Though serious infection after induced abortion is rare, infections account for one third of abortion-related deaths in the United States. Most fatal cases of infection after induced medical abortion have involved clostridial species. These reported cases share important clinical features that may guide clinicians to earlier recognition and institution of therapy. This article reviews our current knowledge regarding serious clostridial infections postabortion including the typical clinical presentation, pathophysiology, modes of diagnosis, and available treatment.
Crockett, L K
This chapter addresses the role of health professionals in providing abortions and examines the dynamic technology of this field. Once the decision to perform an abortion is made, the proper procedure must be selected. Gestational age is the fundamental determinant but the experience and capability of the practitioner are also crucial. Suction curettage is the safest and most effective procedure available for abortions performed within 10 weeks of conception. Evaluation of the abortion patient should include, at a minimum, tests for hemoglobin, presence of gonococci, and Rh type. One of the most important parts of preparation for an abortion is sensitive and searching counseling. A potentially serious complication of suction curettage is perforation of the uterus. Dilatation and evacuation (D and E), is similar to the suction curettage procedure. This method may be used for gestations of 20 or more weeks after conception and requires greater operator expertise and experience. The complications of D and E are similar to those of suction curettage but are more frequent. Amnioinfusion is currently the most widely used method of pregnancy termination after 14 weeks in the US. The abortifacient agent that has had the greatest use is hypertonic saline. Morbidity associated with saline amnioinfusion includes hemorrhage requiring transfusion, retained tissue requiring manual or surgical removal infection, coagulopathy, and hypernatremia. Prostaglandins are alternative abortifacient agents. A disadvantage of using prostaglandins to induce abortion is that they frequently require repeat doses to be effective. Other disadvantages include nausea, vomiting, diarhea, and bronchospasm. Urea is anther effective abortifacient agent.
After oral administration of ewes during mid gestation with 2000 freshly prepared sporulated oocysts of T. gondii isolate M4, abortions occurred between days 7 and 11 in 91.6% of pregnant and infected ewes. Afterwards, a further infection was carried out at late gestation in another group of sheep with 500 sporulated oocysts. Abortions happened again between days 9 and 11 post infection (pi) in 58.3% of the infected ewes. Classically, abortions in natural and experimental ovine toxoplasmosis usually occur one month after infection. Few experimental studies have reported the so-called acute phase abortions as early as 7 to 14 days after oral inoculation of oocysts, and pyrexia was proposed to be responsible for abortion, although the underline mechanism was not elucidated. In the present study, all placentas analysed from ewes suffering acute phase abortions showed infarcts and thrombosis in the caruncullar villi of the placentomes and ischemic lesions (periventricular leukomalacia) in the brain of some foetuses. The parasite was identified by PCR in samples from some placentomes of only one sheep, and no antigen was detected by immunohistochemical labelling. These findings suggest that the vascular lesions found in the placenta, and the consequent hypoxic damage to the foetus, could be associated to the occurrence of acute phase abortions. Although the pathogenesis of these lesions remains to be determined, the infectious dose or virulence of the isolate may play a role in their development. PMID:24475786
An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most healthcare providers advise counseling.
Longbottom, David; Livingstone, Morag; Maley, Stephen; van der Zon, Arjan; Rocchi, Mara; Wilson, Kim; Wheelhouse, Nicholas; Dagleish, Mark; Aitchison, Kevin; Wattegedera, Sean; Nath, Mintu; Entrican, Gary; Buxton, David
Background Latency is a key feature of the animal pathogen Chlamydia abortus, where infection remains inapparent in the non-pregnant animal and only becomes evident during a subsequent pregnancy. Often the first sign that an animal is infected is abortion occurring late in gestation. Despite this, little is understood of the underlying mechanisms that control latency or the recrudescence of infection that occurs during subsequent pregnancy. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental model of latency by mimicking the natural route of infection through the intranasal inoculation of non-pregnant sheep with C. abortus. Methodology/Principal Findings Three groups of sheep (groups 1, 2 and 3) were experimentally infected with different doses of C. abortus (5×103, 5×105 and 5×107 inclusion forming units (IFU), respectively) prior to mating and monitored over 2 breeding cycles for clinical, microbiological, pathological, immunological and serological outcomes. Two further groups received either negative control inoculum (group 4a,b) or were inoculated subcutaneously on day 70 of gestation with 2×106 IFU C. abortus (group 5). Animals in groups 1, 2 and 5 experienced an abortion rate of 50–67%, while only one animal aborted in group 3 and none in group 4a,b. Pathological, microbiological, immunological and serological analyses support the view that the maternal protective immune response is influenced by initial exposure to the bacterium. Conclusions/Significance The results show that intranasal administration of non-pregnant sheep with a low/medium dose of C. abortus results in a latent infection that leads in a subsequent pregnancy to infection of the placenta and abortion. In contrast a high dose stimulates protective immunity, resulting in a much lower abortion rate. This model will be useful in understanding the mechanisms of infection underlying latency and onset of disease, as well as in the development of novel therapeutics and vaccines for
Ahmadi, Amjad; Khodabandehloo, Mazaher; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Farhadifar, Fariba; Roshani, Daem; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Farhangi, Niloofar
Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiology of most of sexually transmitted diseases. Colonization of C. trachomatis in the genital tract during early gestation has been associated with preterm birth, and preterm premature rupture of the membranes. The role of C. trachomatis on spontaneous abortion has not yet been proved completely. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of C. trachomatis infection among pregnant women and its association with spontaneous abortion. Methods: This case-control study was conducted from August 2012 until January 2013. Totally, 218 women were included; 109 women with spontaneous abortion with gestation age between 10–20 weeks (cases), and 109 women with normal pregnancy with gestation age between 20–30 weeks (controls) in Sanandaj, Iran. DNA was extracted from endocervical swabs and a PCR test was conducted for detection of C. trachomatis infection in women using specific primers. Independent T-test and Chi-square were used for comparison of quantitative and qualitative variables, respectively, and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The total prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 38(17.43%) in endocervical swabs of women. However, the number of cases with C. trachomatis infections was 25 out of 109(22.9%) in the case group and 13 out of 109(11.9%) in control group, respectively. Association between chlamydia infection and spontaneous abortion was statistically significant (OR=2.198, CI 95%: 1.058–4.56). Conclusion: Our study showed that C. trachomatis infection was associated with spontaneous abortion. Thus, screening and treatment of pregnant women may prevent this adverse pregnancy outcome. PMID:27141466
The Alan Guttmacher Institute's State Reproductive Health Monitor "Legislative Proposals and Actions" provides US legislative information on abortion. The listing contains information on pending bills: the state, the identifying legislative number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and when available the bill's status. The bills cover: 1) clinic licensing, e.g., requiring outpatient health care facilities in which abortions are performed, to have malpractice liability insurance; 2) comprehensive statues, which require parental notification before minor may obtain abortions, mandate abortion counseling to all women 24 hours before the abortion can be performed and prohibit disciplining or discharging a state employee for refusing to provide abortion counseling; 3) fetal personhood and rights, e.g. providing that life is vested in each person at fertilization; 4) fetal research and remains; 5) gender of fetus, which regulate abortions relative to sex selection in pregnancies; 6) harassment regulation; 7) informed consent and waiting periods detailing the risks and alternatives to abortion, and the 24-hour waiting period; 8) insurance coverage, e.g., eliminating language banning the coverage of abortions for state workers, and prohibiting disclosure by a health insurance carrier to the employer of a claimant that the claimant had a surgical abortion; 9) legality of abortion, urging Congress to reject he Freedom of Choice Act; 10) parental consent and notification; 11) postviability requirements; 12) public funding; 13) reporting requirements; 14) reproductive rights, and 15) spousal and paternal consent and notification.
Rocchi, Mara S; Wattegedera, Sean; Meridiani, Ilaria; Entrican, Gary
Ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) remains a major problem in sheep-rearing countries despite the availability of protective vaccines. The causative agent, Chlamydophila abortus, is a Gram-negative bacterium that can induce a persistent, subclinical infection in non-pregnant sheep. The development of a new safe, effective and practical vaccine requires a detailed understanding of host-pathogen interactions and the identification of clear correlates of protection. Since disease (abortion) is only observed during pregnancy, the nature of host immunity to C. abortus and the specialised immunological features that permit maternal acceptance of the semi-allogeneic fetus are central to the pathogenesis of OEA. We review the current literature on persistence of C. abortus, host immunity to infection and mechanisms of abortion. We identify the key outstanding questions surrounding OEA and discuss the current knowledge gaps with a view to developing improved control strategies.
Mỹ Hương, Nguyễn; Kurtzhals, Jørgen; Thủy, Đỗ Thị Thu; Rasch, Vibeke
Background Women requesting abortion are at increased risk of developing RTI complications. However, RTI control in many resource-poor countries including Vietnam have been faced with logistical and methodological problems due to lack of standardized definitions of RTIs, lack of well-validated diagnostic criteria, lack of accurate laboratory tests, and lack of diagnostic equipment and skills. This article investigates the prevalence of RTIs among Vietnamese abortion-seeking women, to evaluate the available diagnostic techniques, and to assess antibiotic resistance among aetiological agents of RTI. Method The study was conducted in Phu-San hospital (PSH) from December 2003 through April 2004 among 748 abortion clients. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-economic and reproductive characteristics. Specimens were collected for laboratory analyses of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis (VC), bacterial vaginosis (BV) and syphilis. To assess the validity of the obtained results, the study was repeated among 100 women and the duplicate samples were analysed at PSH and Copenhagen University Hospital (CUH). Results In all 54% of the women were diagnosed as having an RTI, including 3.3% with sexually transmitted infections. Endogenous infections were most prevalent (VC 34% and BV 12%) followed by chlamydia (1.3%) and trichomoniasis (0.7%). The sensitivity of culture for VC and BV was 30% and 88%, respectively, when tests in PSH were measured against tests in CUH. Antibiotic resistance was common among bacterial isolates. Conclusion RTIs are common among women seeking abortion. The presence of RTIs is associated with an increased risk of developing iatrogenic infections, routine administration of prophylactic antibiotic to all women undergoing abortion should be considered. However, the choice of routine prophylactic antibiotics should be based on relevant surveillance data of antibiotic resistance. Moreover, since the accuracy
Dourlen-rollier, A M
The historical and current (1969) abortion laws in France as well as those in other Western countries are analyzed. France has had a series of punitive abortion codes since the Napoleonic Code of 1810 prescribing solitary confinement for the woman. The reforms of 1920 and 1923 made provocation of abortion or contraceptional propaganda a "crime" (felony), later a "delit" (misdemeanor), called for trial before magistr ate instead of jury, but resulted in only about 200 convictions a year. The decree of 1939 extended the misdemeanor to women who aborted even if they were not pregnant, and provided for professional licenses such as that of surgeon or pharmacist to be suspended. The law of 1942 made abortion a social crime and increased the maximum penalty to capital punishment, which was exercised in 2 cases. About 4000 per year were convicted from 1942-1944. Now the law still applies to all who intend to abort, whether or not pregnant or successful, but punishemnt is limited to 1-5 years imprisonment, and 72,000 francs fine, or suspension of medical practice for 5 years. About 500 have been convicted per year. Since 1955 legal abortion has been available (to about 130 women over 4 years) if it is the only means to save the woman's life. Although pregnancy tests are controlled, the population desregards the law by resorting to clandestine abortion. The wealthy travel to Switzerland (where 68% of legal abortions are done on French women) or to England. Numbers are estimated by the French government at 250,000-300,000 per year, or 1 for every 2 live births, but by hospital statistics at 400,000-1,000,000 per year. The rest of the review covers abortion laws in Scandinavian, Central European, and individual US states as of 1969.
Somerville, A C
A survey of 886 adults over 16 was conducted regarding abortion in Papanui, New Zealand. Only 7.79% thought a person should never have an abortion under any circumstances, 16.70% thought the decision to have an abortion should be decided by a panel of two doctors, a social worker, and a statutory committee set up by the government. 44.4% thought the decision should be between a woman and the doctor of her choice. 20.54% thought the decision should be made solely by the woman concerned. The respondants had thought about the question. Other surveys in different electorates reflected similar views. It is hoped that people's opinions will influence legislators to enact more liberal abortion laws.
A mouse adaptated strain of Chlamydia ovis, when inoculated in the peritoneal cavity, caused the death of both pregnant and non pregnant mice. In addition, mice inoculated late in pregnancy (12 to 16 days after breeding) aborted 4 to 6 days after inoculation. Chlamydia was recovered from foetuses and from the organs of the mice (Liver, Spleen, Lungs). The severity of the disease was related to the inoculum concentration, so it was possible to induce late abortions with a rapid recovery of the females, like in the natural infection of the ewes. In the same conditions, the original Chlamydia strain maintained by passage on yolk sac, induced only an inapparent disease transmissible to the young mice.
Nunes, J P
Abortion is the interruption of a dynamic process in a final and irreversible form. The legalization of abortion is applied to human ontogenesis, that is, the development of the human being. However, the embryo that is growing in the uterus is not a human being because a human being is a complex organism with differentiated systems, its own identity and intrinsic autonomy in its process of development. There are basically four levels of the analysis of the problem of abortion: 1) fundamental emotional arguments; 2) profound ignorance of technical and scientific facts; 3) rational positions obfuscated by the dramatic intensity of everyday situations; and 4) the conjunction of deliberated position where culpability is avoided with solidarity for all subjects of the process with a socially oriented view. The phenomenon of abortion from an epidemiological point of view summons the facts with which it is associated: poverty, illiteracy, shortage or lack of community health resources, absence of centers for adolescents, degradation of the environment, and precariousness of employment.
Wilson, E L
If you are pregnant and near 40 years old there is 1/137 chance that your child may have Down's syndrome, or 1/65 chance he will have a physical or mental problem. There are tests that can indicate these problems but they increase the risk of spontaneous abortion. A woman should not be forced to carry an unwanted child, and the needs of childless couples should not be addressed in abortion discussions. The Roe v. Wade case made the distinction of not having to determine when life begins, but when it can be sustained outside the body. The Missouri statute states that human life begins at conception, an unborn child has protectable life interests and the parents of that child have protectable life interests of the unborn child in relation to life, health and its well being. States that are really concerned with the interests of unborn children should improve prenatal care, educate teens on contraception, AIDS, and be concerned about violent behavior and smoking. Voters in Michigan and Arkansas approved a law to stop the use of public funds for abortion, other than saving the mother's life. Pro- choice advocates are concerned that the conservative appointees to the supreme court will reverse the previous decision.
Chopin, Marie-Christine; Chopin, Alain; Bidnenko, Elena
Abortive infection (Abi) systems, also called phage exclusion, block phage multiplication and cause premature bacterial cell death upon phage infection. This decreases the number of progeny particles and limits their spread to other cells allowing the bacterial population to survive. Twenty Abi systems have been isolated in Lactococcus lactis, a bacterium used in cheese-making fermentation processes, where phage attacks are of economical importance. Recent insights in their expression and mode of action indicate that, behind diverse phenotypic and molecular effects, lactococcal Abis share common traits with the well-studied Escherichia coli systems Lit and Prr. Abis are widespread in bacteria, and recent analysis indicates that Abis might have additional roles other than conferring phage resistance.
Ardigò, Paolo; D'Incau, Mario; Pongolini, Stefano
An aborted fetus of 7 months gestation, the associated placenta, and a single blood sample from the dam were submitted for diagnostic investigation to the diagnostic laboratory of the Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute in Parma, Italy. The serum was negative for Neospora caninum, Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila abortus, Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Brucella abortus, and Brucella melitensis. Fetal tissues and placental cotyledons were pooled and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of BHV-1, Bovine herpesvirus 4, BVDV, N. caninum, C. burnetii, Chlamydophila spp., Schmallemberg virus, and Leptospira interrogans. All PCR assays were negative. Bacteriological examinations performed on the fetal organs revealed a pure growth of Staphylococcus lugdunensis in all organs cultured. In human beings, S. lugdunensis is responsible for community-acquired and nosocomial infections, in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. In veterinary medicine, the pathogenic potential of S. lugdunensis has not been fully investigated. The incidence of S. lugdunensis is regarded as being underreported because it could be easily misidentified as Staphylococcus aureus. The current report documents the ability of S. lugdunensis to cause abortion in cattle, indicating the need for accurate diagnostic procedures to identify this emerging and zoonotic pathogen whose incidence is likely underestimated in both human and veterinary medicine.
Dong, Yanyan; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Yongyang; Tao, Haidong; Xu, Song; Xia, Junrui; Huang, Wen; He, Huan; Zaller, Nickolas; Operario, Don
We conducted a survey of 358 young migrant women working in entertainment venues in China to explore the prevalence of and factors associated with two indicators of sexual and reproductive health: (1) multiple abortions and (2) the dual risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and abortion history. One quarter (25.4 percent) of the women in this sample had multiple abortions during their lifetime and, of those with any abortion history, 18.3 percent had had an abortion outside of a regulated health clinic. One-third (33.0 percent) of the sample had had an STI during the past year, and approximately one-fourth (23.7 percent) of those women did not receive STI treatment in a public hospital. Approximately one-fourth (23.5 percent) of the sample reported both a history of abortion and an STI during the past year. Women with a history of multiple abortions had significantly lower income levels, were more likely to have sex with clients and with husbands, and tended more to use alcohol before sex. Women who experienced both abortion and STI risks were more likely to report having had unprotected sex, genitourinary tract infections symptoms, anxiety, illicit drug use, and suicidal ideation. Enhanced efforts are needed to improve reproductive and sexual health for female migrants in urban China, particularly those working in entertainment venues.
Dong, Yanyan; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Yongyang; Tao, Haidong; Xu, Song; Xia, Junrui; Huang, Wen; He, Huan; Zaller, Nickolas; Operario, Don
We conducted a survey of 358 young migrant women working in entertainment venues in China to explore the prevalence of and factors associated with two indicators of sexual and reproductive health: (i) multiple abortions and (ii) the dual risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and abortion history. One quarter (25.4%) of the women in this sample had multiple abortions during their lifetime and, of those with any abortion history, 18.3% had had an abortion outside of a regulated health clinic. One-third (33.0%) of the sample had had a STI during the past year, and approximately one-fourth (23.7%) of those women did not receive STI treatment in a public hospital. Approximately one-fourth (23.5%) of the sample reported both a history of abortion and an STI during the past year. Women with a history of multiple abortions had significantly lower income levels, were more likely to have sex with clients and with husbands, and tended more to use alcohol before sex. Women who experienced both abortion and STI risks were more likely to report having had unprotected sex, genitourinary tract infections symptoms, anxiety, illicit drug use, and suicidal ideation. Enhanced efforts are needed to improve reproductive and sexual health for female migrants in urban China, particularly those working in entertainment venues. PMID:25902189
Fjerstad, Mary; Trussell, James; Lichtenberg, E Steve; Sivin, Irving; Cullins, Vanessa
Background In response to concerns about serious infections following medical abortion, in early 2006 Planned Parenthood changed the route of misoprostol administration from vaginal to buccal and required either routine antibiotic coverage or universal screening and treatment for chlamydia; in July 2007, Planned Parenthood began requiring routine antibiotic coverage for all medical abortions. We previously reported a pronounced drop in the rate of serious infection following the adoption of these new infection control measures. Our objective here is to assess whether the degree of severity of the serious infections differed in the three infection-control groups (vaginal misoprostol and no antibiotics, buccal misoprostol and screen-and-treat, buccal misoprostol and routine antibiotics) or, equivalently, to assess whether the declines in rates of serious infections after the adoption of new infection control measures differed across degree of severity categories. Of particular importance is whether the new infection control measures selectively reduced the least severe serious infections but did not diminish the rate of the most severe infections. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis assessing the degree of severity of infections before infection controls were implemented and after each of the two new measures was adopted: buccal administration of antibiotics with either screen-and-treat or routine antibiotic coverage. We ranked the severity of infection from 1 (when treatment occurred in an emergency department) to 4 (when death occurred). We compared the distribution of the severity of serious infections in the three infection control groups (none, buccal misoprostol and screen-and-treat, buccal misoprostol and routine antibiotics), or, equivalently, assessed whether the declines in rates of serious infections after the adoption of new infection control measures differed across degree of severity categories using the Jonckheere-Terpstra test for a doubly
Coffman, Elizabeth A; Abd-Eldaim, Mohamed; Craig, Linden E
A pregnant 18-year-old Quarterhorse mare presented with fever, anorexia, tachycardia, tachypnea, and gastrointestinal hypermotility at day 68 of gestation. Potomac horse fever was diagnosed based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of whole blood and a high antibody titer to Neorickettsia risticii. The mare made a rapid clinical recovery following antibiotic therapy, but aborted 98 days later. Necropsy on the aborted fetus revealed lymphohistiocytic colitis, lymphadenitis, myocarditis, and hepatitis. The placenta was grossly and histologically normal. Formalin-fixed lymph node, thymus, liver, and colon taken from the aborted fetus were positive by PCR for N. risticii DNA. Potomac horse fever is a common disease in horses that may result in delayed abortion. The microscopic lesions in the fetus are characteristic, and the diagnosis can be confirmed by PCR on formalin-fixed tissues.
Achilles, Sharon L; Reeves, Matthew F
One known complication of induced abortion is upper genital tract infection, which is relatively uncommon in the current era of safe, legal abortion. Currently, rates of upper genital tract infection in the setting of legal induced abortion in the United States are generally less than 1%. Randomized controlled trials support the use of prophylactic antibiotics for surgical abortion in the first trimester. For medical abortion, treatment-dose antibiotics may lower the risk of serious infection. However, the number-needed-to-treat is high. Consequently, the balance of risk and benefits warrants further investigation. Perioperative oral doxycycline given up to 12 h before a surgical abortion appears to effectively reduce infectious risk. Antibiotics that are continued after the procedure for extended durations meet the definition for a treatment regimen rather than a prophylactic regimen. Prophylactic efficacy of antibiotics begun after abortion has not been demonstrated in controlled trials. Thus, the current evidence supports pre-procedure but not post-procedure antibiotics for the purpose of prophylaxis. No controlled studies have examined the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for induced surgical abortion beyond 15 weeks of gestation. The risk of infection is not altered when an intrauterine device is inserted immediately post-procedure. The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae or acute cervicitis carries a significant risk of upper genital tract infection; this risk is significantly reduced with antibiotic prophylaxis. Women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) also have an elevated risk of post-procedural infection as compared with women without BV; however, additional prophylactic antibiotics for women with known BV has not been shown to reduce their risk further than with use of typical pre-procedure antibiotic prophylaxis. Accordingly, evidence to support pre-procedure screening for BV is lacking. Neither povidone-iodine nor chlorhexidine have
Farhadifar, Fariba; Khodabandehloo, Mazaher; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Rouhi, Samaneh; Ahmadi, Amjad; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Roshani, Daem; Soofizadeh, Nasrin; Rezzaii, Masoomeh
Mycoplasma infections are suggested as etiology of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis) infection and spontaneous abortion among pregnant women. In this case-control study that was conducted from August 2012 to January 2013, totally, 109 women were included with spontaneous abortion with gestational ages of 10-20 weeks (Cases), and 109 women with normal pregnancy with gestational ages between 20-37 weeks (Controls) in Sanandaj, Iran. Using specific primers and extracted DNA from endocervical swabs, a PCR test was conducted for detection of M. hominis infection in women. For comparison of qualitative and quantitative variables, independent Fisher tests were used and p<0.05 was considered significant. The total frequency of M. hominis infection was 6 (2.75%) in women. The frequency of M. hominis infection was 2 (1.83%) in the case group (spontaneous abortion) and 4 (3.66%) in the control group, respectively. In both case and control groups, no association was seen between M.hominis infection and spontaneous abortion (OR=0. 49, CI 95%: 0.08-2.73, p=0. 683). M. hominis was positive in the genital tract of some pregnant women, but it was not associated with spontaneous abortion. However, to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes in women, foetus and neonate, routine screening and treatment for the genital Mycoplasma is recommended.
Farhadifar, Fariba; Khodabandehloo, Mazaher; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Rouhi, Samaneh; Ahmadi, Amjad; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Roshani, Daem; Soofizadeh, Nasrin; Rezzaii, Masoomeh
Background: Mycoplasma infections are suggested as etiology of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis) infection and spontaneous abortion among pregnant women. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study that was conducted from August 2012 to January 2013, totally, 109 women were included with spontaneous abortion with gestational ages of 10-20 weeks (Cases), and 109 women with normal pregnancy with gestational ages between 20-37 weeks (Controls) in Sanandaj, Iran. Using specific primers and extracted DNA from endocervical swabs, a PCR test was conducted for detection of M. hominis infection in women. For comparison of qualitative and quantitative variables, independent Fisher tests were used and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The total frequency of M. hominis infection was 6 (2.75%) in women. The frequency of M. hominis infection was 2 (1.83%) in the case group (spontaneous abortion) and 4 (3.66%) in the control group, respectively. In both case and control groups, no association was seen between M.hominis infection and spontaneous abortion (OR=0. 49, CI 95%: 0.08-2.73, p=0. 683). Conclusion: M. hominis was positive in the genital tract of some pregnant women, but it was not associated with spontaneous abortion. However, to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes in women, foetus and neonate, routine screening and treatment for the genital Mycoplasma is recommended. PMID:27294216
McCorquodale, D J; Shaw, A R; Moody, E E; Hull, R A; Morgan, A F
Infection of Escherichia coli harboring ColIb+ plasmids with bacteriophage BF23+ is abortive and resulted in changes of membrane permeability as measured by efflux of nucleotides and K+. A single pre-early gene product of BF23+ was necessary and sufficient to elicit the abortive response. Appropriate mutations in this pre-early gene allowed a productive infection in ColIb+ cells. Appropriate mutations in the ColIb plasmid also allowed a productive infection with BF23+. A comparison of changes occurring during abortive infection and during killing of sensitive cells by external colicin Ib or Ia, together with certain genetic data, has led to the conclusion that membrane changes accompanying the two phenomena are the result of a common mechanism, namely, the interaction of free colicin with the cytoplasmic membrane. Images PMID:387978
Pritikin, William B.; Reiter, Harvard
Actinomycin D caused the irreversible loss of PBS1 phage infectious centers and PBS1-mediated transductants. The loss of infectious centers occurred only within the first 4 min after the addition of phage to cells. Actinomycin did not inactivate free phage or inhibit phage adsorption. Electron micrographs indicated that phage adsorbed to cells in the presence of actinomycin ejected their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) normally. However, when cells were infected in the presence of actinomycin, 15 to 22% of their 32P-labeled DNA appeared in the medium, whereas only 1.5 to 7.2% of the 32P-labeled DNA appeared in the medium during normal infection. Neither 8-azaguanine nor chloramphenicol caused a similar loss of PBS1 infectious centers or transductants. Actinomycin also caused the loss of SP10 infectious centers but it had no effect on SP01 or φ29 infections. We conclude that actinomycin causes abortion of PBS1 infection by inhibiting the uptake or retention of phage DNA into host cells. The immunity of SP01 and φ29 infections to actinomycin probably reflects differences in the penetration mechanisms of these phages. Images PMID:4978941
Pritikin, W B; Reiter, H
Actinomycin D caused the irreversible loss of PBS1 phage infectious centers and PBS1-mediated transductants. The loss of infectious centers occurred only within the first 4 min after the addition of phage to cells. Actinomycin did not inactivate free phage or inhibit phage adsorption. Electron micrographs indicated that phage adsorbed to cells in the presence of actinomycin ejected their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) normally. However, when cells were infected in the presence of actinomycin, 15 to 22% of their (32)P-labeled DNA appeared in the medium, whereas only 1.5 to 7.2% of the (32)P-labeled DNA appeared in the medium during normal infection. Neither 8-azaguanine nor chloramphenicol caused a similar loss of PBS1 infectious centers or transductants. Actinomycin also caused the loss of SP10 infectious centers but it had no effect on SP01 or phi29 infections. We conclude that actinomycin causes abortion of PBS1 infection by inhibiting the uptake or retention of phage DNA into host cells. The immunity of SP01 and phi29 infections to actinomycin probably reflects differences in the penetration mechanisms of these phages.
Davies, Jennifer L.; Ngeleka, Musangu; Wobeser, Gary A.
Severe meningoencephalitis and endometritis associated with necrotizing vasculitis, thrombosis, and infarction were found at necropsy of a 4-year-old Aberdeen Angus cow with a history of abortion and neurological signs. Focal pyogranulomatous pneumonia and nephritis were also present. Fungal hyphae typical of zygomycetes were abundant within lesions, and Mortierella wolfii was cultured from multiple tissues. This is believed to be the first report of systemic mortierellosis following abortion in North America, and the second reported instance of encephalitis caused by M. wolfii in a cow. PMID:21358934
Sheep are commonly infected with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Infection may cause early embryonic death and resorption, fetal death and mummification, abortion, stillbirth, and neonatal death. Most sheep acquire T. gondii infection after birth. Recent studies reported that repeat ovine...
Hwang, Jung Hye; Kim, Jeong Wook; Hwang, Ji Young; Lee, Kyung Min; Shim, Hye Min; Bae, Young Kyung; Paik, Seung Sam
Purpose This study investigated the possible relationship between viral infection and first trimester pregnancy loss. Materials and Methods A prospective study was performed on 51 gravidas with missed abortion, fetal anomaly, pre-term delivery, and full-tem delivery at Hanyang University Hospital. Enteroviruses were detected by semi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry in abortive tissues and placentas. Enterovirus serotypes were confirmed by genome sequencing. Herpesviruses were detected by PCR. Results Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) was detected in 8 of 14 missed abortion cases, 1 of 27 full-term cases, and none of the 9 pre-term cases. Coxsackievirus B1 (CVB1) was detected in an encephalocele case. Herpes simplex virus type 1 was found in 4 full-term cases, 3 pre-term cases, and none of the missed abortion cases. Conclusion The prevalence of CVB3 was significantly higher in missed abortion cases compared to full-term or pre-term delivery cases. CVB infection may therefore be an important etiological agent of missed abortion. PMID:25323892
Trussell, James; Nucatola, Deborah; Fjerstad, Mary; Lichtenberg, E Steve
From 2001 to March 2006 Planned Parenthood health centers throughout the United States provided medical abortion by a regimen of oral mifepristone followed 24-48 h later by vaginal misoprostol. In response to concerns about serious infections, in early 2006 Planned Parenthood changed the route of misoprostol administration to buccal and required either routine antibiotic coverage or universal screening and treatment for chlamydia; in July 2007, Planned Parenthood began requiring routine antibiotic coverage for all medical abortions. We performed a retrospective analysis of Planned Parenthood cases assessing the rates of mortality caused by infection following medical abortion during a time period when misoprostol was administered vaginally (2001 through March 2006), as compared with the rate from April 2006 to the end of 2012 after a change to buccal administration of misoprostol and after initiation of new infection-reduction strategies. The mortality rate dropped significantly in the 81-month period after the joint change to (1) buccal misoprostol replacing vaginal misoprostol and (2) either sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening or routine preventative antibiotic coverage (15 month period) or universal routine preventative antibiotic coverage as part of the medical abortion (66-month period), from 1.37/100,000 to 0.00/100,000, P=.013 (difference=1.37/100,000, 95% CI 0.47-4.03 per 100,000). The infection-caused mortality rate following medical abortion declined by 100% following a change from vaginal to buccal administration of misoprostol combined with screen-and-treat or, far more commonly, routine antibiotic coverage. Deaths from infection following medical abortion declined to zero after a change in the regimen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Doitsh, Gilad; Cavrois, Marielle; Lassen, Kara G.; Zepeda, Orlando; Yang, Zhiyuan; Santiago, Mario L.; Hebbeler, Andrew M.; Greene, Warner C.
Summary The mechanism by which CD4 T-cells are depleted in HIV-infected hosts remains poorly understood. In ex vivo cultures of human tonsil tissue, CD4 T cells undergo a pronounced cytopathic response following HIV infection. Strikingly, >95% of these dying cells are not productively infected but instead correspond to bystander cells. We now show that the death of these “bystander” cells involves abortive HIV infection. Inhibitors blocking HIV entry or early steps of reverse transcription prevent CD4 T-cell death while inhibition of later events in viral life cycle does not. We propose that the nonpermissive state exhibited by the majority of resting CD4 tonsil T-cells leads to accumulation of incomplete reverse transcripts. These cytoplasmic nucleic acids activate a host defense program that elicits a coordinated proapoptotic and proinflammatory response involving caspase-3 and caspase-1 activation. While this response likely evolved to protect the host, it centrally contributes to the immunopathogenic effects of HIV. PMID:21111238
Doitsh, Gilad; Cavrois, Marielle; Lassen, Kara G; Zepeda, Orlando; Yang, Zhiyuan; Santiago, Mario L; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Greene, Warner C
The mechanism by which CD4 T cells are depleted in HIV-infected hosts remains poorly understood. In ex vivo cultures of human tonsil tissue, CD4 T cells undergo a pronounced cytopathic response following HIV infection. Strikingly, >95% of these dying cells are not productively infected but instead correspond to bystander cells. We now show that the death of these "bystander" cells involves abortive HIV infection. Inhibitors blocking HIV entry or early steps of reverse transcription prevent CD4 T cell death while inhibition of later events in the viral life cycle does not. We demonstrate that the nonpermissive state exhibited by the majority of resting CD4 tonsil T cells leads to accumulation of incomplete reverse transcripts. These cytoplasmic nucleic acids activate a host defense program that elicits a coordinated proapoptotic and proinflammatory response involving caspase-3 and caspase-1 activation. While this response likely evolved to protect the host, it centrally contributes to the immunopathogenic effects of HIV. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Johnson, F W; Matheson, B A; Williams, H; Laing, A G; Jandial, V; Davidson-Lamb, R; Halliday, G J; Hobson, D; Wong, S Y; Hadley, K M
A farmer's wife who had helped with lambing aborted spontaneously in March after a short febrile illness in the 28th week of her pregnancy. She developed disseminated intravascular coagulation post partum with acute renal failure and pulmonary oedema. Recovery was complete after two weeks of hospital care. A strain of Chlamydia psittaci, probably of ovine origin, was isolated from the placenta and fetus. The patient's serum showed rising titres of antibody against chlamydia group antigen; the placental and fetal isolates; and a known ovine abortion, but not a known avian, strain of C psittaci. IgG against both ovine abortion and enteric strains of C psittaci was detected, but IgM against only an abortion strain was detected. Histological examination showed pronounced intervillus placentitis with chlamydial inclusions in the trophoblast but no evidence of fetal infection or amnionitis. Laboratory evidence of chlamydial infection was found in an aborting ewe on the farm in January and in remaining sheep and lambs in July. Doctors should recognise the possible risk to pregnant women in rural areas where chlamydial infections in farm animals are widespread. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 PMID:3918685
Fields, Kay L.
Abortive infection of certain strains of Escherichia coli or Shigella dysenteriae with phages of the T-even group or with phage T5 resembles the action of colicin E1 or K on sensitive bacteria, especially in the effects on biosynthetic processes. Tests on transport systems and on adenosine triphosphate levels suggest, however, that different mechanisms are involved in the two cases. Abortive infection appears to cause damage to the permeability barrier of the cell, whereas the colicins interfere more directly with the energy metabolism of the bacteria. PMID:4884825
Barbosa, Regina M; Pinho, Adriana A; Santos, Naila S; Villela, Wilza V
The impact of HIV on the decision to interrupt pregnancy remains an understudied topic in Brazil and the world. The technical means to implement HIV prevention and treatment interventions are widely available in Brazil. Although Brazil has restrictive abortion laws, induced abortion occurs frequently. This qualitative study investigates the extent to which Brazilian women are motivated to seek abortion as a consequence of having HIV disease, and the extent to which the decision is part of a larger reproductive decision-making context. Researchers interviewed 30 women who were living with HIV and had terminated pregnancies or attempted to do so. Many women identified their HIV status as an important aspect of their decision-making regarding abortion. Women also took into account issues such as the stage of life when the pregnancy occurred and the absence of support from partners and families. Contraceptive practices, pregnancy and abortion in this population are influenced by multiple factors that act on the structural, social, interpersonal and individual levels. We hypothesize that HIV infection and abortion are sometimes associated with similar contexts of vulnerability. Health services therefore should address HIV and reproductive issues together, with reproductive and sexual rights serving as the fundamental basis of health care.
Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Chan May, Alberto de A; Carrillo-Martínez, Jorge R; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; González-Losa, María del Refugio
To investigate if HPV cervical infection is associated with spontaneous abortion in a Mexican population. Case control study including 281 women from two Social Security Hospitals in Merida, Mexico. Cases were women with spontaneous abortion attending for curettage, and controls were pregnant women at term who attended for delivery. HPV molecular detection and typing of HPV 16, 18, 58 and 6/11 was performed on cervical samples, and TORCH serology IgM tests (against T. gondii, CMV, HSV) were performed on cases. Data were analyzed using Chi square, odds ratio and linear regression tests. HPV global prevalence was 19.8% (24.4% in cases and 15.2% in controls). HPV types 16 and 58 were the most frequently detected in both groups. Multiple HPV types concurrent infection were found in 31.4% of typified samples. Amongst cases 27.3% of HPV positive women reported at least one previous pregnancy loss; compared to 17.43% amongst HPV negative women. Nevertheless, HPV was not significantly associated with spontaneous or to repetitive abortion. Cases were 60.2% positive to any TORCH agent, although it was not significantly associated to referred miscarriage history. Spontaneous abortion was associated to a previous pregnancy loss and to women's age older than 35 years old. HPV infection was significantly associated to alcohol intake before pregnancy and to multiple sexual partners. HPV cervical infection was not associated with spontaneous abortion. HPV in spontaneous abortion and other adverse pregnancy outcomes merits further study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, D; Huang, T; Zhang, Z
In order to study the relationship between infection of sexually transmitted virus Herpes simplex virus II (HSV2), Human papillomavirus (HPV) and female infertility after artificial abortion, we collected 60 genital samples from infertile women who had accepted artificial abortions and 39 genital samples from normal women. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect HSV2 and HPV. The results were compared by x2. The positive rate of HSV2 in infertile and normal women were 80.0% and 25.6% respectively, there was a significant difference (P < 0.01); but that of HPV were 53.5% and 33.3%, which slowed no significant difference (P > 0.05). Mixed infection rates of HSV2 and HPV were 43.3% and 23.1% in infertile and normal women, a significant difference (P < 0.05) was statistically calculated. The results showed that there was a relationship between infertility after artificial abortion and genital infection of HSV2 and HPV or mited infection of HSV 2 and HPV. Taking total 99 genital samples into calculation, the mired infection rate of HSV 2 was 35.35%, a significant relatedness of HSV2 and HPV infection to infertility was proved by chi 2, chi 2 = 12.5, P < 0.01.
Formal, Samuel B.; LaBrec, E. H.; Kent, T. H.; Falkow, S.
Formal, Samuel B., (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.), E. H. LaBrec, T. H. Kent, and S. Falkow. Abortive intestinal infection with an Escherichia coli-Shigella flexneri hybrid strain. J. Bacteriol. 89:1374–1382. 1965.—The mechanism of the apparent loss of virulence of an Escherichia coli-Shigella flexneri hybrid strain was studied. The parent Shigella strain caused a fatal enteric infection when fed to starved guinea pigs, and signs of dysentery followed its oral administration to monkeys. The hybrid strain failed to produce any apparent symptoms when fed to either of these species. The parent strain was shown to invade the intestinal mucosa of starved guinea pigs. This caused a severe inflammatory reaction in the lamina propria, which progressed to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium and resulted in death of the animal. The hybrid strain also invaded the intestinal mucosa and produced an inflammatory reaction. In this case, the inflammatory reaction subsided, the intestine returned to normal within 4 days after challenge, and the animal survived. Both fluorescent-antibody techniques and in vivo growth studies have shown that the hybrid strain can not maintain itself in the intestinal mucosa. Preliminary studies have indicated that a similar situation also exists in the monkey. It is concluded that the virulence of dysentery bacilli rests not only in the capacity to reach the lamina propria, but also in the ability to multiply in this region. Images PMID:14293011
Moreno, B; Collantes-Fernández, E; Villa, A; Navarro, A; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Ortega-Mora, L M
Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are closely related cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites identified as important causes of reproductive failure in cattle and small ruminants, respectively. Protozoan abortion in small ruminants is traditionally associated with T. gondii, but the importance of N. caninum remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of N. caninum and T. gondii infections in abortion cases in small ruminants submitted for diagnosis. For this purpose, 74 ovine and 26 caprine aborted foetuses were recovered from different areas in Spain. Foetal histopathology was used to detect the presence of protozoal-associated lesions in brain. The presence of N. caninum and T. gondii was confirmed by PCR. Protozoal infection was detected in 17 out of 100 (17%) foetuses examined by at least one of the diagnostic techniques used. Lesions suggestive of protozoal infection were observed in 10.8% (8/74) and 15.4% (4/26) of the ovine and caprine abortions respectively. N. caninum and T. gondii infection was detected by PCR in 6.8% (5/74) and 5.4% (4/74) of sheep foetuses, respectively, of which five showed protozoal-associated lesions. N. caninum DNA was detected in 11.5% (3/26) of goat foetuses, of which two showed protozoal-associated lesions, whereas T. gondii DNA was detected in one goat foetus with no lesions. The simultaneous presence of N. caninum and T. gondii DNA was detected in one sheep foetus with severe lesions. This study demonstrates that N. caninum plays a significant role in abortion in small ruminants in the studied population. In addition, our results highlight the importance of differentiating between protozoa whenever characteristic lesions are observed.
Diab, Santiago; Johnson, Suzanne M.; Garcia, Jorge; Carlson, Erin L.; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Smith, Jana; Uzal, Francisco A.
Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease affecting humans and other mammals caused by the soil-dwelling fungi Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii. Abortion due to Coccidioides spp. infection is rare in domestic animals and transplacental transmission is considered uncommon in women. This report describes a case of placental-fetal infection and abortion in an alpaca with disseminated C. posadasii infection. PCR amplification and DNA sequencing were used to confirm the etiology, C. posadasii, in fetal tissues. PMID:24432245
Das, A. M.; Paranjape, V. L.; Pitt, T. L.
Serratia marcescens was isolated in pure culture from cases of septic abortion in 4 cows on one farm and 10 buffaloes on two other farms. A reddish vaginal discharge was observed after abortion in all animals and in the internal organs of the aborted fetuses. All but two of the isolates produced prodigiosin, and two of the isolates from buffaloes were atypical in that they fermented raffinose. O-serological, bacteriophage and bacteriocin typing revealed four different strains. All cows were infected by the same strain, and this strain was also isolated from the semen of a breeding bull on the same farm. In another farm a strain of serotype O 14 was isolated from 6 of 10 buffaloes, and two other distinct strains were isolated from the remainder. The strain from the cattle was sensitive to gentamicin and so were two of the buffalo isolates. The infected cows were treated with intra-uterine gentamicin and the organism disappeared from cervical mucus after 3 days. Each animal after abortion showed a raised titre of agglutinating antibody to their respective isolate. A survey of 1172 healthy buffaloes and cattle gave an incidence of 1.8% with raised titres towards S. marcescens. PMID:3042434
Almeria, S; Serrano-Pérez, B; Darwich, L; Mur-Novales, R; Garcia-Ispierto, I; Cabezón, O; López-Gatius, F
Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. However, it is not known why not all infected animals abort. In this study, Th1 (IFN-γ), Th2 (IL4) and T reg (IL-10) cytokine gene expression was examined by real time PCR using the TaqMan approach in all of these dams and their foetuses after experimental infection with the isolate Nc-Spain7 at 110 days of pregnancy and euthanasia 6 weeks after infection. In prior published work, foetal death was observed in three of six infected dams and transplacental infection in all the 6 infected foetuses. In the spleen of the dams, IL-4 expression was down-regulated in dams with aborted/non viable foetuses compared to both uninfected dams (controls, n=3) and infected dams with live fetuses at euthanasia. In the lymph nodes draining the placenta, up-regulated expression of IL-4 was observed in infected dams with live foetuses compared to control dams. In the placenta, infected dams with live foetuses had significantly up-regulated IFN-γ in both caruncle and cotyledon and up-regulated IL-10 in cotyledon compared to control dams. Infected live foetuses showed up-regulated expression of IFN-γ and IL-10 in foetal spleen, and showed downregulated expression of IL-4 in the thymus compared to control uninfected foetuses. Expression of any cytokine in the thymus was significantly lower compared to the levels observed in foetal spleen. The results indicate an up-regulated expression of Th1, Th2 and Treg in infected dams with live foetuses and in their foetuses. On the other hand, down-regulation of Th2 immune responses and Treg cytokines were observed in infected dams which had aborted or had non-viable foetuses at euthanasia, suggesting an immunological recovery of cytokine gene expression levels in dams a few weeks after an abortion occurred. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Edwards, John F; Dubey, J P
Sheep are commonly infected with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Infection may cause early embryonic death and resorption, fetal death and mummification, abortion, stillbirth, and neonatal death. Most sheep acquire T. gondii infection after birth. Recent studies reported that congenital ovine transmission of T. gondii may be more common than previously believed, but these findings are solely based on PCR data and require confirmation using other techniques to verify the findings. In the present study, during the lambing season of 2005 a toxoplasmosis abortion storm occurred in a flock of purebred Suffolk ewes on a farm in Texas. Only 14 healthy lambs were born, and 38 abortuses, mummies and weak or stillborn lambs were delivered. Another 15 fetuses identified by ultrasound were presumably resorbed or were aborted undetected. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 37 (94.8%) of the 39 ewes and 30 of them had high titers (1:3200 or higher) when tested in the modified agglutination test (MAT). In the 2006 lambing season, two (both with MAT titers of ≥ 3200 in 2005) of 26 ewes delivered T. gondii infected lambs. T. gondii tissue cysts were found histologically in lesions of encephalitis in a lamb from one ewe and viable T. gondii (designated TgShUs55) was isolated from the brain and heart of a lamb from the second ewe. TheTgShUs55 had an atypical genotype using 10 PCR-RFLP markers, and was 100% lethal for Swiss Webster mice, irrespective of the dose or the stage of the parasite inoculated. In subsequent seasons, the ewes lambed normally. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that most sheep that have aborted due to T. gondii develop protection against future toxoplasmosis induced abortion, but the protection is not absolute. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rasti, Sima; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Sadat; Abdoli, Amir; Piroozmand, Ahmad; Mousavi, Seyed Gholam Abbas; Fakhrie-Kashan, Zohreh
ToRCH infections (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus and Herpes simplex virus) have long been known to be associated with bad obstetric outcomes. However, little information is available about the impact of ToRCH co-infections on the outcome of pregnancy. Hence, we tested the IgG and IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus among 81 pregnant women with abortion (case group) and 98 pregnant women with normal delivery (control group). In the single-infection model, only CMV-IgM seropositivity was significantly increased in case than control group (25.9% in case and 12.2 % in control, OR = 2.5, P = 0.019). In the co-infection model, 14 patterns were recognized, but two patterns were significantly increased in the case than the control group. Co-infection of T. gondii IgG + CMV IgM was 9.1-fold increased in the case than the control group (8.6% in the case and 1% in control, OR = 9.1; P = 0.024). Also, co-infection of T. gondii IgG + HSV IgG + CMV IgM was 7.7-fold increased in case than the control group (7.4% in case and 1 % in control, OR = 7.7; P = 0.04). Although the OR of other co-infections was higher in the case than the control group, the difference was not statistically significant. These findings indicate that ToRCH co-infections are associated with increased risk of abortion than single infection. Hence, the rates of co-infections should be considered in prenatal screening of ToRCH infections.
Stubblefield, P G; Grimes, D A
Abortion-related deaths, which account for 47% of total maternal mortality in the world, result primarily from sepsis and are widespread in developing countries where abortion is illegal or inaccessible. Septic abortion offers opportunities for prevention on the primary, secondary, and tertiary level of medial care. Primary prevention of septic abortion encompasses the provision of effective contraception, provision of safe and legal abortion in cases of contraceptive failure, and appropriate medical management of abortion. Secondary prevention involves the prompt diagnosis of endometriosis and effective treatment to avert more serious infection. The diagnosis of septic abortion should be considered when women of reproductive age present to health facilities with vaginal bleeding, lower abdominal pain, and fever. Tertiary prevention is aimed at avoiding the serious complications of postabortal infection, including hysterectomy and death. Women with high fever, pelvic peritonitis, and tachycardia should undergo uterine evacuation and parental antibiotic therapy. Supportive care for cardiovascular system and other organs may be essential. The medical technology needed to avert serious complications and deaths from septic abortion is available. Lacking is a political commitment on the part of many governments and health care agencies to address this avoidable contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality.
Vilander, A C; Niles, G A; Frank, C B
Candida species are opportunistic fungi associated with immunosuppression and are the most commonly isolated fungal pathogens from the human central nervous system. Invasive candidiasis is reported uncommonly in animals and there have only been two reports of candidal infection of the brain. This report presents a case of a cerebral candidal abscess in an aborted late-term calf co-infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Candida etchellsii, a species not previously identified as pathogenic, was identified as the causative agent by polymerase chain reaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buzoni-Gatel, D; Bernard, F; Andersen, A; Rodolakis, A
The role of antibody in preventing placental and fetal infection by Chlamydia psittaci was studied in mice. Pregnant mice were passively immunized with polyclonal sera or monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) at day 11 of gestation. The mice were intravenously challenged the following day with the virulent AB7 ovine abortion strain of C. psittaci. Mice were either killed on day 16 of gestation to determine placental and fetal chlamydial infection levels or were permitted to have and raise their young until 8 days old for comparison of survival rates. Immune sera produced a decrease in both placental and fetal infection and reduced the number of young dying in utero or shortly after birth. Polyclonal sera to the highly invasive AB7 and AB4 strains or to the invasive 1B strain were more effective than serum to the invasive AB13 strain. The B577/F3 and B577/A11 monoclonal antibodies gave almost complete protection, with only low levels of placental infection and no detectable fetal infection or decrease in survival rate. The study demonstrates that immune sera and type-specific mAbs can passively transfer resistance to placental and fetal colonization and to abortion and fetal loss in mice intravenously challenged with P. psittaci.
Hermonat, P L; Kechelava, S; Lowery, C L; Korourian, S
In a recent study it has been shown that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was threefold more prevalent in spontaneous abortion specimens compared with elective specimens (60% [15 of 25] v 20% [3 of 15], respectively) as analyzed by broad-spectrum HPV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and dot-blot hybridization with an HPV-16 probe. In this study, archival paraffin-embedded tissue from a subset of previously analyzed spontaneous abortion cases were reanalyzed by in situ PCR amplification so that the specific cells infected by HPV could be identified. In the current study, using a new PCR primer set for HPV-16 E6, the status of six previously analyzed cases were verified (five HPV-positive and one negative). Furthermore, syncytiotrophoblasts were identified as the predominant cellular target of HPV (HPV-16 or a related type). Finally, four of four third-trimester placentas similarly analyzed gave no HPV-positive signal. Trophoblasts are the cell type that maintains placental contact with maternal tissue and through which nutrient exchange occurs. This knowledge prompts the hypothesis that HPV-infected trophoblasts may have altered characteristics, which may lead to a compromised gestation.
Shabani, Zahra; Esghaei, Maryam; Keyvani, Hossein; Shabani, Fateme; Sarmadi, Fateme; Mollaie, Hamidreza; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza
Background: Infection with parvovirus B19 may cause fetal losses including spontaneous abortion, intrauterine fetal death and non-immune hydrops fetalis. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of parvovirus B19 in formalin fixed placental tissues in lost fetuses using real-time PCR method. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 formalin fixed placental tissues with unknown cause of fetal death were determined using real-time PCR method after DNA extraction. Results: Six out of 100 cases (6%) were positive for parvovirus B19 using real-time PCR. Gestational age of all positive cases was less than 20 weeks with a mean of 12.3 weeks. Three cases have a history of abortion and all of positive cases were collected in spring. Mean age of positive cases were 28 years. Conclusion: Parvovirus B19 during pregnancy can infect red precursor cells and induces apoptosis or lyses these cells that resulting in anemia and congestive heart failure leading to fetal death. Management of parvovirus B19 infection in pregnant women is important because immediate diagnosis and transfusion in hydropsic fetuses can decrease the risk of fetal death. PMID:26157715
A comparative study was conducted using data from naive bison (n=45) and cattle (n=46) from 8 and 6 studies, respectively, in which a standardized Brucella abortus strain 2308 experimental challenge was administered. The incidence of abortion, fetal infection, uterine or mammary infection, or infec...
Monney, Thierry; Debache, Karim; Hemphill, Andrew
Simple Summary We review the efforts to develop a vaccine against neosporosis, caused by the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum. Vertical transmission is the main mode of infection, and can lead to stillbirth, abortion, or birth of weak calves. We provide information on the biology of Neospora caninum and on the disease caused by this parasite, and summarize the current understanding on how the host deals with infection. We review studies on live- and subunit-vaccines, and demonstrate advantages and setbacks in the use of small laboratory animal models in investigations on a disease with high relevance in cattle. Abstract Neosporosis, caused by the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum, represents one of the economically most important causes of abortion in cattle. During pregnancy, the parasite infects the placental tissue and the fetus, which can lead to stillbirth, abortion, or birth of weak calves. Alternatively, calves are born without clinical symptoms, but they can carry over the parasite to the next generation. In addition, N. caninum causes neuromuscular disease in dogs. The economic importance of neosporosis has prompted researchers to invest in the development of measures to prevent infection of cattle by vaccination. A good vaccine must stimulate protective cellular immune responses as well as antibody responses at mucosal sites and, systemically, must activate T-helper cells to produce relevant cytokines, and must elicit specific antibodies that aid in limiting parasite proliferation, e.g., by interference with host cell invasion, activation of complement, and/or opsonization of parasites to have them killed by macrophages. Different types of vaccines have been investigated, either in bovines or in the mouse model. These include live vaccines such as naturally less virulent isolates of N. caninum, attenuated strains generated by irradiation or chemical means, or genetically modified transgenic strains. Live vaccines were shown to be very effective
Singh, Namita; Prasad, Priya; Singh, Laishram Chandreshwar; Das, Banashree; Rastogi, Sangita
A study was undertaken to quantify the expression of prostaglandin (PG) receptors and find the effect of gestational age on expression of PG receptor genes in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected recurrent spontaneous aborters (RSA). Endometrial curettage tissue (ECT) was collected from 130 RSA (Group I) and 100 age-matched controls (Group II) at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi (India). PCR was performed for diagnosis of C. trachomatis cryptic plasmid; mRNA expression of PG receptor genes was assessed by real-time PCR (q-PCR), while serum progesterone/estrogen levels were determined by respective commercial kits. Data were evaluated statistically. A total of 15.4 % RSA (GroupI) were diagnosed as C. trachomatis-positive (200 bp), whereas controls were uninfected. q-PCR showed significant upregulation (P<0.0001) of PGE2 (EP-1, EP-2, EP-3, EP-4), PGF2α (FP) and PGI2 (IP) receptors in Group I versus Group II. The expression of PG receptors increased significantly with advanced gestational age (P<0.002); however, only contractile receptors, EP-1, EP-3 and FP, were positively correlated with gestational age in Group-I. In infected RSA, mean serum progesterone level was significantly low (P<0.0001) while serum oestrogen was high (P<0.0001). Overall, the data suggest that increased expression of PG receptors, particularly contractile gene receptors (EP-1, EP-3, FP), with advanced gestational age and altered steroid levels could be a possible risk factor for abortion in Chlamydia-infected RSA.
Mendez-Rios, Jorge D.; Yang, Zhilong; Erlandson, Karl J.; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Martens, Craig A.; Bruno, Daniel P.; Porcella, Stephen F.
ABSTRACT Molluscum contagiosum virus (MOCV), the only circulating human-specific poxvirus, has a worldwide distribution and causes benign skin lesions that may persist for months in young children and severe infections in immunosuppressed adults. Studies of MOCV are restricted by the lack of an efficient animal model or a cell culture replication system. We used next-generation sequencing to analyze and compare polyadenylated RNAs from abortive MOCV infections of several cell lines and a human skin lesion. Viral RNAs were detected for 14 days after MOCV infection of cultured cells; however, there was little change in the RNA species during this time and a similar pattern occurred in the presence of an inhibitor of protein synthesis, indicating a block preventing postreplicative gene expression. Moreover, a considerable number of MOCV RNAs mapped to homologs of orthopoxvirus early genes, but few did so to homologs of intermediate or late genes. The RNAs made during in vitro infections represent a subset of RNAs detected in human skin lesions which mapped to homologs of numerous postreplicative as well as early orthopoxvirus genes. Transfection experiments using fluorescent protein and luciferase reporters demonstrated that vaccinia virus recognized MOCV intermediate and late promoters, indicating similar gene regulation. The specific recognition of the intermediate promoter in MOCV-infected cells provided evidence for the synthesis of intermediate transcription factors, which are products of early genes, but not for late transcription factors. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) and reporter gene assays may be useful for testing engineered cell lines and conditions that ultimately could provide an in vitro replication system. IMPORTANCE The inability to propagate molluscum contagiosum virus, which causes benign skin lesions in young children and more extensive infections in immunosuppressed adults, has constrained our understanding of the biology of this human
Olsen, S C; Johnson, C
A comparative study was conducted using data from naive bison (n = 45) and cattle (n = 46) from 8 and 6 studies, respectively, in which a standardized Brucella abortus strain 2308 experimental challenge was administered during midgestation. The incidence of abortion, fetal infection, uterine or mammary infection, or infection in maternal tissues after experimental challenge was greater (P < 0.05) in bison than in cattle. In animals that did abort, the time between experimental challenge and abortion was shorter (P < 0.05) for bison than for cattle. Brucella colonization of four target tissues and serologic responses on the standard tube agglutination test at the time of abortion did not differ (P > 0.05) between cattle and bison. The results of our study suggest that naive bison and cattle have similarities and differences after experimental exposure to a virulent B. abortus strain. Although our data suggest that bison may be more susceptible to infection with Brucella, some pathogenic characteristics of brucellosis were similar between bison and cattle.
Wang, Xiuqing; Messerle, Martin; Sapinoro, Ramil; Santos, Kathlyn; Hocknell, Peter K.; Jin, Xia; Dewhurst, Stephen
Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen-presenting cells that play a crucial role in antigen-specific immune responses. Thus, the targeting of exogenous antigens to DC has become a popular approach for cancer immunotherapy and vaccine development. In this report, we studied the interplay between murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) and human monocyte-derived DC. The results showed that an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-encoding, replication-competent MCMV vector underwent abortive infection in human DC; this was accompanied by the efficient expression of EGFP. Infection of human DC by this vector resulted in a modest increase in the expression of cell surface proteins associated with DC maturation and has no significant effect on the immunostimulatory function of the cells, as reflected by their ability to support T-cell proliferation in a mixed-lymphocyte reaction. Finally, an MCMV vector encoding the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 envelope glycoprotein was constructed and used to infect cultured human DC. The infected DC were shown to be capable of stimulating the expansion of autologous, gp120-specific, class I-restricted T lymphocytes from an HIV-1-negative donor, as determined by tetramer staining and enzyme-linked immunospot analysis. Taken together, these results suggest that MCMV may have potential utility as a vector for human vaccine development. PMID:12805417
Monney, Thierry; Debache, Karim; Hemphill, Andrew
Neosporosis, caused by the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum, represents one of the economically most important causes of abortion in cattle. During pregnancy, the parasite infects the placental tissue and the fetus, which can lead to stillbirth, abortion, or birth of weak calves. Alternatively, calves are born without clinical symptoms, but they can carry over the parasite to the next generation. In addition, N. caninum causes neuromuscular disease in dogs. The economic importance of neosporosis has prompted researchers to invest in the development of measures to prevent infection of cattle by vaccination. A good vaccine must stimulate protective cellular immune responses as well as antibody responses at mucosal sites and, systemically, must activate T-helper cells to produce relevant cytokines, and must elicit specific antibodies that aid in limiting parasite proliferation, e.g., by interference with host cell invasion, activation of complement, and/or opsonization of parasites to have them killed by macrophages. Different types of vaccines have been investigated, either in bovines or in the mouse model. These include live vaccines such as naturally less virulent isolates of N. caninum, attenuated strains generated by irradiation or chemical means, or genetically modified transgenic strains. Live vaccines were shown to be very effective; however, there are serious disadvantages in terms of safety, costs of production, and stability of the final product. Subunit vaccines have been intensively studied, as they would have clear advantages such as reduced costs in production, processing and storage, increased stability and shelf life. The parasite antigens involved in adhesion and invasion of host cells, such as surface constituents, microneme-, rhoptry- and dense granule-components represent interesting targets. Subunit vaccines have been applied as bacterially expressed recombinant antigens or as DNA vaccines. Besides monovalent vaccines also polyvalent
Ranjan, Rajeev; Biswal, Jitendra K; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Singh, Karam Pal; Stenfeldt, Carolina; Rodriguez, Luis L; Pattnaik, Bramhadev; Arzt, Jonathan
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild host species. During recent FMD outbreaks in India, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst FMD-affected and asymptomatic cows. The current study was an opportunistic investigation of these naturally occurring bovine abortions to assess causality of abortion and vertical transmission of FMDV from infected cows to fetuses. For this purpose, fetal tissue samples of eight abortuses (heart, liver, kidney, spleen, palatine tonsil, umbilical cord, soft palate, tongue, lungs, and submandibular lymph node) were collected and screened by various detection methods, including viral genome detection, virus isolation, and immunomicroscopy. Amongst these cases, gross pathological changes were observed in 3 abortuses. Gross pathological findings included blood-tinged peritoneal and pleural effusions and myocarditis. Hearts of infected calves had mild to moderate degeneration and necrosis of the myocardium with moderate infiltration by mixed inflammatory cells. Localization of FMDV antigen was demonstrated in lungs and soft palate by immunomicroscopy. FMDV serotype O viral genome was recovered from 7 of 8 cases. Infectious FMDV serotype O was rescued by chemical transfection of the total RNA extracted from three soft palate samples and was sequenced to confirm 100% identity of the VP1 (capsid) coding region with isolates collected from infected cattle during the acute phase of infection. Based upon these findings, it may be concluded that FMDV-associated abortion occurred among the infected pregnant cows included within this study and FMDV was subsequently transmitted vertically to fetuses. This is the first documentation of FMDV-associated abortions in cattle.
Ranjan, Rajeev; Biswal, Jitendra K.; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Singh, Karam Pal; Stenfeldt, Carolina; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Pattnaik, Bramhadev; Arzt, Jonathan
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild host species. During recent FMD outbreaks in India, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst FMD-affected and asymptomatic cows. The current study was an opportunistic investigation of these naturally occurring bovine abortions to assess causality of abortion and vertical transmission of FMDV from infected cows to fetuses. For this purpose, fetal tissue samples of eight abortuses (heart, liver, kidney, spleen, palatine tonsil, umbilical cord, soft palate, tongue, lungs, and submandibular lymph node) were collected and screened by various detection methods, including viral genome detection, virus isolation, and immunomicroscopy. Amongst these cases, gross pathological changes were observed in 3 abortuses. Gross pathological findings included blood-tinged peritoneal and pleural effusions and myocarditis. Hearts of infected calves had mild to moderate degeneration and necrosis of the myocardium with moderate infiltration by mixed inflammatory cells. Localization of FMDV antigen was demonstrated in lungs and soft palate by immunomicroscopy. FMDV serotype O viral genome was recovered from 7 of 8 cases. Infectious FMDV serotype O was rescued by chemical transfection of the total RNA extracted from three soft palate samples and was sequenced to confirm 100% identity of the VP1 (capsid) coding region with isolates collected from infected cattle during the acute phase of infection. Based upon these findings, it may be concluded that FMDV-associated abortion occurred among the infected pregnant cows included within this study and FMDV was subsequently transmitted vertically to fetuses. This is the first documentation of FMDV-associated abortions in cattle. PMID:27977708
Ranjan, Rajeev; Biswal, Jitendra K.; Subramaniam, Saravanan; ...
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild host species. During recent FMD outbreaks in India, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst FMD-affected and asymptomatic cows. The current study was an opportunistic investigation of these naturally occurring bovine abortions to assess causality of abortion and vertical transmission of FMDV from infected cows to fetuses. For this purpose, fetal tissue samples of eight abortuses (heart, liver, kidney, spleen, palatine tonsil, umbilical cord, soft palate, tongue, lungs, and submandibular lymph node) were collected and screened by various detection methods, including viral genomemore » detection, virus isolation, and immunomicroscopy. Amongst these cases, gross pathological changes were observed in 3 abortuses. Gross pathological findings included blood-tinged peritoneal and pleural effusions and myocarditis. Hearts of infected calves had mild to moderate degeneration and necrosis of the myocardium with moderate infiltration by mixed inflammatory cells. Localization of FMDV antigen was demonstrated in lungs and soft palate by immunomicroscopy. FMDV serotype O viral genome was recovered from 7 of 8 cases. Infectious FMDV serotype O was rescued by chemical transfection of the total RNA extracted from three soft palate samples and was sequenced to confirm 100% identity of the VP1 (capsid) coding region with isolates collected from infected cattle during the acute phase of infection. Based upon these findings, it may be concluded that FMDV-associated abortion occurred among the infected pregnant cows included within this study and FMDV was subsequently transmitted vertically to fetuses. This is the first documentation of FMDV-associated abortions in cattle.« less
Ranjan, Rajeev; Biswal, Jitendra K.; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Singh, Karam Pal; Stenfeldt, Carolina; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Pattnaik, Bramhadev; Arzt, Jonathan
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild host species. During recent FMD outbreaks in India, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst FMD-affected and asymptomatic cows. The current study was an opportunistic investigation of these naturally occurring bovine abortions to assess causality of abortion and vertical transmission of FMDV from infected cows to fetuses. For this purpose, fetal tissue samples of eight abortuses (heart, liver, kidney, spleen, palatine tonsil, umbilical cord, soft palate, tongue, lungs, and submandibular lymph node) were collected and screened by various detection methods, including viral genome detection, virus isolation, and immunomicroscopy. Amongst these cases, gross pathological changes were observed in 3 abortuses. Gross pathological findings included blood-tinged peritoneal and pleural effusions and myocarditis. Hearts of infected calves had mild to moderate degeneration and necrosis of the myocardium with moderate infiltration by mixed inflammatory cells. Localization of FMDV antigen was demonstrated in lungs and soft palate by immunomicroscopy. FMDV serotype O viral genome was recovered from 7 of 8 cases. Infectious FMDV serotype O was rescued by chemical transfection of the total RNA extracted from three soft palate samples and was sequenced to confirm 100% identity of the VP1 (capsid) coding region with isolates collected from infected cattle during the acute phase of infection. Based upon these findings, it may be concluded that FMDV-associated abortion occurred among the infected pregnant cows included within this study and FMDV was subsequently transmitted vertically to fetuses. This is the first documentation of FMDV-associated abortions in cattle.
Sahin, Orhan; Terhorst, Samantha A; Burrough, Eric R; Shen, Zhangqi; Wu, Zuowei; Dai, Lei; Tang, Yizhi; Plummer, Paul J; Ji, Ju; Yaeger, Michael J; Zhang, Qijing
Campylobacter jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen, and a hypervirulent clone, named clone SA, has recently emerged as the predominant cause of ovine abortion in the United States. To induce abortion, orally ingested Campylobacter must translocate across the intestinal epithelium, spread systemically in the circulation, and reach the fetoplacental tissue. Bacterial factors involved in these steps are not well understood. C. jejuni is known to produce capsular polysaccharide (CPS), but the specific role that CPS plays in systemic infection and particularly abortion in animals remains to be determined. In this study, we evaluated the role of CPS in bacteremia using a mouse model and in abortion using a pregnant guinea pig model following oral challenge. Compared with C. jejuni NCTC 11168 and 81-176, a clone SA isolate (IA3902) resulted in significantly higher bacterial counts and a significantly longer duration of bacteremia in mice. The loss of capsule production via gene-specific mutagenesis in IA3902 led to the complete abolishment of bacteremia in mice and abortion in pregnant guinea pigs, while complementation of capsule expression almost fully restored these phenotypes. The capsule mutant strain was also impaired for survival in guinea pig sera and sheep blood. Sequence-based analyses revealed that clone SA possesses a unique CPS locus with a mosaic structure, which has been stably maintained in all clone SA isolates derived from various hosts and times. These findings establish CPS as a key virulence factor for the induction of systemic infection and abortion in pregnant animals and provide a viable candidate for the development of vaccines against hypervirulent C. jejuni. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Bogavac, Mirjana A; Brkic, Snezana; Simin, Natasa; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Grujic, Zorica; Milosevic, Vesna; Bozin, Biljana
To find out if determination of neopterin can be used for the detection of viral infections in pregnant women with symptoms of imminent spontaneous abortion. Eighty-eight pregnant women with symptoms of imminent spontaneous abortion (investigated group) and 88 healthy pregnant women were evaluated (control group). Neopterin level and IgM and IgG antibodies for eight viruses in the blood were determined. Parvo B19 virus and elevated neopterin values were found in significantly higher number in investigated group than in control. There was no correlation between women with acute ParvoB19 infection and elevated neopterin level. The determination of neopterin in the sera cannot be used for screening of viral infections in pregnancy.
Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Obana, Nozomu; Yee, Lii Mien; Asai, Kei; Nomura, Nobuhiko
Bacteria have developed various strategies for phage resistance. Infection with phage induces the transcription of part of the phage resistance gene, but the regulatory mechanisms of such transcription remain largely unknown. The phage resistance gene nonA is located on the SPβ prophage region of the Bacillus subtilis Marburg strain genome. The nonA transcript was detected at the late stage of SP10 infection but is undetectable in noninfected cells. The nonA transcript was detected after the induction of the sigma factor Orf199-Orf200 (σOrf199-200), when sigma factors encoded in the SP10 genome were expressed from a xylose-inducible plasmid. Thus, the SP10 sigma factor is an activator of a set of SP10 genes and nonA. The nonA gene encodes a 72-amino-acid protein with a transmembrane motif and has no significant homology with any protein in any database. NonA overexpression halted cell growth and reduced the efficiency of B. subtilis colony formation and respiration activity. In addition, SP10 virion protein synthesis was inhibited in the nonA+ strain, and SP10 virion particles were scarce in it. These results indicate that NonA is a novel protein that can abort SP10 infection, and its transcription was regulated by SP10 sigma factor. PMID:24272782
Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Obana, Nozomu; Yee, Lii Mien; Asai, Kei; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Nakamura, Kouji
Bacteria have developed various strategies for phage resistance. Infection with phage induces the transcription of part of the phage resistance gene, but the regulatory mechanisms of such transcription remain largely unknown. The phage resistance gene nonA is located on the SPβ prophage region of the Bacillus subtilis Marburg strain genome. The nonA transcript was detected at the late stage of SP10 infection but is undetectable in noninfected cells. The nonA transcript was detected after the induction of the sigma factor Orf199-Orf200 (σ(Orf199-200)), when sigma factors encoded in the SP10 genome were expressed from a xylose-inducible plasmid. Thus, the SP10 sigma factor is an activator of a set of SP10 genes and nonA. The nonA gene encodes a 72-amino-acid protein with a transmembrane motif and has no significant homology with any protein in any database. NonA overexpression halted cell growth and reduced the efficiency of B. subtilis colony formation and respiration activity. In addition, SP10 virion protein synthesis was inhibited in the nonA(+) strain, and SP10 virion particles were scarce in it. These results indicate that NonA is a novel protein that can abort SP10 infection, and its transcription was regulated by SP10 sigma factor.
Almería, Sonia; López-Gatius, Fernando
Bovine neosporosis has emerged as a main cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. An important question to understand the disease is why not all infected cows abort. In the present review we summarize the knowledge on markers related to the diagnosis and more importantly to the risk of abortion in the infected cow. Markers considered herein include those based on specific antibodies, antibody titers and antibody subtypes, cellular immunological markers, hormones and other proteins related to gestation. The identification of parasite molecules that are specifically identified in the aborting cows might help to understand the mechanism of parasite-associated abortion and control the disease.
Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...
Wilczyński, Jacek R
There are still controversies concerning the role of immunological mechanisms engaged both in recurrent abortions (RA) and pre-eclampsia (PE). According to some opinions, recurrent miscarriage is comparable to organ-specific autoimmune disease. Analysis of immune reactions shows that graft rejection shares many similar mechanisms with RA and PE. This fact allows us to conclude that rejection of transplanted alloantigenic organs and pregnancy loss have probably the same evolutionary origin. Subsets and functions of immunocompetent cells (T CD4, suppressor gammadeltaT, cytotoxic T CD8, Treg, Tr1, uterine NK cells), over-activation of innate immunity (activation of NK cytotoxic cells, macrophages, neutrophils and complement), changes of Th1/Th2 cytokine balance (IL-2, IL-12, IL-15, IL-18, IFNgamma, TNFalpha vs. IL-4, IL-10, TGFbeta), importance of HLA-G molecule, CD200/CD200R interaction, over-expression of adhesion molecules, fgl2 prothrombinase activation and stimulation of IDO and HO expression, all suggest that RA and PE are syndromes of fetal allograft rejection, and not organ-specific autoimmune diseases. According to that supposition, an analogy might exist between acute graft rejection and recurrent abortion, and between chronic graft rejection and pre-eclampsia.
Matrone, M.; Keid, L.B.; Rocha, V.C.M.; Vejarano, M.P.; Ikuta, C.Y.; Rodriguez, C.A.R.; Ferreira, F.; Dias, R.A.; Ferreira Neto, J.S
The objective of the present study was to improve the detection of B. abortus by PCR in organs of aborted fetuses from infected cows, an important mechanism to find infected herds on the eradication phase of the program. So, different DNA extraction protocols were compared, focusing the PCR detection of B. abortus in clinical samples collected from aborted fetuses or calves born from cows challenged with the 2308 B. abortus strain. Therefore, two gold standard groups were built based on classical bacteriology, formed from: 32 lungs (17 positives), 26 spleens (11 positives), 23 livers (8 positives) and 22 bronchial lymph nodes (7 positives). All samples were submitted to three DNA extraction protocols, followed by the same amplification process with the primers B4 and B5. From the accumulated results for organ, the proportion of positives for the lungs was higher than the livers (p=0.04) or bronchial lymph nodes (p=0.004) and equal to the spleens (p=0.18). From the accumulated results for DNA extraction protocol, the proportion of positives for the Boom protocol was bigger than the PK (p< 0.0001) and GT (p=0.0004). There was no difference between the PK and GT protocols (p=0.5). Some positive samples from the classical bacteriology were negative to the PCR and vice-versa. Therefore, the best strategy for B. abortus detection in the organs of aborted fetuses or calves born from infected cows is the use, in parallel, of isolation by classical bacteriology and the PCR, with the DNA extraction performed by the Boom protocol. PMID:24031391
Madić, J; Hajsig, D; Sostarić, B; Curić, S; Seol, B; Naglić, T; Cvetnić, Z
An abortion outbreak occurred in a herd of 38 horses, 26 of which were pregnant mares. Twenty-one mares aborted between 5-10 months of gestation. In no case were there indications of impending abortion. Pathoanatomical, histopathological, virological and bacteriological examinations were carried out on 4 aborted fetuses. Histopathology identified Gram-negative bacteria compatible with salmonella in all 4 placentae. By subsequent bacteriological examination Salmonella abortusequi was isolated as the single causative agent in each case. Nonmotile Salmonella abortusequi with antigenic formula 4,12:-:- was isolated from one of the 4 fetuses. The described episode of equine abortion clearly indicates that Salmonella abortusequi has not been eradicated from Europe as previously thought.
Zhang, Fengjiao; Wang, Zhiquan; Dong, Wen; Sun, Chunqing; Wang, Haibin; Song, Aiping; He, Lizhong; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi; Teng, Nianjun
Embryo abortion is the main cause of failure in chrysanthemum cross breeding, and the genes and proteins associated with embryo abortion are poorly understood. Here, we applied RNA sequencing and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) to analyse transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of normal and abortive embryos. More than 68,000 annotated unigenes and 700 proteins were obtained from normal and abortive embryos. Functional analysis showed that 140 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 41 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were involved in embryo abortion. Most DEGs and DEPs associated with cell death, protein degradation, reactive oxygen species scavenging, and stress-response transcriptional factors were significantly up-regulated in abortive embryos relative to normal embryos. In contrast, most genes and proteins related to cell division and expansion, the cytoskeleton, protein synthesis and energy metabolism were significantly down-regulated in abortive embryos. Furthermore, abortive embryos had the highest activity of three executioner caspase-like enzymes. These results indicate that embryo abortion may be related to programmed cell death and the senescence- or death-associated genes or proteins contribute to embryo abortion. This adds to our understanding of embryo abortion and will aid in the cross breeding of chrysanthemum and other crops in the future. PMID:25288482
Badr, Mohamed S; Attia, Samar S; El-Sherbiny, Walid S; Abd-Allah M A, El Ebidi; Hefny, Hesham M; Salem, Ahmed N M
Toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in human beings. Human toxoplasmosis can be associated with serious clinical manifestations, particularly in developing fetus. The aim of the current study was to identify the possible lineage type of Toxoplasma gondii, molecularly detected in placental samples of women whose pregnancies were spontaneously terminated in the first trimester. Preliminary detection of Toxoplasma genomic materials was done by a SYBR green qPCR technology. Subsequent identification of Toxoplasma strain was done for the positive samples using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) at the SAG2 loci of T. gondii using restriction enzymes HhaI and Sau3AI. Out of 72 tested samples, Toxoplasma B1 gene was detected in 9 cases. Toxoplasma genotypes I and II in addition to unknown type were identified in 4, 3 and 2 cases respectively, while type III was not detected in our samples, hence excluded as a leading cause of abortion in humans in our preliminary study. Nevertheless, it remains uncertain to what extent the genotype of the parasite directly contributes to the clinical severity of human toxoplasmosis. Certainly, advanced molecular techniques targeting different Toxoplasma strains are crucial for better understanding of human toxoplasmosis. For more elucidation, additional studies are recommended intended for genetic characterization of such serious parasitic infection using larger number of samples.
Martinez, Brayan Alexander Fonseca; Leotti, Vanessa Bielefeldt; Borba, Mauro Riegert; Silva, Gustavo de Sousa E; Corbellini, Luís Gustavo
The purpose of this study was to use mixed logistic regression to evaluate the association between Neospora caninum serostatus and abortion, accounting for the effects of farms. The main objective was to explore the interpretation of this model and discuss the contribution of this analysis to our understanding of the disease's epidemiology. A mixed-effects logistic model using farms as a random effect and the serostatus for N. caninum, age of cattle and farm location as fixed effects was performed. The data from 1256 cows over 15 months of age from 60 farms were used, and the abortion information was obtained from farm records. A significant association between N. caninum serostatus and abortion was found (p<0.0001). Seropositive cows had 6.63 times greater odds of having a history of previous abortion (95% CI: 4.35-13.37). There was remarkable variability across farms in the probability of a cow having a history of an abortion. Including the effects of the farms in the regression, it was possible to estimate an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 16%. That means that 16% of the variation in abortion occurrence that was not explained by the fixed effects was due to farms. In practical terms, this variation means that while there are farms with several seropositive cows and no/few abortion cases, the opposite is also true, with a high number of abortions in farms with low/medium seroprevalence. The remaining variability (84%) was not explained by the effect of N. caninum, age, region, and the effect of farms, i.e., it is due to unknown factors that are causing abortions. The results of this study reinforce the importance of N. caninum as a cause of abortions and demonstrate the significant heterogeneity in the probability of a cow having a history of an abortion that cannot be explained completely by N. caninum serostatus, age or location. Including the hierarchical structure of the population along with correct interpretation of the model estimates helps us
Kydd, J H; Wattrang, E; Hannant, D
In general, vaccines containing inactivated equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) fail to prevent abortion in pregnant mares following infection with a virulent strain of EHV-1. We have tested the hypothesis that resistance to EHV-1-induced abortion in pregnant mares is associated with high frequencies of EHV-1 specific, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in the circulation. To test this theory, three groups of pregnant mares were assembled with varying backgrounds of infection or vaccination in an attempt to mimic the immune status of the general population. Group 1 mares (n=9) were untreated controls selected at random. Group 2 mares (n=5) were vaccinated three times intramuscularly with inactivated EHV-1. Group 3 mares (n=3) had been infected with EHV-1 on four previous occasions. The frequency of CTL in blood leucocytes was measured by limiting dilution analysis at three time points; at the beginning of pregnancy (approximately 28 weeks before infection) in the Group 2 and Group 3 mares (4-7 weeks of gestation) (Group 1 was unavailable for sampling) and then 2 weeks before (30-40 weeks of gestation) and 3 weeks after experimental infection in all the mares. Serum samples were collected to monitor complement fixing (CF) antibody titres. Mares in all three groups were infected experimentally with EHV-1 strain Ab4/8 by the intranasal route after which they were monitored clinically to determine the outcome of pregnancy and samples were collected to determine the duration of nasopharyngeal shedding and cell-associated viraemia. The untreated control mares showed low pre-infection CTL. After experimental infection, they all seroconverted, aborted and demonstrated expected clinical and virological signs. Some vaccinated mares (3/5) had elevated titres of CF antibody prior to their first vaccination. All the vaccinated mares seroconverted after vaccination and exhibited higher CTL frequencies than controls before infection
Dinsel, Alison; Morrey, Jeremy M.; OMalley, Patrick; Park, Samuel
On May 6, 2010, NASA launched the first successful integrated flight test, Pad Abort-1, of the Orion Project from the White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces, New Mexico. This test demonstrated the ability to perform an emergency pad abort of a full-scale 4.8 m diameter, 8200 kg crew capsule. During development of the critical separation mechanisms for this flight test, various challenges were overcome related to environments definition, installation complications, separation joint retraction speed, thruster ordnance development issues, load path validation and significant design loads increases. The Launch Abort System retention and release (LAS R&R) mechanism consisted of 6 discrete structural connections between the LAS and the crew module (CM) simulator, each of which had a preloaded tension tie, Superbolt torque-nut and frangible nut. During the flight test, the frangible nuts were pyrotechnically split, permitting the CM to separate from the LAS. The LAS separation event was the driving case in the shock environment for many co-located hardware items. During development testing, it was necessary to measure the source shock during the separation event so the predicted shock environment could be validated and used for certification testing of multiple hardware items. The Lockheed Martin test team measured the source separation shock due to the LAS R&R function, which dramatically decreased the predicted environment by 90% at 100 Hz. During development testing a hydraulic tensioner was used to preload the joint; however, the joint relaxation with the tensioner proved unsatisfactory so the design was modified to include a Superbolt torque-nut. The observed preload creep during lab testing was 4% after 30 days, with 2.5% occurring in the first 24 hours. The conversion of strain energy (preload) to kinetic energy (retraction) was measured to be 50-75%. Design features and careful monitoring of multiple strain gauges on each tension tie allowed a pure tensile load
Burn, J; Gibbens, D
It is suggested that the major genetic factor in determining the birth of children with neural tube defects may be a single X-linked gene. It acts as an X-linked dominant, not by producing neural tube defects, but by enabling the affected fetus to survive selective spontaneous abortion. This mechanism, mediated at the deciduoplacental junction, may be under the control of both maternal and fetal genes. With more mutant alleles, survival would become more likely, reaching a maximum in the homozygous affected female fetus of a homozygous affected mother. The female excess in anancephaly is greater than that in spina bifida because of its prenatal severity, thus requiring relatively more mutant alleles for survival. PMID:381663
Singh, Namita; Prasad, Priya; Kumar, Praveen; Singh, Laishram Chandreshwar; Das, Banashree; Rastogi, Sangita
The aim of the study was to characterize the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) genes in spontaneously aborted tissues from women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. A total of 135 spontaneous aborters (Group I) and 45 induced aborters (controls; Group II) attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department at Safdarjung hospital (New Delhi, India), were enrolled. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was performed to detect C. trachomatis DNA in endometrial curettage tissue (ECT). Differential expression of COX-2 and PGE2 receptors at mRNA level was analysed in ECT using reverse transcription PCR and real-time PCR. In total, 14.8% patients were diagnosed as C. trachomatis-positive in Group I whereas all control patients were C. trachomatis-negative. Qualitative expression of COX-2 (p < 0.05) and PGE2 (p < 0.0001) receptors was found increased in C. trachomatis-positive patients (Group I) in comparison to controls. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis also showed upregulation in transcript levels of both COX-2 (p < 0.002) and PGE2 (p < 0.0001) receptors in infected patients (Group I) versus Group II. COX-2 and PGE2 expression was higher (p < 0.002) in recurrent spontaneous aborters in comparison to sporadic spontaneous aborters. Results suggest that chlamydial infection leads to upregulation of COX-2 in C. trachomatis-positive recurrent spontaneous aborters, which probably mediates increased prostaglandin synthesis.
Kumar, M. Senthil; Plotkin, Joshua B.; Hannenhalli, Sridhar
CRISPRs offer adaptive immunity in prokaryotes by acquiring genomic fragments from infecting phage and subsequently exploiting them for phage restriction via an RNAi-like mechanism. Here, we develop and analyze a dynamical model of CRISPR-mediated prokaryote-phage coevolution that incorporates classical CRISPR kinetics along with the recently discovered infection-induced activation and autoimmunity side effects. Our analyses reveal two striking characteristics of the CRISPR defense strategy: that both restriction and abortive infections operate during coevolution with phages, driving phages to much lower densities than possible with restriction alone, and that CRISPR maintenance is determined by a key dimensionless combination of parameters, which upper bounds the activation level of CRISPRs in uninfected populations. We contrast these qualitative observations with experimental data on CRISPR kinetics, which offer insight into the spacer deletion mechanism and the observed low CRISPR prevalence in clinical isolates. More generally, we exploit numerical simulations to delineate four regimes of CRISPR dynamics in terms of its host, kinetic, and regulatory parameters. PMID:26544847
Donahue, J M; Smith, B J; Redmon, K J; Donahue, J K
A study was conducted to evaluate a recently available fluorescent antibody test (FAT) conjugate for the detection of leptospires in tissues of aborted and stillborn horses, to determine the leptospira antibody titers and compare serologic test results with FAT results, and to determine the prevalence of leptospira-induced abortions and stillbirths in the equine population of central Kentucky. From July 1, 1988 through June 30, 1989, 15 (2.5%) of 594 submissions (fetuses, stillborn foals, and/or placentas) were diagnosed as leptospirosis by the FAT (14 of 15 tested) and/or microscopic agglutination test (12 of 14 tested). Of the 12 serologically positive fetal fluids, 10 had high tigers against Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and 2 against serovar grippotyphosa.
Abortion is common. Data on abortion rates are inexact but can be used to explore trends. Globally, the estimated rate in the period 2010-2014 was 35 abortions per 1000 women (aged 15-44 years), five points less than the rate of 40 for the period 1990-1994. Abortion laws vary around the world but are generally more restrictive in developing countries. Restrictive laws do not necessarily deter women from seeking abortion but often lead to unsafe practice with significant mortality and morbidity. While a legal framework for abortion is a prerequisite for availability, many laws, which are not evidence based, restrict availability and delay access. Abortion should be available in the interests of public health and any legal framework should be as permissive as possible in order to promote access. In the absence of legal access, harm reduction strategies are needed to reduce abortion-related mortality and morbidity. Abortion can be performed surgically (in the first trimester, by manual or electric vacuum aspiration) or with medication: both are safe and effective. Cervical priming facilitates surgery and reduces the risk of incomplete abortion. Diagnosis of incomplete abortion should be made on clinical grounds, not by ultrasound. Septic abortion is a common cause of maternal death almost always following unsafe abortion and thus largely preventable. While routine follow-up after abortion is unnecessary, all women should be offered a contraceptive method immediately after the abortion. This, together with improved education and other interventions, may succeed in reducing unintended pregnancy.
Ambühl, Lea Maria Margareta; Baandrup, Ulrik; Dybkær, Karen; Blaakær, Jan; Uldbjerg, Niels; Sørensen, Suzette
Based on the current literature, we aimed to provide an overview on Human Papillomavirus prevalence in normal pregnancies and pregnancies with adverse outcome. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed and Embase. Data extracted from the articles and used for analysis included HPV prevalence, pregnancy outcome, geographical location, investigated tissue types, and HPV detection methods. The overall HPV prevalence in normal full-term pregnancies was found to be 17.5% (95% CI; 17.3–17.7) for cervix, 8.3% (95% CI; 7.6–9.1) for placental tissue, 5.7% (95% CI; 5.1–6.3) for amniotic fluid, and 10.9% (95% CI; 10.1–11.7) for umbilical cord blood. Summary estimates for HPV prevalence of spontaneous abortions and spontaneous preterm deliveries, in cervix (spontaneous abortions: 24.5%, and preterm deliveries: 47%, resp.) and placenta (spontaneous abortions: 24.9%, and preterm deliveries: 50%, resp.), were identified to be higher compared to normal full-term pregnancies (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001). Great variation in HPV prevalence was observed between study populations of different geographical locations. This review demonstrates an association between spontaneous abortion, spontaneous preterm delivery, and the presence of HPV in both the cervix and the placenta. However, a reliable conclusion is difficult to draw due to the limited number of studies conducted on material from pregnancies with adverse outcome and the risk of residual confounding. PMID:27110088
A summary of an article which describes how persons form attitudes toward abortion is presented. 3 parameters play roles in the formation of attitudes toward abortion. One such parameter is the decision for which cases abortion is to be allowed. A second parameter is the person's conception of when life commences. A third parameter is formed by unconscious or non-reasoned attitudes which relate to abortion. A model depicts the interaction of these parameters to form opinions about abortion ranging from "abortion is murder" to "liberalize abortion." This leads to the consideration of more general ethical problems. Arguments for and against abortion are listed, as well as improtant statistics concerning abortion from 1975.
... 100.4°F) When should I start using birth control after an abortion? You can get pregnant soon ... an abortion, even before your period returns. Most birth control methods can be started on the same day ...
... an undesired pregnancy. The medicine helps remove the fetus and placenta from the mother's womb (uterus). There are different types of medical abortions: Therapeutic medical abortion is done because the woman ...
Meyer, Christine; Engelmann, Flora; Arnold, Nicole; Krah, David L.; ter Meulen, Jan; Haberthur, Kristen; Dewane, Jesse
ABSTRACT Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human neurotropic alphaherpesvirus and the etiological agent of varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (HZ, shingles). Previously, inoculation of monkeys via the subcutaneous, intratracheal, intravenous, or oral-nasal-conjunctival routes did not recapitulate all the hallmarks of VZV infection, including varicella, immunity, latency, and reactivation. Intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques (RMs) with simian varicella virus (SVV), a homolog of VZV, recapitulates virologic and immunologic hallmarks of VZV infection in humans. Given that VZV is acquired primarily via the respiratory route, we investigated whether intrabronchial inoculation of RMs with VZV would result in a robust model. Despite the lack of varicella and viral replication in either the lungs or whole blood, all four RMs generated an immune response characterized by the generation of VZV-specific antibodies and T cells. Two of 4 VZV-inoculated RMs were challenged with SVV to determine cross-protection. VZV-immune RMs displayed no varicella rash and had lower SVV viral loads and earlier and stronger humoral and cellular immune responses than controls. In contrast to the results for SVV DNA, no VZV DNA was detected in sensory ganglia at necropsy. In summary, following an abortive VZV infection, RMs developed an adaptive immune response that conferred partial protection against SVV challenge. These data suggest that a replication-incompetent VZV vaccine that does not establish latency may provide sufficient protection against VZV disease and that VZV vaccination of RMs followed by SVV challenge provides a model to evaluate new vaccines and therapeutics against VZV. IMPORTANCE Although VZV vaccine strain Oka is attenuated, it can cause mild varicella, establish latency, and in rare cases, reactivate to cause herpes zoster (HZ). Moreover, studies suggest that the HZ vaccine (Zostavax) only confers short-lived immunity. The development of more efficacious
Ståhl, K; Björkman, C; Emanuelson, U; Rivera, H; Zelada, A; Moreno-López, J
We used a prospective seroepidemiological approach to investigate endemic abortion in a dairy herd in Arequipa, Peru, and its association with Neospora caninum and bovine viral-diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections. Between January 2002 and March 2004, 1094 pregnancies were confirmed in 538 cows. Of these, 137 pregnancies (13%) in 121 cows ended in abortion. The serological status to N. caninum was assessed using a single serological screening, whereas BVDV status was assessed at the herd level through consecutive samplings of young stock. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the effect of N. caninum and BVDV on the hazard of early (between day 42 and day 100 in gestation), and late (after day 100) abortions, respectively. Serological status to N. caninum was included as a dichotomous variable, and the effect of BVDV estimated at the herd level, as a time-dependent seasonal effect. Because data from repeated pregnancies were included, we considered possible lack of independence between observations and included frailty effects into the models. Our models also considered the possible confounding by parity and animal origin. Only multiparity was associated with the hazard of early abortion (HR=2.8 compared to nulliparous heifers). N. caninum seropositivity significantly affected the hazard of late abortion, but interacted with parity. The HRs for Neospora-positive animals were 6.4, 3.7 and 1.9, respectively, for nulliparous heifers, first-lactation cows and multiparous cows. Evidence of BVDV circulating (or not) among the young stock was not associated with abortions, but few cows in this herd were susceptible to incident infection.
Discussions with several groups of low-income, middle-aged women in various countries of Latin America showed that most disapproved of abortion. In the course of group discussions about the motives of women who seek abortions and the psychological and sanitary conditions under which abortion occurs, however, their disapproval became less categorical. They began to accept the need to decriminalize abortion in order to protect women. The majority, strongly influenced by the Catholic Church, believed that human life begins at conception. Others disapproved of abortion because they feared it would be used as a birth control method and would encourage promiscuity. Most disapproved of abortion for single women attempting to escape family or social censure of unmarried motherhood. Fear of health effects or death from abortion and fear of divine punishment were also mentioned. Recognition of the anguish and pain suffered by women deciding to seek abortion and the difficulty of providing for the material and other needs of many children were factors that led to reconsideration of the wholesale condemnation of abortion. The women realized that such condemnations never take the woman's circumstances into account. Some of the women felt that aborting an unwanted pregnancy would be preferable to abandoning or neglecting an unwanted child. Many of the women came to feel that abortion should be legalized at least under some circumstances.
Costescu, Dustin; Guilbert, Edith; Bernardin, Jeanne; Black, Amanda; Dunn, Sheila; Fitzsimmons, Brian; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Soon, Judith; Trouton, Konia; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Wiebe, Ellen; Gold, Karen; Murray, Marie-Ève; Winikoff, Beverly; Reeves, Matthew
This guideline reviews the evidence relating to the provision of first-trimester medical induced abortion, including patient eligibility, counselling, and consent; evidence-based regimens; and special considerations for clinicians providing medical abortion care. Gynaecologists, family physicians, registered nurses, midwives, residents, and other healthcare providers who currently or intend to provide pregnancy options counselling, medical abortion care, or family planning services. Women with an unintended first trimester pregnancy. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library between July 2015 and November 2015 using appropriately controlled vocabulary (MeSH search terms: Induced Abortion, Medical Abortion, Mifepristone, Misoprostol, Methotrexate). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, and observational studies published from June 1986 to November 2015 in English. Additionally, existing guidelines from other countries were consulted for review. A grey literature search was not required. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force for Preventive Medicine rating scale (Table 1). Medical abortion is safe and effective. Complications from medical abortion are rare. Access and costs will be dependent on provincial and territorial funding for combination mifepristone/misoprostol and provider availability. Introduction Pre-procedure care Medical abortion regimens Providing medical abortion Post-abortion care Introduction Pre-procedure care Medical abortion regimens Providing medical abortion Post-abortion care. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Castro, Alessandra M M G; Cruz, Taís F; Salgado, Vanessa R; Kanashiro, Tatiana M; Ferrari, Karen L; Araujo, João P; Brandão, Paulo E; Richtzenhain, Leonardo J
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has been associated with several disease complexes, including reproductive failure. The aim of this study was to identify the subtypes of PCV2 that are associated with reproductive failure in pigs from the State of São Paulo, Brazil and to investigate co-infections with other infectious organisms. Samples of 168 aborted foetuses or mummified foetuses from five farrow-to-finish swine farms known to be infected with PCV2 and located in the State of São Paulo were tested for PCV2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive samples were additionally tested for porcine parvovirus (PPV), Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. by PCR. PCV2 was detected in 18 of the samples (10.7%). PPV, Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp were found in 2, 10 and 0 cases, respectively. Eleven PCV2 strains were sequenced and determined to be either genotype 2a (n = 1) or 2b (n = 10). The findings indicate that the frequency of PCV2 infections in aborted porcine foetuses from the State of São Paulo is rather low (10.7%) and that co-infection with other pathogens is common and may be involved in PCV2 associated reproductive failure. No repeatable, characteristic amino acid motifs for regions of the PCV2 capsid protein seemed to be associated with abortion in sows.
Cheshik, S G; Kisteneva, L B
The goal of this work was the evaluation of the frequency of human CMV infection among the women, whose pregnancy ended in miscarriage, detection of active forms of infection and treatment before pregnancy. Virological and sero-immunological techniques were used. A total of 116 women who had miscarriages before the 28 week of pregnancy were submitted to the CMV test. 109 women (94.0%) demonstrated positive results. 49 women (42.2%) had active form of the cytomegalovirus infection. 13 women (26.5%) had the recurrent form and 36 patients (73.5%) had the persistent form of CMV infection (stage of productive replication). All the women with active CMVI were treated before the next pregnancy. Immunomodulatory therapy for the treatment was used.
Blower, Tim R; Chai, Ray; Przybilski, Rita; Chindhy, Shahzad; Fang, Xinzhe; Kidman, Samuel E; Tan, Hui; Luisi, Ben F; Fineran, Peter C; Salmond, George P C
Some bacteria, when infected by their viral parasites (bacteriophages), undergo a suicidal response that also terminates productive viral replication (abortive infection; Abi). This response can be viewed as an altruistic act protecting the uninfected bacterial clonal population. Abortive infection can occur through the action of Type III protein-RNA toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems, such as ToxINPa from the phytopathogen, Pectobacterium atrosepticum Rare spontaneous mutants evolved in the generalized transducing phage, ΦM1, which escaped ToxINPa-mediated abortive infection in P. atrosepticum ΦM1 is a member of the Podoviridae and member of the "KMV-like viruses", a subset of the T7 supergroup. Genomic sequencing of ΦM1 escape mutants revealed single-base changes which clustered in a single open reading frame. The "escape" gene product, M1-23, was highly toxic to the host bacterium when over-expressed, but mutations in M1-23 that enabled an escape phenotype caused M1-23 to be less toxic. M1-23 is encoded within the DNA metabolism modular section of the phage genome, and when it was over-expressed, it co-purified with the host nucleotide excision repair protein, UvrA. While the M1-23 protein interacted with UvrA in co-immunoprecipitation assays, a UvrA mutant strain still aborted ΦM1, suggesting that the interaction is not critical for the Type III TA Abi activity. Additionally, ΦM1 escaped a heterologous Type III TA system (TenpINPl) from Photorhabdus luminescens (reconstituted in P. atrosepticum) through mutations in the same protein, M1-23. The mechanistic action of M1-23 is currently unknown but further analysis of this protein could provide insights into the mode of activation of both systems.
Read, Christine Margaret
I recently watched a fascinating documentary about the crusade of Dr Bertram Wainer in the 1960s to bring the practice of illegal abortion in Victoria to an end. It documented the profound horror of the backyard abortion that so often ended in infection, sterility or death, and served as a potent reminder of a practice to which we must never return. Of course that cant happen again, abortion is legal now, isnt it? In Victoria in 1969 a Supreme Court judge ruled that an abortion is not unlawful if a doctor believed that: the abortion is necessary to preserve the woman from serious danger to her life or physical or mental health (Menhennit ruling). In Australia today however, abortion law remains conditional, unclear and inconsistent and, except in the ACT, is still part of criminal statutes.
Ossa, J E; Cadavid, A P; Maldonado, J G
Recurrent spontaneous abortion is being treated with alloimmunotherapy which consists of the inoculation of allogeneic mononuclear cells. However the mechanisms explaining the benefits of this therapy are not clear yet. Taking the immunotrophic hypothesis as the paradigm of the field of reproductive immunology, hereby we present a hypothesis to propose a role for the immune system in reproduction and at the same time to explain how alloimmunotherapy may work. We base our view on several facts: first, immunodeficient mice reproduce--albeit their progeny may not be as robust and numerous as that from normal individuals. Second, maternal lymphocytes cross the placenta and may induce graft versus host disease. Third, graft versus host disease in newborn F1 mice inoculated with paternal lymphocytes can be prevented by inoculation of the mother with the same paternal lymphocytes before and during pregnancy. We propose that: 1) the immune system by itself is not necessary for placental reproduction; 2) the immune system plays its major role in reproduction by counteracting the allogeneic response generated against the fetus; 3) recurrent spontaneous abortion represents a type of graft versus host disease induced by maternal cells infiltrating the fetus; and 4) alloimmunotherapy induces an antiidiotypic response necessary to counteract the graft versus host reaction in the fetus.
Tuerler, H.; Salomon, C.
Using three different polyomavirus hr-t mutants and two polyomavirus mlT mutants, the authors studied induction of S-phase by mutants and wild-type virus in quiescent mouse kidney cells, mouse 3T6 cells, and FR 3T3 cells. At different times after infection, they measured the proportion of T-antigen-positive cells, the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine, the proportion of DNA-synthesizing cells, and the increase in total DNA, RNA, and protein content of the cultures. In permissive mouse cells, they also determined the amount of viral DNA and the proportion of viral capsid-producing cells. In polyomavirus hr-t mutant-infected cultures, the onset of host DNA replication was delayed by several hours, and a smaller proportion of T-antigen-positive cells entered S-phase than in wild-type-infected cultures. Of the two polyomavirus mlT mutants studied, dl-23 behaved similarly to wild-type virus in many, but not all, parameters tested. The poorly replicating but well-transforming mutant dl-8 was able to induce S-phase, and (in permissive cells) progeny virus production, in only about one-third of the T-antigen-positive cells. From the experiments, the authors concluded that mutations affecting small and middle T-antigen cause a reduction in the proportion of cells responding to virus infection and a prolongation of the early phase, i.e., the period before cells center S-phase. In hr-t mutant-infected mouse 3T6 cells, production of viral DNA was <10% of that in wild-type-infected cultures; low hr-t progeny production in 3T6 cells was therefore largely due to poor viral DNA replication.
Statistics on legal abortion in Britain between 1968-1974 are presented. There was a mortality rate of 10+ or -2 per 100,000 abortions: 27+ or -11 in 1968-1969, 12+ or -4 in 1970-1972, and 6+ or -3 in 1973-1974. Legal abortion mortality increased from 4+ or -3 when performed at gestation under 9 weeks to 5+ or -2 at 9-12 weeks, 13+ or -7 at 13-16 weeks, and 62+ or -33 at 17 weeks and over. The ratio was 11+ or -6 for women under 20 years of age, increasing to 5+ or -3 at age 20-29, 10+ or -6 at age 30-39, and 23+ or -19 at age 40 and over. The parity had little influence on abortion mortality, but the technique used had a great influence. Hysterotomy, hypertonic saline, and abortifacient paste were the most dangerous, in increasing order, with mortality rates of 39+ or -30, 106+ or -75, and 152+ or -89, respectively. The rates for aspiration and curretage were 4+ or -2 and 4+ or -3, respectively. There was a higher mortality risk with abortion with sterilization. The main causes of legal abortion mortality were infection, pulmonary embolism, and complications of general anesthesia. The high incidence of mortality associated with legal abortion in Britain is partially caused by: 1) high incidence of concurrent sterilization, 2) former use of dangerous techniques, 3) significant incidence of second trimester abortion, 4) routine use of general anesthesia, and 5) previous ill health of some of the women.
Gerhardt, A J
The worldwide trend towards liberalizing abortion laws has resulted in reduced abortion-related mortality in areas where legal abortion is accessible. In countries considering abortion reform, policy-makers and health care providers have a responsibility to ensure that provisions of any new law can be met. Preparations underway to prepare for South Africa's new abortion law can serve as a guideline for such action. A new abortion law calls for policy changes that may include 1) developing new standards, protocols, and guidelines for abortion care services; 2) ensuring provision of adequate trained staff willing to provide abortions; 3) streamlining administrative regulations to avoid delays; 4) establishing regulations and mechanisms for drug and equipment supply and distribution; 5) restructuring the health system to accommodate provision of abortion services; 6) allocating funds for new abortion services; and 7) reviewing and revising security measures. In addition, health professionals will require training in abortion provision, staff will need information updates about aspects of the legislation, and administrators and providers in a position to impede provision of services must be made aware of the affect of unsafe abortion on maternal health. Researchers should document the effect of the new law on women's health, the provision of reproductive health services, and the community. IEC (information, education, communication) activities will be required to inform the public about the new law and services, establish sex education programs in schools and health facilities, and mobilize family planning organizations and programs to help reduce the incidence of repeat abortions.
Fromer, M J
Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view
Hsu, Lilian M.
Abortive initiation, when first discovered, was an enigmatic phenomenon, but fully three decades hence, it has been shown to be an integral step in the transcript initiation process intimately tied to the promoter escape reaction undergone by RNA polymerase at the initiation-elongation transition. A detailed understanding of abortive initiation-promoter escape has brought within reach a full description of the transcription initiation mechanism. This enormous progress was the result of convergent biochemical, genetic, and biophysical investigations propelled by parallel advances in quantitation technology. This chapter discusses the knowledge gained through the biochemical approach and a high-resolution method that yields quantitative and qualitative information regarding abortive initiation-promoter escape at a promoter. PMID:18948204
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic as well as more than 70 wild host species. During recent FMD outbreaks in India, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst FMD-affected and asymptomatic cows. T...
Kamita, S G; Maeda, S
Homologous recombination between the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) genome and a 0.6-kbp-long DNA fragment derived from the putative DNA helicase gene of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus generates eh2-AcNPV, an expanded-host-range AcNPV mutant (S. Maeda, S.G. Kamita, and A. Kondo, J. Virol. 67:6234-6238, 1993). After inoculation at a high multiplicity of infection (MOI), eh2-AcNPV replicates efficiently in both the Sf-9 (AcNPV-permissive) and BmN (non-AcNPV-permissive) cell lines. In this study, we found that after the inoculation of Sf-9 cells at a low MOI (i.e., 1 and 0.1 PFU per cell), the release of eh2-AcNPV virions was dramatically reduced (approximately 900- and 10,000-fold, respectively, at 72 h postinoculation) compared with that of wild-type AcNPV. In addition, the titer of eh2-AcNPV determined by plaque assay on Sf-9 cells was approximately 200-fold lower than that determined by plaque assay on BmN cells. Analyses of gene expression and viral DNA replication after low-MOI eh2-AcNPV inoculation of Sf-9 cells indicated that viral early genes were expressed normally. However, DNA replication and late-gene expression were significantly reduced. These findings suggested that abortive infection occurred at the stage of viral DNA replication in nearly all low-MOI eh2-AcNPV-infected Sf-9 cells. In the larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda, the organism from which Sf-9 cells are derived, the infectivity of eh2-AcNPV was lower than that of AcNPV; however, abortive infection was not found. PMID:8709251
Rello, Jordi; Lisboa, Thiago; Koulenti, Despoina
Lower respiratory tract infections in mechanically ventilated patients are a frequent cause of antibiotic treatment in intensive-care units. These infections present as severe sepsis or septic shock with respiratory dysfunction in intubated patients. Purulent respiratory secretions are needed for diagnosis, but distinguishing between pneumonia and tracheobronchitis is not easy. Both presentations are associated with longlasting mechanical ventilation and extended intensive-care unit stay, providing a rationale for antibiotic treatment initiation. Differentiation of colonisers from true pathogens is difficult, and microbiological data show Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to be of great concern because of clinical outcomes and therapeutic challenges. Key management issues include identification of the pathogen, choice of initial empirical antibiotic, and decisions with regard to the resolution pattern.
Blanchard, P C; Filkins, M
Cryptococcus neoformans was the causative agent of pneumonia in a 9-month-old equine fetus aborted by a healthy American Paint mare. Endometritis was diagnosed on biopsy, and vaginal specimens obtained for culture were Cryptococcus-positive 1 month following abortion but not 5 months after abortion. Infection resolved without treatment between 1 and 5 months after abortion, and the mare was bred the following year and delivered a live premature foal without evidence of Cryptococcus infection.
Gurpegui, Manuel; Jurado, Dolores
The psychiatric consequences of induced abortion continue to be the object of controversy. The reactions of women when they became aware of conception are very variable. Pregnancy, whether initially intended or unintended, may provoke stress; and miscarriage may bring about feelings of loss and grief reaction. Therefore, induced abortion, with its emotional implications (of relief, shame and guilt) not surprisingly is a stressful adverse life event. METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS: There is agreement among researchers on the need to compare the mental health outcomes (or the psychiatric complications) with appropriate groups, including women with unintended pregnancies ending in live births and women with miscarriages. There is also agreement on the need to control for the potential confounding effects of multiple variables: demographic, contextual, personal development, previous or current traumatic experiences, and mental health prior to the obstetric event. Any psychiatric outcome is multi-factorial in origin and the impact of life events depend on how they are perceived, the psychological defence mechanisms (unconscious to a great extent) and the coping style. The fact of voluntarily aborting has an undeniable ethical dimension in which facts and values are interwoven. No research study has found that induced abortion is associated with a better mental health outcome, although the results of some studies are interpreted as
Shapiro, Karen; Miller, Melissa A; Packham, Andrea E; Aguilar, Beatriz; Conrad, Patricia A; Vanwormer, Elizabeth; Murray, Michael J
Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona are protozoan parasites with terrestrial definitive hosts, and both pathogens can cause fatal disease in a wide range of marine animals. Close monitoring of threatened southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) in California allowed for the diagnosis of dual transplacental transmission of T. gondii and S. neurona in a wild female otter that was chronically infected with both parasites. Congenital infection resulted in late-term abortion due to disseminated toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii and S. neurona DNA was amplified from placental tissue culture, as well as from fetal lung tissue. Molecular characterization of T. gondii revealed a Type X genotype in isolates derived from placenta and fetal brain, as well as in all tested fetal organs (brain, lung, spleen, liver and thymus). This report provides the first evidence for transplacental transmission of T. gondii in a chronically infected wild sea otter, and the first molecular and immunohistochemical confirmation of concurrent transplacental transmission of T. gondii and S. neurona in any species. Repeated fetal and/or neonatal losses in the sea otter dam also suggested that T. gondii has the potential to reduce fecundity in chronically infected marine mammals through parasite recrudescence and repeated fetal infection.
Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos; Gozzelino, Raffaella; de Moraes, Luciana V.
Plasmodium infection during gestation may lead to severe clinical manifestations including abortion, stillbirth, intrauterine growth retardation, and low birth weight. Mechanisms underlying such poor pregnancy outcomes are still unclear. In the animal model of severe placental malaria (PM), in utero fetal death frequently occurs and mothers often succumb to infection before or immediately after delivery. Plasmodium berghei-infected erythrocytes (IEs) continuously accumulate in the placenta, where they are then phagocytosed by fetal-derived placental cells, namely trophoblasts. Inside the phagosomes, disruption of IEs leads to the release of non-hemoglobin bound heme, which is subsequently catabolized by heme oxygenase-1 into carbon monoxide, biliverdin, and labile iron. Fine-tuned regulatory mechanisms operate to maintain iron homeostasis, preventing the deleterious effect of iron-induced oxidative stress. Our preliminary results demonstrate that iron overload in trophoblasts of P. berghei-infected placenta is associated with fetal death. Placentas which supported normally developing embryos showed no iron accumulation within the trophoblasts. Placentas from dead fetuses showed massive iron accumulation, which was associated with parasitic burden. Here we present preliminary data suggesting that disruption of iron homeostasis in trophoblasts during the course of PM is a consequence of heme accumulation after intense IE engulfment. We propose that iron overload in placenta is a pathogenic component of PM, contributing to fetal death. The mechanism through which it operates still needs to be elucidated. PMID:25071574
Taylor, Diana; Upadhyay, Ushma D; Fjerstad, Mary; Battistelli, Molly F; Weitz, Tracy A; Paul, Maureen E
To develop and validate standardized criteria for assessing abortion-related incidents (adverse events, morbidities, near misses) for first-trimester aspiration abortion procedures and to demonstrate the utility of a standardized framework [the Procedural Abortion Incident Reporting & Surveillance (PAIRS) Framework] for estimating serious abortion-related adverse events. As part of a California-based study of early aspiration abortion provision conducted between 2007 and 2013, we developed and validated a standardized framework for defining and monitoring first-trimester (≤14weeks) aspiration abortion morbidity and adverse events using multiple methods: a literature review, framework criteria testing with empirical data, repeated expert reviews and data-based revisions to the framework. The final framework distinguishes incidents resulting from procedural abortion care (adverse events) from morbidity related to pregnancy, the abortion process and other nonabortion related conditions. It further classifies incidents by diagnosis (confirmatory data, etiology, risk factors), management (treatment type and location), timing (immediate or delayed), seriousness (minor or major) and outcome. Empirical validation of the framework using data from 19,673 women receiving aspiration abortions revealed almost an equal proportion of total adverse events (n=205, 1.04%) and total abortion- or pregnancy-related morbidity (n=194, 0.99%). The majority of adverse events were due to retained products of conception (0.37%), failed attempted abortion (0.15%) and postabortion infection (0.17%). Serious or major adverse events were rare (n=11, 0.06%). Distinguishing morbidity diagnoses from adverse events using a standardized, empirically tested framework confirms the very low frequency of serious adverse events related to clinic-based abortion care. The PAIRS Framework provides a useful set of tools to systematically classify and monitor abortion-related incidents for first
Gerber, Andrea; Thoma, Ruedi; Vretou, Evangelia; Psarrou, Evgenia; Kaiser, Carmen; Doherr, Marcus G; Zimmermann, Dieter R; Polkinghorne, Adam; Pospischil, Andreas; Borel, Nicole
Prevention and control of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) can be achieved by application of a live vaccine. In this study, five sheep flocks with different vaccination and infection status were serologically tested using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) specific for Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus over a two-year time period. Sheep in Flock A with recent OEA history had high antibody values after vaccination similar to Flock C with natural Cp. abortus infections. In contrast, OEA serology negative sheep (Flock E) showed individual animal-specific immunoreactions after vaccination. Antibody levels of vaccinated ewes in Flock B ranged from negative to positive two and three years after vaccination, respectively. Positive antibody values in the negative control Flock D (without OEA or vaccination) are probably due to asymptomatic intestinal infections with Cp. abortus. Excretion of the attenuated strain of Cp. abortus used in the live vaccine through the eye was not observed in vaccinated animals of Flock E. The findings of our study indicate that, using serology, no distinction can be made between vaccinated and naturally infected sheep. As a result, confirmation of a negative OEA status in vaccinated animals by serology cannot be determined.
Gerber, Andrea; Thoma, Ruedi; Vretou, Evangelia; Psarrou, Evgenia; Kaiser, Carmen; Doherr, Marcus G; Zimmermann, Dieter R; Polkinghorne, Adam; Pospischil, Andreas; Borel, Nicole
Background Prevention and control of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) can be achieved by application of a live vaccine. In this study, five sheep flocks with different vaccination and infection status were serologically tested using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) specific for Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus over a two-year time period. Results Sheep in Flock A with recent OEA history had high antibody values after vaccination similar to Flock C with natural Cp. abortus infections. In contrast, OEA serology negative sheep (Flock E) showed individual animal-specific immunoreactions after vaccination. Antibody levels of vaccinated ewes in Flock B ranged from negative to positive two and three years after vaccination, respectively. Positive antibody values in the negative control Flock D (without OEA or vaccination) are probably due to asymptomatic intestinal infections with Cp. abortus. Excretion of the attenuated strain of Cp. abortus used in the live vaccine through the eye was not observed in vaccinated animals of Flock E. Conclusion The findings of our study indicate that, using serology, no distinction can be made between vaccinated and naturally infected sheep. As a result, confirmation of a negative OEA status in vaccinated animals by serology cannot be determined. PMID:17903243
Serdula, M K; Marks, J S; Herrmann, K L; Orenstein, W A; Hall, A D; Bomgaars, M R
In 1977, a large rubella outbreak occurred in Hawaii. Because attack rates were high among women of childbearing age, we conducted extensive surveillance efforts to detect both pregnancies complicated by rubella and cases of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Initial surveillance included a survey of physicians and hospitals, review of fetal death and birth certificates, and cord blood screening for rubella-specific IgM of infants born following the epidemic. Two years after the outbreak, the medical community was again surveyed to identify affected children who were missed initially. No case of CRS was identified either shortly after the outbreak or in the ensuing two years. In addition, none of the 5,605 cord serum samples obtained was found to contain rubella-specific IgM antibody. Through active surveillance, we received 12 reports of rubella in pregnant women, of whom 11 elected to terminate their pregnancies. The extensive use of therapeutic abortion by exposed women may have prevented the birth of infants with CRS. Surveillance for rubella-related abortions is an important component in assessing the health impact of rubella in a community. PMID:6496818
Benkirane, A; Jabli, N; Rodolakis, A
A survey was carried out on 23 sheep flocks to estimate the frequency of abortion as well as the prevalence of antibodies against abortive infections. During the visit of each farm, a questionnaire was completed with the collaboration of the owner and blood samples were collected from all aborted ewes and some of those with normal lambing. A rate of 7% abortion was reached in both aborted and normally lambed ewes. Anti-Chlamydia psittaci antibodies were the most frequently detected (14 flocks). Anti-Coxiella burnetii and anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were found in 9 flocks, whereas anti-Brucella and anti-Salmonella abortus ovis were present in only 1 flock each. None of the 5 infections was detected in 2 flocks. Mixed infections were prevalent: 13 flocks were simultaneously infected by at least 2 abortive pathogens. The procedure used does not allow the cause of abortion to be identified in all cases.
Data on unsafe abortions, defined as those provided by persons lacking the necessary skills in an environment failing to meet medical standards, are scarce given the legal and ethical implications of reporting such procedures. However, the World Health Organization estimates that 20 million unsafe abortions occur each year, 90% of them in developing countries under conditions of illegality. The rate is 8/1000 women of reproductive age in more developed countries compared with 17/1000 in less developed countries; the highest rate (47/1000) exists in Latin America. Worldwide, there are an estimated 70,000 unsafe abortion-related deaths each year; again, the risk of mortality is at least 15 times higher in developing than developed countries. In addition, about 20-30% of unsafe abortions result in reproductive tract infections, many of which produce infertility. Of concern is the increase in unsafe abortion among unmarried adolescents who lack access to fertility control services. Urged is a reframing of the abortion issue on the basis of a commitment to women's reproductive health and well-being.
This brief summary presents information on the epidemiology of abortion requested by IPPF. In 1975, 8% of the world's population lived in areas where the law prohibits abortion completely, and 27% lived in areas where abortions are severely restricted. Over 2 years, 40,000 hospitalizations for abortion complications were reported in such countries, with 168 deaths. 21% of women hospitalized for a diagnosis related to abortion died. In Latin America, hospitalization and death because of illegal abortion led to epidemiological studies. In Chile, surveys indicate that 1/4 women has had an abortion. Colombia data state that 10 women die/week from abortion complications. Bangladesh identified 31 abortion deaths. When related to live births occurring in the area from which the deaths were reported, the abortion mortality ratio was 19/1000,000 live births. Data from Romania showed that before 1966, when abortion was legal, there were fewer than 100 reported deaths. After 1966, when abortion was restricted, crude birth rate increased from 15-40/1000 total population. During the following 4 years, the birth rate dropped until it was below 25, but concomitant deaths due to abortion increased. In 1965, 64 abortion-related deaths occurred, whereas by 1971, abortion-related deaths increased to 364. In North America abortion deaths and number of illegal abortions decreased dramatically after 1973, when abortion became legal in the U.S. In 1972, illegal abortions led to the deaths of 41 women, but in 1974 only 5 such deaths occurred. If women with unplanned or unwanted pregnancies all underwent abortion within the 1st 8 weeks of pregnancy, 90% of the deaths due to legal abortion could be prevented.
Though pregnancy termination is highly restricted in Kenya, induced abortion remains common. Illegal abortion is often unsafe, putting women at risk of death or severe complications. In eastern Africa as a whole, an estimated 14% of all pregnancies end in abortion, and nearly one in five maternal deaths are due to unsafe abortion.
King, Nicholas J C; Teixeira, Mauro M; Mahalingam, Suresh
Immune status changes during pregnancy, with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory contexts at different stages, making pregnant women potentially more susceptible to various infections. Infection by Zika virus during pregnancy can cause developmental damage to the fetus, and the altered immune response during pregnancy could contribute to disease during Zika infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The somatic and flagellar serum agglutinin titre were determined in paired samples obtained from seventy-seven cases of bovine abortion associated with Salmonella dublin infection. The cases could be divided into four serological groups with an active infection being demonstrated in most cases. The serum agglutination test was shown to be a relatively specific diagnostic test but was of more limited value in the retrospective identification of convalescent cases. PMID:4518345
Cook, R J; Dickens, B M
During the period between 1977 and the first quarter of 1988, 35 countries liberalized their abortion laws and four countries limited grounds for the procedure. Most legislation has extended abortion eligibility through traditional indications such as danger to maternal health or fetal handicap, but a number of other indications have been created such as adolescence, advanced maternal age, family circumstances, and AIDS or HIV infection. A number of countries have redesigned their abortion laws as part of a comprehensive package to facilitate access to and delivery of contraception, voluntary sterilization, and abortion services. Abortion litigation has increased and stimulated the liberalization of abortion provisions and the support of women's autonomous choice within the law. In Canada, the entire criminal prohibition of abortion was held unconstitutional for violating women's integrity and security. In contrast, Latin American and other constitutional developments may limit legal abortion to instances of danger to women's lives. PMID:3048126
Blancafort, Lluís; González, David; Olivucci, Massimo; Robb, Michael A
CASSCF computations show that the hydrogen-transfer-induced fluorescence quenching of the (1)(pi,pi*) excited state of zwitterionic tryptophan occurs in three steps: (1) formation of an intramolecular excited-state complex, (2) hydrogen transfer from the amino acid side chain to the indole chromophore, and (3) radiationless decay through a conical intersection, where the reaction path bifurcates to a photodecarboxylation and a phototautomerization route. We present a general model for fluorescence quenching by hydrogen donors, where the radiationless decay occurs at a conical intersection (real state crossing). At the intersection, the reaction responsible for the quenching is aborted, because the reaction path bifurcates and can proceed forward to the products or backward to the reactants. The position of the intersection along the quenching coordinate depends on the nature of the states and, in turn, affects the formation of photoproducts during the quenching. For a (1)(n,pi*) model system reported earlier (Sinicropi, A.; Pogni, R.; Basosi, R.; Robb, M. A.; Gramlich, G.; Nau, W. M.; Olivucci, M. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2001, 40, 4185-4189), the ground and the excited state of the chromophore are hydrogen acceptors, and the excited-state hydrogen transfer is nonadiabatic and leads directly to the intersection point. There, the hydrogen transfer is aborted, and the reaction can return to the reactant pair or proceed further to the hydrogen-transfer products. In the tryptophan case, the ground state is not a hydrogen acceptor, and the excited-state hydrogen transfer is an adiabatic, sequential proton and electron transfer. The decay to the ground state occurs along a second reaction coordinate associated with decarboxylation of the amino acid side chain and the corresponding aborted conical intersection. The results show that, for (1)(pi,pi*) states, the hydrogen transfer alone is not sufficient to induce the quenching, and explain why fluorescence quenching induced
Sepou, A; Ngbale, R; Yanza, M C; Domande-Modanga, Z; Nguembi, E
Abortion, i.e., early termination of pregnancy, has few complications when it occurs spontaneously. However self-inflicted abortion (SIA) often leads to more or less serious complications. In view of the increasing number of abortion cases in our department, we undertook this yearlong transversal study to evaluate the incidence of SIA in the department, determine the demographic characteristics of the women that practiced SIA, and identify the complications of SIA. Only ongoing or incomplete abortions were studied. Amenorrhea not related to pregnancy or associated with ectopic pregnancy was excluded from study. Clinical and demographic data were noted on forms specially designed by the research team. Data analysis yielded the following findings. Abortion accounted for 719 of the 5292 hospitalizations (13.6%) in gynecology unit, including 43.4% of SIA. Mean patient age was 24.7 years (range, 13 to 39). Spontaneous abortion was more likely to be observed in married women than in students who usually presented SIA. Wanted pregnancy was more likely to be reported by married women than by single woman who posed the problem of unwanted pregnancy. Students had more SIA. The main reasons for practicing SIA were financial (61.5%). The most common methods used for SIA were drug combinations (39.1%) and mechanical tools (26.0%). All severe complications such as infection and death were observed in women who practiced SIA. The high incidence of SIA in the department was especially disturbing due to the young age of the women involved and the severity of the complications. More action is needed to spread information on contraceptive methods in schools and universities to avoid unintended pregnancies that drive young people to practice SIA.
Neĭkov, P; Genchev, G G
Serologic and morphologic studies were carried out with ewes and aborted fetuses, respectively, with regard to the Chlamydial infection in the flocks of some farms. The complement-fixation test was employed to examine a total of 656 blood serum samples. It was found that 20.2 per cent of these contained Chlamydial antibodies. Abortions were established with 6 to 8 per cent of the sheep in each flock. Material was sampled from 35 aborted fetuses. Featuring in the gross lesions of the fetal placenta in Chlamydial abortions were the wheat-bran type of whitish coatings on the surface. Characteristic histologic findings were desquamation, necroses, lympho-leukocytic infiltrations, and the partial deposits of calcium salts. Definite diagnostic value with the aborted fetuses were shown to have the lympho-histiocytic proliferations in the liver, adrenal glands, kidneys, lungs as well as the reticuloendothelial hyperplasia with the presence of gigantic cells of Langhans type in the mesenterial lymph nodes.
Stefanetti, Valentina; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Lepri, Elvio; Coletti, Mauro; Casagrande Proietti, Patrizia; Agnetti, Francesco; Crotti, Silvia; Pitzurra, Lucia; Del Sero, Andrea; Passamonti, Fabrizio
Ascending infections of equine uterus frequently result in placentitis and abortions; most of these infections are bacterial and are less commonly due to fungi. This report describes an abortion case in an Arab mare due to Candida guilliermondii that was diagnosed via cytological, histological, cultural and biomolecular assays. The histological lesions found were severe necrotizing placentitis associated with fetal pneumonia. To our knowledge this is the first case of C. guilliermondii abortion reported in equine species. PMID:24707460
Stefanetti, Valentina; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Lepri, Elvio; Coletti, Mauro; Casagrande Proietti, Patrizia; Agnetti, Francesco; Crotti, Silvia; Pitzurra, Lucia; Del Sero, Andrea; Passamonti, Fabrizio
Ascending infections of equine uterus frequently result in placentitis and abortions; most of these infections are bacterial and are less commonly due to fungi. This report describes an abortion case in an Arab mare due to Candida guilliermondii that was diagnosed via cytological, histological, cultural and biomolecular assays. The histological lesions found were severe necrotizing placentitis associated with fetal pneumonia. To our knowledge this is the first case of C. guilliermondii abortion reported in equine species.
Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu
We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971–1975 to demonstrate that women travelled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A100- mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services. PMID:23811233
Flores-Mireles, Ana L; Walker, Jennifer N; Caparon, Michael; Hultgren, Scott J
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a severe public health problem and are caused by a range of pathogens, but most commonly by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. High recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens threaten to greatly increase the economic burden of these infections. In this Review, we discuss how basic science studies are elucidating the molecular details of the crosstalk that occurs at the host-pathogen interface, as well as the consequences of these interactions for the pathophysiology of UTIs. We also describe current efforts to translate this knowledge into new clinical treatments for UTIs.
Flores-Mireles, Ana L.; Walker, Jennifer N.; Caparon, Michael; Hultgren, Scott J.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a severe public health problem and are caused by a range of pathogens, but most commonly by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. High recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens threaten to greatly increase the economic burden of these infections. In this Review, we discuss how basic science studies are elucidating the molecular details of the crosstalk that occurs at the host–pathogen interface, as well as the consequences of these interactions for the pathophysiology of UTIs. We also describe current efforts to translate this knowledge into new clinical treatments for UTIs. PMID:25853778
Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.
Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.
Before 1975 abortion was illegal in South Africa unless the life of the mother was at risk. The Abortion and Sterilization Act (ASA) of 1975 broadened the scope of legal abortion. The act allows abortion to save the life of the mother, in cases of severe fetal deformity, in cases or rape or incest, or if the woman is mentally incompetent. The procedure to get the abortion includes finding a doctor to recommend the procedure, then finding 2 other doctors to claim, in good faith, that abortion is indicated. At least 1 of these doctors must have been practicing for 4 years and neither can participate in the procedure. The operation must take place in a state controlled institution or an institution specifically designed for abortion. This law is currently not serving the needs of the women of South Africa, even among the women who are legally entitled to have an abortion. Annually only 40% of those that apply for abortion are approved and over 70% of the approved procedures are performed on psychological grounds. It is estimated that there are 200,000-300,000 illegal abortions every year. At Baragwanath there are 15,000 patients admitted for infection related to abortion every year. The ASA has failed to stop illegal abortion and failed to meet the needs of society. The abortion law should be liberalized for a variety of reasons. Women do not have adequate access to contraceptives in South Africa. This results in the birth of many unwanted children which are more likely to be abused and abandoned. Even if contraceptives were universally available, they all have associated failure rates. Since it is assumed that a women using contraceptives does not want to become pregnant, abortion needs to be available as a backup to contraceptives. Since South Africa is a patriarchal society, women must be given control over their reproduction if they are to achieve equal status. Thus for the reasons of preventing unwanted and unwanted and abused children, backing up contraceptives
Stotland, Nada L
The subject of abortion is fraught with politics, emotions, and misinformation. A widespread practice reaching far back in history, abortion is again in the news. Psychiatry sits at the intersection of the religious, ethical, psychological, sociological, medical, and legal facets of the abortion issue. Although the religions that forbid abortion are more prominent in the media, many religions have more liberal approaches. While the basic right to abortion has been upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court, several limitations have been permitted, including parental notification or consent (with the possibility of judicial bypass) for minors, waiting periods, and mandatory provision of certain, sometimes biased, information. Before the Roe v. Wade decision legalizing abortion in 1973, many women were maimed or killed by illegal abortions, and psychiatrists were sometimes asked to certify that abortions were justified on psychiatric grounds. Currently, there are active attempts to convince the public and women considering abortion that abortion frequently has negative psychiatric consequences. This assertion is not borne out by the literature: the vast majority of women tolerate abortion without psychiatric sequelae. The psychiatric outcome of abortion is best when patients are able to make autonomous, supported decisions. Psychiatrists need to know the medical and psychiatric facts about abortion. Psychiatrists can then help patients prevent unwanted pregnancies, make informed decisions consonant with their own values and circumstances when they become pregnant, and find appropriate social and medical resources whatever their decisions may be.
Rosen, John M; Klumpp, David J
The pain response to urinary tract infection is largely uncharacterized, but the symptomatic response to urinary tract infection contrasts with the lack of pain response among individuals with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Quantifying pelvic pain in a murine urinary tract infection model, uropathogenic Escerichia coli induces transient pelvic pain, whereas an asymptomatic bacteriuria E. coli isolate causes no pain, thus recapitulating the spectrum of clinical responses to intravesical E. coli. These differential pain responses are not correlated with bladder colonization or inflammation, but instead are intrinsic to E. coli lipopolysaccharide and dependent on the lipopolysaccharide receptor, TLR4. Epidemiological data suggest a link between interstitial cystitis and a history of urinary tract infection, so it was evaluated whether repetitive uropathogenic E. coli instillation would result in chronic pain through central sensitization. Although repeated infection with wild type uropathogenic E. coli results in only transient episodes of acute pain, a uropathogenic E. coli mutant lacking O-antigen causes chronic, post-urinary tract infection pelvic pain. Similarly, a K-12 E. coli strain lacking O-antigen induces chronic pain that persisted long after bacterial clearance, and expressing O-antigen nullified the pain phenotype. Spinal cords isolated from mice with post-urinary tract infection chronic pain showed deficits in short-term depression consistent with central sensitization. Deleting O-antigen gene complex from a uropathogenic E. coli strain and subsequent heterologous expression of O-antigen gene clusters shows that a single bacterial isolate can exhibit pain phenotypes ranging from a null phenotype, an acute pain phenotype, to a chronic pain phenotype. Post-urinary tract infection chronic pain is also associated with voiding dysfunction and anxious/depressive behavior. These effects are also mediated by TRPV1 at the level of pain establishment
Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp, Helena Kallner
A safe induced abortion has no impact on future fertility. Ovulation may resume as early as 8 days after the abortion. There is no difference in return to fertility after medical or surgical abortion. Most women resume sexual activity soon after an abortion. Contraceptive counseling and provision should therefore be an integrated part of the abortion services to help women avoid another unintended pregnancy and risk, in many cases an unsafe, abortion. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods that includes implants and intrauterine contraception have been shown to be the most effective contraceptive methods to help women prevent unintended pregnancy following an abortion. However, starting any method is better than starting no method at all. This Special Report will give a short guide to available methods and when they can be started after an induced abortion.
Paulsen, James A.
Discusses general attitudes towards unwanted pregnancies and abortions, the methods that students have resorted to in order to abort themselves, and the mental state of college women, who become pregnant with children they don't want. (RK)
Paulsen, James A.
Discusses general attitudes towards unwanted pregnancies and abortions, the methods that students have resorted to in order to abort themselves, and the mental state of college women, who become pregnant with children they don't want. (RK)
Kumar, Anuradha; Hessini, Leila; Mitchell, Ellen M H
Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies upon power disparities and inequalities for its formation. In this paper, we identify social and political processes that favour the emergence, perpetuation and normalisation of abortion stigma. We hypothesise that abortion transgresses three cherished 'feminine' ideals: perpetual fecundity; the inevitability of motherhood; and instinctive nurturing. We offer examples of how abortion stigma is generated through popular and medical discourses, government and political structures, institutions, communities and via personal interactions. Finally, we propose a research agenda to reveal, measure and map the diverse manifestations of abortion stigma and its impact on women's health.
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Schikora, Adam; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Bueso, Eduardo; Garcia, Ana V; Nilau, Theodora; Charrier, Amélie; Pelletier, Sandra; Menanteau, Pierrette; Baccarini, Manuela; Velge, Philippe; Hirt, Heribert
Salmonella virulence in animals depends on effectors injected by Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs). In this report we demonstrate that Salmonella mutants that are unable to deliver effectors are also compromised in infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Transcriptome analysis revealed that in contrast to wild type bacteria, T3SS mutants of Salmonella are compromised in suppressing highly conserved Arabidopsis genes that play a prominent role during Salmonella infection of animals. We also found that Salmonella originating from infected plants are equally virulent for human cells and mice. These results indicate a high degree of conservation in the defense and infection mechanism of animal and plant hosts during Salmonella infection.
Abortion on medical and eugenic grounds has been legal in most European countries for several years. In Austria, abortions are performed following obligatory counseling, and physicians can abstain conscientiously from performing them. In Denmark, first trimester abortion is performed on request for women over age 17. Abortion has been legal in Finland since 1950; the abortion rate reached its peak in 1973, and has been declining since then. First trimester abortion is legal in France, but a woman seeking admission to a hospital must present a physician's certificate, a counselor's certificate, and her own written consent. Delays in the processing of the application are not unusual and the whole procedure can be lengthy and discouraging. First trimester abortion was legalized in the German Democratic Republic in 1972, and in 1973 in the Federal Republic of Germany, where 79% of abortions are requested on grave social grounds. Applications for abortions are seldom refused in Hungary, where the abortion rate reached 81.1/1000 women in 1971. Abortion on request is expected to be legalized shortly in Norway, while it prevails in Poland, where 98% of abortions are performed for social indications. In Sweden, abortion is performed only in public hospitals, and contraceptive advice and fitting is free. The availability of abortion in the United Kingdom is limited by the restrictive attitude of some National Health Service physicians, and nearly all abortions on nonresidents (32% in 1973) are performed on private premises. In Yugoslavia, abortion is the constitutional right of every woman, but only the Republic of Slovenia has, so far, legislated fertility regulation as a whole, and termination of pregnancy can be performed only with the approval of a special committee.
Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne
Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…
Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L
Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed.
Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne
Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…
Sedgh, Gilda; Ball, Haley
Each year in Indonesia, millions of women become pregnant unintentionally, and many choose to end their pregnancies, despite the fact that abortion is generally illegal. Like their counterparts in many developing countries where abortion is stigmatized and highly restricted, Indonesian women often seek clandestine procedures performed by untrained providers, and resort to methods that include ingesting unsafe substances and undergoing harmful abortive massage. Though reliable evidence does not exist, researchers estimate that about two million induced abortions occur each year in the country and that deaths from unsafe abortion represent 14-16% of all maternal deaths in Southeast Asia. Preventing unsafe abortion is imperative if Indonesia is to achieve the fifth Millennium Development Goal of improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality. Current Indonesian abortion law is based on a national health bill passed in 1992. Though the language on abortion was vague, it is generally accepted that the law allows abortion only if the woman provides confirmation from a doctor that her pregnancy is life-threatening, a letter of consent from her husband or a family member, a positive pregnancy test result and a statement guaranteeing that she will practice contraception afterwards. This report presents what is currently known about abortion in Indonesia. The findings are derived primarily from small-scale, urban, clinic-based studies of women's experiences with abortion. Some studies included women in rural areas and those who sought abortions outside of clinics, but none were nationally representative. Although these studies do not give a full picture of who is obtaining abortions in Indonesia or what their experiences are, the evidence suggests that abortion is a common occurrence in the country and that the conditions under which abortion takes place are often unsafe.
Olagnier, David; Muscolini, Michela; Coyne, Carolyn B; Diamond, Michael S; Hiscott, John
A spotlight has been focused on the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) because of its epidemic outbreak in Brazil and Latin America, as well as the severe neurological manifestations of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with infection. In this review, we discuss the recent literature on ZIKV-host interactions, including new mechanistic insight concerning the basis of ZIKV-induced neuropathogenesis.
Abortion has become something to hide, something you can't tell other people, something you have to expiate forever. Besides, abortion is more and more difficult to achieve because of the raising average of consciencious objection (from 70 to 90% of health care providers are conscientious objectors, 2014 data, Ministero della Salute) and illegal abortion is "coming back"from the 70s, when abortion was a crime (Italian law n. 194/1978). Abortion is often blamed as a murder, an unforgivenable sin, even as genocide. Silence against shouting "killers!" to women who are going to have an abortion: this is a common actual scenario. Why is it so difficult to discuss and even to mention abortion?
Du, Xiaofeng; Ju, Chuan; Hu, Wei
Schistosome cercariae must penetrate skin as an initial step to successfully infect the final host. Proteolytic enzymes secreted from the acetabular glands of cercariae contribute significantly to the invasion process. Nowadays, the researches of molecular mechanism of schistosome infection mainly focus on the cercarial secretions including serine protease and cysteine protease. Previous researches already showed that Schistosoma mansoni penetrates the skin mainly depend on cercarial elastease secreted by cercariae while Schistosoma japonicum penetrates the skin chiefly by cathepsin B2. The illustration of molecular mechanism of schistosome cecariae infection will accelerate the identification of novel vaccines and drug targets.
Samal, Jasmine; Kandpal, Manish
Summary: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a complex clinical entity frequently associated with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The persistence of HBV genomes in the absence of detectable surface antigenemia is termed occult HBV infection. Mutations in the surface gene rendering HBsAg undetectable by commercial assays and inhibition of HBV by suppression of viral replication and viral proteins represent two fundamentally different mechanisms that lead to occult HBV infections. The molecular mechanisms underlying occult HBV infections, including recently identified mechanisms associated with the suppression of HBV replication and inhibition of HBV proteins, are reviewed in detail. The availability of highly sensitive molecular methods has led to increased detection of occult HBV infections in various clinical settings. The clinical relevance of occult HBV infection and the utility of appropriate diagnostic methods to detect occult HBV infection are discussed. The need for specific guidelines on the diagnosis and management of occult HBV infection is being increasingly recognized; the aspects of mechanistic studies that warrant further investigation are discussed in the final section. PMID:22232374
Ekpenyong, Andrew; Man, Si Ming; Tourlomousis, Panagiotis; Achouri, Sarra; Cammarota, Eugenia; Hughes, Katherine; Rizzo, Alessandro; Ng, Gilbert; Guck, Jochen; Bryant, Clare
Infectious diseases, in which pathogens invade and colonize host cells, are responsible for one third of all mortality worldwide. Host cells use special proteins (immunoproteins) and other molecules to fight viral and bacterial invaders. The mechanisms by which immunoproteins enable cells to reduce bacterial loads and survive infections remain unclear. Moreover, during infections, some immunoproteins are known to alter the cytoskeleton, the structure that largely determines cellular mechanical properties. We therefore used an optical stretcher to measure the mechanical properties of primary immune cells (bone marrow derived macrophages) during bacterial infection. We found that macrophages become stiffer upon infection. Remarkably, macrophages lacking the immunoprotein, NLR-C4, lost the stiffening response to infection. This in vitro result correlates with our in vivo data whereby mice lacking NLR-C4 have more lesions and hence increased bacterial distribution and spread. Thus, the immune-protein-dependent increase in cell stiffness in response to bacterial infection (in vitro result) seems to have a functional role in the system level fight against pathogens (in vivo result). We will discuss how this functional link between cell mechanical properties and innate immunity, effected by actin polymerization, reduces the spread of infection.
This is an historical survey of the abortion practices in Australia in the early 20th century. The evidence presented in the article is gathered from reports and documents, articles in medical journals, and information obtained at interviews. The estimated figures for induced abortion are 1/8 live births in 1904, 1/5 live birth in 1937, and 1/4 live births in 1970. Drugs inducing abortion were easily available by the 1890s; they usually were euphemistically advertised to correct irregularities, that is, to bring on a late period, thus enabling vendors to escape prosecution by law. Many of the prescriptions were simple purgatives, such as oil of savin, croton oil, aloe, or they caused contractions of the blood vessels or of the uterus, as did ergot of rye. The contents of the abortion inducing drugs were rarely stated and often misrepresented. In many cases abortion was a secondary effect of the woman poisoning her body with large quantities of drugs; women were also instructed to take hot mustard baths, to jump off tables, and to conduct other physical violence against themselves. Many women tried mechnical methods when chemical methods failed; they included insertion into the uterus of knitting needles, crochet hooks, laminaria and sponge tents. Women who could find the money went to an abortionist; in the 1890s there were an estimated 100-300 abortionists in the city of Sydney. The methods employed went from the use of laminaria tents, to insertion of a catheter, or forcing of fluids into the uterus. Septic infection, peritonitis, blood poisoning, and also uterine perforation were common complications noted in women being admitted to hospitals following abortion. Retention of the placenta was another common complication. After 1904 more restrictive laws reduced the availability of abortifacient drugs and also of contraceptives such as condoms and pessaries; the cost of an illegal abortion skyrocketed to 25 pounds. The result was that more women attempted to
Bergin, J D
Abortion surfaced as a community problem when, following the passage of the 1967 Abortion Act in England and the subsequent rapid rise in medically induced abortion, a few doctors and a group of lay people in Auckland founded the Society for the Protection of the Unborn Child. Soon after this the opposition formed the Abortion Law Reform Association whose aims came to be vocalized by women's liberation groups like Women's Electoral Lobby and WONAAC. As in other countries, the media gave the proabortion movement a good boost and the medical profession did little to discourage it. A bold and significant move was made by the abortion promoters when they established a clinic in Remuera to carry out abortion in Auckland. There was a reaction and eventually (September 1974) a police raid and a court case based on a dozen cases that looked like infringements of the law. Dr. Woolnough, principal operator, was tried but the jury failed to agree. On a retrail he was acquitted. In August 1974 Dr. Gerard Wall introduced a private member's bill aimed at restricting therapeutic abortion to public hospitals. The bill was amended so that duly licensed institutions other than public hospitals were also acceptable for abortion procedures. The Remuera clinic which had ceased working when the provision of the Wall bill became operative transferred its operations to the Aotea Clinic in Epsom which had applied for and obtained a license. The following year the late Air Commodore Frank Gill introduced another bill (August 1976) aimed at changing the situation back toward Wall's position, i.e., restricting induced abortion to public hospitals. In December 1977 a law called the Contraception, Sterilization and Abortion Act was passed, which in essence allowed abortion where it seemed that the mother's life or mental or physical health would be seriously endangered, where the mother was very young or somewhat old, where the child was conceived of incest. Abortion figures raise the question
Wellisch, Lawren; Chor, Julie
Abortion is an extremely common procedure in the United States, with approximately 2% of women having an abortion before age 19 years. Although most pediatricians do not provide abortions, many will care for a young woman who is either considering an abortion or has already had one; therefore, the pediatrician should be able to provide accurate and appropriate counseling about this option. To provide the best care for adolescent patients considering abortion, pediatricians must be knowledgeable of aspects of abortion that are universal to all women and have an understanding of considerations specific to the adolescent patient. The purpose of this article is to (1) review recent statistics about teenagers and abortion, (2) explain the different types of abortion available to teenagers who desire to terminate an unwanted pregnancy, (3) discuss aspects of abortion unique to the adolescent population, such as insurance coverage and parental involvement laws, and (4) address common misconceptions about abortion. [Pediatr Ann. 2015;44(9):384-385,388,390,392.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
Uythoven, Jan; Boccardi, Andrea; Bravin, Enrico; Goddard, Brennan; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry; Höfle, Wolfgang; Jacquet, Delphine; Kain, Verena; Mazzoni, Stefano; Meddahi, Malika; Valuch, Daniel; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana
To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.
Jae-Chen, Shin; Young-Joo, Jeon; Seon-Min, Park; Kang Seok, Seo; Jung-Hyun, Shim; Jung-Il, Chae
Candida albicans (C. albicans) is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that commonly causes nosocomial infections. Systemic candidiasis is encountered with increasing frequency in immunocompromised hosts, leading to renal failure that results in severe morbidity and mortality. The present study investigated the mechanisms underlying kidney susceptibility following infection with several C. albicans strains, such as B311 and SC5314. Fungal growth of the highly virulent SC5314 strain was 10(3)-fold higher compared to the nonpathogenic B311 strain in the kidneys. An intravenous challenge of SC5314 in mice, elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatine levels, which resulted in mortality at 8 or 35 days after infection in a dose- and time-dependent manner, whereas all the B311-infected mice had BUN and creatinine levels in the normal range and survived. Whether virulent C. albicans may escape clearance by activating signaling pathways that lead to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, was investigated. B311 infections significantly elevated TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA expression in the kidneys, whereas the expression in SC5314-infected mice remained unchanged. Furthermore, B311 infection significantly elevated the plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-1β. These results indicated that the less virulent strains of C. albicans induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice. These results determined that an impairment of the protective mechanisms occurred in the kidneys with virulent C. albicans infection.
Holman, William L; Kirklin, James K; Naftel, David C; Kormos, Robert L; Desvign-Nickens, Patricia; Camacho, Margarita T; Ascheim, Deborah D
INTERMACS is a registry of mechanical circulatory support devices sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. This analysis uses INTERMACS data to define the time course, incidence, and outcome of infection adverse events focusing on the first 3 months after implant. Patients entered into INTERMACS from June 23, 2006, to September 30, 2008, were analyzed. Preimplant data (demographics, hemodynamics, and laboratory values), infection adverse events, and other outcomes were recorded. Infection adverse events were analyzed to compare infection rates in subgroups of patients and define risk factors for death. The analysis was confined to pulsatile mechanical circulatory support devices. A total of 593 patients from 88 institutions were entered. Infection was a relatively common event within the first 3 months of implant and was significantly (P = .005) more common in patients with biventricular assist devices than in patients with left ventricular assist devices, although the prevalence of infection equalized in months 4 to 12. Infection had a significant adverse effect on survival. Independent risk factors for death included support with a biventricular assist device, older age, severity of patient illness implantation of the device (INTERMACS level 1), and higher blood urea nitrogen. Infection remains a relatively frequent adverse event and is associated with decreased survival. Interventions to prevent infection that focus on the preoperative and immediate postoperative periods are the ones most likely to achieve success by diminishing the incidence of infection during the initial 3 months after implantation. Rotary (continuous-flow) pumps are expected to have lower infection rates, but this remains to be seen. Published by Mosby, Inc.
Murase, Harutaka; Miyazawa, Masaki; Harada, Takehiro; Ozawa, Midori; Sato, Fumio; Hada, Tetsuro
The degree of fetal growth restriction has been unclear in equine reproduction. In this study, 2,195 fetuses from 2,137 abortions during 11 seasons were examined to determine the causes of abortion, and fetal size dimensions (crown rump length and body weight) were measured. In total, 900 cases (42.1%) of abortion were identified as caused by viral infection (215, 10.1%), bacterial infection (156, 7.3%), fungal infection (25, 1.2%), circulation failure (406, 19.0%), multiple causes (66, 3.1%), deformity (13, 0.6%), placental abnormality (12, 0.6%), and other causes (7, 0.3%). All viral infections originated from equine herpes virus. Of all abortions, 94.3% occurred between 181-360 days of pregnancy, and the gestational ages at abortion were different based on the causes. Fetal sizes in viral abortions were considerably larger than those due to other reasons. Compared with viral infection, the crown rump length size dimension of fetuses aborted from multiple and fungal infection was affected. In addition, bacterial infection, circulation failure, and unknown causes of abortions also contributed to growth restriction in terms of body weight. In conclusion, the present study showed details of equine abortion and the relationships between causes of abortion and fetal size. Most of the aborted fetuses showed restrictions in their growth. The manifestations of growth restriction were more related to weight than skeletal length.
Kapp, Nathalie; Whyte, Patti; Tang, Jennifer; Jackson, Emily; Brahmi, Dalia
The provision of safe abortion services to women who need them has the potential to drastically reduce or eliminate maternal deaths due to unsafe abortion. The World Health Organization recently updated its evidence-based guidance for safe and effective clinical practices using data from systematic reviews of the literature. Systematic reviews pertaining to the evidence for safe abortion services, from pre-abortion care, medical and surgical methods of abortion and post-abortion care were evaluated for relevant outcomes, primarily those relating to safety, effectiveness and women's preference. Sixteen systematic reviews were identified and evaluated. The available evidence does not support the use of pre-abortion ultrasound to increase safety. Routine use of cervical preparation with osmotic dilators, mifepristone or misoprostol after 14 weeks gestation reduces complications; at early gestational ages, surgical abortions have very few complications. Prophylactic antibiotics result in lower rates of post-surgical abortion infection. Pain medication such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatories should be offered to women undergoing abortion procedures; acetaminophen, however, is not effective in reducing pain. Women who are eligible should be offered a choice between surgical (vacuum aspiration or dilation and evacuation) and medical methods (mifepristone and misoprostol) of abortion when possible. Modern methods of contraception can be safely initiated immediately following abortion procedures. Evidence-based guidelines assist health care providers and policymakers to utilize the best data available to provide safe abortion care and prevent the millions of deaths and disabilities that result from unsafe abortion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A prospective study of sheep and goat abortion using real-time polymerase chain reaction and cut point estimation shows Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydophila abortus infection concurrently with other major pathogens.
Hazlett, Murray J; McDowall, Rebeccah; DeLay, Josepha; Stalker, Margaret; McEwen, Beverly; van Dreumel, Tony; Spinato, Maria; Binnington, Brian; Slavic, Durda; Carman, Susy; Cai, Hugh Y
From 2009 to 2011, 163 sheep and 96 goat abortion submissions were received at the Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, for gross and histologic examination, as well as real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for Chlamydophila abortus and/or Coxiella burnetii. Additional testing included immunohistochemistry for Toxoplasma gondii and Chlamydophila spp., routine bacterial culture and selective culture for Campylobacter spp., examination of modified acid-fast-stained placenta smears, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing for Chlamydophila spp., and virus isolation. The final diagnosis made for each case by individual pathologists, based on gross and histologic lesions, as well as ancillary testing, was used as a standard to determine the significance of C. abortus and C. burnetii infection. Coxiella burnetii was identified by real-time PCR in 113 of 163 (69.0%) and 72 of 96 (75%) sheep and goat abortion submissions, respectively, but was considered to be significant in causing abortion in only 11 of 113 (10%) sheep and 15 out of 72 (21%) goat submissions that tested positive. Chlamydophila abortus was identified by real-time PCR in 42 of 162 (26%) and 54 of 92 (59%) sheep and goat submissions, respectively, but was considered the cause of the abortion in 16 of 42 (38%) sheep and 34 of 54 (63%) goat submissions that tested positive. Optimal sensitivity and specificity cut points for the real-time PCR copy number for C. abortus and C. burnetii were determined using the final pathology diagnosis as the reference test.
This piece describes abortion practices in use from the 1600s to the 19th century among the inhabitants of North America. The abortive techniques of women from different ethnic and racial groups as found in historical literature are revealed. Thus, the point is made that abortion is not simply a "now issue" that effects select women. Instead, it is demonstrated that it is a widespread practice as solidly rooted in our past as it is in the present.
Li, Guan-Han; Henderson, Lisa; Nath, Avindra
If we have any hope of achieving a cure for HIV infection, close attention to the cell types capable of getting infected with HIV is necessary. Of these cell types, astrocytes are the most ideal cell type for the formation of such a reservoir. These are long-lived cells with a very low turnover rate and are found in the brain and the gastrointestinal tract. Although astrocytes are evidently resistant to infection of cell-free HIV in vitro, these cells are efficiently infected via cell-tocell contact by which immature HIV virions bud off lymphocytes and have the ability to directly bind to CXCR4, triggering the process of fusion in the absence of CD4. In this review, we closely examine the evidence for HIV infection of astrocytes in the brain and the mechanisms for viral entry and regulation in this cell type, and discuss an approach for controlling this viral reservoir.
Schikora, Adam; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Bueso, Eduardo; Garcia, Ana V.; Nilau, Theodora; Charrier, Amélie; Pelletier, Sandra; Menanteau, Pierrette; Baccarini, Manuela; Velge, Philippe; Hirt, Heribert
Salmonella virulence in animals depends on effectors injected by Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs). In this report we demonstrate that Salmonella mutants that are unable to deliver effectors are also compromised in infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Transcriptome analysis revealed that in contrast to wild type bacteria, T3SS mutants of Salmonella are compromised in suppressing highly conserved Arabidopsis genes that play a prominent role during Salmonella infection of animals. We also found that Salmonella originating from infected plants are equally virulent for human cells and mice. These results indicate a high degree of conservation in the defense and infection mechanism of animal and plant hosts during Salmonella infection. PMID:21915285
Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C
Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of
To find the latest and most accurate information on aspects of induced abortion. A literature survey was carried out in which five aspects of abortion were scrutinised: risk to life, risk of breast cancer, risk to mental health, risk to future fertility, and fetal pain. Abortion is clearly safer than childbirth. There is no evidence of an association between abortion and breast cancer. Women who have abortions are not at increased risk of mental health problems over and above women who deliver an unwanted pregnancy. There is no negative effect of abortion on a woman's subsequent fertility. It is not possible for a fetus to perceive pain before 24 weeks' gestation. Misinformation on abortion is widespread. Literature and websites are cited to demonstrate how data have been manipulated and misquoted or just ignored. Citation of non-peer reviewed articles is also common. Mandates insisting on provision of inaccurate information in some US State laws are presented. Attention is drawn to how women can be misled by Crisis Pregnancy Centres. There is extensive promulgation of misinformation on abortion by those who oppose abortion. Much of this misinformation is based on distorted interpretation of the scientific literature.
Smolarz, Beata; Wilczyński, Jan; Nowakowska, Dorota
Herpesvirus infections, such as those induced by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), induce specific DNA damages. DNA damages can lead to cell mutation, death, apoptosis and immune system activation. Various types of DNA damage are repaired through multiple repair pathways, such as base excision, nucleotide excision, homologous recombination and nonhomologous end joining. Changes in the activity of DNA repair proteins during viral infection can cause disturbances in the DNA repair system and change its mechanisms. This report reviews results from studies, assaying a DNA repair system in HCMV infection.
Jia, Leili; Xie, Jing; Zhao, Jiangyun; Cao, Dekang; Liang, Yuan; Hou, Xuexin; Wang, Ligui; Li, Zhenjun
Influenza virus infection remains one of the largest disease burdens on humans. Influenza-associated bacterial co-infections contribute to severe disease and mortality during pandemic and seasonal influenza episodes. The mechanisms of severe morbidity following influenza-bacteria co-infections mainly include failure of an antibacterial immune response and pathogen synergy. Moreover, failure to resume function and tolerance might be one of the main reasons for excessive mortality. In this review, recent advances in the study of mechanisms of severe disease, caused by bacterial co-infections following influenza virus pathogenesis, are summarized. Therefore, understanding the synergy between viruses and bacteria will facilitate the design of novel therapeutic approaches to prevent mortality associated with bacterial co-infections.
Armengol, Ramon; Pabón, Marcela; Adelantado, Caries; López-Gatius, Fernando; Almeria, Sonia
Neospora caninum-associated abortion was diagnosed in a 7-mo gestational age beef cow fetus from Andorra. The fetus had a multifocal necrotizing encephalitis and nonpurulent multifocal myocarditis. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstration of N. caninum DNA by polymerase chain reaction and tachyzoites by specific staining with N. caninum polyclonal antibodies in the fetal brain. The dam of the aborted fetus had serum N. caninum antibodies at the time of abortion but not 2 mo before abortion took place. This is the first report of N. caninum abortion in Andorra and the first confirmed N. caninum abortion in an acutely infected cow.
Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora
Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes.
Hebecker, Betty; Naglik, Julian R; Hube, Bernhard; Jacobsen, Ilse D
Oral candidiasis remains one of the most common forms of Candida infections and occurs if the balance between host, Candida and microbiota is disturbed, e.g., by broad spectrum antibiotics or immunosuppression. In recent years, identification of fungal factors contributing to host cell damage and new insights into host defense mechanisms have significantly extended our understanding of the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. In this review, we will provide an overview of the pathogenicity mechanisms during oral Candida infections and discuss some approaches by which this knowledge could be transferred into therapeutic approaches.
Responses to the question as to whether abortions should be performed at the woman's request during the first trimester of pregnancy were evenly divided. There was support for abortion on socioeconomic grounds, during the first trimester, from 61.5% of the respondents. Termination of pregnancy beyond the first trimester was supported by a majority of the respondents only in cases in which the woman's life is in danger (73.9%) or in which there is evidence of a severe physical abnormality in the fetus (70.6%) or in cases in which the woman's physical health is in danger (55.5%). Those who said they would not support abortion under any circumstances constitute, at most, 5.1% of the respondents. Support for the maintenance or the elimination of therapeutic abortion committees was addressed in two questions and in both cases the respondents were evenly divided. The responses to these two questions were compared and found to be logically consistent. Only physicians should perform abortions, and they should be performed in hospitals with the woman either as an inpatient or, during the first trimester, as an outpatient. The performance of first-trimester abortions in provincially approved abortion clinics was supported by 47.3% of the respondents. Of the 885 respondents who wished to see some amendment to the Criminal Code, 409 stated that the term "health" as used in the Criminal Code relative to the legal grounds for therapeutic abortion should be defined. PMID:6861064
Devine, P E
The introduction to this essay, which presents and defends the "conservative" position on abortion, explains that this position holds that 1) abortion is wrong because it destroys the fetus; 2) the fetus has full personhood from conception (or very near conception); 3) abortion is only justified under special circumstances, such as when the pregnancy poses a threat to the woman's life; and 4) these conclusions should be reflected in law and public policy. Part 2 sets forth the moral foundations for this position. The third part considers the status of the fetus and reviews the various arguments that have been forwarded to resolve the question, such as the species principle, the potentiality principle, the sentience principle, and the conventionalist principle. Part 4 applies the conservative position to problems posed by hard cases, determines that abortion is a form of homicide from two weeks after fertilization (at the latest), reviews circumstances in which various legal definitions of homicide are applicable, argues for the denial of abortion funding by the state, and notes that violent militancy is not the appropriate response to a belief that abortion should be illegal. Section 5 refutes objections to the conservative position based on the fact that some opponents of abortion also oppose contraception, based on feminist ideals, and based on calls for religious freedom in a pluralistic society. In conclusion, the labels applied to the abortion debate are examined, and it is suggested that "communitarian" is the best term for the conservative position.
Mabry, H P
3 papers giving the Hindu, Catholic and Protestant views on abortion, presented at a seminar for physicians at the Christian Medical College, Vellore, India, January 1972, are summarized. S. THANDAVESWARA stated that the traditional Hindu position, based on the ethical code, Dharma Shastras, prohibits abortion because the practice could prevent rebirth of a specific human life that is in the process of becoming liberated (moksa). Yet an institution, the Parishads, exists to reconsider such matters, and if its membership were not committed to conservative priorities, it could conceivably approve of abortion for the mothers' physical or mental health if she freely chose an abortion. O. DIJKSTRA stated the traditional Catholic view that "direct" abortion is always murder, but "indirect" abortion may be allowed as in removing a cancerous pregnant uterus. He expanded on the phenomenologic interpretation of some liberal theologians, whose views are not yet accepted officially, that the human self emerges irreversibily at nidation, before which abortion could be permitted. The author gave a Protestant position based on Biblical and sociologic sources. He disputed the Catholic's view that human life begins at nidation, and maintained that mere life is only one value to be weighed against love and justice for the fetus, mother, family and society. Love and justice require a choice of contraceptives, safe abortion for all economic classes, safe gestation for future pregnancies, and a resonable hope for a good life for the fetus, its family and society.
Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.
The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users. PMID:1085671
As of July 1991 abortion is still legal in Poland. Currently the Polish Parliament has taken a break from the debate because the issue is so important that any decision must not be made in past. There is strong pressure from the Catholic Church to eliminate access to abortion. In the fall the Polish people will vote for and elect their first truly democratic Parliament. Abortion does not seem to be playing as important a role as other political issues. In 1956 a law was passed that allowed a woman to have an abortion for medical or social reasons. This law resulted in allowing women in Poland to use abortion as their primary form of contraception. The vast majority of the abortions were performed under the social justification. Then, when democracy same to Poland with the help of the Catholic Church, an unprecedented debate in the mass media, churches, and educational institutions was stirred up. The government attempted to stay out of the debate at first. But as people from different side of the debate saw that they had an opportunity to influence things in their favor, they began to politicize the issue. Currently there are 4 different drafts of the new Polish abortion law. 3 of them radically condemn abortion while the 4th condemns it as a method of family planning, but allows to terminate pregnancies in order to save the life of the mother.
Schlafer, D H
Knowledge of the causes of canine or feline pregnancy loss is limited and the success rate for making a definitive diagnosis is disappointingly low. Although these facts are discouraging, there are some things that can be done to improve success rates. This paper will address limitations and explore ways for improvement. For abortions caused by microbial infections, there are many reasons why it may not possible to identify the agents. "Non-infectious" causes are much more difficult to diagnose, and their relative importance is unknown. These include endocrine failure, underlying endometrial disease, genetic abnormalities, nutritional deficiencies, and toxicosis from drugs or environmental sources. Genetic abnormalities are a major cause of human pregnancy loss, yet we have little specific information about genetic diseases leading to abortion in animals. This paper addresses ways clinicians and diagnosticians can work together to improve diagnostic success. Necropsy techniques for fetal and placental examination and sampling are briefly reviewed. It is hoped that this series of papers will stimulate discussion on the causes and pathogenesis of pregnancy failure, and focus attention on areas where abortion diagnostics can be improved.
Miarelli, Maria; Drumo, Rosanna; Signorelli, Federica; Marchitelli, Cinzia; Pavone, Silvia; Pesciaroli, Michele; Ruggieri, Jessica; Chirullo, Barbara; Ammendola, Serena; Battistoni, Andrea; Alborali, Giovanni L; Manuali, Elisabetta; Pasquali, Paolo
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is an important cause of acute food- borne zoonoses worldwide, typically carried by pigs. It is well known that Salmonella has evolved a wide array of strategies enabling it to invade the host, but little information is available on the specific host responses to Salmonella infections. In the present study, we used an in vivo approach (involving piglets infected with a virulent or an attenuated S. Typhimurium strain) coupled to histological and proteomic analysis of the cecum mucosa, to highlight the host pathways activated during S. Typhimurium infection. We confirm the complex host-pathogen interaction. Our data showed that the metabolic and the cytoskeleton organization functions were the most significantly altered. In particular, the modifications of energy metabolic pathway could suggest a "nutriprive" mechanism, in which the host reduce its metabolic and energetic status to limit Salmonella infection. This study could represent a preliminary approach, providing information useful to better understand the host-Salmonella interaction.
Payne, E C; Kravitz, A R; Notman, M T; Anderson, J V
Psychological outcome of abortion was studied in 102 patients, measuring multiple variables over four time intervals. Five measured affects--anxiety, depression, anger, guilt, and shame-were significantly lower six months after the preabortion period. The following variables describe subgroups of patients with significant variations in patterns of responses as indicated by changes in affects: marital status, personality diagnosis, character of object relations, past psychopathologic factors, relationship to husband or lover, relationship to mother, ambivalence about abortion, religion, and previous parity. A complex multivariate model, based on conflict and conflict resolution, is appropriate to conceptualize, the unwanted pregnancy and abortion experience. Data suggest that women most vulnerable to conflict are those who are single and nulliparous, those with previous history of serious emotional problems, conflictual relationships to lovers, past negative relationships to mother, strong ambivalence toward abortion, or negative religious or cultural attitudes about abortion.
Greydanus, D E; Railsback, L D
This article reviews the difficult but complex subject of abortion in adolescents. Methods of abortion are outlined and additional aspects are presented: psychological effects, counseling issues, and legal parameters. It is our conclusion that intense efforts should be aimed at education of youth about sexuality and prevention of pregnancy, utilizing appropriate contraceptive services. When confronted with a youth having an unwanted pregnancy, all legal options need to be carefully explored: delivery, adoption, or abortion. The decision belongs to the youth and important individuals in her environment. Understanding developmental aspects of adolescence will help the clinician deal with the pregnant teenagers. If abortion is selected, a first trimester procedure is best. Finally, physicians are urged to be aware of the specific, ever changing legal dynamics concerning this subject which are present in their states. Abortion is a phenomenon which has become an emotional but undeniably important aspect of adolescent sexuality and adolescent health care, in this country and around the world.
Sir Dugald Baird sketches the history of abortion legislation in Great Britain from the beginning of the century. In his views the 1967 Abortion Act has been one of the most important and beneficial pieces of social legislation enacted in Britain in the last 100 years. It has, however, brought problems both of administration in the hospitals and to individual doctors and nurses, particularly when the patients are young single women and even schoolgirls. One of the consequences of the Abortion Act has been a fall in maternal mortality and perinatal mortality rates. Abortion does not seem to be followed by serious emotional sequelae. Nevertheless recent changes in sexual mores have introduced new and serious social problems which are discussed in relation to the role of the doctor in his relationship with patients seeking abortion. PMID:765461
Melese, Tadele; Habte, Dereje; Tsima, Billy M; Mogobe, Keitshokile Dintle; Chabaesele, Kesegofetse; Rankgoane, Goabaone; Keakabetse, Tshiamo R; Masweu, Mabole; Mokotedi, Mosidi; Motana, Mpho; Moreri-Ntshabele, Badani
Maternal mortality due to abortion complications stands among the three leading causes of maternal death in Botswana where there is a restrictive abortion law. This study aimed at assessing the patterns and determinants of post-abortion complications. A retrospective institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals from January to August 2014. Data were extracted from patients' records with regards to their socio-demographic variables, abortion complications and length of hospital stay. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were employed. A total of 619 patients' records were reviewed with a mean (SD) age of 27.12 (5.97) years. The majority of abortions (95.5%) were reported to be spontaneous and 3.9% of the abortions were induced by the patient. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as their first visit to the hospitals and one third were referrals from other health facilities. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as a result of incomplete abortion followed by inevitable abortion (16.8%). Offensive vaginal discharge (17.9%), tender uterus (11.3%), septic shock (3.9%) and pelvic peritonitis (2.4%) were among the physical findings recorded on admission. Clinically detectable anaemia evidenced by pallor was found to be the leading major complication in 193 (31.2%) of the cases followed by hypovolemic and septic shock 65 (10.5%). There were a total of 9 abortion related deaths with a case fatality rate of 1.5%. Self-induced abortion and delayed uterine evacuation of more than six hours were found to have significant association with post-abortion complications (p-values of 0.018 and 0.035 respectively). Abortion related complications and deaths are high in our setting where abortion is illegal. Mechanisms need to be devised in the health facilities to evacuate the uterus in good time whenever it is indicated and to be equipped to handle the fatal complications. There is an indication for clinical audit on post-abortion care to
Melese, Tadele; Habte, Dereje; Tsima, Billy M.; Mogobe, Keitshokile Dintle; Chabaesele, Kesegofetse; Rankgoane, Goabaone; Keakabetse, Tshiamo R.; Masweu, Mabole; Mokotedi, Mosidi; Motana, Mpho; Moreri-Ntshabele, Badani
Background Maternal mortality due to abortion complications stands among the three leading causes of maternal death in Botswana where there is a restrictive abortion law. This study aimed at assessing the patterns and determinants of post-abortion complications. Methods A retrospective institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals from January to August 2014. Data were extracted from patients’ records with regards to their socio-demographic variables, abortion complications and length of hospital stay. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were employed. Result A total of 619 patients’ records were reviewed with a mean (SD) age of 27.12 (5.97) years. The majority of abortions (95.5%) were reported to be spontaneous and 3.9% of the abortions were induced by the patient. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as their first visit to the hospitals and one third were referrals from other health facilities. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as a result of incomplete abortion followed by inevitable abortion (16.8%). Offensive vaginal discharge (17.9%), tender uterus (11.3%), septic shock (3.9%) and pelvic peritonitis (2.4%) were among the physical findings recorded on admission. Clinically detectable anaemia evidenced by pallor was found to be the leading major complication in 193 (31.2%) of the cases followed by hypovolemic and septic shock 65 (10.5%). There were a total of 9 abortion related deaths with a case fatality rate of 1.5%. Self-induced abortion and delayed uterine evacuation of more than six hours were found to have significant association with post-abortion complications (p-values of 0.018 and 0.035 respectively). Conclusion Abortion related complications and deaths are high in our setting where abortion is illegal. Mechanisms need to be devised in the health facilities to evacuate the uterus in good time whenever it is indicated and to be equipped to handle the fatal complications. There is an indication for
DREES,A.; AHRENS,L.; III FLILLER,R.; GASSNER,D.; MCINTYRE,G.T.; MICHNOFF,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.
During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.
Xia, Jufeng; Gao, Jianjun; Tang, Wei
Nosocomial infection is a kind of infection, which is spread in various hospital environments, and leads to many serious diseases (e.g. pneumonia, urinary tract infection, gastroenteritis, and puerperal fever), and causes higher mortality than community-acquired infection. Bacteria are predominant among all the nosocomial infection-associated pathogens, thus a large number of antibiotics, such as aminoglycosides, penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems, are adopted in clinical treatment. However, in recent years antibiotic resistance quickly spreads worldwide and causes a critical threat to public health. The predominant bacteria include Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii. In these bacteria, resistance emerged from antibiotic resistant genes and many of those can be exchanged between bacteria. With technical advances, molecular mechanisms of resistance have been gradually unveiled. In this review, recent advances in knowledge about mechanisms by which (i) bacteria hydrolyze antibiotics (e.g. extended spectrum β-lactamases, (ii) AmpC β-lactamases, carbapenemases), (iii) avoid antibiotic targeting (e.g. mutated vanA and mecA genes), (iv) prevent antibiotic permeation (e.g. porin deficiency), or (v) excrete intracellular antibiotics (e.g. active efflux pump) are summarized.
Maurer, Katie; Torres, Victor J; Cadwell, Ken
Defense strategies against infectious threats can be divided into resistance and tolerance mechanisms. Resistance mechanisms involve reduction of pathogen burden and include many established examples, one of them being the destruction of intracellular pathogens through autophagy (xenophagy). Tolerance mechanisms protect the host from damage caused by the pathogen or the immune response independent of pathogen load. The role of autophagy in maintaining homeostasis in response to environmental stress suggests that this pathway is involved in tolerance to a variety of infectious agents. However, demonstrating that autophagy promotes tolerance independent of its role in resistance has been a challenge, especially during infection by clinically relevant pathogens. We have found that autophagy protects against Staphylococcus aureus infection by maintaining tolerance toward a pore forming toxin secreted by the bacteria, α-toxin.
Maurer, Katie; Torres, Victor J; Cadwell, Ken
Defense strategies against infectious threats can be divided into resistance and tolerance mechanisms. Resistance mechanisms involve reduction of pathogen burden and include many established examples, one of them being the destruction of intracellular pathogens through autophagy (xenophagy). Tolerance mechanisms protect the host from damage caused by the pathogen or the immune response independent of pathogen load. The role of autophagy in maintaining homeostasis in response to environmental stress suggests that this pathway is involved in tolerance to a variety of infectious agents. However, demonstrating that autophagy promotes tolerance independent of its role in resistance has been a challenge, especially during infection by clinically relevant pathogens. We have found that autophagy protects against Staphylococcus aureus infection by maintaining tolerance toward a pore forming toxin secreted by the bacteria, α-toxin. PMID:26046478
Summary: Anaplasma phagocytophilum persists in nature by cycling between mammals and ticks. Human infection by the bite of an infected tick leads to a potentially fatal emerging disease called human granulocytic anaplasmosis. A. phagocytophilum is an obligatory intracellular bacterium that replicates inside mammalian granulocytes and the salivary gland and midgut cells of ticks. A. phagocytophilum evolved the remarkable ability to hijack the regulatory system of host cells. A. phagocytophilum alters vesicular traffic to create an intracellular membrane-bound compartment that allows replication in seclusion from lysosomes. The bacterium downregulates or actively inhibits a number of innate immune responses of mammalian host cells, and it upregulates cellular cholesterol uptake to acquire cholesterol for survival. It also upregulates several genes critical for the infection of ticks, and it prolongs tick survival at freezing temperatures. Several host factors that exacerbate infection have been identified, including interleukin-8 (IL-8) and cholesterol. Host factors that overcome infection include IL-12 and gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Two bacterial type IV secretion effectors and several bacterial proteins that associate with inclusion membranes have been identified. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying A. phagocytophilum infection will foster the development of creative ideas to prevent or treat this emerging tick-borne disease. PMID:21734244
Carrillo-Bustamante, Paola; Nguyen, Thi Huyen Tram; Oestereich, Lisa; Günther, Stephan; Guedj, Jeremie; Graw, Frederik
Ribavirin is a broad spectrum antiviral which inhibits Lassa virus (LASV) replication in vitro but exhibits a minor effect on viremia in vivo. However, ribavirin significantly improves the disease outcome when administered in combination with sub-optimal doses of favipiravir, a strong antiviral drug. The mechanisms explaining these conflicting findings have not been determined, so far. Here, we used an interdisciplinary approach combining mathematical models and experimental data in LASV-infected mice that were treated with ribavirin alone or in combination with the drug favipiravir to explore different putative mechanisms of action for ribavirin. We test four different hypotheses that have been previously suggested for ribavirin's mode of action: (i) acting as a mutagen, thereby limiting the infectivity of new virions; (ii) reducing viremia by impairing viral production; (iii) modulating cell damage, i.e., by reducing inflammation, and (iv) enhancing antiviral immunity. Our analysis indicates that enhancement of antiviral immunity, as well as effects on viral production or transmission are unlikely to be ribavirin's main mechanism mediating its antiviral effectiveness against LASV infection. Instead, the modeled viral kinetics suggest that the main mode of action of ribavirin is to protect infected cells from dying, possibly reducing the inflammatory response.
"Individual and social attitudes toward abortion are unstable," the author notes, as he reviews the history of such attitudes in the United States and Britain. In both countries abortion was legal in 1800, but had become illegal by 1900, largely due to changing attitudes within the medical profession, including the desire to protect the profession against the activities of non-physicians. In the U.S., religious groups took little interset in the issue until late in the 19th century. Today, years after the legalization of abortion in Britain (1967) and the U.S. (1974), there is a chance that public attitudes will be influenced for a second time by a vocal few, again restricting legal access to abortion. The commercial success of MDs who specialize in abortions is a complicating factor, making it easier for opposition groups to recruit supporters. The abortion debate concerns unprovable interpretations of observable facts; it is an exercise in religious toleration. The most important role of physicians is to help establish a liberal and civilized framework within which colleagues of different persuasions can make free and objective choices regarding the delivery of abortion services.
Ohannessian, A; Jamin, C
To establish guidelines of the French National College of Gynecologists and Obstetricians about post-abortion contraception. A systematic review of the literature about post-abortion contraception was performed on Medline and Cochrane Database between 1978 and March 2016. The guidelines of the French and foreign scientific societies were also consulted. After an abortion, if the woman wishes to use a contraception, it should be started as soon as possible because of the very early ovulation resumption. The contraception choice must be done in accordance with the woman's expectations and lifestyle. The contraindications of each contraception must be respected. The long-acting reversible contraception, intra-uterine device (IUD) and implant, could be preferred (grade C) as the efficacy is not dependent on compliance. Thus, they could better prevent repeat abortion (LE3). In case of surgical abortion, IUD should be proposed and inserted immediately after the procedure (grade A), as well as the implant (grade B). In case of medical abortion, the implant can be inserted from the day of mifépristone, the IUD after an ultrasound examination confirming the success of the abortion (no continuing pregnancy or retained sac) (grade C). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Fauci, Anthony S.
Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus (the CD4 molecule). HIV also has tropism for the brain leading to neuropsychiatric abnormalities. Besides inducing cell death, HIV can interfere with T4 cell function by various mechanisms. The monocyte serves as a reservoir for HIV and is relatively refractory to its cytopathic effects. HIV can exist in a latent or chronic form which can be converted to a productive infection by a variety of inductive signals.
Godot, V; Harraga, S; Beurton, I; Deschaseaux, M; Sarciron, E; Gottstein, B; Vuitton, D A
To clarify the role of Th1- and Th2-type cytokines in the various outcomes of human alveolar echinococcosis (AE), the cytokine immune response of self-cured patients was studied and compared with those of progressive AE patients and healthy subjects. Self-cured patients were divided into two groups according to the following clinical features: subjects who had positive Echinococcus multilocularis serologies and hepatic calcifications typical of AE were classified as 'abortive AE' patients, and those who had positive E. multilocularis serologies but no hepatic lesions or calcifications detectable by ultrasonography were classified as 'positive serology' subjects. Secretions of IL-5, IL-10 and interferon-gamma, and expression of IL-5 mRNA were evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated in vitro with the mitogen phytohaemagglutinin-C or specific E. multilocularis antigenic preparations. The cytokine profile of abortive AE patients was the opposite of that observed in progressive AE patients. An intermediate profile was observed in positive serology subjects. PBMC from abortive AE patients, whether non-stimulated or stimulated with PHA and antigenic preparations, secreted significantly lower levels of IL-10 than those isolated from progressive AE patients. Our observations seem to confirm the regulatory role of IL-10 in the immunopathology of human AE.
Pauleta, Joana R; Clode, Nuno; Graça, Luís M
To evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of expectant management of induced and spontaneous first trimester incomplete abortion. A prospective observational trial, conducted between June 2006 and November 2007, of 2 groups of patients diagnosed with an incomplete abortion: 66 patients who had received misoprostol for an induced abortion (group 1) and 30 patients who had had a spontaneous abortion (group 2). Transvaginal ultrasound was performed weekly. The success rate (complete abortion without surgery), time to resolution, duration of bleeding and pelvic pain, rate of infection, number of unscheduled hospital visits, and level of satisfaction with expectant management were recorded. The incidence of complete abortion was 86.4% and 82.1% in groups 1 and 2 respectively at day 14 after diagnosis, and 100% in both groups at day 30 (two group 2 patients underwent curettage and were excluded from the analysis). Both groups reported 100% satisfaction with expectant management, although over 90% of the women reported feeling anxious. Expectant management for incomplete abortion in the first trimester after use of misoprostol or after spontaneous abortion may be practical and feasible, although it may increase anxiety associated with the impending abortion.
Background While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. Methods The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Results The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers’ education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. Conclusion The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this
Awoyemi, Bosede O; Novignon, Jacob
While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers' education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this in the absence of proper post-abortion
There is evidence that abortion has existed throughout history. The manner in which it is treated by legal systems in different countries varies. Where the practice is legal, there are reliable statistics on the extent of its practice, while in countries where it is illegal, it comes to the attention of the medical care system when there are complications. In developing countries where family planning (FP) services are scarce and where there is the beginning of a perception of the drawbacks of excess fertility, abortion has reached epidemic proportions. Nearly 1/3 of the world's population lives in regions where abortion is legal, but availability is not guaranteed by legality. Generally, in developed countries where abortion has been legalized, the incidence of legal abortion has levelled off and remained stable. It is a phenomenon found principally in younger unmarried populations, in contrast with the situation found in less-developed countries, where it is a recourse for more mature, married women desiring to limit fertility. Where it has been made legal and available, there has been a favorable impact on maternal mortality, but the ideal solution to widespread abortion is increased availability of FP. There is variation in the moral positions of religions: the Roman Catholic Church prohibits it categorically, while other Christian and non-Christian sects have differing views on the rights of the mother balanced against those of the fetus. In Chile, abortion is prohibited except in the case of physical danger to the mother. The high incidence of maternal mortality and morbidity due to illegal abortions (11.8 maternal deaths/10,000 live births in 1967) prompted a broad FP promotion program in Chile which has had a measureable impact on the incidence of abortions.
Henderson, Jillian T.; Puri, Mahesh; Blum, Maya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rana, Ashma; Gurung, Geeta; Pradhan, Neelam; Regmi, Kiran; Malla, Kasturi; Sharma, Sudha; Grossman, Daniel; Bajracharya, Lata; Satyal, Indira; Acharya, Shridhar; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Darney, Philip D.
Background Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. Methods We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001–2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001–2003), early implementation (2004–2006), and later implementation (2007–2010). Results 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85). Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75). Conclusion Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women’s health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance
Rodriguez, Maria Isabel; Mendoza, Willis Simancas; Guerra-Palacio, Camilo; Guzman, Nelson Alvis; Tolosa, Jorge E
The majority of abortions in Colombia continue to take place outside the formal health system under a range of conditions, with the majority of women obtaining misoprostol from a thriving black market for the drug and self-administering the medication. We conducted a cost analysis to compare the costs to the health system of three approaches to the provision of abortion care in Colombia: post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortions, and for legal abortions in a health facility, misoprostol-only medical abortion and vacuum aspiration abortion. Hospital billing records from three institutions, two large maternity hospitals and one specialist reproductive health clinic, were analysed for procedure and complication rates, and costs by diagnosis. The majority of visits (94%) were to the two hospitals for post-abortion care; the other 6% were for legal abortions. Only one minor complication was found among the women having legal abortions, a complication rate of less than 1%. Among the women presenting for post-abortion care, 5% had complications during their treatment, mainly from infection or haemorrhage. Legal abortions were associated not only with far fewer complications for women, but also lower costs for the health system than for post-abortion care. We calculated based on our findings that for every 1,000 women receiving post-abortion care instead of a legal abortion within the health system, 16 women experienced avoidable complications, and the health system spent US $48,000 managing them. Increasing women's access to safe abortion care would not only reduce complications for women, but would also be a cost-saving strategy for the health system. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tu, Wenjuan; Rao, Sudha
The ability of the human immune system to protect against infectious disease declines with age and efficacy of vaccination reduces significantly in the elderly. Aging of the immune system, also termed as immunosenescence, involves many changes in human T cell immunity that is characterized by a loss in naïve T cell population and an increase in highly differentiated CD28- memory T cell subset. There is extensive data showing that latent persistent human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is also associated with age-related immune dysfunction in the T cells, which might enhance immunosenescence. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related and HCMV-related immunosenescence is critical for the development of effective age-targeted vaccines and immunotherapies. In this review, we will address the role of both aging and HCMV infection that contribute to the T cell senescence and discuss the potential molecular mechanisms in aged T cells. PMID:28082969
de LeBlanc, Alejandra de Moreno; Castillo, Natalia A; Perdigon, Gabriela
The prevention of pathogen infections is one of the most extensively studied effects of probiotics. L. casei CRL 431 is a probiotic bacterium and its effects on the gut immune cells have been extensively studied. The aim of the present study was to determine, using a mouse model, the preventive and therapeutic effect of L. casei CRL 431 to achieve protection against Salmonella enteritidis serovar Typhimurium infection. In both previous and continuous (previous and post-infection) probiotic administration, the mechanisms induced by this lactic acid bacteria on the first line of intestinal defense (non-specific barrier and the innate immune cells associated to the gut), as a way to understand some of the mechanisms involved in the protection against Salmonella enteritidis serovar Typhimurium, were analyzed. The results obtained demonstrated that 7 days L. casei CRL 431 administration before infection decreased the severity of the infection with Salmonella enteritidis serovar Typhimurium, demonstrating that the continuous administration (even after infection) had the best effect. This continuous administration diminished the counts of the pathogen in the intestine as well as its spread outside this organ. Several mechanisms and cells are involved in this protective effect against Salmonella enteritidis serovar Typhimurium. L. casei CRL 431 acted on cells of the innate and adaptive immune response. The probiotic administration decreased the neutrophil infiltration with the consequent diminution of intestinal inflammation; activated the macrophage phagocytic activity in different sites such as Peyer's patches, spleen and peritoneum; and increased the number of IgA+cells in the lamina propria of the small intestine which was correlated with increased release of s-IgA specific against the pathogen in the intestinal fluids. The mechanism of the inhibition of cellular apoptosis was not involved.
Nguyen, Helen Kim Hong; Martin, Philip; Chinh, Nguyen Quoc; Cong, Duong Dinh
Pre-abortion counselling has a role in promoting safe sex practices and in preventing repeated unplanned pregnancies and repeated abortions among abortion-seeking women. Such counselling is essential in Vietnam, especially given the common use of abortion. Arguably, in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, the delivery of pre-abortion counselling is more urgent for young women, who have historically been ignored by State reproductive health initiatives and are increasingly exposed to transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), unplanned pregnancies and abortion. This paper charts urban Vietnamese service providers' discourses in pre-abortion counselling specific for reducing risks of additional unwanted pregnancies, repeat abortion and STI/HIV transmission among young Vietnamese women. Thirteen providers working in counselling delivery, management and programme-planning at the Reproductive Health Care Centre of Ho Chi Minh City participated in this study. Through qualitative interviews, this paper elicits a range of provider attitudes, considerations and approaches in pre-abortion counselling and presents these discourses using participant anecdotes. Demonstrated among participant responses were five key pre-abortion counselling phases for promoting effective family planning among young women. Topics covered in these counselling phases included abortion complications, post-abortion fertility return, contraception, behaviour change and STI/HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health basics (SRH). The service provider discourses gleaned from this study are foundational for further research and development of best practice guidelines in pre-abortion counselling.
Stubblefield, Phillip G; Carr-Ellis, Sacheen; Borgatta, Lynn
We describe present methods for induced abortion used in the United States. The most common procedure is first-trimester vacuum curettage. Analgesia is usually provided with a paracervical block and is not completely effective. Pretreatment with nonsteroidal analgesics and conscious sedation augment analgesia but only to a modest extent. Cervical dilation is accomplished with conventional tapered dilators, hygroscopic dilators, or misoprostol. Manual vacuum curettage is as safe and effective as the electric uterine aspirator for procedures through 10 weeks of gestation. Common complications and their management are presented. Early abortion with mifepristone/misoprostol combinations is replacing some surgical abortions. Two mifepristone/misoprostol regimens are used. The rare serious complications of medical abortion are described. Twelve percent of abortions are performed in the second trimester, the majority of these by dilation and evacuation (D&E) after laminaria dilation of the cervix. Uterine evacuation is accomplished with heavy ovum forceps augmented by 14-16 mm vacuum cannula systems. Cervical injection of dilute vasopressin reduces blood loss. Operative ultrasonography is reported to reduce perforation risk of D&E. Dilation and evacuation procedures have evolved to include intact D&E and combination methods for more advanced gestations. Vaginal misoprostol is as effective as dinoprostone for second-trimester labor-induction abortion and appears to be replacing older methods. Mifepristone/misoprostol combinations appear more effective than misoprostol alone. Uterine rupture has been reported in women with uterine scars with misoprostol abortion in the second trimester. Fetal intracardiac injection to reduce multiple pregnancies or selectively abort an anomalous twin is accepted therapy. Outcomes for the remaining pregnancy have improved with experience.
An argument is made for applying the principles of evolutionary biology to abortion behavior, based on the idea that long-lasting behavior (including ethical behavior) has a positive selective value which theoretically can be translated into population numbers. The approach verges on utilitarianism; it is argued that such an approach could reduce or avoid the emotionality and subjectivity of arguments for and against induced abortion. Actual application of evolutionary biology principles is limited by the rudimentary present state of behavioral science.
Ruhl, Silke; Casson, Nicola; Kaiser, Carmen; Thoma, Ruedi; Pospischil, Andreas; Greub, Gilbert; Borel, Nicole
Bovine abortion of unknown infectious aetiology still remains a major economic problem. In this study, we focused on a new possible abortigenic agent called Parachlamydia acanthamoebae. Retrospective samples (n=235) taken from late-term abortions in cattle were investigated by real-time diagnostic PCR for Chlamydiaceae and Parachlamydia spp., respectively. Histological sections of cases positive by real-time PCR for any Chlamydia-related agent were further examined by immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies. Chlamydophila abortus was detected only in three cases (1.3%) by real-time PCR and ArrayTube Microarray playing a less important role in bovine abortion compared to the situation in small ruminants in Switzerland. By real-time PCR as many as 43 of 235 (18.3%) cases turned out to be positive for Parachlamydia. The presence of Parachlamydia within placental lesions was confirmed in 35 cases (81.4%) by immunohistochemistry. The main histopathological feature in parachlamydial abortion was purulent to necrotizing placentitis (25/43). Parachlamydia should be considered as a new abortigenic agent in Swiss cattle. Since Parachlamydia may be involved in lower respiratory tract infections in humans, bovine abortion material should be handled with care given the possible zoonotic risk.
Kochetkov, Sergey N.; Starodubova, Elizaveta S.; Bartosch, Birke
It is generally acknowledged that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play crucial roles in a variety of natural processes in cells. If increased to levels which cannot be neutralized by the defense mechanisms, they damage biological molecules, alter their functions, and also act as signaling molecules thus generating a spectrum of pathologies. In this review, we summarize current data on oxidative stress markers associated with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection, analyze mechanisms by which this virus triggers massive ROS production, and describe the status of various defense mechanisms of the infected host cell. In addition, we have scrutinized scarce data on the effect of ROS on HIV-1 replication. Finally, we present current state of knowledge on the redox alterations as crucial factors of HIV-1 pathogenicity, such as neurotoxicity and dementia, exhaustion of CD4+/CD8+ T-cells, predisposition to lung infections, and certain side effects of the antiretroviral therapy, and compare them to the pathologies associated with the nitrosative stress. PMID:27829986
Sumner, L W
This essay offers a moderate view of abortion that imposes a time limit for unrestricted abortion and specific indications for later abortions. The introduction notes that the discussion will provide a defense for this policy based on a moral analysis but that other options for moderates, especially options provided by freestanding views (the defense of which does not rest on any prior commitment about the morality of abortion), will also be considered. The next section considers the moral status of the fetus grounded in a criterion of moral standing that stipulates the necessary characteristics to achieve moral standing. This discussion concludes that a fetus acquires moral standing only when it becomes sentient. Section 3 moves the argument from ethics to politics to prove that a moderate policy must place no limitations on abortion before the time the fetus becomes sentient because before that time the fetus has no interest for the state to protect. The final section notes that some pro-choice advocates may be happier with the moderate policy proposed than with its controversial defense based on the moral status of the fetus and that another defense of a moderate policy could be based on a finding that the ethical issue can not be decided and that no view about abortion ethics is more reasonable than any other. The essay concludes that the ethical debate is ultimately unavoidable.
Shuid, Ahmad Naqib; Safi, Nikoo; Haghani, Amin; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Haron, Mohd Syamsul Reza; Tan, Sheau Wei; Omar, Abdul Rahman
Apoptosis has been postulated to play an important role during feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) infection; however, its mechanism is not well characterized. This study is focused on apoptosis and transcriptional profiling of FIPV-infected cells following in vitro infection of CRFK cells with FIPV 79-1146 WSU. Flow cytometry was used to determine mode of cell death in first 42 h post infection (hpi). FIPV infected cells underwent early apoptosis at 9 hpi (p < 0.05) followed by late apoptosis at 12 hpi (p < 0.05) and necrosis from 24 hpi (p < 0.05). Then, next generation sequencing was performed on 9 hpi and control uninfected cells by Illumina analyzer. An aggregate of 4546 genes (2229 down-regulated and 2317 up-regulated) from 17 cellular process, 11 molecular functions and 130 possible biological pathways were affected by FIPV. 131 genes from apoptosis cluster (80 down-regulated and 51 up-regulated) along with increase of apoptosis, p53, p38 MAPK, VEGF and chemokines/cytokines signaling pathways were probably involved in apoptosis process. Six of the de-regulated genes expression (RASSF1, BATF2, MAGEB16, PDCD5, TNFα and TRAF2) and TNFα protein concentration were analyzed by RT-qPCR and ELISA, respectively, at different time-points. Up-regulations of both pro-apoptotic (i.e. PDCD5) and anti-apoptotic (i.e. TRAF2) were detected from first hpi and continuing to deregulate during apoptosis process in the infected cells.
Sevestre, Henri; Mention, Jacques; Lefebvre, Jean-François; Eb, François; Hamdad, Farida
Chlamydial infection of the upper genital tract after abortion is well recognized, but routine screening for infection before termination is rare, and few centres are aware of the prevalence of post-abortion complications in their patient population. Knowledge of the patient population is the best guide for developing screening strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of chlamydial infection in patients presenting for legal termination of pregnancy, and to assess the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis by PCR on specimens collected in either PreservCyt (ThinPrep) or 2-sucrose phosphate (2-SP) transport medium. Two hundred and eleven single, sexually active women, aged 15-26 years, attending the Gynaecology and Obstetric Hospital, Amiens, France, for surgical termination of pregnancy were enrolled in this study from June 2002 to June 2003. C. trachomatis detection using a Cobas Amplicor PCR test (Roche Diagnostics) targeting a 207 bp segment of the common cryptic plasmid and a quantitative LightCycler real-time PCR (LC-PCR) (Roche Diagnostics) targeting a 123 bp fragment within the highly conserved constant domain 3 of the single-chromosome-copy ompA gene were performed on endocervical swabs in 2-SP, and on specimens collected using a cytobrush and placed in PreservCyt medium. The in-house LC-PCR was used as a chromosomal diagnosis method and to determine the load of C. trachomatis. This method was able to detect the mutant Swedish variant with a deletion of 377 bp in the target area in the cryptic plasmid, which is the region targeted by the Cobas Amplicor PCR test. C. trachomatis was detected in 19/211 patients (9 %) by both PCR methods. Among the 19 infected women, C. trachomatis was detected by the Cobas Amplicor PCR in 16 specimens in PreservCyt (7.6 %) and in 12 endocervical swabs in 2-SP (5.7 %). Specimens from only nine women were PCR-positive in both PreservCyt and 2-SP media by this method. Cobas Amplicor PCR revealed that 10.9 and 2
Bull, N; Riise, T; Moen, B E
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of exposure to oil and oil products among men on the time taken for their wives to conceive and on the incidence of spontaneous abortion among them. A cross-sectional study was performed by posting questionnaires to 1,269 men employed as offshore mechanics, offshore operators, offshore drilling personnel, car mechanics (the 'exposed' occupations) and carpenters ('unexposed'). The married men were asked to give a separate questionnaire to their wives for details about their pregnancies. The time elapsed between the beginning of coitus without contraception and the wife becoming pregnant (time to pregnancy) was analyzed with Cox regression analysis by calculating fecundability ratios for the pregnancies for the men exposed to oil and oil products as compared with the men who were not exposed. Spontaneous abortions were analyzed with logistic regression by calculating odds ratios for the pregnancies in which the men were exposed vs. not exposed. A total of 741 (58%) men returned the questionnaires. A total of 301 pregnancies were analyzed for time taken to conceive and 580 for spontaneous abortion. The results were adjusted for variables that could significantly influence conception time (previous infections of the reproductive system and coffee drinking) or the incidence of spontaneous abortion (mother's age, parity and smoking). The outcomes between the exposed and unexposed pregnancies showed no significant differences. Car mechanics had a lower fecundability ratio before 1992 than after 1992. Paternal exposure to hydrocarbons in the occupations studied did not seem to have had a major influence on time to conception or the incidence of spontaneous abortion among the wives of the men exposed to oil products.
... Executive Order 13535--Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion Restrictions in the Patient... ] Executive Order 13535 of March 24, 2010 Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion Restrictions in... adequate enforcement mechanism to ensure that Federal funds are not used for abortion services (except...
Cook, R J; Dickens, B M
International developments in abortion laws have been diverse, but the general thrust of legislation and court decisions has been towards decriminalization and liberalization of laws and the reduction of legal barriers to access to therapuetic abortion services presented by spousal and parental authorization requirements. Most legislation has extended abortion eligibility through traditional indications such as danger to maternal health or fetal handicap, but other indications have also been created, such as adolescence, advanced maternal age, family circumstances and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. Several jurisdictions established stages of early gestation within which abortion could be undertaken with minimal legal scrutiny. In Canada, the entire prohibition of abortion was held unconstitutional for violating women's integrity and security. Under medical and public health guidance, several countries have amended their constitutions to recognize and protect human life from contraception. Cyprus, Italy, and Taiwan have created an indication for abortion of welfare of the women's family, while France and the Netherlands recognize the women's distress and Hungary cites cases where the women is single or separated for 6 months, where appropriate housing is lacking or where she is 35 years or older and has had 3 deliveries. National health services and insurance schemes vary in their coverage of abortion costs, but generally tend to fund the major park of lawful services. In Britain, France, Israel, the US and Yugoslavia husband's claims to veto abortions have been rejected. Courts have also established that mature adolescents, although legally minors, may give autonomous consent to abortion and are entitled to confidentiality. Few countries' laws define when criminal abortion liability commences or when conception occurs, but the law has moved to restrict abortion in Israel, Honduras, Romania and Finland.
Pazol, Karen; Creanga, Andreea A; Jamieson, Denise J
Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2012. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2012, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 47 areas that reported data every year during 2003-2012. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 699,202 abortions were reported to CDC for 2012. Of these abortions, 98.4% were from the 47 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2003-2012. Among these same 47 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2012 was 13.2 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 210 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2011 to 2012, the total number and ratio of reported abortions decreased 4% and the abortion rate decreased 5%. From 2003 to 2012, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 17%, 18%, and 14%, respectively, and reached their lowest level in 2012 for the entire period of analysis (2003-2012). In 2012 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2012, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.8% and 25.4% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 23.3 and 18.9 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 16.4%, 9.1%, and 3.7% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of
Jatlaoui, Tara C; Ewing, Alexander; Mandel, Michele G; Simmons, Katharine B; Suchdev, Danielle B; Jamieson, Denise J; Pazol, Karen
Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2013. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2013, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 47 areas that reported data every year during 2004-2013. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 664,435 abortions were reported to CDC for 2013. Of these abortions, 98.2% were from the 47 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2004-2013. Among these 47 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2013 was 12.5 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 200 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2012 to 2013, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 5%. From 2004 to 2013, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 20%, 21%, and 17%, respectively. In 2013, all three measures reached their lowest level for the entire period of analysis (2004-2013). In 2013 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2013, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.7% and 25.9% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 21.8 and 18.2 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 16.8%, 9.2%, and 3.6% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 11.8, 7.0, and 2
Schleiss, Mark R.
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is responsible for approximately 40,000 congenital infections in the United States each year. Congenital CMV disease frequently produces serious neurodevelopmental disability, as well as vision impairment and sensorineural hearing loss. Development of a CMV vaccine is therefore considered to be a major public health priority. The mechanisms by which CMV injures the fetus are complex and likely include a combination of direct fetal injury induced by pathologic virally-encoded gene products, an inability of the maternal immune response to control infection, and the direct impact of infection on placental function. CMV encodes gene products that function, both at the RNA and the protein level, to interfere with many cellular processes. These include gene products that modify the cell cycle; interfere with apoptosis; induce an inflammatory response; mediate vascular injury; induce site-specific breakage of chromosomes; promote oncogenesis; dysregulate cellular proliferation; and facilitate evasion of host immune responses. This minireview summarizes current concepts regarding these aspects of the molecular virology of CMV and the potential pathogenic impact of viral gene expression on the developing fetus. Areas for potential development of novel therapeutic intervention are suggested for improving the outcome of this disabling congenital infection. PMID:21827434
Na, Hee Sam; Cha, Mi Hye; Oh, Dool-Ri; Cho, Cheong-Weon; Rhee, Joon Haeng; Kim, Young Ran
Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., has many beneficial biological activities. However, there are relatively few reports of the effects of curcumin on pathogen infections. This study examined the effect of curcumin on a Vibrio vulnificus infection. The cytotoxicity of V. vulnificus to HeLa cells was significantly inhibited by curcumin (at 10 or 30 μM). To further examine the inhibitory mechanism of curcumin against V. vulnificus-mediated cytotoxicity, the level of bacterial growth, bacterial motility, cell adhesion, RTX toxin expression and host cell reactions were evaluated. Curcumin inhibited V. vulnificus growth in HI broth. Curcumin inhibited both bacterial adhesion and RTX toxin binding to the host cells, which can be considered the major protective mechanisms for the decrease in V. vulnificus cytotoxicity. Curcumin also inhibited host cell rounding and actin aggregation, which are the early features of cell death caused by V. vulnificus. In addition, curcumin decreased the V. vulnificus-induced NF-κB translocation in HeLa cells. Finally, curcumin protected mice from V. vulnificus-induced septicemia. In conclusion, curcumin may be an alternative antimicrobial agent against fatal bacterial infections. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parmar, Divya; Leone, Tiziana; Coast, Ernestina; Murray, Susan Fairley; Hukin, Eleanor; Vwalika, Bellington
Unsafe abortion is a significant but preventable cause of maternal mortality. Although induced abortion has been legal in Zambia since 1972, many women still face logistical, financial, social, and legal obstacles to access safe abortion services, and undergo unsafe abortion instead. This study provides the first estimates of costs of post abortion care (PAC) after an unsafe abortion and the cost of safe abortion in Zambia. In the absence of routinely collected data on abortions, we used multiple data sources: key informant interviews, medical records and hospital logbooks. We estimated the costs of providing safe abortion and PAC services at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka and then projected these costs to generate indicative cost estimates for Zambia. Due to unavailability of data on the actual number of safe abortions and PAC cases in Zambia, we used estimates from previous studies and from other similar countries, and checked the robustness of our estimates with sensitivity analyses. We found that PAC following an unsafe abortion can cost 2.5 times more than safe abortion care. The Zambian health system could save as much as US$0.4 million annually if those women currently treated for an unsafe abortion instead had a safe abortion.
Debes, Jose D.; Bohjanen, Paul R.; Boonstra, Andre
Abstract With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), a dramatic reduction in HIV-related morbidity and mortality has been observed. However, it is now becoming increasingly clear that liver-related complications, particularly rapid fibrosis development from ART as well as from the chronic HIV infection itself, are of serious concern to HIV patients. The pathophysiology of liver fibrosis in patients with HIV is a multifactorial process whereby persistent viral replication, and bacterial translocation lead to chronic immune activation and inflammation, which ART is unable to fully suppress, promoting production of fibrinogenic mediators and fibrosis. In addition, mitochondrial toxicity, triggered by both ART and HIV, contributes to intrahepatic damage, which is even more severe in patients co-infected with viral hepatitis. In recent years, new insights into the mechanisms of accelerated fibrosis and liver disease progression in HIV has been obtained, and these are detailed and discussed in this review. PMID:28097102
Flaviviruses are important human pathogens. Transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes, Flaviviruses such as West Nile and Japanese encephalitis may reach the central nervous system where they can elicit severe diseases. Their ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier is still poorly understood. The newly emerging Zika Flavivirus on the other hand very rarely reaches the brain of adults, but can infect neural progenitors in the developing central nervous system of fetuses, eliciting devastating congenital malformations including microcephaly. This short review focuses on selected aspects of West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and Zika virus pathophysiological features such as neuroinvasion and neurovirulence, and highlights what we know about some possible mechanisms involved in Flaviviral neuropathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Che, Yan; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Linan
Abstract Oral contraceptives (OCs) following induced abortion offer a reliable method to avoid repeated abortion. However, limited data exist supporting the effective use of OCs postabortion. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis in the present study reported immediate administration of OCs or combined OCs postabortion may reduce vaginal bleeding time and amount, shorten the menstruation recovery period, increase endometrial thickness 2 to 3 weeks after abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. A total of 8 major authorized Chinese and English databases were screened from January 1960 to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials in which patients had undergone medical or surgical abortions were included. Chinese studies that met the inclusion criteria were divided into 3 groups: administration of OC postmedical abortion (group I; n = 1712), administration of OC postsurgical abortion (group II; n = 8788), and administration of OC in combination with traditional Chinese medicine postsurgical abortion (group III; n = 19,707). In total, 119 of 6160 publications were included in this analysis. Significant difference was observed in group I for vaginal bleeding time (P = 0.0001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.03), and menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001) compared with the control groups. Group II demonstrated a significant difference in vaginal bleeding time (P < 0.00001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.0002), menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001), and endometrial thickness at 2 (P = 0.003) and 3 (P < 0.00001) weeks postabortion compared with the control group. Similarly, a significant difference was observed in group III for reducing vaginal bleeding time (P < 0.00001) and the amount of vaginal bleeding (P < 0.00001), shortening the menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001), and increasing endometrial thickness 2 and 3 weeks after surgical abortion (P < 0
Drogendijk, A C
Various ethical and practical aspects concerning induced abortion are discussed. Arguments against abortion can be enumerated on many levels. The unborn fetus has a worth of its own, but it also has a value for the parents and the society as a whole. Guilt feelings can occur in women who undergo induced abortion, and the possibility of complications of the operation must be taken into consideration. Abortion can also cause stress in the physician who performs it and in the partner of the abortion patient. The costs of abortion are paid by society through insurance costs. Abortion can damage the ethical conscience of the abortion patient, the physician who performs the operation, and in the society which allows it. Ethical considerations involved with abortion are also expounded. Induced abortion is a process whereby life is weighed against other considerations. Ethical conscience involves the ability to differentiate between degrees of possible communication, which would differentiate the life of the embryo from that of a retarded child, for example. Guilt feelings are rooted in ethical considerations. The capability for independent existence is the principle ethical boundary involved in determining when abortion is to be permitted. Eugenic abortion is a separate ethical consideration. A schema of practical guidelines for considerations and indications for performing abortions is presented.
Jørgensen, Hilde; Qvigstad, Erik; Jerve, Fridtjof; Melseth, Eldbjørg; Eskild, Anne; Nielsen, Christopher S
Medically induced abortion through week 9 is a well established procedure. The article concerns satisfaction among women who choose to do this at home, and possible associations between satisfaction, socio-demographic--and clinical factors. 110 women with pregnancy duration < 7 weeks, who wished to medically terminate the pregnancy at home and presented themselves at Ullevaal University Hospital, were included in the study. The woman's satisfaction with the procedure was the main variable, but anxiety and pain were also recorded. Data were retrieved from hospital journals and questionnaires filled in before and 1 and 3 weeks after the abortion. The degree of satisfaction was recorded on a scale from 1 to 10, where 1 was not content and 10 was very content. Follow-up data were available for 105 women. 90 of 105 women were very content (> 7 on the satisfaction scale) with the treatment. Discomfort and pain during the abortion and marital status seemed to influence the results. The degree of pain varied much. No serious complications were observed. The study showed a high degree of satisfaction with medically induced abortion at home early in the pregnancy. The study has a relatively small sample size and no control group, so the results on factors affecting satisfaction are uncertain. Medical abortion at home should be an opportunity for women applying for early pregnancy termination; as long as the women are well informed, are offered sufficient pain relief and a well functioning follow-up programme.
To propose recommendations for women's counseling in abortion request and the psychological experience of orthogenic teams. Bibliographic search in the Medline database, PubMed, Cochrane Database Library, EM Premium bases, ENT Unistra and Cairn from 1990 to 2016. During the pre-abortion consultations, it is recommended to respect the choice of the woman on to see or not the ultrasound images (gradeC) and determine with her the time it needs to perform abortion (professional agreement). Women's satisfaction seems greater when they have the possibility to choose the abortion method (grade B). It is therefore important that both methods are available to all gestational ages (professional agreement). There is no relationship between an increase in psychiatric disorders and induced abortion (NP2). Meetings for professionals are useful and should, to the extent possible, be established (professional agreement). Improving psychological support for women involve listening them and respect their choice. This also involves thinking as a team. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Spitz, A M; Oberle, M; Zaro, S M
According to data reported to the Georgia Department of Human Resources (DHR), the number of induced abortions performedin Georgia in 1980 decreased for the 1st time since 1968 when the state legalized abortion. To verify this reported decrease, the DHR data were compared with statistics obtained by the Alan Guttmacher Institute in a 1980 survey of abortion providers in Georgia. Since the AGI contacts providers directly, its statistics are considered a more accurate reflection of abortions performed. According to the DHR, the number of abortions dropped from 36,579 in 1979 to 33,288 in 1980, a 9% decrease, and the abortion rate fell from 26.6/1000 women ages 15-44 years to 23.9/1000. AGI data indicated a drop from 38,760 abortions in 1979 to 37,890 in 1980, a 2% decrease. Since both sources noted a similar trend despite differences in data collection methods, the 1980 decline in abortion procedures in Georgia is considered to represent a true decline rather than s statistical artifact. The sociodemographic characteristics of women obtaining abortions in Georgia in 1980 were also analyzed on the basis of DHR data. Although the number of abortions in Georgia performed on Georgia residents increased 2.5% from 1979-80 to 90.7%, the abortion ratio for residents decreased from 367.7 to 327.4 abortions/1000 live births. There was little change in the age, race, or marital status distribution of women receiving abortions. The ratio for white women was 317 abortions/1000 live births and that for blacks was 342/1000. The abortion ratio for unmarried women (1166/1000) was 13 times that for married women (88/1000). The number of repeat abortions decreased form 34% in 1979 to 29% in 1980. Moreover, 93% of women obtaining abortions did so in the 1st 12 weeks of gestation compared with 89% in 1979. The percentage of abortions performed in clinics increased from 66.5% in 1979 to 75.3% in 1980, with suction curettage accounting for 85% of all abortions in the 1st 12 weeks of
ŠPILOVSKÁ, Silvia; REITEROVÁ, Katarína; ANTOLOVÁ, Daniela
Background: Neospora caninum is considered one of the major causes of repeated abortions in livestock. This study aimed to determine the seropositivity to N. caninum using indirect ELISA and the influence of the infection on the occurrence of abortions in selected dairy herd in Slovakia. Method: Blood samples were obtained from 490 cattle over a period of two years and were tested for N. caninum antibodies using indirect ELISA. Results: The presence of specific antibodies in the herd was detected in 118 (24.1%) cows. According to selected groups; 117 (41.0%) cows with a history of abortion, 65 (43.3%) heifers and 223 (2.2%) cows without abortions were tested positive to Neospora. Vertical transmission of N. caninum dominated in examined herd and the relative risk (RR) of dam-daughter seropositivity in progenies of seropositive mothers was 2.1 times higher than in progenies of seronegative dams. Molecular analyses of aborted foetuses of seropositive mothers showed the presence of Neospora DNA. However, 23 (28.1%) of heifers born to seronegative cows were seropositive, indicating also the postnatal transmission of the infection from the environment. Conclusion: Study revealed significant correlation between the presence of specific antibodies and the occurrence of abortions, the risk of abortion in seropositive animals was 3.8 times higher than in seronegative ones. Incorrect farm management contributed to spread and circulation of neosporosis in entire dairy herd what could significantly impair the reproduction and economic parameters of breeding. PMID:25904951
Špilovská, Silvia; Reiterová, Katarína; Antolová, Daniela
Neospora caninum is considered one of the major causes of repeated abortions in livestock. This study aimed to determine the seropositivity to N. caninum using indirect ELISA and the influence of the infection on the occurrence of abortions in selected dairy herd in Slovakia. Blood samples were obtained from 490 cattle over a period of two years and were tested for N. caninum antibodies using indirect ELISA. The presence of specific antibodies in the herd was detected in 118 (24.1%) cows. According to selected groups; 117 (41.0%) cows with a history of abortion, 65 (43.3%) heifers and 223 (2.2%) cows without abortions were tested positive to Neospora. Vertical transmission of N. caninum dominated in examined herd and the relative risk (RR) of dam-daughter seropositivity in progenies of seropositive mothers was 2.1 times higher than in progenies of seronegative dams. Molecular analyses of aborted foetuses of seropositive mothers showed the presence of Neospora DNA. However, 23 (28.1%) of heifers born to seronegative cows were seropositive, indicating also the postnatal transmission of the infection from the environment. Study revealed significant correlation between the presence of specific antibodies and the occurrence of abortions, the risk of abortion in seropositive animals was 3.8 times higher than in seronegative ones. Incorrect farm management contributed to spread and circulation of neosporosis in entire dairy herd what could significantly impair the reproduction and economic parameters of breeding.
Medoff, Marshall H.
This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…
Medoff, Marshall H.
This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…
Kinaro, Joyce; Ali, Tag Elsir Mohamed; Schlangen, Rhonda; Mack, Jessica
Unsafe abortion in Sudan results in significant morbidity and mortality. This study of treatment for complications of unsafe abortion in five hospitals in Khartoum, Sudan, included a review of hospital records and a survey of 726 patients seeking abortion-related care from 27 October 2007 to 31 January 2008, an interview of a provider of post-abortion care and focus group discussions with community leaders. Findings demonstrate enormous unmet need for safe abortion services. Abortion is legally restricted in Sudan to circumstances where the woman's life is at risk or in cases of rape. Post-abortion care is not easily accessible. In a country struggling with poverty, internal displacement, rural dwelling, and a dearth of trained doctors, mid-level providers are not allowed to provide post-abortion care or prescribe contraception. The vast majority of the 726 abortion patients in the five hospitals were treated with dilatation and curettage (D&C), and only 12.3% were discharged with a contraceptive method. Some women waited long hours before treatment was provided; 14.5% of them had to wait for 5-8 hours and 7.3% for 9-12 hours. Mid-level providers should be trained in safe abortion care and post-abortion care to make these services accessible to a wider community in Sudan. Guidelines should be developed on quality of care and should mandate the use of manual vacuum aspiration or misoprostol for medical abortion instead of D&C.
Valenzuela, Carlos Y
Therapeutic abortion is proposed when a pregnancy threatens a woman's life and the fetus is not viable ex utero. As the intention is not to kill the fetus, this action should be named "therapeutic interruption of pregnancy". However, in some cases the fetus directly hampers the mother's health. Thus, the removal of the cause of the disease coincides with killing the fetus. Therapeutic abortion has been proposed for several situations. A) When pregnancy and not the fetus, impairs maternal life (e.g. ovular infection, ectopic pregnancy, decompensation of a preexisting disease or diseases of pregnancy as pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, HELLP and Ballantyne syndromes, choriocarcinoma). B) A risk for maternal survival caused by the embryo or fetal genetic constitution: autoimmune diseases of the mother generated by fetal antigens, some types of eclampsia with or without HELLP syndrome due to an immune or exaggerated inflammatory response of the mother, Ballantyne syndrome associated to eclampsia due to fetal-maternal genetic incompatibility, the classic fetus-maternal genetic incompatibility, embryo or fetus diseases caused by their genomic constitution, mainly hydatidiform mole and the triploid, or fetal cancer. Scientific knowledge and a prudential Medical Ethics are capable to solve most cases.
Cordier, S; Deplan, F; Mandereau, L; Hemon, D
The potential reproductive toxicity of mercury vapour was investigated by comparing the rate of spontaneous abortions among the wives of 152 workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour with the rate among the wives of 374 controls in the same plant. The results indicate an increase in the rate of spontaneous abortions with an increasing concentration of mercury in the fathers' urine before pregnancy. At concentrations above 50 micrograms/l the risk of spontaneous abortion doubles (odds ratio (OR) = 2.26; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.99-5.23). Special care was taken to avoid bias in reporting abortions and known risk factors of spontaneous abortions do not seem to explain the results. Several biological mechanisms might account for them including, in particular, direct action of mercury on the paternal reproductive system and indirect toxicity to the mother or embryo through transport of mercury from the father. These indications could be of practical importance and should therefore be further documented. PMID:2064975
In this article we address the issue, with a tentative empirical application to the Italian data, of the relationship, very debated mainly in north America, between abortion legalization and reduction of crime rates of youth. The rationale of this relationship is that there is a causal factor at work: the more unwanted pregnancies aborted, the less unwanted children breeding their criminal attitude in an hostile/deprived family environment. Many methodological and empirical criticisms have been raised against the proof of the existence of such a relationship: our attempt to test if this link is valid for Italy cannot endorse its existence. The data we used made necessary some assumptions and the reliability of official estimates of crime rates was debatable (probably downward biased). We conclude that, at least for Italy, the suggested relationship is unproven: other reasons for the need of legal abortion have been and should be put forward.
Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus.
Zhang, Shu-Lin; Yue, Ya-Fei; Bai, Gui-Qin; Shi, Lei; Jiang, Hui
To explore the possible mechanism of intrauterine infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV DNA was detected in vaginal secretion and amniotic fluid from 59 HBsAg-positive mothers and in venous blood of their newborns by PCR. HBsAg and HBcAg in placenta were determined by ABC immunohistochemistry. The rate of HBV intrauterine infection was 40.1% (24/59). HBV DNA was detected in 47.5% of amniotic fluid samples and 52.5% of vaginal secretion samples respectively. HBsAg and HBcAg were detected in placentas from HBsAg-positive mothers. The concentration of the two antigens decreased from the mother's side to the fetus's side, in the following order: maternal decidual cells > trophoblastic cells > villous mesenchymal cells > villous capillary endothelial cells. However, in 4 placentas the distribution was in the reverse order. HBsAg and HBcAg were detected in amniotic epithelial cells from 32 mothers. The main route of HBV transmission from mother to fetus is transplacental, from the mother side of placenta to the fetus side. However, HBV intrauterine infection may take place through other routes.
Hyle, C. T.; Foggatt, C. E.; Weber, B. D.
Definition of a practical return-to-earth abort capability was required for each phase of an Apollo mission. A description of the basic development of the complex Apollo abort plan is presented. The process by which the return-to-earth abort plan was developed and the constraining factors that must be included in any abort procedure are also discussed. Special emphasis is given to the description of crew warning and escape methods for each mission phase.
Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.
This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.
Hayes, Peggy Sue
The purpose of NASA's Constellation project is to create the new generation of spacecraft for human flight to the International Space Station in low-earth orbit, the lunar surface, as well as for use in future deep-space exploration. One portion of the Constellation program was the development of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) to be used in spaceflight. The Orion spacecraft consists of a crew module, service module, space adapter and launch abort system. The crew module was designed to hold as many as six crew members. The Orion crew exploration vehicle is similar in design to the Apollo space capsules, although larger and more massive. The Flight Test Office is the responsible flight test organization for the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office originally proposed six tests that would demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests were to be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and were similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. The first flight test of the launch abort system was a pad abort (PA-1), that took place on 6 May 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Primary flight test objectives were to demonstrate the capability of the launch abort system to propel the crew module a safe distance away from a launch vehicle during a pad abort, to demonstrate the stability and control characteristics of the vehicle, and to determine the performance of the motors contained within the launch abort system. The focus of the PA-1 flight test was engineering development and data acquisition, not certification. In this presentation, a high level overview of the PA-1 vehicle is given, along with an overview of the Mobile Operations Facility and information on the White Sands tracking sites for radar & optics. Several lessons learned are presented, including detailed information on the lessons learned in the development of wind
Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.
Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.
Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading.
Levandowski, R.A.; Gerrity, T.R.; Garrard, C.S.
Four volunteers with naturally acquired, culture-proved influenza A infection inhaled a radiolabeled aerosol to permit investigation of lung mucociliary clearance mechanisms during and after symptomatic illness. Mucus transport in the trachea was undetectable when monitored with an external multidetector probe within 48 hours of the onset of the illness, but was found at a normal velocity by 1 week in three of the four subjects. In two volunteers who coughed 23 to 48 times during the 4.5-hour observation period, whole lung clearance was as fast within the first 48 hours of illness as during health 3 months later in spite of the absence of measurable tracheal mucus transport. Conversely, in spite of the return 1 week later of mucus transport at velocities expected in the trachea, whole lung clearance for the 4.5-hour period was slowed in two volunteers who coughed less than once an hour. The data offer evidence that cough is important in maintaining lung clearance for at least several days after symptomatic influenza A infection when other mechanisms that depend on ciliary function are severely deficient.
Marcus, Jeremy I; Hassoun, Soha; Nair, Nikhil U
Failure by RNA polymerase to break contacts with promoter DNA results in release of bound RNA and re-initiation of transcription. These abortive RNAs were assumed to be non-functional but have recently been shown to affect termination in bacteriophage T7. Little is known about the functional role of these RNA in other genetic models. Using a computational approach, we investigated whether abortive RNA could exert function in E. coli. Fragments generated from 3780 transcription units were used as query sequences within their respective transcription units to search for possible binding sites. Sites that fell within known regulatory features were then ranked based upon the free energy of hybridization to the abortive. We further hypothesize about mechanisms of regulatory action for a select number of likely matches. Future experimental validation of these putative abortive-mRNA pairs may confirm our findings and promote exploration of functional abortive RNAs (faRNAs) in natural and synthetic systems.
Persona, marketed by Unipath, is a new method of natural family planning which has been on the market since 1996. It works by measuring the hormone levels in a woman's urine and letting her know when she is not fertile and may have sex without using a barrier method of contraception. The British Pregnancy Advisory Service (BPAS) found that their surveyed clients who reported using Persona had 188 abortions in 3 months and concluded that there was a need for better information and more advice for couples who plan to use the method. The other major non-NHS abortion provider, Marie Stopes International, reported similar findings, with about 60 women per month visiting their clinics for abortions after having used the method. The BPAS survey also showed that 43% of the women who had an abortion after using Persona were aged 24 years or younger even though Persona is intended for use by women aged 25-40 years in stable relationships. A similar proportion also reported having sex on days when the method told them that they were most fertile. These latter women were not asked if they used another method of contraception on fertile days. An additional 13% reported ignoring the instructions to wait for 3 natural periods after terminating pill use before beginning to use Persona.
Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion.
Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others
A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…
Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Awah, Paschal; Pearson, Erin
Despite Zambia's relatively progressive abortion law, women continue to seek unsafe, illegal abortions. Four domains of abortion attitudes - support for legalization, immorality, rights, and access to services - were measured in 4 communities. A total of 668 people were interviewed. Associations among the 4 domains were inconsistent with expectations. The belief that abortion is immoral was widespread, but was not associated with lack of support for legalization. Instead, it was associated with belief that women need access to safe services. These findings suggest that increasing awareness about abortion law in Zambia may be important for encouraging more favorable attitudes.
At the same time that American women celebrate the freedoms won thus far for so many Americans, American women must realize they face some of the greatest threats to liberty in recent memory. To understand this movement against American women, it is necessary to first understand the roots of the historic movement for women's rights. Reproductive freedom for many years topped the agenda of the modern women's movement. At a time and in a land where rights were being enriched and liberty prized, choice took a prominent role, specifically, the right to abortion but also generally to repdocuctive freedom and the many underlying issues involved. This is why the various efforts to criminalize abortion effect every citizen, because they pose a serious threat to the constitutional rights of each individual. This is the intellectual view, or the "head" argument. The Constitution states that: "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and no state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US." Each of these clauses expresses the philosophy on which the Constitution was founded -- individual liberty. While there has been some legitimate disagreement over what constitutes an inalienable right, the concept is clear: the government should not become involved in personal philosophical or religious matters, except to permit the freedom of personal philosophical or religious expression. The anti-abortion contignent makes its case by claiming that a fertilized egg is a cona fide person and should, therefore, be guaranteed the Constitution's full roster of protections. In its landmark Roe v. Wade opinion, the Supreme Court held what pro-choice activities have been claiming for years. Since there is no empirical test by which measure
Coleman, Priscilla K; Coyle, Catherine T; Shuping, Martha; Rue, Vincent M
The purpose of this study was to examine associations between abortion history and a wide range of anxiety (panic disorder, panic attacks, PTSD, Agoraphobia), mood (bipolar disorder, mania, major depression), and substance abuse disorders (alcohol and drug abuse and dependence) using a nationally representative US sample, the national comorbidity survey. Abortion was found to be related to an increased risk for a variety of mental health problems (panic attacks, panic disorder, agoraphobia, PTSD, bipolar disorder, major depression with and without hierarchy), and substance abuse disorders after statistical controls were instituted for a wide range of personal, situational, and demographic variables. Calculation of population attributable risks indicated that abortion was implicated in between 4.3% and 16.6% of the incidence of these disorders. Future research is needed to identify mediating mechanisms linking abortion to various disorders and to understand individual difference factors associated with vulnerability to developing a particular mental health problem after abortion.
Lindell, M E; Olsson, H M
The Swedish abortion legislation of 1975 gave women the right to make a decision about abortion before the end of the 18th week of pregnancy. The number of abortions is rising in Sweden as a chosen method of birth control. The attitudes of students toward abortion were studied in 1986-1987. A questionnaire containing items on how sex education is taught, the anatomy and physiology of reproduction, contraceptives, sexually transmitted diseases, and legal abortion was answered by 421 high school students. Results pertaining to the students' attitudes toward abortion are reported. Two thirds of the students believed that the decision about an abortion should be made by the man and woman together. Nearly all respondents believed that abortion should not be considered a method of birth control. These results may be considered a guide for interventions to prevent the need for abortion. One fourth of all pregnancies in Sweden terminate in abortion. The students in the present study thought of abortion as a solution. Authors studying samples with different cultural backgrounds have reported similar attitudes.
Notably absent from the public debate on abortion in Ireland have been the voices of women who have experienced induced abortion. Interviews with six acquaintances of the author who underwent abortion identified four themes underlying women's post-abortion silence. First, women fear public condemnation and personal rejection. Second, women are concerned that any emotional ambivalence they express about the abortion experience will be misconstrued as anti-abortion sentiment. Third, women worry that speaking out about their experience would be upsetting to friends and family. Fourth, women report frustration about the lack of a suitable public forum for voicing the complexities inherent in the abortion issue. The women's perception that their experience did not fit neatly with the rhetoric of either pro- or anti-abortion groups caused them to feel alienated from a political discourse that tends to depersonalize abortion. Although none of the women regretted the abortion decision, they continued to struggle with unresolved conflicts over taking responsibility for ending some form of life. A cycle has been created in which women do not feel safe to discuss their personal experiences until a more favorable political climate exists, yet the public perception of abortion is unlikely to change until more women's voices are heard. Feminist leaders are urged to address this dilemma.
Viada, R; Eyzaguirre, H; Fuentes, F; Miller, E R; Goldsmith, A
602 patients were admitted for treatment of incomplete abortion (including inevitable or threatened abortion) from May 1 to October 31, 1974, at Felix Bulnes Hospital in Santiago Chile. Routine treatment included dilation and curettage in 88.7% of the cases, with a mean hospitalization time of 2.5 nights. Complications in 14.6% included fever, pelvic infection, and blood loss requiring transfusion. 78.4% had used no form of contraception in the month previous to conception, but 68.9% of those who returned for a follow-up (only 37.7%) were using effective contraceptives. The study indicates: 1) the cost of abortion is high in terms of risk of complications and hospital time; 2) infection associated with abortions outside the hospital is high; and 3) acceptance of contraception after abortion is not high enough to deter repetition of abortion.
Maternal morbidity and mortality due to complications of unsafe abortion constitute a major public health concern in many countries. It is estimated that of the approximately 150,000 unwanted pregnancies that are terminated every day by induced abortion, 1/3 are performed under unsafe conditions, resulting in some 500 deaths every day. In many developing countries a substantial proportion of the limited national reproductive health care resources are spent on the management of abortion-related problems. To evaluate further the public health consequences of unsafe abortions, the Programme is supporting hospital-based studies of complications of abortion and their cost to the health care system in countries where safe abortion is not readily available. The studies employ a core protocol adapted to local conditions. Bangladesh, Chile, Ethiopia, and Thailand have completed such research, and similar studies are currently under way in 4 more countries--Benin, Brazil, Senegal, and Uganda. In Bangladesh, 1301 cases of abortion-related diagnoses admitted to hospital were included in the study. Some 46% were judged to have certainly had an induced abortion and another 16% were judged as possible cases of induced abortion. While no deaths occurred in women with spontaneous abortions, 18 of those who had had an induced abortion died. More hospital resources in terms of duration of stay, antibiotics, and blood were spent on cases of induced abortion compared to cases of spontaneous abortion. The study also found that on average abortion cases occupied hospital beds for a much longer duration compared to other obstetric cases. full text
Martinez, Pedro A; Petersen, Christine A
Leishmania amazonensis is an intracellular protozoan parasite responsible for chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). CL is a neglected tropical disease responsible for infecting millions of people worldwide. L. amazonensis promotes alteration of various signaling pathways that are essential for host cell survival. Specifically, through parasite-mediated phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), L. amazonensis inhibits cell-mediated parasite killing and promotes its own survival by co-opting multiple host cell functions. In this review, we highlight Leishmania-host cell signaling alterations focusing on those specific to (1) motor proteins, (2) prevention of NADPH subunit phosphorylation impairing reactive oxygen species production, and (3) localized endosomal signaling to up-regulate ERK phosphorylation. This review will focus upon mechanisms and possible explanations as to how Leishmania spp. evades the various layers of defense employed by the host immune response.
Brookman-Amissah, Eunice; Moyo, Josephine Banda
Stigma and silence surrounded unsafe abortion in Africa until the International Conference on Population and Development in 1994. Up to five million unsafe abortions are performed in Africa every year, with young women disproportionately affected. This paper summarises the colonial origins of current abortion laws and efforts in the region to provide post-abortion care. Much as it helps to save lives, however, post-abortion care will not eliminate unsafe abortion. There is a need to do away with restrictive laws. The paper describes efforts in several countries to change the law, focusing on Kenya, where organised opposition to reforming the law has emerged and led to the arrest of three service providers. Regional bodies, including the African Union, have taken a stand on abortion within the wider context of safe motherhood and reducing maternal mortality, and advocacy for better abortion laws is increasing across the region. As more girls remain in school and the marriage age increases, the inadequate provision of family planning and abortion care will cause Africa to lose many young women through unsafe sexual activity, unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion, early childbearing and HIV infection. The time has come in Africa for a commitment to eliminate deaths and disability from unsafe abortion and respect women's right to decide the number and spacing of their children.
Fawcus, Susan R
Unsafe abortions refer to terminations of unintended pregnancies by persons lacking the necessary skills, or in an environment lacking the minimum medical standards, or both. Globally, unsafe abortions account for 67,900 maternal deaths annually (13% of total maternal mortality) and contribute to significant morbidity among women, especially in under-resourced settings. The determinants of unsafe abortion include restrictive abortion legislation, lack of female empowerment, poor social support, inadequate contraceptive services and poor health-service infrastructure. Deaths from unsafe abortion are preventable by addressing the above determinants and by the provision of safe, accessible abortion care. This includes safe medical or surgical methods for termination of pregnancy and management of incomplete abortion by skilled personnel. The service must also include provision of emergency medical or surgical care in women with severe abortion complications. Developing appropriate services at the primary level of care with a functioning referral system and the inclusion of post abortion contraceptive care with counseling are essential facets of abortion care.
Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo
Voluntarily induced abortion has been under permanent dispute and legal regulations, because societies invariably condemn extramarital pregnancies. In recent decades, a measure of societal tolerance has led to decriminalize and legalize abortion in accordance with one of two models: a more restricted and conservative model known as therapeutic abortion, and the model that accepts voluntary abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy. Liberalization of abortion aims at ending clandestine abortions and decriminalizes the practice in order to increase reproductive education and accessibility of contraceptive methods, dissuade women from interrupting their pregnancy and, ultimately, make abortion a medically safe procedure within the boundaries of the law, inspired by efforts to reduce the incidence of this practice. The current legal initiative to decriminalize abortion in Chile proposes a notably rigid set of indications which would not resolve the three main objectives that need to be considered: 1) Establish the legal framework of abortion; 2) Contribute to reduce social unrest; 3) Solve the public health issue of clandestine, illegal abortions. Debate must urgently be opened to include alternatives in line with the general tendency to respect women's decision within the first trimester of pregnancy.
Gaslonde Sainz, S
Surveys dealing with abortion in Latin America have provided useful information despite problems in the collection and use of the data. Considerations that should be taken into account in designing abortion surveys and using the resultant information have been discussed here. Special attention has been paid to the need for a broad definition of "abortion" in order to overcome difficulties in gathering information about abortion in Latin America. Surveys have shown increasing incidence of abortion throughout Latin America in the recent past. In examining changes over time it is crucial to interpret clearly and carefully the summary measures of proportion of pregnancies ending in abortion and abortion rates per 1,000 women. It is also important to realize that the level and direction of change of the abortion rate depends on both the rate at which women are becoming pregnant and the proportion of pregnancies ending in abortion. Better survey design and techniques and more careful use of the resulting information will aid in the planning and evaluation of programs aimed at reducing abortion in Latin America.
Hruz, Paul W.
Identification and characterization of the molecular mechanisms contributing to the high incidence of insulin resistance in HIV infected patients treated with combined antiretroviral therapy remains a critically important goal in the quest to improve the safety of antiretroviral treatment regimens. The use of in vitro model systems together with the investigation of drug-mediated effects on glucose homeostasis in animals and healthy human volunteers has provided important insight into the contribution of individual drugs to insulin resistance and affected cellular pathways. HIV protease inhibitor mediated blockade of glucose transport and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mediated mitochondrial toxicity have been well characterized. Together with growing understanding of mediators of insulin resistance in non-HIV metabolic syndrome, additional cellular effects including the induction of endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress, altered adipocytokine secretion, and lipotoxicity have been integrated into this developing picture. Further elucidation of these mechanisms provides potential for the continued development of safer antiviral drugs and targeted treatment of insulin resistance in affected patients. PMID:21663839
The field of abortion counseling originated in the abortion rights movement of the 1970s. During its evolution to the present day, it has faced significant challenges, primarily arising from the increasing politicization and stigmatization of abortion since legalization. Abortion counseling has been affected not only by the imposition of antiabortion statutes, but also by the changing needs of patients who have come of age in a very different era than when this occupation was first developed. One major innovation—head and heart counseling—departs in significant ways from previous conventions of the field and illustrates the complex and changing political meanings of abortion and therefore the challenges to abortion providers in the years following Roe v Wade. PMID:23153144
Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula
This study examines the association between religion and attitudes toward the practice of abortion and abortion policy in Brazil. Drawing upon data from the 2002 Brazilian Social Research Survey (BSRS), we test a number of hypotheses with regard to the role of religion on opposition to the practice of abortion and its legalization. Findings indicate that frequently attending Pentecostals demonstrate the strongest opposition to the practice of abortion and both frequently attending Pentecostals and Catholics demonstrate the strongest opposition to its legalization. Additional religious factors, such as a commitment to biblical literalism, were also found to be significantly associated with opposition to both abortion issues. Ultimately, the findings have implications for the future of public policy on abortion and other contentious social issues in Brazil.
The field of abortion counseling originated in the abortion rights movement of the 1970s. During its evolution to the present day, it has faced significant challenges, primarily arising from the increasing politicization and stigmatization of abortion since legalization. Abortion counseling has been affected not only by the imposition of antiabortion statutes, but also by the changing needs of patients who have come of age in a very different era than when this occupation was first developed. One major innovation--head and heart counseling--departs in significant ways from previous conventions of the field and illustrates the complex and changing political meanings of abortion and therefore the challenges to abortion providers in the years following Roe v Wade.
This article offers research support for the operational policy principle that preventing pregnancies leads to fewer abortions. Findings pertain to a study by the Office of Population of the USAID, a large-scale study in four Latin American countries, a comparative study between Colombia and Mexico, a study in Tanzania, and pilot projects in Turkey and Egypt. USAID reports that use of abortion was closely associated with unmet need for contraception and use of less effective methods of contraception. Abortion rates declined over a 15-20 year period as contraception became the norm. Countries with more effective modern methods of contraception had lower abortion rates than countries with reliance on less effective methods. Family planning programs are becoming effective in countries with historically high rates of abortion, such as Russia and eastern Europe. It is estimated that about 32 million abortions occur yearly in developing countries, and most are unsafe. In Turkey, about 34% of married women who chose abortion had not used contraception, and 45% had relied on withdrawal. 73% of women in Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela who were hospitalized for unsafe abortions had not used contraception. The decline in abortion rates does not occur until contraception is both widely available and consistently used. For short periods there may be increases in both abortion rates and contraceptive use rates as the population strives for a smaller family size. For example, in South Korea, contraceptive use increased from 24% to 77% during 1971-88, while lifetime abortion rates increased to 2.9 in 1978 and declined to 1.9 in 1991. Colombia, Mexico, Chile, and Hungary all experienced declining abortion after widespread availability and increased use of contraception occurred. The reduction in abortions results in greater availability of beds in hospitals and lower maternal mortality.
Vasquez, J A
Family planning programs were implemented in Mexico in 1973; since then the number of family planning acceptors has grown considerably; however, the number of illegal abortions has also been on the increase. Such phenomenon has been noticed in other countries under the same circumstances, notably Korea, India, and Chile. Women in large urban areas tend to abandon family planning programs for lack of specific information and of adequate and specialized attention. In 1977 in the state of Puebla 32.6% of the total number of pregnancies were terminated in abortion, often induced with primitive and unsanitary methods. It is essential to educate young and very young people on the idea of responsible paternity, and to offer them adequate sex education in schools and outside schools. The general physician can play a very important role in advising these people and in spreading the principle of family planning.
McLachlan, H V
The issue of abortion is discussed with reference to the claim that people have a right of control over their own bodies. Do people "own" their own bodies? If so, what would be entailed? These questions are discussed in commonsense terms and also in relation to the jurisprudence of Hohfeld, Honore, Munzer and Waldron. It is argued that whether or not women are morally and/or should be legally entitled to have abortions, such entitlements cannot be derived from a general moral entitlement to do what we will with our own bodies since there is no such entitlement. Whether or not we "own" them, we can have rights duties, liabilities, restrictions and disadvantages as well as rights concerning our own bodies.
Sheehy, Grace; Aung, Yadanar; Foster, Angel M
Induced abortion in Myanmar is severely legally restricted and permissible only to save a woman's life. As a result, unsafe abortion is common and contributes significantly to maternal mortality. Our overall study aimed to explore women's reproductive health needs in peri-urban Yangon, a dynamic series of townships on the periphery of the country's largest city characterized by poor infrastructure, slum settlements and a mobile, migrant population. In this paper, we focus specifically on the perceptions, opinions and experiences of both adult women and key informants with respect to induced abortion and postabortion care in peri-urban Yangon. In 2014, we conducted 18 key informant interviews with individuals working in reproductive health in peri-urban Yangon and seven focus group discussions with health service providers (n=2) and adult women (n=5). We analyzed these data for content and themes using a multiphased iterative approach. In peri-urban Yangon, unsafe abortion appears to be common and is largely provided by traditional birth attendants. Women use a range of mechanical, medication and traditional methods, often in combination. Postabortion care is available but misinformation and fear of harassment keep many women from accessing timely care. Efforts to reform the highly restrictive abortion law in Myanmar combined with implementation of harm reduction strategies have the potential to greatly improve a neglected area of women's health. Future research on the cost of unsafe abortion to the public sector could be instrumental in achieving legal and service delivery reform. Measures to increase access to safe, legal abortion care and reduce harm from unsafe abortion need to be expanded. Developing strategies to liberalize Myanmar's abortion law, raising awareness about misoprostol, training clinicians to provide woman-centered postabortion care and documenting the cost of unsafe abortion to the public sector appear warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc
Zhang, Jing; Qin, Xin; Zhu, Y U; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Xue-Wei; Lu, H E
Toxoplasmosis is a serious zoonoses disease and opportunistic, and can be life-threatening. Dexamethasone (DEX) is widely used in the clinic for treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, long-term use of DEX is often easy to lead to acute toxoplasmosis in patients, and the potential molecular mechanism is still not very clear. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of DEX on proliferation of Toxoplasma and its molecular mechanisms, and to establish the corresponding control measures. All the results showed that dexamethasone could enhance the proliferation of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. After 72 h of DEX treatment, 566 (±7) tachyzoites were found in 100 host cells, while only 86 (±8) tachyzoites were counted from the non-treated control cells (P < 0·01). Gas chromatography (GC) analysis showed changes in level and composition of fatty acids in DEX-treated host cells, and T. gondii. Fish oil was added as a modulator of lipid metabolism in experimental mice. It was found that mice fed with fish oil did not develop the disease after infection with T. gondii, and the structure of fatty acids in plasma changed significantly. The metabolism of fatty acid in the parasites was limited, and the desaturase gene expression was downregulated. These results indicate that the molecular mechanism of dexamethasone to promote the proliferation of T. gondii may be that dexamethasone induces the change of fatty acids composition of tachyzoites and host cells. Therefore, we recommend supplementation of fatty acid in immunosuppressive and immunocompromised patients in order to inhibit toxoplasmosis.
The author reports on current German court rulings on whether non-medically indicated abortions (although not prohibited by law and therefore not actionable) should be financed via the compulsory health insurance scheme or by the Federal Government. 1. The social welfare court at Dortmund ruled that current legislation governing the financing of welfare expenditure violates the Federal German constitution, and has, therefore, referred this matter to the Federal Constitutional Court. However, the Federal Constitutional Court turned down the referral and dismissed the case, since an application for declaring a Federal law null and void can be filed by the Federal Government or by a Federal Land Government or by at least one-third of the total number of members of the Federal German Parliament (Bundestag) only. This means that the current proceedings at the Dortmund social welfare court must continue. The plaintiff pleads to prohibit the compulsory health insurance scheme authorities from defraying the expenses for performing foeticide via legally permitted abortion without medical indication. 2. The Federal Land Government of Baden-Württemberg is the only Land Government of the Federal Republic of Germany that does not grant any financial aid towards performing non-medically indicated (albeit not legally actionable) abortions. Hence, the Baden-Württemberg Administrative Courts turned down the plea filed by a woman government servant towards paying such aid. The court decision was based on the judge's opinion that even the principle of equality before the law guaranteed by the Constitution would not compel the Land Government to emulate the example of the other Land Governments who are agreeable to bearing abortion costs.
Edwards, R B
This essay seeks to reveal the weakness in arguments against public funding of abortions and abortion counseling in the US based on economic, ethico-religious, anti-racist, and logical-consistency objections and to show that public funding of abortion is strongly supported by appeals to basic human rights, to freedom of speech, to informed consent, to protection from great harm, to justice, and to equal protection under the law. The first part of the article presents the case against public funding with detailed considerations of the economic argument, the ethico/religious argument, the argument that such funding supports racist genocide or eugenic quality control, and arguments that a logical inconsistency exists between the principles used to justify the legalization of abortions and arguments for public funding. The second part of the article presents the case for public funding by discussing the spending of public funds on morally offensive programs, arguments for public funding of abortion counseling for the poor, and arguments for public funding of abortions for the poor. It is concluded that it is morally unacceptable and rationally unjustifiable to refuse to expend public funds for abortions for low income women, because after all most money for legal abortions for the poor comes from welfare payments made to women. If conservative forces want to insure that no public funds pay for abortions, they must stop all welfare payments to pregnant women.
Zakowska, Dorota; Bartoszcze, Michał; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Kocik, Janusz
Articles concerning new aspects of B. anthracis mechanisms of infection were reviewed. It was found, that the hair follicle plays an important role in the spore germination process. The hair follicle represent an important portal of entry in the course of the cutaneous form of disease infections. After mouse exposition to aerosol of spores prepared from B. anthracis strains, an increase in the level of TNF-α cytokines was observed. The TNF-α cytokines were produced after intrusion into the host by the microorganism. This process may play a significant role in the induced migration of infected cells APCs (Antigen Presenting Cells) via chemotactic signals to the lymph nodes. It was explained that IgG, which binds to the spore surface, activates the adaptive immune system response. As a result, the release C3b opsonin from the spore surface, and mediating of C3 protein fragments of B. anthracis spores phagocytosis by human macrophages, was observed. The genes coding germination spores protein in mutant strains of B. anthracis MIGD was a crucial discovery. According to this, it could be assumed that the activity of B. anthracis spores germination process is dependent upon the sleB, cwlJ1 and cwlJ2 genes, which code the GSLEs lithic enzymes. It was also discovered that the specific antibody for PA20, which binds to the PA20 antigenic determinant, are able to block further PA83 proteolytic fission on the surface of cells. This process neutralized PA functions and weakened the activity of free PA20, which is produced during the PA83 enzyme fission process. Interaction between PA63 monomer and LF may be helpful in the PA63 oligomerization and grouping process, and the creation of LF/PA63 complexes may be a part of an alternative process of assembling the anthrax toxin on the surface of cells. It was found that actin-dependent endocytosis plays an important role in the PA heptamerisation process and leads to blocking the toxin activity. Chaperones, a protein derived from
military have rates of HCV infection similar to the general US population (1.6%). However, it is a younger population and its natural history of HCV ...infection has not been studied. Therefore, the clinical outcome of HCV -infected military subjects and risk factors contributing to disease...active duty military subjects infected with HCV , who will be enrolled and observed prospectively over four years (48 months). Liver biopsies are to
military have rates of HCV infection similar to the general US population (1.6%). However, it is a younger population and its natural history of HCV ...infection has not been studied. Therefore, the clinical outcome of HCV -infected military subjects and risk factors contributing to disease progression...active duty military subjects infected with HCV , who will be enrolled and observed prospectively over four years (48 months). Liver biopsies are to be
approximately 1,000 will require liver transplantation. The United States military have rates of HCV infection similar to the general US population (1.6...However, it is a younger population and its natural history of HCV infection has not been studied. Therefore, the clinical outcome of HCV -infected...management and prevention of the disease. This study focuses on active duty military subjects infected with HCV , who will be enrolled and observed
Pacheco, Julianna; Kreitzer, Rebecca
The stability of abortion opinions suggests that pre-adult factors influence these attitudes more than contemporaneous political events. Surprisingly, however, we know little about the origins of abortion opinions, no doubt because the majority of research focuses on cross-sectional analyses of patterns across cohorts. We use a developmental model that links familial and contextual factors during adolescence to abortion attitudes years later when respondents are between 21 and 38 years old. Findings show that religious adherence and maternal gender role values are significant predictors of adult abortion opinions, even after controlling for contemporaneous religious adherence and the respondents’ own views on gender roles. Adolescent religious adherence matters more than religious denomination for adult abortion attitudes. The results have important implications for future trends in abortion attitudes in light of declining religiosity among Americans. PMID:27257307
Shoesmith, Gary L.
This article disaggregates Donohue and Levitt’s (DL’s) national panel-data models to the state level and shows that high concentrations of teenage abortions in a handful of states drive all of DL’s results in their 2001, 2004, and 2008 articles on crime and abortion. These findings agree with previous research showing teenage motherhood is a major maternal crime factor, whereas unwanted pregnancy is an insignificant factor. Teenage abortions accounted for more than 30% of U.S. abortions in the 1970s, but only 16% to 18% since 2001, which suggests DL’s panel-data models of crime/arrests and abortion were outdated when published. The results point to a broad range of future research involving teenage behavior. A specific means is proposed to reconcile DL with previous articles finding no relationship between crime and abortion. PMID:28943645
Mumford, S D
The national security implications of abortion have not been addressed in a public forum but could come to be the single most important facet of the abortion debate. Abortion has been and will continue to be an essential variable in fertility control. Any serious effort at population growth control in the next few decades will have to recognize the role abortion has in birth rate decline. At this time an estimated 40-50 million abortions are performed worldwide each year; 1/2 of them are illegal. In the absence of abortion, annual growth would approach approximately 120 million. Growth of this magnitude would probably place intolerable strains on the economics and environments of some nations. To recognize the role of abortion in fertility control is to emphasize the inescapable need for abortion as 1 element in any comprehensive family planning service. Excessive population growth leads to chronic unemployment and the frustration of the goals of hundreds of millions of people. While this new threat to the security of individual nations and ultimately to global security has not been widely acknowledged, it is beginning to gain the attention of people of different professions and distinctive political persuasions. In many ways, rampant population growth is an even more dangerous and subtle threat to the world than thermonuclear war, for it is intrinsically less subject to rational safeguards and less amenable to organized control. Possibly the greatest and most pervasive problem is the declining ability to meet human needs in the areas of food, raw material, and resources, counterpoised against what are clearly rising expectations of growing populations. The following facts cannot be disputed: world population is a threat to the security of all nations, including the U.S.; abortion is essential to any effective population growth control effort; abortion is a national security issue; and as the availability of legal abortion in the U.S. goes, so goes the availability
Hunt, M E
A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.
Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim A; Karasek, Deborah; Adler, Nancy E; Mortensen, Laust H
Does the incidence of spontaneous abortion correlate positively over conception cohorts with the incidence of non-clinically indicated induced abortion as predicted by shared risk aversion? We find that the number of spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions correlates in conception cohorts, suggesting that risk aversion affects both the conscious and non-conscious mechanisms that control parturition. Much literature speculates that natural selection conserved risk aversion because the trait enhanced Darwinian fitness. Risk aversion, moreover, supposedly influences all decisions including those that individuals can and cannot report making. We argue that these circumstances, if real, would manifest in conscious and non-conscious decisions to invest in prospective offspring, and therefore affect incidence of induced and spontaneous abortion over time. Using data from Denmark, we test the hypothesis that monthly conception cohorts yielding unexpectedly many non-clinically indicated induced abortions also yield unexpectedly many spontaneous abortions. The 180 month test period (January 1995 through December 2009), yielded 1 351 800 gestations including 156 780 spontaneous as well as 233 280 induced abortions 9100 of which were clinically indicated. We use Box-Jenkins transfer functions to adjust the incidence of spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions for autocorrelation (including seasonality), cohort size, and fetal as well as gestational anomalies over the 180-month test period. We use cross-correlation to test our hypothesized association. We find a positive association between spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions. This suggests, consistent with our theory, that mothers of conception cohorts that yielded more spontaneous abortions than expected opted more frequently than expected for non-clinically indicated induced abortion. Limitations of our work include that even the world's best registration system
Del Campo, C
A consistent argument favoring therapeutic abortions has been that mothers who are denied abortions will seek "illegal" help elsewhere, often in less than optimal conditions. Yet, a review of published reports on women who had been denied abortion and were followed up shows that 70.67% of the 6298 women completed their pregnancies and only 13.2% had an abortion elsewhere. Several studies have shown that the incidence of Complications of pregnancy is no greater in mothers denied abortion than in paired controls. The results of a prospective study by Laukaran and Van Den Berg showed a higher incidence of maternal accidental injury, a borderline increase of maternal accidental injury, a borderline increase in the prevalence of congenital anomalies, and a higher incidence of infection and hemorrhage during the puerperium in women who had been denied abortion. They concluded that maternal attitude and psychosocial stress had little effect on the progress of the pregnancy and labor. Published reports on the psychological effects on the children of women who had been denied abortion are few, mainly because longterm follow-up is required. In 1966 Forssman and Thuwe described the results of their study of 120 children whose mothers had been denied abortion. The children had been followed up until their 21st birthdays. The controls had been carefully paired. The proportion of children who had been placed in foster and children's homes was significantly higher among the "unwanted" children than among the controls (50% versus 18%). There was no statistically significant difference in the rates of drunken misconduct, crime, or "educational mental subnormality" between the 2 groups, but the incidence rates of delinquency and psychiatric consultation were 10% and 13% higher respectively among the unwanted children than among the controls. There have been virtually no objective studies on the psychologic and social well-being of women who have been denied abortion. The literature
Grimes, D A; Schulz, K F; Cates, W
Opinion is divided as to the advisability of routine use of prophylactic antibiotics for curettage abortion. Six studies, including three randomized clinical trials, suggest that prophylaxis reduces infectious morbidity associated with curettage abortions by about one half. Three other studies, two involving prophylaxis for instillation abortions and one involving a vaginal antiseptic for curettage abortion, support the hypothesis that antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces morbidity. Tetracyclines are commonly used for this purpose. The cost of routine prophylaxis even with an expensive tetracycline would appear to be offset by the savings in direct and indirect costs. Prophylaxis may help prevent both short-term morbidity and potential late sequelae, such as ectopic pregnancy and infertility.
An attempt is made to identify and document the problems of comparative evaluation of the more recent studies of psychiatric morbidity after abortion and to determine the current consensus so that when the results of the joint RCGP/RCOG study of the sequelae of induced abortion become available they can be viewed in a more informed context. The legalization of abortion has provided more opportunities for studies of subsequent morbidity. New laws have contributed to the changing attitudes of society, and the increasing acceptability of the operation has probably influenced the occurrence of psychiatric sequelae. The complexity of measuring psychiatric sequelae is evident from the many terms used to describe symptomatology and behavioral patterns and from the number of assessment techniques involved. Numerous techniques have been used to quantify psychiatric sequelae. Several authors conclude that few psychiatric problems follow an induced abortion, but many studies were deficient in methodology, material, or length of follow-up. A British study in 1975 reported a favorable outcome for a "representative sample" of 50 National Health Service patients: 68% of these patients had an absence of or only mild feelings of guilt, loss, or self reproach and considered abortion as the best solution to their problem. The 32% who had an adverse outcome reported moderate to severe feelings of guilt, regret, loss, and self reproach, and there was evidence of mental illness. In most of these cases the adverse outcome was related to the patient's environment since the abortion. A follow-up study of 126 women, which compared the overall reaction to therapeutic abortion between women with a history of previous mild psychiatric illness and those without reported that a significantly different emotional reaction could not be demonstrated between the 2 groups. In a survey among women seeking an abortion 271 who were referred for a psychiatric opinion regarding terminations of pregnancy
Stotland, N L
US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation.
Di Carlo, Costantino; Savoia, Fabiana; Ferrara, Cinzia; Sglavo, Gabriella; Tommaselli, Giovanni Antonio; Giampaolino, Pierluigi; Cagnacci, Angelo; Nappi, Carmine
To compare patients' satisfaction with medical and surgical abortion, implementing the Italian guidelines on medical abortion entailing an "in patient" procedure. A total of 1832 pregnant chose between surgical (vacuum aspiration) or medical abortion (mifepristone p.o. followed after 3 days by sublingual misoprostol) and expressed their expected satisfaction on a visual analog scale (VAS). A total of 885 women chose surgical and 947 medical abortion. The primary end-point was satisfaction VAS score 20 days after the procedure. Secondary end-points were: difference between pre- and post-abortion VAS score; difference in satisfaction VAS scores according to parity and previous abortion; incidence of side effects. VAS score was high in each group but significantly higher for the 1-day surgical than for the 3-day medical abortion procedure (7.9 ± 1.0 versus 7.2 ± 1.2; p < 0.0001). In the surgical group the VAS score increased after the treatment (6.9 ± 1.6 versus 7.9 ± 1.0, p < 0.0001), while it decreased in the medical group (7.5 ± 1.0 versus 7.2 ± 1.2; p < 0.0001). Multiparous women reported higher satisfaction with medical abortion; women with a previous abortion preferred surgical abortion. Both procedures are considered satisfactory by the patients. Performing medical abortion as a 3-day "in patient" procedure, decreased women's satisfaction scores from their baseline expectations.
Goto, Ryutaro; Okamoto, Tomoko; Kiers, E Toby; Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto
The evolutionary stability of mutualisms is enhanced when partners possess mechanisms to prevent overexploitation by one another. In obligate pollination-seed consumption mutualisms, selective abortion of flowers containing excessive eggs represents one such mechanism, but empirical tests have long been limited to the yucca-yucca moth mutualism. We present evidence for selective abortion in the recently discovered mutualism between Glochidion trees and Epicephala moths. In Glochidion acuminatum, proportion of aborted flowers progressively increased both with higher egg load and increased ovule damage. Selective abortion resulted in a 16% seed production increase compared with expectations under random abortion, and moths suffered fitness losses as high as 62% when ovipositing into pre-infested flowers. Moth eggs were laid singly more often than expected under random oviposition, thus avoiding potential disadvantages from multiple infestations. As new pollination mutualisms are being discovered, selective abortion mechanisms may prove to be more widespread than previously thought.
A primiparous ewe aborted in mid-gestation. Toxoplasma gondii was suspected as the cause of abortion and a presumptive diagnosis of T. gondii abortion was based on histological lesions of the placenta. PMID:12715986
Bettahar, K; Pinton, A; Boisramé, T; Cavillon, V; Wylomanski, S; Nisand, I; Hassoun, D
Updated clinical recommendations for medical induced abortion procedure. A systematic review of French and English literature, reviewing the evidence relating to the provision of medical induced abortion was carried out on PubMed, Cochrane Library and international scientific societies recommendations. The effectiveness of medical abortion is higher than 95% when the protocols are adjusted to gestational age (EL1). Misoprostol alone is less effective than a combination of mifepristone and misoprostol (EL1). Gemeprost is less effective than misoprostol (EL2). The dose of 200mg of mifepristone should be preferred to 600mg (NP1, Rank A). Mifepristone can be taken at home (professional agreement). The optimum interval between mifepristone and misoprostol intake should be 24 to 48 hours (EL1, grade A). Before 7 weeks LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol should be given orally (EL1, grade A) eventually repeated after 3hours if no bleeding occurs. For optimal effectiveness between 7 and 14 LMP, the interval between mifepristone and misoprostol should not be shortened to less than 8hours (grade 1). An interval of 24 to 48hours will not affect the effectiveness of the method provided misoprostol dosage is 800μg (EL1). Vaginal, sublingual or buccal routes of administration are more effective and better tolerated than the oral route, which should be abandoned (EL1). An amount of 800μg sublingual or buccal misoprostol route has the same effectiveness than the vaginal route but more gastrointestinal side effects (EL1, grade A). Between 7 and 9 LMP, it does not seem necessary to repeat misoprostol dose whereas it should be repeated beyond 9 SA (grade B). Between 9 and 14 LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol given either vaginally, buccally or sublingually should be repeated every 3hours if needed (with a maximum of 5 doses) (EL2, grade B). There is no strong evidence supporting routine antibiotic prophylaxis for medical abortion (professional agreement). Rare contraindications
complications and approximately 1,000 will require liver transplantation. The United States military have rates of HCV infection similar to the general US...population (1.6%). However, it is a younger population and its natural history of HCV infection has not been studied. Therefore, the clinical outcome of HCV ...regarding optimal management and prevention of the disease. This study focuses on active duty military subjects infected with HCV , who will be enrolled and
Ikechebelu, J I; Okoli, C C
We present a study of the maternal morbidity and mortality among 76 patients treated at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi for complications of induced abortion from January 1996 to December 2000. The total number of maternal admissions over this period was 5750, and illegal induced abortion was responsible for 1.3% of the admissions, with a mortality rate of 5.3% (n = 4) for induced abortion. This accounted for 21.1% of the total maternal deaths (n = 19) for the period. The mean age of the women was 20.6 years (range 15-34 years), 94.7% (n = 72) were unmarried, 93.5% (n = 71) were nulliparous and 76.5% (n = 58) were unemployed, 67.1% (n = 51) had had a mid-trimester termination at > 13 weeks gestational age. It is significant that 55.3% of the patients were teenagers and 45.1% of the mid-trimester abortions occurred in this group. Genital sepsis, haemorrhage, pelvic infection with peritonitis and abscess formation, uterine perforation, and gut injury were the major complications encountered. This study demonstrates that induced abortion is still a major cause of maternal mortality in Nigeria. Integrated family health education, planned parenthood and contraceptive education, a mass literacy campaign and improvement of the existing national health services are recommended in order to ameliorate the problems of illegally induced abortion in Nigeria.
Discussions about Paragraph 218 of the German federal abortion law have spawned antithetical opinions: on the one hand, the full right of the mother or parents to decide about the incipient human life; and on the other hand, under the dogma of abortion is murder, providing abortion is rejected even when the pregnancy is the result of rape and it is unwanted. Two questions are closely related to this issue: 1) what makes human beings human and 2) when does human life begin. From a medical point of view the function of the brain is fundamentally linked to being human. The brain controls almost all functions of the body and determines its psychological makeup, such as intellect and, in a theological sense, the soul. Without the brain such functioning is not possible, since brain death means the death of human life. Children born with anencephaly and microencephaly can never live a human life. At the end of life various diseases (stroke, Alzheimer disease) can severely damage the brain. In these cases normal living is also no longer possible. Yet ethically it is untenable to actively kill these human beings. But when one considers that life-threatening diseases can require life-support intervention, then often the pragmatic intervention is not far removed from active euthanasia. The other question related to the beginning of human life is even more difficult to answer. It is the fertilization of the egg cells; but a conglomeration of cells in the early phase of pregnancy can hardly be characterized as a human person. The human identity, personality, and worth is associated with the functioning of the brain, so only when the brain is fully developed can there be any talk about an unborn human being.
Gerdts, Caitlin; DePiñeres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene
Background Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. Methods In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic characteristics of legal abortion seekers, as well as the frequency and reasons that women are denied abortion care. Results The proportion of women denied abortion services and the reasons for which they were denied varied widely by country. In Colombia, 2% of women surveyed did not receive the abortions they were seeking; in South Africa, 45% of women did not receive abortions on the day they were seeking abortion services. In both Tunisia and Nepal, 26% of women were denied their wanted abortions. Conclusions The denial of legal abortion services may have serious consequences for women's health and wellbeing. Additional evidence on the risk factors for presenting later in pregnancy, predictors of seeking unsafe illegal abortion, and the health consequences of illegal abortion and childbirth after an unwanted pregnancy is needed. Such data would assist the development of programmes and policies aimed at increasing access to and utilisation of safe abortion services where abortion is legal, and harm reduction models for women who are unable to access legal abortion services. PMID:25511805
Lyberatou-Moraitou, E; Grigori-Kostaraki, P; Retzepopoulou, Z; Kosmaidou-Aravidou, Z
G-banded chromosome complements were analysed from both partners of 150 couples who had had two or more spontaneous abortions. Two women and four men were found to be balanced translocation carriers, as follows: 46,XX,t(2;10), 46,XX,t(6;11), 46,XY,t(6;10), 45,XY,t(13;14), 45,XY,t(13;14), 45,XY,t(14;21). Another woman had an abnormal karotype 46,XX/47,XXX and a man had a pericentric inversion of chromosome 1; six other men and two women had pericentric inversions of chromosome 9.
Kajii, T; Ferrier, A
783 aborters and 430 abortuses were studied in a prospective cytogenetic survey which attempted to link chromosome abnormalities and history of recurrent abortion. 425 female and 358 male spontaneous aborters and their 430 abortuses (310 were karotyped) showed 4 women and 2 men as balanced translocation carriers (3 Robertsonian and 3 reciprocal translocations) and a woman with an XXX karotype. 5 of the abortuses were successfully karotyped; 4 had inherited unbalanced translocation products, and the other had a balanced 13q14q translocation plus trisomy 18. Apparently, translocation chromosomes carried by aborters were transmitted to their abortuses. Structural chromosome abnormalities were found with higher frequency (.8%) among aborters than among the general adult population (.3%). Translocation carriers were more frequent among the aborters with histories of recurrent abortions (2.7%) as well as among aborters with a history of perinatal deaths (3.6%) than among those persons with no such histories (.6%). Data on 18 couples whose 2 or 3 successive spontaneous abortuses were karotyped are presented.
Wolleat, Patricia L.
A number of questions relating to providing abortion information to teenagers can be raised from legal, ethical and philosophical standpoints. The purpose of this article is to examine abortion information-giving from the perspective of counseling and guidance theory and practice. (Author)
Christians have so far failed to show why abortion is an affront to Christian convictions. Rather than arguing when life begins, Christians must show that Christianity as a way of life which recognizes God as Lord of life makes abortion unthinkable.
Luscutoff, Sidney A.; Elms, Alan C.
Subjects in this study were asked to report the number of contacts-for-advice they had made when forming decisions to have a therapeutic abortion, or to carry a pregnancy to term. As predicted, the abortion group differed strongly from both other groups on most questions. (Author)
Family planning centres are structures designed to receive and care for women requesting elective abortions. Here the specially trained, dedicated teams offer personalised care. The instrumental elective abortion is prepared in the same way as a surgical procedure and is subject to the same monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Munday, R S
America's practice of abortion is not merely a matter of medical technology but of a changing ethical consciousness. The continuing dispute over legalized abortion since the 1973 Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade is a conflict between two historically different ethical views of human life. This survey shows the nature and history of this conflict and its implications for America's future.
Stott, Jeffrey L; Blanchard, Myra T; Anderson, Mark; Maas, John; Walker, Richard L; Kennedy, Peter C; Norman, Ben B; BonDurant, Robert H; Oliver, Michael N; Hanks, Donald; Hall, Mark R
Advances in defining the biology of epizootic bovine abortion (EBA), including identification of the etiologic agent, have been hampered by the inability to reproduce the disease with confidence. Experimental reproduction of EBA, by feeding the tick vector Ornithodoros coriaceus on susceptible pregnant heifers, is not reliable. The primary objectives of this study were to identify specific tissue(s) obtained from EBA-infected fetuses that could transmit the disease, and then utilize such an infectious challenge system to better define the pathogen, host immunity and geographic distribution of the agent. Described here is the ability to routinely reproduce EBA following inoculation of cryopreserved suspensions of homogenized thymus into susceptible pregnant heifers. This challenge system permitted experiments demonstrating the agent was non-filterable, inactivated upon sonication and susceptible to antibiotics. These findings suggest a prokaryotic microbe and represent a major advance in EBA research. Additional experiments demonstrated that inoculation of the cryopreserved EBA-infectious tissue into heifers, prior to breeding, conferred immunity. Furthermore, such immunized heifers were resistant to challenge with heterologous sources of infectious tissue, suggesting monovalent vaccine development might be feasible. Lastly, challenge studies employing animals from Central Nevada, an area considered free of EBA, demonstrated partial immunity, suggesting the pathogen, and possibly the disease, enjoy a broader distribution than previously thought.
Newton, Danielle; Bayly, Chris; McNamee, Kathleen; Hardiman, Annarella; Bismark, Marie; Webster, Amy; Keogh, Louise
Depending on availability, many Australian women seeking an abortion will be faced with the choice between surgical or medical abortion. Little is known about the factors that influence Australian women's choice of method. Through the perspectives of abortion service providers, this study aimed to explore the factors that contribute to Australian women's decision to have a surgical or medical abortion. In 2015, in-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen Victorian-based key informants (KIs) directly providing or working within a service offering medical abortion. Ten KIs were working at a service that also provided surgical abortion. Interviews were semi-structured, conducted face-to-face or over the telephone, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. KIs described varying levels of awareness of medical abortion, with poorer awareness in regional areas. When it comes to accessing information, women were informed by: their own research (often online); their own experiences and the experiences of others; and advice from health professionals. Women's reasons for choosing surgical or medical abortion range from the pragmatic (timing and location of the method, support at home) to the subjective (perceived risk, emotional impact, privacy, control, and physical ability). Women benefit from an alternative to surgical abortion and are well-placed to choose between the two methods, however, challenges remain to ensure that all women are enabled to make an informed choice. KIs identify the need to: promote the availability of medical abortion; address misconceptions about this method; and increase general practitioner involvement in the provision of medical abortion. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Niinimäki, Maarit; Suhonen, Satu; Mentula, Maarit; Hemminki, Elina; Gissler, Mika
Objective To determine the risks of short term adverse events in adolescent and older women undergoing medical abortion. Design Population based retrospective cohort study. Setting Finnish abortion register 2000-6. Participants All women (n=27 030) undergoing medical abortion during 2000-6, with only the first induced abortion analysed for each woman. Main outcome measures Incidence of adverse events (haemorrhage, infection, incomplete abortion, surgical evacuation, psychiatric morbidity, injury, thromboembolic disease, and death) among adolescent (<18 years) and older (≥18 years) women through record linkage of Finnish registries and genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections detected concomitantly with abortion and linked with data from the abortion register for 2004-6. Results During 2000-6, 3024 adolescents and 24 006 adults underwent at least one medical abortion. The rate of chlamydia infections was higher in the adolescent cohort (5.7% v 3.7%, P<0.001). The incidence of adverse events among adolescents was similar or lower than that among the adults. The risks of haemorrhage (adjusted odds ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.77 to 0.99), incomplete abortion (0.69, 0.59 to 0.82), and surgical evacuation (0.78, 0.67 to 0.90) were lower in the adolescent cohort. In subgroup analysis of primigravid women, the risks of incomplete abortion (0.68, 0.56 to 0.81) and surgical evacuation (0.75, 0.64 to 0.88) were lower in the adolescent cohort. In logistic regression, duration of gestation was the most important risk factor for infection, incomplete abortion, and surgical evacuation. Conclusions The incidence of adverse events after medical abortion was similar or lower among adolescents than among older women. Thus, medical abortion seems to be at least as safe in adolescents as it is in adults. PMID:21508042
Henshaw, S K
This article presents current estimates of the number, rate, and proportion of abortions for all countries which make such data available. 76% of the world's population lives in countries where induced abortion is legal at least for health reasons. Abortion is legal in almost all developed countries. Most developing countries have some laws against abortion, but it is permitted at least for health reasons in the countries of 67% of the developing world's population. The other 33%--over 1 billion persons--reside mainly in subSaharan Africa, Latin America, and the most orthodox Muslim countries. By the beginning of the 20th century, abortion had been made illegal in most of the world, with rules in Africa, Asia, and Latin America similar to those in Europe and North America. Abortion legislation began to change first in a few industrialized countries prior to World War II and in Japan in 1948. Socialist European countries made abortion legal in the first trimester in the 1950s, and most of the industrialized world followed suit in the 1960s and 1970s. The worldwide trend toward relaxed abortion restrictions continues today, with governments giving varying reasons for the changes. Nearly 33 million legal abortions are estimated to be performed annually in the world, with 14 million of them in China and 11 million in the USSR. The estimated total rises to 40-60 million when illegal abortions added. On a worldwide basis some 37-55 abortions are estimated to occur for each 1000 women aged 15-44 years. There are probably 24-32 abortions per 100 pregnancies. The USSR has the highest abortion rate among developed countries, 181/1000 women aged 15-44, followed by Rumania with 91/1000, many of them illegal. The large number of abortions in some countries is due to scarcity of modern contraception. Among developing countries, China apparently has the highest rate, 62/1000 women aged 15-44. Cuba's rate is 59/1000. It is very difficult to calculate abortion rates in countries
Sifris, Ronli; Belton, Suzanne
This article adopts a human rights lens to consider Australian law and practice regarding elective abortion. As such, it considers Australian laws within the context of the right to equality, right to privacy, right to health, and right to life. After setting out the human rights framework and noting the connected nature of many of the rights (and their corresponding violations), the article shifts its focus to analyzing Australian law and practice within the framework of these rights. It considers the importance of decriminalizing abortion and regulating it as a standard medical procedure. It discusses the need to remove legal and practical restrictions on access to abortion, including financial obstacles and anti-abortion protestors. Further, it comments on the importance of facilitating access; for example, by keeping accurate health data, securing continuity of health care, increasing the availability of medical abortion, and ensuring appropriate care is provided to the most marginalized and vulnerable women.
What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Abortion is illegal in Nigeria except to save a woman's life. It is also common, and most procedures are performed under unsafe, clandestine conditions. In 1996, an estimated 610,000 abortions occurred (25 per 1,000 women of childbearing age), of which 142,000 resulted in complications severe enough to require hospitalization. The number of abortions is estimated to have risen to 760,000 in 2006. Unsafe abortions are a major reason Nigeria's maternal mortality rate--1,100 deaths per 100,000 live births--is one the world's highest. According to conservative estimates, more than 3,000 women die annually in Nigeria as a result of unsafe abortion.
Handy, J A
The literature concerning psychosocial aspects of induced abortion is reviewed. Key areas discussed are: the legal context of abortion in Britain, psychological characteristics of abortion-seekers, pre- and post-abortion contraceptive use, pre- and post-abortion counselling, the actual abortion and the effects of termination versus refused abortion. Women seeking termination are found to demonstrate more psychological disturbance than other women, however this is probably temporary and related to the short-term stresses of abortion. Inadequate contraception is frequent prior to abortion but improves afterwards. Few women find the decision to terminate easy and most welcome opportunities for non-judgemental counselling. Although some women experience adverse psychological sequelae after abortion the great majority do not. In contrast, refused abortion often results in psychological distress for the mother and an impoverished environment for the ensuing offspring.
Wilson, R J
It is disquieting to hear on the radio that the Queensland Parliament has legislation before it on the subject of abortion. This is a medical subject and not a political one. Women in New Zealand are dissatisfied that laws are being passed without notice. Previously, if a woman desired an abortion, she consulted her doctor, who kept her confidence and privately referred her to a specialist. There was a proper outpatients' department for these cases. Following passage of legislation, it is now necessary for a woman to appear before a board of certified consultants who are as embarassed by the interviews as the patients. Since State interference, there is no privacy or confidentiality in the matter, and no outpatient clinics. Women also feel that their medical attendants have let them down and have shown a lack of concern by not vociferously rejecting this legislation. The professional relationship is something special and should not be interfered with, as this would be a gross breach of privacy for the individual. I exhort the association to resist State inroads into confidential professional relationships.
Biological agents are increasingly being used to treat patients with immune-mediated inflammatory disease. In Japan, currently approved biological agents for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) include tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, interleukin-6 receptor-blocking monoclonal antibody, and T-cell costimulation inhibitor. Rheumatologists have recognized that safety issues are critical aspects of treatment decisions in RA. Therefore, a wealth of safety data has been gathered from a number of sources, including randomized clinical trials and postmarketing data from large national registries. These data revealed that the most serious adverse events from these drugs are respiratory infections, especially pneumonia, tuberculosis, nontuberculous mycobacteriosis, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and that the most common risk factors associated with these respiratory infections are older age, concomitant corticosteroid use, and underlying respiratory comorbidities. Because of this background, in 2014, the Japanese Respiratory Society published their consensus statement of biological agents and respiratory disorders. This review summarizes this statement and adds recent evidence, especially concerning respiratory infections in RA patients, biological agents and respiratory infections, and practice management of respiratory infections in patients treated with biological agents. To decrease the incidence of infections and reduce mortality, we should know the epidemiology, risk factors, management, and methods of prevention of respiratory infections in patients receiving biological agents. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
In Slovenia abortion will continue to be available during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy as it has been since 1978. The Slovenian Constitutional Court passed this decision in December, 1991 calling the right to abortion a basic human right. T he ruling was a setback both for the government's conservative parties and the Catholic church. In Croatia, where the Catholic church is campaigning against abortion, the situation is quite different. Zagreb is full of stickers and posters with anti-abortion messages branding abortion murder and spreading inaccurate information in announcements. In 1990, there were 56,000 abortions. For every child that was born, one was aborted. The largest Croatian newspaper publicizes the Catholic view. They want pro-choice women of the volunteer group Tresnjevka to stop their struggle. The church and conservative women's groups press for inclusion of abortion in the Constitution. They are very powerful, and the fear is that might soon succeed in restricting or outlawing abortion. Tresnjevka is making efforts to organize a coordination and information center for women in Zagreb where there are 350,000 women and children refugees. Informative brochures are printed on natural healing methods in gynecology, as drugs are very scarce, and addresses for gynecological emergency care are also provided. Abortion has been legally available on demand during the 1st 10 weeks of pregnancy since 1978. Fore year Tresnjevka has worked for women, trying to raise funds from personal donations and from the government for their activities. Funds from foreign countries have never been received. At present many of the group's activities are on hold because of lack of funds, nevertheless the determination to continue fighting is alive.
In 1987, 20,830 legal abortions were performed in Denmark. 2,845 involved women below the age of 20, and 532 involved women terminating pregnancy after the 12th week. Danish law permits all of its female citizens to have an abortion free-of-charge before the 12th week of pregnancy. After the 12th week, the abortion must be applied for through a committee of 3 members, and all counties in Denmark have a committee. It is felt in Denmark that a woman has a right to an abortion if she decides to have one. It she makes that choice, doctors and nurses are supportive. Since 1970, sex education has been mandatory in Danish schools. Teachers often collaborate closely with school doctors and nurses in this education. All counties are required to have at least 1 clinic that provides contraceptive counselling. It was recently found that the lowest number of pregnancies among teenaged girls was found in a county in Jutland where all 9th grade students visit the county clinic to learn about contraceptives, pregnancy, and abortion. Within 1 year after Copenhagen had adopted this practice, the number of abortions among teenagers declined by 20%. One fourth of all pharmacies also collaborate with schools to promote sex education, instructing students about contraceptives and pregnancy tests. The Danish Family Planning Association has produced a film on abortion, and plans to produce videos on abortion for use in schools. The organization also holds training programs for health care personnel on contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. By means of the practices described above, it is hoped that the number of abortions and unwanted pregnancies in Denmark will be reduced.
Morgenthau, J E
The issue of abortion, except when it is rendered moot because the fetus endangers the life of the mother, is not really a medical issue. The physician's role is to help patients achieve and maintain their maximum potential for physical, mental, and social well-being. To accomplish this, the physician must acquire a constantly evolving database of scientific knowledge, must evaluate this information in a critical and ethical manner, and must be prepared to apply what is learned. In the realm of applied ethics, no particular religion, profession, culture, class, or sex should be thought of as having all the answers in the realm of applied ethics. This physician's actions are predicated on the belief that, to a large extent, ethical precepts reflect the broader social and economic issues of the period in which they are articulated. If this is the case, then in today's world the population explosion, the postindustrial society, the women's rights movement, inequality of access, and the ability to perform prenatal diagnosis are all factors which have molded the approach to the issue of abortion. Only the last 3 of these can in any way be considered as medical. When considering the role of a physician in dealing with the issue of abortion in the adolescent, this individual relies on the concept articulated by the World Health Association (WHA): promoting the physical, emotional, and social well-being of one's patients. Each year in the US over 1 million 15-19 year olds become pregnant, resulting in over 600,000 births. Most of these pregnancies are unintentional, yet approximately 90% of the infants are kept in the home by mothers who are ill prepared to be parents. What is most disturbing is that the pregnancy rate for the younger mother, 16 years or under, is accounting for an ever increasing percentage of the total. Studies at the Adolescent Health Center of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City as well as national studies suggest that the younger teens are more
von Renesse, Anja; Schildgen, Oliver; Klinkenberg, Dennis; Müller, Andreas; von Moers, Arpad; Simon, Arne
One thousand five hundred sixty-eight RSV infections were documented prospectively in 1,541 pediatric patients. Of these, 20 (1.3%) had acquired the RSV infection while treated by mechanical ventilation for reasons other than the actual RSV infection (group ventilated mechanically). The clinical characteristics of children who were infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection while ventilated mechanically for other reasons are described and compared with a matched control group. Sixty percent of the group ventilated mechanically had at least one additional risk factor for a severe course of infection (prematurity 50%, chronic lung disease 20%, congenital heart disease 35%, immunodeficiency 20%). The median age at diagnosis in the group ventilated mechanically was 4.2 months. The matched pairs analysis (group ventilated mechanically vs. control group) revealed a higher proportion of patients with hypoxemia and apnoea in the group ventilated mechanically; more patients in the control group showed symptoms of airway obstruction (wheezing). At least one chest radiography was performed in 95% of the patients (n = 19) in the group ventilated mechanically versus 45% (n = 9) in the control group (P = 0.001). The frequency of pneumonia was 40% in the group ventilated mechanically and 20% in the control group. Despite existing consensus recommendations, only two patients (10%) of the group ventilated mechanically had received palivizumab previously. Significantly more patients in the group ventilated mechanically received antibiotic treatment (85% vs. 45%, P = 0.008), and attributable mortality was higher in the group ventilated mechanically (15% [n = 3] vs. 0% in the control group, P = 0.231). Children treated by long term mechanical ventilation may acquire RSV infection by transmission by droplets or caregivers and face an increased risk of a severe course of RSV infection. The low rate of immunoprophylaxis in this particular risk group should be improved.
Ghosal, Abhisek; Jellbauer, Stefan; Kapadia, Rubina; Raffatellu, Manuela; Said, Hamid M
Infection with the nontyphoidal Salmonella is a common cause of food-borne disease that leads to acute gastroenteritis/diarrhea. Severe/prolonged cases of Salmonella infection could also impact host nutritional status, but little is known about its effect on intestinal absorption of vitamins, including biotin. We examined the effect of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection on intestinal biotin uptake using in vivo (streptomycin-pretreated mice) and in vitro [mouse (YAMC) and human (NCM460) colonic epithelial cells, and human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells] models. The results showed that infecting mice with wild-type S. typhimurium, but not with its nonpathogenic isogenic invA spiB mutant, leads to a significant inhibition in jejunal/colonic biotin uptake and in level of expression of the biotin transporter, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter. In contrast, infecting YAMC, NCM460, and Caco-2 cells with S. typhimurium did not affect biotin uptake. These findings suggest that the effect of S. typhimurium infection is indirect and is likely mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, the levels of which were markedly induced in the intestine of S. typhimurium-infected mice. Consistent with this hypothesis, exposure of NCM460 cells to the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ led to a significant inhibition of biotin uptake, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter expression, and activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. The latter effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that S. typhimurium infection inhibits intestinal biotin uptake, and that the inhibition is mediated via the action of proinflammatory cytokines.
Ghosal, Abhisek; Jellbauer, Stefan; Kapadia, Rubina; Raffatellu, Manuela
Infection with the nontyphoidal Salmonella is a common cause of food-borne disease that leads to acute gastroenteritis/diarrhea. Severe/prolonged cases of Salmonella infection could also impact host nutritional status, but little is known about its effect on intestinal absorption of vitamins, including biotin. We examined the effect of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection on intestinal biotin uptake using in vivo (streptomycin-pretreated mice) and in vitro [mouse (YAMC) and human (NCM460) colonic epithelial cells, and human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells] models. The results showed that infecting mice with wild-type S. typhimurium, but not with its nonpathogenic isogenic invA spiB mutant, leads to a significant inhibition in jejunal/colonic biotin uptake and in level of expression of the biotin transporter, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter. In contrast, infecting YAMC, NCM460, and Caco-2 cells with S. typhimurium did not affect biotin uptake. These findings suggest that the effect of S. typhimurium infection is indirect and is likely mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, the levels of which were markedly induced in the intestine of S. typhimurium-infected mice. Consistent with this hypothesis, exposure of NCM460 cells to the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ led to a significant inhibition of biotin uptake, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter expression, and activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. The latter effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that S. typhimurium infection inhibits intestinal biotin uptake, and that the inhibition is mediated via the action of proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:25999427
Frequent reports on outbreaks of acute Chagas' disease by ingestion of food contaminated with parasites from triatomine insects illustrate the importance of this mode of transmission. Studies on oral Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice have indicated that metacyclic trypomastigotes invade the gastric mucosal epithelium. A key molecule in this process is gp82, a stage-specific surface glycoprotein that binds to both gastric mucin and to target epithelial cells. By triggering Ca2+ signalling, gp82 promotes parasite internalisation. Gp82 is relatively resistant to peptic digestion at acidic pH, thus preserving the properties critical for oral infection. The infection process is also influenced by gp90, a metacyclic stage-specific molecule that negatively regulates the invasion process. T. cruzi strains expressing high gp90 levels invade cells poorly in vitro. However, their infectivity by oral route varies considerably due to varying susceptibilities of different gp90 isoforms to peptic digestion. Parasites expressing pepsin-susceptible gp90 become highly invasive against target cells upon contact with gastric juice. Such is the case of a T. cruzi isolate from an acute case of orally acquired Chagas' disease; the gp90 from this strain is extensively degraded upon short period of parasite permanence in the gastric milieu. If such an exacerbation of infectivity occurs in humans, it may be responsible for the severity of Chagas' disease reported in outbreaks of oral infection.
Goldman, E B
Focusing on the legal aspects of abortion, this chapter considers the development of constitutional law on the right to abortion, rights for adults and minors, conscience clauses, and abortion and malpractice issues. In 1973 the US Supreme Court in the cases of Roe v. Wade held that the right of privacy grounded in the concept of personal liberty guaranteed by the 9th and 14th amendment to the US Constitution included a woman's right to decide whether or not to have an abortion. The cases held unconstitutional any statute that prohibited abortion and statutes that imposed such stringent requirements on abortion as to make abortion unavailable. The Court recognized the state's interest in protecting maternal health and preserving the life of the fetus but said that a woman's right to privacy was a paramount fundamental right and could be interfered with only if the state could show a compelling interest. The Court analyzed the right to abortion based on different stages of pregnancy. During the 1st trimester, a woman has a virtually unfettered right to have an abortion free from interference by state or federal government; the decision is between the woman and her physician. Due to the fact that abortions during the 2nd trimester are more dangerous to the health of the mother, the state can regulate the abortion procedure so long as the regulations are limited to preservation and protection of maternal health. Thus, the state can establish licensing requirements for facilities in which the procedure is to be performed as well as requirements concerning reporting and record keeping. During the 3rd trimester, the viability of the fetus allows the state's compelling interest in the protection of fetal life to be dominant over the mother's right to privacy. During this trimester, the state may, but is not required to, proscribe abortion except where necessary to preserve the life or health of the mother. During the 1973-83 period, numerous attempts were made to chip
Kohio, Hinissan P; Adamson, Amy L
As new influenza virus strains emerge, finding new mechanisms to control infection is imperative. In this study, we found that we could control influenza infection of mammalian cells by altering the level of glucose given to cells. Higher glucose concentrations induced a dose-specific increase in influenza infection. Linking influenza virus infection with glycolysis, we found that viral replication was significantly reduced after cells were treated with glycolytic inhibitors. Addition of extracellular ATP after glycolytic inhibition restored influenza infection. We also determined that higher levels of glucose promoted the assembly of the vacuolar-type ATPase within cells, and increased vacuolar-type ATPase proton-transport activity. The increase of viral infection via high glucose levels could be reversed by inhibition of the proton pump, linking glucose metabolism, vacuolar-type ATPase activity, and influenza viral infection. Taken together, we propose that altering glucose metabolism may be a potential new approach to inhibit influenza viral infection.
Nicholson, R H
Europe is experiencing the same conflict over abortion that the US is having. In Germany the unification has resulted in not 1, but 2 abortion laws. Each law apples to the old borders, but a new law is to be formulated by 1992. The most restrictive abortion laws are in Ireland where there is total prohibition. The most permissive laws are in the Netherlands where it is available on demand until the 24th week. France, Belgium, Spain, Italy have all relaxed their laws to some degree; however, there is no common European position on abortion. Eastern European countries have seen abortion banned, to increase the population to survive a war with the West, to having it become the primary form of birth control decades later. In Poland, as well as many other Eastern European countries, abortion is beginning to become illegal again as independence allows the freedom of the citizens to choose their own laws and rights. The development of new drugs, such as RU486 or mifepristone, has also influenced a change in abortion policy. Currently it is legal in France and Great Britain.
A pastor comments on the recent ruling by the Swedish Department of Health and Social Affairs that the remains of an abortion should be "treated respectfully"--cremated or buried in a cemetery. This decision results from recognition on the part of the government and the medical establishment that a growing segment of public opinion agrees that the fetus is a human being. The new rules mean, though, that a fetus becomes human only upon its death. Logically, an abortion that is respectfully performed ought not to be performed at all. This is the fundamental problem with abortion, and no amount of arbitrary boundary drawing at various levels of supposed capability for survival at the 12th, the 18th, or the 24th week of pregnancy will alter the fact. It is necessary to face the problem with complete intellectual honesty and say that a fetus is a human being no matter what its age, but that voluntary abortion is also a social necessity. Only then can society find another abortion policy, one that recognizes that late abortions are hard to distinguish from births. The Swedish abortion policy must reflect honest facts, rather than etiological legends, preconceived ideas for which arguments must be found afterward.
The problems associated with illegal abortion dominate public discussion in Ireland. While abortion is illegal in Ireland, the Supreme Court directed in 1992 that Irish women can go to Britain for abortions when their lives are thought to be at risk. Abortion was a constant feature during the Irish Presidential election campaign in October, while a dispute about the future of a 13-year-old girl's pregnancy dominated the headlines in November. The presidential election on October 30 resulted in a victory for one of the two openly anti-choice candidates, Mary McAleese, a lawyer from Northern Ireland. With a voter turnout of 47.6%, McAleese polled 45.2% of the votes cast. Although the president may refuse to sign bills which have been passed by parliament, McAleese has said that she will sign whatever bill is placed before her, even if it liberalizes abortion law in the republic. As for the case of the 13-year-old pregnant girl, she was taken into the care of Irish health authority officials once the case was reported to the police. However, the health board, as a state agency, is prevented by Irish law from helping anyone travel abroad for abortion. The girl was eventually given leave in a judgement by a High Court Judicial Review on November 28 to travel to England for an abortion.
Van Look, Paul F A; Cottingham, Jane C
An estimated 60 000-70 000 women die annually from complications of unsafe abortion and hundreds of thousands more suffer long-term consequences which include chronic pelvic pain and infertility. The reasons for the continuing high incidence of unwanted pregnancy leading to unsafe abortion include lack of access to, or misuse of and misinformation about, effective contraceptive methods, coerced sex which prohibits women from protecting themselves, and contraceptive failure. Unsafe abortion is closely associated with restrictive legal environments and administrative and policy barriers hampering access to existing services. Vacuum aspiration and medical methods combining mifepristone and a prostaglandin for early abortion are simple and safe. For second trimester abortion, the main choices are repeat doses of prostaglandin with or without prior mifepristone, and dilatation and evacuation by experienced providers. Strategies for preventing unsafe abortion include: upgrading providers' skills; further development of medical methods for pregnancy termination and their introduction into national programmes; improving the quality of contraceptive and abortion services; and improving partner communication.
Benkirane, Abdelali; Essamkaoui, Soukaina; El Idrissi, Ahmed; Lucchese, Laura; Natale, Alda
A serological survey was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of 5 major abortive infections in 13 sheep flocks and 10 goat herds in 2 regions of Morocco. A total of 308 from aborted females (202 ewes and 106 does) and 197 sera (97 ewes and 99 does), were tested for brucellosis, chlamydiosis, Q fever, toxoplasmosis, and for 9 major serovars of Leptospira. An average abortion rate of 12.10% was found in ewes and 10.26% in does. The serological analyses revealed the presence of all 5 abortive infections, both in sheep and in goats. Ten (43%) herds/flocks were positive to brucellosis, 21 (91%) to chlamydiosis, 17 (74%) to toxoplasmosis, 13 (57%) to Q fever, and 5 (22%) to leptospirosis. Leptospira spp. serovars Copenhageni and Grypothyphosa were found in a single sheep flock, while Tarassovi and Copenhageni were detected in 4 goat herds. Of the 23 investigated herds/flocks, 22 (96%) showed mixed infections. The findings of this study confirmed the possible involvement of the 5 selected abortive infections in abortion outbreaks occurring in the investigated regions. Further investigations are needed to better understand the aetiology of infectious abortions in herds and flocks within investigated regions.
Bertschinger, Lukas; Bühler, Lukas; Dupuis, Brice; Duffy, Brion; Gessler, Cesare; Forbes, Gregory A.; Keller, Ernst R.; Scheidegger, Urs C.; Struik, Paul C.
The common assumption in potato virus epidemiology is that all daughter tubers produced by plants coming from infected mother tubers (secondary infection) will become infected via systemic translocation of the virus during growth. We hypothesize that depending on the prevalent environmental conditions, only a portion of the daughter tubers of a plant that is secondarily infected by viruses may become infected. To test this hypothesis experimental data from standardized field experiments were produced in three contrasting environments at 112, 3280, and 4000 m a.s.l. in Peru during two growing seasons. In these experiments, the percentage of infected daughter tubers produced by seed tubers that were infected with either potato potexvirus X (PVX), potato Andean mottle comovirus (APMoV), potato potyvirus Y (PVY) (jointly infected with PVX) or potato leafroll luteovirus (PLRV) was determined. Incomplete autoinfection was found in all cases, as the percentage of virus infected daughter tubers harvested from secondarily infected plants was invariably less than 100%, with the lowest percentage of infection being 30%. Changing the growing site to higher altitudes decreased autoinfection for all viruses. Therefore, the assumption of complete autoinfection of secondarily infected plants were rejected, while the hypothesis of environmentally dependent incomplete autoinfection was accepted. The findings help explain the occurrence of traditional seed management practices in the Andes and may help to develop locally adapted seed systems in environments of the world that have no steady access to healthy seed tubers coming from a formally certified seed system. The results obtained almost three decades ago are discussed in light of most recent knowledge on epigenetic regulation of host plant – virus interactions which allow for speculating about the underlying biological principles of the incomplete autoinfection. A research roadmap is proposed for achieving explicit
Bertschinger, Lukas; Bühler, Lukas; Dupuis, Brice; Duffy, Brion; Gessler, Cesare; Forbes, Gregory A; Keller, Ernst R; Scheidegger, Urs C; Struik, Paul C
The common assumption in potato virus epidemiology is that all daughter tubers produced by plants coming from infected mother tubers (secondary infection) will become infected via systemic translocation of the virus during growth. We hypothesize that depending on the prevalent environmental conditions, only a portion of the daughter tubers of a plant that is secondarily infected by viruses may become infected. To test this hypothesis experimental data from standardized field experiments were produced in three contrasting environments at 112, 3280, and 4000 m a.s.l. in Peru during two growing seasons. In these experiments, the percentage of infected daughter tubers produced by seed tubers that were infected with either potato potexvirus X (PVX), potato Andean mottle comovirus (APMoV), potato potyvirus Y (PVY) (jointly infected with PVX) or potato leafroll luteovirus (PLRV) was determined. Incomplete autoinfection was found in all cases, as the percentage of virus infected daughter tubers harvested from secondarily infected plants was invariably less than 100%, with the lowest percentage of infection being 30%. Changing the growing site to higher altitudes decreased autoinfection for all viruses. Therefore, the assumption of complete autoinfection of secondarily infected plants were rejected, while the hypothesis of environmentally dependent incomplete autoinfection was accepted. The findings help explain the occurrence of traditional seed management practices in the Andes and may help to develop locally adapted seed systems in environments of the world that have no steady access to healthy seed tubers coming from a formally certified seed system. The results obtained almost three decades ago are discussed in light of most recent knowledge on epigenetic regulation of host plant - virus interactions which allow for speculating about the underlying biological principles of the incomplete autoinfection. A research roadmap is proposed for achieving explicit experimental
Ihsani, V.; Nursasongko, B.; Djauharie, N.
The concept of conserving healthy tooth structures during cavity preparation has gained popularity with chemo-mechanical caries removal. This study compared three methods of caries removal using: a chemo-mechanical caries removal papain gel; Papacarie® (these contain natural ingredients, mainly papain enzyme); and mechanical preparation with a bur rotary instrument. The purpose of this study was to compare affected dentin micro-hardness after removal of infected dentin with mechanical and chemo-mechanical techniques. Twenty-seven permanent molar teeth were randomly divided into three groups receiving removal of infected dentin. These were: Group 1: chemo-mechanical technique using papain gel; Group 2: chemo-mechanical technique using Papacarie® Group 3: mechanical technique using a bur rotary instrument. Each group was tested using Knoop Micro-hardness tester, and the data were submitted to one way ANOVA and Post-hoc Tukey test. There is a significant difference between Groups 1 and 3, and Groups 2 and 3, p = 0.000. However, there is no significant difference between Groups 1 and 2, p = 1.000. Affected dentin micro-hardness after removal of infected dentin with a bur rotary tool is higher than after use of the papain gel or Papacarie®. Affected dentin micro-hardness after removal of infected dentin with Papacarie® and papain gel give almost the same result.
Puri, Mahesh; Singh, Susheela; Sundaram, Aparna; Hussain, Rubina; Tamang, Anand; Crowell, Marjorie
CONTEXT Although abortion has been legal under broad criteria in Nepal since 2002, a significant proportion of women continue to obtain illegal, unsafe abortions, and no national estimates exist of the incidence of safe and unsafe abortions. METHODS Data were collected in 2014 from a nationally representative sample of 386 facilities that provide legal abortions or postabortion care and a survey of 134 health professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Facility caseloads and indirect estimation techniques were used to calculate the national and regional incidence of legal and illegal abortion. National and regional levels of abortion complications and unintended pregnancy were also estimated. RESULTS In 2014, women in Nepal had 323,100 abortions, of which 137,000 were legal, and 63,200 women were treated for abortion complications. The abortion rate was 42 per 1,000 women aged 15–49, and the abortion ratio was 56 per 100 live births. The abortion rate in the Central region (59 per 1,000) was substantially higher than the national average. Overall, 50% of pregnancies were unintended, and the unintended pregnancy rate was 68 per 1,000 women of reproductive age. CONCLUSIONS Despite legalization of abortion and expansion of services in Nepal, unsafe abortion is still common and exacts a heavy toll on women. Programs and policies to reduce rates of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion, increase access to high-quality contraceptive care and expand safe abortion services are warranted. PMID:28825899
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each pregnant...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each pregnant...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each pregnant...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each pregnant...
Cappiello, Joyce D; Beal, Margaret W; Simmonds, Katherine E
This article provides an overview of the clinical issues in post-abortion care, including types of abortion procedures, expected post-abortion course, possible complications, and the components of the post-abortion visit. By providing follow-up care to their patients, NPs can increase continuity of care and promote successful contraceptive use.
du Prey, Beatrice; Talavlikar, Rachel; Mangat, Rupinder; Freiheit, Elizabeth A.; Drummond, Neil
Abstract Objective To determine what proportion of women seeking induced abortion in the Calgary census metropolitan area were immigrants. Design For 2 months, eligible women were asked to complete a questionnaire. Women who refused were asked to provide their country of birth (COB) to assess for selection bias. Setting Two abortion clinics in Calgary, Alta. Participants Women presenting at or less than 15 weeks’ gestational age for induced abortion for maternal indications. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of women seeking induced abortion services who were immigrants. Secondary outcomes compared socioeconomic characteristics and contraception use between immigrant and Canadian-born women. Results A total of 752 women either completed a questionnaire (78.6%) or provided their COB (21.4%). Overall, 28.9% of women living in the Calgary census metropolitan area who completed the questionnaire were immigrants, less than the 31.2% background proportion of immigrant women of childbearing age. However, 46.0% of women who provided only COB were immigrants. When these data were combined, 34.2% of women presenting for induced abortion identified as immigrant, a proportion not significantly different from the background proportion (P = .127). Immigrant women presenting for induced abortion tended to be older, more educated, married with children, and have increased parity. They were similar to Canadian-born women in number of previous abortions, income status, and employment status. Conclusion This study suggests that immigrant women in Calgary are not presenting for induced abortion in disproportionately higher numbers, which differs from existing European literature. This is likely owing to differing socioeconomic characteristics among the immigrant women in our study from what have been previously described in the literature (typically lower socioeconomic status). Much still needs to be explored with regard to factors influencing the use of
Di Nucci, Ezio
I argue that it is possible for prospective mothers to wrong prospective fathers by bearing their child; and that lifting paternal liability for child support does not correct the wrong inflicted to fathers. It is therefore sometimes wrong for prospective mothers to bear a child, or so I argue here. I show that my argument for considering the legitimate interests of prospective fathers is not a unique exception to an obvious right to procreate. It is, rather, part of a growing consensus that procreation can be morally problematic and that generally talking of rights in this context might not be warranted. Finally, I argue that giving up a right to procreate does not imply nor suggest giving up on women's absolute right to abort, which I defend.
The Cardinal of Milan and the linguist and writer Umberto Eco maintained a correspondence in the mid-1990s in connection with the Italian magazine ¿Liberal¿. One of the issues discussed was the conflict between belief in the value of human life and existing abortion legislation. Umberto Eco stated that he would do all in his power to dissuade a woman pregnant with his child from having an abortion, regardless of the personal cost to the parents, because the birth of a child is a miracle. He would not, however, feel capable of imposing his ethical position on anyone else. Terrible moments occur in which women have a right to make autonomous decisions concerning their bodies, their feelings, their futures. Those who disagree cite the right to life, a rather vague concept about which even atheists can be enthusiastic. The moment at which a new human being is formed has been brought to the center of Catholic theology, despite its uncertainty; the beginning of a new life may always need to be understood as a process whose end result is the newborn. Only the mother should decide at what moment the process may be interrupted. The cardinal¿s response distinguished between psychic and physical life, on the one hand, and life participating in the life of God on the other. The threshold is the moment of conception, reflecting a continuity of identity. The new being is worthy of respect. Any violation of the affection and care owed to the being can only be experienced as a profound suffering and painful laceration that may never heal. The response of Eco is unknown.
Sheridan, David C; Spiro, David M; Meckler, Garth D
Studies suggest that headache accounts for approximately 1% of pediatric emergency department (ED) visits. ED physicians must distinguish between primary headaches, such as a tension or migraine, and secondary headaches caused by systemic disease including neoplasm, infection, or intracranial hemorrhage. A recent study found that 40% of children presenting to the ED with headache were diagnosed with a primary headache, and 75% of these were migraine. Once the diagnosis of migraine has been made, the ED physician is faced with the challenge of determining appropriate abortive treatment. This review summarizes the most recent literature on pediatric migraine with an emphasis on diagnosis and abortive treatment in the ED. © 2013 American Headache Society.
Weiblen, R; Rabuske, M; Rebelatto, M C; Nobre, V M; Canabarro, T F
We report an outbreak of abortion due to equine herpesvirus (EHV) in 5 mares between 9 and 11 months of gestation, from a herd of 22 Thoroughbred mares. Equine herpesvirus was isolated from extracts of the liver, spleen and thymus but not from the lungs of a 9-month fetus grown in Rabbit Kidney (RK13) cells. The virus was identified by electron microscopy, where virus particles could be seen in the nucleus of infected cells, and by the fluorescent antibody technique with polyclonal antibodies against the whole virus. Anamnesis, necropsy, histopathology, bacteriology, and virology data suggest that the abortions reported in this paper were due to equine herpesvirus.
von Tavel, L; Fivian, R; Kirchhofer, M; Boujon, P; Hirsbrunner, G
In spring 2005, the outbreak of contagious abortion caused by Salmonella Abortusovis in 6 sheep flocks in Switzerland led to considerable economic losses. The Swiss small ruminant health service (BGK) evaluated this case. The aim was to identify the source of the epidemic in order to avoid further spread of infection and to evaluate the possibility of using vaccination. Moreover, a strategy for prevention of future outbreaks was developed. This article aims to increase disease awareness of food animal practitioners for Salmonella Abortusovis abortion in sheep.
Bankole, Akinrinola; Sedgh, Gilda; Oye-Adeniran, Boniface A; Adewole, Isaac F; Hussain, Rubina; Singh, Susheela
This study used data from a community-based survey to examine women's experiences of abortion in Nigeria. Fourteen percent of respondents reported that they had ever tried to terminate a pregnancy, and 10% had obtained an abortion. The majority of women who sought an abortion did so early in the pregnancy. Forty-two percent of women who obtained an abortion used the services of a non-professional provider, a quarter experienced complications and 9% sought treatment for complications from their abortions. Roughly half of the women who obtained an abortion used a method other than D&C or MVA. The abortion prevalence and conditions under which women sought abortions varied by women's socio-demographic characteristics. Because abortion is illegal in Nigeria except to save the woman's life, many women take significant risks to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Reducing the incidence of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion can significantly impact the reproductive health of women in Nigeria.
Lauersen, N H; Wilson, K H; Beling, C G; Fuchs, F
20 healthy women between 18-20 weeks of gestation and seeking abortion were studied to compare the effects of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2) with those of instillation of saline solution and intravenous oxytocin. 9 out of 10 patients in the prostaglandin group aborted completely in about 15.16 hours. In only one of the prostaglandin patients did abortion have to be completed surgically. All of the 10 patients in the saline solution-oxytocin group also aborted completely, but with a mean time of 22.34 hours, a difference not statistically significant. The complication rate was higher in patients aborted with PGF2, including postabortion lactation and gastrointestinal effects, especially vomiting. In terms of hormonal changes, the similarities between the 2 groups were more numerous than the differences, suggesting that the 2 mechanics of abortion may not be totally different. Comparative studies on a much larger group of patients are desirable.
Since the RHIC Au-Au run in the year 2001 the 200 MHz cavity system was used at storage and a 28 MHz system during injection and acceleration. The rebucketing procedure potentially causes a higher debunching rate of heavy ion beams in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam can easily account for more than 50% of the total beam intensity. This effect is even stronger with the achieved high intensities of the RHIC Au-Au run in 2004. A beam abort at the presence of a lot of debunched beam bears the risk of magnet quenching and experimental detector damage due to uncontrolled beam losses. Thus it is desirable to avoid any accumulation of debunched beam from the beginning of each store, in particular to anticipate cases of unscheduled beam aborts due to a system failure. A combination of a fast transverse kickers and the new 2-stage copper collimator system are used to clean the abort gap continuously throughout the store with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. This report gives. an overview of the new gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.
Fauci, Anthony S.
Discusses how the infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus, as well as neuropsychiatric abnormalities in the brain. (TW)
Fauci, Anthony S.
Discusses how the infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus, as well as neuropsychiatric abnormalities in the brain. (TW)
Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; AlFaleh, Khalid M.
Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective. PMID:24027674
Klatte, Till O; O’Loughlin, Padraigh F; Citak, Mustafa; Rueger, Johannes M; Gehrke, Thorsten; Kendoff, Daniel
Background and purpose Mechanically failed internal fixation following hip fracture is often treated by salvage arthroplasty. If deep wound infection is present, a 2-stage procedure is often used. We have used a 1-stage procedure in infected cases, and we now report the outcome. Patients and methods We reviewed 16 cases of deep wound infection after mechanically failed hip fracture fixation, treated between 1994 and 2010. In all patients, a joint prosthesis was implanted in a 1-stage procedure. Results After an average follow-up period of 12 (2–18) years, no reinfection was detected. In 4 cases, a hip dislocation occurred and 3 of these needed further surgery. Interpretation A 1-stage procedure for arthroplasty of an infected, mechanically failed hip fracture fixation is feasible and carries a low risk of infection. PMID:23799345
Li, J M; Zhang, H F; Zhang, X Q; Huang, G L; Huang, H Z; Yu, W W
We aimed to compare the diagnostic value of various detection methods for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, to investigate the genetic mechanism associated with CMV infection in pregnant women, and to analyze the risk of sequelae development in fetuses with CMV infection. A total of 300 participants who had the same immunosuppressive regimen and received preemptive therapy for CMV infection were prospectively enrolled in this study; they included 289 vaccine trial participants. The gB-absorbed CMV IgG assay was performed for each vaccine trial participant. The healthy women were divided into 2 groups, and amniotic fluids were collected from them at 15-18 weeks of gestation to test for CMV seropositivity before conception by using IgM specific antibodies, CMV-DNA, and IgG analysis. In 104 cases, cord blood sera and urine specimens were also collected from the infants and examined. The sensitivity and specificity of immediate-early messenger RNA and pp67 (late) messenger RNA detection by the nucleic acid sequence-based amplification technique was comparable to those of virus isolation and PCR. Furthermore, an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the TLR-2 gene and congenital CMV infection was observed and confirmed. Moreover, CMV infection during early pregnancy has been shown to have a much more severe effect on the pregnancy outcome compared to infection during later stages of pregnancy.
The Orion Launch Abort System, or LAS, pathfinder returned home to NASA Langley on Oct. 18 on its way to NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The hardware was built at Langley and was used in preparation f...
I discuss three topics. First, there is a philosophical connecting thread between several recent trends in the abortion discussion, namely, the issue of our animal nature, and physical embodiment. The philosophical name given to the position that you and I are essentially human animals is "animalism." In Section II of this paper, I argue that animalism provides a unifying theme to recent discussions of abortion. In Section III, I discuss what we do not find among recent trends in the abortion discussion, namely "the right to privacy." I suggest some reasons why the right to privacy is conspicuous by its absence. Finally, I address Patrick Lee's claim that the evil of abortion involves "the moral deterioration that the act brings to those who are complicit in it, and to the culture that fosters it."
In Latin American countries abortion on demand is legal only in Cuba and must be performed there in hospitals within the 1st 12 weeks of pregnancy. After the 1st trimester, it can be performed only for medical reasons. With regard to the other 18 Latin American countries, abortion is illegal in 2 of them even for saving the life of the pregnant women. In 9 countries therapeutic abortion is permitted only to save the woman's life. It is allowed in 4 countries in the case of severe disease that will be aggravated if the pregnancy continues. In the 3 remaining countries, in addition to medical reasons, it is legal if pregnancy is the consequence of incest or rape. Despite the law, induced abortion is often performed. The complications of illegal abortion are reviewed along with mortality and morbidity and abortions in adolescents. In Colombia in 1974, 58,717 women were hospitalized for complications of abortion. 42,160 women were hospitalized in Chile in 1974 with the same diagnosis. As Colombia and Chile both have family planning programs and effecive contraceptives are easily obtained, the rate could be even higher in those countries without programs or contraceptive availability. From surveys conducted in these 2 countries, it may be concluded that only 1 out of 3 induced abortions is complicated and requires hospitalization. The hospitalization for complications of abortion/1000 women of fertile age in Colombia and Chile suggests that there is an annual average of 15 hospitalized cases/1000 women of fertile age throughout Latin America. Presuming reasonable accuracy for these surveys, the rate of induced abortion in the entire continent can be estimated to be at least 45/1000 women of fertile age. From this, without considering Cuba, a conservative estimate of 3.4 million illegal induced abortions are performed annually in Latin America. It seems that illegal abortions are performed at an even higher rate than that observed in countries where abortion is legal and
Freeman, Ellen W.
Legalized abortions are not equally available to all women in the United States. The author documents the discrimination in this area that exists against the poor and urges the social work profession to extend itself to remedy this inequality. (Author)
Allanson, S; Astbury, J
This paper considers that features intrinsic to pregnancy and to an unwanted pregnancy/abortion decision heighten the likelihood of the occurrence, and the importance, of fantasy in the decision-maker's thinking. In addition, investigation of fantasy or non-rational processes in an abortion decision emphasizes the complexity of decision-making in a way which may challenge ideas of decision-making in general. The results of a pilot study using a short fantasy inventory with 20 women facing an abortion decision are presented to highlight fantasy, not as irrational or pathological, but as legitimately coexisting with logical, reasoning, non-fantasy thought in the abortion decision. The clinical value of the fantasy inventory is explored.
This study developed an abortion attitude scale and abortion knowledge inventory that may be utilized by health educators, counselors, and researchers for assessing attitudes toward abortion and knowledge about it. (SK)
This study developed an abortion attitude scale and abortion knowledge inventory that may be utilized by health educators, counselors, and researchers for assessing attitudes toward abortion and knowledge about it. (SK)
Kohio, Hinissan P.; Adamson, Amy L.
As new influenza virus strains emerge, finding new mechanisms to control infection is imperative. In this study, we found that we could control influenza infection of mammalian cells by altering the level of glucose given to cells. Higher glucose concentrations induced a dose-specific increase in influenza infection. Linking influenza virus infection with glycolysis, we found that viral replication was significantly reduced after cells were treated with glycolytic inhibitors. Addition of extracellular ATP after glycolytic inhibition restored influenza infection. We also determined that higher levels of glucose promoted the assembly of the vacuolar-type ATPase within cells, and increased vacuolar-type ATPase proton-transport activity. The increase of viral infection via high glucose levels could be reversed by inhibition of the proton pump, linking glucose metabolism, vacuolar-type ATPase activity, and influenza viral infection. Taken together, we propose that altering glucose metabolism may be a potential new approach to inhibit influenza viral infection. - Highlights: • Increased glucose levels increase Influenza A viral infection of MDCK cells. • Inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase inhibited Influenza A viral infection. • Inhibition of hexokinase induced disassembly the V-ATPase. • Disassembly of the V-ATPase and Influenza A infection was bypassed with ATP. • The state of V-ATPase assembly correlated with Influenza A infection of cells.
Virus infection can inflict significant damage on cardiomyocytes through direct injury and secondary immune reactions, leading to myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. While viral myocarditis or cardiomyopathy is a complication of systemic infection of cardiotropic viruses, most individuals infected with the viruses do not develop significant cardiac disease. However, some individuals proceed to develop severe virus-mediated heart disease. Recent studies have shown that viral infection of cardiomyocytes is required for the development of myocarditis and subsequent cardiomyopathy. This suggests that viral infection of cardiomyocytes can be an important step that determines the pathogenesis of viral myocarditis during systemic infection. Accordingly, this article focuses on potential defense mechanisms within the cardiomyocyte against virus infection. Understanding of the cardiomyocyte defense against invading viruses may give us novel insights into the pathophysiology of viral myocarditis, and enable us to develop innovative strategies of diagnosis and treatment for this challenging clinical entity. PMID:21585262
Pazol, Karen; Creanga, Andreea A; Zane, Suzanne B; Burley, Kim D; Jamieson, Denise J
Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2009. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2009, data were received from 48 reporting areas. For the purpose of trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from the 45 areas that reported data every year during 2000-2009. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculated abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 784,507 abortions were reported to CDC for 2009. Of these abortions, 772,630 (98.5%) were from the 45 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2000-2009. Among these same 45 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2009 was 15.1 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 227 abortions per 1,000 live births. Compared with 2008, the total number and rate of reported abortions for 2009 decreased 5%, representing the largest single year decrease for the entire period of analysis. The abortion ratio decreased 2%. From 2000 to 2009, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 6%, 7%, and 8%, respectively, to the lowest levels for 2000-2009. In 2009 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates, whereas women aged ≥30 years accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2009, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.7% and 24.4% of all abortions, respectively, and had an abortion rate of 27.4 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 years and 20.4 abortions per 1,000 women aged 25-29 years. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years
Seller, M J
The technique of amniocentesis, by which an abnormal fetus can be detected in utero, has brought a technological advance in medical science but attendant medical and moral problems. Dr Seller describes those congenital disabilities which can be detected in the fetus before birth, for which the "remedy" is selective abortion. She then discusses the arguments for and against selective abortion, for the issue is not simple, even in the strictly genetic sense of attempting to ensure a population free of congenital abnormality.
Czaplicki, G; Thiry, E
The prevalence of cattle seropositive to bovine herpesvirus-4 (BHV-4) is high in Belgium. In Belgian farms, clinical signs associated with BHV-4 infection essentially involve the genital tract and consist mainly of postpartum metritis or metroperitonitis. The role of BHV-4 in abortion has not been definitively demonstrated but epidemiological and experimental facts suggest its involvement. A seroepidemiological investigation was therefore conducted as a case-control study to compare the seroprevalences of BHV-4 infections in the aborted-cow population and in a randomly selected control group in the province of Liège (Belgium). The seroprevalence (17.2%) in aborted cows was significantly higher than that of the control group (10.0%). The odds ratio (OR) was 1.87 (1.06 < 3.30). BHV-4 infection is therefore considered as a risk factor for abortion in cows.
Cleland, Kelly; Creinin, Mitchell D; Nucatola, Deborah; Nshom, Montsine; Trussell, James
To analyze rates of significant adverse events and outcomes in women having a medical abortion at Planned Parenthood health centers in 2009 and 2010 and to identify changes in the rates of adverse events and outcomes between the 2 years. In this database review we analyzed data from Planned Parenthood affiliates that provided medical abortion in 2009 and 2010 almost exclusively using an evidence-based buccal misoprostol regimen. We evaluated the incidence of six clinically significant adverse events (hospital admission, blood transfusion, emergency department treatment, intravenous antibiotics administration, infection, and death) and two significant outcomes (ongoing pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy diagnosed after medical abortion treatment was initiated). We calculated an overall rate as well as rates for each event and identified changes between the 2 years. Among 233,805 medical abortions provided in 2009 and 2010, significant adverse events or outcomes were reported in 1,530 cases (0.65%). There was no statistically significant difference in overall rates between years. The most common significant outcome was ongoing intrauterine pregnancy (0.50%); significant adverse events occurred in 0.16% of cases. One patient death occurred as a result of an undiagnosed ectopic pregnancy. Only rates for emergency department treatment and blood transfusion differed by year and were slightly higher in 2010. Review of this large data set reinforces the safety of the evidence-based medical abortion regimen. III.
Moore, Ann M; Jagwe-Wadda, Gabriel; Bankole, Akinrinola
Abortion is illegal in Uganda except to save the life of the woman. Nevertheless, the practice is quite common: about 300,000 induced abortions occur annually among Ugandan women aged 15-49 (Singh et al., 2005) and a large proportion of these women require treatment for post-abortion complications. In the male-dominant culture of Uganda, where men control most of the financial resources, men play a critical part in determining whether women receive a safe abortion, or appropriate treatment if they experience abortion complications. This study examines men's roles in determining women's access to a safer abortion and post-abortion care. It draws on in-depth interviews carried out in 2003 with 61 women aged 18-60 and 21 men aged 20-50 from Kampala and Mbarara, Uganda. Respondents' descriptions of men's involvement in women's abortion care agreed that men's stated attitudes about abortion often prevented women from involving them in either the abortion or post-abortion care. Most men believe that if a woman is having an abortion, it must be because she is pregnant with another man's child, although this does not correspond with women's reasons for having an abortion--a critical disjuncture revealed by the data between men's perceptions of, and women's realities regarding, reasons for seeking an abortion. If the woman does experience post-abortion complications, the prevailing attitude among men in the sample was that they cannot support a woman in such a situation seeking care because if it had been his child, she would not have had a covert abortion. Since money is critical to accessing appropriate care, without men's support, women seeking an abortion may not be able to access safer abortion options and if they experience complications, they may delay care-seeking or may not obtain care at all. Barriers to involving men in abortion decision-making endanger women's health and possibly their lives.
Wick, Mary Jo
Infections with Salmonella enterica serovars remain a serious problem worldwide. While serovar Typhi causes significant morbidity and mortality that is restricted to humans, serovar Typhimurium causes gastroenteritidis in humans and can also infect other animals. As mice with the susceptible Nramp1 locus get systemic infection with serovar Typhimurium, murine infection models using this serovar have been widely used to decipher the immune mechanisms required to survive systemic Salmonella infection. This review summarizes recent studies in murine infection models that have advanced our understanding of the events that occur during the first days after oral Salmonella infection. The pathways of bacterial penetration across the intestinal epithelium, bacterial spread to draining (mesenteric) lymph nodes and dissemination to systemic tissues is discussed. The response of myeloid cell populations, including dendritic cells, inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils, during the early stage of infection is also discussed. Finally, the mechanisms driving recruitment of myeloid cells to infected intestinal lymphoid tissues and what is known about Toll-like receptor signaling pathways in innate immunity to Salmonella infection is also discussed.
Mazur, D P
Although 6 in 10 Polish women use some form of contraception, most rely on the least effective methods (withdrawal and rhythm). Only 2% use the pill or IUD. Urban women with more education are most likely to use modern methods. Oral contraceptive use is limited because the pill is only sold in small quantities at drugstores on doctors' prescriptions and is often in short supply. 1st trimester abortions have been legal and widely available since 1956, and Polish women terminate 1/5 of their pregnancies by abortion. However, 1/3 of Polish women of reproductive age state that they believe abortion should be made illegal and more than 1/2 believe the law should be made more restrictive. 55% said that religious factors should be taken into account in matters pertaining to abortion. Recently, emboldened by the success of Solidarity in wringing concessions from the government, the Catholic church has campaigned against the abortion law. While the law remains intact, the government has issued new, tighter regulations which, among other things, allow physicians to refuse to perform abortions on moral grounds. Data come from a 1972 3% random sample survey of currently married reproductive age Polish women.
Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stotland, Nada L
Approximately one third of the women in the United States have an abortion during their lives. In the year 2008, 1.21 million abortions were performed in the United States (Jones and Koolstra, Perspect Sex Reprod Health 43:41-50, 2011). The psychiatric outcomes of abortion are scientifically well established (Adler et al., Science 248:41-43, 1990). Despite assertions to the contrary, there is no evidence that abortion causes psychiatric problems (Dagg, Am J Psychiatry 148:578-585, 1991). Those studies that report psychiatric sequelae suffer from severe methodological defects (Lagakos, N Engl J Med 354:1667-1669, 2006). Methodologically sound studies have demonstrated that there is a very low incidence of frank psychiatric illness after an abortion; women experience a wide variety of feelings over time, including, for some, transient sadness and grieving. However, the circumstances that lead a woman to terminate a pregnancy, including previous and/or ongoing psychiatric illness, are independently stressful and increase the likelihood of psychiatric illness over the already high baseline incidence and prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among women of childbearing age. For optimal psychological outcomes, women, including adolescents, need to make autonomous and supported decisions about problem pregnancies. Clinicians can help patients facing these decisions and those who are working through feelings about having had abortions in the past.
Johnson, B R; Horga, M; Andronache, L
After the downfall of the Ceausescu regime in December, 1989, the new Government of Romania abolished the law that prohibited abortions on request. Subsequently, the rate of legally induced abortions increased significantly while the rate of maternal mortality declined dramatically. Despite the large number of women who request induced abortions, most women and gynaecologists say that they would prefer to prevent unwanted pregnancies through the use of modern contraception. In this paper we examine factors that contribute to the disparity between women's desire to use modern contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies and their practice of having induced abortions to prevent unwanted births. The results show that women (and suggest that men) need a wide choice of dependably available high-quality contraceptives; they need to be able to obtain information, counselling, and methods from a wide range of sources/health-care providers; both women's and men's perceptions about, and use of, modern contraception could be positively affected through sexual education started in secondary school; and, to reduce repeat abortions, women's post-abortion family-planning needs must not be neglected.
intracellular pools of GTP, a-/or- vulSt 4 indirectly suppressing viral nucleic acid synthesis (Malinoski and Stollar, 1981 and Streeter et al., 1973...Another hypothesis proposes that ribavirin therapy of viral- infected cells results in the synthesis of RNA with abnormal or absent 5’ cap structures...of viral particles ribavirin interfered dramatically. Their final conclusion was that ribavirin interfered with DNA synthesis in some unknown fashion
Blanden, R. V.
Histological and immunofluorescence techniques showed that mononuclear cells invaded virus-infected foci in the livers of passively immunized mice within 10 hr of the receipt of immune spleen cells or hyperimmune serum; by 24 hr, marked destruction of virus antigens had occurred in these lesions. Immune cell transfer promoted denser packing of mononuclear cells in the foci and more efficient destruction of infectious material than immune serum. Similar liver lesions developed by the 6th day after sublethal, primary, subcutaneous infection in normal mice. In contrast, in mice with GVHR which were immunosuppressed but possessed hyperactive macrophages and unimpaired splenic interferon response, mononuclear cells did not invade liver lesions and the animals died. These results, together with data reported previously, indicated that mononuclear cell invasion of infected liver foci, triggered by CMI, was of key importance in recovery from primary mousepox. The roles of specifically sensitized lymphocytes and macrophages within lesions were not directly evaluated, but indirect evidence suggested that lymphocytes could cause no more than a halt in virus multiplication, and that macrophages were required for the inactivation of preformed virions. Possible augmentation of the efficiency of macrophages by locally-produced lymphocyte interferon, neutralizing antibody, or stimulation of their phagocytic and intracellular digestive capacity cannot be excluded. PMID:4324301
Dutta, Noton K.
SUMMARY The aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge on human latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) based on clinical studies and observations, as well as experimental in vitro and animal models. Several key terms are defined, including “latency,” “persistence,” “dormancy,” and “antibiotic tolerance.” Dogmas prevalent in the field are critically examined based on available clinical and experimental data, including the long-held beliefs that infection is either latent or active, that LTBI represents a small population of nonreplicating, “dormant” bacilli, and that caseous granulomas are the haven for LTBI. The role of host factors, such as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, T regulatory cells, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and gamma interferon (IFN-γ), in controlling TB infection is discussed. We also highlight microbial regulatory and metabolic pathways implicated in bacillary growth restriction and antibiotic tolerance under various physiologically relevant conditions. Finally, we pose several clinically important questions, which remain unanswered and will serve to stimulate future research on LTBI. PMID:25184558
Wiebe, Ellen R; Littman, Lisa; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Moshier, Erin L
Misinformation about the risks and sequelae of abortion is widespread. The purpose of this study was to examine whether women having an abortion who believe that there should be restrictions to abortion (i.e., that some other women should not be allowed to have an abortion) also believe this misinformation about the health risks associated with abortion. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of women presenting consecutively for an abortion at an urban abortion clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia, between February and September 2012. Of 1008 women presenting for abortion, 978 completed questionnaires (97% response rate), and 333 of these (34%) favoured abortion restrictions. More women who favoured restrictions believed that the health risk of an abortion was the same as or greater than the health risk of childbirth (84.2% vs. 65.6%, P < 0.001), that abortion caused mental health problems (39.1% vs. 28.3%, P < 0.001), and that abortion caused infertility (41.7% vs. 21.9%, P < 0.001). Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, believing that abortion should not be restricted was found to be a significantly correlated with correct answers about health risks, mental health problems, and infertility. Misinformed beliefs about the risks of abortion are common among women having an abortion. Women presenting for abortion who favoured restrictions to abortion have more misperceptions about abortion risks than women who favour no restrictions.
Davidson, John B., Jr.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Proud, Ryan W.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Kenyon, Paul R.; Burt, Richard; McFarland, Mike
One of the primary design drivers for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is to ensure crew safety. Aborts during the critical ascent flight phase require the design and operation of CEV systems to escape from the Crew Launch Vehicle and return the crew safely to the Earth. To accomplish this requirement of continuous abort coverage, CEV ascent abort modes are being designed and analyzed to accommodate the velocity, altitude, atmospheric, and vehicle configuration changes that occur during ascent. The analysis involves an evaluation of the feasibility and survivability of each abort mode and an assessment of the abort mode coverage. These studies and design trades are being conducted so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle abort requirements, design, and operation. This paper presents an overview of the CEV, driving requirements for abort scenarios, and an overview of current ascent abort modes. Example analysis results are then discussed. Finally, future areas for abort analysis are addressed.
Toprani, Amita; Cadwell, Betsy L; Li, Wenhui; Sackoff, Judith; Greene, Carolyn; Begier, Elizabeth
This study aims to describe factors associated with the number of past abortions obtained by New York City (NYC) abortion patients in 2010. We calculated rates of first and repeat abortion by age, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood-level poverty and the mean number of self-reported past abortions by age, race/ethnicity, neighborhood-level poverty, number of living children, education, payment method, marital status, and nativity. We used negative binomial regression to predict number of past abortions by patient characteristics. Of the 76,614 abortions reported for NYC residents in 2010, 57% were repeat abortions. Repeat abortions comprised >50% of total abortions among the majority of sociodemographic groups we examined. Overall, mean number of past abortions was 1.3. Mean number of past abortions was higher for women aged 30-34 years (1.77), women with ≥5 children (2.50), and black non-Hispanic women (1.52). After multivariable regression, age, race/ethnicity, and number of children were the strongest predictors of number of past abortions. This analysis demonstrates that, although socioeconomic disparities exist, all abortion patients are at high risk for repeat unintended pregnancy and abortion.
Di Nucci, E
This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally wrong even though that human being is not being deprived of a "valuable future". So Marquis would be wrong in thinking that what is essential about the wrongness of killing an adult human being is that they are being deprived of a valuable future. This paper shows that whichever way the concept of "valuable future" is interpreted, the proposed counterexamples fail: if it is interpreted as "future like ours", the proposed counterexamples have no bearing on Marquis's argument. If the concept is interpreted as referring to the patient's preferences, it must be either conceded that the patients in Strong's scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims.
The sort of ethical theory derived from Aristotle, variously described as virtue ethics, virtue-based ethics, or neo-Aristotelianism, is becoming better known, and is now quite widely recognized as at least a possible rival to deontological and utilitarian theories. With recognition has come criticism, of varying quality. In this article I shall discuss nine separate criticisms that I have frequently encountered, most of which seem to me to betray an inadequate grasp either of the structure of virtue theory or of what would be involved in thinking about a real moral issue in its terms. In the first half I aim particularly to secure an understanding that will reveal that many of these criticisms are simply misplaced, and to articulate what I take to be the major criticism of virtue theory. I reject this criticism, but do not claim that it is necessarily misplaced. In the second half I aim to deepen that understanding and highlight the issues raised by the criticisms by illustrating what the theory looks like when it is applied to a particular issue, in this case, abortion.
Vallely, Lisa M; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kumbia, Antonia; Mola, Glen D L; Whittaker, Andrea
In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion. Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information. Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119) of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119) of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported. In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion.
Vallely, Lisa M.; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kumbia, Antonia; Mola, Glen D. L.; Whittaker, Andrea
Background In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion. Methods Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information. Findings Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119) of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119) of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported. Conclusion In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion. PMID:25329982
Salas, Antonio; Marco-Puche, Guillermo; Triviño, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Cebey-López, Miriam; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Vilanova-Trillo, Lucía; Rodríguez-Tenreiro, Carmen; Gómez-Rial, José; Martinón-Torres, Federico
The mechanisms of rotavirus (RV) infection have been analyzed from different angles but the way in which RV modifies the transcriptome of the host is still unknown. Whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing of peripheral blood samples was used to reveal patterns of expression from the genome of RV-infected patients. RV provokes global changes in the transcriptome of infected cells, involving an over-expression of genes involved in cell cycle and chromatin condensation. While interferon IFI27 was hyper-activated, interferon type II was not suggesting that RV has developed mechanisms to evade the innate response by host cells after virus infection. Most interesting was the inhibition of genes of the glycophorins A and B (GYPA/B) family, which are the major sialoglycoproteins of the human erythrocyte membrane and receptor of several viruses for host invasion. RV infection induces a complex and global response in the host. The strong inhibition of glycophorins suggests a novel defense mechanism of the host to prevent viral infection, inhibiting the expression of receptors used by the virus for infection. The present results add further support to the systemic nature of RV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zane, Suzanne; Creanga, Andreea A; Berg, Cynthia J; Pazol, Karen; Suchdev, Danielle B; Jamieson, Denise J; Callaghan, William M
To examine characteristics and causes of legal induced abortion-related deaths in the United States between 1998 and 2010. Abortion-related deaths were identified through the national Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System with enhanced case-finding. We calculated the abortion mortality rate by race, maternal age, and gestational age and the distribution of causes of death by gestational age and procedure. During the period from 1998-2010, of approximately 16.1 million abortion procedures, 108 women died, for a mortality rate of 0.7 deaths per 100,000 procedures overall, 0.4 deaths for non-Hispanic white women, 0.5 deaths for Hispanic women, and 1.1 deaths for black women. The mortality rate increased with gestational age, from 0.3 to 6.7 deaths for procedures performed at 8 weeks or less and at 18 weeks or greater, respectively. A majority of abortion-related deaths at 13 weeks of gestation or less were associated with anesthesia complications and infection, whereas a majority of abortion-related deaths at more than 13 weeks of gestation were associated with infection and hemorrhage. In 20 of the 108 cases, the abortion was performed as a result of a severe medical condition where continuation of the pregnancy threatened the woman's life. Deaths associated with legal induced abortion continue to be rare events-less than 1 per 100,000 procedures. Primary prevention of unintended pregnancy, including those in women with serious pre-existing medical conditions, and increased access to abortion services at early gestational ages may help to further decrease abortion-related mortality in the United States. III.
Recent surveys have shown that 3.4 million illegal abortions may be taking place in the Latin American countries every year, with a rate of around 45/1000 women of childbearing age. Yet only in Cuba can women have abortion on demand. In the other countries the penalty for the abortionist and the client is a prison sentence. The only way of measuring the frequency of abortion is through the numbers of women entering hospitals for treatment of postabortion complication, but not all countries publish hospitals statistics that are reliable. Surveys in Chile and Colombia for 1974 show a rate of 11.7-17.9/1000 women of fertile age undergoing illegal abortions, with only 1/3 resulting in complications. The law is not strictly enforced in these countries because the number of people that will have to be prosecuted is too large and because there is no place to care for the young children of women who will be prosecuted. Yet the abortion death rate (38% of total maternal deaths) is so high that a new policy must be drawn up, especially since women who have normal deliveries are sent home earlier to make room for those with abortion complications, resulting in a high infant mortality rate. In addition the rate of pregnancies among adolescents is very high due to the permissive social atmosphere combined with a lack of sex education in the schools. Studies that would allow international comparisons to show ways to prevent the consequences of illegal abortions are needed.
Appelbaum, P S
The US Supreme Court's decision in Planned Parenthood v. Casey leaves an uncertain future for abortion as a constitutional right. By a vote of 1, Roe v. Wade could be overturned. Without Roe, the states would be free to legislate their own abortion laws, including the outlawing of abortion except when a pregnancy threatens the life or health of the pregnant woman. Psychiatrists could be thrust into the abortion process to certify the threats to life or health on mental health grounds, as they did more than 2 decades ago before Roe. What should psychiatrists' response be? What little empirical data exists reveals almost no basis for individualized determinations of the likelihood of harm if an abortion is denied. There are obvious situations where psychiatry can play a useful role: 1) for women with histories of postpartum depression or psychosis who may be at high risk for a repetition of those conditions, and 2) for women severely mentally disordered who require medications to control their symptoms and are faced with the prospect of decompensation if they terminate their medication to avoid harming the fetus. Some psychiatrists argue that if psychiatric certification provides the only method to obtain abortions, psychiatrists should assist women in whatever way possible, even if that means being dishonest about the likely consequences of a pregnancy, for abortion would be in the longterm psychosocial interest of the woman. In a democratic society, disregarding the laws means disregarding the will of the people. Personal beliefs about social policy also justifies the denial of mental health claims for the psychiatrist who believes that it is in the best interest of the woman to carry the fetus to term. Roe saved psychiatry from this ethical morass; its demise will be unpleasant.
On October 24, the Sejm (Poland's lower house of parliament) voted 228 to 195 (with 16 abstentions) to amend Poland's March 1993 ban on abortions. The amendment legalizes abortion until the 12th week of pregnancy for women who face financial hardship or difficult personal circumstances. Client counseling by a doctor who will not perform the abortion and a 3-day wait are required. Abortions will be permitted in licensed private clinics, as well as in public hospitals. Anyone performing an illegal abortion can receive 2 years' imprisonment. The government will subsidize contraceptive pills, and a sex education curriculum will be developed for schools. Abortion had been legal and widely available under communist rule; however, a Catholic-aligned government limited abortion to cases where a woman's life or health was endangered, where the pregnancy resulted from rape or incest, or where the fetus had a severe anomaly. The Catholic Church opposed the new measure, and the Senat (Poland's upper house), on October 3, had voted 40 to 52 (with 2 abstentions) against the amendment. Although the Sejm had previously voted 208 to 61 (with 15 abstentions) in favor of the amendment, 120 of those opposed to the measure, primarily members of the Polish Peasants Party (part of Poland's ruling coalition), had walked out in protest just before an August tally. The Democratic Left Alliance, the other coalition partner, supports the amendment. The most recent vote in the Sejm overturns the Senat veto; however, before the law can go into effect in 1997, it must be signed by President Aleksandr Kwasniewski (a supporter) after a review by Poland's conservative constitutional tribunal.
Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited.
Medicaid would help pay for abortion in fewer circumstances under the fiscal 1979 Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW), appropriations bill approved May 4, 1978, by the House HEW Appropriations Subcommittee than it did in 1978. The new language would permit the funding only if the mother's life would be endangered if the pregnancy were carried to term. Current law permits abortion payments for this reason; if pregnancy results from rape or incest, or if the birth would cause the mother severe and long-lasting physical damage. Behind the scenes pressure probably will be applied to resolve the issue quickly this year since all House members are up for reelection and do not want to have such a sensitive issue intruding on their campaigns. 1 strategy being discussed is the inclusion of riders that would directly or indirectly provide federal funds for abortions in other appropriation measures such as funding for the Defense Department and federal employees health benefits. The House will have to contend with Senator Brooke (R-Massachusetts) ranking minority member on the Senate HEW Appropriations Subcommittee, who is determined to stand firm in favor of liberal abortion funding. With only minimal opposition for his Senate seat this year, Senate staffers say Brooke is not concerned with the possibility of abortion becoming a major campaign issue. It was Brooke who forced the House's hand last year and obtained a more relaxed abortion curb, much to the chagrin of the Carter Administration. The White House, with the President's popularity at a low ebb, would prefer not to be put in a position of taking sides publicly although it prefers the strict curbs. Carter is currently deciding which House members to assist during the campaign and such a no-win issue would only serve to complicate matters. He will have enough of a problem reconciling health spending increases without the added burden of abortion.
Wu, Shang-chun; Qiu, Hong-yan
Pooled literatures showed that the induced abortion in China faces many problems:the number of induced abortion remains large; most cases are young and nulliparity women; the frequency of abortion is high; and the interval between one and another abortion is short. Health promotion strategies should be applied to address these problems. It is important to increase the population's awareness of contraception,especially among nulliparity and migrant populations. Routine and effective contraceptive methods should be recommended and emphasized during induced abortion and delivery to lower the rate of induced abortion.
Daghighi, Seyedmojtaba; Sjollema, Jelmer; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J; Rochford, Edward T J
Extended life expectancy and medical development has led to an increased reliance on biomaterial implants and devices to support or restore human anatomy and function. However, the presence of an implanted biomaterial results in an increased susceptibility to infection. Due to the severity of the potential outcomes of biomaterial-associated infection, different strategies have been employed to reduce the infection risk. Interestingly, degradable biological materials demonstrate increased resistance to bacterial infection compared to non-degradable synthetic biomaterials. Current knowledge about the specific mechanisms of how degradable biological materials are afforded increased resistance to infection is limited. Therefore, in this paper a number of hypotheses to explain the decreased infection risk associated with the use of degradable versus non-degradable biomaterials are evaluated and discussed with reference to the present state of knowledge.
Guerra, J; Tornos, M; Permanyer-Miralda, G; Almirante, B; Murtra, M; Soler-Soler, J
OBJECTIVE—To analyse the long term results of mechanical prostheses for treating active infective endocarditis. DESIGN—Prospective cohort study of a consecutive series of patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis and operated on in the active phase of the infection for insertion of a mechanical prosthesis. SETTING—Tertiary referral centre in a metropolitan area. RESULTS—Between 1975 and 1997, 637 cases of infective endocarditis were diagnosed in the centre. Of these, 436 were left sided (with overall mortality of 20.3%). Surgical treatment in the active phase of the infection was needed in 141 patients (72% native, 28% prosthetic infective endocarditis). Mechanical prostheses were used in 131 patients. Operative mortality was 30.5% (40 patients). Ninety one survivors were followed up prospectively for (mean (SD)) 5.4 (4.5) years. Thirteen patients developed prosthetic valve dysfunction. Nine patients suffered reinfection: four of these (4%) were early and five were late. The median time from surgery for late reinfection was 1.4 years. During follow up, 12 patients died. Excluding operative mortality, actuarial survival was 86.6% at five years and 83.7% at 10 years; actuarial survival free from death, reoperation, and reinfection was 73.1% at five years and 59.8% at 10 years. CONCLUSIONS—In patients surviving acute infective endocarditis and receiving mechanical prostheses, the rate of early reinfection compares well with reported results of homografts. In addition, prosthesis dysfunction rate is low and long term survival is good. These data should prove useful for comparison with long term studies, when available, using other types of valve surgery in active infective endocarditis. Keywords: infective endocarditis; surgery; mechanical prosthesis PMID:11410564
Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán
Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats. © 2015 The Author(s).
Silva, C L M; Lenzi, H L; Silva, V F M; Paulo, F O; Noël, F
We previously reported that portal veins from mice infected with male Schistosoma mansoni exhibited an increased reactivity to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Here, we extended our observations to mice infected by both male and female worms and we further investigated another constrictor agent and the mechanism(s) responsible for the enhanced maximal contraction ( E(max)). Bisexual infection increased the E(max) of 5-HT (from 0.66+/-0.06 mN.s to 1.56+/-0.38 mN.s), in a similar way to the unisexual (male) infection. Infection with male worms increased portal vein reactivity to acetylcholine, as revealed by a higher E(max) (1.03+/-0.2 mN.s) in relation to non-infected control animals ( E(max)= 0.54+/-0.08 mN.s). Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) inhibition with 100 nM thapsigargin reduced the E(max) of 5-HT by 35% in both tissues, discharging a deficiency of SERCA pump in infected animals. In contrast, the number of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (L-type) was higher in portal veins from infected than non-infected control mice. Inhibition of Ca(2+)-activated chloride channels (Cl(Ca)) with 10 micro M niflumic acid reduced the E(max) of 5-HT in portal veins more from infected than non-infected animals (remaining tension = 60.9+/-2.2% and 70.4+/-2.3%, respectively). Histopathological analysis revealed an increased content of collagen and elastin in portal veins from male S. mansoni-infected mice, compatible with an increased intraluminal pressure. In conclusion, male S. mansoni altered portal vein physiology, increasing the E(max) of two vasoconstrictors, possibly by increasing membrane depolarisation through a more effective opening of Cl(Ca) channels, with calcium entering through L-type Ca(2+) channels.
Lin, Jingwen; Cunningham, Deirdre; Tumwine, Irene; Kushinga, Garikai; McLaughlin, Sarah; Spence, Philip; Böhme, Ulrike; Sanders, Mandy; Conteh, Solomon; Bushell, Ellen; Metcalf, Tom; Billker, Oliver; Duffy, Patrick E.; Newbold, Chris; Berriman, Matthew; Langhorne, Jean
Malaria is caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium. All human-infecting Plasmodium species can establish long-lasting chronic infections1–5, creating an infectious reservoir to sustain transmission1,6. It is widely accepted that maintenance of chronic infection involves evasion of adaptive immunity by antigenic variation7. However, genes involved in this process have been identified in only two of five human-infecting species: P. falciparum and P. knowlesi. Furthermore, little is understood about the early events in establishment of chronic infection in these species. Using a rodent model we demonstrate that only a minority of parasites from among the infecting population, expressing one of several clusters of virulence-associated pir genes, establishes a chronic infection. This process occurs in different species of parasite and in different hosts. Establishment of chronicity is independent of adaptive immunity and therefore different from the mechanism proposed for maintainance of chronic P. falciparum infections7–9. Furthermore, we show that the proportions of parasites expressing different types of pir genes regulate the time taken to establish a chronic infection. Since pir genes are common to most, if not all, species of Plasmodium10, this process may be a common way of regulating the establishment of chronic infections. PMID:28165471
Brugat, Thibaut; Reid, Adam James; Lin, Jing-Wen; Cunningham, Deirdre; Tumwine, Irene; Kushinga, Garikai; McLaughlin, Sarah; Spence, Philip; Böhme, Ulrike; Sanders, Mandy; Conteh, Solomon; Bushell, Ellen; Metcalf, Tom; Billker, Oliver; Duffy, Patrick E; Newbold, Chris; Berriman, Matthew; Langhorne, Jean
Malaria is caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium. All human-infecting Plasmodium species can establish long-lasting chronic infections(1-5), creating an infectious reservoir to sustain transmission(1,6). It is widely accepted that the maintenance of chronic infection involves evasion of adaptive immunity by antigenic variation(7). However, genes involved in this process have been identified in only two of five human-infecting species: Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium knowlesi. Furthermore, little is understood about the early events in the establishment of chronic infection in these species. Using a rodent model we demonstrate that from the infecting population, only a minority of parasites, expressing one of several clusters of virulence-associated pir genes, establishes a chronic infection. This process occurs in different species of parasites and in different hosts. Establishment of chronicity is independent of adaptive immunity and therefore different from the mechanism proposed for maintenance of chronic P. falciparum infections(7-9). Furthermore, we show that the proportions of parasites expressing different types of pir genes regulate the time taken to establish a chronic infection. Because pir genes are common to most, if not all, species of Plasmodium(10), this process may be a common way of regulating the establishment of chronic infections.
Polis, Chelsea B; Mhango, Chisale; Philbin, Jesse; Chimwaza, Wanangwa; Chipeta, Effie; Msusa, Ausbert
In Malawi, abortion is legal only if performed to save a woman's life; other attempts to procure an abortion are punishable by 7-14 years imprisonment. Most induced abortions in Malawi are performed under unsafe conditions, contributing to Malawi's high maternal mortality ratio. Malawians are currently debating whether to provide additional exceptions under which an abortion may be legally obtained. An estimated 67,300 induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2009 (equivalent to 23 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44), but changes since 2009, including dramatic increases in contraceptive prevalence, may have impacted abortion rates. We conducted a nationally representative survey of health facilities to estimate the number of cases of post-abortion care, as well as a survey of knowledgeable informants to estimate the probability of needing and obtaining post-abortion care following induced abortion. These data were combined with national population and fertility data to determine current estimates of induced abortion and unintended pregnancy in Malawi using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. We estimate that approximately 141,044 (95% CI: 121,161-160,928) induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2015, translating to a national rate of 38 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-49 (95% CI: 32 to 43); which varied by geographical zone (range: 28-61). We estimate that 53% of pregnancies in Malawi are unintended, and that 30% of unintended pregnancies end in abortion. Given the challenges of estimating induced abortion, and the assumptions required for calculation, results should be viewed as approximate estimates, rather than exact measures. The estimated abortion rate in 2015 is higher than in 2009 (potentially due to methodological differences), but similar to recent estimates from nearby countries including Tanzania (36), Uganda (39), and regional estimates in Eastern and Southern Africa (34-35). Over half of pregnancies in Malawi are unintended. Our
Bankole, Akinrinola; Adewole, Isaac F; Hussain, Rubina; Awolude, Olutosin; Singh, Susheela; Akinyemi, Joshua O
Because of Nigeria's low contraceptive prevalence, a substantial number of women have unintended pregnancies, many of which are resolved through clandestine abortion, despite the country's restrictive abortion law. Up-to-date estimates of abortion incidence are needed. A widely used indirect methodology was used to estimate the incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in Nigeria in 2012. Data on provision of abortion and postabortion care were collected from a nationally representative sample of 772 health facilities, and estimates of the likelihood that women who have unsafe abortions experience complications and obtain treatment were collected from 194 health care professionals with a broad understanding of the abortion context in Nigeria. An estimated 1.25 million induced abortions occurred in Nigeria in 2012, equivalent to a rate of 33 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-49. The estimated unintended pregnancy rate was 59 per 1,000 women aged 15-49. Fifty-six percent of unintended pregnancies were resolved by abortion. About 212,000 women were treated for complications of unsafe abortion, representing a treatment rate of 5.6 per 1,000 women of reproductive age, and an additional 285,000 experienced serious health consequences but did not receive the treatment they needed. Levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion continue to be high in Nigeria. Improvements in access to contraceptive services and in the provision of safe abortion and postabortion care services (as permitted by law) may help reduce maternal morbidity and mortality.
Henker, F O
The article reports upon the characteristics of 300 abortion applicants in Arkansas manifesting significant stress from unwanted pregnancy between May 1, 1970 and June 30, 1971. The sample is limited by the fact that all of these women had been willing to seek medical aid. Patients ranged from ages 13-47, 131 of them ages 17-21. 35% had had some college education; another 29% were high school graduates. 50.6%, 20.6%, and 27.3% were single, divorced, and married, respectively. 59.6% of the patients were primiparas. 18.3%, 9.6%, and 12.3% were classified as being neurotic, having psychophysiologic tendencies (gastrointestinal problems, obesity, chronic headaches), and having sociopathic features (passive-aggressive, frankly rebellious, delinquent, antisocial, alcoholic), respectively. 12 women had noticeable schizoid features; 4 women had mildly active schizophrenia. Fathers of the women were usually blue-collar workers (55.3%) or white-collar workers (24.6%). The most frequent ordinal sibling position among the women was oldest child (38%). Parental instability (1 or both parents lost through death, divorce, father usually away working, chronic alcoholism, etc.) was reported by 39.6% of the patients. Patients' attitudes toward the unwanted pregnancy included dislike of inexpediency of the situation (82.6%), self-depreciation (55.6%), and aversion (28.6%). Precipitated psychiatric disorders were for the greatest part mild. Manifesting symptoms included depression (66.7%), anxiety (21%), and mixed anxiety and depression (12.2%). Suicidal threats and gestures were made by 22 and 8 patients, respectively. In summary, the study reveals a group of predominantly Caucasian women from unstable, middle-class urban families who were going through an adjustment reaction to adolescence or adult life.
This article talks about the position on abortion held by Catholics for a Free Choice (CFFC). The discussion is based on an electronic mail message sent in response to a question on a Church reform listserve discussion group. CFCC believes that abortion is a serious matter that requires reflection, including dialogue with partners and trusted advisors. In a Catholic theological context and in the realm of morality, respect for women's right to abortion should be based on these facts: 1) there is no firm position within the Catholic Church on when the fetus becomes a person; 2) the principle of probabilism in Roman Catholicism holds that where the Church cannot speak definitively on a matter of fact, the consciences of individual Catholics must be primary and respected; and 3) the absolute prohibition on abortion by the Church is not infallible. For CFFC, a central value in this complex matter is the recognition that women are competent, capable moral agents who must be recognized as having the moral and legal right to make the decision about whether or not to have an abortion with minimal state intervention.
Hudson Rosen, R A et
The attitudes toward abortion of students and faculty in 3 health related fields--nursing, medicine, and social work--are examined and compared with the views of the population at large. The relation of religious affiliation to attitude toward abortion is also examined. The data was obtained via questionnaire in 47 nursing, 11 medical, and 15 social work schools in the fall and winter of 1971. 7 attitudinal items provided the focus of attention. 5 dealt with conditions under which an abortion should be performed; 2 dealt with the willingness of the respondent to help a client get an abortion. Nursing students and faculty had the most conservative attitude, followed by medical personnel and social workers. The nursing faculty's opinions were most like those of the general public; the medical and social work students and faculty generally mirrored respondents with some college education. Catholic health professionals were even less in favor of abortion than Catholics at large, even those with only a grade-school education. Catholic students, however, were more favorably disposed than Catholic faculty, indicating a more liberal trend in the Catholic Church.
Mavroforou, Anna; Giannoukas, Athanasios; Michalodimitrakis, Emmanuel
As medical abortion becomes more widely used and available in Greece, several issues are emerging and require clarification. Health care providers often face a dilemma when dealing with an adolescent requesting abortion. Parents' consent is mandatory before delivering any kind of treatment to minors. However, as it appears in the case presented here, the circumstances are not always straightforward. A critical review of the Greek legal framework in relation to the current social context is attempted through an interesting case aiming to elicit potential defects of the law that should be addressed by the legislator.
Sieve, Amy N.; Meeks, Karen D.; Bodhankar, Sheetal; Lee, Suheung; Kolls, Jay K.; Simecka, Jerry W.; Berg, Rance E.
Summary Immune responses to pathogens occur within the context of current and previous infections. Cross protection refers to the phenomena where infection with a particular pathogen provides enhanced resistance to a subsequent unrelated pathogen in an antigen independent manner. Proposed mechanisms of antigen-independent cross protection have involved the secretion of IFN-γ, which activates macrophages thus providing enhanced innate immunity against the secondary viral or bacterial pathogen. Here we provide evidence that a primary infection with the chronic respiratory pathogen, Mycoplasma pulmonis, provides a novel form of cross protection against a secondary infection with Listeria monocytogenes that is not mediated by IFN-γ, but instead relies upon IL-17 and mobilization of neutrophils. Mice infected with M. pulmonis have enhanced clearance of L. monocytogenes from the spleen and liver which is associated with increased numbers of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells and higher levels of IL-17. This enhanced clearance of L. monocytogenes was absent in mice depleted of Gr-1+ cells or in mice deficient in the IL-17 receptor. Additionally, both the IL-17 receptor and neutrophils were essential for optimal clearance of M. pulmonis. Thus, a natural component of the immune response directed against M. pulmonis was able to enhance clearance of L. monocytogenes. PMID:19180464
Moreira, Ana C; Neves, João V; Silva, Tânia; Oliveira, Patrícia; Gomes, Maria S; Rodrigues, Pedro N
During bacterial infection, the pathogenic agent and the host battle for iron, due to its importance for fundamental cellular processes. However, iron redistribution and sequestration during infection can culminate in anemia. Although hepcidin has been recognized as the key regulator of iron metabolism, in some infections its levels remain unaffected, suggesting the involvement of other players in iron metabolism deregulation. In this work, we use a mouse model to elucidate the main cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to iron redistribution during infection with two different pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Both infections clearly impacted iron metabolism, causing iron redistribution, decreasing serum iron levels, decreasing the saturation of transferrin, and increasing iron accumulation in the liver. Both infections were accompanied by the release of proinflammatory cytokines. However, when analyzing iron-related gene expression in the liver, we observed that hepcidin was induced by S Typhimurium but not by L. monocytogenes In the latter model, the downregulation of hepatic ferroportin mRNA and protein levels suggested that ferroportin plays a major role in iron redistribution. On the other hand, S Typhimurium infection induced the expression of hepcidin mRNA, and we show here, for the first time in vivo, that this induction is Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) dependent. In this work, we compare several aspects of iron metabolism alterations induced by two different pathogens and suggest that hepcidin-(in)dependent mechanisms contribute to iron redistribution upon infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Sartorius, Alfonso; Lu, Qin; Vieira, Silvia; Tonnellier, Marc; Lenaour, Gilles; Goldstein, Ivan; Rouby, Jean-Jacques
Introduction Air-space enlargement may result from mechanical ventilation and/or lung infection. The aim of this study was to assess how mechanical ventilation and lung infection influence the genesis of bronchiolar and alveolar distention. Methods Four groups of piglets were studied: non-ventilated-non-inoculated (controls, n = 5), non-ventilated-inoculated (n = 6), ventilated-non-inoculated (n = 6), and ventilated-inoculated (n = 8) piglets. The respiratory tract of intubated piglets was inoculated with a highly concentrated solution of Escherichia coli. Mechanical ventilation was maintained during 60 hours with a tidal volume of 15 ml/kg and zero positive end-expiratory pressure. After sacrifice by exsanguination, lungs were fixed for histological and lung morphometry analyses. Results Lung infection was present in all inoculated piglets and in five of the six ventilated-non-inoculated piglets. Mean alveolar and mean bronchiolar areas, measured using an analyzer computer system connected through a high-resolution color camera to an optical microscope, were significantly increased in non-ventilated-inoculated animals (+16% and +11%, respectively, compared to controls), in ventilated-non-inoculated animals (+49% and +49%, respectively, compared to controls), and in ventilated-inoculated animals (+95% and +118%, respectively, compared to controls). Mean alveolar and mean bronchiolar areas significantly correlated with the extension of lung infection (R = 0.50, p < 0.01 and R = 0.67, p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion Lung infection induces bronchiolar and alveolar distention. Mechanical ventilation induces secondary lung infection and is associated with further air-space enlargement. The combination of primary lung infection and mechanical ventilation markedly increases air-space enlargement, the degree of which depends on the severity and extension of lung infection. PMID:17274806
Pohjoranta, Elina; Mentula, Maarit; Gissler, Mika; Suhonen, Satu; Heikinheimo, Oskari
Can the need of subsequent abortion be reduced by providing intrauterine contraception as a part of the abortion service? Provision of intrauterine devices (IUDs) in association with first trimester abortion more than halved the incidence of repeat abortion during the first year of follow-up. Following abortion, the incidence of subsequent abortion is high, up to 30-40%. In cohort studies, intrauterine contraception has reduced the need of repeat abortion by 60-70%. A randomized controlled trial. The main outcome measure was the incidence of subsequent induced abortions during the follow-up. Altogether 751 women seeking first trimester induced abortion were recruited and randomized into two groups. Randomization was accomplished by computer-assisted permuted-block randomization with random block sizes of four to six. The investigators did not participate in randomization, which was done before commencing the study. The participants were recruited between 18 October 2010 and 21 January 2013. The inclusion criteria were age ≥18 years, duration of pregnancy ≤12 weeks, accepting intrauterine contraception, residence in Helsinki and signing the informed consent form. Women with contraindications to intrauterine contraception, such as uterine anomaly, acute genital infection or pap-smear change requiring surgical treatment were ineligible to participate.This study was conducted in collaboration between the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, and Centralized family planning of the City of Helsinki.The intervention group (n = 375) was provided with intrauterine contraception (either the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or copper-releasing intrauterine device) immediately following surgical abortion (18.1%) or at a follow-up 2-4 weeks after medical abortion (81.9%). Women in the control group were prescribed oral contraceptives and advised to contact their primary healthcare unit for a follow
Nasopharyngeal tuberculosis (NPTB) is a noteworthy disease especially in its worldwide spread of the Mycobacterium infection. Although NPTB has been identified in less than one percent of TB cases, recent multiple case reports indicate an either increased awareness or incidence of this disease. The most helpful diagnostic tool is an uncomplicated nasopharyngeal biopsy. However, NPTB is usually ignored because it has varied clinical manifestations and similar presentations with other more common head and neck diseases. Furthermore, the most common presenting symptom is cervical lymphadenopathy mimicking nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a more common and serious disease. Treatment outcomes of NPTB are good in both HIV-positive or HIV-negative patients. In addition, pulmonary tuberculosis association was reported in wide range between 8.3% and 82% which should be considered in a treatment program. In conclusion, early diagnosis and management in NPTB can be achieved by (1) increased awareness of this disease, (2) improvement in knowledge regarding clinical manifestations, and (3) improvement of diagnostic techniques. PMID:27034677
Srivanitchapoom, Chonticha; Sittitrai, Pichit
Nasopharyngeal tuberculosis (NPTB) is a noteworthy disease especially in its worldwide spread of the Mycobacterium infection. Although NPTB has been identified in less than one percent of TB cases, recent multiple case reports indicate an either increased awareness or incidence of this disease. The most helpful diagnostic tool is an uncomplicated nasopharyngeal biopsy. However, NPTB is usually ignored because it has varied clinical manifestations and similar presentations with other more common head and neck diseases. Furthermore, the most common presenting symptom is cervical lymphadenopathy mimicking nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a more common and serious disease. Treatment outcomes of NPTB are good in both HIV-positive or HIV-negative patients. In addition, pulmonary tuberculosis association was reported in wide range between 8.3% and 82% which should be considered in a treatment program. In conclusion, early diagnosis and management in NPTB can be achieved by (1) increased awareness of this disease, (2) improvement in knowledge regarding clinical manifestations, and (3) improvement of diagnostic techniques.
Gardiner, David W; Lunn, David P; Goehring, Lutz S; Chiang, Yu-Wei; Cook, Corey; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; McCue, Patrick; Del Piero, Fabio; Hussey, Stephen B; Hussey, Gisela Soboll
Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) continues to cause both sporadic and epidemic abortions despite extensive vaccination. Lack of progress in the development of protective vaccines may be hindered by the lack of equine abortion models that employ contemporary EHV-1 strains. The objective of our experiments was to compare a contemporary EHV-1 strain with a previously described challenge strain, and to quantify EHV-1 loads in various maternal and fetal tissues. Infection experiments were performed in two groups of 7 pregnant pony mares at 270-290 days of gestation with a contemporary EHV-1 strain (University of Findlay 2003 isolate - OH03) or an EHV-1 strain isolated over 30 years ago, and previously described in abortion models (Ab4). All mares in both groups exhibited nasal viral shedding and viremia. Infection with OH03 resulted in 1/7 abortion and infection with Ab4 resulted in 5/7 abortions. In the OH03 challenge, placentas of foals delivered at term showed little detectable virus, while the aborted fetus expressed high levels of virus infection in the spleen and liver, lower levels in the lung and thymus, and lowest levels in the chorioallantois. After Ab4 challenge, high viral loads were detected in fetal and placental tissues in abortions. In the two normal deliveries, the chorioallantois contained virus levels comparable with the chorioallantois of aborted foals and both foals shed EHV-1 starting on day 4 of life, but were clinically healthy. Our results demonstrate the continued importance of strain selection for abortion models, and this study is the first report of viral load quantification using contemporary methods. Extremely high EHV-1 loads in decidua from abortions illustrate the infection risk posed to other horses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cook, R J; Dickens, B M; Horga, M
In 2003, the World Health Organization published its well referenced handbook Safe Abortion: Technical and Policy Guidance for Health Systems to address the estimated almost 20 million induced abortions each year that are unsafe, imposing a burden of approximately 67 thousand deaths annually. It is a global injustice that 95% of unsafe abortions occur in developing countries. The focus of guidance is on abortion procedures that are lawful within the countries in which they occur, noting that in almost all countries, the law permits abortion to save a woman's life. The guidance treats unsafe abortion as a public health challenge, and responds to the problem through strategies concerning improved clinical care for women undergoing procedures, and the appropriate placement of necessary services. Legal and policy considerations are explored, and annexes present guidance to further reading, international consensus documents on safe abortion, and on manual vacuum aspiration and post-abortion contraception.
Examines a film entitled "Whose Choice?" which chronicles the struggle to protect and extend existing abortion rights through the campaigns set in motion by the James White Abortion (Amendment) Bill (1975). (MH)
Duncan, Jack A.; Moffett, Catherine F.
Abortion counseling is now legally within the purview of the school counselor. It is therefore essential that counselors determine their role in abortion counseling, the kind of training necessary, and whether professional organizations should develop counseling guidelines. (RP)
At the White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces, N.M., engineers and technicians are preparing for the Pad Abort 1 flight test. The Launch Abort System is a sophisticated new rocket tower designed t...
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163136.html Abortions in Texas Dropped Dramatically After Restrictions Greater travel ... later declared unconstitutional -- that increased travel distances to abortion clinics in the state seems to have led ...
Healthy Lifestyle Getting pregnant Could an abortion increase the risk of problems in a subsequent pregnancy? Answers from Roger W. Harms, M.D. Generally, abortion isn't thought to cause fertility issues or ...
Gelfand, S D
This is a reply to Don Marquis' "Why Abortion is Immoral." Marquis, who asserts that abortion is morally wrong, bases his argument on the following premise: Killing a being is morally wrong if that being is the sort of being who has a valuable future. I argue that this premise is false. I then assert that if I am correct about this premise being false, Marquis is faced with a dilemma. If he does not alter the premise in a way that makes it true, his argument is unsound. However, if he does make such an alteration, he must also alter a second premise in his argument, and this second change opens him to the charge of question begging. In addition, I conclude that such an alteration requires Marquis to adopt a position much like that taken by Judith J. Thompson in "A Defense of Abortion," a position he initially states is indefensible.
The definition of who an abortion counselor is and what their training should be is very unclear. In 1973, 350 questionnaires were sent to 60 institutions in the San Francisco Bay Area that provided health care to women with the purpose of clarifying the definition of an abortion counselor. From this study emerged a profile of 100 people in the San Francisco Bay Area who are currently delivering family planning and abortion counseling services. The results are on the basis of 110 completed questionnaires from planned parenthood centers, abortion clinics, and family planning clinics. Results showed that 1) the counselors were similar to their clients in that they, too, were sexually active and of childbearing age, and 1/5 of them had had abortio ns themselves which was a factor in motivating them to enter the field of abortion counseling in the first place; 2) there was a wide variation in the educational and experiential backgrounds of the counselors; 3) 1/3 of the respondents were volunteers; and 4) 47% had completed a training course by Planned Parenthood/World Population. Initial training as well as on the job training was considered to be important by the counselors. During the day, they were occupied were interviewing, group and individual counseling, telephone counseling, and clerical work. They mostly dealt with their patients on a personal, informal level. Counselors complained of crowded conditions, lack of sufficient personnel, and poor follow-up. The author concludes that there is yet to be a definition of who an abortion counselor is, and asserts that if quality care is to be provided, established standards and quality training is needed.
The author examines aspects of abortion in Italy through the examination of data on 1,400 women under 25 years of age who were hospitalized for delivery or abortion in a Bologna hospital in 1976-1977. In particular, the author analyzes the data by characteristics including age of mother, marital status, place of residence, and profession or occupation in order to examine the extent to which induced abortions are included in the totals reported as spontaneous abortions. (SUMMARY IN ENG, FRE)
Antiprogestogens keep progesterone from maturing the endometrium which allows implantation of the fertilized ovum and from maintaining pregnancy. Their first use has been in aborting early pregnancies. RU-486 is the only approved antiprogestogen for human use, but only in China, France, and the UK. Clinicians must administer it with a prostaglandin analogue. Mouse, rat, and monkey models indicate that administration of antiprogestogens after coitus prevents pregnancy. Research supported by the WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction shows that 3 mechanisms bring about lack of fertility: change in tubal function (stepped up transport and expulsion of embryos from reproductive tract), slowed down development of preimplantation embryo, and a decline in the receptivity of the endometrium. A study in Sweden is looking at whether RU-486 taken after ovulation indeed causes a significant endometrial change. At least 100 mg of RU-486 prevent the pituitary from secreting gonadotropins. Further, if taken during the follicular phase, it stops follicular development and ovulation. A study in Santiago, Chile, is studying the effects of continuous daily treatment with RU-486 on ovarian and pituitary function and on endometrial development. So far the study shows that 5-10 mg RU-486/day for 30 days lengthens menstrual cycles by about 50%, suppresses ovulation, and makes the endometrium unreceptive to a fertilized egg. This demonstration the possibility of using these doses in a sequential oral contraceptive regimen. 1 mg RU-486 disturbs endometrial maturation enough to prevent implantation, but does not lengthen the menstrual cycle. Further research with different doses could lead to a dose which could be used a mini pill. 2 clinical trials using 600mg RU-486 are exploring the possibility of using antiprogestogens as postcoital contraceptives. Interim results show that no pregnancies have yet occurred.
Dando, Samantha J.; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Norton, Robert; Currie, Bart J.; St. John, James A.; Ekberg, Jenny A. K.; Batzloff, Michael
SUMMARY The brain is well protected against microbial invasion by cellular barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). In addition, cells within the central nervous system (CNS) are capable of producing an immune response against invading pathogens. Nonetheless, a range of pathogenic microbes make their way to the CNS, and the resulting infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Bacteria, amoebae, fungi, and viruses are capable of CNS invasion, with the latter using axonal transport as a common route of infection. In this review, we compare the mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens reach the CNS and infect the brain. In particular, we focus on recent data regarding mechanisms of bacterial translocation from the nasal mucosa to the brain, which represents a little explored pathway of bacterial invasion but has been proposed as being particularly important in explaining how infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei can result in melioidosis encephalomyelitis. PMID:25278572
Harper, D M
The author agree's with C.M. Friedman's article ("Making Abortion Consultation Therapeutic," November 1973) that psychiatrists should stop prostituting themselves by claiming an abortion is necessary to safeguar d the woman's mental health. However, he feels the real human issue is whether a lift whould be destroyed simply because it is inconvenient for the mother and not, as Dr. Friedman suggests, because of "her mature longings for a child, her present capacity to love and give, her present reality, and a weighing of her morality."
Bradley, J; Sikazwe, N; Healy, J
In this commentary, the impact of the introduction of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) for incomplete abortion patients and for early uterine evacuation is discussed for the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. This 3-year training and service delivery program was begun in 1988 after it was clear that 15% of maternal deaths were due to illegally induced abortion. The prior procedure of dilation and curettage (D and C) required use of the main operating room and general anesthesia, which resulted in severe congestion and treatment delays. As a result of the new MVA procedure, congestion has decreased substantially, treatment is safer and more timely, and the staff's ability to provide abortions has increased. Family planning counseling is provided to postabortion patients in a more thorough fashion, and the savings in time has improved the quality of patient-staff interactions. Specifically, the patient flow has improved from a 12-hour wait to a 4-6 hour wait and rarely requires overnight hospitalization. The demand for the main operating room had decreased which frees space, time, and commodities for other gynecological treatment. The shorter procedure and release time means a minimal loss of earnings and productivity, and allows for greater privacy in explaining absences to families, schools, or employers. The improved quality of are is reflected in the figures for number treated, i.e., in 1989, 74% were treated with MVA for incomplete abortion 12 weeks and pregnancy termination 8 weeks compared with 26% treated with D and C. In 1990, the figures were 86% with MVA and 14% with D and C. The likelihood of complications from hemorrhage and sepsis have also been reduced. The MVA procedure is also less traumatic for the patient. The increased access to safe legal abortion services is reflected in the ratio of induced to incomplete abortions between 1988-1990 (1:25 to 1:5). Family planning counseling is provided by a full-time counselor who counsels preabortion
Potdar, Pritam; Barua, Alka; Dalvie, Suchitra; Pawar, Anand
In India, safe abortion services are sought mainly in the private sector for reasons of privacy, confidentiality, and the absence of delays and coercion to use contraception. In recent years, the declining sex ratio has received much attention, and implementation of the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act (2003) has become stringent. However, rather than targeting sex determination, many inspection visits target abortion services. This has led to many private medical practitioners facing negative media publicity, defamation and criminal charges. As a result, they have started turning women away not only in the second trimester but also in the first. Samyak, a Pune-based, non-governmental organization, came across a number of cases of refusal of abortion services during its work and decided to explore the experiences of private medical practitioners with the regulatory mechanisms and what happened to the women. The study showed that as a fallout from the manner of implementation of the PCPNDT Act, safe abortion services were either difficult for women to access or outright denied to them. There is an urgent need to recognize this impact of the current regulatory environment, which is forcing women towards illegal and unsafe abortions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Feldman, Charles; Anderson, Ronald
The predisposition of cigarette smokers for development of oral and respiratory infections caused by microbial pathogens is well recognised, with those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at particularly high risk. Smoking cigarettes has a suppressive effect on the protective functions of airway epithelium, alveolar macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells and adaptive immune mechanisms, in the setting of chronic systemic activation of neutrophils. Cigarette smoke also has a direct effect on microbial pathogens to promote the likelihood of infective disease, specifically promotion of microbial virulence and antibiotic resistance. In addition to interactions between smoking and HIV infection, a number of specific infections/clinical syndromes have been associated epidemiologically with cigarette smoking, including those of the upper and lower respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, central nervous and other organ systems. Smoking cessation benefits patients in many ways, including reduction of the risk of infectious disease.
Parthasarathy, Geetha; Philipp, Mario T.
In this article we review the apoptotic mechanisms most frequently encountered in bacterial infections of the central nervous system (CNS). We focus specifically on apoptosis of neural cells (neurons and glia), and provide first an overview of the phenomenon of apoptosis itself and its extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. We then describe apoptosis in the context of infectious diseases and inflammation caused by bacteria, and review its role in the pathogenesis of the most relevant bacterial infections of the CNS. PMID:23060884
Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn
The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…
60% of more than 2000 women surveyed by the Picker Institute who underwent induced abortion procedures rated the quality of their care as excellent. Another third reported their care as being either very good or good. The survey also found that the quality of abortion care is comparable to other outpatient surgery. However, the high quality of care women receive from abortion providers is lost in the hostile anti-abortion climate created by threatening protesters outside of clinics and the murder of 7 clinic workers and physicians who performed abortions. Abortion opponents fail to acknowledge that legal abortion is a medical procedure which protects women's health and saves their lives. Before abortion was legalized in the US, countless women were either rendered unable to reproduce or died from abortion-related complications. Efforts to outlaw abortion persist despite it being widely recognized by medical experts as one of the most safe medical procedures currently performed in the US. When state legislatures target abortion providers with unduly strict regulations, abortion becomes prohibitively expensive and difficult to obtain.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to...
Rogo, K O
Unsafe abortions and their complications are a major cause of maternal mortality. Hospital based studies from most African countries confirm that up to 50% of maternal deaths are due to abortion. This paper reviews problem of induced abortion in sub-Saharan Africa. Issues of prevalence and prevention are addressed while acknowledging the need to review the legal regimes operating in these countries.
Young, Alma T.; And Others
When New York State's abortion laws were liberalized in 1970, there was a sharp rise in the number of clinic patients who requested abortions. Because social workers at Mount Sinai Medical Center believed that abortion still is an emotional risk for many women, a study was conducted to determine which patients needed intensive counseling. (Author)
Shostak, Arthur B.
Reports on emotions of males when a near-fatherhood experience ends in a legal abortion. A sizeable minority of males find their abortion experience more frustrating, trying, and emotionally costly than public and academic neglect of this subject would suggest. Options are suggested to help males deal with abortion's aspects. (Author)
Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn
The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…
Pereira-Bueno, J; Quintanilla-Gozalo, A; Pérez-Pérez, V; Alvarez-García, G; Collantes-Fernández, E; Ortega-Mora, L M
A total of 173 aborted ovine foetuses and seven aborted caprine foetuses, submitted from different points of north and central Spain, were analysed to determine the role of T. gondii in abortion and to compare the utility of the most widely used techniques in diagnosis of the congenital infection (histopathology, serology--IFAT and ELISA--and a nested-PCR). Parasite infection was diagnosed in 40 (23.1%; n = 173) ovine foetuses by at least one of the diagnostic techniques used. A higher percentage of foetuses were diagnosed using serological techniques (IFAT and ELISA) (28.3%; n = 106) than by histologic examination (8.7%; n = 173) or PCR (6.9%; n = 173). No significant association between infection and the foetal age categories was found (P > 0.05). In this study, 106 aborted foetuses were analysed by all of the three diagnostic techniques. When we compared serological results, perfect agreement between ELISA and IFAT was obtained. On the contrary, slight to fair agreements were observed when histology results were compared with those obtained by serology and PCR techniques. All the positive foetuses were aborted in the mid (60%) or last (40%) term of pregnancy, but no significant differences were found between ages of the infected and non-infected foetuses (P > 0.05). This report indicates that toxoplasmosis may be a common cause of small ruminant abortion and neonatal death in Spain and points out the necessity of using different and complementary techniques to increase the probability of detecting Toxoplasma infection in an aborted foetus.
Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.; Rubens, Craig E.; Gravett, Michael G.
Preterm birth is the most important direct cause of neonatal mortality and remains a major challenge for obstetrics and global health. Intrauterine infection causes approximately 50% of early preterm births. Animal models using pregnant mice, rabbits, or sheep, demonstrate the key link between infection and premature birth, but differ in mechanisms of parturition and placental structure from humans. The nonhuman primate (NHP) is a powerful model which emulates many features of human placentation and parturition. The contributions of the NHP model to preterm birth research are reviewed emphasizing the role of infections, and potential development of preventative and therapeutic strategies. PMID:21040390
Guo, Shan-Shan; Shi, Yu-Jing; Gao, Ying-Jie; Su, Dan; Cui, Xiao-Lan
In order to research into the cytology mechanism of anti-virus action of total flavone of Scutellaria barbata (TFSB), the effects of TFSB on host cells membrane potential, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and membrane fluidity after parainfluenza virus type1 (PIV-1) infection were studied. The changes of membrane potential which was fluorescent labeled with DiBAC4(3) and its changes were measured by flow cytometer. Phosphorus determination method and spectrophotometry were used to measure the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity of Hep-2 cells membrane after PIV-1 infection. Hep-2 cells membrane phospholipids were fluorescent labeled with NBD-C6-HPC and membrane fluidity was measured by confocal scanning laser microscope. The result demonstrated that post PIV-1 infection membrane potential decreased significantly and the membrane was in a state of hyperpolarization, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity increased significantly and membrane fluidity decreased significantly. There was no apparent interfere effect of TFSB on the changes of membrane potential and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity after PIV-1 infection, while membrane fluidity improved significantly. It was indicated that the cytology mechanism of PIV-1 infection might be related to membrane hyperpolarization, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity increase and membrane fluidity decrease. TFSB can improve membrane fluidity and prevent the infection by protecting the cell membrane. But it is possible that the anti-PIV-1 mechanisms of TFSB had nothing to do with membrane potential and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity.
Melcher, Kevin J.; Cruz, Jose A.; Johnson Stephen B.; Lo, Yunnhon
This paper describes a quantitative methodology for bounding the false positive (FP) and false negative (FN) probabilities associated with a human-rated launch vehicle abort trigger (AT) that includes sensor data qualification (SDQ). In this context, an AT is a hardware and software mechanism designed to detect the existence of a specific abort condition. Also, SDQ is an algorithmic approach used to identify sensor data suspected of being corrupt so that suspect data does not adversely affect an AT's detection capability. The FP and FN methodologies presented here were developed to support estimation of the probabilities of loss of crew and loss of mission for the Space Launch System (SLS) which is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The paper provides a brief overview of system health management as being an extension of control theory; and describes how ATs and the calculation of FP and FN probabilities relate to this theory. The discussion leads to a detailed presentation of the FP and FN methodology and an example showing how the FP and FN calculations are performed. This detailed presentation includes a methodology for calculating the change in FP and FN probabilities that result from including SDQ in the AT architecture. To avoid proprietary and sensitive data issues, the example incorporates a mixture of open literature and fictitious reliability data. Results presented in the paper demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in providing quantitative estimates that bound the probability of a FP or FN abort determination.
Zane, Suzanne; Creanga, Andreea A.; Berg, Cynthia J.; Pazol, Karen; Suchdev, Danielle B.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Callaghan, William M.
OBJECTIVE To examine characteristics and causes of legal induced abortion–related deaths in the United States between 1998 and 2010. METHODS Abortion-related deaths were identified through the national Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System with enhanced case-finding. We calculated the abortion mortality rate by race, maternal age, and gestational age and the distribution of causes of death by gestational age and procedure. RESULTS During the period from 1998–2010, of approximately 16.1 million abortion procedures, 108 women died, for a mortality rate of 0.7 deaths per 100,000 procedures overall, 0.4 deaths for non-Hispanic white women, 0.5 deaths for Hispanic women, and 1.1 deaths for black women. The mortality rate increased with gestational age, from 0.3 to 6.7 deaths for procedures performed at 8 weeks or less and at 18 weeks or greater, respectively. A majority of abortion-related deaths at 13 weeks of gestation or less were associated with anesthesia complications and infection, whereas a majority of abortion-related deaths at more than 13 weeks of gestation were associated with infection and hemorrhage. In 20 of the 108 cases, the abortion was performed as a result of a severe medical condition where continuation of the pregnancy threatened the woman’s life. CONCLUSION Deaths associated with legal induced abortion continue to be rare events—less than 1 per 100,000 procedures. Primary prevention of unintended pregnancy, including those in women with serious pre-existing medical conditions, and increased access to abortion services at early gestational ages may help to further decrease abortion-related mortality in the United States. PMID:26241413
Tokunaga, Robert S; Wright, Paul J; McKinley, Christopher J
Pornography consumption may affect judgments on a wide range of sexual and reproductive topics. The present study hypothesized that the consistent images projected in pornography affect sexual scripts related to abortion judgments. National, three-wave longitudinal data gathered from U.S. adults were employed to examine associations between earlier pornography consumption and subsequent support for abortion. The findings suggested that prior pornography consumption may lead to later support for abortion. This study provides additional evidence of pornography's socializing impact, particularly for the older White segment of the population, and adds to knowledge about what environmental factors influence judgments about abortion. Mechanisms that may explain how pornography viewing shapes support for abortion are discussed.
Keogh, Sarah C; Kimaro, Godfather; Muganyizi, Projestine; Philbin, Jesse; Kahwa, Amos; Ngadaya, Esther; Bankole, Akinrinola
Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and unsafe abortion is one of its leading causes. Yet little is known about its incidence. To provide the first ever estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion in Tanzania, at the national level and for each of the 8 geopolitical zones (7 in Mainland plus Zanzibar). A nationally representative survey of health facilities was conducted to determine the number of induced abortion complications treated in facilities. A survey of experts on abortion was conducted to estimate the likelihood of women experiencing complications and obtaining treatment. These surveys were complemented with population and fertility data to obtain abortion numbers, rates and ratios, using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. In Tanzania, women obtained just over 405,000 induced abortions in 2013, for a national rate of 36 abortions per 1,000 women age 15-49 and a ratio of 21 abortions per 100 live births. For each woman treated in a facility for induced abortion complications, 6 times as many women had an abortion but did not receive care. Abortion rates vary widely by zone, from 10.7 in Zanzibar to 50.7 in the Lake zone. The abortion rate is similar to that of other countries in the region. Variations by zone are explained mainly by differences in fertility and contraceptive prevalence. Measures to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated maternal mortality include expanding access to post-abortion care and contraceptive services to prevent unintended pregnancies.
Wu, Yixiang; Zou, Xingfu
Mass action and standard incidence are two major infection mechanisms in modelling spread of infectious diseases. Spatial heterogeneity plays an important role in spread of infectious diseases, and hence, motivates and advocates diffusive models for disease dynamics. By analyzing a diffusive SIS model with the standard incidence infection mechanism, some recent works [2,12] have investigated the asymptotical profiles of the endemic steady state for large and small diffusion rates, and the results show that controlling the diffusion rate of the susceptible individuals can help eradicate the infection, while controlling the diffusion rate of the infectious individuals cannot. This paper aims to reveal the difference between the two infection mechanisms in a spatially heterogeneous environment. To this end, we consider a diffusive SIS model of the same structure but with the mass action infection adopted, and explore the asymptotic profiles of the endemic steady state for small and large diffusion rates. It turns out that the new model poses some new challenges due to the nonlocal term in the equilibrium problem and the unboundedness of the nonlinear term. Our results on this new model reveal some fundamental differences between the two transmission mechanisms in such spatial models, which may provide some implications on disease modelling and controls.
Nesheim, B I
Contraceptives that protect against pregnancy tend to offer the least protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), particularly needed by young people who change partners frequently. Oral contraceptive (OCs) protect best against pregnancy and salpingitis, but they do not protect against infections of the cervix; thus, there is a higher incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhea among OC users. The IUD is also very effective, but there is an elevated risk of infections during the first 20 days after fitting, as bacteria may move up to the uterus from the cervical canal during insertion. The effectiveness of the condom depends on the users, and studies show that when used consistently it provides significant protection against STDs. The diaphragm also protects against STDs, but it is insignificant from a quantitative point of view. In Norway, in 1977, 30% of 18-19 year old women used OCs, and 21% used IUDs. In contrast, in 1988, 65% of 20-year old women used OCs and 5% used IUDs. Condom use remains unchanged. The rate of abortion has not changed since 1977; it is highest among women aged 18-29 (about 30/1000 women per year), although safe contraception use has increased from 50% to 70% among women aged 18-19. Free-service health clinics with evening hours have met a clear need for counseling in the past 20 years. In the 1970s the demand was high for induced abortion, safe contraceptives, and IUD insertion. Later, OCs had lower hormone content and fewer site effects, and their dispensation became more widespread among general practitioners. Nowadays a large proportion of women seek advice on STDs, and 65% of them attend because the consultation is free. It is an important task of these clinics to provide guidance, examination, and treatment to high-risk people to help them avoid STDs and unwanted pregnancy.
In 'After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?', Giubilini and Minerva argue that infanticide should be permitted for the same reasons as abortion. In particular, they argue that infanticide should be permitted even for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be best interests) of the newborn. They claim that abortion is permissible for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be interests) of the fetus because fetuses lack a right to life. They argue that newborns also lack a right to life, and they conclude that therefore, the same reasons that justify abortion can justify infanticide. This conclusion does not follow. The lack of a right to life is not decisive. Furthermore, the justificatory power of a given reason is a function of moral context. Generalisations about reasons across dissimilar moral contexts are invalid. However, a similar conclusion does follow-that fetus-killing and newborn-killing are morally identical in identical moral contexts-but this conclusion is trivial, since fetuses and newborns are never in identical moral contexts.
This paper deals with the main arguments in Europe against selective abortion after prenatal diagnoses and against using prenatal diagnoses as a whole from an ethical point of view. The different experiences from the Eastern and the Western parts of Germany are used as examples. The paper suggests that using ethics could promote multicultural experiences and different strategies of decision-making.
Ganguli, A C; Krishna, U R; Mhatre, V S; Purandare, V N
268 cases in which mid trimester abortion in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy was performed by injecting prostaglandins by intra-amniotic route were studied. Details are presented of 1 study in which 100 cases had prostaglandin injected intraamniotically in 1 shot. 50 cases received 50 mg of PGF2a and 40 received 2.5 mg of 15 Methyl PGF2a, an analogue more potent and longer acting. The majority of the patients were primigravida, most of these being unmarried mothers. The average gestation period in both groups was between 17-18 weeks. The average induction onset interval was considerably shorter in PGF2a group, but its abortion time was just about 1 hour less than that of the methyl analogue. The average incidence of vomiting is about 2-folds and that of loose motionsis almost 5 times in the 15 Methyl group. 81% of the patients were followed up, and 86% of this group stopped bleeding within 10 days and the remaining within 20 days. There has not been a single incidence of post abortal infection. The disadvantages associated with the original intravenous administration of prostaglandin have been overcome by using the intra-amniotic routes. 1 of the greatest advantages of 1 shot intra-amniotic PGF2a 50 mg was a low incidence of incomplete abortion. Only 12% of cases in this group had retained placenta compared to 40-50% in the other groups.
Trussell, J; Ellertson, C
Comparisons of the efficacy of different regimens of medical abortion are difficult because of the widely varying protocols (even for testing identical regimens), divergent definitions of success and failure, and lack of a standard method of analysis. In this article we review the current efficacy literature on medical abortion, highlighting some of the most important differences in the way that efficacy has been analyzed. We then propose a standard conceptual approach and the accompanying statistical methods for analyzing clinical trials of medical abortion and to explain how clinical investigators can implement this approach. Our review reveals that research on the efficacy of medical abortion has closely followed the conceptual model used for analysis of surgical abortion. The problem, however, is that, whereas surgical abortion is a discrete event occurring in the space of a few minutes or less, medical abortion is a process typically lasting from several days to several weeks. In this process, two events may occur that are not possible with surgical abortion. First, the woman can opt out of the process before a fair determination of efficacy can be made. Second, the process of medical abortion allows time for surgical interventions that may be convenient for the clinician but not strictly necessary from a medical perspective. Another difference from surgical abortions is that, for medical abortions, different medical abortion protocols specify different waiting periods, giving the drugs less time to work in some studies than in others before a determination of efficacy is made. We argue that, when analyzing efficacy of medical abortion, researchers should abandon their close reliance on the analogy to surgical abortion. In fact, medical abortion is more appropriately analyzed by life table procedures developed for the study of another fertility regulation technology; contraception. As with medical abortion, a woman initiating use of a contraceptive method can
Background The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Methods Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 1996–2011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 1996–2003 and 2004–2011. Results Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 1996–2003 to 58.0% during 2004–2011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16 years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. Conclusion A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups - non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children
Tsai, I-Chun; Lin, Che; Chuang, Yung-Jen
The clinical and biological significance of the study of fungal pathogen Candida albicans (C. albicans) has markedly increased. However, the explicit pathogenic and invasive mechanisms of such host-pathogen interactions have not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, the essential functional modules involved in C. albicans-zebrafish interactions were investigated in this study. Adopting a systems biology approach, the early-stage and late-stage protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks for both C. albicans and zebrafish were constructed. By comparing PPI networks at the early and late stages of the infection process, several critical functional modules were identified in both pathogenic and defensive mechanisms. Functional modules in C. albicans, like those involved in hyphal morphogenesis, ion and small molecule transport, protein secretion, and shifts in carbon utilization, were seen to play important roles in pathogen invasion and damage caused to host cells. Moreover, the functional modules in zebrafish, such as those involved in immune response, apoptosis mechanisms, ion transport, protein secretion, and hemostasis-related processes, were found to be significant as defensive mechanisms during C. albicans infection. The essential functional modules thus determined could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions during the infection process and thereby devise potential therapeutic strategies to treat C. albicans infection. PMID:24757665
Kyd, Jennelle M; McGrath, John; Krishnamurthy, Ajay
A key characteristic of airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the persistent presence of bacteria in the lower airways. The most commonly isolated bacteria in the lower respiratory tract of COPD patients are nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, with growing evidence of the significance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in severe COPD disease. This review focuses on the antibiotic resistant mechanisms associated with the gram-negative bacteria H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis and comparison with P. aeruginosa infection because of the recent evidence of its significance in patients with severe COPD disease. These mechanisms of resistance to β-lactams in H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis are mostly associated with serine β-lactamases of class A type, whereas P. aeruginosa strains exhibit a much broader repertoire with class A-D type mechanisms. Other mechanisms of antibiotic resistance include membrane permeability, efflux pump systems and mutations in antimicrobial targets. Antimicrobial resistance within biofilm matrices appears to be different to the mechanisms observed when the bacteria are in the planktonic state. P. aeruginosa exhibits a more numerous and diverse range of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in comparison to M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae. The recognition that P. aeruginosa is associated with exacerbations in patients with more severe COPD and that turnover in infecting strains is detected (unlike in cystic fibrosis patients), then further investigation is required to better understand the contribution of antimicrobial resistance and other virulence mechanisms to poor clinical outcomes to improve therapeutic approaches.
Clinton, H R
This news brief presents the US President's wife's statement on the association between use of family planning and a decline in abortions worldwide. Hillary Rodham Clinton attended the Sixth Conference of Wives of Heads of State and Government of the Americas held in La Paz, Bolivia. The conference was suitably located in Bolivia, a country with the highest rates of maternal mortality in South America. Bolivia has responded by launching a national family planning campaign coordinated between government, nongovernmental, and medical organizations. Half of Bolivian women experience pregnancy and childbirth without the support of trained medical staff. Mortality from abortion complications account for about half of all maternal deaths in Bolivia. Voluntary family planning workers teach women about the benefits of child spacing, breast feeding, nutrition, prenatal and postpartum care, and safe deliveries. Bolivia has succeeded in increasing its contraceptive use rates and decreasing the number of safe and unsafe abortions. Bolivia's program effort was supported by USAID. USAID provided technical assistance and funds for the establishment of a network of primary health care clinics. Mrs. Clinton visited one such clinic in a poor neighborhood in La Paz, which in its first six months of operation provided 2200 consultations, delivered 200 babies, registered 700 new family planning users, and immunized 2500 children. Clinics such as this one will be affected by the US Congress's harsh cuts in aid, which reduce funding by 35% and delay program funding by 9 months. These US government cuts in foreign aid are expected to result in an additional 1.6 million abortions, over 8000 maternal deaths, and 134,000 infant deaths in developing countries. An investment in population assistance represents a sensible, cost-effective, and long-term strategy for improving women's health, strengthening families, and reducing abortion.
Bleil, Maria E; Adler, Nancy E; Pasch, Lauri A; Sternfeld, Barbara; Reijo-Pera, Renee A; Cedars, Marcelle I
The objective of the study was to characterize the backgrounds of women who have repeat abortions. In a cross-sectional study of 259 women (mean age, 35.2 ± 5.6 years), the relation between adverse experiences in childhood and risk of having 2 or more abortions vs 0 or 1 abortion was examined. Self-reported adverse events occurring between the ages of 0 and 12 years were summed. Independent of confounding factors, women who experienced more abuse, personal safety, and total adverse events in childhood were more likely to have 2 or more abortions vs 0 abortions (odds ratio [OR], 2.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-5.71; OR, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.29-5.82; and OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.21-2.09, respectively) and vs 1 abortion (OR, 5.83; 95% CI, 1.71-19.89; OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.03-4.81; and OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.04-1.81, respectively). Women who experienced more family disruption events in childhood were more likely to have 2 or more abortions vs 0 abortions (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.14-2.69) but not vs 1 abortion (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.79-1.70). Women who have repeat abortions are more likely to have experienced childhood adversity than those having 0 or 1 abortion. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
O'Neil, Mary Lou
Despite the existence of a liberal law on abortion in Turkey, there is growing evidence that actually securing an abortion in Istanbul may prove difficult. This study aimed to determine whether or not state hospitals and private hospitals that accept state health insurance in Istanbul are providing abortion services and for what indications. Between October and December 2015, a mystery patient telephone survey of 154 hospitals, 43 public and 111 private, in Istanbul was conducted. 14% of the state hospitals in Istanbul perform abortions without restriction as to reason provided in the current law while 60% provide the service if there is a medical necessity. A quarter of state hospitals in Istanbul do not provide abortion services at all. 48.6% of private hospitals that accept the state health insurance also provide for abortion without restriction while 10% do not provide abortion services under any circumstances. State and private hospitals in Istanbul are not providing abortion services to the full extent allowed under the law. The low numbers of state hospitals offering abortions without restriction indicates a de facto privatization of the service. This same trend is also visible in many private hospitals partnering with the state that do not provide abortion care. While many women may choose a private provider, the lack of provision of abortion care at state hospitals and those private hospitals working with the state leaves women little option but to purchase these services from private providers at some times subtantial costs.
Sifakis, S; Ergazaki, M; Sourvinos, G; Koffa, M; Koumantakis, E; Spandidos, D A
To investigate the role of human parvovirus B19 (Parvo B19), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human papilloma virus (HPV) viruses in the aetiopathogenesis of spontaneous abortions. Abortion material from 102 cases of women with spontaneous abortions were analysed for the presence of Parvo B19, CMV and HPV DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Serological assays were used for the detection of specific IgM and IgG antibodies against Parvo B19 virus and CMV in the maternal sera. Parvo B19 virus genome was detected in two cases of spontaneous abortion, by PCR amplification, while CMV and HPV genomes were not observed. Serological markers were indicative for Parvo B19 virus and CMV infection in ten and four cases, respectively. PCR is a useful method for investigating the viral contribution to the aetiopathogenesis of spontaneous abortions and for detecting the viral genome in the abortion material. This study of 102 cases of spontaneous abortion does not implicate CMV and HPV in the aetiopathogenesis of spontaneous abortion, although it indicates a possible abortional role for Parvo B19 virus.
In Sweden abortion has been free and on demand since 1975. The philosophy behind this law is that the pregnant women is the best judge of whether she should have an abortion. Any attempt to change the legal status of abortion should be strongly fought. Criminalizing abortion has never amounted to any good in any country that has tried it. A critical aspect of abortion is that it must be prevented with effective sexual education and free access to contraception. This is the best way to avoid unwanted pregnancies and thus abortion. Still even in Sweden 25% of all pregnancies end in abortion. Planned parenthood is essential in a country with a high standard of living in order to maintain an adequate level of births. Many countries with high standards of living have very low births rates because they do not offer parental leave, short working hours, or day care.
Dadlez, E M; Andrews, William L
The contention that abortion harms women constitutes a new strategy employed by the pro-life movement to supplement arguments about fetal rights. David C. Reardon is a prominent promoter of this strategy. Post-abortion syndrome purports to establish that abortion psychologically harms women and, indeed, can harm persons associated with women who have abortions. Thus, harms that abortion is alleged to produce are multiplied. Claims of repression are employed to complicate efforts to disprove the existence of psychological harm and causal antecedents of trauma are only selectively investigated. We argue that there is no such thing as post-abortion syndrome and that the psychological harms Reardon and others claim abortion inflicts on women can usually be ascribed to different causes. We question the evidence accumulated by Reardon and his analysis of data accumulated by others. Most importantly, we question whether the conclusions Reardon has drawn follow from the evidence he cites.
Greenberg, D S
The abortion issue has infested national politics since 1973, now it returns to haunt the US presidential election politics. However, rather than serving as a customary rallying cause for Republicans, it is now a millstone around the neck of their candidate, Governor George Bush, who seeks a broad ideological span of voters to win his candidacy. Bush expressed strong anti-abortion sentiments to attract the die-hard right-to-life vote in the hard-fought primary campaign. For many years, the anti-abortion language in the US remains strident, however, it is clear that most voters support, or at least tolerate, the availability of abortion services. In his presidential campaign, Bush shied away from endorsing a constitutional amendment to ban abortion, and declared his opposition to any exceptions to an abortion ban. He is now on the record with numerous anti-abortion declarations, and holds endorsements from the pro-life camp.
Horvath, Sarah; Schreiber, Courtney A
The early medical literature on mental health outcomes following abortion is fraught with methodological flaws that can improperly influence clinical practice. Our goal is to review the current medical literature on depression and other mental health outcomes for women obtaining abortions. The Turnaway Study prospectively enrolled 956 women seeking abortion in the USA and followed their mental health outcomes for 5 years. The control group was comprised of women denied abortions based on gestational age limits, thereby circumventing the major methodological flaw that had plagued earlier studies on the topic. Rates of depression are not significantly different between women obtaining abortion and those denied abortion. Rates of anxiety are initially higher in women denied abortion care. Counseling on decision-making for women with unintended pregnancies should reflect these findings.
Steinberg, T N
This Note examines how both the law and the health care profession neglect women's needs for abortion counseling before, during and after an abortion. Part I analyzes the health care profession's view of counseling, the psychological effects of abortion and how counseling both positively and negatively influences those effects. Part II reviews Supreme Court cases and state law regarding abortion counseling, critizing both the Court's narrow view of counseling and the states' failure to use the legislative process to create laws which benefit maternal health. Part III recommends an expanded role for abortion counseling, in which the counselor can provide emotional support from before the day of an abortion until a woman emotionally recovers from an abortion. This expanded role would be state-mandated, but would remain within constitutional boundaries by providing flexibility for counselors to give individual treatment while respecting a woman's privacy.
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McLay, Lisa; Liang, Yuying
Arenaviruses can cause fatal human haemorrhagic fever (HF) diseases for which vaccines and therapies are extremely limited. Both the New World (NW) and Old World (OW) groups of arenaviruses contain HF-causing pathogens. Although these two groups share many similarities, important differences with regard to pathogenicity and molecular mechanisms of virus infection exist. These closely related pathogens share many characteristics, including genome structure, viral assembly, natural host selection and the ability to interfere with innate immune signalling. However, members of the NW and OW viruses appear to use different receptors for cellular entry, as well as different mechanisms of virus internalization. General differences in disease signs and symptoms and pathological lesions in patients infected with either NW or OW arenaviruses are also noted and discussed herein. Whilst both the OW Lassa virus (LASV) and the NW Junin virus (JUNV) can cause disruption of the vascular endothelium, which is an important pathological feature of HF, the immune responses to these related pathogens seem to be quite distinct. Whereas LASV infection results in an overall generalized immune suppression, patients infected with JUNV seem to develop a cytokine storm. Additionally, the type of immune response required for recovery and clearance of the virus is different between NW and OW infections. These differences may be important to allow the viruses to evade host immune detection. Understanding these differences will aid the development of new vaccines and treatment strategies against deadly HF viral infections. PMID:24068704
Schlein, Y; Jacobson, R L; Messer, G
Leishmania parasites are transmitted by the bites of infected female sandflies by a mechanism that has not been clarified. Leishmania infections in the vector develop only in the gut, and the parasites' exit is through the food channel in the proboscis. The problem is how during the bite, when blood flows in, parasites are emitted through the same channel in the opposite direction. It is well documented that infected sandflies maintained on sugar diets are potent vectors, whereas transmission fails after constant feeding on blood. Hence to study the mechanism of transmission, we fed these diets to Phlebotomus papatasi infected with L. major. Histological examination demonstrated that only in the sugar-fed flies did the cuticle lining of the cardiac valve detach and other valve tissues degenerate gradually. The injury of the main valve of the food pumps hindered gorging of most flies when force-fed from capillaries, and they regurgitated the gut contents with fluids from the capillaries. We suggest that infections are caused by parasites regurgitated from the stomach that are deposited in the host tissue. We found that secretion of chitinolytic enzymes by cultured L. major parasites is inhibited by blood or hemoglobin, and hence these enzymes are apparently absent from the blood-fed infected flies, where the cardiac valve appears undamaged. We therefore presume that lysis of the chitin in the cuticle lining of the valve leads to exposure and degeneration of the underlying tissues. Images PMID:1409724
McLay, Lisa; Liang, Yuying; Ly, Hinh
Arenaviruses can cause fatal human haemorrhagic fever (HF) diseases for which vaccines and therapies are extremely limited. Both the New World (NW) and Old World (OW) groups of arenaviruses contain HF-causing pathogens. Although these two groups share many similarities, important differences with regard to pathogenicity and molecular mechanisms of virus infection exist. These closely related pathogens share many characteristics, including genome structure, viral assembly, natural host selection and the ability to interfere with innate immune signalling. However, members of the NW and OW viruses appear to use different receptors for cellular entry, as well as different mechanisms of virus internalization. General differences in disease signs and symptoms and pathological lesions in patients infected with either NW or OW arenaviruses are also noted and discussed herein. Whilst both the OW Lassa virus (LASV) and the NW Junin virus (JUNV) can cause disruption of the vascular endothelium, which is an important pathological feature of HF, the immune responses to these related pathogens seem to be quite distinct. Whereas LASV infection results in an overall generalized immune suppression, patients infected with JUNV seem to develop a cytokine storm. Additionally, the type of immune response required for recovery and clearance of the virus is different between NW and OW infections. These differences may be important to allow the viruses to evade host immune detection. Understanding these differences will aid the development of new vaccines and treatment strategies against deadly HF viral infections.
He, Libo; Zhang, Aidi; Xiong, Lv; Li, Yongming; Huang, Rong; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, And Yaping
Grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by the grass carp reovirus (GCRV), is a major disease that hampers the development of grass carp aquaculture in China. The mechanism underlying GCRV infection is still largely unknown. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are important regulators involved in various biological processes. In the present study, grass carp were infected with GCRV, and spleen samples were collected at 0 (control), 1, 3, 5, and 7 days post-infection (dpi). Samples were used to construct and sequence circRNA libraries, and a total of 5052 circRNAs were identified before and after GCRV infection, of which 41 exhibited differential expression compared with controls. Many parental genes of the differentially expressed circRNAs are involved in metal ion binding, protein ubiquitination, enzyme activity, and nucleotide binding. Moreover, 72 binding miRNAs were predicted from the differentially expressed circRNAs, of which eight targeted genes were predicted to be involved in immune responses, blood coagulation, hemostasis, and complement and coagulation cascades. Upregulation of these genes may lead to endothelial and blood cell damage and hemorrhagic symptoms. Our results indicate that an mRNA-miRNA-circRNA network may be present in grass carp infected with GCRV, providing new insight into the mechanism underlying grass carp reovirus infection.
Elks, Philip M; Brizee, Sabrina; van der Vaart, Michiel; Walmsley, Sarah R; van Eeden, Fredericus J; Renshaw, Stephen A; Meijer, Annemarie H
Tuberculosis is a current major world-health problem, exacerbated by the causative pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), becoming increasingly resistant to conventional antibiotic treatment. Mtb is able to counteract the bactericidal mechanisms of leukocytes to survive intracellularly and develop a niche permissive for proliferation and dissemination. Understanding of the pathogenesis of mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis (TB) remains limited, especially for early infection and for reactivation of latent infection. Signaling via hypoxia inducible factor α (HIF-α) transcription factors has previously been implicated in leukocyte activation and host defence. We have previously shown that hypoxic signaling via stabilization of Hif-1α prolongs the functionality of leukocytes in the innate immune response to injury. We sought to manipulate Hif-α signaling in a well-established Mycobacterium marinum (Mm) zebrafish model of TB to investigate effects on the host's ability to combat mycobacterial infection. Stabilization of host Hif-1α, both pharmacologically and genetically, at early stages of Mm infection was able to reduce the bacterial burden of infected larvae. Increasing Hif-1α signaling enhanced levels of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in neutrophils prior to infection and was able to reduce larval mycobacterial burden. Conversely, decreasing Hif-2α signaling enhanced RNS levels and reduced bacterial burden, demonstrating that Hif-1α and Hif-2α have opposing effects on host susceptibility to mycobacterial infection. The antimicrobial effect of Hif-1α stabilization, and Hif-2α reduction, were demonstrated to be dependent on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) signaling at early stages of infection. Our findings indicate that induction of leukocyte iNOS by stabilizing Hif-1α, or reducing Hif-2α, aids the host during early stages of Mm infection. Stabilization of Hif-1α therefore represents a potential target for therapeutic
Barkallah, Mohamed; Slima, Ahlem Ben; Mallek, Zouhir; Gautier, Michel; Greub, Gilbert; Gdoura, Radhouane; Fendri, Imen
Bovine abortion of unknown infectious etiology still remains a major economic problem. Thus, we investigated whether Brucella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Coxiella burnetii are associated with abortion and/or stillbirth in Tunisian dairy cattle. Using a pan-Chlamydiales PCR, we also investigated the role of Chlamydiaceae, Waddlia chondrophila, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and other members of the Chlamydiales order in this setting. Veterinary samples taken from mid to late-term abortions from twenty dairy herds were tested. From a total of 150 abortion cases collected, infectious agents were detected by PCR in 73 (48.66%) cases, 13 (8.66%) of which represented co-infections with two infectious agents. Detected pathogens include Brucella spp (31.3%), Chlamydiaceae (4.66%), Waddlia chondrophila (8%), Parachlamydia acanthamoebae (5.33%), Listeria monocytogenes (4.66%) and Salmonella spp. (3.33%). In contrast, Campylobacter spp. and Coxiella burnetii DNA were not detected among the investigated veterinary samples. This demonstrates that different bacterial agents may cause bovine abortion in Tunisia. This is the first report suggesting the role of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in bovine abortion in Africa. Further studies with a larger number of samples are necessary to confirm whether this emerging pathogen is directly linked to abortion in cattle. PMID:24662769
Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Groppelli, Elisabetta; Pellegrino, Pierre; Williams, Ian; Borrow, Persephone; Chain, Benjamin M; Jolly, Clare
HIV-1 can disseminate between susceptible cells by two mechanisms: cell-free infection following fluid-phase diffusion of virions and by highly-efficient direct cell-to-cell transmission at immune cell contacts. The contribution of this hybrid spreading mechanism, which is also a characteristic of some important computer worm outbreaks, to HIV-1 progression in vivo remains unknown. Here we present a new mathematical model that explicitly incorporates the ability of HIV-1 to use hybrid spreading mechanisms and evaluate the consequences for HIV-1 pathogenenesis. The model captures the major phases of the HIV-1 infection course of a cohort of treatment naive patients and also accurately predicts the results of the Short Pulse Anti-Retroviral Therapy at Seroconversion (SPARTAC) trial. Using this model we find that hybrid spreading is critical to seed and establish infection, and that cell-to-cell spread and increased CD4+ T cell activation are important for HIV-1 progression. Notably, the model predicts that cell-to-cell spread becomes increasingly effective as infection progresses and thus may present a considerable treatment barrier. Deriving predictions of various treatments' influence on HIV-1 progression highlights the importance of earlier intervention and suggests that treatments effectively targeting cell-to-cell HIV-1 spread can delay progression to AIDS. This study suggests that hybrid spreading is a fundamental feature of HIV infection, and provides the mathematical framework incorporating this feature with which to evaluate future therapeutic strategies.
Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Groppelli, Elisabetta; Pellegrino, Pierre; Williams, Ian; Borrow, Persephone; Chain, Benjamin M.; Jolly, Clare
HIV-1 can disseminate between susceptible cells by two mechanisms: cell-free infection following fluid-phase diffusion of virions and by highly-efficient direct cell-to-cell transmission at immune cell contacts. The contribution of this hybrid spreading mechanism, which is also a characteristic of some important computer worm outbreaks, to HIV-1 progression in vivo remains unknown. Here we present a new mathematical model that explicitly incorporates the ability of HIV-1 to use hybrid spreading mechanisms and evaluate the consequences for HIV-1 pathogenenesis. The model captures the major phases of the HIV-1 infection course of a cohort of treatment naive patients and also accurately predicts the results of the Short Pulse Anti-Retroviral Therapy at Seroconversion (SPARTAC) trial. Using this model we find that hybrid spreading is critical to seed and establish infection, and that cell-to-cell spread and increased CD4+ T cell activation are important for HIV-1 progression. Notably, the model predicts that cell-to-cell spread becomes increasingly effective as infection progresses and thus may present a considerable treatment barrier. Deriving predictions of various treatments’ influence on HIV-1 progression highlights the importance of earlier intervention and suggests that treatments effectively targeting cell-to-cell HIV-1 spread can delay progression to AIDS. This study suggests that hybrid spreading is a fundamental feature of HIV infection, and provides the mathematical framework incorporating this feature with which to evaluate future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25837979
Opatowski, M; Bardy, F; David, P; Dunbavand, A; Saurel-Cubizolles, M-J
To describe the social characteristics of women seeking a medical abortion, and the conditions of that abortion, according to whether they had one or more previous induced abortions. An observational study was carried out in 11 French units in 2013-2014, among women 18 years or older. A self-administered questionnaire on the abortion context and social situation was given to them, as well as a diary to record the pain level for each of five days following the mifepristone intake. The sample included 453 women. Among the respondents, 22% had had one previous abortion and 8% had had two or more. Women having had a previous voluntary abortion were more often isolated and in a poorer social situation than women having their first abortion. Better support for contraception after abortion could reduce the number of repeated abortions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Spinelli, A; Grandolfo, M E
This article discusses the legal and epidemiologic status of abortion in Italy, and its relationship to fertility and contraception. Enacted in May 1978, Italy's abortion law allows the operation to be performed during the 1st 90 days of gestation for a broad range of health, social, and psychological reasons. Women under 18 must receive written permission from a parent, guardian, or judge in order to undergo an abortion. The operation is free of charge. Health workers who object to abortion because of religious or moral reasons are exempt from participating. Regional differences exist concerning the availability of abortion, easy to procure in some places and difficult to obtain in others. After an initial increase following legalization, the abortion rate was 13.5/1000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 309/1000 live births -- an intermediate rate and ratio compared to other countries. By the time the Abortion Act of 1978 was adopted, Italy already had one of the lowest fertility levels in Europe. Thus, the legalization of abortion has had no impact on fertility trends. Contrary to initial fears that the legalization of abortion would make abortion a method of family planning, 80% of the women who sought an abortion in 1983-88 were using birth control at the time (withdrawal being the most common method used by this group). In fact, most women who undergo abortions are married, between the ages of 25-34, and with at least one child. Evidence indicates widespread ignorance concerning reproduction. In a 1989 survey, only 65% of women could identify the fertile period of the menstrual cycle. Italy has no sex education in schools or national family planning programs. Compared to most of Europe, Italy still has low levels of reliable contraceptive usage. This points to the need to guarantee the availability of abortion.
Singh, Susheela; Prada, Elena; Kestler, Edgar
Although Guatemalan law permits induced abortion only to save a woman's life, many women obtain abortions, often under unsafe conditions and in response to an unintended pregnancy. Recent studies indicate that unsafe abortion is a key factor contributing to maternal morbidity and mortality in the country, but no national data on the incidence of abortion exist. Surveys of all hospitals that treat women for postabortion complications and of 74 professionals who are knowledgeable about the conditions of abortion provision in Guatemala were conducted in 2003. Indirect estimation techniques were used to calculate the number of induced abortions performed annually. Abortion rates and ratios and the level of unintended pregnancy were calculated for the nation and its eight regions. Nearly 65,000 induced abortions are performed annually in Guatemala, and about 21,600 women are hospitalized for treatment of complications. Abortions occur at a rate of 24 per 1,000 women aged 15-49, and there is one abortion for every six births. The abortion rate is higher than average in the Southwest (less developed, mainly indigenous population) and Metropolitan (more developed, mainly nonindigenous population) regions (29-30 per 1,000 women). Over a quarter of all births are unplanned; combining unplanned births with abortions yields estimates that 32% of pregnancies in Guatemala are unintended, with an unintended pregnancy rate of 66 per 1,000 women. Unsafe abortion has a significant impact on women's health in Guatemala. Comprehensive government programs are needed to address the issues of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion, with attention to regional differences.
Haub, C; Kent, M
The 2 primary sources of data on the number of abortions performed in the US--the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI)--provide conflicting information on abortion trends. According to CDC, the number of abortions performed in the US declined between 1982 and 1983 for the first time since record keeping began in 1969. The AGI showed a slight increase in these two years, an increase that has continued through 1985. However, both of these sources show that the rapid increase in abortions experienced during the 1970s has levelled off and the ratio of abortions to births and to pregnancies has declined. Political opposition to abortion may have produced a reluctance on the part of providers to report data on abortions performed, thus accounting for the lower CDC estimate. Possible explanations for a levelling off of abortion rates and ratios in recent years include improved ability to prevent unwanted pregnancies, a greater tendency to carry unwanted pregnancies to term, and a decline in the availability of abortions due to economic and political pressures. The number of abortion providers identified by AGI has dropped from a peak of 2908 in 1982 to 2680 in 1985. The characteristics of women seeking abortions have also changed. Women who obtained legal abortions in 1983 were more likely to be unmarried, black, and over age 20 years than their 1973 counterparts. Also, women in 1983 were more likely to seek abortion in the first 10 weeks and to use abortion to prevent a first birth than in 1973.
Chen, Chao; Chi, Xiaojuan; Bai, Qingling; Chen, Jilong
Influenza A virus can create acute respiratory infection in humans and animals throughout the world, and it is still one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Numerous studies have shown that influenza A virus infection induces rapidly host innate immune response. Influenza A virus triggers the activation of signaling pathways that are dependent on host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) including toll like receptors (TLRs) and RIG-I like receptors (RLRs). Using a variety of regulatory mechanisms, these signaling pathways activate downstream transcript factors that control expression of various interferons and cytokines, such as type I and type III interferons. Thus, these interferons stimulate the transcript of relevant interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and expression of the antiviral proteins, which are critical components of host innate immunity. In this review, we will highlight the mechanisms by which influenza A virus infection induces the interferon-mediated host innate immunity.
Fretes, Ricardo E.; Kemmerling, Ulrike
Congenital Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease, endemic in Latin America, is associated with premature labor and miscarriage. During vertical transmission the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) crosses the placental barrier. However, the exact mechanism of the placental infection remains unclear. We review the congenital transmission of T. cruzi, particularly the role of possible local placental factors that contribute to the vertical transmission of the parasite. Additionally, we analyze the different methods available for studying the congenital transmission of the parasite. In that context, the ex vivo infection with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of human placental chorionic villi constitutes an excellent tool for studying parasite infection strategies as well as possible local antiparasitic mechanisms. PMID:22701129
Tako, Ernest A.; Hassimi, Maryam F.; Li, Erqiu; Singer, Steven M.
ABSTRACT The immune system has numerous mechanisms that it can use to combat pathogens and eliminate infections. Nevertheless, studies of immune responses often focus on single pathways required for protective responses. We applied microarray analysis of RNA in order to investigate the types of immune responses produced against infection with the intestinal pathogen Giardia duodenalis. Infection with G. duodenalis is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease in the world. While several potential antiparasitic effector mechanisms, including complement lysis, nitric oxide (NO), and α-defensin peptides, have been shown to inhibit parasite growth or kill Giardia in vitro, studies in vivo have thus far shown clear roles only for antibody and mast cell responses in parasite control. A total of 96 transcripts were identified as being upregulated or repressed more than 2-fold in the small intestine 10 days following infection. Microarray data were validated using quantitative PCR. The most abundant category of transcripts was antibody genes, while the most highly induced transcripts were all mast cell proteases. Among the other induced transcripts was matrix metalloprotease 7 (Mmp7), the protease responsible for production of mature α-defensins in mice. While infections in Mmp7-deficient mice showed only a small increase in parasite numbers, combined genetic deletion of Mmp7 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, Nos2) or pharmacological blockade of iNOS in Mmp7-deficient mice resulted in significant increases in parasite loads following infection. Thus, α-defensins and NO are redundant mechanisms for control of Giardia infections in vivo. PMID:24194537
Iyoda, Takuya; Takada, Muneaki; Fukatsu, Yoshinobu; Kumokoshi, Shunsuke; Fujisawa, Tatsuya; Shimada, Tomokazu; Shimokawa, Noriko; Matsunaga, Takuya; Makino, Kimiko; Doi, Norio; Terada, Hiroshi; Fukai, Fumio
Following inhalation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), pathogens enter and grow inside macrophages by taking advantage of their phagocytic mechanisms. Macrophages often fail to eliminate intracellular M. tuberculosis, leading to the induction of host macrophage death. Despite accumulating evidence, the molecular mechanisms underlying M. tuberculosis infection-induced cell death remain controversial. In this study, we show the involvement of two distinct pathways triggered by TLR2 and β2 integrin in BCG infection-induced macrophage apoptosis. First, BCG infection induced activation of ERK1/2, which in turn caused phosphorylation/activation of the proapoptotic protein Bim in mouse macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells. BCG-infected Raw cells treated with U0126, an MEK/ERK inhibitor, led to the suppression of Bim phosphorylation alongside a remarkable increase in the number of viable macrophages. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Bim rescued the macrophages from the apoptotic cell death induced by BCG infection. Stimulation with Pam3CSK, a TLR2 agonist, induced macrophage apoptosis with a concomitant increase in the phosphorylation/activation of MEK/ERK and Bim. These observations indicate the important role of the TLR2/MEK/ERK/Bim pathway in BCG infection-induced macrophage apoptosis. Second, we used the β2 integrin agonists C3bi and fibronectin to show that the β2 integrin-derived signal was involved in BCG infection-induced apoptosis, independent of MEK/ERK activation. Interestingly, latex beads coated with Pam3CSK and C3bi were able to induce apoptosis in macrophages to the same extent and specificity as that induced by BCG. Taken together, two distinct pattern-recognition membrane receptors, TLR2 and β2 integrin, acted as triggers in BCG infection-induced macrophage apoptosis, in which MEK/ERK activation played a crucial role following the engagement of TLR2.
This document describes a mechanized system to pack mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes between two sheets of masking tape. The document is also an operation manual for the machine and provides all the machine specifications, and wiring and pneumatic diagram...
Ray J. Hoff
Necrotic reactions in branch or main stems of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.) caused by infection by the blister rust fungus (Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fisch. ex Rabenh.) are a major mechanism of resistance. Overall, 26 percent of the seedlings eliminated the fungus via this defense system. Heritability based upon crossing family groups averaged 33 percent...
The Liouville and stochastic Liouville equations have been investigated with respect to the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) epidemic model, described in terms of extended Nambu mechanics. It has been shown that, along with the equilibrium distribution functions, the Kubo formula can be derived for the SIR model, although the theory undergoes a few restrictions imposed by the nonlinear nature of the model.
Adelman, James S; Hawley, Dana M
Infected organisms can resist or tolerate infection, with tolerance of infection defined as minimizing per-parasite reductions in fitness. Although tolerance is well studied in plants, researchers have only begun to probe the mechanisms and transmission consequences of tolerance in animals. Here we suggest that research on tolerance in animals would benefit from explicitly incorporating behavior as a component of tolerance, given the importance of behavior for host fitness and parasite transmission. We propose two distinct manifestations of tolerance in animals: tissue-specific tolerance, which minimizes fitness losses due to tissue damage during infection, and behavioral tolerance, which minimizes fitness losses by maintaining normal, fitness-enhancing behaviors during infection. Here we briefly review one set of potential immune mechanisms underlying both responses in vertebrate animals: inflammation and its associated signaling molecules. Inflammatory responses, including broadly effective resistance mechanisms like the production of reactive oxygen species, can incur severe costs in terms of damage to a host's own tissues, thereby reducing tissue-specific tolerance. In addition, signaling molecules involved in these responses facilitate stereotypical behavioral changes during infection, which include lethargy and anorexia, reducing normal behaviors and behavioral tolerance. We consider how tissue-specific and behavioral tolerance may vary independently or in conjunction and outline potential consequences of such covariation for the transmission of infectious diseases. We put forward the distinction between tissue-specific and behavioral tolerance not as a definitive framework, but to help stimulate and broaden future research by considering animal behavior as intimately linked to the mechanisms and consequences of tolerance in animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Albuja, Laura Dean; Cianelli, Rosina; Anglade, Debbie; Owusu, Brenda; Joseph, Laly; Sailsman, Sonique; Ferrer, Lilian
Women in developing countries usually encounter serious inequities in terms of women's health. To date, there is limited understanding of abortion from the perspective of Haitian women. As a limited-resource country, Haiti faces complex social issues and healthcare challenges. With abortion being illegal, many adult and teenage women seek clandestine abortions. The aim of this study was to explore and gain a greater understanding of women's and healthcare workers' beliefs and experiences about abortion in Haiti. Descriptive qualitative design was used to elicit information for the study. Eight focus groups were conducted with Haitian women and healthcare workers in five communities in the south of Haiti: Les Cayes, Aquin, St. Louis du Sud, Cavaillon, Maniche, and Ile a Vache. Participants were purposively selected and consented to participate and to be tape recorded. Content analysis followed using the verbatim transcripts, with triangulation of four researchers; saturation was reached with this number of focus groups. The transcripts revealed six main themes regarding beliefs and experiences about abortion in Haiti: cultural aspects, consumers, perils of care, and legal concerns. Both women and healthcare workers discussed the repercussions of illegal abortion and the role of the government and hospitals. Participants identified similar perils and complications of unsafe abortions, such as postpartum hemorrhage and infection. Results showed an urgent need to create a public health response that addresses different dimensions of abortion by engaging women and healthcare providers in rapid and concrete actions that promote access and safe care of women. It is imperative to conduct more research related to abortion in order to examine other associated factors to better understand the links between abortion and sexual health disparities among Haitian women. These results highlight the need for a rapid response to the need of this vulnerable group, who are experiencing
Albuja, Laura Dean; Cianelli, Rosina; Anglade, Debbie; Owusu, Brenda; Joseph, Laly; Sailsman, Sonique; Ferrer, Lilian
Purpose Women in developing countries usually encounter serious inequities in terms of women’s health. To date, there is limited understanding of abortion from the perspective of Haitian women. As a limited-resource country, Haiti faces complex social issues and healthcare challenges. With abortion being illegal, many adult and teenage women seek clandestine abortions. The aim of this study was to explore and gain a greater understanding of women’s and healthcare workers’ beliefs and experiences about abortion in Haiti. Methods Descriptive qualitative design was used to elicit information for the study. Eight focus groups were conducted with Haitian women and healthcare workers in five communities in the south of Haiti: Les Cayes, Aquin, St. Louis du Sud, Cavaillon, Maniche, and Ile a Vache. Participants were purposively selected and consented to participate and to be tape recorded. Content analysis followed using the verbatim transcripts, with triangulation of four researchers; saturation was reached with this number of focus groups. Findings The transcripts revealed six main themes regarding beliefs and experiences about abortion in Haiti: cultural aspects, consumers, perils of care, and legal concerns. Both women and healthcare workers discussed the repercussions of illegal abortion and the role of the government and hospitals. Participants identified similar perils and complications of unsafe abortions, such as postpartum hemorrhage and infection. Conclusions Results showed an urgent need to create a public health response that addresses different dimensions of abortion by engaging women and healthcare providers in rapid and concrete actions that promote access and safe care of women. It is imperative to conduct more research related to abortion in order to examine other associated factors to better understand the links between abortion and sexual health disparities among Haitian women. These results highlight the need for a rapid response to the need of
Decker, Michele R.; McCauley, Heather L.; Gupta, Jhumka; Miller, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Goldberg, Alisa B.
Men aged 18 to 35 years (n = 1318) completed assessments of perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV), abortion involvement, and conflict regarding decisions to seek abortion. IPV was associated with greater involvement by men in pregnancies ending in abortion and greater conflict regarding decisions to seek abortion. IPV should be considered within family planning and abortion services; policies requiring women to notify or obtain consent of partners before seeking an abortion should be reconsidered; they may facilitate endangerment and coercion regarding such decisions. PMID:20558805
Because the primary responsibility for the care and raising of children still falls on women, they should be able to decide freely whether or not to have children. Although many women who do not initially desire their pregnancies turn out to be adequate mothers, studies have shown that unwanted children suffer disproportionately from a variety of emotional and behavioral disorders. Studies have also found that large numbers of women seeking abortions failed to use any contraception while others used less effective methods, sometimes because of lack of knowledge. Even the most reliable contraceptive methods are liable to occasional failures. According to some authors, undesired pregnancy many reflect a struggle of adolescents with authoritarian parents, the search of a lonely person for something to love or possess, a proof of femininity, an expression of conflict with the partner or an attempt to force a marriage, or ambivalence among middle-aged women at the prospect of becoming more independent when their children enter school. Women may obtain abortions at accredited hospitals in the Province of Quebec upon decision of a committee of 3 physicians that continuation of the pregnancy would result in danger to the life or health of the patient. In 1970 some 100-150,000 illegal abortions occurred, resulting in hospitalization of 20,000 women for complications. In 1972, 4 French-speaking hospitals performed 136 of the 2919 therapeutic abortions sought in the Province of Quebec. In recent years the number has increased. Reasons for obtaining an abortion are usually social or economic: poor relationship with the father, sufficient number of children already born, age of the preceding infant, economic difficulties, mother's age, or effect of pregnancy on work. Many adolescents refuse to tell their parents of their pregnancy for fear of their reaction, but others enjoy considerable parental support. A study of about 5000 French speaking adolescents conducted in 1977
Delooz, L; Czaplicki, G; Houtain, J Y; Dal Pozzo, F; Saegerman, C
Abortions cause heavy economic losses for the bovine sector. The use of a standardized panel of analyses covering a large spectrum of pathogens responsible of abortion in cattle allowed demonstrating the direct involvement of at least one pathogen in 57% of analysed abortions in the southern part of Belgium. This result suggests a margin of improvement in the diagnostic efficacy. In order to evaluate the interest to broaden the list of pathogens included in the panel of analyses, the implication of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) in abortion was assessed by two different studies. In the first study, coupled serology was performed after abortion on 714 dams to identify specific seroconversion against BoHV-4. The overall seroconversion in cows was 19.5%, with a higher frequency in primiparous compared to multiparous females. In addition, the type of breed (beef cattle) and the time period from the fourth quarter 2008 until the last quarter 2009 were significantly related to the seroconversion of cows. The second study investigated the virus ability to infect the foetus. In this study, 368 cases of bovine abortions were specifically tested for BoHV-4, using PCR on foetus tissues and ELISA on dam and foetus sera. The results showed a maternal seroprevalence of 64.7%, a foetal seroprevalence of 0.8% and a PCR prevalence in foetuses of 1.1%, demonstrating the ability of BoHV-4 to infect the foetus. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Lucchese, Laura; Benkirane, Abdelali; Hakimi, Imane; El Idrissi, Ahmed; Natale, Alda
Sera from 221 cattle were collected in 25 farms in Morocco to investigate the evidence and circulation of some of the main bovine abortive agents in the dairy cattle farming, where abortions are often reported. All sera were examined for brucellosis, 176 for neosporosis, 88 for leptospirosis, and 42 for Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD/MD), Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) (Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, IBR/IPV), and Bovine Herpesvirus 4 (BHV-4) infections (at least 1 sample per herd). Abortions were reported in 23 (10.4%) of the 221 tested cattle. Antibodies against the investigated pathogens were detected in all samples tested, with an overall seroprevalence of 33.48% for Brucella, 9.09% for Leptospira, 8.52% for Neospora, 37.71% for BVDV, 50% for BHV-1, 9.52% for BHV-4. As for Leptospira antibodies against serovars Hardjo, Pomona, and Tarassovi were identified. Mixed infections were common. The lack of evidence of non-infectious factors epidemiologically related to abortions suggested that the investigated agents are to be considered important risk factors in the dynamic of the abortion syndrome, even if further investigations are necessary to identify the abortion cause. Particular attention should be paid on brucellosis, considering the high seroprevalence and its zoonotic relevance.
Darmstadt, Gary L; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Ahmed, A S M Nawshad Uddin; Saha, Samir K
Topical applications of emollients such as sunflower seed oil and Aquaphor have been shown to reduce the incidence of bloodstream infections and mortality of preterm infants in resource-poor settings. The causal mechanism for prevention of infection through cutaneous portals of entry is not well understood. We examined the relationship between skin condition score as a measure of skin barrier integrity and risk for bloodstream infection, and the effect of emollients on that relationship. Data for this study come from a randomized controlled trial of the impact of topical emollient therapy on nosocomial infections in 491 preterm infants <33 weeks gestational age at Dhaka Shishu Hospital, Bangladesh. Latent growth trajectory model with random-coefficient and multivariable logistic regression were utilized. Rate of deterioration of skin condition was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in both emollient arms compared with the untreated control group. Adjusted odds ratio of skin score for infection was 1.32 (95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.65). Emollients reduced the incidence of infection only when the skin had no signs of deterioration [Aquaphor incidence rate ratio: 0.43 (95% confidence interval: 0.19-0.97) and sunflower seed oil incidence rate ratio: 0.46 (95% confidence interval: 0.21-0.99)]. Skin condition deteriorated progressively after birth and compromised skin condition increased the risk of infection. Emollients preserved skin integrity and thus prevented infection in preterm neonates. To optimize benefits of emollients for the prevention of bloodstream infection, use of emollients should begin immediately after birth when the skin is still intact.
Chang, Wei Chao; Turner, Akiva; Imon, Michael; Dyda, Anthony
Few studies focused on the construction of preoperative patient surgical risk profile using only patients' personal, social history, and comorbidity profiles. To identify risk factors for mechanical wound complications and postoperative infections in patients' preoperative profiles. Quantitative retrospective cohort study using 2009-2011 Health Care Utilization Project (HCUP) Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) databases. 56,853 patients who underwent elective open intestinal resection. Predictors of mechanical wound complications and postoperative infections in patients' personal, social history, and comorbidity profiles. Patients age 18-39 were more likely to suffer mechanical wound complications compared to patients age 65-79 (OR = 1.9, 95% CI [1.5, 2.4], p < .01) and to patients age 80 and over (OR = 2.9, 95% CI [2.2, 3.8], p < .01). Patients age 18-39 were also more likely to suffer postoperative infections compared to patients age 65-79 (OR = 1.4, 95% CI [1.1, 1.6], p < .01) and to patients age 80 and over (OR = 2.0, 95% CI [1.6, 2.6], p < .01). Other most significant predictors included male gender, fluid and electrolyte disorders, pulmonary circulation disorders, and weight loss, as well as patients with comorbidities. All statistically significant predictors with positive estimates for postoperative infections were also statistically significant predictors of mechanical wound complications. Individual patient risk profile can be constructed using preoperative patient profiles for improving perioperative care coordination and patient care quality. Postoperative infections were associated with mechanical wound complications in patients undergoing elective open intestinal resection.
Chang, Wei Chao; Turner, Akiva; Imon, Michael; Dyda, Anthony
Background Few studies focused on the construction of preoperative patient surgical risk profile using only patients’ personal, social history, and comorbidity profiles. Objective To identify risk factors for mechanical wound complications and postoperative infections in patients’ preoperative profiles. Design Quantitative retrospective cohort study using 2009–2011 Health Care Utilization Project (HCUP) Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) databases. Patients 56,853 patients who underwent elective open intestinal resection. Measurements Predictors of mechanical wound complications and postoperative infections in patients’ personal, social history, and comorbidity profiles. Results Patients age 18–39 were more likely to suffer mechanical wound complications compared to patients age 65–79 (OR = 1.9, 95% CI [1.5, 2.4], p < .01) and to patients age 80 and over (OR = 2.9, 95% CI [2.2, 3.8], p < .01). Patients age 18–39 were also more likely to suffer postoperative infections compared to patients age 65–79 (OR = 1.4, 95% CI [1.1, 1.6], p < .01) and to patients age 80 and over (OR = 2.0, 95% CI [1.6, 2.6], p < .01). Other most significant predictors included male gender, fluid and electrolyte disorders, pulmonary circulation disorders, and weight loss, as well as patients with comorbidities. All statistically significant predictors with positive estimates for postoperative infections were also statistically significant predictors of mechanical wound complications. Conclusions Individual patient risk profile can be constructed using preoperative patient profiles for improving perioperative care coordination and patient care quality. Postoperative infections were associated with mechanical wound complications in patients undergoing elective open intestinal resection. PMID:27833511
Sano, Yuto; Matsuda, Kazuya; Osaki, Keisuke; Miyasho, Taku; Tsuda, Tomonori; Taniyama, Hiroyuki
A male Thoroughbred fetus was aborted on day 251 of pregnancy. Gross and histological examinations detected systemic granulomatous lesions in many superficial and visceral lymph nodes and organs including the liver, tonsils, lungs, thymus, spleen, right thyroid gland and gastrointestinal tract, and suppurative placentitis, pyogranulomatous amnionitis and intralesional acid-fast bacilli were also detected. An examination of the DNA base sequence of the β subunit of RNA polymerase demonstrated that Mycobacterium avium strain 104 had infected several organs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of equine fetal mycobacterial infection in Japan.
Henshaw, S K
Although abortion services are readily available in large urban areas to those able to pay, a 1993 survey of U.S. abortion providers shows that access to service is still problematic for many women because of barriers related to distance, gestation limits, costs and harassment. Among women who have nonhospital abortions, an estimated 24% travel at least 50 miles from their home to the abortion facility. Although 98% of providers will perform abortions at eight weeks after the last menstrual period, only 48% will perform abortions at 13 weeks and 13% at 21 weeks. Half of nonhospital abortion providers estimate that more than four days elapse on average between their patients' first telephone contact and the date of the procedure; one in seven say that more than one week elapses. Most women are able to obtain abortion services in one visit to a clinic. The average woman having a first-trimester nonhospital abortion with local anesthesia paid $296 for the procedure in 1993, up from $251 in 1989. On average, nonhospital facilities charged $604 at 16 weeks of gestation and $1,067 at 20 weeks. Eighty-six percent of nonhospital facilities providing 400 or more abortions in 1992 were the targets of antiabortion harassment. Picketing at facilities and the homes of staff members, vandalism and chemical attacks increased significantly between 1988 and 1992, but the incidence of bomb threats decreased.
Tartabini, P. V.; Striepe, S. A.; Powell, R. W.
Mars trajectory design options were examined that would accommodate a premature termination of a nominal manned opposition class mission for opportunities between 2010 and 2025. A successful abort must provide a safe return to Earth in the shortest possible time consistent with mission constraints. In this study, aborts that provided a minimum increase in the initial vehicle mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) were identified by locating direct transfer nominal missions and nominal missions including an outbound or inbound Venus swing-by that minimized IMLEO. The ease with which these missions could be aborted while meeting propulsion and time constraints was investigated by examining free return (unpowered) and powered aborts. Further reductions in trip time were made to some aborts by the addition or removal of an inbound Venus swing-by. The results show that, although few free return aborts met the specified constraints, 85% of each nominal mission could be aborted as a powered abort without an increase in propellant. Also, in many cases, the addition or removal of a Venus swing-by increased the number of abort opportunities or decreased the total trip time during an abort.
In the report presented by Surgeon General Everett Koop to former president Ronald Reagan on the medical and physiological impact of abortion in women, after extensive research, it was concluded that the risk of death due to abortion had declined by 5 fold since the legalization of abortion, and pregnancy or childbirth is 25 times more likely to result in death of the mother than an abortion. Also, abortion was seen as having no medical contraindications, given that infertility, miscarriages, low birth weight, and other reproductive problems were equally evident in women who had not received an abortion. In addition, 90% of all abortions occurred in the safer 1st trimester of pregnancy. Evidence of psychological complications following an abortion is thus far lacking, and therefore not a public health concern. However, in spite of the overwhelming evidence in support of the need for abortion services, Dr Koop's bias against abortion remains. Instead, Dr Koop emphasized the need for greater emphasis in prevention of unwanted pregnancies, and encouraged more funding and political support on the development of new, safer, and more effective contraceptives.
Basinga, Paulin; Moore, Ann M; Singh, Susheela D; Carlin, Elizabeth E; Birungi, Francine; Ngabo, Fidele
Abortion is illegal in Rwanda except when necessary to protect a woman's physical health or to save her life. Many women in Rwanda obtain unsafe abortions, and some experience health complications as a result. To estimate the incidence of induced abortion, we conducted a national sample survey of health facilities that provide postabortion care and a purposive sample survey of key informants knowledgeable about abortion conditions. We found that more than 16,700 women received care for complications resulting from induced abortion in Rwanda in 2009, or 7 per 1,000 women aged 15-44. Approximately 40 percent of abortions are estimated to lead to complications requiring treatment, but about a third of those who experienced a complication did not obtain treatment. Nationally, the estimated induced abortion rate is 25 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44, or approximately 60,000 abortions annually. An urgent need exists in Rwanda to address unmet need for contraception, to strengthen family planning services, to broaden access to legal abortion, and to improve postabortion care.
Jilozian, Ann; Agadjanian, Victor
As in other post-Soviet settings, induced abortion has been widely used in Armenia. However, recent national survey data point to a substantial drop in abortion rates with no commensurate increase in modern contraceptive prevalence and no change in fertility levels. We use data from in-depth interviews with women of reproductive age and health providers in rural Armenia to explore possible underreporting of both contraceptive use and abortion. While we find no evidence that women understate their use of modern contraception, the analysis suggests that induced abortion might indeed be underreported. The potential for underreporting is particularly high for sex-selective abortions, for which there is growing public backlash, and medical abortion, a practice that is typically self-administered outside any professional supervision. Possible underreporting of induced abortion calls for refinement of both abortion registration and relevant survey instruments. Better measurement of abortion dynamics is necessary for successful promotion of effective modern contraceptive methods and reduction of unsafe abortion practices.
In practice the Bangladesh law, allowing abortion only to save the life of the mother, is essentially obsolete. The government has recognized the role of abortion in curing rapid population growth, and it is believed that the attitude towards abortion in Bangladesh is at least not unfavorable. The attempt was made to determine whether this belief is corroborated by the available facts. Data from the Bangladesh Fertility Survey provides a unique framework for discussion of current attitude towards and prevalence of abortion in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Fertility Survey (BFS) was conducted on a nationally representative sample of 6513 ever-married women under age 50. An overwhelming majority of Bangladeshi women (over 88%) approved of abortion if the woman had conceived as a result of rape and premarital sex. Danger to mother's life (53% approving) was a more acceptable basis for abortion than danger of a malformed child (30%). Abortion on economic grounds was acceptable to only 17% of women. Urban women held more liberal views on abortion than rural residents. Educated couples were found to be more approving of abortion than the less educated. Women with parity 4 or more viewed abortion more favorably than those with lower parity. This was more pronounced among women under the age of 30. The most conservative approval of abortion was expressed by the older women who had a parity of less than 4. Women with the most liberal views on abortion were also contracepting and relying on efficient contraceptive methods. Wider support for abortion was expressed by currently married, fecund, nonpregnant women who were currently using contraception, and this support was more pronounced among women aged 30 and older.
Bankole, Akinrinola; Adewole, Isaac F.; Hussain, Rubina; Awolude, Olutosin; Singh, Susheela; Akinyemi, Joshua O.
CONTEXT Because of Nigeria’s low contraceptive prevalence, a substantial number of women have unintended pregnancies, many of which are resolved through clandestine abortion, despite the country’s restrictive abortion law. Up-to-date estimates of abortion incidence are needed. METHODS A widely used indirect methodology was used to estimate the incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in Nigeria in 2012. Data on provision of abortion and postabortion care were collected from a nationally representative sample of 772 health facilities, and estimates of the likelihood that women who have unsafe abortions experience complications and obtain treatment were collected from 194 health care professionals with a broad understanding of the abortion context in Nigeria. RESULTS An estimated 1.25 million induced abortions occurred in Nigeria in 2012, equivalent to a rate of 33 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–49. The estimated unintended pregnancy rate was 59 per 1,000 women aged 15–49. Fifty-six percent of unintended pregnancies were resolved by abortion. About 212,000 women were treated for complications of unsafe abortion, representing a treatment rate of 5.6 per 1,000 women of reproductive age, and an additional 285,000 experienced serious health consequences but did not receive the treatment they needed. CONCLUSION Levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion continue to be high in Nigeria. Improvements in access to contraceptive services and in the provision of safe abortion and postabortion care services (as permitted by law) may help reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:26871725
Sisco, Katherine M; Martins, Summer L; Kavanagh, Erin K; Gilliam, Melissa L
To identify correlates of parent-daughter communication about abortion among nonpregnant adolescents. Nonpregnant African-American females aged 14-17 years attending one of three charter schools on Chicago's South Side were recruited and surveyed regarding parental relationship quality, attitudes toward sexual health, and communication about sexual health. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for ever discussing abortion using multivariable logistic regression. Of the 265 adolescents, 43.0% had ever discussed abortion with a parent. While 72.3% would voluntarily tell a parent about an abortion plan, 19.2% feared a parent would physically hurt her, punish her, or evict her. Ever communicating about abortion was significantly associated with having a mother who had a teen pregnancy (OR, 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-3.78); having a prochoice abortion attitude (OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.29-8.25); having discussed sexually transmitted infections (OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.13-7.77) or birth control (OR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.35-6.47) with a parent; and perceived parental approval of adolescent sexual activity (OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.20-7.88). Ever communicating about abortion was inversely related to being sexually experienced (OR, .48; 95% CI, .23-.99) or anticipating supportive parental reactions to an abortion decision (OR, .31; 95% CI, .13-.75). Although almost half of our sample was sexually active, the majority had never talked to their parents about abortion. Some reported fears of harm should the situation arise. Public policy should focus on promoting parent-daughter communication before an unwanted pregnancy rather than forcing communication after it occurs. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Casperson, Kelly J; Fronczak, Carolyn M; Siparsky, Georgette; O'Donnell, Colin; Gundeti, Mohan S; Campbell, Jeffrey B; Wilcox, Duncan T
We investigated whether children with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt who undergo mechanical bowel preparation before bladder reconstruction with bowel have a lower rate of infection than children who do not undergo preoperative bowel preparation. We performed an institutional review board approved, retrospective chart review of the incidence of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections after bladder reconstruction using bowel and compared infection rates using Fisher's exact test. Mean ± SD followup was 2.9 ± 2.3 years. Between 2003 and 2009, 31 patients with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt underwent bladder reconstruction using bowel, of whom 19 (61%) and 12 (39%) did and did not undergo mechanical bowel preparation, respectively. There was no significant difference in gender or age at surgery between the 2 groups. Infection developed in 3 children (9.6%) within 2 months postoperatively, including 2 (10.5%) with and 1 (8.3%) without bowel preparation (2-tailed p = 1.0). There was no significant difference in the shunt infection rate between patients with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt who did and did not undergo preoperative bowel preparation. Our results add to the current literature suggesting that bowel preparation is unnecessary even in patients with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Xiao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Rudian; Pang, Xiaojing; Liang, Guodong; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong
Mosquitoes are natural vectors for many etiologic agents of human viral diseases. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses can persistently infect the mosquito central nervous system without causing dramatic pathology or influencing the mosquito behavior and lifespan. The mechanism by which the mosquito nervous system resists flaviviral infection is still largely unknown. Here we report that an Aedes aegypti homologue of the neural factor Hikaru genki (AaHig) efficiently restricts flavivirus infection of the central nervous system. AaHig was predominantly expressed in the mosquito nervous system and localized to the plasma membrane of neural cells. Functional blockade of AaHig enhanced Dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), but not Sindbis virus (SINV), replication in mosquito heads and consequently caused neural apoptosis and a dramatic reduction in the mosquito lifespan. Consistently, delivery of recombinant AaHig to mosquitoes reduced viral infection. Furthermore, the membrane-localized AaHig directly interfaced with a highly conserved motif in the surface envelope proteins of DENV and JEV, and consequently interrupted endocytic viral entry into mosquito cells. Loss of either plasma membrane targeting or virion-binding ability rendered AaHig nonfunctional. Interestingly, Culex pipien pallens Hig also demonstrated a prominent anti-flavivirus activity, suggesting a functionally conserved function for Hig. Our results demonstrate that an evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanism prevents lethal flaviviral infection of the central nervous system in mosquitoes, and thus may facilitate flaviviral transmission in nature.
Xiao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Rudian; Pang, Xiaojing; Liang, Guodong; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong
Mosquitoes are natural vectors for many etiologic agents of human viral diseases. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses can persistently infect the mosquito central nervous system without causing dramatic pathology or influencing the mosquito behavior and lifespan. The mechanism by which the mosquito nervous system resists flaviviral infection is still largely unknown. Here we report that an Aedes aegypti homologue of the neural factor Hikaru genki (AaHig) efficiently restricts flavivirus infection of the central nervous system. AaHig was predominantly expressed in the mosquito nervous system and localized to the plasma membrane of neural cells. Functional blockade of AaHig enhanced Dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), but not Sindbis virus (SINV), replication in mosquito heads and consequently caused neural apoptosis and a dramatic reduction in the mosquito lifespan. Consistently, delivery of recombinant AaHig to mosquitoes reduced viral infection. Furthermore, the membrane-localized AaHig directly interfaced with a highly conserved motif in the surface envelope proteins of DENV and JEV, and consequently interrupted endocytic viral entry into mosquito cells. Loss of either plasma membrane targeting or virion-binding ability rendered AaHig nonfunctional. Interestingly, Culex pipien pallens Hig also demonstrated a prominent anti-flavivirus activity, suggesting a functionally conserved function for Hig. Our results demonstrate that an evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanism prevents lethal flaviviral infection of the central nervous system in mosquitoes, and thus may facilitate flaviviral transmission in nature. PMID:25915054
The Soviet legacy of widespread reliance on induced abortion is of critical importance to reproductive trends and policies in post-Soviet nations, especially as they strive to substitute contraception for abortion. Using data from two Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1995 and 1999, this study analyzes and compares trends in abortion and contraception, women's attitudes toward abortion, and their perceptions of problems associated with abortion and contraception in K