief in the value of human life and existing abortion legislation. Umberto Eco stated that he would do all in his power to dissuade a woman pregnant with his child from having an abortion, regardless of the personal cost to the parents, because the birth of a child is a miracle. He would not, however, feel capable of imposing his ethical position on anyone else. Terrible moments occur in which women have a right to make autonomous decisions concerning their bodies, their feelings, their futures. Those who disagree cite the right to life, a rather vague concept about which even atheists can be enthusiastic. The moment at which a new human being is formed has been brought to the center of Catholic theology, despite its uncertainty; the beginning of a new life may always need to be understood as a process whose end result is the newborn. Only the mother should decide at what moment the process may be interrupted. The cardinal¿s response distinguished between psychic and physical life, on the one hand, and life participating in the life of God on the other. The threshold is the moment of conception, reflecting a continuity of identity. The new being is worthy of respect. Any violation of the affection and care owed to the being can only be experienced as a profound suffering and painful laceration that may never heal. The response of Eco is unknown.

  15. Attitudes towards the legal context of unsafe abortion in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Belton, Suzanne; Whittaker, Andrea; Fonseca, Zulmira; Wells-Brown, Tanya; Pais, Patricia

    2009-11-01

    The new Penal Code in 2009 was an opportunity for Timor-Leste to allow some legal grounds for abortion, which was highly restricted under Indonesian rule. Public debate was contentious before ratification of the new code, which allowed abortion to save a woman's life and health. A month later, 13 amendments to the code were passed, highly restricting abortion again. This paper describes the socio-legal context of unsafe abortion in Timor-Leste, based on research in 2006-08 on national laws and policies and interviews with legal professionals, police, doctors and midwives, and community-based focus group discussions. Data on unsafe abortions in Timor-Leste are rarely recorded. A small number of cases of abortion and infanticide are reported but are rarely prosecuted, due to deficiencies in evidence and procedure. While there are voices supporting law reform, the Roman Catholic church heavily influences public policy and opinion. Professional views on when abortion should be legal varied, but in the community people believed that saving women's lives was paramount and came before the law. The revised Penal Code is insufficient to reduce unsafe abortion and maternal mortality. Change will be slow, but access to safe abortion and modern contraception are crucial to women's ability to participate fully as citizens in Timor-Leste.

  16. Tube thoracostomy training with a medical simulator is associated with faster, more successful performance of the procedure

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Tae Nyoung; Kim, Sun Wook; You, Je Sung; Chung, Hyun Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Tube thoracostomy (TT) is a commonly performed intensive care procedure. Simulator training may be a good alternative method for TT training, compared with conventional methods such as apprenticeship and animal skills laboratory. However, there is insufficient evidence supporting use of a simulator. The aim of this study is to determine whether training with medical simulator is associated with faster TT process, compared to conventional training without simulator. Methods This is a simulation study. Eligible participants were emergency medicine residents with very few (≤3 times) TT experience. Participants were randomized to two groups: the conventional training group, and the simulator training group. While the simulator training group used the simulator to train TT, the conventional training group watched the instructor performing TT on a cadaver. After training, all participants performed a TT on a cadaver. The performance quality was measured as correct placement and time delay. Subjects were graded if they had difficulty on process. Results Estimated median procedure time was 228 seconds in the conventional training group and 75 seconds in the simulator training group, with statistical significance (P=0.040). The difficulty grading did not show any significant difference among groups (overall performance scale, 2 vs. 3; P=0.094). Conclusion Tube thoracostomy training with a medical simulator, when compared to no simulator training, is associated with a significantly faster procedure, when performed on a human cadaver.

  17. Doula support during first trimester surgical abortion: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Julie; Hill, Brandon; Martins, Summer; Mistretta, Stephanie; Patel, Ashlesha; Gilliam, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of doula support on first trimester abortion care. Study Design Women were randomized to receive doula support or routine care during first trimester surgical abortion. We examined the effect of doula support on pain during abortion using a 100-mm visual analog scale. The study had statistical power to detect 20% difference in mean pain scores. Secondary measures included satisfaction, procedure duration, and patient recommendations regarding doula support. Results Two hundred and fourteen women completed the study: 106 received doula support, 108 received routine care. The groups did not differ regarding demographics, gestational age, or medical history. Pain scores in the doula and control groups did not differ at speculum insertion (38.6mm [±26.3mm] vs. 43.6mm [±25.9mm], p=0.18) or procedure completion (68.2mm [±28.0mm] vs. 70.6mm [±23.5mm], p=0.52). Procedure duration (3.39min [±2.83min] vs. 3.18min [±2.36min], p=0.55) and patient satisfaction (75.2mm [±28.6mm] vs. 74.6mm [±27.4mm], p=0.89) did not differ between doula and control groups. Among women who received doula support, 96.2% recommended routine doula support for abortion and 60.4% indicated interest in training as doulas. Among women who did not receive doula support, 71.6% of women would have wanted it. Additional clinical staff was needed to provide support for 2.9% of women in the doula group and 14.7% of controls (p<0.01). Conclusions Although doula support did not have a measurable effect on pain or satisfaction, women overwhelmingly recommended it for routine care. Women receiving doula support were less likely to require additional clinic support resources. Doula support, therefore, may address patient psychosocial needs. PMID:24983679

  18. Launch Abort System Pathfinder Arrival

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Orion Launch Abort System, or LAS, pathfinder returned home to NASA Langley on Oct. 18 on its way to NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The hardware was built at Langley and was used in preparation f...

  19. Abortion: the antithesis of womanhood?

    PubMed

    Timpson, J

    1996-04-01

    The debate regarding the practice and role of abortion has been an enduring and problematic area of discourse within the nursing literature, with a tendency towards a polarized and inevitably simplistic analysis of what, for many practitioners, women and families, remains a highly complex and morally fraught concept. This paper attempts to explore the concept of abortion from within a feminist epistemology, to present a review of the literature as regards women's reproductive health and responsibilities, and thereby to contribute to the process of better understanding the role of abortion within contemporary health care practice. In order to facilitate the study it has been necessary to explore the wide spectrum of historical, philosophical, legal, moral and political imperatives pertaining to the meaning of abortion as represented within contemporary society, not only in relation to women and their reproductive health, but to feminism, women's well-being and self-determinism per se. PMID:8675897

  20. Abortion and the human animal.

    PubMed

    Tollefsen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    I discuss three topics. First, there is a philosophical connecting thread between several recent trends in the abortion discussion, namely, the issue of our animal nature, and physical embodiment. The philosophical name given to the position that you and I are essentially human animals is "animalism." In Section II of this paper, I argue that animalism provides a unifying theme to recent discussions of abortion. In Section III, I discuss what we do not find among recent trends in the abortion discussion, namely "the right to privacy." I suggest some reasons why the right to privacy is conspicuous by its absence. Finally, I address Patrick Lee's claim that the evil of abortion involves "the moral deterioration that the act brings to those who are complicit in it, and to the culture that fosters it."