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Sample records for abortive infection mechanism

  1. Abortive infection mechanisms and prophage sequences significantly influence the genetic makeup of emerging lytic lactococcal phages.

    PubMed

    Labrie, Simon J; Moineau, Sylvain

    2007-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the remarkable genome plasticity of lytic lactococcal phages that allows them to rapidly adapt to the dynamic dairy environment. The lytic double-stranded DNA phage ul36 was used to sequentially infect a wild-type strain of Lactococcus lactis and two isogenic derivatives with genes encoding two phage resistance mechanisms, AbiK and AbiT. Four phage mutants resistant to one or both Abi mechanisms were isolated. Comparative analysis of their complete genomes, as well as morphological observations, revealed that phage ul36 extensively evolved by large-scale homologous and nonhomologous recombination events with the inducible prophage present in the host strain. One phage mutant exchanged as much as 79% of its genome compared to the core genome of ul36. Thus, natural phage defense mechanisms and prophage elements found in bacterial chromosomes contribute significantly to the evolution of the lytic phage population.

  2. Preventing infective complications relating to induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Mary, Nirmala; Mahmood, Tahir A

    2010-08-01

    Infective complications following induced abortions are still a common cause of morbidity and mortality. This review focusses on defining the strategies to improve care of women seeking an induced abortion and to reduce infective complications. We have considered the evidence for screening and cost-effectiveness for antibiotic prophylaxis. Current evidence suggests that treating all women with prophylactic antibiotics in preference to screening and treating is the most cost-effective way of reducing infective complications following induced abortions. The final strategy to prevent infective complications should be individualized for each region/area depending on the prevalence of organisms causing pelvic infections and the resources available.

  3. Serious infection associated with induced abortion in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Angela

    2012-12-01

    Though serious infection after induced abortion is rare, infections account for one third of abortion-related deaths in the United States. Most fatal cases of infection after induced medical abortion have involved clostridial species. These reported cases share important clinical features that may guide clinicians to earlier recognition and institution of therapy. This article reviews our current knowledge regarding serious clostridial infections postabortion including the typical clinical presentation, pathophysiology, modes of diagnosis, and available treatment.

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in "sine causa" recurrent abortion.

    PubMed

    Olliaro, P; Regazzetti, A; Gorini, G; Milano, F; Marchetti, A; Rondanelli, E G

    One hundred and one women suffering from "sine causa" recurrent abortion were screened for Chlamydia trachomatis (C.T.) infection by using direct examination, cultural and serological procedures. In this series, C.T. infection did not appear to be related to increased risk of recurrent abortion. The culture-positive and serology-positive rates (14.85% and 34.65%, respectively) did not differ from other unselected populations. Neither time from last abortion nor type of abortion were significantly related to C.T. infection. Nonetheless, the women who underwent examination within one year from last abortion and had a culture-positive partner as well, were more likely to present with a C.T.-positive culture.

  5. Placental thrombosis in acute phase abortions during experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    After oral administration of ewes during mid gestation with 2000 freshly prepared sporulated oocysts of T. gondii isolate M4, abortions occurred between days 7 and 11 in 91.6% of pregnant and infected ewes. Afterwards, a further infection was carried out at late gestation in another group of sheep with 500 sporulated oocysts. Abortions happened again between days 9 and 11 post infection (pi) in 58.3% of the infected ewes. Classically, abortions in natural and experimental ovine toxoplasmosis usually occur one month after infection. Few experimental studies have reported the so-called acute phase abortions as early as 7 to 14 days after oral inoculation of oocysts, and pyrexia was proposed to be responsible for abortion, although the underline mechanism was not elucidated. In the present study, all placentas analysed from ewes suffering acute phase abortions showed infarcts and thrombosis in the caruncullar villi of the placentomes and ischemic lesions (periventricular leukomalacia) in the brain of some foetuses. The parasite was identified by PCR in samples from some placentomes of only one sheep, and no antigen was detected by immunohistochemical labelling. These findings suggest that the vascular lesions found in the placenta, and the consequent hypoxic damage to the foetus, could be associated to the occurrence of acute phase abortions. Although the pathogenesis of these lesions remains to be determined, the infectious dose or virulence of the isolate may play a role in their development. PMID:24475786

  6. Placental thrombosis in acute phase abortions during experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Pablo; Fuertes, Miguel; Ferre, Ignacio; Fernández, Miguel; Ferreras, Maria del Carmen; Moreno-Gonzalo, Javier; González-Lanza, Camino; Katzer, Frank; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Pérez, Valentín; Benavides, Julio

    2014-01-29

    After oral administration of ewes during mid gestation with 2000 freshly prepared sporulated oocysts of T. gondii isolate M4, abortions occurred between days 7 and 11 in 91.6% of pregnant and infected ewes. Afterwards, a further infection was carried out at late gestation in another group of sheep with 500 sporulated oocysts. Abortions happened again between days 9 and 11 post infection (pi) in 58.3% of the infected ewes. Classically, abortions in natural and experimental ovine toxoplasmosis usually occur one month after infection. Few experimental studies have reported the so-called acute phase abortions as early as 7 to 14 days after oral inoculation of oocysts, and pyrexia was proposed to be responsible for abortion, although the underline mechanism was not elucidated. In the present study, all placentas analysed from ewes suffering acute phase abortions showed infarcts and thrombosis in the caruncullar villi of the placentomes and ischemic lesions (periventricular leukomalacia) in the brain of some foetuses. The parasite was identified by PCR in samples from some placentomes of only one sheep, and no antigen was detected by immunohistochemical labelling. These findings suggest that the vascular lesions found in the placenta, and the consequent hypoxic damage to the foetus, could be associated to the occurrence of acute phase abortions. Although the pathogenesis of these lesions remains to be determined, the infectious dose or virulence of the isolate may play a role in their development.

  7. Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most healthcare providers advise counseling.

  8. The Relationship between Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection and Spontaneous Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Amjad; Khodabandehloo, Mazaher; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Farhadifar, Fariba; Roshani, Daem; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Farhangi, Niloofar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiology of most of sexually transmitted diseases. Colonization of C. trachomatis in the genital tract during early gestation has been associated with preterm birth, and preterm premature rupture of the membranes. The role of C. trachomatis on spontaneous abortion has not yet been proved completely. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of C. trachomatis infection among pregnant women and its association with spontaneous abortion. Methods: This case-control study was conducted from August 2012 until January 2013. Totally, 218 women were included; 109 women with spontaneous abortion with gestation age between 10–20 weeks (cases), and 109 women with normal pregnancy with gestation age between 20–30 weeks (controls) in Sanandaj, Iran. DNA was extracted from endocervical swabs and a PCR test was conducted for detection of C. trachomatis infection in women using specific primers. Independent T-test and Chi-square were used for comparison of quantitative and qualitative variables, respectively, and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The total prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 38(17.43%) in endocervical swabs of women. However, the number of cases with C. trachomatis infections was 25 out of 109(22.9%) in the case group and 13 out of 109(11.9%) in control group, respectively. Association between chlamydia infection and spontaneous abortion was statistically significant (OR=2.198, CI 95%: 1.058–4.56). Conclusion: Our study showed that C. trachomatis infection was associated with spontaneous abortion. Thus, screening and treatment of pregnant women may prevent this adverse pregnancy outcome. PMID:27141466

  9. An alternate mechanism of abortive release marked by the formation of very long abortive transcripts.

    PubMed

    Chander, Monica; Austin, Karyn M; Aye-Han, Nwe-Nwe; Sircar, Piya; Hsu, Lilian M

    2007-11-01

    The Esigma70-dependent N25 promoter is rate-limited at promoter escape. Here, RNA polymerase repeatedly initiates and aborts transcription, giving rise to a ladder of short RNAs 2-11 nucleotides long. Certain mutations in the initial transcribed sequence (ITS) of N25 lengthen the abortive initiation program, resulting in the release of very long abortive transcripts (VLATs) 16-19 nucleotides long. This phenomenon is completely dependent on sequences within the first 20 bases of the ITS since altering sequences downstream of +20 has no effect on their formation. VLAT formation also requires strong interactions between RNA polymerase and the promoter. Mutations that change the -35 and -10 hexamers and the intervening 17 base pair spacer away from consensus decrease the probability of aborting at positions +16 to +19. An unusual characteristic of the VLATs is their undiminished levels in the presence of GreB, which rescues abortive RNAs (mechanism distinct from backtracking, which we propose entails polymerase molecules hyper forward translocating during the promoter escape transition. We discuss how certain features in the ITS, when combined with the N25 promoter, may lead to hyper forward translocation and abortive release at VLAT positions.

  10. [Abortion].

    PubMed

    Dourlen-rollier, A M

    1971-01-01

    The historical and current (1969) abortion laws in France as well as those in other Western countries are analyzed. France has had a series of punitive abortion codes since the Napoleonic Code of 1810 prescribing solitary confinement for the woman. The reforms of 1920 and 1923 made provocation of abortion or contraceptional propaganda a "crime" (felony), later a "delit" (misdemeanor), called for trial before magistr ate instead of jury, but resulted in only about 200 convictions a year. The decree of 1939 extended the misdemeanor to women who aborted even if they were not pregnant, and provided for professional licenses such as that of surgeon or pharmacist to be suspended. The law of 1942 made abortion a social crime and increased the maximum penalty to capital punishment, which was exercised in 2 cases. About 4000 per year were convicted from 1942-1944. Now the law still applies to all who intend to abort, whether or not pregnant or successful, but punishemnt is limited to 1-5 years imprisonment, and 72,000 francs fine, or suspension of medical practice for 5 years. About 500 have been convicted per year. Since 1955 legal abortion has been available (to about 130 women over 4 years) if it is the only means to save the woman's life. Although pregnancy tests are controlled, the population desregards the law by resorting to clandestine abortion. The wealthy travel to Switzerland (where 68% of legal abortions are done on French women) or to England. Numbers are estimated by the French government at 250,000-300,000 per year, or 1 for every 2 live births, but by hospital statistics at 400,000-1,000,000 per year. The rest of the review covers abortion laws in Scandinavian, Central European, and individual US states as of 1969.

  11. Fatal Cowpox Virus Infection in an Aborted Foal.

    PubMed

    Franke, Annika; Kershaw, Olivia; Jenckel, Maria; König, Lydia; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Hoffmann, Donata

    2016-06-01

    The article describes the isolation of a cowpox virus (CPXV) isolate originating from a horse. The skin of a foal, aborted in the third trimester, displayed numerous cutaneous papules. The histological examination showed A-type inclusion bodies within the lesion, typical for CPXV infections. This suspicion was confirmed by real-time PCR where various organs were analyzed. From skin samples, virus isolation was successfully performed. Afterwards, the whole genome of this new isolate "CPXV Amadeus" was sequenced by next-generation technology. Phylogenetic analysis clearly showed that "CPXV Amadeus" belongs to the "CPXV-like 1" clade. To our opinion, the study provides important additional information on rare accidental CPXV infections. From the natural hosts, the voles, species such as rats, cats, or different zoo animals are occasionally infected, but until now only two horse cases are described. In addition, there are new insights toward congenital CPXV infections. PMID:27159333

  12. Bovine viral diarrhea virus in alpaca: abortion and persistent infection.

    PubMed

    Carman, Susy; Carr, Nancy; DeLay, Josepha; Baxi, Mohit; Deregt, Dirk; Hazlett, Murray

    2005-11-01

    An alpaca herd in eastern Ontario experienced vague signs of illness, including anorexia and lethargy in 9 animals, 2.5 months after the addition of a chronically ill cria and his dam to the farm. Subsequently 2 alpaca had early pregnancy loss; one aborted at 5.5 months gestation and the other at 7 months gestation. Seventeen were found to have serum antibody to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), with highest titers to BVDV type 1. The fetus that was aborted at 5.5 months gestation, 3 months after the clinical outbreak, was found to be positive for BVDV on immunohistochemical staining, and noncytopathic BVDV type 1b was isolated. Of the 13 cria born alive that season, a single male underweight alpaca cria, born 9 months after the clinical illnesses, was infected with BVDV type 1b. The cria was positive for BVDV at birth, at 3 and 26 days of age and continued to be positive for noncytopathic BVDV using virus isolation, nested reverse transcription PCR, antigen detection ELISA, and immunohistochemical staining until euthanasia at 46 days of age. The cria remained serum antibody negative to both BVDV type 1 and type 2. A diagnosis of persistent infection was made. This is the first report describing persistent infection with BVDV in an alpaca cria. PMID:16475521

  13. Abortion.

    PubMed

    Hume, K

    1979-04-21

    The review by Aileen F. Connon of Abortion by Potts, Diggory and Peel (Journal, February 10) made interesting reading, especially her quotation of the "facinating statistical information" that Australia has 11.5 million people and 45,000 to 90,000 criminal abortions a year. These are rather wide upper and lower confidence limits. One wonders what other information the authors have included that is of the same standard of accuracy. On the other hand, Malcolm Potts told me some years ago that the experience of his parent organization, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, with the IUD in India was a disaster. That I could well believe. Seeing some of the victims, the sight would indeed be enough to stir the stony heart of the most inhuman consultant gynaecologist. There is in Australia, and indeed in the world, an increasing number of doctors who are revolted by the activities of the International Planned Parenthood Federation and its affiliates which aggressively promote abortion as "an acceptable method of fertility control," and even as the primary method. These are a cross-section of the profession and include some of its most distinguished and erudite members who would be both competent and happy to review a book such as Abortion by Potts et alii from a pro-life point of view. Could I suggest that in future your book reviews and editorials include some well informed commentaries from doctors representing that heretofore silent group? I am holding a long and growing list of Australian doctors who have signed the "Declaration of Doctors," thus explicitly spelling out their respect for human life from the first moment of biological existence to that of natural death. Their services are available on request.

  14. Abortion.

    PubMed

    Churchill, M

    1979-09-15

    I would like to take issue with Dr Colin Brewer's statements concerning intrauterine contraceptive devices and abortion (11 August, p 389). I agree that logically there is no distinction between IUCDs, and other abortifacients used early in pregnancy, and abortion methods used later in pregnancy. However, I disagree with his statement that to make illegal IUCDs and similar methods out of an "obsessive concern for microscopic forms of life" would be "absurd." Firstly, size has never been a criterion for the presence or absence of life, or of its importance. Surely Dr Brewer, MPs, and the public would be outraged by anything less than obsessively careful handling of, say, rabies or smallpox viruses in laboratories. Do not the products of conception, with the full potential of a human being unless actively interfered with by other men (neglecting normal fetal wastage), deserve any less concern? Secondly, mortality should not be determined by practicalities; rather morality should determine one's actions. The question of whether IUCDs and other such procedures should remain legal or be made illegal should not be determined by their efficacy, popularity, or economy. I agree fully with Dr Brewer--abortion is a moral issue and it is a pity that the BMF has not raised the moral issues at stake. Particularly so, as Lord Denning put it "...without morality there can be no law." I personally subscribe to the Hippocratic Oath. PMID:497769

  15. Phage abortive infection in lactococci: variations on a theme.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Marie-Christine; Chopin, Alain; Bidnenko, Elena

    2005-08-01

    Abortive infection (Abi) systems, also called phage exclusion, block phage multiplication and cause premature bacterial cell death upon phage infection. This decreases the number of progeny particles and limits their spread to other cells allowing the bacterial population to survive. Twenty Abi systems have been isolated in Lactococcus lactis, a bacterium used in cheese-making fermentation processes, where phage attacks are of economical importance. Recent insights in their expression and mode of action indicate that, behind diverse phenotypic and molecular effects, lactococcal Abis share common traits with the well-studied Escherichia coli systems Lit and Prr. Abis are widespread in bacteria, and recent analysis indicates that Abis might have additional roles other than conferring phage resistance.

  16. Abortion.

    PubMed

    Rice-Oxley, C P

    1979-09-15

    Professor Peter Hungerford (25 August, p 496) says that he is fed up with semantic arguments about abortion which ignore reality. He then invokes two major fantasies of the last decade, those of sexual equality and the woman's right to choose. The second of these has become an article of faith to many pro-abortionists and its credentials should be examined. Whence does this right derive? A woman takes part in a more or less pleasurable activity with a man and then, without her volition, with no conscious effort on her part at all, the miraculous occurs and a new life comes into being. How does she have the right to destroy this new life? The argument is usually to the effect that it belongs to her and could not survive without her: "It's mine and I can do what I like with it." Of course, it is true that a fetus cannot survive without the support of its mother; no more could Professor Hungerford or I survive without the support of our fellow men who provide us with food, drink, and clothing, but that does not give them the right to kill us. The claim to possession, the assumption that the fetus is owned by its mother involves, I believe, a semantic error. In a sense, the fetus is "hers" in that it is growing inside her, even though she did not create it. Likewise, her husband is hers because joined to her by marriage and her country is hers because she lives there, although she does not own either of them and certainly has no right to destroy them. The life growing inside the mother is not hers in the same way that a cardigan she has bought or knitted for herself is hers. It is the consideration of semantics that protects us from the "realities" of such as Professor Hungerford.

  17. Multiple abortions and sexually transmitted infections among young migrant women working in entertainment venues in China

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yanyan; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Yongyang; Tao, Haidong; Xu, Song; Xia, Junrui; Huang, Wen; He, Huan; Zaller, Nickolas; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey of 358 young migrant women working in entertainment venues in China to explore the prevalence of and factors associated with two indicators of sexual and reproductive health: (i) multiple abortions and (ii) the dual risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and abortion history. One quarter (25.4%) of the women in this sample had multiple abortions during their lifetime and, of those with any abortion history, 18.3% had had an abortion outside of a regulated health clinic. One-third (33.0%) of the sample had had a STI during the past year, and approximately one-fourth (23.7%) of those women did not receive STI treatment in a public hospital. Approximately one-fourth (23.5%) of the sample reported both a history of abortion and an STI during the past year. Women with a history of multiple abortions had significantly lower income levels, were more likely to have sex with clients and with husbands, and tended more to use alcohol before sex. Women who experienced both abortion and STI risks were more likely to report having had unprotected sex, genitourinary tract infections symptoms, anxiety, illicit drug use, and suicidal ideation. Enhanced efforts are needed to improve reproductive and sexual health for female migrants in urban China, particularly those working in entertainment venues. PMID:25902189

  18. Epizootic abortion related to infections by Chlamydophila abortus and Chlamydophila pecorum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Greco, G; Corrente, M; Buonavoglia, D; Campanile, G; Di Palo, R; Martella, V; Bellacicco, A L; D'Abramo, M; Buonavoglia, C

    2008-06-01

    Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) are affected by high rates of embryonic mortality and abortion related to infectious diseases and non-infectious factors. A number of viral and bacterial infections have been associated with reproductive failure, but there is limited information on the role of chlamydial infections. In order to investigate the presence and the role of Chlamydiaceae in water buffalo a retrospective study was performed in a herd with a history of reproductive failure. During an 11-month period, the pregnant heifers suffered an abortion rate of 36.8% between the 3rd and 7th month of pregnancy. Antibodies to Chlamydiaceae were detected in 57% of the aborted cows, and in 0% of the overtly healthy cows used as control. By a nested-PCR assay, three of 14 vaginal swabs from aborted animals tested positive for Chlamydophila agents and, additionally, three out of seven aborted fetuses tested positive for Chlamydophila spp., with two being co-infections by Cp. abortus and Cp. pecorum and one being characterised as Cp. abortus. Sequence analysis of the amplicons confirmed the results of the nested-PCR. The presence of anti-Chlamydiaceae antibodies in more than half of the aborting animals (P<0.002) and the detection of Chlamydophila agents in several fetal organs and in the vaginal swabs are consistent with the history of abortions observed in the herd and suggest an abortifacient role by Chlamydophila spp. in water buffalo (B. Bubalis) herds.

  19. Prevention of infection after induced abortion: release date October 2010: SFP guideline 20102.

    PubMed

    Achilles, Sharon L; Reeves, Matthew F

    2011-04-01

    One known complication of induced abortion is upper genital tract infection, which is relatively uncommon in the current era of safe, legal abortion. Currently, rates of upper genital tract infection in the setting of legal induced abortion in the United States are generally less than 1%. Randomized controlled trials support the use of prophylactic antibiotics for surgical abortion in the first trimester. For medical abortion, treatment-dose antibiotics may lower the risk of serious infection. However, the number-needed-to-treat is high. Consequently, the balance of risk and benefits warrants further investigation. Perioperative oral doxycycline given up to 12 h before a surgical abortion appears to effectively reduce infectious risk. Antibiotics that are continued after the procedure for extended durations meet the definition for a treatment regimen rather than a prophylactic regimen. Prophylactic efficacy of antibiotics begun after abortion has not been demonstrated in controlled trials. Thus, the current evidence supports pre-procedure but not post-procedure antibiotics for the purpose of prophylaxis. No controlled studies have examined the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for induced surgical abortion beyond 15 weeks of gestation. The risk of infection is not altered when an intrauterine device is inserted immediately post-procedure. The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae or acute cervicitis carries a significant risk of upper genital tract infection; this risk is significantly reduced with antibiotic prophylaxis. Women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) also have an elevated risk of post-procedural infection as compared with women without BV; however, additional prophylactic antibiotics for women with known BV has not been shown to reduce their risk further than with use of typical pre-procedure antibiotic prophylaxis. Accordingly, evidence to support pre-procedure screening for BV is lacking. Neither povidone-iodine nor chlorhexidine have

  20. Abortion and foetal lesions induced by Neospora caninum in experimentally infected water buffalos (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Chryssafidis, Andreas L; Cantón, Germán; Chianini, Francesca; Innes, Elisabeth A; Madureira, Ed H; Soares, Rodrigo M; Gennari, Solange M

    2015-01-01

    The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an important species in several countries for its milk and meat production, as well as for transport and other agricultural activities. It is, in general, considered more resistant than cattle to different parasitic diseases, also less demanding for forage quality. It has been postulated that buffalo may be resistant to abortion caused by neosporosis, because of high serological prevalences found in buffalo herds from different localities, with no description of Neospora caninum-related abortion. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential impact of neosporosis in pregnant water buffalo cows. In this work, three pregnant buffalo cows were experimentally infected with Nc-1 strain of N. caninum, and abortion was detected 35 days post-infection. Molecular and histopathological results found in post-mortem tissues are described and discussed, confirming the susceptibility of water buffalos to abortion caused by N. caninum.

  1. Survey on association between Mycoplasma hominis endocervical infection and spontaneous abortion using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Farhadifar, Fariba; Khodabandehloo, Mazaher; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Rouhi, Samaneh; Ahmadi, Amjad; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Roshani, Daem; Soofizadeh, Nasrin; Rezzaii, Masoomeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mycoplasma infections are suggested as etiology of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis) infection and spontaneous abortion among pregnant women. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study that was conducted from August 2012 to January 2013, totally, 109 women were included with spontaneous abortion with gestational ages of 10-20 weeks (Cases), and 109 women with normal pregnancy with gestational ages between 20-37 weeks (Controls) in Sanandaj, Iran. Using specific primers and extracted DNA from endocervical swabs, a PCR test was conducted for detection of M. hominis infection in women. For comparison of qualitative and quantitative variables, independent Fisher tests were used and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The total frequency of M. hominis infection was 6 (2.75%) in women. The frequency of M. hominis infection was 2 (1.83%) in the case group (spontaneous abortion) and 4 (3.66%) in the control group, respectively. In both case and control groups, no association was seen between M.hominis infection and spontaneous abortion (OR=0. 49, CI 95%: 0.08-2.73, p=0. 683). Conclusion: M. hominis was positive in the genital tract of some pregnant women, but it was not associated with spontaneous abortion. However, to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes in women, foetus and neonate, routine screening and treatment for the genital Mycoplasma is recommended. PMID:27294216

  2. Toxoplasma gondii abortion storm in sheep on a Texas farm and isolation of mouse virulent atypical genotype T. gondii from an aborted lamb from a chronically infected ewe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep are commonly infected with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Infection may cause early embryonic death and resorption, fetal death and mummification, abortion, stillbirth, and neonatal death. Most sheep acquire T. gondii infection after birth. Recent studies reported that repeat ovine...

  3. Molecular investigation of Coxiella burnetii infections in aborted sheep in eastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kılıç, A.; Kalender, H.; Koç, O.; Kılınç, Ü.; Irehan, B.; Berri, M.

    2016-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide and is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. burnetii infection in aborted sheep in eastern Turkey using PCR. A total of 200 fetuses were collected from aborted sheep belonging to 200 herds in different locations in the eastern part of Turkey. Foetal organ samples such as liver, spleen, lung and stomach were taken and the DNA was purified from two hundred pooled samples. PCR analysis of C. burnetii presence in infected organs was performed, and 4 samples (2%) were found positive. In addition, the pooled organ suspensions were inoculated to embryonated chicken eggs, and PCR analysis of yolk sacs showed C. burnetii DNA in 5 samples (2.5%). This study shows that C. burnetii infection has an important role in sheep abortions in eastern Anatolia region. PMID:27656228

  4. Molecular investigation of Coxiella burnetii infections in aborted sheep in eastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, A; Kalender, H; Koç, O; Kılınç, Ü; Irehan, B; Berri, M

    2016-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide and is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. burnetii infection in aborted sheep in eastern Turkey using PCR. A total of 200 fetuses were collected from aborted sheep belonging to 200 herds in different locations in the eastern part of Turkey. Foetal organ samples such as liver, spleen, lung and stomach were taken and the DNA was purified from two hundred pooled samples. PCR analysis of C. burnetii presence in infected organs was performed, and 4 samples (2%) were found positive. In addition, the pooled organ suspensions were inoculated to embryonated chicken eggs, and PCR analysis of yolk sacs showed C. burnetii DNA in 5 samples (2.5%). This study shows that C. burnetii infection has an important role in sheep abortions in eastern Anatolia region. PMID:27656228

  5. Spontaneous abortions and reproductive selection mechanisms in the rubber and leather industry in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Hemminki, K; Niemi, Marja-Liisa; Kyyrönen, P; Kilpikari, I; Vainio, H

    1983-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spontaneous abortions in hospitals were analysed from two sources—membership files of the Union of Rubber and Leather Workers (about 10 000 women) and records of the personnel of a rubber factory (about 1600 women). Two frequencies of spontaneous abortions were calculated for each population analysed: rate (No spontaneous abortions X 100/No pregnancies) and ratio (No spontaneous abortions X 100/No births). The two frequencies were increased for all union members compared with all Finnish women. The frequencies, however, did not appreciably differ when the pregnancies occurred during union membership as compared with the pregnancies before or after membership. The frequency of spontaneous abortions was higher for the short-time union members than for those employed for longer periods, but the increased frequency did not correlate with union membership. The employees of a rubber factory had slightly fewer spontaneous abortions on average than the community population. The women employed in the rubber factory for three to 23 months were found to have appreciably higher frequencies of spontaneous abortions than the women employed for longer periods. The present study showed the feasibility of using cases of spontaneous abortions in hospitals in an occupational study with longitudinal employment data. Women with short periods of employment appeared to have more spontaneous abortions than those with longer periods of employment suggesting the presence of selection mechanisms, perhaps with some analogies to the “healthy worker effect” in occupational mortality studies. The presence of such selection mechanisms deserve serious consideration in occupational reproductive epidemiology. PMID:6824605

  6. Exploring the relationship between induced abortion and HIV infection in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Regina M; Pinho, Adriana A; Santos, Naila S; Villela, Wilza V

    2012-12-01

    The impact of HIV on the decision to interrupt pregnancy remains an understudied topic in Brazil and the world. The technical means to implement HIV prevention and treatment interventions are widely available in Brazil. Although Brazil has restrictive abortion laws, induced abortion occurs frequently. This qualitative study investigates the extent to which Brazilian women are motivated to seek abortion as a consequence of having HIV disease, and the extent to which the decision is part of a larger reproductive decision-making context. Researchers interviewed 30 women who were living with HIV and had terminated pregnancies or attempted to do so. Many women identified their HIV status as an important aspect of their decision-making regarding abortion. Women also took into account issues such as the stage of life when the pregnancy occurred and the absence of support from partners and families. Contraceptive practices, pregnancy and abortion in this population are influenced by multiple factors that act on the structural, social, interpersonal and individual levels. We hypothesize that HIV infection and abortion are sometimes associated with similar contexts of vulnerability. Health services therefore should address HIV and reproductive issues together, with reproductive and sexual rights serving as the fundamental basis of health care.

  7. Cytokine gene expression in aborting and non-aborting dams and in their foetuses after experimental infection with Neospora caninum at 110 days of gestation.

    PubMed

    Almeria, S; Serrano-Pérez, B; Darwich, L; Mur-Novales, R; Garcia-Ispierto, I; Cabezón, O; López-Gatius, F

    2016-08-30

    Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. However, it is not known why not all infected animals abort. In this study, Th1 (IFN-γ), Th2 (IL4) and T reg (IL-10) cytokine gene expression was examined by real time PCR using the TaqMan approach in all of these dams and their foetuses after experimental infection with the isolate Nc-Spain7 at 110 days of pregnancy and euthanasia 6 weeks after infection. In prior published work, foetal death was observed in three of six infected dams and transplacental infection in all the 6 infected foetuses. In the spleen of the dams, IL-4 expression was down-regulated in dams with aborted/non viable foetuses compared to both uninfected dams (controls, n=3) and infected dams with live fetuses at euthanasia. In the lymph nodes draining the placenta, up-regulated expression of IL-4 was observed in infected dams with live foetuses compared to control dams. In the placenta, infected dams with live foetuses had significantly up-regulated IFN-γ in both caruncle and cotyledon and up-regulated IL-10 in cotyledon compared to control dams. Infected live foetuses showed up-regulated expression of IFN-γ and IL-10 in foetal spleen, and showed downregulated expression of IL-4 in the thymus compared to control uninfected foetuses. Expression of any cytokine in the thymus was significantly lower compared to the levels observed in foetal spleen. The results indicate an up-regulated expression of Th1, Th2 and Treg in infected dams with live foetuses and in their foetuses. On the other hand, down-regulation of Th2 immune responses and Treg cytokines were observed in infected dams which had aborted or had non-viable foetuses at euthanasia, suggesting an immunological recovery of cytokine gene expression levels in dams a few weeks after an abortion occurred. PMID:27523950

  8. Mutagenesis and functional characterization of the RNA and protein components of the toxIN abortive infection and toxin-antitoxin locus of Erwinia.

    PubMed

    Blower, T R; Fineran, P C; Johnson, M J; Toth, I K; Humphreys, D P; Salmond, G P C

    2009-10-01

    Bacteria are constantly challenged by bacteriophage (phage) infection and have developed multiple adaptive resistance mechanisms. These mechanisms include the abortive infection systems, which promote "altruistic suicide" of an infected cell, protecting the clonal population. A cryptic plasmid of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica, pECA1039, has been shown to encode an abortive infection system. This highly effective system is active across multiple genera of gram-negative bacteria and against a spectrum of phages. Designated ToxIN, this two-component abortive infection system acts as a toxin-antitoxin module. ToxIN is the first member of a new type III class of protein-RNA toxin-antitoxin modules, of which there are multiple homologues cross-genera. We characterized in more detail the abortive infection phenotype of ToxIN using a suite of Erwinia phages and performed mutagenesis of the ToxI and ToxN components. We determined the minimal ToxI RNA sequence in the native operon that is both necessary and sufficient for abortive infection and to counteract the toxicity of ToxN. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis of ToxN revealed key conserved amino acids in this defining member of the new group of toxic proteins. The mechanism of phage activation of the ToxIN system was investigated and was shown to have no effect on the levels of the ToxN protein. Finally, evidence of negative autoregulation of the toxIN operon, a common feature of toxin-antitoxin systems, is presented. This work on the components of the ToxIN system suggests that there is very tight toxin regulation prior to suicide activation by incoming phage.

  9. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePlus

    ... womb (uterus). There are different types of medical abortions: Therapeutic medical abortion is done because the woman has ... Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion

  10. Occurrence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infections in ovine and caprine abortions.

    PubMed

    Moreno, B; Collantes-Fernández, E; Villa, A; Navarro, A; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Ortega-Mora, L M

    2012-06-01

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are closely related cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites identified as important causes of reproductive failure in cattle and small ruminants, respectively. Protozoan abortion in small ruminants is traditionally associated with T. gondii, but the importance of N. caninum remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of N. caninum and T. gondii infections in abortion cases in small ruminants submitted for diagnosis. For this purpose, 74 ovine and 26 caprine aborted foetuses were recovered from different areas in Spain. Foetal histopathology was used to detect the presence of protozoal-associated lesions in brain. The presence of N. caninum and T. gondii was confirmed by PCR. Protozoal infection was detected in 17 out of 100 (17%) foetuses examined by at least one of the diagnostic techniques used. Lesions suggestive of protozoal infection were observed in 10.8% (8/74) and 15.4% (4/26) of the ovine and caprine abortions respectively. N. caninum and T. gondii infection was detected by PCR in 6.8% (5/74) and 5.4% (4/74) of sheep foetuses, respectively, of which five showed protozoal-associated lesions. N. caninum DNA was detected in 11.5% (3/26) of goat foetuses, of which two showed protozoal-associated lesions, whereas T. gondii DNA was detected in one goat foetus with no lesions. The simultaneous presence of N. caninum and T. gondii DNA was detected in one sheep foetus with severe lesions. This study demonstrates that N. caninum plays a significant role in abortion in small ruminants in the studied population. In addition, our results highlight the importance of differentiating between protozoa whenever characteristic lesions are observed.

  11. Kinetics of Infection and Effects on Placental Cell Populations in a Murine Model of Chlamydia psittaci-Induced Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Buendía, Antonio J.; Sánchez, Joaquín; Martínez, María C.; Cámara, Paulina; Navarro, Jose A.; Rodolakis, Annie; Salinas, Jesus

    1998-01-01

    The anatomical progression of chlamydial infection was studied in different areas of the placenta, using a mouse model and two inoculation times: early pregnancy (day 7, group A) and midpregnancy (day 11, group B). The first population cells affected were decidual cells and neutrophils located just at the limits of the maternal and fetal placenta. The following invaded area was the layer of giant cells. Complete colonization of the maternal placenta occurred after day 15 of pregnancy independently of the inoculation time, the metrial gland being the last area to be invaded; numerous granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells were infected. Finally, chlamydial inclusions were observed in labyrinthine trophoblastic cells from day 18 of pregnancy onward. Since no fetal damage was observed, it seems that an indirect mechanism involving the lysis of GMG cells and neutrophil infiltration of the decidua and metrial gland may be the pathogenic mechanism that leads to abortion. PMID:9573099

  12. [Clinical results of two-time abortion technics with special regard to ascending genital infections].

    PubMed

    Kreibich, H; Ehrig, E; Koch, E

    1977-01-01

    If risk of the one-time mechanical dilatation will be too high (with young first gravidae and progressed pregnancy) the methods of the two-time interruptio should be applied. As long as there will not be available sufficient quantities of Prostaglandin-analoga the present method of choice is the abort-induction by means of the extra-amnial application of Prostaglandin F2alpha. In 101 cases when extra-amnial Pg F2alpha with an average induction time of four hours, the contamination rate was checked and no danger of ascension appeared. If prostaglandines will not be available, metranoicter or laminarias should be applied in the first trimenon when there is a high risk of dilatation, in the second trimenon extra-amnial instillation methods should be used. In both the cases only can be spoken of interruptios low if risks of they are made up under guard of broad spectrum antibiotics--after negative proof of blastomyces (buddings). This recommendation results from microbiological researches made up with 423 patients under the aspect of possible hospital infections. With induction times longer than 18 hours, the cavum uteri proved accelerating contaminated microbially. There were found microbes in the cavum uteri respectively at laminarias and metranoicters of, enterobacteria (45,7%), staphylococci (24,7%), hemolyzing and anhemolytic streptococci (17,6%), enterococci (8,0%), Corynebacteria (3,0%) and blastomyces (buddings) (1,0%).

  13. Infection of lymphocytes by a virus that aborts cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and establishes persistent infection

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    For viruses to establish persistent infections in their hosts, they must possess some mechanism for evading clearance by the immune system. When inoculated into adult immunocompetent mice, wild-type lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV ARM) induces a CD8(+)-mediated cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response that clears the infection within 7-14 d (CTL+ [P-]). By contrast, variant viruses isolated from lymphoid tissues of persistently infected mice fail to induce a CTL response and are thus able to establish a persistent infection in adult mice (CTL- [P+]). This report compares the interaction of CTL+ (P-) and CTL- (P+) viruses with cells of the immune system. Both types of virus initially bind to 2-4% of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and replicate within cells of both subsets. The replication of CTL- (P+) and CTL+ (P-) viruses in lymphocytes in vivo is similar for the first 5 d after initiating infection. Thereafter, in mice infected with CTL- (P+) variants, lymphocytes retain viral genetic information, and infectious virus can be recovered throughout the animals' lives. In contrast, when adult mice are infected with wild-type CTL+ (P-) LCMV ARM, virus is not recovered from lymphocytes for greater than 7 d after infection. A CD8(+)-mediated anti-LCMV CTL response is induced in such mice. Clearance of infected lymphocytes is produced by these LCMV-specific CTLs, as shown by their ability to lyse lymphocytes expressing LCMV determinants in vitro and the fact that depletion of CD8+ lymphocytes before infection with CTL+ (P-) viruses results in levels of infected lymphocytes similar to those found in undepleted CTL- (P+)-infected mice. Hence, CTL-mediated lysis of T lymphocytes carrying infectious virus is a critical factor determining whether virus persists or the infection is terminated. PMID:1905339

  14. Toxoplasma gondii abortion storm in sheep on a Texas farm and isolation of mouse virulent atypical genotype T. gondii from an aborted lamb from a chronically infected ewe.

    PubMed

    Edwards, John F; Dubey, J P

    2013-02-18

    Sheep are commonly infected with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Infection may cause early embryonic death and resorption, fetal death and mummification, abortion, stillbirth, and neonatal death. Most sheep acquire T. gondii infection after birth. Recent studies reported that congenital ovine transmission of T. gondii may be more common than previously believed, but these findings are solely based on PCR data and require confirmation using other techniques to verify the findings. In the present study, during the lambing season of 2005 a toxoplasmosis abortion storm occurred in a flock of purebred Suffolk ewes on a farm in Texas. Only 14 healthy lambs were born, and 38 abortuses, mummies and weak or stillborn lambs were delivered. Another 15 fetuses identified by ultrasound were presumably resorbed or were aborted undetected. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 37 (94.8%) of the 39 ewes and 30 of them had high titers (1:3200 or higher) when tested in the modified agglutination test (MAT). In the 2006 lambing season, two (both with MAT titers of ≥ 3200 in 2005) of 26 ewes delivered T. gondii infected lambs. T. gondii tissue cysts were found histologically in lesions of encephalitis in a lamb from one ewe and viable T. gondii (designated TgShUs55) was isolated from the brain and heart of a lamb from the second ewe. TheTgShUs55 had an atypical genotype using 10 PCR-RFLP markers, and was 100% lethal for Swiss Webster mice, irrespective of the dose or the stage of the parasite inoculated. In subsequent seasons, the ewes lambed normally. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that most sheep that have aborted due to T. gondii develop protection against future toxoplasmosis induced abortion, but the protection is not absolute.

  15. ToRCH "co-infections" are associated with increased risk of abortion in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Rasti, Sima; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Sadat; Abdoli, Amir; Piroozmand, Ahmad; Mousavi, Seyed Gholam Abbas; Fakhrie-Kashan, Zohreh

    2016-03-01

    ToRCH infections (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus and Herpes simplex virus) have long been known to be associated with bad obstetric outcomes. However, little information is available about the impact of ToRCH co-infections on the outcome of pregnancy. Hence, we tested the IgG and IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus among 81 pregnant women with abortion (case group) and 98 pregnant women with normal delivery (control group). In the single-infection model, only CMV-IgM seropositivity was significantly increased in case than control group (25.9% in case and 12.2 % in control, OR = 2.5, P = 0.019). In the co-infection model, 14 patterns were recognized, but two patterns were significantly increased in the case than the control group. Co-infection of T. gondii IgG + CMV IgM was 9.1-fold increased in the case than the control group (8.6% in the case and 1% in control, OR = 9.1; P = 0.024). Also, co-infection of T. gondii IgG + HSV IgG + CMV IgM was 7.7-fold increased in case than the control group (7.4% in case and 1 % in control, OR = 7.7; P = 0.04). Although the OR of other co-infections was higher in the case than the control group, the difference was not statistically significant. These findings indicate that ToRCH co-infections are associated with increased risk of abortion than single infection. Hence, the rates of co-infections should be considered in prenatal screening of ToRCH infections.

  16. ToRCH "co-infections" are associated with increased risk of abortion in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Rasti, Sima; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Sadat; Abdoli, Amir; Piroozmand, Ahmad; Mousavi, Seyed Gholam Abbas; Fakhrie-Kashan, Zohreh

    2016-03-01

    ToRCH infections (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus and Herpes simplex virus) have long been known to be associated with bad obstetric outcomes. However, little information is available about the impact of ToRCH co-infections on the outcome of pregnancy. Hence, we tested the IgG and IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus among 81 pregnant women with abortion (case group) and 98 pregnant women with normal delivery (control group). In the single-infection model, only CMV-IgM seropositivity was significantly increased in case than control group (25.9% in case and 12.2 % in control, OR = 2.5, P = 0.019). In the co-infection model, 14 patterns were recognized, but two patterns were significantly increased in the case than the control group. Co-infection of T. gondii IgG + CMV IgM was 9.1-fold increased in the case than the control group (8.6% in the case and 1% in control, OR = 9.1; P = 0.024). Also, co-infection of T. gondii IgG + HSV IgG + CMV IgM was 7.7-fold increased in case than the control group (7.4% in case and 1 % in control, OR = 7.7; P = 0.04). Although the OR of other co-infections was higher in the case than the control group, the difference was not statistically significant. These findings indicate that ToRCH co-infections are associated with increased risk of abortion than single infection. Hence, the rates of co-infections should be considered in prenatal screening of ToRCH infections. PMID:26499091

  17. Cerebral Candidal Abscess and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Infection in an Aborted Bovine Fetus.

    PubMed

    Vilander, A C; Niles, G A; Frank, C B

    2016-01-01

    Candida species are opportunistic fungi associated with immunosuppression and are the most commonly isolated fungal pathogens from the human central nervous system. Invasive candidiasis is reported uncommonly in animals and there have only been two reports of candidal infection of the brain. This report presents a case of a cerebral candidal abscess in an aborted late-term calf co-infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Candida etchellsii, a species not previously identified as pathogenic, was identified as the causative agent by polymerase chain reaction. PMID:26895887

  18. Abortively Infected Astrocytes Appear To Represent the Main Source of Interferon Beta in the Virus-Infected Brain

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferkorn, Cathleen; Kallfass, Carsten; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Spanier, Julia; Kalinke, Ulrich; Rieder, Martina; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Michiels, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interferon beta (IFN-β) is a key component of cellular innate immunity in mammals, and it constitutes the first line of defense during viral infection. Studies with cultured cells previously showed that almost all nucleated cells are able to produce IFN-β to various extents, but information about the in vivo sources of IFN-β remains incomplete. By applying immunohistochemistry and employing conditional-reporter mice that express firefly luciferase under the control of the IFN-β promoter in either all or only distinct cell types, we found that astrocytes are the main producers of IFN-β after infection of the brain with diverse neurotropic viruses, including rabies virus, Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus. Analysis of a panel of knockout mouse strains revealed that sensing of viral components via both RIG-I-like helicases and Toll-like receptors contributes to IFN induction in the infected brain. A genetic approach to permanently mark rabies virus-infected cells in the brain showed that a substantial number of astrocytes became labeled and, therefore, must have been infected by the virus at least transiently. Thus, our results strongly indicate that abortive viral infection of astrocytes can trigger pattern recognition receptor signaling events which result in secretion of IFN-β that confers antiviral protection. IMPORTANCE Previous work indicated that astrocytes are the main producers of IFN after viral infection of the central nervous system (CNS), but it remained unclear how astrocytes might sense those viruses which preferentially replicate in neurons. We have now shown that virus sensing by both RIG-I-like helicases and Toll-like receptors is involved. Our results further demonstrate that astrocytes get infected in a nonproductive manner under these conditions, indicating that abortive infection of astrocytes plays a previously unappreciated role in the innate antiviral defenses of the CNS. PMID:26656686

  19. The lactococcal abortive infection protein AbiP is membrane-anchored and binds nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Susana; McGovern, Stephen; Plochocka, Danuta; Santos, Mário A; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Polard, Patrice; Chopin, Marie-Christine

    2008-03-30

    AbiP, a lactococcal abortive phage infection system, has previously been shown to arrest phage bIL66M1 DNA replication around 10 min after infection and to inhibit the switch off of phage early transcripts. We report here the functional characterization and implication in the abortive infection phenotype of two domains identified in the AbiP sequence. We show that AbiP is a protein anchored to the membrane by an N-terminal membrane-spanning domain. Our results further suggest that membrane localization may be required for the anti-phage activity of AbiP. The remainder of the protein, which contains a putative nucleic acid binding domain, is shown to be located on the cytosolic side. Purified AbiP is shown to bind nucleic acids with an approximately 10-fold preference for RNA relative to ssDNA. AbiP interaction with both ssDNA and RNA molecules occurs in a sequence-independent manner. We have analyzed the effect of substitutions of aromatic and basic residues on the surface of the putative binding fold. In vitro and in vivo studies of these AbiP derivatives indicate that the previously reported effects on phage development might be dependent on the nucleic acid binding activity displayed by the membrane-bound protein.

  20. Comparison of abortion and infection after experimental challenge of pregnant bison and cattle with Brucella abortus strain 2308

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative study was conducted using data from naive bison (n=45) and cattle (n=46) from 8 and 6 studies, respectively, in which a standardized Brucella abortus strain 2308 experimental challenge was administered. The incidence of abortion, fetal infection, uterine or mammary infection, or infec...

  1. Letter: The Canadian abortion law.

    PubMed

    Coffey, P G

    1976-08-01

    Removing abortion from the Criminal Code in Canada will mean that more and more abortions will be performed for nonmedical reasons which will result in an abortion-on-demand situation similar to that in Japan. Early complications of abortion include death, hemorrhage, shock, cervical injury, and infection. Later complications include premature births, spontaneous abortions, ectopic pregnancies, pelvic inflammation, and infertility. Legalized abortion does not seem to reduce the incidence of illegal abortion. There are also psychological, moral, and sociological consequences of legalized abortion. It would seem that liberal abortion makes bad medicine and leads to far-reaching consequences.

  2. Vaccines against a Major Cause of Abortion in Cattle, Neospora caninum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Monney, Thierry; Debache, Karim; Hemphill, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary We review the efforts to develop a vaccine against neosporosis, caused by the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum. Vertical transmission is the main mode of infection, and can lead to stillbirth, abortion, or birth of weak calves. We provide information on the biology of Neospora caninum and on the disease caused by this parasite, and summarize the current understanding on how the host deals with infection. We review studies on live- and subunit-vaccines, and demonstrate advantages and setbacks in the use of small laboratory animal models in investigations on a disease with high relevance in cattle. Abstract Neosporosis, caused by the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum, represents one of the economically most important causes of abortion in cattle. During pregnancy, the parasite infects the placental tissue and the fetus, which can lead to stillbirth, abortion, or birth of weak calves. Alternatively, calves are born without clinical symptoms, but they can carry over the parasite to the next generation. In addition, N. caninum causes neuromuscular disease in dogs. The economic importance of neosporosis has prompted researchers to invest in the development of measures to prevent infection of cattle by vaccination. A good vaccine must stimulate protective cellular immune responses as well as antibody responses at mucosal sites and, systemically, must activate T-helper cells to produce relevant cytokines, and must elicit specific antibodies that aid in limiting parasite proliferation, e.g., by interference with host cell invasion, activation of complement, and/or opsonization of parasites to have them killed by macrophages. Different types of vaccines have been investigated, either in bovines or in the mouse model. These include live vaccines such as naturally less virulent isolates of N. caninum, attenuated strains generated by irradiation or chemical means, or genetically modified transgenic strains. Live vaccines were shown to be very effective

  3. Synthesis of human adenovirus early RNA species is similar in productive and abortive infections of monkey and human cells.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, K P; Klessig, D F

    1982-01-01

    Northern (RNA) blot analysis has been used to show that synthesis of early mRNA species is similar in monkey cells productively or abortively infected with human adenovirus. mRNA species from all five major early regions (1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4) are identical in size and comparable in abundance whether isolated from monkey cells infected with adenovirus type 2 or with the host range mutant Ad2hr400 or coinfected with adenovirus type 2 plus simian virus 40. The mRNA species isolated from monkey cells are identical in size to those isolated from human cells. Production of virus-associated RNA is also identical in productive and abortive infections of monkey cells. Synthesis of virus-associated RNA is, however, significantly greater in HeLa cells than in CV1 cells at late times after infection regardless of which virus is used in the infection. Images PMID:6283181

  4. Comparison of abortion and infection after experimental challenge of pregnant bison and cattle with Brucella abortus strain 2308.

    PubMed

    Olsen, S C; Johnson, C

    2011-12-01

    A comparative study was conducted using data from naive bison (n = 45) and cattle (n = 46) from 8 and 6 studies, respectively, in which a standardized Brucella abortus strain 2308 experimental challenge was administered during midgestation. The incidence of abortion, fetal infection, uterine or mammary infection, or infection in maternal tissues after experimental challenge was greater (P < 0.05) in bison than in cattle. In animals that did abort, the time between experimental challenge and abortion was shorter (P < 0.05) for bison than for cattle. Brucella colonization of four target tissues and serologic responses on the standard tube agglutination test at the time of abortion did not differ (P > 0.05) between cattle and bison. The results of our study suggest that naive bison and cattle have similarities and differences after experimental exposure to a virulent B. abortus strain. Although our data suggest that bison may be more susceptible to infection with Brucella, some pathogenic characteristics of brucellosis were similar between bison and cattle.

  5. Abortion - surgical

    MedlinePlus

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  6. Evaluation of DNA extraction protocols for Brucella abortus pcr detection in aborted fetuses or calves born from cows experimentally infected with strain 2308

    PubMed Central

    Matrone, M.; Keid, L.B.; Rocha, V.C.M.; Vejarano, M.P.; Ikuta, C.Y.; Rodriguez, C.A.R.; Ferreira, F.; Dias, R.A.; Ferreira Neto, J.S

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to improve the detection of B. abortus by PCR in organs of aborted fetuses from infected cows, an important mechanism to find infected herds on the eradication phase of the program. So, different DNA extraction protocols were compared, focusing the PCR detection of B. abortus in clinical samples collected from aborted fetuses or calves born from cows challenged with the 2308 B. abortus strain. Therefore, two gold standard groups were built based on classical bacteriology, formed from: 32 lungs (17 positives), 26 spleens (11 positives), 23 livers (8 positives) and 22 bronchial lymph nodes (7 positives). All samples were submitted to three DNA extraction protocols, followed by the same amplification process with the primers B4 and B5. From the accumulated results for organ, the proportion of positives for the lungs was higher than the livers (p=0.04) or bronchial lymph nodes (p=0.004) and equal to the spleens (p=0.18). From the accumulated results for DNA extraction protocol, the proportion of positives for the Boom protocol was bigger than the PK (p< 0.0001) and GT (p=0.0004). There was no difference between the PK and GT protocols (p=0.5). Some positive samples from the classical bacteriology were negative to the PCR and vice-versa. Therefore, the best strategy for B. abortus detection in the organs of aborted fetuses or calves born from infected cows is the use, in parallel, of isolation by classical bacteriology and the PCR, with the DNA extraction performed by the Boom protocol. PMID:24031391

  7. Blood-Derived CD4 T Cells Naturally Resist Pyroptosis During Abortive HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Arias, Isa; Doitsh, Gilad; Yang, Zhiyuan; Sowinski, Stefanie; Ruelas, Debbie; Greene, Warner C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Progression to AIDS is driven by CD4 T-cell depletion, mostly involving pyroptosis elicited by abortive HIV infection of CD4 T cells in lymphoid tissues. Inefficient reverse transcription in these cells leads to cytoplasmic accumulation of viral DNAs that are detected by the DNA sensor IFI16, resulting in inflammasome assembly, caspase-1 activation, and pyroptosis. Unexpectedly, we found that peripheral blood-derived CD4 T cells naturally resist pyroptosis. This resistance is partly due to their deeper resting state, resulting in fewer HIV-1 reverse transcripts and lower IFI16 expression. However, when co-cultured with lymphoid-derived cells, blood-derived CD4 T cells become sensitized to pyroptosis, likely recapitulating interactions occurring within lymphoid tissues. Sensitization correlates with higher levels of activated NF-κB, IFI16 expression, and reverse transcription. Blood-derived lymphocytes re-purified from co-cultures lose sensitivity to pyroptosis. These differences highlight how the lymphoid tissue microenvironment encountered by trafficking CD4 T lymphocytes dynamically shapes their biological response to HIV. PMID:26468749

  8. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM RECENTLY INFECTED ABORTED EGYPTIAN WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Badr, Mohamed S; Attia, Samar S; El-Sherbiny, Walid S; Abd-Allah M A, El Ebidi; Hefny, Hesham M; Salem, Ahmed N M

    2016-04-01

    Toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in human beings. Human toxoplasmosis can be associated with serious clinical manifestations, particularly in developing fetus. The aim of the current study was to identify the possible lineage type of Toxoplasma gondii, molecularly detected in placental samples of women whose pregnancies were spontaneously terminated in the first trimester. Preliminary detection of Toxoplasma genomic materials was done by a SYBR green qPCR technology. Subsequent identification of Toxoplasma strain was done for the positive samples using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) at the SAG2 loci of T. gondii using restriction enzymes HhaI and Sau3AI. Out of 72 tested samples, Toxoplasma B1 gene was detected in 9 cases. Toxoplasma genotypes I and II in addition to unknown type were identified in 4, 3 and 2 cases respectively, while type III was not detected in our samples, hence excluded as a leading cause of abortion in humans in our preliminary study. Nevertheless, it remains uncertain to what extent the genotype of the parasite directly contributes to the clinical severity of human toxoplasmosis. Certainly, advanced molecular techniques targeting different Toxoplasma strains are crucial for better understanding of human toxoplasmosis. For more elucidation, additional studies are recommended intended for genetic characterization of such serious parasitic infection using larger number of samples. PMID:27363040

  9. Immunological analogy between allograft rejection, recurrent abortion and pre-eclampsia - the same basic mechanism?

    PubMed

    Wilczyński, Jacek R

    2006-07-01

    There are still controversies concerning the role of immunological mechanisms engaged both in recurrent abortions (RA) and pre-eclampsia (PE). According to some opinions, recurrent miscarriage is comparable to organ-specific autoimmune disease. Analysis of immune reactions shows that graft rejection shares many similar mechanisms with RA and PE. This fact allows us to conclude that rejection of transplanted alloantigenic organs and pregnancy loss have probably the same evolutionary origin. Subsets and functions of immunocompetent cells (T CD4, suppressor gammadeltaT, cytotoxic T CD8, Treg, Tr1, uterine NK cells), over-activation of innate immunity (activation of NK cytotoxic cells, macrophages, neutrophils and complement), changes of Th1/Th2 cytokine balance (IL-2, IL-12, IL-15, IL-18, IFNgamma, TNFalpha vs. IL-4, IL-10, TGFbeta), importance of HLA-G molecule, CD200/CD200R interaction, over-expression of adhesion molecules, fgl2 prothrombinase activation and stimulation of IDO and HO expression, all suggest that RA and PE are syndromes of fetal allograft rejection, and not organ-specific autoimmune diseases. According to that supposition, an analogy might exist between acute graft rejection and recurrent abortion, and between chronic graft rejection and pre-eclampsia. PMID:16829304

  10. Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis reveals mechanisms of embryo abortion during chrysanthemum cross breeding

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Wang, Zhiquan; Dong, Wen; Sun, Chunqing; Wang, Haibin; Song, Aiping; He, Lizhong; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi; Teng, Nianjun

    2014-01-01

    Embryo abortion is the main cause of failure in chrysanthemum cross breeding, and the genes and proteins associated with embryo abortion are poorly understood. Here, we applied RNA sequencing and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) to analyse transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of normal and abortive embryos. More than 68,000 annotated unigenes and 700 proteins were obtained from normal and abortive embryos. Functional analysis showed that 140 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 41 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were involved in embryo abortion. Most DEGs and DEPs associated with cell death, protein degradation, reactive oxygen species scavenging, and stress-response transcriptional factors were significantly up-regulated in abortive embryos relative to normal embryos. In contrast, most genes and proteins related to cell division and expansion, the cytoskeleton, protein synthesis and energy metabolism were significantly down-regulated in abortive embryos. Furthermore, abortive embryos had the highest activity of three executioner caspase-like enzymes. These results indicate that embryo abortion may be related to programmed cell death and the senescence- or death-associated genes or proteins contribute to embryo abortion. This adds to our understanding of embryo abortion and will aid in the cross breeding of chrysanthemum and other crops in the future. PMID:25288482

  11. Design, Development and Test Challenges: Separation Mechanisms for the Orion Pad Abort-1 Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinsel, Alison; Morrey, Jeremy M.; OMalley, Patrick; Park, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    On May 6, 2010, NASA launched the first successful integrated flight test, Pad Abort-1, of the Orion Project from the White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces, New Mexico. This test demonstrated the ability to perform an emergency pad abort of a full-scale 4.8 m diameter, 8200 kg crew capsule. During development of the critical separation mechanisms for this flight test, various challenges were overcome related to environments definition, installation complications, separation joint retraction speed, thruster ordnance development issues, load path validation and significant design loads increases. The Launch Abort System retention and release (LAS R&R) mechanism consisted of 6 discrete structural connections between the LAS and the crew module (CM) simulator, each of which had a preloaded tension tie, Superbolt torque-nut and frangible nut. During the flight test, the frangible nuts were pyrotechnically split, permitting the CM to separate from the LAS. The LAS separation event was the driving case in the shock environment for many co-located hardware items. During development testing, it was necessary to measure the source shock during the separation event so the predicted shock environment could be validated and used for certification testing of multiple hardware items. The Lockheed Martin test team measured the source separation shock due to the LAS R&R function, which dramatically decreased the predicted environment by 90% at 100 Hz. During development testing a hydraulic tensioner was used to preload the joint; however, the joint relaxation with the tensioner proved unsatisfactory so the design was modified to include a Superbolt torque-nut. The observed preload creep during lab testing was 4% after 30 days, with 2.5% occurring in the first 24 hours. The conversion of strain energy (preload) to kinetic energy (retraction) was measured to be 50-75%. Design features and careful monitoring of multiple strain gauges on each tension tie allowed a pure tensile load

  12. Induced Abortion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Induced Abortion Patient Education FAQs Induced Abortion Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  13. [A mutation in the mechanisms of social control: the case of abortion].

    PubMed

    Horellou-lafarge, C

    1982-01-01

    This article examines the process by which the control and suppression of abortion shifted from the judicial domain to become an object of medical control in France. Abortion was a crime under the Napoleonic Code of 1810 and remained severely punishable for a century, but the law was regarded as too severe and prosecution was lax. The prescribed punishments became less stringent in 1923 but were later toughened again. Laws against abortion did not seem fair to much of the population concerned or to many of those charged with enforcing the laws, and they did not seem to uphold any inviolable moral principle. Increasing discontent with existing abortion laws, which were felt no longer to reflect the needs or mores of the society, and moreover to penalize poor women, who could not afford medically safe abortions abroad, and a belief that the law was doing nothing to reduce the numbers of abortions were among the stimuli that prompted the search for improved legislation. The public debate about the revised abortion law and the proper role of physicians and magistrates in determing access to abortion are traced though an exposition of opinions and quotations of the major participants in the controversy. The law of 1975 removed abortion from the control of magistrates and thereby liberalized access to it, but by entrusting access to abortion to the medical profession, the law embodied a bias toward preventing abortion. New social forces were behind the 1975 law, including pressure from women's groups which were developing a new consciousness of their rights and place in society, and a new role of medical practitioners, who occupy a privileged position in a social system based on knowledge rather than property. The new law still regards abortion as an evil and attempts to discourage it by imposing numerous constraints concerning when, where, and by whom it can be performed, by not requiring health personnel or facilities to make abortion available and by limiting the

  14. Human Papillomavirus Infection as a Possible Cause of Spontaneous Abortion and Spontaneous Preterm Delivery.

    PubMed

    Ambühl, Lea Maria Margareta; Baandrup, Ulrik; Dybkær, Karen; Blaakær, Jan; Uldbjerg, Niels; Sørensen, Suzette

    2016-01-01

    Based on the current literature, we aimed to provide an overview on Human Papillomavirus prevalence in normal pregnancies and pregnancies with adverse outcome. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed and Embase. Data extracted from the articles and used for analysis included HPV prevalence, pregnancy outcome, geographical location, investigated tissue types, and HPV detection methods. The overall HPV prevalence in normal full-term pregnancies was found to be 17.5% (95% CI; 17.3-17.7) for cervix, 8.3% (95% CI; 7.6-9.1) for placental tissue, 5.7% (95% CI; 5.1-6.3) for amniotic fluid, and 10.9% (95% CI; 10.1-11.7) for umbilical cord blood. Summary estimates for HPV prevalence of spontaneous abortions and spontaneous preterm deliveries, in cervix (spontaneous abortions: 24.5%, and preterm deliveries: 47%, resp.) and placenta (spontaneous abortions: 24.9%, and preterm deliveries: 50%, resp.), were identified to be higher compared to normal full-term pregnancies (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001). Great variation in HPV prevalence was observed between study populations of different geographical locations. This review demonstrates an association between spontaneous abortion, spontaneous preterm delivery, and the presence of HPV in both the cervix and the placenta. However, a reliable conclusion is difficult to draw due to the limited number of studies conducted on material from pregnancies with adverse outcome and the risk of residual confounding. PMID:27110088

  15. Human Papillomavirus Infection as a Possible Cause of Spontaneous Abortion and Spontaneous Preterm Delivery.

    PubMed

    Ambühl, Lea Maria Margareta; Baandrup, Ulrik; Dybkær, Karen; Blaakær, Jan; Uldbjerg, Niels; Sørensen, Suzette

    2016-01-01

    Based on the current literature, we aimed to provide an overview on Human Papillomavirus prevalence in normal pregnancies and pregnancies with adverse outcome. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed and Embase. Data extracted from the articles and used for analysis included HPV prevalence, pregnancy outcome, geographical location, investigated tissue types, and HPV detection methods. The overall HPV prevalence in normal full-term pregnancies was found to be 17.5% (95% CI; 17.3-17.7) for cervix, 8.3% (95% CI; 7.6-9.1) for placental tissue, 5.7% (95% CI; 5.1-6.3) for amniotic fluid, and 10.9% (95% CI; 10.1-11.7) for umbilical cord blood. Summary estimates for HPV prevalence of spontaneous abortions and spontaneous preterm deliveries, in cervix (spontaneous abortions: 24.5%, and preterm deliveries: 47%, resp.) and placenta (spontaneous abortions: 24.9%, and preterm deliveries: 50%, resp.), were identified to be higher compared to normal full-term pregnancies (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001). Great variation in HPV prevalence was observed between study populations of different geographical locations. This review demonstrates an association between spontaneous abortion, spontaneous preterm delivery, and the presence of HPV in both the cervix and the placenta. However, a reliable conclusion is difficult to draw due to the limited number of studies conducted on material from pregnancies with adverse outcome and the risk of residual confounding.

  16. Regulated CRISPR Modules Exploit a Dual Defense Strategy of Restriction and Abortive Infection in a Model of Prokaryote-Phage Coevolution

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M. Senthil; Plotkin, Joshua B.; Hannenhalli, Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    CRISPRs offer adaptive immunity in prokaryotes by acquiring genomic fragments from infecting phage and subsequently exploiting them for phage restriction via an RNAi-like mechanism. Here, we develop and analyze a dynamical model of CRISPR-mediated prokaryote-phage coevolution that incorporates classical CRISPR kinetics along with the recently discovered infection-induced activation and autoimmunity side effects. Our analyses reveal two striking characteristics of the CRISPR defense strategy: that both restriction and abortive infections operate during coevolution with phages, driving phages to much lower densities than possible with restriction alone, and that CRISPR maintenance is determined by a key dimensionless combination of parameters, which upper bounds the activation level of CRISPRs in uninfected populations. We contrast these qualitative observations with experimental data on CRISPR kinetics, which offer insight into the spacer deletion mechanism and the observed low CRISPR prevalence in clinical isolates. More generally, we exploit numerical simulations to delineate four regimes of CRISPR dynamics in terms of its host, kinetic, and regulatory parameters. PMID:26544847

  17. Human Papillomavirus Infection as a Possible Cause of Spontaneous Abortion and Spontaneous Preterm Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ambühl, Lea Maria Margareta; Baandrup, Ulrik; Dybkær, Karen; Blaakær, Jan; Uldbjerg, Niels; Sørensen, Suzette

    2016-01-01

    Based on the current literature, we aimed to provide an overview on Human Papillomavirus prevalence in normal pregnancies and pregnancies with adverse outcome. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed and Embase. Data extracted from the articles and used for analysis included HPV prevalence, pregnancy outcome, geographical location, investigated tissue types, and HPV detection methods. The overall HPV prevalence in normal full-term pregnancies was found to be 17.5% (95% CI; 17.3–17.7) for cervix, 8.3% (95% CI; 7.6–9.1) for placental tissue, 5.7% (95% CI; 5.1–6.3) for amniotic fluid, and 10.9% (95% CI; 10.1–11.7) for umbilical cord blood. Summary estimates for HPV prevalence of spontaneous abortions and spontaneous preterm deliveries, in cervix (spontaneous abortions: 24.5%, and preterm deliveries: 47%, resp.) and placenta (spontaneous abortions: 24.9%, and preterm deliveries: 50%, resp.), were identified to be higher compared to normal full-term pregnancies (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001). Great variation in HPV prevalence was observed between study populations of different geographical locations. This review demonstrates an association between spontaneous abortion, spontaneous preterm delivery, and the presence of HPV in both the cervix and the placenta. However, a reliable conclusion is difficult to draw due to the limited number of studies conducted on material from pregnancies with adverse outcome and the risk of residual confounding. PMID:27110088

  18. Abortive Intrabronchial Infection of Rhesus Macaques with Varicella-Zoster Virus Provides Partial Protection against Simian Varicella Virus Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Christine; Engelmann, Flora; Arnold, Nicole; Krah, David L.; ter Meulen, Jan; Haberthur, Kristen; Dewane, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human neurotropic alphaherpesvirus and the etiological agent of varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (HZ, shingles). Previously, inoculation of monkeys via the subcutaneous, intratracheal, intravenous, or oral-nasal-conjunctival routes did not recapitulate all the hallmarks of VZV infection, including varicella, immunity, latency, and reactivation. Intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques (RMs) with simian varicella virus (SVV), a homolog of VZV, recapitulates virologic and immunologic hallmarks of VZV infection in humans. Given that VZV is acquired primarily via the respiratory route, we investigated whether intrabronchial inoculation of RMs with VZV would result in a robust model. Despite the lack of varicella and viral replication in either the lungs or whole blood, all four RMs generated an immune response characterized by the generation of VZV-specific antibodies and T cells. Two of 4 VZV-inoculated RMs were challenged with SVV to determine cross-protection. VZV-immune RMs displayed no varicella rash and had lower SVV viral loads and earlier and stronger humoral and cellular immune responses than controls. In contrast to the results for SVV DNA, no VZV DNA was detected in sensory ganglia at necropsy. In summary, following an abortive VZV infection, RMs developed an adaptive immune response that conferred partial protection against SVV challenge. These data suggest that a replication-incompetent VZV vaccine that does not establish latency may provide sufficient protection against VZV disease and that VZV vaccination of RMs followed by SVV challenge provides a model to evaluate new vaccines and therapeutics against VZV. IMPORTANCE Although VZV vaccine strain Oka is attenuated, it can cause mild varicella, establish latency, and in rare cases, reactivate to cause herpes zoster (HZ). Moreover, studies suggest that the HZ vaccine (Zostavax) only confers short-lived immunity. The development of more efficacious

  19. [HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTION IN PREGNANT WOMEN OF I AND II TRIMESTER].

    PubMed

    Cheshik, S G; Kisteneva, L B

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was the evaluation of the frequency of human CMV infection among the women, whose pregnancy ended in miscarriage, detection of active forms of infection and treatment before pregnancy. Virological and sero-immunological techniques were used. A total of 116 women who had miscarriages before the 28 week of pregnancy were submitted to the CMV test. 109 women (94.0%) demonstrated positive results. 49 women (42.2%) had active form of the cytomegalovirus infection. 13 women (26.5%) had the recurrent form and 36 patients (73.5%) had the persistent form of CMV infection (stage of productive replication). All the women with active CMVI were treated before the next pregnancy. Immunomodulatory therapy for the treatment was used. PMID:27451499

  20. [HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTION IN PREGNANT WOMEN OF I AND II TRIMESTER].

    PubMed

    Cheshik, S G; Kisteneva, L B

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was the evaluation of the frequency of human CMV infection among the women, whose pregnancy ended in miscarriage, detection of active forms of infection and treatment before pregnancy. Virological and sero-immunological techniques were used. A total of 116 women who had miscarriages before the 28 week of pregnancy were submitted to the CMV test. 109 women (94.0%) demonstrated positive results. 49 women (42.2%) had active form of the cytomegalovirus infection. 13 women (26.5%) had the recurrent form and 36 patients (73.5%) had the persistent form of CMV infection (stage of productive replication). All the women with active CMVI were treated before the next pregnancy. Immunomodulatory therapy for the treatment was used.

  1. Small and middle T antigens contribute to lytic and abortive polyomavirus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Tuerler, H.; Salomon, C.

    1985-02-01

    Using three different polyomavirus hr-t mutants and two polyomavirus mlT mutants, the authors studied induction of S-phase by mutants and wild-type virus in quiescent mouse kidney cells, mouse 3T6 cells, and FR 3T3 cells. At different times after infection, they measured the proportion of T-antigen-positive cells, the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine, the proportion of DNA-synthesizing cells, and the increase in total DNA, RNA, and protein content of the cultures. In permissive mouse cells, they also determined the amount of viral DNA and the proportion of viral capsid-producing cells. In polyomavirus hr-t mutant-infected cultures, the onset of host DNA replication was delayed by several hours, and a smaller proportion of T-antigen-positive cells entered S-phase than in wild-type-infected cultures. Of the two polyomavirus mlT mutants studied, dl-23 behaved similarly to wild-type virus in many, but not all, parameters tested. The poorly replicating but well-transforming mutant dl-8 was able to induce S-phase, and (in permissive cells) progeny virus production, in only about one-third of the T-antigen-positive cells. From the experiments, the authors concluded that mutations affecting small and middle T-antigen cause a reduction in the proportion of cells responding to virus infection and a prolongation of the early phase, i.e., the period before cells center S-phase. In hr-t mutant-infected mouse 3T6 cells, production of viral DNA was <10% of that in wild-type-infected cultures; low hr-t progeny production in 3T6 cells was therefore largely due to poor viral DNA replication.

  2. Abortion Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brashear, Diane B.

    1973-01-01

    The author discusses the characteristics and feelings of women undergoing abortion. She mentions the decisions which counselors must help such women face, the information they must be given, and the types of support they need. Increased counseling services are needed, she feels, for the markedly increased number of women seeking abortions. (EK)

  3. Fern L-methionine decarboxylase: Kinetics and mechanism of decarboxylation and abortive transamination

    SciTech Connect

    Akhtar, M.; Stevenson, D.E.; Gani, D. )

    1990-08-21

    L-Methionine decarboxylase from Dryopteris filix-mas catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-methionine and a range of straight- and branched-chain L-amino acids to give the corresponding amine products. The deuterium solvent isotope effects for the decarboxylation of (2S)-methionine are {sup D}(V/K) = 6.5 and {sup D}V = 2.3, for (2S)-valine are {sup D}(V/K) = 1.9 and {sup D}V = 2.6, and for (2S)-lecuine are {sup D}(V/K) = 2.5 and {sup D}V = 1.0 at pL 5.5. At pL 6.0 and above, where the value of k{sub cat} for all of the substrates is low, the solvent isotope effects on V{sub max} for methionine are 1.1-1.2 whereas the effects on V/K remain unchanged, indicating that the solvent-sensitive transition state occurs before the first irreversible step, carbon dioxide desorption. At very high concentration, the product amine can promote transamination of the coenzyme. However, the reaction occurs infrequently and does not influence the partitioning between decarboxylation and substrate-mediated abortive transamination under steady-state turnover conditions. The partition ratio, normal catalytic versus abortive events, can be determined from the amount of substrate consumed by a known amount of enzyme at infinite time, and the rate of inactivation can be determined by measuring the decrease in enzyme activity with respect to time. Experiments conducted in deuterium oxide allowed the solvent isotope effects for the partition ratio and the abortive reaction to be determined. {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopic analysis of 3-(methylthio)-1-aminopropane isolated from incubations conducted in 50 molar % deuterium oxide at pL 4.8 and at pL 6.5 indicated that the proton donor was monoprotic and, therefore, is probably the imidazolium side chain of a histidine residue.

  4. Re-establishment of menstruation after abortion.

    PubMed

    Purola, E; Nerdrum, T

    1968-01-01

    The sample consisted of 33 patients who had had abortions in the 7-18 week of pregnancy, except 1 case where the duration of pregnancy had been 25 weeks. In 21 cases legal interruption of pregnancy had been carried out. The remaining 12 came to the hospital after the onset of bleeding. Methods used for the determination of ovulation were measurements of the basal temperature, cytological smear, and single endometrial biopsy. The interval between abortions and the onset of menstruation was 25-64 days, the average being 39 days. Endometrial biopsies were done on all patients 16-39 days after ovulation. The first cycle after abortion was determined to be anovular in 25, and probably so in 4 others, while ovulation had occurred in 4. In the 21 patients having had therapeutic abortions ovulation had occurred in only 1 while in the 12 patients who had had spontaneous abortions ovulation occurred in 3. Histological findings were hyperplastic endometrium in 3, endometritis in 6 and retained fragments in 5. Check-up examination of 27 patients at the second menstrual period established that 15 had ovular cycles. Patients having legal abortion were routinely given 5 mg of estradiolbenzoate a day to a total of 10-15 mg. It is thought that this dose of estrogen may depress pituitary activity and thus disturb the mechanism leading to normal ovulation. Of 41 cytological vaginal smears 15 could not be analyzed owing to infection. All but 1 of the remaining showed results consistent with those obtained by biopsy.

  5. Protective role of heme oxygenase-1 in Listeria monocytogenes-induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Masato; Hashino, Masanori; Nishida, Takashi; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2011-01-01

    It is well-known fact that various pathogens, including bacteria, virus, and protozoa, induce abortion in humans and animals. However the mechanisms of infectious abortion are little known. In this study, we demonstrated that Listeria monocytogenes infection in trophoblast giant cells decreased heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-XL) expression, and that their overexpression inhibited cell death induced by the infection. Furthermore, HO-1 and Bcl-XL expression levels were also decreased by L. monocytogenes in pregnant mice. Treatment with cobalt protoporphyrin, which is known to induce HO-1, inhibited infectious abortion. Taken together, our study indicates that L. monocytogenes infection decreases HO-1 and Bcl-XL expression and induces cell death in placenta, leading to infectious abortion.

  6. The Nef-Infectivity Enigma: Mechanisms of Enhanced Lentiviral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vermeire, Jolien; Vanbillemont, Griet; Witkowski, Wojciech; Verhasselt, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The Nef protein is an essential factor for lentiviral pathogenesis in humans and other simians. Despite a multitude of functions attributed to this protein, the exact role of Nef in disease progression remains unclear. One of its most intriguing functions is the ability of Nef to enhance the infectivity of viral particles. In this review we will discuss current insights in the mechanism of this well-known, yet poorly understood Nef effect. We will elaborate on effects of Nef, on both virion biogenesis and the early stage of the cellular infection, that might be involved in infectivity enhancement. In addition, we provide an overview of different HIV-1 Nef domains important for optimal infectivity and briefly discuss some possible sources of the frequent discrepancies in the field. Hereby we aim to contribute to a better understanding of this highly conserved and therapeutically attractive Nef function. PMID:22103831

  7. Abortion ethics.

    PubMed

    Fromer, M J

    1982-04-01

    Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view

  8. Abortive infection of snakehead fish vesiculovirus in ZF4 cells was associated with the RLRs pathway activation by viral replicative intermediates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenwen; Asim, Muhammad; Yi, Lizhu; Hegazy, Abeer M; Hu, Xianqin; Zhou, Yang; Ai, Taoshan; Lin, Li

    2015-03-18

    Snakehead fish vesiculovirus (SHVV) is a negative strand RNA virus which can cause great economic losses in fish culture. To facilitate the study of SHVV-host interactions, the susceptibility of zebrafish embryonic fibroblast cell line (ZF4) to the SHVV was investigated in this report. The results showed that high amount of viral mRNAs and cRNAs were detected at the 3 h post-infection. However, the expressions of the viral mRNAs and cRNA were decreased dramatically after 6 h post-infection. In addition, the expressions of interferon (IFN) and interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx were all up regulated significantly at the late stage of the infection. Meanwhile, the expressions of Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) were also all up-regulated significantly during the infection. Two isoforms of DrLGP2 from zebrafish were also cloned and analyzed. Interestingly, the expression of DrLGP2a but not DrLGP2b was significantly up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels, indicating that the two DrLGP2 isoforms might play different roles during the SHVV infection. Transfection experiment showed that viral replicative intermediates were required for the activation of IFN-α expression. Taken together, the abortive infection of SHVV in ZF4 cells was associated with the activation of RLRs pathway, which was activated by viral replicative intermediates.

  9. Protective immune mechanisms in helminth infection

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Robert M.; Rutitzky, Laura I.; Urban, Joseph F.; Stadecker, Miguel J.; Gause, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Important insights have recently been gained in our understanding of how host immune responses mediate resistance to parasitic helminths and control associated pathological responses. Although similar cells and cytokines are evoked in response to infection by helminths as diverse as nematodes and schistosomes, the components of the response that mediate protection are dependent on the particular parasite. In this Review, we examine recent findings regarding the mechanisms of protection in helminth infections that have been elucidated in murine models and discuss the implications of these findings in terms of future therapies. PMID:18007680

  10. Dual congenital transmission of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona in a late-term aborted pup from a chronically infected southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis).

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Karen; Miller, Melissa A; Packham, Andrea E; Aguilar, Beatriz; Conrad, Patricia A; Vanwormer, Elizabeth; Murray, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona are protozoan parasites with terrestrial definitive hosts, and both pathogens can cause fatal disease in a wide range of marine animals. Close monitoring of threatened southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) in California allowed for the diagnosis of dual transplacental transmission of T. gondii and S. neurona in a wild female otter that was chronically infected with both parasites. Congenital infection resulted in late-term abortion due to disseminated toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii and S. neurona DNA was amplified from placental tissue culture, as well as from fetal lung tissue. Molecular characterization of T. gondii revealed a Type X genotype in isolates derived from placenta and fetal brain, as well as in all tested fetal organs (brain, lung, spleen, liver and thymus). This report provides the first evidence for transplacental transmission of T. gondii in a chronically infected wild sea otter, and the first molecular and immunohistochemical confirmation of concurrent transplacental transmission of T. gondii and S. neurona in any species. Repeated fetal and/or neonatal losses in the sea otter dam also suggested that T. gondii has the potential to reduce fecundity in chronically infected marine mammals through parasite recrudescence and repeated fetal infection.

  11. Dual congenital transmission of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona in a late-term aborted pup from a chronically infected southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis).

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Karen; Miller, Melissa A; Packham, Andrea E; Aguilar, Beatriz; Conrad, Patricia A; Vanwormer, Elizabeth; Murray, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona are protozoan parasites with terrestrial definitive hosts, and both pathogens can cause fatal disease in a wide range of marine animals. Close monitoring of threatened southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) in California allowed for the diagnosis of dual transplacental transmission of T. gondii and S. neurona in a wild female otter that was chronically infected with both parasites. Congenital infection resulted in late-term abortion due to disseminated toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii and S. neurona DNA was amplified from placental tissue culture, as well as from fetal lung tissue. Molecular characterization of T. gondii revealed a Type X genotype in isolates derived from placenta and fetal brain, as well as in all tested fetal organs (brain, lung, spleen, liver and thymus). This report provides the first evidence for transplacental transmission of T. gondii in a chronically infected wild sea otter, and the first molecular and immunohistochemical confirmation of concurrent transplacental transmission of T. gondii and S. neurona in any species. Repeated fetal and/or neonatal losses in the sea otter dam also suggested that T. gondii has the potential to reduce fecundity in chronically infected marine mammals through parasite recrudescence and repeated fetal infection. PMID:26494610

  12. [Recurrent spontaneous abortions].

    PubMed

    Salat-Baroux, J

    1988-01-01

    The process of fertilization in humans, is remarkably inefficient. Spontaneous abortion is estimated to be between 15 and 20% of all clinical pregnancies, and the early spontaneous abortion rate is closer to 30-50% of fertilized ova. Not all authors agree on the definition of "recurrent spontaneous abortion" (RSA), so the frequency of repeated pregnancy wastage is difficult to determine; from empirically derived data, it has been estimated to range between 0.4 and 0.8%. Because of the various etiologies of RSA, their association in determining an abortive event, it is difficult to evaluate their exact incidence. Moreover, their is no prospective study on this subject, so it is advisable to distinguish between the admitted causes, the likely factors, and the etiologies to be evaluated. In the first group, the congenital or acquired müllerian anomalies (especially the septate uterus), represent about 25% of the RSA, but a lot of problems concerning the physiopathology are still debated, even if the rate of pregnancies after surgery ranges around 50% in certain series. On the other hand, the genetic factors, identified especially with the banding technique, are undeniable: however, although the rate of chromosomal aberrations in the offspring (Monosomy X, Trisony 16, Triploidy) is very high (50 to 60% of spontaneous abortions in the first trimester of pregnancy), when couples with usual abortions are subjected to karyotypic analysis, genetic anomalies (especially translocations) are been noted in only 6.2% of the women and 2.6% of the men. In the second group, the infective factors (chlamydiae, toxoplasma and mycoplasma) are difficult to analyse since the serology is not sufficient without a real proof of an endometrial colonization. Among the endocrinological causes, the classical luteal phase deficiency remains a subject of controversy (estimated between 3 and 30%) not only for the establishment of the diagnosis, but also for the efficiency of progesterone

  13. [Acute complications of abortion].

    PubMed

    Obel, E

    1976-02-01

    The complications accompanying the various methods of abortion as studied in different surveys are reported. In studies of dilation and curettage (D and C) and vaccuum aspiration (VA), lethality ranges from .5 to 2.9 deaths/100,000 cases. Metrorrhagia occurred in 2.5-6% of the D and C cases studied and in 2.9-3.5% of the VA cases. The bleeding was accompanied by infection in most cases where abortive tissue remained in the uterus, which occured in .4-.8% of the D and C cases and in .6-.9% of the VA cases studied. Postabortive bleeding occurred through the 10th day in up to 25% of the patients and was related to the length of the gestation period before abortion. Pelvic infection, mostly of the endometrium, occurred in about 1.4% of the D and C patients and in .3-1.2% of the VA patients. 1.4% of the D and C patients and .6% of the VA patients experienced a rise in body temperature as the only complication of abortion. Perforation of the uterus occurred in about .8% of the D and C patients and in .1-.6% of VA patients. Lesions of the cervix had to be sutured in .1% of the D and C group and .3% of the VA group. Saline instillation, used for abortions in the second trimest er, had a mortality rate of about 20/100,000 cases. Since the success rate of saline instillation is 90-98%, complications are more frequent, often requiring treatment with oxytocin or curettage. Extensive bleeding occurred in 2.3-4%. Curettage of the placenta was required in about 2.1-16.9% of the cases. Pelvic inflammation occurred in about 2.5% and temperature elevation in 1-3.4%. Abdominal hysterotomies had a lethality of 208/100,000. Pelvic hemorrhage occurred in 31%, inflammation in 4.7%, temperature elevation in 13%, and febrile reactions in 31% of the abdominal hysterotomies studied. It is necessary to establish international definitions of abortion complications for better documentation, and postoperative observations should be recorded more conscientiously. PMID:1251502

  14. Elevated serum amyloid A levels in cases of aborted equine fetuses due to fetal and placental infections.

    PubMed

    Erol, Erdal; Jackson, Carney; Horohov, David; Locke, Stephan; Smith, Jacqueline; Carter, Craig

    2016-09-01

    Determination of fetal serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations in aborted fetuses can provide valuable information regarding the infectious and/or inflammatory process of abortion in horses. To investigate the relationship between fetal SAA levels and the infectious/inflammatory disease process in feto-placental tissues, a SAA ELISA was used to test heart serum samples of 89 equine fetuses that were necropsied and diagnosed in the following groups: a multiorgan disease process diagnosed with an identified microorganism (14 cases, group 1); only placentitis diagnosed with an identified microorganism (nine cases, group 2); only placentitis diagnosed with no microorganism identified (six cases, group 3); and no infectious or inflammatory disease process diagnosed (60 cases, group 4). Serum amyloid A concentrations in equine fetuses were elevated from 10.5 to ≥40 mg/L in 10 of 14 cases in group 1; and from less than 2.5 mg/L to greater than 40 mg/L in seven of nine cases in group 2. In group 3, SAA concentrations were found to be less than 2.5 mg/L in five of six cases. In group 4, SAA concentrations were less than 2.5 mg/L in 55 cases, whereas in five cases SAA concentrations were elevated. Statistical significant differences were found between the concentrations of SAA in fetal horse blood and the presence of infectious and/or inflammatory disease process in the feto-placental tissues when a causative microorganism was identified. These results suggest that testing SAA concentrations in fetal heart blood may aid in further understanding the causes of abortions in horses. PMID:27125694

  15. Group A Streptococcus endometritis following medical abortion.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Poyart, Claire; Kernéis, Solen

    2014-07-01

    Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol. PMID:24829245

  16. Group A Streptococcus Endometritis following Medical Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Kernéis, Solen

    2014-01-01

    Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol. PMID:24829245

  17. Abortion and infertility in Russia.

    PubMed

    Kulakov, V I

    1995-03-01

    The exceptionally high rate of induced abortion in Russia (204/100 live births in 1991) and of abortion-related genital tract infection and infertility implies an urgent need for both the prevention of unwanted pregnancy and less invasive abortion techniques. Vacuum aspiration is gradually replacing curettage as the abortion method of choice for first-trimester abortions, and research is being conducted on pharmacologic abortion involving prostaglandins in combination with RU-486. Infertility, which affects 10-15% of married Russian couples, accounts for 50% of visits to the largest gynecologic hospitals. 92% of women and 49% of men in couples with impaired fertility exhibit pathology of the reproductive system, primarily prior inflammatory morbidity of the genitalia. The use of surgery to correct these impairments is largely unsuccessful, especially when there has been prior treatment with the hydroturbation method. The Federal Family Planning Program for 1993-97 reflects increased awareness of the problem; among its goals are the creation of state and social structures for a family planning service, mass media campaigns, the preparation of educational materials on the avoidance of unwanted pregnancy, and staff training in sex education and family planning.

  18. Abortive infection of snakehead fish vesiculovirus in ZF4 cells was associated with the RLRs pathway activation by viral replicative intermediates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenwen; Asim, Muhammad; Yi, Lizhu; Hegazy, Abeer M; Hu, Xianqin; Zhou, Yang; Ai, Taoshan; Lin, Li

    2015-01-01

    Snakehead fish vesiculovirus (SHVV) is a negative strand RNA virus which can cause great economic losses in fish culture. To facilitate the study of SHVV-host interactions, the susceptibility of zebrafish embryonic fibroblast cell line (ZF4) to the SHVV was investigated in this report. The results showed that high amount of viral mRNAs and cRNAs were detected at the 3 h post-infection. However, the expressions of the viral mRNAs and cRNA were decreased dramatically after 6 h post-infection. In addition, the expressions of interferon (IFN) and interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx were all up regulated significantly at the late stage of the infection. Meanwhile, the expressions of Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) were also all up-regulated significantly during the infection. Two isoforms of DrLGP2 from zebrafish were also cloned and analyzed. Interestingly, the expression of DrLGP2a but not DrLGP2b was significantly up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels, indicating that the two DrLGP2 isoforms might play different roles during the SHVV infection. Transfection experiment showed that viral replicative intermediates were required for the activation of IFN-α expression. Taken together, the abortive infection of SHVV in ZF4 cells was associated with the activation of RLRs pathway, which was activated by viral replicative intermediates. PMID:25794284

  19. Abortive Infection of Snakehead Fish Vesiculovirus in ZF4 Cells Was Associated with the RLRs Pathway Activation by Viral Replicative Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenwen; Asim, Muhammad; Yi, Lizhu; Hegazy, Abeer M.; Hu, Xianqin; Zhou, Yang; Ai, Taoshan; Lin, Li

    2015-01-01

    Snakehead fish vesiculovirus (SHVV) is a negative strand RNA virus which can cause great economic losses in fish culture. To facilitate the study of SHVV-host interactions, the susceptibility of zebrafish embryonic fibroblast cell line (ZF4) to the SHVV was investigated in this report. The results showed that high amount of viral mRNAs and cRNAs were detected at the 3 h post-infection. However, the expressions of the viral mRNAs and cRNA were decreased dramatically after 6 h post-infection. In addition, the expressions of interferon (IFN) and interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx were all up regulated significantly at the late stage of the infection. Meanwhile, the expressions of Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) were also all up-regulated significantly during the infection. Two isoforms of DrLGP2 from zebrafish were also cloned and analyzed. Interestingly, the expression of DrLGP2a but not DrLGP2b was significantly up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels, indicating that the two DrLGP2 isoforms might play different roles during the SHVV infection. Transfection experiment showed that viral replicative intermediates were required for the activation of IFN-α expression. Taken together, the abortive infection of SHVV in ZF4 cells was associated with the activation of RLRs pathway, which was activated by viral replicative intermediates. PMID:25794284

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus Products in Productive and Abortive Infection I. Stabilization with Formaldehyde and Preliminary Analyses by Isopycnic Centrifugation in CsCl

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Susan B.; Roizman, Bernard

    1967-01-01

    Lysates of HEp-2 cells productively infected with herpes simplex virus yielded two bands on isopycnic centrifugation in CsCl gradients, ranging from 1.2 to 1.6 g/cm3. One band, designated α, had a mean buoyant density of 1.27 g/cm3 and contained herpes virions. Band β had a mean density of 1.305 g/cm3 and contained primarily complement-fixing viral antigens and little or no viral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The products banding in the α and β bands were unstable; fivefold or higher amounts were recovered by treating the cell extract with formaldehyde prior to centrifugation. Formaldehyde treatment increased the buoyant density of viral products in both the α and β bands by about 0.015 g/cm3. In addition, it stabilized hitherto inapparent products, forming a broad band γ with a density range of 1.37 to 1.45 g/cm3. The material in the γ band was heterogeneous; it contained viral DNA, cellular DNA, and viral antigen. Formalinized lysates of DK cells abortively infected with herpes simplex virus yielded a β band undifferentiated from that formed by extracts of productively infected cells. The γ band was less dense and narrower. The α band was entirely missing. PMID:4318948

  1. Immune responses and protection against infection and abortion in cattle experimentally vaccinated with mutant strains of Brucella abortus.

    PubMed

    Cheville, N F; Stevens, M G; Jensen, A E; Tatum, F M; Halling, S M

    1993-10-01

    Twenty-four 10-month-old Polled Hereford heifers were inoculated SC with live cells of one of the following strains of Brucella abortus: S19 delta 31K (n = 4), S19 delta SOD (n = 4), RB51 (n = 4), and strain 19 (n = 6); controls (n = 6) were given saline solution. Heifers given the deletion mutants S19 delta 31K and S19 delta SOD, and those given strain 19 developed antibody responses to B abortus and cutaneous reactions to brucellin. Heifers given strain RB51 did not develop antibodies that reacted in the standard tube agglutination test, but sera reacted in tests, using an antibody dot-blot assay containing RB51 antigen. The S19 delta 31K and S19 delta SOD strains of B abortus isolated from lymph node tissue after vaccination did not differ genetically from the master stock strain. All heifers were bred naturally at 16 to 17 months of age, and were challenge-exposed intraconjunctivally with virulent B abortus strain 2308 during the fifth month of pregnancy. All vaccinated heifers were protected (ie, none aborted and none had B abortus isolated from their tissues after parturition). Calves born from vaccinated dams were free of B abortus. Antibody responses in heifers after challenge exposure were an indicator of immunity. All 5 control heifers (nonvaccinated) developed serum antibodies after challenge exposure; 3 aborted, and 1 delivered a small, weak calf at 8.5 months of gestation. Thus live mutant strains of B abortus can induce protective immunity when given at 10 months of age, and strain RB51 is a strong candidate for further testing.

  2. Immediate Intrauterine Device Insertion Following Surgical Abortion.

    PubMed

    Patil, Eva; Bednarek, Paula H

    2015-12-01

    Placement of an intrauterine device (IUD) immediately after a first or second trimester surgical abortion is safe and convenient and decreases the risk of repeat unintended pregnancy. Immediate postabortion IUD placement is not recommended in the setting of postprocedure hemorrhage, uterine perforation, infection, or hematometra. Otherwise, there are few contraindications to IUD placement following surgical abortion. Sexually transmitted infection screening should follow US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. No additional antibiotics are needed beyond those used for the abortion. Placing immediate postabortion IUDs makes highly-effective long-acting reversible contraception more accessible to women. PMID:26598301

  3. Evidence for a common sex determination mechanism for pistil abortion in maize and in its wild relative Tripsacum.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Blakey, C A; Dewald, C; Dellaporta, S L

    1997-04-15

    Cultivated maize (Zea mays) and several other members of the Tribe Andropogoneae produce unisexual florets. In maize, the formation of two staminate florets in each spikelet on the tassel and a single pistillate floret in each spikelet on the ear includes a pistil abortion process that requires the action of the TASSELSEED2 gene. In Eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides) the GYNOMONOECIOUS SEX FORM1 gene appears to perform a similar role in pistil abortion. These genes were shown to be homeologs by restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping and by the failure of the gsf1 and ts2 alleles to complement one another in intergeneric hybrids. Molecular analysis of the gsf1 allele shows that it is caused by a 1.4-kb deletion mutation. Both TASSELSEED2 and GYNOMONOECIOUS SEX FORM1 show similar expression patterns in subepidermal cells of pistils just before abortion. These results suggest that the formation of staminate florets in the Andropogoneae represents a monophyletic trait. PMID:9108132

  4. International developments in abortion laws: 1977-88.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1988-01-01

    During the period between 1977 and the first quarter of 1988, 35 countries liberalized their abortion laws and four countries limited grounds for the procedure. Most legislation has extended abortion eligibility through traditional indications such as danger to maternal health or fetal handicap, but a number of other indications have been created such as adolescence, advanced maternal age, family circumstances, and AIDS or HIV infection. A number of countries have redesigned their abortion laws as part of a comprehensive package to facilitate access to and delivery of contraception, voluntary sterilization, and abortion services. Abortion litigation has increased and stimulated the liberalization of abortion provisions and the support of women's autonomous choice within the law. In Canada, the entire criminal prohibition of abortion was held unconstitutional for violating women's integrity and security. In contrast, Latin American and other constitutional developments may limit legal abortion to instances of danger to women's lives. PMID:3048126

  5. [Abortion and rights. Legal thinking about abortion].

    PubMed

    Perez Duarte, A E

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of abortion in Mexico from a juridical perspective requires recognition that Mexico as a national community participates in a double system of values. Politically it is defined as a liberal, democratic, and secular state, but culturally the Judeo-Christian ideology is dominant in all social strata. This duality complicates all juridical-penal decisions regarding abortion. Public opinion on abortion is influenced on the 1 hand by extremely conservative groups who condemn abortion as homicide, and on the other hand by groups who demand legislative reform in congruence with characteristics that define the state: an attitude of tolerance toward the different ideological-moral positions that coexist in the country. The discussion concerns the rights of women to voluntary maternity, protection of health, and to making their own decisions regarding their bodies vs. the rights of the fetus to life. The type of analysis is not objective, and conclusions depend on the ideology of the analyst. Other elements must be examined for an objective consideration of the social problem of abortion. For example, aspects related to maternal morbidity and mortality and the demographic, economic, and physical and mental health of the population would all seem to support the democratic juridical doctrine that sees the clandestine nature of abortion as the principal problem. It is also observed that the illegality of abortion does not guarantee its elimination. Desperate women will seek abortion under any circumstances. The illegality of abortion also impedes health and educational policies that would lower abortion mortality. There are various problems from a strictly juridical perspective. A correct definition of the term abortion is needed that would coincide with the medical definition. The discussion must be clearly centered on the protected juridical right and the definition of reproductive and health rights and rights to their own bodies of women. The experiences of other

  6. Abortion Before & After Roe

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu

    2013-01-01

    We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971–1975 to demonstrate that women travelled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A100- mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services. PMID:23811233

  7. Abortion before & after Roe.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu

    2013-09-01

    We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971 to 1975 to demonstrate that women traveled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A 100-mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services.

  8. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.

    2011-12-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  9. Unsafe abortion in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Olukoya, A A; Kaya, A; Ferguson, B J; AbouZahr, C

    2001-11-01

    Every year, an estimated 2.0-4.4 million adolescents resort to abortion. In comparison with adults, adolescents are more likely to delay the abortion, resort to unskilled persons to perform it, use dangerous methods and present late when complications arise. Adolescents are also more likely to experience complications. Consequently, adolescents seeking abortion or presenting with complications of abortion should be considered as a medical emergency. Issues requiring special attention in the management of abortion complications in adolescents are identified. Approaches to adolescent abortion should involve all levels of the health care system, as well as the community, and should include not only management of the consequences of unsafe abortion, but also post-abortion contraception and counseling. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy by providing information on sexuality, ensuring that reproductive health services are adolescent-friendly, creating a supportive environment, building young people's social and decision-making skills, and offering counseling in times of crisis are highlighted.

  10. Post abortion contraception.

    PubMed

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp, Helena Kallner

    2015-11-01

    A safe induced abortion has no impact on future fertility. Ovulation may resume as early as 8 days after the abortion. There is no difference in return to fertility after medical or surgical abortion. Most women resume sexual activity soon after an abortion. Contraceptive counseling and provision should therefore be an integrated part of the abortion services to help women avoid another unintended pregnancy and risk, in many cases an unsafe, abortion. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods that includes implants and intrauterine contraception have been shown to be the most effective contraceptive methods to help women prevent unintended pregnancy following an abortion. However, starting any method is better than starting no method at all. This Special Report will give a short guide to available methods and when they can be started after an induced abortion.

  11. Post abortion contraception.

    PubMed

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp, Helena Kallner

    2015-11-01

    A safe induced abortion has no impact on future fertility. Ovulation may resume as early as 8 days after the abortion. There is no difference in return to fertility after medical or surgical abortion. Most women resume sexual activity soon after an abortion. Contraceptive counseling and provision should therefore be an integrated part of the abortion services to help women avoid another unintended pregnancy and risk, in many cases an unsafe, abortion. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods that includes implants and intrauterine contraception have been shown to be the most effective contraceptive methods to help women prevent unintended pregnancy following an abortion. However, starting any method is better than starting no method at all. This Special Report will give a short guide to available methods and when they can be started after an induced abortion. PMID:26619082

  12. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  13. Conceptualising abortion stigma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuradha; Hessini, Leila; Mitchell, Ellen M H

    2009-08-01

    Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies upon power disparities and inequalities for its formation. In this paper, we identify social and political processes that favour the emergence, perpetuation and normalisation of abortion stigma. We hypothesise that abortion transgresses three cherished 'feminine' ideals: perpetual fecundity; the inevitability of motherhood; and instinctive nurturing. We offer examples of how abortion stigma is generated through popular and medical discourses, government and political structures, institutions, communities and via personal interactions. Finally, we propose a research agenda to reveal, measure and map the diverse manifestations of abortion stigma and its impact on women's health.

  14. [Risks in legal, induced abortion. Review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Stamm, H E

    1980-01-01

    A literature review is presented about the risks of induced abortion, as indicated in research from Switzerland and other countries of the world. The attitude of the various countries toward abortion appears to be becoming more liberal. The incidence of legal induced abortions has decreased slightly over the past years, despite more liberal abortion laws. Switzerland lies about in the middle of the scale, with 139 abortions/1000 women and 227/1000 births in 1974. The mortality associated with induced abortion is 1-4 deaths to 100,000 pregnancies, which is about the same risk as 10 years' use of the IUD or oral contraceptives. Most of the deaths occur when abortion is induced after the 16th week of pregnancy. About 10% of all complications of abortion are serious. The complication rate of abortion is highest in patients who undergo hysterotomy or hysterectomy and lowest for those undergoing the Karmen method or vacuum aspiration. No studies have shown a significant increase in the incidence of spontaneous abortions, of cervical insufficiency, of premature births, and of small-for-date babies as a consequence of having undergone induced abortion. There is a tendency, for these complications to occur, especially when dilatation beyond 10 mm is necessary or when the pregnancy is in an advanced stage. It is important to remember, however, that similar tendencies are observed among multiparae, and that the risks of abortion are less than those of childbirth. Cases of depression are recorded in conjunction with induced abortion, but undergoing abortion also relieves many cases of depression due to unwanted pregnancy. There is an increased incidence of sterility after abortion when prophylactic measures are taken against pelvic infection. Outpatient abortions should be performed by dilatation and curettage, before the 12th week of pregnancy. Local paracervical anesthesia is the method of choice for ambulant operations.

  15. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Mireles, Ana L.; Walker, Jennifer N.; Caparon, Michael; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a severe public health problem and are caused by a range of pathogens, but most commonly by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. High recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens threaten to greatly increase the economic burden of these infections. In this Review, we discuss how basic science studies are elucidating the molecular details of the crosstalk that occurs at the host–pathogen interface, as well as the consequences of these interactions for the pathophysiology of UTIs. We also describe current efforts to translate this knowledge into new clinical treatments for UTIs. PMID:25853778

  16. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Flores-Mireles, Ana L; Walker, Jennifer N; Caparon, Michael; Hultgren, Scott J

    2015-05-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a severe public health problem and are caused by a range of pathogens, but most commonly by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. High recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens threaten to greatly increase the economic burden of these infections. In this Review, we discuss how basic science studies are elucidating the molecular details of the crosstalk that occurs at the host-pathogen interface, as well as the consequences of these interactions for the pathophysiology of UTIs. We also describe current efforts to translate this knowledge into new clinical treatments for UTIs. PMID:25853778

  17. Late-term abortion.

    PubMed

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed. PMID:9728645

  18. Late-term abortion.

    PubMed

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed.

  19. Abortion among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  20. Abortion and religion.

    PubMed

    Howell, N R

    1997-01-01

    This paper argues that religious communities should pose new questions about abortion in an attempt to reinvigorate the abortion debate and make it more constructive. Such questions would break the current impasse, enlarge the global and ecological scope of abortion inquiry, and engage plural religious perspectives in an interreligious dialogue about justice and abortion. After an introduction, the paper discusses the first impasse in the abortion debate, which is caused by conflicting definitions of personhood that create a fetus/pregnant woman dualism and artificially separate the fetus from its interdependence with the mother. Section 2 looks at how the abortion impasse results from the assertions of competing fetal and maternal rights and from conflict over who controls nature and women's bodies. The third section seeks alternatives to the dichotomizing of individual and community in the abortion debate in Christian theology, such as the notion of the relational self that demands attention to the wider social implications of reproduction. By examining theories that presume that people are relational, section 4 locates the abortion debate in a wider ecological context with concerns about overpopulation and environmental degradation. Section 5 explores questions of what authority can be used to determine whether abortion is ever justifiable for Christians and what authority is relevant for determining a Christian theological ethic of abortion. This section also looks at Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist views of abortion in the belief that the complex ethical issues relating to abortion may be explored through religious ritual. PMID:12348325

  1. Legal abortion in Italy: 1980-1981.

    PubMed

    Tosi, S L; Grandolfo, M E; Spinelli, A; O'Reilly, K R; Hogue, C J

    1985-01-01

    In 1980 and 1981, there were 446,430 legal abortions performed in Italy. There were about 345 legal abortions per 1,000 live births in 1980 and 363 in 1981. About 1.6 percent of women aged 15-49 obtained abortions in both years. An analysis of the characteristics of Italian women who obtained abortions indicates that most were married (about 70 percent), aged 18-36 (74 percent), had had less than a high school education (74 percent) and had had at least one previous live birth (70-75 percent). In 1981, 88 percent of abortions were obtained in public hospitals; 58 percent were carried out at eight or fewer weeks of gestation; and 78 percent were performed under general anesthesia. Only 20 percent were performed without an overnight stay in the hospital; and over 40 percent of women were hospitalized for two days or longer. Infection after the abortion was reported in only 0.03 percent of cases in 1981, and hemorrhage was reported in only 0.27 percent. In 1981, between 43 percent and 84 percent of gynecologists (depending on the region of the country) declined to perform abortions on grounds of conscience. PMID:3872230

  2. Abortion: a reader's guide.

    PubMed

    Hisel, L M

    1996-01-01

    This review traces the discussion of abortion in the US through 10 of the best books published on the subject in the past 25 years. The first book considered is Daniel Callahan's "Abortion: Law, Choice and Morality," which was published in 1970. Next is book of essays also published in 1970: "The Morality of Abortion: Legal and Historical Perspectives," which was edited by John T. Noonan, Jr., who became a prominent opponent to the Roe decision. It is noted that Roman Catholics would find the essay by Bernard Haring especially interesting since Haring supported the Church's position on abortion but called for acceptance of contraception. Third on the list is historian James C. Mohr's review of "Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy," which was printed five years after the Roe decision. Selection four is "Enemies of Choice: The Right-to-Life Movement and Its Threat to Abortion" by Andrew Merton. This 1981 publication singled out a concern about sexuality as the overriding motivator for anti-abortion groups. Two years later, Beverly Wildung Harrison published a ground-breaking, feminist, moral analysis of abortion entitled "Our Right to Choose: Toward a New Ethic of Abortion. This was followed by a more empirical and sociopolitical feminist analysis in Kristin Luker's 1984 "Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood." The seventh book is by another feminist, Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, whose work "Abortion and Women's Choice: The State, Sexuality, and Reproductive Freedom" was first published in 1984 and reprinted in 1990. The eighth important book was "Abortion and Catholicism: The American Debate," edited by Thomas A. Shannon and Patricia Beattie Jung. Rounding out the list are the 1992 work "Life Itself: Abortion in the American Mind" by Roger Rosenblatt and Ronald Dworkin's 1993 "Life's Dominion: An Argument About Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom."

  3. Abortion: a reader's guide.

    PubMed

    Hisel, L M

    1996-01-01

    This review traces the discussion of abortion in the US through 10 of the best books published on the subject in the past 25 years. The first book considered is Daniel Callahan's "Abortion: Law, Choice and Morality," which was published in 1970. Next is book of essays also published in 1970: "The Morality of Abortion: Legal and Historical Perspectives," which was edited by John T. Noonan, Jr., who became a prominent opponent to the Roe decision. It is noted that Roman Catholics would find the essay by Bernard Haring especially interesting since Haring supported the Church's position on abortion but called for acceptance of contraception. Third on the list is historian James C. Mohr's review of "Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy," which was printed five years after the Roe decision. Selection four is "Enemies of Choice: The Right-to-Life Movement and Its Threat to Abortion" by Andrew Merton. This 1981 publication singled out a concern about sexuality as the overriding motivator for anti-abortion groups. Two years later, Beverly Wildung Harrison published a ground-breaking, feminist, moral analysis of abortion entitled "Our Right to Choose: Toward a New Ethic of Abortion. This was followed by a more empirical and sociopolitical feminist analysis in Kristin Luker's 1984 "Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood." The seventh book is by another feminist, Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, whose work "Abortion and Women's Choice: The State, Sexuality, and Reproductive Freedom" was first published in 1984 and reprinted in 1990. The eighth important book was "Abortion and Catholicism: The American Debate," edited by Thomas A. Shannon and Patricia Beattie Jung. Rounding out the list are the 1992 work "Life Itself: Abortion in the American Mind" by Roger Rosenblatt and Ronald Dworkin's 1993 "Life's Dominion: An Argument About Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom." PMID:12178914

  4. [Chronic TVT infection: mechanisms and consequences].

    PubMed

    Bafghi, Abdolreza; Caruba, Céline; Benizri, Emmanuel; Benizri, Eric; Bongain, André

    2004-12-01

    Despite the simplicity and efficacy of TVT, this technique, like all surgical treatments, is nevertheless associated with sometimes very serious complications. The authors report a case of chronic infection of a polypropylene implant presenting with cutaneous fistula of a retropubic abscess without an associated septic syndrome, ten months after TVT insertion. The TVT was removed by mini-laparotomy after failure of three weeks of adapted antibiotics and local wound care. These infections can be explained by the capacity of certain micro-organisms to bind to biomaterials and produce a biofilm, protecting from the action of antibiotics and immune cells.

  5. Abortion: the continuing controversy.

    PubMed

    Behrens, C E

    1972-08-01

    While most countries of the world practice abortion, government policy, medical opinion, private opinion and actual practice vary widely. Although mortality from legal abortions is quite low, complications rise sharply after 12 gestational weeks. No conclusive proof shows adverse postabortion psychological effects. Romania, Japan and the Soviet Union experienced declining birth rates when abortion was made available and New York City saw a decline in illegitimacy of approximately 12% from 1970 to 1971. Throughout the world abortion laws vary from restrictive to moderate to permissive. Where laws are restrictive, as in France and Latin America, illegal abortions are estimated in the millions. The controversy over abortion centers around the arguments of what constitutes a human life, and the rights of the fetus versus the right of a woman to control her reproductive life. A review of state abortion laws as of August 1972 shows pressure on state legislatures to change existing laws. The future of abortion depends upon technological advances in fertility control, development of substitutes like menstral extraction, prostaglandins and reversible sterilization. Development of these techniques will take time. At present only through education and improved delivery of contraceptives can dependence on abortion as a method of fertility control be eased. Citizen education in the United States, both sex education and education for responsbile parenthood, is in a poor state according to the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future. If recourse to abortion is to be moderated, it is the next generation of parents who will have to be educated.

  6. France: late abortion.

    PubMed

    Gaudry, D; Sadan, G

    1989-01-01

    In France, under the terms of a law passed by Parliament in 1975, a woman may have an abortion up to 12 weeks of pregnancy if she is a French resident and, in the event that she is a minor, she has parental consent. The woman must also have 2 medical consultations, a week apart. The woman is reimbursed by the state up to 70% of the cost of the abortion. After 12 weeks, abortion, except for therapeutic abortion, under the terms of Article 317 of the Criminal Code, is a crime, punishable by 6 months to 10 years in prison, a fine of between 1800 and 250,000 Francs, and loss of professional license. Moreover, Article 647 of the Health Code bans any advertising, incitement or propaganda for abortion or abortion-inducing products. Many French women go to Britain or Holland for abortions after 12 weeks, but they face the financial burden of traveling as well as the difficulties of getting help in a strange country and the stigma of having done something illegal. The Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial, which won the legalization of contraception in 1967, is now fighting for legal abortion as well as the distribution of information about sexuality, contraception, and abortion in the schools. 2 charges of incitement to abortion have been brought against the organization.

  7. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    SciTech Connect

    Uythoven, Jan; Boccardi, Andrea; Bravin, Enrico; Goddard, Brennan; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry; Höfle, Wolfgang; Jacquet, Delphine; Kain, Verena; Mazzoni, Stefano; Meddahi, Malika; Valuch, Daniel; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana

    2014-07-01

    To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  8. [Host defense mechanisms against Salmonella infection].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yumi

    2004-12-01

    Salmonella is one of the gram negative intracellular pathogens. The immune response to Salmonella includes innate immunity and adaptive immunity. The intestinal epithelium, neutrophil, macrophage, dendritic cell, NK cell, NK T cell and gammadelta T cell take important part in former process, and antigen specific T cell and B cell take part in the later process. Macrophages and dendritic cells increase in number early after Salmonella infection and produce variety of cytokines. Especially, IL-12, IL-15 and IL-18 play important roles in protection against Salmonella infection, proliferation of NK cell, NKT cell and gammadelta T cell, producing IFN-gamma, in addition, IL-12 and IL-18 induce IFN-gamma production by Th1 cells and adaptive immune response.

  9. Mechanisms of Zika Virus Infection and Neuropathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Olagnier, David; Muscolini, Michela; Coyne, Carolyn B; Diamond, Michael S; Hiscott, John

    2016-08-01

    A spotlight has been focused on the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) because of its epidemic outbreak in Brazil and Latin America, as well as the severe neurological manifestations of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with infection. In this review, we discuss the recent literature on ZIKV-host interactions, including new mechanistic insight concerning the basis of ZIKV-induced neuropathogenesis.

  10. Mechanisms of Zika Virus Infection and Neuropathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Olagnier, David; Muscolini, Michela; Coyne, Carolyn B; Diamond, Michael S; Hiscott, John

    2016-08-01

    A spotlight has been focused on the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) because of its epidemic outbreak in Brazil and Latin America, as well as the severe neurological manifestations of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with infection. In this review, we discuss the recent literature on ZIKV-host interactions, including new mechanistic insight concerning the basis of ZIKV-induced neuropathogenesis. PMID:27348136

  11. Abortion in early America.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Z

    1979-01-01

    This piece describes abortion practices in use from the 1600s to the 19th century among the inhabitants of North America. The abortive techniques of women from different ethnic and racial groups as found in historical literature are revealed. Thus, the point is made that abortion is not simply a "now issue" that effects select women. Instead, it is demonstrated that it is a widespread practice as solidly rooted in our past as it is in the present.

  12. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  13. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  14. Partial-birth abortion: the final frontier of abortion jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Bopp, J; Cook, C R

    1998-01-01

    Partial-birth abortion bans patterned after the federal bill passed by both houses of Congress are constitutional. The clear legislative definition can be easily distinguished from other abortion procedures. Abortion precedents do not apply to such bans because the abortion right pertains to unborn human beings, not to those partially delivered. Such bans are also rationally-related to legitimate state interests. Even if abortion jurisprudence is deemed to apply in the partial-birth abortion context, a ban is still constitutional under Casey because a ban on partial-birth abortions does not impose an undue burden on the abortion right.

  15. Cell mechanics and immune system link up to fight infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekpenyong, Andrew; Man, Si Ming; Tourlomousis, Panagiotis; Achouri, Sarra; Cammarota, Eugenia; Hughes, Katherine; Rizzo, Alessandro; Ng, Gilbert; Guck, Jochen; Bryant, Clare

    2015-03-01

    Infectious diseases, in which pathogens invade and colonize host cells, are responsible for one third of all mortality worldwide. Host cells use special proteins (immunoproteins) and other molecules to fight viral and bacterial invaders. The mechanisms by which immunoproteins enable cells to reduce bacterial loads and survive infections remain unclear. Moreover, during infections, some immunoproteins are known to alter the cytoskeleton, the structure that largely determines cellular mechanical properties. We therefore used an optical stretcher to measure the mechanical properties of primary immune cells (bone marrow derived macrophages) during bacterial infection. We found that macrophages become stiffer upon infection. Remarkably, macrophages lacking the immunoprotein, NLR-C4, lost the stiffening response to infection. This in vitro result correlates with our in vivo data whereby mice lacking NLR-C4 have more lesions and hence increased bacterial distribution and spread. Thus, the immune-protein-dependent increase in cell stiffness in response to bacterial infection (in vitro result) seems to have a functional role in the system level fight against pathogens (in vivo result). We will discuss how this functional link between cell mechanical properties and innate immunity, effected by actin polymerization, reduces the spread of infection.

  16. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

    2015-02-01

    Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes.

  17. Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

    2015-02-01

    Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes. PMID:25715152

  18. Abortion in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szawarski, Z

    1991-12-01

    As of July 1991 abortion is still legal in Poland. Currently the Polish Parliament has taken a break from the debate because the issue is so important that any decision must not be made in past. There is strong pressure from the Catholic Church to eliminate access to abortion. In the fall the Polish people will vote for and elect their first truly democratic Parliament. Abortion does not seem to be playing as important a role as other political issues. In 1956 a law was passed that allowed a woman to have an abortion for medical or social reasons. This law resulted in allowing women in Poland to use abortion as their primary form of contraception. The vast majority of the abortions were performed under the social justification. Then, when democracy same to Poland with the help of the Catholic Church, an unprecedented debate in the mass media, churches, and educational institutions was stirred up. The government attempted to stay out of the debate at first. But as people from different side of the debate saw that they had an opportunity to influence things in their favor, they began to politicize the issue. Currently there are 4 different drafts of the new Polish abortion law. 3 of them radically condemn abortion while the 4th condemns it as a method of family planning, but allows to terminate pregnancies in order to save the life of the mother. PMID:1777450

  19. [Abortion in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, Y; Hayase, T

    1993-01-01

    In Japan, the artificial abortion is a penal offence; only in the presence of certain conditions it is authorized under the provision of the Eugenic Protection Law which was promulgated in 1948. According to the law, the artificial abortion is restricted to the period, in which the fetus is not viable outside of the uterus. This period is prescribed by notification from the Ministry of Public Welfare; up to now it has been shortened twice (1976, 1991). Due to the introduction of economic reasons in the list of conditions and the simplification of the procedure the artificial abortion in Japan was virtually liberalized. Prosecution for illegal abortion is very rare in recent years. The number of reported artificial abortions decreases; in the about last 30 years it reduced by half. However, the increase in the number of abortions in women younger than 20 years of age is a problem. The abortion in teenagers is late compared with that in other age groups. Although the number of neonaticides does not seem to increase, the increase in the number of abortions in teenagers remains a serious problem in Japan. PMID:8352642

  20. Psychosocial aspects of abortion

    PubMed Central

    Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users. PMID:1085671

  1. CMA abortion survey.

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Responses to the question as to whether abortions should be performed at the woman's request during the first trimester of pregnancy were evenly divided. There was support for abortion on socioeconomic grounds, during the first trimester, from 61.5% of the respondents. Termination of pregnancy beyond the first trimester was supported by a majority of the respondents only in cases in which the woman's life is in danger (73.9%) or in which there is evidence of a severe physical abnormality in the fetus (70.6%) or in cases in which the woman's physical health is in danger (55.5%). Those who said they would not support abortion under any circumstances constitute, at most, 5.1% of the respondents. Support for the maintenance or the elimination of therapeutic abortion committees was addressed in two questions and in both cases the respondents were evenly divided. The responses to these two questions were compared and found to be logically consistent. Only physicians should perform abortions, and they should be performed in hospitals with the woman either as an inpatient or, during the first trimester, as an outpatient. The performance of first-trimester abortions in provincially approved abortion clinics was supported by 47.3% of the respondents. Of the 885 respondents who wished to see some amendment to the Criminal Code, 409 stated that the term "health" as used in the Criminal Code relative to the legal grounds for therapeutic abortion should be defined. PMID:6861064

  2. Abortion in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Nancy B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored differences between 35 women who had abortions as teenagers and 36 women who had abortions as adults. Respondents reported on their premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and postabortion distress symptoms. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders, drug abuse, and psychotic delusions were significantly…

  3. Resolving the abortion controversy.

    PubMed

    Rosoff, J I

    1989-01-01

    This article addresses legislative attempts to reverse Roe v. Wade, U.S. abortion laws vis-á-vis those of other developed nations, socioeconomic factors figuring into the decision (or option) to abort, and the positive potential impact of improved contraceptive use.

  4. Abortion: a history.

    PubMed

    Hovey, G

    1985-01-01

    This review of abortion history considers sacred and secular practice and traces abortion in the US, the legacy of the 19th century, and the change that occurred in the 20th century. Abortion has been practiced since ancient times, but its legality and availability have been threatened continuously by forces that would denigrate women's fundamental rights. Currently, while efforts to decrease the need for abortion through contraception and education continue, access to abortion remains crucial for the well-being of millions of women. That access will never be secure until profound changes occur in the whole society. Laws that prohibit absolutely the practice of abortion are a relatively recent development. In the early Roman Catholic church, abortion was permitted for male fetuses in the first 40 days of pregnancy and for female fetuses in the first 80-90 days. Not until 1588 did Pope Sixtus V declare all abortion murder, with excommunication as the punishment. Only 3 years later a new pope found the absolute sanction unworkable and again allowed early abortions. 300 years would pass before the Catholic church under Pius IX again declared all abortion murder. This standard, declared in 1869, remains the official position of the church, reaffirmed by the current pope. In 1920 the Soviet Union became the 1st modern state formally to legalize abortion. In the early period after the 1917 revolution, abortion was readily available in state operated facilities. These facilities were closed and abortion made illegal when it became clear that the Soviet Union would have to defend itself against Nazi Germany. After World War II women were encouraged to enter the labor force, and abortion once again became legal. The cases of the Catholic church and the Soviet Union illustrate the same point. Abortion legislation has never been in the hands of women. In the 20th century, state policy has been determined by the rhythms of economic and military expansion, the desire for cheap

  5. Induced abortion: epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Baird, D

    1975-01-01

    Sir Dugald Baird sketches the history of abortion legislation in Great Britain from the beginning of the century. In his views the 1967 Abortion Act has been one of the most important and beneficial pieces of social legislation enacted in Britain in the last 100 years. It has, however, brought problems both of administration in the hospitals and to individual doctors and nurses, particularly when the patients are young single women and even schoolgirls. One of the consequences of the Abortion Act has been a fall in maternal mortality and perinatal mortality rates. Abortion does not seem to be followed by serious emotional sequelae. Nevertheless recent changes in sexual mores have introduced new and serious social problems which are discussed in relation to the role of the doctor in his relationship with patients seeking abortion. PMID:765461

  6. Walking the abortion tightrope.

    PubMed

    Simms, M

    1971-03-01

    The abortion controversy in England was partially resolved on February 23, 1971, when Sir Keith Joseph, Secretary of State for Social Services, announced that an inquiry into the 1967 Abortion Act would be established, but one which would be concerned with the way the Act was working rather than the principles underlying it. Regional inequalities exist in the implementation of the Act (as with substandard services in Birmingham, Liverpool and Sheffield) due to opposition of the local gynecological establishment and a genuine shortage of facilities. These can be eliminated only through time and retirement and with public finance for more equal abortion facilities. The addition of a consultant clause into the Act would probably reduce the number of abortions in smaller private nursing homes, flood the National Health Service with abortion requests, and drive women back to criminal abortionists.

  7. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.; AHRENS,L.; III FLILLER,R.; GASSNER,D.; MCINTYRE,G.T.; MICHNOFF,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.

    2002-06-03

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  8. When Is an Abortion Not an Abortion?

    PubMed

    Mutcherson, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Discussion about the similarities and differences between abortion and multi-fetal pregnancy reduction, including the tug-of-war over naming, highlights ongoing contestation about the relationship between the law, ethics, and women's bodies. Ultimately, the law must root itself in the realities of pregnancy including the physical and social consequences that any pregnancy creates for the woman who carries it.

  9. Abortion and abortifacients.

    PubMed

    King, T M

    1978-01-01

    It is argued that abortion research is needed to improve existing techniques and to develop new ones to overcome logistical, financial, and political obstacles to wider availability. Such developments are reviewed, including early pregnancy tests, menstrual regulation, improved cervical dilatation methods, new second trimester abortifacients (e.g., urea and prostaglandins), and new first trimester abortifacients (e.g., injection of ethanol into the uterus and prostaglandin pills or vaginal suppositories). This last is quite promising because of the possibility of self-administration, removing much of the need for medical intervention. Further research is urged on 1) long-term side effects of abortion, particularly late or multiple abortions; and 2) ways to improve the delivery and integration of abortions into family planning programs. It is noted that because abortion seekers demonstrate by the fact itself a strong motivation to control fertility and are therefore enthusiastic acceptors of contraceptive methods, the widespread availability of early pregnancy tests and abortion could be the most effective way of increasing contraceptive practice and reducing abortion itself.

  10. Avoidance of late abortion.

    PubMed

    1979-11-24

    Induced abortion is now a common procedure in the United States and Britain. Methods for performing induced abortion are reviewed. Menstrual regulation, aspiration with a hand-held syringe and a flexible cannula within 6 weeks of the last period, is not often practiced in Britain. Several developing countries are using this simple technique to advantage. Vacuum aspiration in the 1st 12 weeks of pregnancy is the main method being used everywhere for 1st trimester procedures. Mortality rates with this method are low and, in well-organized clinics with experienced personnel, the rates can be reduced even further. It is agreed that 2nd trimester procedures are more complex, both physically and emotionally. In the last several years, dilatation and evacuation (D&E) has increased in popularity for 2nd trimester procedures. Dilation of the cervix is generally accomplished with laminaria, evacuation of the uterus with forceps, and then suction curettage applied. This procedure has replaced intraamniotic infusion, hysterotomy, and hysterectomy as the most commonly - practiced method, despite its need for special surgical skills and good clinical backup. Follow-up of abortions is difficult. Different long-term effects have been noted with different abortion procedures. Early abortion seems to have only a modest effect, if that. Whether late abortion has long-lasting effects remains open to question. Late abortion should be avoided.

  11. Abortion cases worrying.

    PubMed

    Mwanza, G

    1994-01-01

    The writer believes that life begins the instant that an human sperm cell and ovule fuse. This life must be respected and preserved. Abortion is shameful, but tolerated when either the mother or would-be baby's life is at stake. As the number of abortions continue to increase, the controversy over a woman's right to abortion rages on. The author wonders whether questions about abortion will ever be resolved and considers some possible solutions with reference to Zambia. There are many early pregnancies among Zambian youths. A 1993 study found 207 abortions per year in the country among 15-19 year olds; this includes illegal, incomplete, and induced abortions. The Coordinator for the Young Women Christian Association in Lusaka thinks that inadequate sex education is one of the factors contributing to the ever-rising number of abortions today. Youths have sexual intercourse without understanding the possible consequences. Parents, community leaders, and school authorities should instead become more involved and teach children about sex to lessen the incidence of abortion. Specifically, parents should talk to their children about sex as they mature, teaching them about their biological reproductive features and functions. The author is convinced that once children and youths understand their bodies, it will be very easy for them to control their desires. Most male and female teens do, however, cite love and sexual desire as the primary motives for their first relationships. The writer also mentions how pregnant girls get expelled from school and that women experience mental and physical side effects from induced abortion.

  12. Fusobacterium necrophorum infections: virulence factors, pathogenic mechanism and control measures.

    PubMed

    Tan, Z L; Nagaraja, T G; Chengappa, M M

    1996-01-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum, a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming anaerobe, is a normal inhabitant of the alimentary tract of animals and humans. Two types of F. necrophorum, subspecies necrophorum (biotype A) and funduliforme (biotype B), have been recognized, which differ morphologically, biochemically, and biologically. The organism is an opportunistic pathogen that causes numerous necrotic conditions (necrobacillosis) such as bovine hepatic abscesses, ruminant foot abscesses and human oral infections. The pathogenic mechanism of F. necrophorum is complex and not well defined. Several toxins, such as leukotoxin, endotoxin, haemolysin, haemagglutinin and adhesin, have been implicated as virulence factors. Among these, leukotoxin and endotoxin are believed to be more important than other toxins in overcoming the host's defence mechanisms to establish the infection. F. necrophorum is encountered frequently in mixed infections and, therefore, synergisms between F. necrophorum and other pathogens may play an important role in infection. Several investigators have attempted to induce protective immunity against F. necrophorum using bacterins, toxoids, and other cytoplasmic components. Generally, none of the immunogens has afforded satisfactory protection against Fusobacterium infections. Because of the unavailability of suitable immunoprophylaxis, the control of F. necrophorum infection has depended mainly on the use of antimicrobial compounds.

  13. Abortion: pro and contra.

    PubMed

    Jebereanu, Laura; Jebereanu, Diana; Alaman, Roxana; Tofan, Andra; Jebereanu, Sorin; Pauncu, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    To kill a new life before it's born, to do an abortion. This is a problem of many generations. In the evolution of human civilization, the attitude concerning abortion was different in different cultures, periods, societies. The aim of our study is to evaluate the actual opinion and attitude of young persons, students, and residents in medicine in Timisoara city, and the situation of the whole country. We performed a questionnaire for 400 people, between the ages of 19 and 28 with superior studies. The group is composed of 320 (80%) women and 80 (20%) men. We accepted for recording and analyzing all the the completed questionnaires. The questions referred to the topic of abortion in the antecedents, and asked if they had had one, how it affected the life of the women and her family, the circumstances of acceptance of abortion today, religious aspects and different other aspects. PMID:17146907

  14. Medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration for legal abortion protect women's health and reduce costs to the health system: findings from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Maria Isabel; Mendoza, Willis Simancas; Guerra-Palacio, Camilo; Guzman, Nelson Alvis; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2015-02-01

    The majority of abortions in Colombia continue to take place outside the formal health system under a range of conditions, with the majority of women obtaining misoprostol from a thriving black market for the drug and self-administering the medication. We conducted a cost analysis to compare the costs to the health system of three approaches to the provision of abortion care in Colombia: post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortions, and for legal abortions in a health facility, misoprostol-only medical abortion and vacuum aspiration abortion. Hospital billing records from three institutions, two large maternity hospitals and one specialist reproductive health clinic, were analysed for procedure and complication rates, and costs by diagnosis. The majority of visits (94%) were to the two hospitals for post-abortion care; the other 6% were for legal abortions. Only one minor complication was found among the women having legal abortions, a complication rate of less than 1%. Among the women presenting for post-abortion care, 5% had complications during their treatment, mainly from infection or haemorrhage. Legal abortions were associated not only with far fewer complications for women, but also lower costs for the health system than for post-abortion care. We calculated based on our findings that for every 1,000 women receiving post-abortion care instead of a legal abortion within the health system, 16 women experienced avoidable complications, and the health system spent US $48,000 managing them. Increasing women's access to safe abortion care would not only reduce complications for women, but would also be a cost-saving strategy for the health system. PMID:25702076

  15. Medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration for legal abortion protect women's health and reduce costs to the health system: findings from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Maria Isabel; Mendoza, Willis Simancas; Guerra-Palacio, Camilo; Guzman, Nelson Alvis; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2015-02-01

    The majority of abortions in Colombia continue to take place outside the formal health system under a range of conditions, with the majority of women obtaining misoprostol from a thriving black market for the drug and self-administering the medication. We conducted a cost analysis to compare the costs to the health system of three approaches to the provision of abortion care in Colombia: post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortions, and for legal abortions in a health facility, misoprostol-only medical abortion and vacuum aspiration abortion. Hospital billing records from three institutions, two large maternity hospitals and one specialist reproductive health clinic, were analysed for procedure and complication rates, and costs by diagnosis. The majority of visits (94%) were to the two hospitals for post-abortion care; the other 6% were for legal abortions. Only one minor complication was found among the women having legal abortions, a complication rate of less than 1%. Among the women presenting for post-abortion care, 5% had complications during their treatment, mainly from infection or haemorrhage. Legal abortions were associated not only with far fewer complications for women, but also lower costs for the health system than for post-abortion care. We calculated based on our findings that for every 1,000 women receiving post-abortion care instead of a legal abortion within the health system, 16 women experienced avoidable complications, and the health system spent US $48,000 managing them. Increasing women's access to safe abortion care would not only reduce complications for women, but would also be a cost-saving strategy for the health system.

  16. Botswana: abortion "debate" dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mogwe, A

    1992-01-01

    The Penal Code (Amendment) Bill or the abortion bill has the objective of liberalizing the current law on the regulation of abortion. Abortion had been strictly prohibited and carried stiff penalties. Anyone who attempted to assists a woman to procure an abortion could be liable to 7 years' imprisonment. However, medical abortions were distinguished as being medically determined to save the health of the mother. Demands for a reevaluation of the law came from the medical profession, and in response the Minister for Presidential Affairs submitted a bill to Parliament in November, 1990. The expressed government rationale for these proposed amendments was concern about the health of women. In Botswana about 200 women die yearly because of pregnancy. According to the proposed law: an abortion could be carried out within the first 16 weeks of pregnancy if: 1) the pregnancy were a result of rape, incest, or defilement (the impregnation of a girl aged 16 or less, the impregnation of imbeciles or idiots), 2) the physical or mental health of the woman were at risk because of the pregnancy, 3) the child would be born with a serious physical or mental abnormality. The abortion could be carried out only if 2 medical doctors approved it. The amendments fall far short of increasing women's control over their bodies. The Botswana Christian Council issued a statement early in the public debate. While it did not oppose the bill in its entirety, clear concern was expressed concerning the apparent right of determining who lives and who dies depending on the handicap of the child. This rather liberal position was challenged by the Roman Catholic Church which interpreted abortion as the murder of God-given life. The bill was nevertheless passed by Parliament in September 1991, and the President signed it on October 11, 1991. PMID:12288837

  17. Guiding change: provider voices in youth pre-abortion counselling in urban Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Helen Kim Hong; Martin, Philip; Chinh, Nguyen Quoc; Cong, Duong Dinh

    2010-08-01

    Pre-abortion counselling has a role in promoting safe sex practices and in preventing repeated unplanned pregnancies and repeated abortions among abortion-seeking women. Such counselling is essential in Vietnam, especially given the common use of abortion. Arguably, in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, the delivery of pre-abortion counselling is more urgent for young women, who have historically been ignored by State reproductive health initiatives and are increasingly exposed to transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), unplanned pregnancies and abortion. This paper charts urban Vietnamese service providers' discourses in pre-abortion counselling specific for reducing risks of additional unwanted pregnancies, repeat abortion and STI/HIV transmission among young Vietnamese women. Thirteen providers working in counselling delivery, management and programme-planning at the Reproductive Health Care Centre of Ho Chi Minh City participated in this study. Through qualitative interviews, this paper elicits a range of provider attitudes, considerations and approaches in pre-abortion counselling and presents these discourses using participant anecdotes. Demonstrated among participant responses were five key pre-abortion counselling phases for promoting effective family planning among young women. Topics covered in these counselling phases included abortion complications, post-abortion fertility return, contraception, behaviour change and STI/HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health basics (SRH). The service provider discourses gleaned from this study are foundational for further research and development of best practice guidelines in pre-abortion counselling.

  18. Moderate views of abortion.

    PubMed

    Sumner, L W

    1997-01-01

    This essay offers a moderate view of abortion that imposes a time limit for unrestricted abortion and specific indications for later abortions. The introduction notes that the discussion will provide a defense for this policy based on a moral analysis but that other options for moderates, especially options provided by freestanding views (the defense of which does not rest on any prior commitment about the morality of abortion), will also be considered. The next section considers the moral status of the fetus grounded in a criterion of moral standing that stipulates the necessary characteristics to achieve moral standing. This discussion concludes that a fetus acquires moral standing only when it becomes sentient. Section 3 moves the argument from ethics to politics to prove that a moderate policy must place no limitations on abortion before the time the fetus becomes sentient because before that time the fetus has no interest for the state to protect. The final section notes that some pro-choice advocates may be happier with the moderate policy proposed than with its controversial defense based on the moral status of the fetus and that another defense of a moderate policy could be based on a finding that the ethical issue can not be decided and that no view about abortion ethics is more reasonable than any other. The essay concludes that the ethical debate is ultimately unavoidable. PMID:12348328

  19. Abortion and regret.

    PubMed

    Greasley, Kate

    2012-12-01

    The article considers three theses about postabortion regret which seek to illustrate its pertinence to reasoning about abortion, and which are often deployed, either explicitly or implicitly, to dissuade women out of that reproductive choice. The first is that postabortion regret renders an abortion morally unjustified. The second is that that a relatively high incidence of postabortion regret-compared with a lower incidence of postnatal regret in the relevant comparator field-is good evidence for the moral impermissibility of abortion choice. The third is that high rates of postabortion regret suggest that abortion is not the most prudent or welfare-maximising choice for the woman concerned. All three theses argue for the compellingness of knowledge about postabortion regret in moral and practical reasoning about abortion, especially from the pregnant woman's point of view. This article argues that all three theses are flawed. In particular, it seeks to remind readers that feelings of regret directed at past decisions are often decoupled from the fact of the matter about their moral or rational justification. Moreover, certain features of reproductive decisions in particular make regret an especially unsuitable yardstick for actual justification in this context, and even less epistemically reliable as evidence for a lack of justification than it may be in other fields of decision-making. The implication is that rates of postabortion regret, even if they can be presumed to be higher than rates of postnatal regret, are not as pertinent to moral and practical reasoning about abortion as is sometimes suggested.

  20. Politics and abortion.

    PubMed

    Rosoff, J I

    1985-01-01

    The legalization of abortion in the United States by the Supreme Court in 1973 bypassed the political process in the majority of the states. Since then, however, political controversy and agitation in relation to abortion has become nationwide. From largely Catholic-based opposition, it has grown to encompass religious fundamentalists and to be a major part of the New Right's agenda. Abortion is now, pro and con, part of the platform of both political parties. The sweeping nature of the Supreme Court's decisions leaves the opposition with very little room to restrict abortion, short of overturning the decisions through a constitutional amendment. Such an amendment requires a two-thirds majority of Congress and passage is unlikely. However, funding bans on scores of federal programmes have succeeded in restricting access to abortion for the poor, the young and minorities. These restrictions are part of a long-term strategy to educate the public as to the evils of abortion with the aim of making it illegal again, either through the adoption of a constitutional amendment or by obtaining a reversal by a hoped-for change in membership of the Supreme Court.

  1. Steatosis and chronic hepatitis C infection: mechanisms and significance.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Stephen A

    2005-10-01

    The co-existence of chronic hepatitis C and hepatic steatosis is well known, occurring in roughly 50% of patients infected with the hepatitis C virus. Recent interest has focused on the pathophysiologic mechanisms explaining the genesis of hepatic steatosis in the setting of chronic hepatitis C. Data suggest that both viral and host metabolic factors are involved in this process. Additionally, it has become evident that the efficacy of current antiviral therapy is decreased in the setting of co-existent steatosis or steatohepatitis, predominantly in genotype non-3 patients. Several potential explanations for this have been proposed and include underlying viral resistance and host-mediated insulin resistance, enhanced fibrosis, altered immune responses, and decreased bioavailability of interferon-based therapy. This review focuses on our current understanding of the mechanisms for steatosis development in the setting of chronic hepatitis C infection and the proposed mechanisms for the observed decreased efficacy of current antiviral therapy in this patient population.

  2. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Infectivity and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1988-02-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus (the CD4 molecule). HIV also has tropism for the brain leading to neuropsychiatric abnormalities. Besides inducing cell death, HIV can interfere with T4 cell function by various mechanisms. The monocyte serves as a reservoir for HIV and is relatively refractory to its cytopathic effects. HIV can exist in a latent or chronic form which can be converted to a productive infection by a variety of inductive signals.

  3. [Glimpses from the history of abortion].

    PubMed

    Holmdahl, B

    1992-05-01

    For a long time in human history, global population growth was checked by infant mortality, which ranged from 30-50% and did not start sinking until the beginning of the 1800s in the west. Child murder in the west was prohibited by law around the 1100-1200s, but it continued secretly. Among private people, induced abortion was allowed. In the holy scripts of Hinduism and Brahminism, abortion was prohibited. Hippocrates wrote that doctors should not give women abortifacient. The church father Augustinus stated that it was not within human power to discern when the soul entered the body, a circumstance that forbid abortion. A church meeting in 305 A.D. distanced itself from abortion, and this has been the stand of the Catholic Church ever since. In Sweden, exposing a child to the elements was practiced until the end of the 1200s, when it became prohibited. Protestants punished child murder by death. During 1759-78, 217 women were executed for child-killing. From the 1400s, church law punished abortion, and later, capital and punishment was meted out for it, but a distinction was made if the fetus was alive or stillborn. The law in 1734 punished abortion by the death of all concerned. The death penalty was abolished in 1864. In 1896, Anna Linholm reported to the policy in Uppsala that a midwife had been practicing clandestine abortions. Some of her patients were admitted to hospital for hemorrhaging. She was sentenced to hard labor. During 1851-1903, a total of 1408 abortions were reported to the health service. 90% of these became known because of death caused by obduction. Phosphorus was used for abortion in 1271 cases, arsenic in 62, and mechanical aids in 8 cases. About 1//2 of all female suicides at the end of the 1800s was performed by pregnant women who ate phosphorus. Almost all were unmarried, and 56% carried it out after the 5th month of pregnancy. In 1901, phosphorus was prohibited in Swedish homes. In 1875, free abortions became available. However, the

  4. Influence of paternal exposure to oil and oil products on time to pregnancy and spontaneous abortions.

    PubMed

    Bull, N; Riise, T; Moen, B E

    1999-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of exposure to oil and oil products among men on the time taken for their wives to conceive and on the incidence of spontaneous abortion among them. A cross-sectional study was performed by posting questionnaires to 1,269 men employed as offshore mechanics, offshore operators, offshore drilling personnel, car mechanics (the 'exposed' occupations) and carpenters ('unexposed'). The married men were asked to give a separate questionnaire to their wives for details about their pregnancies. The time elapsed between the beginning of coitus without contraception and the wife becoming pregnant (time to pregnancy) was analyzed with Cox regression analysis by calculating fecundability ratios for the pregnancies for the men exposed to oil and oil products as compared with the men who were not exposed. Spontaneous abortions were analyzed with logistic regression by calculating odds ratios for the pregnancies in which the men were exposed vs. not exposed. A total of 741 (58%) men returned the questionnaires. A total of 301 pregnancies were analyzed for time taken to conceive and 580 for spontaneous abortion. The results were adjusted for variables that could significantly influence conception time (previous infections of the reproductive system and coffee drinking) or the incidence of spontaneous abortion (mother's age, parity and smoking). The outcomes between the exposed and unexposed pregnancies showed no significant differences. Car mechanics had a lower fecundability ratio before 1992 than after 1992. Paternal exposure to hydrocarbons in the occupations studied did not seem to have had a major influence on time to conception or the incidence of spontaneous abortion among the wives of the men exposed to oil products.

  5. Influence of paternal exposure to oil and oil products on time to pregnancy and spontaneous abortions.

    PubMed

    Bull, N; Riise, T; Moen, B E

    1999-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of exposure to oil and oil products among men on the time taken for their wives to conceive and on the incidence of spontaneous abortion among them. A cross-sectional study was performed by posting questionnaires to 1,269 men employed as offshore mechanics, offshore operators, offshore drilling personnel, car mechanics (the 'exposed' occupations) and carpenters ('unexposed'). The married men were asked to give a separate questionnaire to their wives for details about their pregnancies. The time elapsed between the beginning of coitus without contraception and the wife becoming pregnant (time to pregnancy) was analyzed with Cox regression analysis by calculating fecundability ratios for the pregnancies for the men exposed to oil and oil products as compared with the men who were not exposed. Spontaneous abortions were analyzed with logistic regression by calculating odds ratios for the pregnancies in which the men were exposed vs. not exposed. A total of 741 (58%) men returned the questionnaires. A total of 301 pregnancies were analyzed for time taken to conceive and 580 for spontaneous abortion. The results were adjusted for variables that could significantly influence conception time (previous infections of the reproductive system and coffee drinking) or the incidence of spontaneous abortion (mother's age, parity and smoking). The outcomes between the exposed and unexposed pregnancies showed no significant differences. Car mechanics had a lower fecundability ratio before 1992 than after 1992. Paternal exposure to hydrocarbons in the occupations studied did not seem to have had a major influence on time to conception or the incidence of spontaneous abortion among the wives of the men exposed to oil products. PMID:10628044

  6. Abortion and rape.

    PubMed

    Barry-Martin, P

    1977-10-26

    The letter is an answer to a previous letter which appeared in the same journal and which was discrediting, according to the author of this letter, the Royal Commission on Contraception, Sterilization, and Abortion. The earlier letter refutes a quote from "Abortion and Social Justice" used by the Commission, regarding the situation in Colorado after rape became an indication for abortion. The quote reports that although between 1967-1971 the number of abortions for rape totalled 290, no rapist was charged or convicted for the crime. However, according to the author of this letter, the actual quote reads somewhat differently, and states that, during the same period, "no rapist was ever charged with his crime, much less convicted of it, which casts some real doubts on the reality of the alleged rapes." The meaning of this passage is that none of the alleged rapists had actually caused the 290 pregnancies. From records and government statistics it is possible to count about 3300 cases of rape known to the police in Colorado for the years 1967-1971. To suggest that none of these cases were charged or convicted is ridiculous. The author also states that rape as an indication for abortion will lead to abuse of the law, and that pregnancy for actual rape is rare.

  7. Neospora caninum - Associated Abortions in Slovak Dairy Farm

    PubMed Central

    ŠPILOVSKÁ, Silvia; REITEROVÁ, Katarína; ANTOLOVÁ, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neospora caninum is considered one of the major causes of repeated abortions in livestock. This study aimed to determine the seropositivity to N. caninum using indirect ELISA and the influence of the infection on the occurrence of abortions in selected dairy herd in Slovakia. Method: Blood samples were obtained from 490 cattle over a period of two years and were tested for N. caninum antibodies using indirect ELISA. Results: The presence of specific antibodies in the herd was detected in 118 (24.1%) cows. According to selected groups; 117 (41.0%) cows with a history of abortion, 65 (43.3%) heifers and 223 (2.2%) cows without abortions were tested positive to Neospora. Vertical transmission of N. caninum dominated in examined herd and the relative risk (RR) of dam-daughter seropositivity in progenies of seropositive mothers was 2.1 times higher than in progenies of seronegative dams. Molecular analyses of aborted foetuses of seropositive mothers showed the presence of Neospora DNA. However, 23 (28.1%) of heifers born to seronegative cows were seropositive, indicating also the postnatal transmission of the infection from the environment. Conclusion: Study revealed significant correlation between the presence of specific antibodies and the occurrence of abortions, the risk of abortion in seropositive animals was 3.8 times higher than in seronegative ones. Incorrect farm management contributed to spread and circulation of neosporosis in entire dairy herd what could significantly impair the reproduction and economic parameters of breeding. PMID:25904951

  8. The Response of Abortion Demand to Changes in Abortion Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses pooled cross-section time-series data, over the years 1982, 1992 and 2000, to estimate the impact of various restrictive abortion laws on the demand for abortion. This study complements and extends prior research by explicitly including the price of obtaining an abortion in the estimation. The empirical results show that the real…

  9. Addressing barriers to safe abortion.

    PubMed

    Culwell, Kelly R; Hurwitz, Manuelle

    2013-05-01

    The latest World Health Organization data estimate that the total number of unsafe abortions globally has increased to 21.6 million in 2008. There is increasing recognition by the international community of the importance of the contribution of unsafe abortion to maternal mortality. However, the barriers to delivery of safe abortion services are many. In 68 countries, home to 26% of the world's population, abortion is prohibited altogether or only permitted to save a woman's life. Even in countries with more liberal abortion legal frameworks, additional social, economic, and health systems barriers and the stigma surrounding abortion prevent adequate access to safe abortion services and postabortion care. While much has been achieved to reduce the barriers to comprehensive abortion care, much remains to be done. Only through the concerted action of public, private, and civil society partners can we ensure that women have access to services that are safe, affordable, confidential, and stigma free. PMID:23477700

  10. Abortion and human rights.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus. PMID:20303830

  11. A compromise on abortion?

    PubMed

    Rhoden, N K

    1989-01-01

    Rhoden's article is one of three on "Abortion: searching for common ground" in this issue of the Hastings Center Report. Her article, together with those by M. Mahowald and M. Glendon, was prompted by the expectation that the impending U.S. Supreme Court decision in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (3 July 1989) would overturn or restrict Roe v. Wade (1973). Rhoden, an advocate for the pro-choice position, asks whether a compromise leading to an acceptable regulatory policy is possible or desirable among those on opposite sides of the abortion issue. She identifies several reasons why the Roe decision is vulnerable to review, but argues that effective education about sexuality and comprehensive social support of women are better approaches to abortion than restrictive legislation. PMID:2663778

  12. Connecticut's new abortion statute.

    PubMed

    Healey, J M

    1990-08-01

    Amid the raging controversy on whether minors should have the same access to abortion as adults, the Connecticut legislature has passed a compromise statues that recognizes a minor's right seek an abortion, while imposing certain requirements. Those who seek to regulate access argue that because minors may lack the maturity to make a valid decision, parental notification is necessary; advocates of minors' right to access hold that it should be the minor who makes such personal decision. In an effort to resolve the conflict, Connecticut's law says that young women under the age of 16 must receive pregnancy-related information before an abortion can take place. Specifically., a physician or counselor is required to: 1) explain to the minor that the information provided is not intended to coerce or persuade her into making a particular choice; 2) explain that she may consider her decision any time prior to the operation or during the time period when abortion is legally permitted; 3) explain the alternatives of either carrying out the pregnancy or getting an abortion, including information on public and private agencies that may assist in carrying out the decision; 4) inform her that pubic and private agencies provide information on birth control; 5) discuss the possibility of involving the minor's parents(s), guardian(s), or other adult family member in the decision; and 6) allow the minor to ask questions and to obtain useful information. After the completion of the process, the minor must sign a form that attests that the requirements have been met, and -- if applicable -- that the minor has decided to involve a parent or relative. In cases where the health or safety of a minor requires and abortion, the Connecticut statute allows for the provisions to be waived.

  13. Hobi-Like Pestivirus in Aborted Bovine Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Sciarretta, Rossana; Pinto, Pierfrancesco; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-01-01

    An outbreak of abortion affecting multiparous cows was associated with Hobi-like pestivirus infection. Viral RNA and antigens were detected in the tissues of two aborted fetuses. Molecular assays for other common abortogenic agents tested negative. At the genetic level, the Hobi-like pestivirus displayed the closest relatedness to Italian, Australian, and South American viruses, whereas it diverged from the prototype Thai isolate. These findings may have important implications for the pestivirus control/eradication programs in cattle herds. PMID:22162547

  14. Tickborne fever associated with abortion outbreak in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    2016-08-20

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum detected in aborting cows on rough grazingLead poisoning in bullocksPersistent bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection and colisepticaemia in a 20-hour-old calfAbortion due to bovine herpesvirus 1 in a four-year-old cowTickborne fever in lambsInfectious sinusitis due to Mycoplasma gallisepticum in pheasants These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for May 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:27550334

  15. Orion Abort Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Peggy Sue

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of NASA's Constellation project is to create the new generation of spacecraft for human flight to the International Space Station in low-earth orbit, the lunar surface, as well as for use in future deep-space exploration. One portion of the Constellation program was the development of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) to be used in spaceflight. The Orion spacecraft consists of a crew module, service module, space adapter and launch abort system. The crew module was designed to hold as many as six crew members. The Orion crew exploration vehicle is similar in design to the Apollo space capsules, although larger and more massive. The Flight Test Office is the responsible flight test organization for the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office originally proposed six tests that would demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests were to be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and were similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. The first flight test of the launch abort system was a pad abort (PA-1), that took place on 6 May 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Primary flight test objectives were to demonstrate the capability of the launch abort system to propel the crew module a safe distance away from a launch vehicle during a pad abort, to demonstrate the stability and control characteristics of the vehicle, and to determine the performance of the motors contained within the launch abort system. The focus of the PA-1 flight test was engineering development and data acquisition, not certification. In this presentation, a high level overview of the PA-1 vehicle is given, along with an overview of the Mobile Operations Facility and information on the White Sands tracking sites for radar & optics. Several lessons learned are presented, including detailed information on the lessons learned in the development of wind

  16. Space Shuttle Abort Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.

  17. Multiple Induced Abortions: Danish Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Mogens; David, Henry P.; Morgall, Janine M.

    1997-01-01

    Women having an induced abortion in an urban clinic were studied. First, second, and third time aborters (N=150) were interviewed. Variables including reasons for choosing abortion, life situations, contraceptive risk-taking, and ease of becoming pregnant were examined. Related studies and suggestions for postabortion counseling are discussed.…

  18. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. PMID:25846035

  19. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading.

  20. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  1. Respiratory infections may reflect deficiencies in host defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, H Y

    1985-02-01

    Serious respiratory tract infections are rare in the healthy individual and most of the nuisance morbidity that occurs results from nasopharyngeal viral infections that many people get once or twice a year. The economic impact from these upper respiratory tract infections is appreciable, however, in terms of absenteeism from school or work, but unfortunately there is little that can be done to ward them off in a practical way. Pneumonia is an infrequent lifetime experience for most non-smoking adults and when it occurs, unusual circumstances may pertain--a particularly virulent microorganism is in circulation, or perhaps one has been exposed to a newly recognized germ, such as has occurred with Legionella species in the past 8 years or so. What protects us the great majority of the time is a very effective network of respiratory tract host defenses. These include many mechanical and anatomical barrier mechanisms concentrated in nose and throat; mucociliary clearance, coughing and mucosal immunoglobulins in the conducting airways and in the air-exchange region of the alveolar structures, phagocytes, opsonins, complement, surfactant and many other factors combine to clear infectious agents. The ability to mount an inflammatory response in the alveoli may represent the maximal and ultimate expression of local host defense. In some way these host defenses are combating constantly the influx of micro-organisms, usually inhaled or aspirated into the airways, that try to gain a foothold on the mucosal surface and colonize it. But many general changes in overall health such as debility, poor nutrition, metabolic derangements, bone marrow suppression and perhaps aging promote abnormal microbial colonization and undermine the body's defenses that try to cope with the situation. It is a dynamic struggle. The departure from normal respiratory health may not be obvious immediately to the patient or to the physician and repeated episodes of infection or persisting symptoms of

  2. Molecular mechanisms of antibody-mediated neutralisation of flavivirus infection.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Theodore C; Diamond, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    Flaviviruses are a group of positive-stranded RNA viruses that cause a spectrum of severe illnesses globally in more than 50 million individuals each year. While effective vaccines exist for three members of this group (yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses), safe and effective vaccines for several other flaviviruses of clinical importance, including West Nile and dengue viruses, remain in development. An effective humoral immune response is critical for protection against flaviviruses and an essential goal of vaccine development. The effectiveness of virus-specific antibodies in vivo reflects their capacity to inhibit virus entry and spread through several mechanisms, including the direct neutralisation of virus infection. Recent advances in our understanding of the structural biology of flaviviruses, coupled with the use of small-animal models of flavivirus infection, have promoted significant advances in our appreciation of the factors that govern antibody recognition and inhibition of flaviviruses in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we discuss the properties that define the potency of neutralising antibodies and the molecular mechanisms by which they inhibit virus infection. How recent advances in this area have the potential to improve the development of safe and effective vaccines and immunotherapeutics is also addressed. PMID:18471342

  3. Molecular mechanisms of antibody-mediated neutralisation of flavivirus infection.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Theodore C; Diamond, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    Flaviviruses are a group of positive-stranded RNA viruses that cause a spectrum of severe illnesses globally in more than 50 million individuals each year. While effective vaccines exist for three members of this group (yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses), safe and effective vaccines for several other flaviviruses of clinical importance, including West Nile and dengue viruses, remain in development. An effective humoral immune response is critical for protection against flaviviruses and an essential goal of vaccine development. The effectiveness of virus-specific antibodies in vivo reflects their capacity to inhibit virus entry and spread through several mechanisms, including the direct neutralisation of virus infection. Recent advances in our understanding of the structural biology of flaviviruses, coupled with the use of small-animal models of flavivirus infection, have promoted significant advances in our appreciation of the factors that govern antibody recognition and inhibition of flaviviruses in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we discuss the properties that define the potency of neutralising antibodies and the molecular mechanisms by which they inhibit virus infection. How recent advances in this area have the potential to improve the development of safe and effective vaccines and immunotherapeutics is also addressed.

  4. Fertility after contraception or abortion.

    PubMed

    Huggins, G R; Cullins, V E

    1990-10-01

    There is a very small correlation, if any, between the prior use of OCs and congenital malformations, including Down's syndrome. There are few, if any, recent reports on masculinization of a female fetus born to a mother who took an OC containing 1 mg of a progestogen during early pregnancy. However, patients suspected of being pregnant and who are desirous of continuing that pregnancy should not continue to take OCs, nor should progestogen withdrawal pregnancy tests be used. Concern still exists regarding the occurrence of congenital abnormalities in babies born to such women. The incidence of postoperative infection after first trimester therapeutic abortion in this country is low. However, increasing numbers of women are undergoing repeated pregnancy terminations, and their risk for subsequent pelvic infections may be multiplied with each succeeding abortion. The incidence of prematurity due to cervical incompetence or surgical infertility after first trimester pregnancy terminations is not increased significantly. Asherman's syndrome may occur after septic therapeutic abortion. The pregnancy rate after treatment of this syndrome is low. The return of menses and the achievement of a pregnancy may be slightly delayed after OCs are discontinued, but the fertility rate is within the normal range by 1 year. The incidence of postpill amenorrhea of greater than 6 months' duration is probably less than 1%. The occurrence of the syndrome does not seem to be related to length of use or type of pill. Patients with prior normal menses as well as those with menstrual abnormalities before use of OCs may develop this syndrome. Patients with normal estrogen and gonadotropin levels usually respond with return of menses and ovulation when treated with clomiphene. The rate for achievement of pregnancy is much lower than that for patients with spontaneous return of menses. The criteria for defining PID or for categorizing its severity are diverse. The incidence of PID is higher

  5. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  6. [Abortion and conscientious objection].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion.

  7. Observations on abortion in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Castle, M A; Likwa, R; Whittaker, M

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the findings of a preliminary investigation of women who sought treatment for abortion from the Gynecological Emergency Ward at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia. Barriers to obtaining legal abortions are identified and the harsh experiences of women seeking treatment for complications of illegally induced abortion are discussed. The data contribute to an understanding of the intensity of abortion for Zambian women and draw attention to the value of small-scale, qualitative research on women's reproductive health care needs. It is suggested that a study be planned at UTH to determine how health care delivery can be improved for women who seek abortion.

  8. Anti-abortion movement.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K

    1985-01-01

    At the same time that American women celebrate the freedoms won thus far for so many Americans, American women must realize they face some of the greatest threats to liberty in recent memory. To understand this movement against American women, it is necessary to first understand the roots of the historic movement for women's rights. Reproductive freedom for many years topped the agenda of the modern women's movement. At a time and in a land where rights were being enriched and liberty prized, choice took a prominent role, specifically, the right to abortion but also generally to repdocuctive freedom and the many underlying issues involved. This is why the various efforts to criminalize abortion effect every citizen, because they pose a serious threat to the constitutional rights of each individual. This is the intellectual view, or the "head" argument. The Constitution states that: "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and no state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US." Each of these clauses expresses the philosophy on which the Constitution was founded -- individual liberty. While there has been some legitimate disagreement over what constitutes an inalienable right, the concept is clear: the government should not become involved in personal philosophical or religious matters, except to permit the freedom of personal philosophical or religious expression. The anti-abortion contignent makes its case by claiming that a fertilized egg is a cona fide person and should, therefore, be guaranteed the Constitution's full roster of protections. In its landmark Roe v. Wade opinion, the Supreme Court held what pro-choice activities have been claiming for years. Since there is no empirical test by which measure

  9. Abortion (Amendment) Bill.

    PubMed

    Dundon, S

    1980-02-23

    Your editorial of Jan. 26 and the multi-signatory letter in your issue of Feb. 2 support the 1967 Abortion Act and suggest that Mr. Corrie's Bill is a retrograde step. The implication is that our professional knowledge should lead us to that conclusion. To take the opposite view risks being regarded as a member of a pressure group or a conscientious objector, but to remain silent might be construed as being in agreement. As I see it the great majority of people of varying ethnic groups, including those adhering to the Jewish, Muslim, and Christian faiths, subscribe to a behavioral code which regards human life as sacred: to take a life is to be countenanced only to save another. Abortion should be regarded as taking human life and morally wrong; making abortion legal does not make it morally right. Doctors are in a very difficult position, and cannot, no more than politicians can, make moral decisions for other people. Traditionally, however, the profession has a role in the responsibility for protection of life, and perhaps the public have a right to expect this protection. Human life begins at conception and some human rights begin at this time. Life (and its protection) seems to be a most basic right. The World Medical Association, in the Declaration of Oslo (1970), stated: "1. The first moral principle imposed upon the doctor is respect for human life as expressed in a clause of the Declaration of Geneva: 'I will maintain the utmost respect for human life from the time of conception.'" The 1967 Abortion Act did not result from a general referendum, much less a medical referendum. If the Corrie Bill is passed and abortions are cut by 2/3 as you suggest, this would, in my view, be a step, not back, but in the right direction.

  10. Induced abortion and anxiety, mood, and substance abuse disorders: isolating the effects of abortion in the national comorbidity survey.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Priscilla K; Coyle, Catherine T; Shuping, Martha; Rue, Vincent M

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations between abortion history and a wide range of anxiety (panic disorder, panic attacks, PTSD, Agoraphobia), mood (bipolar disorder, mania, major depression), and substance abuse disorders (alcohol and drug abuse and dependence) using a nationally representative US sample, the national comorbidity survey. Abortion was found to be related to an increased risk for a variety of mental health problems (panic attacks, panic disorder, agoraphobia, PTSD, bipolar disorder, major depression with and without hierarchy), and substance abuse disorders after statistical controls were instituted for a wide range of personal, situational, and demographic variables. Calculation of population attributable risks indicated that abortion was implicated in between 4.3% and 16.6% of the incidence of these disorders. Future research is needed to identify mediating mechanisms linking abortion to various disorders and to understand individual difference factors associated with vulnerability to developing a particular mental health problem after abortion.

  11. Reproductive failure due to spontaneous abortion and recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Bulletti, C; Flamigni, C; Giacomucci, E

    1996-01-01

    The epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and clinical management of spontaneous and recurrent abortion and of the failure of embryo implantation are discussed in a retrospective overview of the major studies conducted since 1975 identified through a Medline search. Infertile women who experienced spontaneous single (32%) and recurrent (0.5%) abortion as well as those who became pregnant after induction of ovulation with gonadotrophins (abortion rate 17-31%) and those who underwent assisted fertilization programmes (abortion rate 18-34%) are considered. Causes and treatments are here reported. Medical treatments for immunologically mediated abortion (IMA) are based on prednisolone, heparin, aspirin and intravenous immunoglobulin. Efficacy of the medical treatment of patients with a history of IMA has yet to be completely demonstrated. Genetic disorders are possible causes of both failure in implantation and early abortion; this cause is more prominent with advanced age and currently cannot be treated. Endocrine factors may also be responsible for miscarriage, and correction of hormone abnormalities is discussed. Infections, endometriosis and psychological factors are other possible important causes of embryo loss without specific widely accepted treatments. Prominent areas of research are the identification of genetic preimplantation abnormalities, and pharmacological intervention for abnormal spontaneous uterine contractility. The data here reported are encouraging, but the efficacy of different treatments is still not convincing. The information available is sufficient to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic tools to evaluate their efficacy in reducing spontaneous abortion at an early stage.

  12. Abortion health services in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Wendy V.; Guilbert, Edith R.; Okpaleke, Christopher; Hayden, Althea S.; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; White, Katharine O’Connell; Jones, Heidi E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the location of Canadian abortion services relative to where reproductive-age women reside, and the characteristics of abortion facilities and providers. Design An international survey was adapted for Canadian relevance. Public sources and professional networks were used to identify facilities. The bilingual survey was distributed by mail and e-mail from July to November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures The number and location of services were compared with the distribution of reproductive-age women by location of residence. Results We identified 94 Canadian facilities providing abortion in 2012, with 48.9% in Quebec. The response rate was 83.0% (78 of 94). Facilities in every jurisdiction with services responded. In Quebec and British Columbia abortion services are nearly equally present in large urban centres and rural locations throughout the provinces; in other Canadian provinces services are chiefly located in large urban areas. No abortion services were identified in Prince Edward Island. Respondents reported provision of 75 650 abortions in 2012 (including 4.0% by medical abortion). Canadian facilities reported minimal or no harassment, in stark contrast to American facilities that responded to the same survey. Conclusion Access to abortion services varies by region across Canada. Services are not equitably distributed in relation to the regions where reproductive-age women reside. British Columbia and Quebec have demonstrated effective strategies to address disparities. Health policy and service improvements have the potential to address current abortion access inequity in Canada. These measures include improved access to mifepristone for medical abortion; provincial policies to support abortion services; routine abortion training within family medicine residency programs; and increasing the scope of practice for nurses and midwives to include abortion

  13. [Early and late complications in induced abortions of primigravidae (including suggested measures)].

    PubMed

    Kreibich, H; Ludwig, A

    1980-04-01

    Of 7823 induced abortions which were performed between 1970 and 1978, 798 were performed on 13-18 year old primigravidae. About 88% of these women were 16-18 years of age. The 2 most frequent early complications were fever (4.27%) and palpable evidence of infection (parametritis/salpingitis) (6.4%). Most complications were observed after the use of Hegar dilation and vacuum aspiration. 390 of the patients who underwent abortion between 1976 and 1978 were examined 14 days and 3 months after the abortion. 1.79% reported residual bleeding at both examinations, even though placental residue was not found. The incidence of infection fell from 4.62% to 3.58%. 1.79% reported menstrual irregularities 3 months after the operation. The rate of spontaneous abortion following a previous induced abortion among all patients increased from 1.68% in 1970 to 17.54% in 1978. 652 of the 796 adolescents were interviewed in 1977: 418 were married. Of these, 10.29% had had spontaneous abortions, 11% premature births, 64.11% had had normal births, and 5.5% secondary sterility. Of the 234 single women, 78.63% used oral contraceptives, 6.84% had undergone subsequent induced abortion(s), and 5.98% had undergone spontaneous abortion. Better sex education is needed to help avoid an increase in induced abortion and its consequences among adolescents.

  14. Abortion research in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gaslonde Sainz, S

    1976-08-01

    Surveys dealing with abortion in Latin America have provided useful information despite problems in the collection and use of the data. Considerations that should be taken into account in designing abortion surveys and using the resultant information have been discussed here. Special attention has been paid to the need for a broad definition of "abortion" in order to overcome difficulties in gathering information about abortion in Latin America. Surveys have shown increasing incidence of abortion throughout Latin America in the recent past. In examining changes over time it is crucial to interpret clearly and carefully the summary measures of proportion of pregnancies ending in abortion and abortion rates per 1,000 women. It is also important to realize that the level and direction of change of the abortion rate depends on both the rate at which women are becoming pregnant and the proportion of pregnancies ending in abortion. Better survey design and techniques and more careful use of the resulting information will aid in the planning and evaluation of programs aimed at reducing abortion in Latin America. PMID:960180

  15. Abortion: taking the debate seriously.

    PubMed

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2015-05-19

    Voluntarily induced abortion has been under permanent dispute and legal regulations, because societies invariably condemn extramarital pregnancies. In recent decades, a measure of societal tolerance has led to decriminalize and legalize abortion in accordance with one of two models: a more restricted and conservative model known as therapeutic abortion, and the model that accepts voluntary abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy. Liberalization of abortion aims at ending clandestine abortions and decriminalizes the practice in order to increase reproductive education and accessibility of contraceptive methods, dissuade women from interrupting their pregnancy and, ultimately, make abortion a medically safe procedure within the boundaries of the law, inspired by efforts to reduce the incidence of this practice. The current legal initiative to decriminalize abortion in Chile proposes a notably rigid set of indications which would not resolve the three main objectives that need to be considered: 1) Establish the legal framework of abortion; 2) Contribute to reduce social unrest; 3) Solve the public health issue of clandestine, illegal abortions. Debate must urgently be opened to include alternatives in line with the general tendency to respect women's decision within the first trimester of pregnancy.

  16. Religion and attitudes toward abortion and abortion policy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the association between religion and attitudes toward the practice of abortion and abortion policy in Brazil. Drawing upon data from the 2002 Brazilian Social Research Survey (BSRS), we test a number of hypotheses with regard to the role of religion on opposition to the practice of abortion and its legalization. Findings indicate that frequently attending Pentecostals demonstrate the strongest opposition to the practice of abortion and both frequently attending Pentecostals and Catholics demonstrate the strongest opposition to its legalization. Additional religious factors, such as a commitment to biblical literalism, were also found to be significantly associated with opposition to both abortion issues. Ultimately, the findings have implications for the future of public policy on abortion and other contentious social issues in Brazil.

  17. The Politicization of Abortion and the Evolution of Abortion Counseling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The field of abortion counseling originated in the abortion rights movement of the 1970s. During its evolution to the present day, it has faced significant challenges, primarily arising from the increasing politicization and stigmatization of abortion since legalization. Abortion counseling has been affected not only by the imposition of antiabortion statutes, but also by the changing needs of patients who have come of age in a very different era than when this occupation was first developed. One major innovation—head and heart counseling—departs in significant ways from previous conventions of the field and illustrates the complex and changing political meanings of abortion and therefore the challenges to abortion providers in the years following Roe v Wade. PMID:23153144

  18. Psychiatric aspects of therapeutic abortion.

    PubMed

    Doane, B K; Quigley, B G

    1981-09-01

    A search of the literature on the psychiatric aspects of abortion revealed poor study design, a lack of clear criteria for decisions for or against abortion, poor definition of psychologic symptoms experienced by patients, absence of control groups in clinical studies, and indecisiveness and uncritical attitudes in writers from various disciplines. A review of the sequelae of therapeutic abortion revealed that although the data are vague, symptoms of depression were reported most frequently, whereas those of psychosis were rare. Positive emotional responses and a favourable attitude toward therapeutic abortion were often reported, although again the statistical bases for these reports were inadequate. There was a lack of evidence that the reported effects were due to having an abortion rather than to other variables.Other areas dealt with inadequately in most of the articles reviewed included analyses of symptoms and of the evidence on the duration of sequelae, descriptions of the criteria for approving abortions, investigation of the psychiatric histories of the patients, presentation of data on the effects of refusing abortion requests, systematic study of a number of epidemiologic factors, and analyses of the circumstances leading to pregnancy in patients having abortions. The evidence was found to be sparse on the effects of supportive relationships, different abortion techniques and the length of gestation on the psychologic status of patients. Little attention was paid to the consequences of psychiatric labelling of patients, or to the effect of having an abortion on factors that may influence future pregnancies.The potential roles of health care professionals appear to deserve more study, and little research seems to have been done to compare the psychologic factors associated with abortion and those associated with live birth. As well, there is little evidence that differences in abortion legislation account for significant differences in the psychologic

  19. Late abortion meeting, Paris / France.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, A

    1989-01-01

    On January 27 and 28, 1989 a workshop and a meeting were organized in Paris by Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial (MFPF/France) and the IPPF Europe Region. The workshop was held on the first day. 24 staff and volunteers from Planned Parenthood Associations of 15 countries attended, reviewing abortion laws, the definition of therapeutic abortion, and the incidence and problems of second trimester abortion. Second trimester abortion is available in only a few European countries. Second trimester abortions are rare in France (about 2000 per annum), and in 1986 1717 French women travelled to England in order to seek an abortion. All late abortions are performed for serious reasons. Older women may mistake signs of pregnancy for the onset of the menopause; and women fearful of social or familial punishment, especially teenagers, may be reluctant to consult a doctor. The experiences of Denmark and Sweden, where the problem is partially solved, suggest some strategies: optimize accessibility of contraceptive services, particularly for women at higher risk of late abortion; diminish the taboo surrounding abortion, so that women are less frightened to seek help at an early stage of pregnancy; make abortion services available in all regions of the country; avert time-consuming enforced waiting periods or consent for minors; and stimulate public information campaigns on the importance of seeking help early. On January 28 a meeting involving about 200 participants took place at the Universite Paris Dauphine, Salle Raymond Aron. Speakers at the meeting discussed the issue of late abortion in Europe, the difficulties of obtaining late abortions, counseling, medical problems, the woman's point of view, and possible solutions. At the close of the meeting, the MFPF called on the French government to modify some of the articles in the Penal Code that restrict women's access to safe and legal abortion.

  20. Austerity and Abortion in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Billari, Francesco; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Economic hardship accompanying large recessions can lead families to terminate unplanned pregnancies. To assess whether abortions have risen during the recession, we collected crude abortion data from 2000 to 2012 from Eurostat for countries that had legal abortions and complete data. Declining trends in abortion ratios between 2000 and 2009 have been reversing. Excess abortions between 2010 and 2012 totaled 10.6 abortions per 1000 pregnancies ending in abortion or birth or 6701 additional abortions (95% CI 1190–9240) with stronger effects in younger ages. Economic shocks may increase recourse to abortion. Further research should explore causal pathways and protective factors. PMID:27009038

  1. [Chemical methods of abortion].

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Matthiesen, H

    1979-07-20

    Medicaments are used to prepare for instrument abortions in the 1st trimester and as inducers of abortion in the 2nd trimester. The effects, side effects, and dangers depend on the substances used and the route of application, which can be vaginal, cervical, injection, instillation, extraamniotic, intraamniotic, intravenous, or intramuscular. In the past, intraamniotic instillation of a 20% salt solution was the most common 2nd trimester method in Japan, the US, and Eastern Europe, giving a success rate of 90%. Serious side effects prompted substitution of extraamniotic instillation, which rarely produces serious side effects. Instillation of a 60% urea solution into the amniotic fluid in combination with oxytocin or prostaglandin produces an abortion in 13-21 hours, with a failure rate of 3% and a frequency of cervical laceration of under 1%. Extraamniotic use of a .1% solution of rivanol yields a success rate of about 85%, with a relatively long average time to explusion of 24-41 hours. In case of failure the procedure can be repeated. The advantage of the Rivanol method is the rarity of infectious complications. Alcohol is not used as a human abortifacient because it produces necrosis in the decidua and placenta. Prostaglandins are used in most 2nd trimester abortions. Research is underway to identify derivatives that will have an extended uterine impact without serious side effects. Different routes of administration have different effectiveness rates and dangers. All prostaglandins cause side effects including pain during uterine contractions, gastro-intestinal reactions, nausea, vomiting, fever, and headaches. Specific preparations are associated with other effects, some of them life-threatening. Emergency treatment should be available when these substances are used. Adjuvant measures may be employed before adminstration of an abortifacient agent to soften the cervix, or after administration to hasten the procedure. The choice of procedure depends upon the

  2. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  3. Public funding of abortions and abortion counseling for poor women.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R B

    1997-01-01

    This essay seeks to reveal the weakness in arguments against public funding of abortions and abortion counseling in the US based on economic, ethico-religious, anti-racist, and logical-consistency objections and to show that public funding of abortion is strongly supported by appeals to basic human rights, to freedom of speech, to informed consent, to protection from great harm, to justice, and to equal protection under the law. The first part of the article presents the case against public funding with detailed considerations of the economic argument, the ethico/religious argument, the argument that such funding supports racist genocide or eugenic quality control, and arguments that a logical inconsistency exists between the principles used to justify the legalization of abortions and arguments for public funding. The second part of the article presents the case for public funding by discussing the spending of public funds on morally offensive programs, arguments for public funding of abortion counseling for the poor, and arguments for public funding of abortions for the poor. It is concluded that it is morally unacceptable and rationally unjustifiable to refuse to expend public funds for abortions for low income women, because after all most money for legal abortions for the poor comes from welfare payments made to women. If conservative forces want to insure that no public funds pay for abortions, they must stop all welfare payments to pregnant women. PMID:12348330

  4. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742

  5. Dworkin and Casey on abortion.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Sarah

    1996-01-01

    This article responds to two important recent treatments of abortion rights. I will mainly discuss Ronald Dworkin's recent writings concerning abortion: his article "Unenumerated rights: whether and how Roe should be overruled," and his book Life's Dominion. In these writings Dworkin presents a novel view of what the constitutional and moral argument surronding abortion is really about. Both debates actually turn, he argues, on the question of how to interpret the widely shared idea that human life is sacred. At the heart of the abortion debate is the essentially religious notion that human life has value which transcends its value to any particular person; abortion is therefore at bottom a religious issue. Dworkin hopes to use this analysis to show that the religion clauses of the First Amendment provide a "textual home" for a woman's right to choose abortion. I wish to scrutinize this suggestion here; I want to probe the precise consequences for abortion rights of such an understanding of their basis. I will argue that the consequences are more radical than Dworkin seems to realize. The other work I will examine here is the important 1992 Supreme Court decision on abortion, Planned Parenthood v. Casey. The controlling opinion in that case, written jointly by Justices Kennedy, O'Connor, and Souter, strongly reaffirmed Roe v. Wade, but also upheld most of the provisions of a Pennsylvania statute that had mandated various restrictions on abortion. The justices' basis for upholding these restictions was their introduction of a new constitutional standard for abortion regulations, an apparently weaker standard than those that had governed previous Supreme Court abortion decisions. I think there is a flaw in Casey's new constitutional test for abortion regulations, and I will explain, when we turn to Casey, what it is and why it bears a close relation to Dworkin's reluctance to carry his argument as far as it seems to go.

  6. Abortion in a just society.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M E

    1993-01-01

    A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.

  7. Anti-abortion movement.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K

    1985-01-01

    At the same time that American women celebrate the freedoms won thus far for so many Americans, American women must realize they face some of the greatest threats to liberty in recent memory. To understand this movement against American women, it is necessary to first understand the roots of the historic movement for women's rights. Reproductive freedom for many years topped the agenda of the modern women's movement. At a time and in a land where rights were being enriched and liberty prized, choice took a prominent role, specifically, the right to abortion but also generally to repdocuctive freedom and the many underlying issues involved. This is why the various efforts to criminalize abortion effect every citizen, because they pose a serious threat to the constitutional rights of each individual. This is the intellectual view, or the "head" argument. The Constitution states that: "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and no state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US." Each of these clauses expresses the philosophy on which the Constitution was founded -- individual liberty. While there has been some legitimate disagreement over what constitutes an inalienable right, the concept is clear: the government should not become involved in personal philosophical or religious matters, except to permit the freedom of personal philosophical or religious expression. The anti-abortion contignent makes its case by claiming that a fertilized egg is a cona fide person and should, therefore, be guaranteed the Constitution's full roster of protections. In its landmark Roe v. Wade opinion, the Supreme Court held what pro-choice activities have been claiming for years. Since there is no empirical test by which measure

  8. The abortion struggle in America.

    PubMed

    Warren, Mary Anne

    1989-10-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court's July 1989 decision in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services, while not overturning Roe v. Wade, extended the power of state and local governments to regulate abortion. Warren situates the Webster decision in a larger context of 19th and 20th century American anti-abortion legislation, the Court's 1973 Roe decision and its predecessors, and the anti-abortion campaign that followed Roe. She then discusses Webster and its legal, practical, and political implications, concluding that the future of legal abortion in the United States is radically uncertain.

  9. God's bullies: attacks on abortion.

    PubMed

    Hadley, J

    1994-01-01

    National politics in the US, Poland, and Ireland have in recent years been afire with debate over abortion. Conflicting abortion laws almost scuttled the reunification of Germany. This paper describes how the abortion debate took hold in post-Communist Poland and how the issue came to be so entrenched in US politics in the wake of the US Supreme Court's 1973 decision on abortion in the case of Roe vs. Wade. It focuses upon abortion mainly as a method of birth control which women have always sought when needed regardless of the procedure's legal status. The controversies and campaigns recorded and the ideas offered focus upon women's access to affordable, safe, and legal abortion. The author argues that Poland is no place to be a woman and presents sections on the country's church, government, and medical profession; Roe vs. Wade; who opposes abortion rights and their broad success; the 1992 US presidential election; Bill Clinton's presidency; why the abortion debate has been different in Britain; and new issues on abortion.

  10. Prophylactic antibiotics for curettage abortion.

    PubMed

    Grimes, D A; Schulz, K F; Cates, W

    1984-11-15

    Opinion is divided as to the advisability of routine use of prophylactic antibiotics for curettage abortion. Six studies, including three randomized clinical trials, suggest that prophylaxis reduces infectious morbidity associated with curettage abortions by about one half. Three other studies, two involving prophylaxis for instillation abortions and one involving a vaginal antiseptic for curettage abortion, support the hypothesis that antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces morbidity. Tetracyclines are commonly used for this purpose. The cost of routine prophylaxis even with an expensive tetracycline would appear to be offset by the savings in direct and indirect costs. Prophylaxis may help prevent both short-term morbidity and potential late sequelae, such as ectopic pregnancy and infertility.

  11. Controversy over abortion funding increases.

    PubMed

    1980-03-01

    The controversy surrounding the question of public financing of Medicaid abortions in the U.S. was fanned through 5 separate court decisions in January 1980. In 3 of the decisions--directed against the Connecticut, Minnesota, and Missouri Medicaid abortion programs--the courts invalidated the state laws on the grounds that they limited federal funding of abortions for poor women too narrowly. Another decision stated that the Missouri law violated the equal protection clause of th Constitution. A decision in the U.S. District Court in Brooklyn, New York, stated that the 1976 Hyde amendment's restrictions on federal payment for abortions under Medicaid are unconstitutional. Each case is briefly analyzed.

  12. Chlamydia pecorum: fetal and placental lesions in sporadic caprine abortion.

    PubMed

    Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats. PMID:26965241

  13. Chronic infection by Leishmania amazonensis mediated through MAPK ERK mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Pedro A.; Petersen, Christine A.

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania amazonensis is an intracellular protozoan parasite responsible for chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). CL is a neglected tropical disease responsible for infecting millions of people worldwide. L. amazonensis promotes alteration of various signaling pathways that are essential for host cell survival. Specifically, through parasite-mediated phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), L. amazonensis inhibits cell-mediated parasite killing and promotes its own survival by co-opting multiple host cell functions. In this review we highlight Leishmania-host cell signaling alterations focusing on those specific to 1) motor proteins, 2) prevention of NADPH subunit phosphorylation impairing reactive oxygen species production (ROS), and 3) localized endosomal signaling to up-regulate ERK phosphorylation. This review will focus upon mechanisms and possible explanations as to how Leishmania spp. evades the various layers of defense employed by the host immune response. PMID:24838145

  14. The medicolegal aspects of abortion.

    PubMed

    Hall, R E

    1972-01-01

    There was little demand for abortion in the 19th century. There was no population explosion and large families were needed to tend the farm. People were more religious; women were 2nd class citizens; and abortions in those days were medically unsafe. The movement to reform abortion laws in the United States stemmed largely from 3 events in the early 1960s: 1) the request in 1963 of Sherri Finkbine for an abortion after she had taken thalidomide and then learned of its teratogenic potential; 2) a rubella epidemic in 1964 and 1965; and 3) the 1965 Supreme Court decision declaring the Connecticut birth control law to be unconstitutional. In 1970 abortion was completely legalized in the states of Hawaii, Alaska, New York and Washington -- the first 3 by legislation and the last by popular referendum. With 4 states operating under repeal laws, 12 under reform laws, and 34 under restrictive laws, the current practice of abortion in the U.S. at this time is chaotic. In order to cope with the tremendous new demand for abortions, doctors have had to learn new techniques and hospitals have had to modify their procedures and adapt their facilities. An obstacle in the transition to universally available abortion has been the resistance of attending physicians, house staff, paramedical personnel, and hospital administrators and trustees. The legal future of abortion lies more in the courts than in the legislatures. With the impetus provided by the 4 new repeal laws, other states will now revise their abortion statutes at an accelerated pace, but it will not be possible to achieve universal repeal by this state-by-state route. Medical practitioners need to prepare for the eventuality of legalized abortion on a national scale.

  15. Misoprostol and illegal abortion in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, S H; Vessey, M P

    1993-05-15

    We report on the determinants and consequences of induced abortion among 803 women admitted to hospital with abortion complications in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1991. 458 (57%) women reported using misoprostol to induce abortion, 74% in the first 4 months of pregnancy. Doses of 200-16,800 micrograms were reported, with a median of 800 micrograms. 65% of the women took the drug orally, 29% used a combination of oral and vaginal routes, and 6% administered it intravaginally. Vaginal bleeding and uterine cramps were the commonest reasons for seeking hospital care. Only 8% of women reported gastrointestinal side-effects. Misoprostol induced vaginal bleeding within 12 h of administration in 52% of the women, but 16% waited 10 days or more for onset of bleeding. 4% were admitted to hospital with complete abortion. The likelihood of bleeding starting within 12 h increased with duration of gestation and it was greater when the drug was used both orally and intravaginally. A significantly smaller proportion of women taking misoprostol than of those who induced abortion by catheter insertion presented signs of infection or physical injuries or required blood transfusion (< 0.0005). Among 803 women interviewed at delivery as controls, 6% had taken misoprostol but abortion had not ensued. Misoprostol has an important role as an abortifacient among the women studied.

  16. Contraception following abortion and the treatment of incomplete abortion.

    PubMed

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp Kallner, Helena; Faúndes, Anibal

    2014-07-01

    Family planning counseling and the provision of postabortion contraception should be an integrated part of abortion and postabortion care to help women avoid another unplanned pregnancy and a repeat abortion. Postabortion contraception is significantly more effective in preventing repeat unintended pregnancy and abortion when it is provided before women leave the healthcare facility where they received abortion care, and when the chosen method is a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) method. This article provides evidence supporting these two critical aspects of postabortion contraception. It suggests that gynecologists and obstetricians have an ethical obligation to do everything necessary to ensure that postabortion contraception, with a focus on LARC methods, becomes an integral part of abortion and postabortion care, in line with the recommendations of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and of several other organizations.

  17. Denial of abortion in legal settings

    PubMed Central

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePiñeres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-01-01

    Background Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. Methods In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic characteristics of legal abortion seekers, as well as the frequency and reasons that women are denied abortion care. Results The proportion of women denied abortion services and the reasons for which they were denied varied widely by country. In Colombia, 2% of women surveyed did not receive the abortions they were seeking; in South Africa, 45% of women did not receive abortions on the day they were seeking abortion services. In both Tunisia and Nepal, 26% of women were denied their wanted abortions. Conclusions The denial of legal abortion services may have serious consequences for women's health and wellbeing. Additional evidence on the risk factors for presenting later in pregnancy, predictors of seeking unsafe illegal abortion, and the health consequences of illegal abortion and childbirth after an unwanted pregnancy is needed. Such data would assist the development of programmes and policies aimed at increasing access to and utilisation of safe abortion services where abortion is legal, and harm reduction models for women who are unable to access legal abortion services. PMID:25511805

  18. Abortion Information: A Guidance Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolleat, Patricia L.

    1975-01-01

    A number of questions relating to providing abortion information to teenagers can be raised from legal, ethical and philosophical standpoints. The purpose of this article is to examine abortion information-giving from the perspective of counseling and guidance theory and practice. (Author)

  19. Abortion, Birthright and the Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadale, Vincent E.; And Others

    This transcript is the result of panel presentation given on the implications of liberalized abortion laws for counselors. A new law which went into effect in July, 1970, in New York State presented women with the option of obtaining a legal abortion up to the 24th week of pregnancy. Counselors in New York State were, therefore, presented with new…

  20. Advice in the Abortion Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luscutoff, Sidney A.; Elms, Alan C.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects in this study were asked to report the number of contacts-for-advice they had made when forming decisions to have a therapeutic abortion, or to carry a pregnancy to term. As predicted, the abortion group differed strongly from both other groups on most questions. (Author)

  1. Partner violence and abortion characteristics.

    PubMed

    Colarossi, Lisa; Dean, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study using randomly selected medical charts of women reporting a history of partner violence and women with no history of partner violence at the time of a family planning or abortion appointment (n = 6,564 per group). We analyzed lifetime history of partner violence for odds of lifetime history of abortion and miscarriage number, and birth control problems. To more closely match timing, we analyzed a subsample of 2,186 women reporting current violence versus not at the time of an abortion appointment for differences in gestational age, medical versus surgical method choice, and return for follow-up visit. After adjusting for years at risk and demographic characteristics, women with a past history of partner violence were not more likely to have ever had one abortion, but they were more likely to have had problems with birth control, repeat abortions, and miscarriages than women with no history of violence. Women with current partner violence were also more likely to be receiving an abortion at a later gestational age. We found no differences between the groups in return for abortion follow-up visit or choice of surgical versus medication abortion. Findings support screening for the influence of partner violence on reproductive health and related safety planning. PMID:24580133

  2. Abortion: epidemiology, safety, and technique.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, P D

    1992-08-01

    In 1991, the abortion literature was characterized by articles relating to 1) epidemiologic issues in abortion care, 2) advances in knowledge and experience with medical abortifacients such as mifepristone (RU 486), and 3) cervical ripening prior to abortion with the use of both mifepristone and prostaglandins. Technical methods of achieving termination of pregnancy continue to be similar in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Europe, although induction-abortion times are generally slower in Europe than in the United States. Surgically, dilatation and evacuation procedures continue to be more common in the United States than in other countries. The effectiveness of mifepristone is undisputed, and the recommended dose for early first-trimester termination is being compared with lower dose alternative regimens. There is additional evidence that at least in the short term, the negative psychological sequelae of abortion are infrequent and are inconsequential as a public health issue. PMID:1504270

  3. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong.

  4. [Induced abortion: a world perspective].

    PubMed

    Henshaw, S K

    1987-01-01

    This article presents current estimates of the number, rate, and proportion of abortions for all countries which make such data available. 76% of the world's population lives in countries where induced abortion is legal at least for health reasons. Abortion is legal in almost all developed countries. Most developing countries have some laws against abortion, but it is permitted at least for health reasons in the countries of 67% of the developing world's population. The other 33%--over 1 billion persons--reside mainly in subSaharan Africa, Latin America, and the most orthodox Muslim countries. By the beginning of the 20th century, abortion had been made illegal in most of the world, with rules in Africa, Asia, and Latin America similar to those in Europe and North America. Abortion legislation began to change first in a few industrialized countries prior to World War II and in Japan in 1948. Socialist European countries made abortion legal in the first trimester in the 1950s, and most of the industrialized world followed suit in the 1960s and 1970s. The worldwide trend toward relaxed abortion restrictions continues today, with governments giving varying reasons for the changes. Nearly 33 million legal abortions are estimated to be performed annually in the world, with 14 million of them in China and 11 million in the USSR. The estimated total rises to 40-60 million when illegal abortions added. On a worldwide basis some 37-55 abortions are estimated to occur for each 1000 women aged 15-44 years. There are probably 24-32 abortions per 100 pregnancies. The USSR has the highest abortion rate among developed countries, 181/1000 women aged 15-44, followed by Rumania with 91/1000, many of them illegal. The large number of abortions in some countries is due to scarcity of modern contraception. Among developing countries, China apparently has the highest rate, 62/1000 women aged 15-44. Cuba's rate is 59/1000. It is very difficult to calculate abortion rates in countries

  5. Abortion in Croatia and Slovenia.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In Slovenia abortion will continue to be available during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy as it has been since 1978. The Slovenian Constitutional Court passed this decision in December, 1991 calling the right to abortion a basic human right. T he ruling was a setback both for the government's conservative parties and the Catholic church. In Croatia, where the Catholic church is campaigning against abortion, the situation is quite different. Zagreb is full of stickers and posters with anti-abortion messages branding abortion murder and spreading inaccurate information in announcements. In 1990, there were 56,000 abortions. For every child that was born, one was aborted. The largest Croatian newspaper publicizes the Catholic view. They want pro-choice women of the volunteer group Tresnjevka to stop their struggle. The church and conservative women's groups press for inclusion of abortion in the Constitution. They are very powerful, and the fear is that might soon succeed in restricting or outlawing abortion. Tresnjevka is making efforts to organize a coordination and information center for women in Zagreb where there are 350,000 women and children refugees. Informative brochures are printed on natural healing methods in gynecology, as drugs are very scarce, and addresses for gynecological emergency care are also provided. Abortion has been legally available on demand during the 1st 10 weeks of pregnancy since 1978. Fore year Tresnjevka has worked for women, trying to raise funds from personal donations and from the government for their activities. Funds from foreign countries have never been received. At present many of the group's activities are on hold because of lack of funds, nevertheless the determination to continue fighting is alive. PMID:12285925

  6. Teenage pregnancies and abortion.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, J E

    1984-01-01

    The issue of abortion, except when it is rendered moot because the fetus endangers the life of the mother, is not really a medical issue. The physician's role is to help patients achieve and maintain their maximum potential for physical, mental, and social well-being. To accomplish this, the physician must acquire a constantly evolving database of scientific knowledge, must evaluate this information in a critical and ethical manner, and must be prepared to apply what is learned. In the realm of applied ethics, no particular religion, profession, culture, class, or sex should be thought of as having all the answers in the realm of applied ethics. This physician's actions are predicated on the belief that, to a large extent, ethical precepts reflect the broader social and economic issues of the period in which they are articulated. If this is the case, then in today's world the population explosion, the postindustrial society, the women's rights movement, inequality of access, and the ability to perform prenatal diagnosis are all factors which have molded the approach to the issue of abortion. Only the last 3 of these can in any way be considered as medical. When considering the role of a physician in dealing with the issue of abortion in the adolescent, this individual relies on the concept articulated by the World Health Association (WHA): promoting the physical, emotional, and social well-being of one's patients. Each year in the US over 1 million 15-19 year olds become pregnant, resulting in over 600,000 births. Most of these pregnancies are unintentional, yet approximately 90% of the infants are kept in the home by mothers who are ill prepared to be parents. What is most disturbing is that the pregnancy rate for the younger mother, 16 years or under, is accounting for an ever increasing percentage of the total. Studies at the Adolescent Health Center of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City as well as national studies suggest that the younger teens are more

  7. Smoking habits and spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Sandahl, B

    1989-04-01

    Smoking habits have been compared in three samples of pregnancies: (1) spontaneous abortions (n = 610); (2) induced abortions (n = 800); and (3) deliveries (n = 1337). The variables studied were, besides smoking habits, day of LMP, outcome of earlier pregnancies, maternal age, and, for the delivery sample, also diagnoses of mother and child, gestational length, sex, and birthweight. A statistical analysis of the association between smoking and the risk of having a spontaneous abortion was made. The comparisons were made with all types of intra-uterine pregnancies but spontaneous abortions, e.g., deliveries and induced abortions. The effects and consequences of that are discussed. The smoking rates according to pregnancy outcome differ among the samples. In the induced abortion sample 58% smoked compared with 50% in the spontaneous abortion sample and 44% in the delivery sample. The well-known effect of smoking on gestational length and birthweight was shown. No significant effect of smoking on the miscarriage risk was seen. The only trend was the opposite. Possible explanations for this are discussed.

  8. Republic of Ireland: abortion controversy.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The problems associated with illegal abortion dominate public discussion in Ireland. While abortion is illegal in Ireland, the Supreme Court directed in 1992 that Irish women can go to Britain for abortions when their lives are thought to be at risk. Abortion was a constant feature during the Irish Presidential election campaign in October, while a dispute about the future of a 13-year-old girl's pregnancy dominated the headlines in November. The presidential election on October 30 resulted in a victory for one of the two openly anti-choice candidates, Mary McAleese, a lawyer from Northern Ireland. With a voter turnout of 47.6%, McAleese polled 45.2% of the votes cast. Although the president may refuse to sign bills which have been passed by parliament, McAleese has said that she will sign whatever bill is placed before her, even if it liberalizes abortion law in the republic. As for the case of the 13-year-old pregnant girl, she was taken into the care of Irish health authority officials once the case was reported to the police. However, the health board, as a state agency, is prevented by Irish law from helping anyone travel abroad for abortion. The girl was eventually given leave in a judgement by a High Court Judicial Review on November 28 to travel to England for an abortion.

  9. Inactivation of the MAPK signaling pathway by Listeria monocytogenes infection promotes trophoblast giant cell death

    PubMed Central

    Hashino, Masanori; Tachibana, Masato; Nishida, Takashi; Hara, Hideki; Tsuchiya, Kohsuke; Mitsuyama, Masao; Watanabe, Kenta; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has a well-characterized ability to cross the placental barrier, resulting in spontaneous abortion and fetal infections. However, the mechanisms resulting in infection-associated abortion are not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrate that the dephosphorylation of MAPK family proteins caused by L. monocytogenes infection of trophoblast giant (TG) cells, which are placental immune cells, contributes to infectious abortion. Dephosphorylation of c-Jun, p38, and ERK1/2 was observed in infected TG cells, causing the downregulation of cytoprotective heme oxygenase (HO)-1. Blocking the dephosphorylation of proteins, including MAPK family proteins, inhibited the decrease in HO-1 expression. Treatment with MAPK inhibitors inhibited bacterial internalization into TG cells. Moreover, Toll-like receptor 2 involved in the expression of MAPK family proteins. Infection with a listeriolysin O-deleted mutant impaired dephosphorylation of MAPK family proteins in TG cells and did not induce infectious abortion in a mouse model. These results suggest that inactivation of the MAPK pathway by L. monocytogenes induces TG cell death and causes infectious abortion. PMID:26528279

  10. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  11. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  12. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  13. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  14. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each...

  15. Fathers and abortion.

    PubMed

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-08-01

    I argue that it is possible for prospective mothers to wrong prospective fathers by bearing their child; and that lifting paternal liability for child support does not correct the wrong inflicted to fathers. It is therefore sometimes wrong for prospective mothers to bear a child, or so I argue here. I show that my argument for considering the legitimate interests of prospective fathers is not a unique exception to an obvious right to procreate. It is, rather, part of a growing consensus that procreation can be morally problematic and that generally talking of rights in this context might not be warranted. Finally, I argue that giving up a right to procreate does not imply nor suggest giving up on women's absolute right to abort, which I defend.

  16. [Umberto Eco and abortion].

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    The Cardinal of Milan and the linguist and writer Umberto Eco maintained a correspondence in the mid-1990s in connection with the Italian magazine ¿Liberal¿. One of the issues discussed was the conflict between belief in the value of human life and existing abortion legislation. Umberto Eco stated that he would do all in his power to dissuade a woman pregnant with his child from having an abortion, regardless of the personal cost to the parents, because the birth of a child is a miracle. He would not, however, feel capable of imposing his ethical position on anyone else. Terrible moments occur in which women have a right to make autonomous decisions concerning their bodies, their feelings, their futures. Those who disagree cite the right to life, a rather vague concept about which even atheists can be enthusiastic. The moment at which a new human being is formed has been brought to the center of Catholic theology, despite its uncertainty; the beginning of a new life may always need to be understood as a process whose end result is the newborn. Only the mother should decide at what moment the process may be interrupted. The cardinal¿s response distinguished between psychic and physical life, on the one hand, and life participating in the life of God on the other. The threshold is the moment of conception, reflecting a continuity of identity. The new being is worthy of respect. Any violation of the affection and care owed to the being can only be experienced as a profound suffering and painful laceration that may never heal. The response of Eco is unknown. PMID:12349541

  17. [Umberto Eco and abortion].

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    The Cardinal of Milan and the linguist and writer Umberto Eco maintained a correspondence in the mid-1990s in connection with the Italian magazine ¿Liberal¿. One of the issues discussed was the conflict between belief in the value of human life and existing abortion legislation. Umberto Eco stated that he would do all in his power to dissuade a woman pregnant with his child from having an abortion, regardless of the personal cost to the parents, because the birth of a child is a miracle. He would not, however, feel capable of imposing his ethical position on anyone else. Terrible moments occur in which women have a right to make autonomous decisions concerning their bodies, their feelings, their futures. Those who disagree cite the right to life, a rather vague concept about which even atheists can be enthusiastic. The moment at which a new human being is formed has been brought to the center of Catholic theology, despite its uncertainty; the beginning of a new life may always need to be understood as a process whose end result is the newborn. Only the mother should decide at what moment the process may be interrupted. The cardinal¿s response distinguished between psychic and physical life, on the one hand, and life participating in the life of God on the other. The threshold is the moment of conception, reflecting a continuity of identity. The new being is worthy of respect. Any violation of the affection and care owed to the being can only be experienced as a profound suffering and painful laceration that may never heal. The response of Eco is unknown.

  18. Pediatric migraine: abortive management in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, David C; Spiro, David M; Meckler, Garth D

    2014-02-01

    Studies suggest that headache accounts for approximately 1% of pediatric emergency department (ED) visits. ED physicians must distinguish between primary headaches, such as a tension or migraine, and secondary headaches caused by systemic disease including neoplasm, infection, or intracranial hemorrhage. A recent study found that 40% of children presenting to the ED with headache were diagnosed with a primary headache, and 75% of these were migraine. Once the diagnosis of migraine has been made, the ED physician is faced with the challenge of determining appropriate abortive treatment. This review summarizes the most recent literature on pediatric migraine with an emphasis on diagnosis and abortive treatment in the ED.

  19. Psychological sequelae of induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Romans-Clarkson, S E

    1989-12-01

    This article reviews the scientific literature on the psychological sequelae of induced abortion. The methodology and results of studies carried out over the last twenty-two years are examined critically. The unanimous consensus is that abortion does not cause deleterious psychological effects. Women most likely to show subsequent problems are those who were pressured into the operation against their own wishes, either by relatives or because their pregnancy had medical or foetal contraindications. Legislation which restricts abortion causes problems for women with unwanted pregnancies and their doctors. It is also unjust, as it adversely most affects lower socio-economic class women.

  20. Abortion incidence in Cambodia, 2005 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Fetters, Tamara; Samandari, Ghazaleh

    2015-01-01

    Although Cambodia now permits elective abortion, scarcity of research on this topic means that information on abortion incidence is limited to regional estimates. This estimation model combines national survey data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) with national prospective data of abortion procedures from government health facilities, collected in 2005 and 2010, to calculate the national incidence of safe and unsafe abortion. According to DHS, the proportion of all induced abortions that took place in a health facility in the five years preceding each survey increased from almost 52% to 60%. Projecting from facility-based abortions to national estimates, the national abortion rate increased from 21 to 28 per 1000 women aged 15-44. The abortion ratio also increased from 19 to 28 per 100 live births. This research quantifies an increase in safely induced abortions in Cambodia and provides a deeper understanding of induced abortion trends in Cambodia.

  1. CONTINUOUS ABORT GAP CLEANING AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.FLILLER,R.III.FU,W.MICHNOFF,R.

    2004-07-05

    Since the RHIC Au-Au run in the year 2001 the 200 MHz cavity system was used at storage and a 28 MHz system during injection and acceleration. The rebucketing procedure potentially causes a higher debunching rate of heavy ion beams in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam can easily account for more than 50% of the total beam intensity. This effect is even stronger with the achieved high intensities of the RHIC Au-Au run in 2004. A beam abort at the presence of a lot of debunched beam bears the risk of magnet quenching and experimental detector damage due to uncontrolled beam losses. Thus it is desirable to avoid any accumulation of debunched beam from the beginning of each store, in particular to anticipate cases of unscheduled beam aborts due to a system failure. A combination of a fast transverse kickers and the new 2-stage copper collimator system are used to clean the abort gap continuously throughout the store with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. This report gives. an overview of the new gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  2. Launch Abort System Pathfinder Arrival

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Orion Launch Abort System, or LAS, pathfinder returned home to NASA Langley on Oct. 18 on its way to NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The hardware was built at Langley and was used in preparation f...

  3. Abortion: the antithesis of womanhood?

    PubMed

    Timpson, J

    1996-04-01

    The debate regarding the practice and role of abortion has been an enduring and problematic area of discourse within the nursing literature, with a tendency towards a polarized and inevitably simplistic analysis of what, for many practitioners, women and families, remains a highly complex and morally fraught concept. This paper attempts to explore the concept of abortion from within a feminist epistemology, to present a review of the literature as regards women's reproductive health and responsibilities, and thereby to contribute to the process of better understanding the role of abortion within contemporary health care practice. In order to facilitate the study it has been necessary to explore the wide spectrum of historical, philosophical, legal, moral and political imperatives pertaining to the meaning of abortion as represented within contemporary society, not only in relation to women and their reproductive health, but to feminism, women's well-being and self-determinism per se. PMID:8675897

  4. Abortion and the human animal.

    PubMed

    Tollefsen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    I discuss three topics. First, there is a philosophical connecting thread between several recent trends in the abortion discussion, namely, the issue of our animal nature, and physical embodiment. The philosophical name given to the position that you and I are essentially human animals is "animalism." In Section II of this paper, I argue that animalism provides a unifying theme to recent discussions of abortion. In Section III, I discuss what we do not find among recent trends in the abortion discussion, namely "the right to privacy." I suggest some reasons why the right to privacy is conspicuous by its absence. Finally, I address Patrick Lee's claim that the evil of abortion involves "the moral deterioration that the act brings to those who are complicit in it, and to the culture that fosters it."

  5. The Development of Instruments to Measure Attitudes toward Abortion and Knowledge of Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1976-01-01

    This study developed an abortion attitude scale and abortion knowledge inventory that may be utilized by health educators, counselors, and researchers for assessing attitudes toward abortion and knowledge about it. (SK)

  6. Participation of nurses in abortions.

    PubMed

    Neustatter, P L

    1980-11-29

    Doctors for a Woman's Choice on Abortion would agree with 1 point in Lord Denning's ruling on the role of nurses in abortions induced by (PGS) prostaglandins (November 15, p. 1091). The nurse should not be doing a doctor's job, as Lord Denning indicated, and we sympathize with any nurse who is doing so (though the 1967 Abortion Act allows any nurse to abstain, on grounds of conscience). However, the ruling that nurses are not legally covered to participate in any way with the "procuring of a miscarriage" (using terminology of the 1861 Offenses against the Persons Act upon which the ruling is based) does not require a radical change in the practice of late abortions (constituting only 7% of the terminations) or any change in the law. PG abortion can be done without a nurse. With the extraamniotic technique, a very cheap pump can be used to give subsequent doses of the PG (a function normally performed by a nurse) through the catheter left inserted through the cervix after the 1st dose has been given by the doctor. Alternatively, the intraamniotic method can be used, where PG is instilled into the amniotic sac via a needle passed through the abdominal wall. This normally requires only 1 dose, given by the doctor. Rarely are subsequent doses needed; however they could be given by the doctor with very little addition to his or her workload. While the fact that PG abortion can be done without nurses is not realized, late abortion will be restricted, a situation which is entirely deplorable. Also deplorable are the comments of an antiabortion nature made by Lord Denning, over and above the legal ruling in his jurisdiction to make. His ruling, furthermore, seems to have been sufficiently confused for the Department of Health to withdraw its circular on abortion and await an interpretation before issuing another. PMID:6107800

  7. [Induced abortion: pro and con].

    PubMed

    Balić, Adem; Balić, Devleta; Habibović, A; Adzajlić, A

    2003-01-01

    Induced abortion like a method of birth control is the most unpopular method but it is a choice of great deal women especially in our environment. In connection with very loud demands for sharpened the low of pregnancy interrupting, many authors analyse methods, complications and risk groups of women, its acceptability like a method of family planning. At the end they give conclusion with some concrete suggestions and the aim to reduce the number of induced abortions. PMID:14528715

  8. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in children admitted to hospital but ventilated mechanically for other reasons.

    PubMed

    von Renesse, Anja; Schildgen, Oliver; Klinkenberg, Dennis; Müller, Andreas; von Moers, Arpad; Simon, Arne

    2009-01-01

    One thousand five hundred sixty-eight RSV infections were documented prospectively in 1,541 pediatric patients. Of these, 20 (1.3%) had acquired the RSV infection while treated by mechanical ventilation for reasons other than the actual RSV infection (group ventilated mechanically). The clinical characteristics of children who were infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection while ventilated mechanically for other reasons are described and compared with a matched control group. Sixty percent of the group ventilated mechanically had at least one additional risk factor for a severe course of infection (prematurity 50%, chronic lung disease 20%, congenital heart disease 35%, immunodeficiency 20%). The median age at diagnosis in the group ventilated mechanically was 4.2 months. The matched pairs analysis (group ventilated mechanically vs. control group) revealed a higher proportion of patients with hypoxemia and apnoea in the group ventilated mechanically; more patients in the control group showed symptoms of airway obstruction (wheezing). At least one chest radiography was performed in 95% of the patients (n = 19) in the group ventilated mechanically versus 45% (n = 9) in the control group (P = 0.001). The frequency of pneumonia was 40% in the group ventilated mechanically and 20% in the control group. Despite existing consensus recommendations, only two patients (10%) of the group ventilated mechanically had received palivizumab previously. Significantly more patients in the group ventilated mechanically received antibiotic treatment (85% vs. 45%, P = 0.008), and attributable mortality was higher in the group ventilated mechanically (15% [n = 3] vs. 0% in the control group, P = 0.231). Children treated by long term mechanical ventilation may acquire RSV infection by transmission by droplets or caregivers and face an increased risk of a severe course of RSV infection. The low rate of immunoprophylaxis in this particular risk group should be improved.

  9. Molecular mechanisms of RIP, an effective inhibitor of chronic infections.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Leban, Florencia; Kiran, Madanahally Divakar; Wolcott, Randall; Balaban, Naomi

    2010-09-01

    Non-healing bacterial infections are often associated with the formation of a biofilm, where bacteria are more resistant to conventional treatment modalities and to host immune responses. We show here that RNAIII inhibiting peptide (RIP), a linear heptapeptide, is very effective in treating severe polymicrobial infections, including drug-resistant staphylococci like MRSA. By functional genomics studies (microarray analysis) on Staphylococcus aureus, we show here that RIP downregulates the expression of genes involved in biofilm formation and toxin production, and upregulates genes involved in stress response. This pattern of gene regulation may explain why RIP has been so effective in treating severe infections and hopefully through the addition of RIP to existing protocols, a new way of tackling chronic persistent infections will be established.

  10. Salmonella infection inhibits intestinal biotin transport: cellular and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Jellbauer, Stefan; Kapadia, Rubina; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the nontyphoidal Salmonella is a common cause of food-borne disease that leads to acute gastroenteritis/diarrhea. Severe/prolonged cases of Salmonella infection could also impact host nutritional status, but little is known about its effect on intestinal absorption of vitamins, including biotin. We examined the effect of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection on intestinal biotin uptake using in vivo (streptomycin-pretreated mice) and in vitro [mouse (YAMC) and human (NCM460) colonic epithelial cells, and human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells] models. The results showed that infecting mice with wild-type S. typhimurium, but not with its nonpathogenic isogenic invA spiB mutant, leads to a significant inhibition in jejunal/colonic biotin uptake and in level of expression of the biotin transporter, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter. In contrast, infecting YAMC, NCM460, and Caco-2 cells with S. typhimurium did not affect biotin uptake. These findings suggest that the effect of S. typhimurium infection is indirect and is likely mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, the levels of which were markedly induced in the intestine of S. typhimurium-infected mice. Consistent with this hypothesis, exposure of NCM460 cells to the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ led to a significant inhibition of biotin uptake, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter expression, and activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. The latter effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that S. typhimurium infection inhibits intestinal biotin uptake, and that the inhibition is mediated via the action of proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:25999427

  11. Salmonella infection inhibits intestinal biotin transport: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Jellbauer, Stefan; Kapadia, Rubina; Raffatellu, Manuela; Said, Hamid M

    2015-07-15

    Infection with the nontyphoidal Salmonella is a common cause of food-borne disease that leads to acute gastroenteritis/diarrhea. Severe/prolonged cases of Salmonella infection could also impact host nutritional status, but little is known about its effect on intestinal absorption of vitamins, including biotin. We examined the effect of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection on intestinal biotin uptake using in vivo (streptomycin-pretreated mice) and in vitro [mouse (YAMC) and human (NCM460) colonic epithelial cells, and human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells] models. The results showed that infecting mice with wild-type S. typhimurium, but not with its nonpathogenic isogenic invA spiB mutant, leads to a significant inhibition in jejunal/colonic biotin uptake and in level of expression of the biotin transporter, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter. In contrast, infecting YAMC, NCM460, and Caco-2 cells with S. typhimurium did not affect biotin uptake. These findings suggest that the effect of S. typhimurium infection is indirect and is likely mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, the levels of which were markedly induced in the intestine of S. typhimurium-infected mice. Consistent with this hypothesis, exposure of NCM460 cells to the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ led to a significant inhibition of biotin uptake, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter expression, and activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. The latter effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that S. typhimurium infection inhibits intestinal biotin uptake, and that the inhibition is mediated via the action of proinflammatory cytokines.

  12. Genetics, amniocentesis, and abortion.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, K

    1984-01-01

    At this time a rather large number of congenital abnormalities still occur. About 2-3% of pregnancies will result in children with major congenital abnormalities that cannot be detected prenatally. Yet, with the availability of prenatal diagnosis for an ever increasing number of genetic problems and, more recently, for developmental problems as well, a new option was offered to couples at risk when they took the risk of pregnancy: finding out whether the fetus was abnormal. An early argument regarding the ethics of this option was formulated by Dan Callahan, director of the Hastings Institute for Ethics, Society and the Life Sciences, when he indicated the need to be careful about the term "option." A need exists to be careful about societal pressures in favor of the new medical options--on, for example, a pregnant woman who is over 35 and does not get a prenatal diagnosis; or on a woman carrying a Down's syndrome child identified by prenatal diagnosis not to have an abortion. This was the 1st specter raised when prenatal diagnosis was introduced. The most common indication for amniocentesis is the risk of chromosomal abnormalities. The risk of discovering a chromosomal abnormality by amniocentesis is about double the risk at birth because a number of chromosomally abnormal fetuses are lost late in the 2nd trimester by spontaneous abortion. The age cutoff at 35 raises an immediate ethical question: since the total number of births to women over age 35 seems to be increasing, and at the same time a greater and greater percentage of children with Down's syndrome are born to women under age 35, the question arises as to whether amniocentesis should be done on all pregnancies, and whether all births with Down's syndrome should be selectively aborted or avoided. Amniocentesis in all pregnancies is impractical at this time from the technological and the cost perspective, but the ethical question should be raised. Among the X-linked disorders, 1 group cannot be

  13. Safe abortion: a woman's right.

    PubMed

    Sangala, Vanessa

    2005-07-01

    Complications of induced abortion sadly remain significant causes of maternal mortality and morbidity around the world, but only in countries that do not provide access to safe abortion services. This article presents a brief account of how high maternal mortality from induced abortion became history in the UK and the dire consequences to women's health that unsafe abortion still has in many countries of the world. It gives a brief overview of the methods available to evacuate the uterus, with particular reference to manual vacuum aspiration. The status of the law in different countries is discussed, together with the need for health professionals to interpret repressive laws in ways that enables them to care for women who seek their help. Safe abortion services are cost effective, essential services for women. Men are part and parcel of the reason women resort to terminating a pregnancy, and, together with the countless children whose lives are dependent on a healthy caring mother, are also beneficiaries of safe abortion services. There can be no excuse for continuing to deny these services to so many women around the world.

  14. Molecular mechanisms of Trypanosoma cruzi infection by oral route.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Nobuko

    2009-07-01

    Frequent reports on outbreaks of acute Chagas' disease by ingestion of food contaminated with parasites from triatomine insects illustrate the importance of this mode of transmission. Studies on oral Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice have indicated that metacyclic trypomastigotes invade the gastric mucosal epithelium. A key molecule in this process is gp82, a stage-specific surface glycoprotein that binds to both gastric mucin and to target epithelial cells. By triggering Ca2+ signalling, gp82 promotes parasite internalisation. Gp82 is relatively resistant to peptic digestion at acidic pH, thus preserving the properties critical for oral infection. The infection process is also influenced by gp90, a metacyclic stage-specific molecule that negatively regulates the invasion process. T. cruzi strains expressing high gp90 levels invade cells poorly in vitro. However, their infectivity by oral route varies considerably due to varying susceptibilities of different gp90 isoforms to peptic digestion. Parasites expressing pepsin-susceptible gp90 become highly invasive against target cells upon contact with gastric juice. Such is the case of a T. cruzi isolate from an acute case of orally acquired Chagas' disease; the gp90 from this strain is extensively degraded upon short period of parasite permanence in the gastric milieu. If such an exacerbation of infectivity occurs in humans, it may be responsible for the severity of Chagas' disease reported in outbreaks of oral infection.

  15. Crew Exploration Vehicle Ascent Abort Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B., Jr.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Proud, Ryan W.; Merritt, Deborah S.; Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Kenyon, Paul R.; Burt, Richard; McFarland, Mike

    2007-01-01

    One of the primary design drivers for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is to ensure crew safety. Aborts during the critical ascent flight phase require the design and operation of CEV systems to escape from the Crew Launch Vehicle and return the crew safely to the Earth. To accomplish this requirement of continuous abort coverage, CEV ascent abort modes are being designed and analyzed to accommodate the velocity, altitude, atmospheric, and vehicle configuration changes that occur during ascent. The analysis involves an evaluation of the feasibility and survivability of each abort mode and an assessment of the abort mode coverage. These studies and design trades are being conducted so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle abort requirements, design, and operation. This paper presents an overview of the CEV, driving requirements for abort scenarios, and an overview of current ascent abort modes. Example analysis results are then discussed. Finally, future areas for abort analysis are addressed.

  16. Abortion restrictions may undermine welfare reform.

    PubMed

    1999-02-01

    Results from a study conducted by Pennsylvania State University's Population Research Institute indicate that more restrictive abortion laws in the US may have led to an increase in the number of single mothers, even given new welfare reform laws which make unmarried childbearing more costly. Study findings are based upon county rates of female-headed families from the 1980 and 1990 censuses, excluding those in Alaska and Hawaii. By making unmarried childbearing more costly, welfare reform has sparked a demand for abortion, while at the same time abortion laws have restricted access to abortion. An increasing number of unmarried women on welfare have therefore chosen childbearing over abortion. The study found a decline in the number of abortions in counties where abortion laws had become more strict. That states can now require abortion providers to notify the parents of minors who have abortions, to restrict Medicaid funding for abortions, and to establish 24-hour waiting periods has made abortion either a difficult or impossible option for some women. These restrictive abortion laws and geographic barriers to abortion have discouraged women from undergoing the procedure, increasing the number of female-headed families and single mothers. The public policy goal of reducing unmarried childbearing and female-headed families is being undermined by the growing geographic and legal barriers designed to discourage abortion. PMID:12348920

  17. Repeat abortions in New York City, 2010.

    PubMed

    Toprani, Amita; Cadwell, Betsy L; Li, Wenhui; Sackoff, Judith; Greene, Carolyn; Begier, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to describe factors associated with the number of past abortions obtained by New York City (NYC) abortion patients in 2010. We calculated rates of first and repeat abortion by age, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood-level poverty and the mean number of self-reported past abortions by age, race/ethnicity, neighborhood-level poverty, number of living children, education, payment method, marital status, and nativity. We used negative binomial regression to predict number of past abortions by patient characteristics. Of the 76,614 abortions reported for NYC residents in 2010, 57% were repeat abortions. Repeat abortions comprised >50% of total abortions among the majority of sociodemographic groups we examined. Overall, mean number of past abortions was 1.3. Mean number of past abortions was higher for women aged 30-34 years (1.77), women with ≥5 children (2.50), and black non-Hispanic women (1.52). After multivariable regression, age, race/ethnicity, and number of children were the strongest predictors of number of past abortions. This analysis demonstrates that, although socioeconomic disparities exist, all abortion patients are at high risk for repeat unintended pregnancy and abortion. PMID:25779755

  18. Europe's abortion wars: womb for debate.

    PubMed

    Blinken, A J

    1991-01-01

    As Europe edges toward some sort of unity, the volatile abortion debate has begun to spill across national boundaries. Reflecting the continent's religious and cultural diversity, abortion laws throughout Europe vary widely. Holland and Sweden have the most liberal abortion laws. The former allows abortion on demand, while the later permits abortion until the 18th week -- and possibly up until term, if the National Health Bureau gives permission. Britain, France, and Belgium have also adopted liberal abortion laws. Other nations, however, have more conservative laws. Since 1983, Ireland has banned abortion entirely. Spain allows abortion only in cases of rape, malformed fetuses, or when the mother's life is in danger. Many countries are also experiencing bitter debates over abortion. Czechoslovakia's liberal abortion law has come under increasing pressure, and in Poland, bishops and legislators have feuded over the legality of abortion. The move towards unification has only intensified these debates. Germany is currently without a national abortion law, as the former East Germany still enjoys a more liberal abortion law than West Germany. Differences over abortion laws have led to what is know in Europe as abortion shipping. Every year, an estimated 15,000 Irish women travel to England, some 7,000 German women go to Holland, and some 3,000 French women travel to England -- all seeking to take advantage of another country's abortion law. Some Europeans have begun to look for continent-wide laws on abortion. Recently, an Irish group argued against its country's law before the European court of Justice. Right-to-life groups have also fought to establish continent-wide restrictions. So far, it seems unlikely that Europe will reach an agreement on the issue of abortion.

  19. Contemporary issues for spontaneous abortion. Does recurrent abortion exist?

    PubMed

    Reindollar, R H

    2000-09-01

    Most of the time, spontaneous abortion is a random event and represents the natural selection process. Although a recurrent factor may be present and may cause one or more abortions for a given couple, such instances are rare. Well-substantiated causes include parental chromosomal abnormalities (e.g., translocation), antiphospholipid syndrome, PCOD, and maternal age greater than 40 years. Müllerian duplication defects are most likely a cause of pregnancy loss for some women. A growing body of evidence refutes the role of corpus luteum defect as a common cause of recurrent abortion. Other causes are numerically infrequent in occurrence. It is likely that cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption contribute to pregnancy wastage. Although some therapies for the causes listed herein have been proven effective by randomized controlled trials, most have not. Given the excellent outcome demonstrated for most couples with unexplained recurrent abortion in the absence of treatment, it is difficult to recommend unproven therapies, especially if they are invasive and expensive. Instead of examining the environment in which pregnancy has occurred or been planned, clinicians have simply counted the number of spontaneous abortions among couples in an attempt to determine who should be evaluated. The former approach would seem most appropriate and proactive.

  20. Genetic mechanism associated with congenital cytomegalovirus infection and analysis of effects of the infection on pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Li, J M; Zhang, H F; Zhang, X Q; Huang, G L; Huang, H Z; Yu, W W

    2015-10-27

    We aimed to compare the diagnostic value of various detection methods for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, to investigate the genetic mechanism associated with CMV infection in pregnant women, and to analyze the risk of sequelae development in fetuses with CMV infection. A total of 300 participants who had the same immunosuppressive regimen and received preemptive therapy for CMV infection were prospectively enrolled in this study; they included 289 vaccine trial participants. The gB-absorbed CMV IgG assay was performed for each vaccine trial participant. The healthy women were divided into 2 groups, and amniotic fluids were collected from them at 15-18 weeks of gestation to test for CMV seropositivity before conception by using IgM specific antibodies, CMV-DNA, and IgG analysis. In 104 cases, cord blood sera and urine specimens were also collected from the infants and examined. The sensitivity and specificity of immediate-early messenger RNA and pp67 (late) messenger RNA detection by the nucleic acid sequence-based amplification technique was comparable to those of virus isolation and PCR. Furthermore, an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the TLR-2 gene and congenital CMV infection was observed and confirmed. Moreover, CMV infection during early pregnancy has been shown to have a much more severe effect on the pregnancy outcome compared to infection during later stages of pregnancy.

  1. Hospital Admission following Induced Abortion in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea – A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Vallely, Lisa M.; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kumbia, Antonia; Mola, Glen D. L.; Whittaker, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion. Methods Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information. Findings Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119) of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119) of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported. Conclusion In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion. PMID:25329982

  2. Abortion epidemic in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Viel, B

    1983-05-01

    Recent surveys have shown that 3.4 million illegal abortions may be taking place in the Latin American countries every year, with a rate of around 45/1000 women of childbearing age. Yet only in Cuba can women have abortion on demand. In the other countries the penalty for the abortionist and the client is a prison sentence. The only way of measuring the frequency of abortion is through the numbers of women entering hospitals for treatment of postabortion complication, but not all countries publish hospitals statistics that are reliable. Surveys in Chile and Colombia for 1974 show a rate of 11.7-17.9/1000 women of fertile age undergoing illegal abortions, with only 1/3 resulting in complications. The law is not strictly enforced in these countries because the number of people that will have to be prosecuted is too large and because there is no place to care for the young children of women who will be prosecuted. Yet the abortion death rate (38% of total maternal deaths) is so high that a new policy must be drawn up, especially since women who have normal deliveries are sent home earlier to make room for those with abortion complications, resulting in a high infant mortality rate. In addition the rate of pregnancies among adolescents is very high due to the permissive social atmosphere combined with a lack of sex education in the schools. Studies that would allow international comparisons to show ways to prevent the consequences of illegal abortions are needed.

  3. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    PubMed

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited. PMID:6913282

  4. [Induced abortion in China: problems and interventions].

    PubMed

    Wu, Shang-chun; Qiu, Hong-yan

    2010-10-01

    Pooled literatures showed that the induced abortion in China faces many problems:the number of induced abortion remains large; most cases are young and nulliparity women; the frequency of abortion is high; and the interval between one and another abortion is short. Health promotion strategies should be applied to address these problems. It is important to increase the population's awareness of contraception,especially among nulliparity and migrant populations. Routine and effective contraceptive methods should be recommended and emphasized during induced abortion and delivery to lower the rate of induced abortion.

  5. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Infectivity and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how the infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus, as well as neuropsychiatric abnormalities in the brain. (TW)

  6. [Induced abortion in The Netherlands in the twentieth century; from taboo to revolutionary change].

    PubMed

    Treffers, P E

    2006-03-11

    Between 1890 and 1945 the number of induced (criminal) abortions increased in Amsterdam; from 1945 up until the 1960s the number decreased slightly. In 1965 the number of induced abortions that took place in Amsterdam was estimated at more than 2000. Complications were frequent and included infections, septicaemia, damage caused by injected soap and sometimes air embolism. Women in Amsterdam often used primitive methods of contraception, but effective methods, such as condoms and diaphragms, were also used to some degree. Oral contraception was introduced in The Netherlands in 1962. Its use increased rapidly and consequently many doctors were confronted with problems surrounding contraception, including failures and abortion requests. After a television programme on abortion in 1967, requests for abortion surged. Hospitals set up multidisciplinary abortion committees to assess the requests, but soon it became evident that the women themselves were better able to judge whether they should undergo the procedure. Abortion clinics were established outside hospitals. Support from the feminist movement played a role after changes were already underway. The nationwide number of abortions increased to 21,000 in 1972 and to about 25,000 in the 1990s. The number remained stable, even among teenagers, because caregivers placed a great deal of emphasis on adequate contraception.

  7. Glycolytic control of vacuolar-type ATPase activity: A mechanism to regulate influenza viral infection

    SciTech Connect

    Kohio, Hinissan P.; Adamson, Amy L.

    2013-09-15

    As new influenza virus strains emerge, finding new mechanisms to control infection is imperative. In this study, we found that we could control influenza infection of mammalian cells by altering the level of glucose given to cells. Higher glucose concentrations induced a dose-specific increase in influenza infection. Linking influenza virus infection with glycolysis, we found that viral replication was significantly reduced after cells were treated with glycolytic inhibitors. Addition of extracellular ATP after glycolytic inhibition restored influenza infection. We also determined that higher levels of glucose promoted the assembly of the vacuolar-type ATPase within cells, and increased vacuolar-type ATPase proton-transport activity. The increase of viral infection via high glucose levels could be reversed by inhibition of the proton pump, linking glucose metabolism, vacuolar-type ATPase activity, and influenza viral infection. Taken together, we propose that altering glucose metabolism may be a potential new approach to inhibit influenza viral infection. - Highlights: • Increased glucose levels increase Influenza A viral infection of MDCK cells. • Inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase inhibited Influenza A viral infection. • Inhibition of hexokinase induced disassembly the V-ATPase. • Disassembly of the V-ATPase and Influenza A infection was bypassed with ATP. • The state of V-ATPase assembly correlated with Influenza A infection of cells.

  8. Abortions, fetal death, and stillbirths in pregnant pygmy goats inoculated with tachyzoites of Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, D S; Rippey, N S; Powe, T A; Sartin, E A; Dubey, J P; Blagburn, B L

    1995-09-01

    Neospora caninum-induced abortion is a major production problem in the dairy cattle industry in the United States and worldwide. Abortions attributable to naturally acquired N caninum infection also have been observed in pygmy goats. We studied experimentally induced infections with N caninum in pregnant pygmy does to determine whether abortions attributable to N caninum infection would occur after inoculation. Seven pregnant pygmy does (1 control doe and 6 inoculated with N caninum) were studied. The control doe remained clinically normal throughout the study and delivered 2 healthy kids. Abortion, fetal death, and stillbirths were observed in some pregnant does inoculated with N caninum. Two pregnant pygmy does inoculated with N caninum early in gestation (day 51) had fetuses that died and were aborted, or died and were reabsorbed. Neospora caninum tachyzoites and lesions were observed in the brain, spinal cord, and heart of aborted fetuses; parasites also were isolated from the placenta. Four additional pregnant pygmy does (2 inoculated at mid-gestation [day 85], and 2 at late gestation [day 127]) did not abort after inoculation. However, 1 doe inoculated during mid-gestation delivered a stillborn fetus that had died about 1 week prior to parturition. This kid was congenitally infected with N caninum. Neospora caninum was isolated from the placentas of all inoculated does examined. Neonatal neosporosis was not observed in live-born kids, nor were stages of N caninum isolated from any live-born kid. Does did not undergo abortion or have congenitally infected kids when they were rebred and evaluated for neosporosis.

  9. Abortion applicants in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Henker, F O

    1973-03-01

    The article reports upon the characteristics of 300 abortion applicants in Arkansas manifesting significant stress from unwanted pregnancy between May 1, 1970 and June 30, 1971. The sample is limited by the fact that all of these women had been willing to seek medical aid. Patients ranged from ages 13-47, 131 of them ages 17-21. 35% had had some college education; another 29% were high school graduates. 50.6%, 20.6%, and 27.3% were single, divorced, and married, respectively. 59.6% of the patients were primiparas. 18.3%, 9.6%, and 12.3% were classified as being neurotic, having psychophysiologic tendencies (gastrointestinal problems, obesity, chronic headaches), and having sociopathic features (passive-aggressive, frankly rebellious, delinquent, antisocial, alcoholic), respectively. 12 women had noticeable schizoid features; 4 women had mildly active schizophrenia. Fathers of the women were usually blue-collar workers (55.3%) or white-collar workers (24.6%). The most frequent ordinal sibling position among the women was oldest child (38%). Parental instability (1 or both parents lost through death, divorce, father usually away working, chronic alcoholism, etc.) was reported by 39.6% of the patients. Patients' attitudes toward the unwanted pregnancy included dislike of inexpediency of the situation (82.6%), self-depreciation (55.6%), and aversion (28.6%). Precipitated psychiatric disorders were for the greatest part mild. Manifesting symptoms included depression (66.7%), anxiety (21%), and mixed anxiety and depression (12.2%). Suicidal threats and gestures were made by 22 and 8 patients, respectively. In summary, the study reveals a group of predominantly Caucasian women from unstable, middle-class urban families who were going through an adjustment reaction to adolescence or adult life.

  10. Abortion and the law: the Supreme Court, privacy, and abortion.

    PubMed

    Marsh, F H

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the impact of the continuing politicization of the abortion issue in the US on the rights of women and on the emerging concept of fetal rights. The introduction 1) attributes the "final and total politicization" of a woman's right to control her reproduction to the "undue burden" standard introduced by the Supreme Court in its 1992 Casey decision and 2) claims that, if unchecked, the concept of fetal rights may give the state's interest in protecting potential life supremacy over women's rights. The next section presents an in-depth discussion of the politicization of the right to abortion that covers such topics as how the courts before Casey became the forum for debating abortion policy, how the "undue burden" standard fails to set definite parameters of acceptable state behavior, how the Casey decision in effect abandons the trimester-based framework of reference provided in Roe vs. Wade, how Casey allows states to subtly coerce women seeking abortions, how the Casey decision failed to reduce the intense politicization of abortion, and how the court failed to protect individual rights to health care and abortion funding from states. Part 3 of the article begins its exploration of the concept of "fetal rights" with a sketch of the history of this concept in the US courts starting in 1884 when damages for miscarriage were denied. Ways in which fetal rights compete with the rights of a pregnant woman are described, the Supreme Court is blamed for allowing states to develop this concept, and issues of patient confidentiality versus reporting requirements are considered. It is concluded that the Supreme Court will have to act to limit fetal rights.

  11. Endocytic mechanisms utilized by chlamydiae and their influence on induction of productive infection.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, D J; Pearce, J H

    1991-09-01

    The microfilament-disrupting drug cytochalasin D and, initially, inoculation at 20 degrees C were used to differentiate between phagocytosis (sensitive to both treatments) and pinocytosis (resistant to both treatments) to assess whether chlamydial uptake into McCoy cells occurred by one or both mechanisms and whether each could contribute to productive infection. Both treatments suppressed the infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis L2/434/Bu and C. psittaci GPIC (the guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis strain) following static inoculation by only 50%, indicating that there was simultaneous operation of both phagocytosis and pinocytosis during uptake that led to productive infection. Measurement of the entry of organisms by two separate assays established that both strains predominantly used a cytochalasin D-resistant (pinocytic) mechanism, implying that phagocytic uptake was coupled to a higher frequency of productive infection. Integration of the data on infectivity and entry allowed the potential for an organism to infect a host cell to be quantified. This synthesis revealed that for both strains the infectivity potential following phagocytic entry was ca. 10-fold greater than that following pinocytic entry. However, both entry mechanisms were exploited more efficiently by strain L2/434/Bu than by strain GPIC (unless the latter was inoculated with centrifugation), indicating that intrinsic strain properties are more important for infectivity potential than the endocytic mechanism utilized.

  12. An open prospective randomized study of dinoproston and gemeprost in second trimester legal abortions.

    PubMed

    Kjølhede, P; Dahle, L O; Matthiesen, L; Rydén, G; Ottosen, C

    1994-04-01

    The aim of this open prospective randomized study was to compare two non-invasive methods for second trimester abortion using gemeprost pessaries (Cervagem) and dinoproston gel (Cerviprost) concerning effectiveness, time for abortion, consumption of analgesics, infection-rate and side-effects. Forty women admitted for second trimester legal abortion were allocated to treatment with either gemeprost (20) intravaginally or dinoproston (20) intracervically. All patients were pre-treated with a 3 mm in diameter Lamicel tent applied intracervically for about four hours. The success-rate was 95% for gemeprost and 75% for dinoproston within approximately 48 hours. The median abortion time calculated from the insertion of the Lamicel tent for the successful cases was 22 h 0 min for gemeprost and 24 h 5 min for dinoproston (not significant). The shortest abortion time was found among parous women in the Cervagem group. The difference between Cerviprost and Cervagem in parous women was statistically significant. For nonparous women there were no significant differences in abortion time between the two regimes. No significant difference was found in the demand of Pethidin and the infection-rate between the two groups. No major side effects of the treatment were found. Even if no significant difference in successful abortions was found, probably due to the small patient material, Cervagem seems to be the most appropriate of the two non-invasive methods, because of a 95 per cent success-rate within 48 hours, but also due to its simplicity in design. PMID:8160538

  13. Clinically proven radiopharmaceuticals for infection imaging: mechanisms and applications.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Stanley J; Vallabhajosula, Shankar

    2009-01-01

    Gallium-67 ((67)Ga)-citrate was initially introduced as a tumor imaging agent in the early 1970s, but it was soon recognized that it was useful in the identification of both acute and chronic inflammation. Because of its physical characteristics (multiple gamma photons energy; long half life) and binding to the plasma protein transferrin (resulting in relatively high background and therefore reduced lesion-to-background contrast), it was less than ideal as an imaging agent. Several years later, it became possible to radiolabel leukocytes, which had the advantage of greater specificity for acute infections characterized by a granulocytic response, but had the disadvantage of requiring the removal of blood and isolation of the leukocyte component. Several radiolabeled antibody preparations and a radiolabeled antibacterial agent have been introduced and evaluated, but none of these have been used widely. Most recently, it has been recognized that the use of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose can be used to identify infection/inflammation, probably based on the focal increase in anaerobic glucose metabolism associated with the cellular response. In this work, we review the features of each of these agents and discuss the issues involved in their use as radiopharmaceuticals for the identification of inflammation and/or infection.

  14. Latent Tuberculosis Infection: Myths, Models, and Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Noton K.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge on human latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) based on clinical studies and observations, as well as experimental in vitro and animal models. Several key terms are defined, including “latency,” “persistence,” “dormancy,” and “antibiotic tolerance.” Dogmas prevalent in the field are critically examined based on available clinical and experimental data, including the long-held beliefs that infection is either latent or active, that LTBI represents a small population of nonreplicating, “dormant” bacilli, and that caseous granulomas are the haven for LTBI. The role of host factors, such as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, T regulatory cells, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and gamma interferon (IFN-γ), in controlling TB infection is discussed. We also highlight microbial regulatory and metabolic pathways implicated in bacillary growth restriction and antibiotic tolerance under various physiologically relevant conditions. Finally, we pose several clinically important questions, which remain unanswered and will serve to stimulate future research on LTBI. PMID:25184558

  15. Host defense mechanisms of human milk and their relations to enteric infections and necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Buescher, E S

    1994-06-01

    Human milk contains components that can mediate protection against symptomatic infection by means of classical and novel mechanisms. It has been demonstrated to protect infants against symptomatic infection by a variety of enteric pathogens. To date, mechanisms involving pathogen-specific sIgA are the best documented; however, roles for nonimmunoglobulin glycoconjugate and anti-inflammatory components may also exist. Based on both laboratory and clinical studies, human milk feeding appears to have protective effects against development of necrotizing enterocolitis.

  16. The Road to Pad Abort 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces, N.M., engineers and technicians are preparing for the Pad Abort 1 flight test. The Launch Abort System is a sophisticated new rocket tower designed t...

  17. Abortion: the right to an argument.

    PubMed

    Meilaender, G

    1989-01-01

    Our moral puzzles about abortion will not be resolved by resort to compromise positions and adoption of middle ground, for abortion concerns how we understand ourselves as a people and how we define membership in this community. PMID:2606652

  18. Roe v. Wade. On abortion.

    PubMed

    French, M

    1998-01-01

    In ancient Assyria, fathers held the right of life or death over their newborn infants, but women found to have performed an abortion on themselves or others were impaled and denied burial. This punishment was otherwise reserved for crimes against the state such as high treason or assault on the king. Likewise, in Babylon if a wife arranged her husband's death so that she could marry another man, she was convicted of treason and impaled or crucified. Thus, ancient thought paralleled the husband-wife relationship with that of the state-subject. The small group of men who generally dominate institutions such as the state, the church, or a corporation have a primary demand for obedience and deference to their supreme authority from their underlings. These groups did not condemn abortion because it involved questions of life or death. After all, many states have permitted infanticide, many still sanction execution, and all are willing to sacrifice the lives of their soldiers in war. Patriarchs condemn abortion because they consider it treasonous for a woman to assert the right to use her own judgement and to treat her body as if it were her own and not the property of her husband. This denies the supremacy of the male, which is the first principle of patriarchs. Because patriarchal institutions depend upon the subjection of women, women's bodies become important markers in the struggle for human freedom. This explains why patriarchal institutions in the US have continuously attacked women's right to abortion by fragmenting the statute allowing abortion and attempting to render the fragments illegal. While US women have won other rights that can be protected legally, women require the right to abortion in order to possess the right to physical integrity and to be able to undo what men have done to them. Otherwise, men would be able to create a set-back in women's human rights by forcing women into motherhood.

  19. Strong down-regulation of glycophorin genes: A host defense mechanism against rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Salas, Antonio; Marco-Puche, Guillermo; Triviño, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Cebey-López, Miriam; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Vilanova-Trillo, Lucía; Rodríguez-Tenreiro, Carmen; Gómez-Rial, José; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2016-10-01

    The mechanisms of rotavirus (RV) infection have been analyzed from different angles but the way in which RV modifies the transcriptome of the host is still unknown. Whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing of peripheral blood samples was used to reveal patterns of expression from the genome of RV-infected patients. RV provokes global changes in the transcriptome of infected cells, involving an over-expression of genes involved in cell cycle and chromatin condensation. While interferon IFI27 was hyper-activated, interferon type II was not suggesting that RV has developed mechanisms to evade the innate response by host cells after virus infection. Most interesting was the inhibition of genes of the glycophorins A and B (GYPA/B) family, which are the major sialoglycoproteins of the human erythrocyte membrane and receptor of several viruses for host invasion. RV infection induces a complex and global response in the host. The strong inhibition of glycophorins suggests a novel defense mechanism of the host to prevent viral infection, inhibiting the expression of receptors used by the virus for infection. The present results add further support to the systemic nature of RV infection.

  20. Strong down-regulation of glycophorin genes: A host defense mechanism against rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Salas, Antonio; Marco-Puche, Guillermo; Triviño, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Cebey-López, Miriam; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Vilanova-Trillo, Lucía; Rodríguez-Tenreiro, Carmen; Gómez-Rial, José; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2016-10-01

    The mechanisms of rotavirus (RV) infection have been analyzed from different angles but the way in which RV modifies the transcriptome of the host is still unknown. Whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing of peripheral blood samples was used to reveal patterns of expression from the genome of RV-infected patients. RV provokes global changes in the transcriptome of infected cells, involving an over-expression of genes involved in cell cycle and chromatin condensation. While interferon IFI27 was hyper-activated, interferon type II was not suggesting that RV has developed mechanisms to evade the innate response by host cells after virus infection. Most interesting was the inhibition of genes of the glycophorins A and B (GYPA/B) family, which are the major sialoglycoproteins of the human erythrocyte membrane and receptor of several viruses for host invasion. RV infection induces a complex and global response in the host. The strong inhibition of glycophorins suggests a novel defense mechanism of the host to prevent viral infection, inhibiting the expression of receptors used by the virus for infection. The present results add further support to the systemic nature of RV infection. PMID:27491455

  1. SUICIDE, PSYCHIATRISTS AND THERAPEUTIC ABORTION.

    PubMed

    ROSENBERG, A J; SILVER, E

    1965-06-01

    Pressures for interruption of pregnancy by therapeutic abortion constantly increase, both for liberalization of laws and for interpreting existing law more broadly. There are wide variations and inconsistencies in psychiatric attitudes and practices about therapeutic abortion. Follow-up patient data are scant, but necessary. Results of questionnaires indicate that such data can be obtained, and convey the impression that patients seem to manage after pregnancy, regardless of outcome, much as they had before pregnancy. This study indicates that the incidence of suicide in pregnant women is approximately one-sixth that of the rate for non-pregnant women in comparable age groups, implying that perhaps pregnancy has a psychically protective role.

  2. Improving abortion care in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Bradley, J; Sikazwe, N; Healy, J

    1991-01-01

    In this commentary, the impact of the introduction of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) for incomplete abortion patients and for early uterine evacuation is discussed for the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. This 3-year training and service delivery program was begun in 1988 after it was clear that 15% of maternal deaths were due to illegally induced abortion. The prior procedure of dilation and curettage (D and C) required use of the main operating room and general anesthesia, which resulted in severe congestion and treatment delays. As a result of the new MVA procedure, congestion has decreased substantially, treatment is safer and more timely, and the staff's ability to provide abortions has increased. Family planning counseling is provided to postabortion patients in a more thorough fashion, and the savings in time has improved the quality of patient-staff interactions. Specifically, the patient flow has improved from a 12-hour wait to a 4-6 hour wait and rarely requires overnight hospitalization. The demand for the main operating room had decreased which frees space, time, and commodities for other gynecological treatment. The shorter procedure and release time means a minimal loss of earnings and productivity, and allows for greater privacy in explaining absences to families, schools, or employers. The improved quality of are is reflected in the figures for number treated, i.e., in 1989, 74% were treated with MVA for incomplete abortion 12 weeks and pregnancy termination 8 weeks compared with 26% treated with D and C. In 1990, the figures were 86% with MVA and 14% with D and C. The likelihood of complications from hemorrhage and sepsis have also been reduced. The MVA procedure is also less traumatic for the patient. The increased access to safe legal abortion services is reflected in the ratio of induced to incomplete abortions between 1988-1990 (1:25 to 1:5). Family planning counseling is provided by a full-time counselor who counsels preabortion

  3. DENGUE INFECTION IN PREGNANCY.

    PubMed

    Khamim, Kriangsak; Khamim, Boonluck; Pengsaa, Krisana

    2015-01-01

    While dengue infection is still on the increase in adults in Thailand, it also affects pregnant women, especially pregnant teenagers. This study was designed to investigate dengue infection during pregnancy. Seven cases of dengue infection in pregnant women were admitted to Ban Pong Hospital, Ratchaburi, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012. Dengue infection presented in all pregnancy trimesters. There were two severe cases: one was dengue hemorrhagic fever in the first trimester, and the second was at a critical stage of the infection during labor. There were three cases of abortion. These three cases included one complete, one incomplete, and one threatened abortion, with rising hematocrits of 22.8%, 17.1%, and 14.7%, respectively. Two out of the three teenage pregnancies experienced complete and threatened abortions, while the third abortion case was a threatened abortion pregnancy at the critical stage of infection during intrapartum. Leukopenia was identified in six out of seven women. Low baseline hematocrit and low maximum hematocrit were laboratory findings. Clinical management involved administration of intravenous fluids and antipyretics. Favorable outcomes can be obtained through early diagnosis and supportive treatment. The morbidity profile can be more serious in teenage pregnancies. Additional studies should be conducted to establish whether low baseline hematocrit, low percentages of rising hematocrit in pregnant women with dengue infection, and abortions (with a high degree of increasing hematocrit during the critical stage of the disease) are typical clinical signs.

  4. DENGUE INFECTION IN PREGNANCY.

    PubMed

    Khamim, Kriangsak; Khamim, Boonluck; Pengsaa, Krisana

    2015-01-01

    While dengue infection is still on the increase in adults in Thailand, it also affects pregnant women, especially pregnant teenagers. This study was designed to investigate dengue infection during pregnancy. Seven cases of dengue infection in pregnant women were admitted to Ban Pong Hospital, Ratchaburi, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012. Dengue infection presented in all pregnancy trimesters. There were two severe cases: one was dengue hemorrhagic fever in the first trimester, and the second was at a critical stage of the infection during labor. There were three cases of abortion. These three cases included one complete, one incomplete, and one threatened abortion, with rising hematocrits of 22.8%, 17.1%, and 14.7%, respectively. Two out of the three teenage pregnancies experienced complete and threatened abortions, while the third abortion case was a threatened abortion pregnancy at the critical stage of infection during intrapartum. Leukopenia was identified in six out of seven women. Low baseline hematocrit and low maximum hematocrit were laboratory findings. Clinical management involved administration of intravenous fluids and antipyretics. Favorable outcomes can be obtained through early diagnosis and supportive treatment. The morbidity profile can be more serious in teenage pregnancies. Additional studies should be conducted to establish whether low baseline hematocrit, low percentages of rising hematocrit in pregnant women with dengue infection, and abortions (with a high degree of increasing hematocrit during the critical stage of the disease) are typical clinical signs. PMID:26506742

  5. Combatting the "partial-birth abortion" myth.

    PubMed

    1998-11-01

    Despite the efforts of pro-choice activists in the US to point out the critical differences between so-called "partial-birth abortions" and late-term abortions, the public remains confused about the issue. Proposed federal legislation banning "partial-birth abortions" excludes any language defining late-term abortions (time period or fetal viability). Thus, such a ban would apply to any abortion at any stage of pregnancy. Only the states of Kansas and Utah have passed legislation that limit the ban to late-term abortions. The term "partial-birth abortion" also has no independent meaning: it is not a medical term nor does it refer to a medical procedure. The correct term, "intact dilation and extraction," is never mentioned in most proposed legislation, much of which is written in broad enough language to outlaw all abortions. Most states that passed bans on "partial-birth abortions," in fact, had previously banned late-term abortions. In Georgia, a court order revised a "partial-birth abortion" law by limiting it to post-viability dilation and extraction and insisting on exceptions to protect the pregnant women's life and health. The courts have severely limited or enjoined "partial-birth abortion" legislation in 19 of the 20 states where challenges were mounted. Because an educated public overwhelmingly rejects the bans, reproductive rights activists are attempting to educate the public despite the inability or unwillingness of the media to make the crucial distinction. PMID:12294330

  6. Combatting the "partial-birth abortion" myth.

    PubMed

    1998-11-01

    Despite the efforts of pro-choice activists in the US to point out the critical differences between so-called "partial-birth abortions" and late-term abortions, the public remains confused about the issue. Proposed federal legislation banning "partial-birth abortions" excludes any language defining late-term abortions (time period or fetal viability). Thus, such a ban would apply to any abortion at any stage of pregnancy. Only the states of Kansas and Utah have passed legislation that limit the ban to late-term abortions. The term "partial-birth abortion" also has no independent meaning: it is not a medical term nor does it refer to a medical procedure. The correct term, "intact dilation and extraction," is never mentioned in most proposed legislation, much of which is written in broad enough language to outlaw all abortions. Most states that passed bans on "partial-birth abortions," in fact, had previously banned late-term abortions. In Georgia, a court order revised a "partial-birth abortion" law by limiting it to post-viability dilation and extraction and insisting on exceptions to protect the pregnant women's life and health. The courts have severely limited or enjoined "partial-birth abortion" legislation in 19 of the 20 states where challenges were mounted. Because an educated public overwhelmingly rejects the bans, reproductive rights activists are attempting to educate the public despite the inability or unwillingness of the media to make the crucial distinction.

  7. Abortion, Moral Maturity and Civic Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Maggie Jones; Hall, Megan Williams

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to rhetoric, moral reasonings scholarship, and journalism scholarship by examining public rhetoric on abortion and American popular media coverage (1940s to 1990s). Finds that the feminine means of moral reasoning has emerged into the foreground of discourse on abortion. Compares emergence of a common-ground rhetoric on abortion with a…

  8. [[Prevalence of induced abortion in Korea

    PubMed

    Lim, J; Lee, S; Bae, H

    1989-07-01

    The authors analyze recent trends in the prevalence of induced abortions in South Korea. They attempt to determine motivations for abortion, examine its side effects, and investigate the impact of induced abortions on infertility. The focus is on creating recommendations for population policy and maternal and child health care. Data are from the 1988 Korean National Fertility and Family Health Survey. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  9. Abortion in Adolescence: The Ethical Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silber, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    This essay, addressed to medical personnel and counselors, presents a bioethical approach to adolescent abortion. Topics include an overview of abortion in the U.S., related medical issues, data pertinent to adolescent abortions, ethical theory, adolescent moral development, and moral aspects of treatment of adolescents. (Author/DB)

  10. Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

  11. Orientation toward Abortion: Guilt or Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allgeier, A.R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Students (N=118) were classified as pro-choice, anti-abortion, or mixed on the basis of their responses to 10 fictitious case histories of women who requested abortion. Attitudinal differences are discussed in the context of the public controversy over abortion. (Author/CM)

  12. Abortion: a legal and public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Kunins, H; Rosenfield, A

    1991-01-01

    Abortion is an issue of great public concern and debate. The majority of US citizens support a woman's right to choose, but it has not always been that way. Abortion was made legal in 1973 but women have been abortions for hundreds of years before that. The history of abortion is therefore a history of women breaking the law and subjecting themselves to great physical and social risk. Abortion law in the US has been changed mostly by the Supreme Court. After Roe v Wade (1973) there were many other cases brought before the Court involving federal and state funding of abortion, father's rights, parental consent for minors, and many other finer points of law and policy regarding abortion. Abortion is commonly practiced in many developing countries including the ones where it is illegal. The data collected from these countries gives researchers here a great deal of information on the clinical and sociological aspects of abortion. Medical technology has broadened the scope of abortion by introducing medication to induce abortion such as RU486. Abortion is no longer an exclusively surgical procedure. Since it can performed now with a pill it will be almost impossible to regulate it as strictly as before.

  13. Sociology and abortion: legacies and strategies.

    PubMed

    Imber, J B

    1979-11-01

    A survey essay sees the sociological view of abortion practice in 1979 appearing as a dense web of philosophical conundrums and at times violent political strategies; with abortion still not typically seen as 1 form of birth control among others. Attention is called to the variety of approaches to abortion in books and articles about its medical, demographic, religious, historical, political, philosophical, psychological, practical, and personal aspects. These include: James C. Mohr's Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy 1800-1900; Abortion, by Potts, Diggory, and Peel; Abortion in Psychosocial Perspective: Trends in Transnational Research, edited by Davis, Friedman, Van der Tak, and Seville; Linda Francke's The Ambivalence of Abortion; Mary K. Zimmerman's Passage Through Abortion: The Personal and Social Reality of Women's Experiences; Abortion Politics: The Hawaii Experience, by Steinhoff and Diamond; John Connery's Abortion: the Development of the Roman Catholic Perspective; Abortion: New Directions for Policy Studies, by Manier, Liu, and Solomon; and Harry Harris' Prenatal Diagnosis and Selective Abortion.

  14. Candida Infections, Causes, Targets, and Resistance Mechanisms: Traditional and Alternative Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Spampinato, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The genus Candida includes about 200 different species, but only a few species are human opportunistic pathogens and cause infections when the host becomes debilitated or immunocompromised. Candida infections can be superficial or invasive. Superficial infections often affect the skin or mucous membranes and can be treated successfully with topical antifungal drugs. However, invasive fungal infections are often life-threatening, probably due to inefficient diagnostic methods and inappropriate initial antifungal therapies. Here, we briefly review our current knowledge of pathogenic species of the genus Candida and yeast infection causes and then focus on current antifungal drugs and resistance mechanisms. An overview of new therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of Candida infections is also provided. PMID:23878798

  15. "If a woman has even one daughter, I refuse to perform the abortion": Sex determination and safe abortion in India.

    PubMed

    Potdar, Pritam; Barua, Alka; Dalvie, Suchitra; Pawar, Anand

    2015-05-01

    In India, safe abortion services are sought mainly in the private sector for reasons of privacy, confidentiality, and the absence of delays and coercion to use contraception. In recent years, the declining sex ratio has received much attention, and implementation of the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act (2003) has become stringent. However, rather than targeting sex determination, many inspection visits target abortion services. This has led to many private medical practitioners facing negative media publicity, defamation and criminal charges. As a result, they have started turning women away not only in the second trimester but also in the first. Samyak, a Pune-based, non-governmental organization, came across a number of cases of refusal of abortion services during its work and decided to explore the experiences of private medical practitioners with the regulatory mechanisms and what happened to the women. The study showed that as a fallout from the manner of implementation of the PCPNDT Act, safe abortion services were either difficult for women to access or outright denied to them. There is an urgent need to recognize this impact of the current regulatory environment, which is forcing women towards illegal and unsafe abortions. PMID:26278839

  16. Long term results of mechanical prostheses for treatment of active infective endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, J; Tornos, M; Permanyer-Miralda, G; Almirante, B; Murtra, M; Soler-Soler, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To analyse the long term results of mechanical prostheses for treating active infective endocarditis.
DESIGN—Prospective cohort study of a consecutive series of patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis and operated on in the active phase of the infection for insertion of a mechanical prosthesis.
SETTING—Tertiary referral centre in a metropolitan area.
RESULTS—Between 1975 and 1997, 637 cases of infective endocarditis were diagnosed in the centre. Of these, 436 were left sided (with overall mortality of 20.3%). Surgical treatment in the active phase of the infection was needed in 141 patients (72% native, 28% prosthetic infective endocarditis). Mechanical prostheses were used in 131 patients. Operative mortality was 30.5% (40 patients). Ninety one survivors were followed up prospectively for (mean (SD)) 5.4 (4.5) years. Thirteen patients developed prosthetic valve dysfunction. Nine patients suffered reinfection: four of these (4%) were early and five were late. The median time from surgery for late reinfection was 1.4 years. During follow up, 12 patients died. Excluding operative mortality, actuarial survival was 86.6% at five years and 83.7% at 10 years; actuarial survival free from death, reoperation, and reinfection was 73.1% at five years and 59.8% at 10 years.
CONCLUSIONS—In patients surviving acute infective endocarditis and receiving mechanical prostheses, the rate of early reinfection compares well with reported results of homografts. In addition, prosthesis dysfunction rate is low and long term survival is good. These data should prove useful for comparison with long term studies, when available, using other types of valve surgery in active infective endocarditis.


Keywords: infective endocarditis; surgery; mechanical prosthesis PMID:11410564

  17. A Method for Quantifying Mechanical Properties of Tissue following Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Vy; Bigley, Tarin; Terhune, Scott S.; Wakatsuki, Tetsuro

    2012-01-01

    Viral infection and replication involves the reorganization of the actin network within the host cell. Actin plays a central role in the mechanical properties of cells. We have demonstrated a method to quantify changes in mechanical properties of fabricated model three-dimensional (3D) connective tissue following viral infection. Using this method, we have characterized the impact of infection by the human herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus (HCMV). HCMV is a member of the herpesvirus family and infects a variety of cell types including fibroblasts. In the body, fibroblasts are necessary for maintaining connective tissue and function by creating mechanical force. Using this 3D connective tissue model, we observed that infection disrupted the cell’s ability to generate force and reduced the cumulative contractile force of the tissue. The addition of HCMV viral particles in the absence of both viral gene expression and DNA replication was sufficient to disrupt tissue function. We observed that alterations of the mechanical properties are, in part, due to a disruption of the underlying complex actin microfilament network established by the embedded fibroblasts. Finally, we were able to prevent HCMV-mediated disruption of tissue function by the addition of human immune globulin against HCMV. This study demonstrates a method to quantify the impact of viral infection on mechanical properties which are not evident using conventional cell culture systems. PMID:22870300

  18. Abort Trigger False Positive and False Negative Analysis Methodology for Threshold-Based Abort Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Cruz, Jose A.; Johnson Stephen B.; Lo, Yunnhon

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a quantitative methodology for bounding the false positive (FP) and false negative (FN) probabilities associated with a human-rated launch vehicle abort trigger (AT) that includes sensor data qualification (SDQ). In this context, an AT is a hardware and software mechanism designed to detect the existence of a specific abort condition. Also, SDQ is an algorithmic approach used to identify sensor data suspected of being corrupt so that suspect data does not adversely affect an AT's detection capability. The FP and FN methodologies presented here were developed to support estimation of the probabilities of loss of crew and loss of mission for the Space Launch System (SLS) which is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The paper provides a brief overview of system health management as being an extension of control theory; and describes how ATs and the calculation of FP and FN probabilities relate to this theory. The discussion leads to a detailed presentation of the FP and FN methodology and an example showing how the FP and FN calculations are performed. This detailed presentation includes a methodology for calculating the change in FP and FN probabilities that result from including SDQ in the AT architecture. To avoid proprietary and sensitive data issues, the example incorporates a mixture of open literature and fictitious reliability data. Results presented in the paper demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in providing quantitative estimates that bound the probability of a FP or FN abort determination.

  19. Abortion-Related Mortality in the United States 1998–2010

    PubMed Central

    Zane, Suzanne; Creanga, Andreea A.; Berg, Cynthia J.; Pazol, Karen; Suchdev, Danielle B.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Callaghan, William M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine characteristics and causes of legal induced abortion–related deaths in the United States between 1998 and 2010. METHODS Abortion-related deaths were identified through the national Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System with enhanced case-finding. We calculated the abortion mortality rate by race, maternal age, and gestational age and the distribution of causes of death by gestational age and procedure. RESULTS During the period from 1998–2010, of approximately 16.1 million abortion procedures, 108 women died, for a mortality rate of 0.7 deaths per 100,000 procedures overall, 0.4 deaths for non-Hispanic white women, 0.5 deaths for Hispanic women, and 1.1 deaths for black women. The mortality rate increased with gestational age, from 0.3 to 6.7 deaths for procedures performed at 8 weeks or less and at 18 weeks or greater, respectively. A majority of abortion-related deaths at 13 weeks of gestation or less were associated with anesthesia complications and infection, whereas a majority of abortion-related deaths at more than 13 weeks of gestation were associated with infection and hemorrhage. In 20 of the 108 cases, the abortion was performed as a result of a severe medical condition where continuation of the pregnancy threatened the woman’s life. CONCLUSION Deaths associated with legal induced abortion continue to be rare events—less than 1 per 100,000 procedures. Primary prevention of unintended pregnancy, including those in women with serious pre-existing medical conditions, and increased access to abortion services at early gestational ages may help to further decrease abortion-related mortality in the United States. PMID:26241413

  20. A Novel IL-17 Dependent Mechanism of Cross Protection: Respiratory Infection with Mycoplasma Protects Against a Secondary Listeria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sieve, Amy N.; Meeks, Karen D.; Bodhankar, Sheetal; Lee, Suheung; Kolls, Jay K.; Simecka, Jerry W.; Berg, Rance E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Immune responses to pathogens occur within the context of current and previous infections. Cross protection refers to the phenomena where infection with a particular pathogen provides enhanced resistance to a subsequent unrelated pathogen in an antigen independent manner. Proposed mechanisms of antigen-independent cross protection have involved the secretion of IFN-γ, which activates macrophages thus providing enhanced innate immunity against the secondary viral or bacterial pathogen. Here we provide evidence that a primary infection with the chronic respiratory pathogen, Mycoplasma pulmonis, provides a novel form of cross protection against a secondary infection with Listeria monocytogenes that is not mediated by IFN-γ, but instead relies upon IL-17 and mobilization of neutrophils. Mice infected with M. pulmonis have enhanced clearance of L. monocytogenes from the spleen and liver which is associated with increased numbers of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells and higher levels of IL-17. This enhanced clearance of L. monocytogenes was absent in mice depleted of Gr-1+ cells or in mice deficient in the IL-17 receptor. Additionally, both the IL-17 receptor and neutrophils were essential for optimal clearance of M. pulmonis. Thus, a natural component of the immune response directed against M. pulmonis was able to enhance clearance of L. monocytogenes. PMID:19180464

  1. U.S. adults' pornography viewing and support for abortion: a three-wave panel study.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Robert S; Wright, Paul J; McKinley, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Pornography consumption may affect judgments on a wide range of sexual and reproductive topics. The present study hypothesized that the consistent images projected in pornography affect sexual scripts related to abortion judgments. National, three-wave longitudinal data gathered from U.S. adults were employed to examine associations between earlier pornography consumption and subsequent support for abortion. The findings suggested that prior pornography consumption may lead to later support for abortion. This study provides additional evidence of pornography's socializing impact, particularly for the older White segment of the population, and adds to knowledge about what environmental factors influence judgments about abortion. Mechanisms that may explain how pornography viewing shapes support for abortion are discussed.

  2. A request for an abortion.

    PubMed

    Walker, A; Marsden, S; Rubin, P

    1990-12-01

    How to manage to abortion request by a hypothetical 30-year old married woman who states the she fears a deformed child because of taking an antibiotic combination, cotrimoxazole, containing trimethoprim is discussed by 3 physicians. The 1st doctor would confirm pregnancy with an exam and a laboratory test, schedule another consultation for counseling, and schedule a pelvic ultrasound if she decides to carry the pregnancy. If she wants an abortion, the physician would counsel her at length about her marriage and the emotional consequences of abortion. The 2nd physician would advise her that fetal abnormality from trimethoprim has not been reported in women. Since this doctor is personally opposed to abortion, she would refer the patient to another doctor to make the arrangements, and counsel her again afterward. The 3rd physician added the advice that 1-2% of all U.K. births are abnormal in some way. He would take steps to establish the precise gestational date, recommend an ultrasound scan at 18 weeks to cover himself legally and suggest that the patient's husband join in the counseling session to help bring out feelings about the marriage and the pregnancy.

  3. Abortion, infanticide and moral context.

    PubMed

    Porter, Lindsey

    2013-05-01

    In 'After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?', Giubilini and Minerva argue that infanticide should be permitted for the same reasons as abortion. In particular, they argue that infanticide should be permitted even for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be best interests) of the newborn. They claim that abortion is permissible for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be interests) of the fetus because fetuses lack a right to life. They argue that newborns also lack a right to life, and they conclude that therefore, the same reasons that justify abortion can justify infanticide. This conclusion does not follow. The lack of a right to life is not decisive. Furthermore, the justificatory power of a given reason is a function of moral context. Generalisations about reasons across dissimilar moral contexts are invalid. However, a similar conclusion does follow-that fetus-killing and newborn-killing are morally identical in identical moral contexts-but this conclusion is trivial, since fetuses and newborns are never in identical moral contexts.

  4. Abortion, infanticide and moral context.

    PubMed

    Porter, Lindsey

    2013-05-01

    In 'After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?', Giubilini and Minerva argue that infanticide should be permitted for the same reasons as abortion. In particular, they argue that infanticide should be permitted even for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be best interests) of the newborn. They claim that abortion is permissible for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be interests) of the fetus because fetuses lack a right to life. They argue that newborns also lack a right to life, and they conclude that therefore, the same reasons that justify abortion can justify infanticide. This conclusion does not follow. The lack of a right to life is not decisive. Furthermore, the justificatory power of a given reason is a function of moral context. Generalisations about reasons across dissimilar moral contexts are invalid. However, a similar conclusion does follow-that fetus-killing and newborn-killing are morally identical in identical moral contexts-but this conclusion is trivial, since fetuses and newborns are never in identical moral contexts. PMID:23637451

  5. Mifepristone and first trimester abortion.

    PubMed

    Murray, S; Muse, K

    1996-06-01

    The development of safe, effective, nonsurgical methods of pregnancy termination has the potential to avert significant maternal mortality and morbidity, especially in developing countries. RU-486 blocks the action of progesterone and cortisol, leading to structural changes in the endothelium of decidual capillaries, decidual necrosis, and subsequent detachment of the products of conception. When RU-486 is administered in conjunction with a low dose of a prostaglandin such as misoprostol, the abortion rate is comparable to that for vacuum aspiration (e.g., 94-96%). This regimen is contraindicated, however, in women aged 35 years and older, smokers, and those with medical problems such as diabetes, hypertension, clotting disorders, or anemia. In countries with strict abortion laws, RU-486 has been used to induce menstrual bleeding in women whose periods are delayed up to 10 days. An obstacle to more widespread acceptance of RU-486 has been its medicalization through national guidelines that stipulate waiting periods or require multiple visits to an approved abortion clinic. Women are likely to prefer RU-486 over surgical abortion because it allows the patient more control over her pregnancy termination and is less invasive. As political controversy continues to delay RU-486's introduction to the US and most developing countries, there are concerns that the drug will become a black market commodity used for self-induction.

  6. RU-486: the "abortion pill".

    PubMed

    Herranz, G

    1991-05-23

    A report sent by the Vatican to bishops' conferences throughout the world calls RU-486, the so-called abortion pill currently available in France, "a new, serious threat to human life." The report was developed at the Vatican's request by Gonzalo Herranz, a Spanish bioethicist. A cover letter to bishops' conferences from Cardinal Alfonso Lopez Trujillo, president of the Pontifical Council for the Family, suggested that the report be used "to resist the introduction of the abortion pill RU-486 into your country." Related to TU-486 and to new terminology some use to characterize its non-surgical approach to abortion is an intention "to amoralize and thereby place the transmission of human life into an ethically neutral terrain and reduce it to pure biology," says the report. The report discusses possible future uses of RU-486 as a contraceptive, stating: "Women would no longer have to worry themselves about whether they have conceived or not. Each month they would proceed to clean out their uterus chemically." The report refers to RU-486 as "a technical step forward in an area that did not need it." It says, "The abortion pill favors a woman's privacy and secret, but it condemns her to solitude." The English text from the Vatican follows. PMID:16145821

  7. Unintended pregnancy and abortion in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Rubina

    2013-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy is common in Uganda, leading to high levels of unplanned births, unsafe abortions, and maternal injury and death. Because most pregnancies that end in abortion are unwanted, nearly all ill health and mortality resulting from unsafe abortion is preventable. This report summarizes evidence on the context and consequences of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Uganda, points out gaps in knowledge, and highlights steps that can be taken to reduce levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion, and, in turn, the high level of maternal mortality.

  8. Family planning is reducing abortions.

    PubMed

    Clinton, H R

    1997-01-01

    This news brief presents the US President's wife's statement on the association between use of family planning and a decline in abortions worldwide. Hillary Rodham Clinton attended the Sixth Conference of Wives of Heads of State and Government of the Americas held in La Paz, Bolivia. The conference was suitably located in Bolivia, a country with the highest rates of maternal mortality in South America. Bolivia has responded by launching a national family planning campaign coordinated between government, nongovernmental, and medical organizations. Half of Bolivian women experience pregnancy and childbirth without the support of trained medical staff. Mortality from abortion complications account for about half of all maternal deaths in Bolivia. Voluntary family planning workers teach women about the benefits of child spacing, breast feeding, nutrition, prenatal and postpartum care, and safe deliveries. Bolivia has succeeded in increasing its contraceptive use rates and decreasing the number of safe and unsafe abortions. Bolivia's program effort was supported by USAID. USAID provided technical assistance and funds for the establishment of a network of primary health care clinics. Mrs. Clinton visited one such clinic in a poor neighborhood in La Paz, which in its first six months of operation provided 2200 consultations, delivered 200 babies, registered 700 new family planning users, and immunized 2500 children. Clinics such as this one will be affected by the US Congress's harsh cuts in aid, which reduce funding by 35% and delay program funding by 9 months. These US government cuts in foreign aid are expected to result in an additional 1.6 million abortions, over 8000 maternal deaths, and 134,000 infant deaths in developing countries. An investment in population assistance represents a sensible, cost-effective, and long-term strategy for improving women's health, strengthening families, and reducing abortion.

  9. Family planning is reducing abortions.

    PubMed

    Clinton, H R

    1997-01-01

    This news brief presents the US President's wife's statement on the association between use of family planning and a decline in abortions worldwide. Hillary Rodham Clinton attended the Sixth Conference of Wives of Heads of State and Government of the Americas held in La Paz, Bolivia. The conference was suitably located in Bolivia, a country with the highest rates of maternal mortality in South America. Bolivia has responded by launching a national family planning campaign coordinated between government, nongovernmental, and medical organizations. Half of Bolivian women experience pregnancy and childbirth without the support of trained medical staff. Mortality from abortion complications account for about half of all maternal deaths in Bolivia. Voluntary family planning workers teach women about the benefits of child spacing, breast feeding, nutrition, prenatal and postpartum care, and safe deliveries. Bolivia has succeeded in increasing its contraceptive use rates and decreasing the number of safe and unsafe abortions. Bolivia's program effort was supported by USAID. USAID provided technical assistance and funds for the establishment of a network of primary health care clinics. Mrs. Clinton visited one such clinic in a poor neighborhood in La Paz, which in its first six months of operation provided 2200 consultations, delivered 200 babies, registered 700 new family planning users, and immunized 2500 children. Clinics such as this one will be affected by the US Congress's harsh cuts in aid, which reduce funding by 35% and delay program funding by 9 months. These US government cuts in foreign aid are expected to result in an additional 1.6 million abortions, over 8000 maternal deaths, and 134,000 infant deaths in developing countries. An investment in population assistance represents a sensible, cost-effective, and long-term strategy for improving women's health, strengthening families, and reducing abortion. PMID:12293000

  10. Prevalence of parvovirus B19 specific antibody in pregnant women with spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Nahid; Vali Zadeh, Saeid; Ghorbani, Raheb; Kheradmand, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is a very common viral infection especially in school-aged children. The infection during pregnancy can affect the fetus due to lack of mother's immunity. Although, there is still no evidence of fetal teratogenic effects with parvovirus B19, but non-immune fetal hydrops and abortion may be caused by vertical transmission of the virus during pregnancy. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) in pregnant women who had a spontaneous abortion. This cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women who referred due to a spontaneous abortion. All demographic information such as age, occupation, and gestational age, last history of abortion, gravity, and presence of children below the age of six was recorded and a blood sample was provided for all the women. Then, the blood samples were tested to assay parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) by EuroImmune ELISA kit. Among 94 pregnant women with the mean age of 28.4 years who had a spontaneous abortion, parvovirus B19 specific antibody (IgM) was detected in 17 participants (18.1%). Meanwhile, 14 women (14.9%) were suspected for presence of the antibody in their blood sample. There was no significant difference between the presence of antibody and age of pregnant women, occupation, gestational age, number of previous abortion, presence of children below the age of six and number of pregnancy. These findings revealed that a high percentage of pregnant women are probably non-immune against parvovirus B19, and also there might be a number of spontaneous abortions in which parvovirus infection caused fetal death.  However, more studies are needed to prove the absolute role of parvovirus B19 in these abortions.

  11. Post-abortion syndrome: creating an affliction.

    PubMed

    Dadlez, E M; Andrews, William L

    2010-11-01

    The contention that abortion harms women constitutes a new strategy employed by the pro-life movement to supplement arguments about fetal rights. David C. Reardon is a prominent promoter of this strategy. Post-abortion syndrome purports to establish that abortion psychologically harms women and, indeed, can harm persons associated with women who have abortions. Thus, harms that abortion is alleged to produce are multiplied. Claims of repression are employed to complicate efforts to disprove the existence of psychological harm and causal antecedents of trauma are only selectively investigated. We argue that there is no such thing as post-abortion syndrome and that the psychological harms Reardon and others claim abortion inflicts on women can usually be ascribed to different causes. We question the evidence accumulated by Reardon and his analysis of data accumulated by others. Most importantly, we question whether the conclusions Reardon has drawn follow from the evidence he cites. PMID:19594725

  12. [Induced abortion--a historical outline].

    PubMed

    Glenc, F

    1974-11-11

    An historical review of the use of induced abortion is presented, beginning with early eras. The Chinese were the 1st to record the practice of induced abortion, with this operation being administered to royal concubines recorded at 500-515 B.C. Induced abortion was not used in ancient Greece, either for criminal or ethical reason. However, the ancient Greeks did utilize compulsory abortion for serious economic indications, as a means of controlling natural growth. Greek medical, gyneoclogigcal instruments for adminsitering abortions were described by Hippocrates. The Greek moral attitudes on abortion were largely adopted by the Romans, which were later altered by the appearance of Christianity and new ethical ideas. These ideas dominated European attitudes, along with the Church of Rome, limiting induced abortion to cases where the life of the mother was threatened. This attitude has existed until the present century, when these moral ideas are being challanged seriously for the 1st time in modern history. PMID:4610534

  13. Orientations toward abortion: guilty or knowledge?

    PubMed

    Allgeier, A R; Allgeier, E R; Rywick, T

    1981-01-01

    Students (N = 118) were classified as pro-choice, anti-abortion, or mixed on the basis of their responses to ten fictitious case histories of females who requested abortion. The distribution of participants on the abortion issue was quite similar to the results of a 1979 national survey. As expected, these groups differed on attitudes toward abortion as murder, the legalization of abortion, and the morality of premarital sex. The groups differed significantly in levels of sex guilt, but did not exhibit significant differences in levels of sexual knowledge. The results were discussed within the context of the public controversy over abortion. It was suggested that the affective messages accompanying the sexual socialization of children and adolescents may be more predictive of orientations toward abortion than the weight of intellectual arguments regarding the rights of the fetus, the point at which a fetus becomes viable, or a woman's right to have control over her own body.

  14. Nasopharyngeal Tuberculosis: Epidemiology, Mechanism of Infection, Clinical Manifestations, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Sittitrai, Pichit

    2016-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal tuberculosis (NPTB) is a noteworthy disease especially in its worldwide spread of the Mycobacterium infection. Although NPTB has been identified in less than one percent of TB cases, recent multiple case reports indicate an either increased awareness or incidence of this disease. The most helpful diagnostic tool is an uncomplicated nasopharyngeal biopsy. However, NPTB is usually ignored because it has varied clinical manifestations and similar presentations with other more common head and neck diseases. Furthermore, the most common presenting symptom is cervical lymphadenopathy mimicking nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a more common and serious disease. Treatment outcomes of NPTB are good in both HIV-positive or HIV-negative patients. In addition, pulmonary tuberculosis association was reported in wide range between 8.3% and 82% which should be considered in a treatment program. In conclusion, early diagnosis and management in NPTB can be achieved by (1) increased awareness of this disease, (2) improvement in knowledge regarding clinical manifestations, and (3) improvement of diagnostic techniques. PMID:27034677

  15. Nasopharyngeal Tuberculosis: Epidemiology, Mechanism of Infection, Clinical Manifestations, and Management.

    PubMed

    Srivanitchapoom, Chonticha; Sittitrai, Pichit

    2016-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal tuberculosis (NPTB) is a noteworthy disease especially in its worldwide spread of the Mycobacterium infection. Although NPTB has been identified in less than one percent of TB cases, recent multiple case reports indicate an either increased awareness or incidence of this disease. The most helpful diagnostic tool is an uncomplicated nasopharyngeal biopsy. However, NPTB is usually ignored because it has varied clinical manifestations and similar presentations with other more common head and neck diseases. Furthermore, the most common presenting symptom is cervical lymphadenopathy mimicking nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a more common and serious disease. Treatment outcomes of NPTB are good in both HIV-positive or HIV-negative patients. In addition, pulmonary tuberculosis association was reported in wide range between 8.3% and 82% which should be considered in a treatment program. In conclusion, early diagnosis and management in NPTB can be achieved by (1) increased awareness of this disease, (2) improvement in knowledge regarding clinical manifestations, and (3) improvement of diagnostic techniques. PMID:27034677

  16. Survey of infectious etiologies of bovine abortion during mid- to late gestation in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Barkallah, Mohamed; Gharbi, Yaakoub; Hassena, Amal Ben; Slima, Ahlem Ben; Mallek, Zouhir; Gautier, Michel; Greub, Gilbert; Gdoura, Radhouane; Fendri, Imen

    2014-01-01

    Bovine abortion of unknown infectious etiology still remains a major economic problem. Thus, we investigated whether Brucella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Coxiella burnetii are associated with abortion and/or stillbirth in Tunisian dairy cattle. Using a pan-Chlamydiales PCR, we also investigated the role of Chlamydiaceae, Waddlia chondrophila, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and other members of the Chlamydiales order in this setting. Veterinary samples taken from mid to late-term abortions from twenty dairy herds were tested. From a total of 150 abortion cases collected, infectious agents were detected by PCR in 73 (48.66%) cases, 13 (8.66%) of which represented co-infections with two infectious agents. Detected pathogens include Brucella spp (31.3%), Chlamydiaceae (4.66%), Waddlia chondrophila (8%), Parachlamydia acanthamoebae (5.33%), Listeria monocytogenes (4.66%) and Salmonella spp. (3.33%). In contrast, Campylobacter spp. and Coxiella burnetii DNA were not detected among the investigated veterinary samples. This demonstrates that different bacterial agents may cause bovine abortion in Tunisia. This is the first report suggesting the role of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in bovine abortion in Africa. Further studies with a larger number of samples are necessary to confirm whether this emerging pathogen is directly linked to abortion in cattle.

  17. Survey of Infectious Etiologies of Bovine Abortion during Mid- to Late Gestation in Dairy Herds

    PubMed Central

    Barkallah, Mohamed; Slima, Ahlem Ben; Mallek, Zouhir; Gautier, Michel; Greub, Gilbert; Gdoura, Radhouane; Fendri, Imen

    2014-01-01

    Bovine abortion of unknown infectious etiology still remains a major economic problem. Thus, we investigated whether Brucella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Coxiella burnetii are associated with abortion and/or stillbirth in Tunisian dairy cattle. Using a pan-Chlamydiales PCR, we also investigated the role of Chlamydiaceae, Waddlia chondrophila, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and other members of the Chlamydiales order in this setting. Veterinary samples taken from mid to late-term abortions from twenty dairy herds were tested. From a total of 150 abortion cases collected, infectious agents were detected by PCR in 73 (48.66%) cases, 13 (8.66%) of which represented co-infections with two infectious agents. Detected pathogens include Brucella spp (31.3%), Chlamydiaceae (4.66%), Waddlia chondrophila (8%), Parachlamydia acanthamoebae (5.33%), Listeria monocytogenes (4.66%) and Salmonella spp. (3.33%). In contrast, Campylobacter spp. and Coxiella burnetii DNA were not detected among the investigated veterinary samples. This demonstrates that different bacterial agents may cause bovine abortion in Tunisia. This is the first report suggesting the role of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in bovine abortion in Africa. Further studies with a larger number of samples are necessary to confirm whether this emerging pathogen is directly linked to abortion in cattle. PMID:24662769

  18. Induced abortion--a global health problem.

    PubMed

    Odlind, V

    1997-01-01

    Every year around 500,000 women are estimated to die from pregnancy-related causes, the majority in the developing world and many as a consequence of unsafe abortion. Around 25 per cent of maternal deaths in Asia and 30-50 per cent of maternal deaths in Africa and Latin America occur as a result of induced abortion. Data on abortion related maternal morbidity is less reliable than mortality but suggests that for every maternal death 10-15 women suffer significant pregnancy-related morbidity, i.e. infertility, genito-urinary problems and/or chronic pain. Induced abortion occurs in practically every society in the world but only 40 per cent of the women in the world live in countries where abortion is legally free. A permissive legislation is an important prerequisite for medically safe and early abortion. Oppositely, with a restrictive law, abortion is difficult to obtain, costly and possibly unsafe, in particular to the least affluent women in the society. Induced abortion in a developed country with legal and easy access to services is a safe procedure with hardly any mortality and very low morbidity. The best strategy to reduce the number of unsafe abortions is prevention of unwanted pregnancy. The consequences of unsafe abortion on women's health need to be acknowledged by everybody in the society in order to improve abortion care. It is necessary to adjust legal and other barriers to medically safe abortion in order to follow the declaration at the UN conference on population in Cairo, 1994, which stated that abortion, wherever legal, should be safe. It is also necessary to introduce preventive measures where abortions are performed, i.e. good and easily accessible family planning services.

  19. Pathogens penetrating the central nervous system: infection pathways and the cellular and molecular mechanisms of invasion.

    PubMed

    Dando, Samantha J; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Norton, Robert; Currie, Bart J; St John, James A; Ekberg, Jenny A K; Batzloff, Michael; Ulett, Glen C; Beacham, Ifor R

    2014-10-01

    The brain is well protected against microbial invasion by cellular barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). In addition, cells within the central nervous system (CNS) are capable of producing an immune response against invading pathogens. Nonetheless, a range of pathogenic microbes make their way to the CNS, and the resulting infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Bacteria, amoebae, fungi, and viruses are capable of CNS invasion, with the latter using axonal transport as a common route of infection. In this review, we compare the mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens reach the CNS and infect the brain. In particular, we focus on recent data regarding mechanisms of bacterial translocation from the nasal mucosa to the brain, which represents a little explored pathway of bacterial invasion but has been proposed as being particularly important in explaining how infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei can result in melioidosis encephalomyelitis.

  20. Pathogens Penetrating the Central Nervous System: Infection Pathways and the Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Dando, Samantha J.; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Norton, Robert; Currie, Bart J.; St. John, James A.; Ekberg, Jenny A. K.; Batzloff, Michael

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The brain is well protected against microbial invasion by cellular barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). In addition, cells within the central nervous system (CNS) are capable of producing an immune response against invading pathogens. Nonetheless, a range of pathogenic microbes make their way to the CNS, and the resulting infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Bacteria, amoebae, fungi, and viruses are capable of CNS invasion, with the latter using axonal transport as a common route of infection. In this review, we compare the mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens reach the CNS and infect the brain. In particular, we focus on recent data regarding mechanisms of bacterial translocation from the nasal mucosa to the brain, which represents a little explored pathway of bacterial invasion but has been proposed as being particularly important in explaining how infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei can result in melioidosis encephalomyelitis. PMID:25278572

  1. Review: apoptotic mechanisms in bacterial infections of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Geetha; Philipp, Mario T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the apoptotic mechanisms most frequently encountered in bacterial infections of the central nervous system (CNS). We focus specifically on apoptosis of neural cells (neurons and glia), and provide first an overview of the phenomenon of apoptosis itself and its extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. We then describe apoptosis in the context of infectious diseases and inflammation caused by bacteria, and review its role in the pathogenesis of the most relevant bacterial infections of the CNS. PMID:23060884

  2. Use of nonhuman primate models to investigate mechanisms of infection-associated preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.; Rubens, Craig E.; Gravett, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important direct cause of neonatal mortality and remains a major challenge for obstetrics and global health. Intrauterine infection causes approximately 50% of early preterm births. Animal models using pregnant mice, rabbits, or sheep, demonstrate the key link between infection and premature birth, but differ in mechanisms of parturition and placental structure from humans. The nonhuman primate (NHP) is a powerful model which emulates many features of human placentation and parturition. The contributions of the NHP model to preterm birth research are reviewed emphasizing the role of infections, and potential development of preventative and therapeutic strategies. PMID:21040390

  3. Observations on abortions in cattle: a comparison of pathological, microbiological and immunological findings in aborted foetuses and foetuses collected at abattoirs.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R B; Quinn, P J

    1975-01-01

    Fifty nonaborted and 50 aborted bovine foetuses were examined utilizing histology, immunoelectrophoresis, bacteriology and the fluorescent antibody technique. Lesions were observed in 12 of the nonaborted foesuses and in four of these immunoglobulins were demonstrated. In addition, two of the nonaborted foetuses had immunoglobulins in the absence of observed lesions. Lesions were observed in 48 of the aborted foetuses and immunoglobulins were detected in 22 of these. An etiological diagnosis was arrived at in 24 of the 50 aborted foetuses. The tissues most frequently observed to have lesions of diagnostic significance were eyelid, intestine, liver, lung and placenta. Intestinal lesions were observed in several foetuses in association with a variety of agents including infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Foetuses diagnosed as aborting because of mycotic infection consistently displayed lesions in their eyelids. The value of taking eyelid sections in cases of suspected mycotic abortions, the significance of foetal intestinal lesions, the evaluation of abomasal aspirates and the diagnostic importance of immunoglobulin determinations in aborted foetuses are discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. PMID:166738

  4. [The cytology mechanism of anti-parainfluenza virus infection of total flavone of Scutellaria barbata].

    PubMed

    Guo, Shan-Shan; Shi, Yu-Jing; Gao, Ying-Jie; Su, Dan; Cui, Xiao-Lan

    2009-12-01

    In order to research into the cytology mechanism of anti-virus action of total flavone of Scutellaria barbata (TFSB), the effects of TFSB on host cells membrane potential, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and membrane fluidity after parainfluenza virus type1 (PIV-1) infection were studied. The changes of membrane potential which was fluorescent labeled with DiBAC4(3) and its changes were measured by flow cytometer. Phosphorus determination method and spectrophotometry were used to measure the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity of Hep-2 cells membrane after PIV-1 infection. Hep-2 cells membrane phospholipids were fluorescent labeled with NBD-C6-HPC and membrane fluidity was measured by confocal scanning laser microscope. The result demonstrated that post PIV-1 infection membrane potential decreased significantly and the membrane was in a state of hyperpolarization, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity increased significantly and membrane fluidity decreased significantly. There was no apparent interfere effect of TFSB on the changes of membrane potential and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity after PIV-1 infection, while membrane fluidity improved significantly. It was indicated that the cytology mechanism of PIV-1 infection might be related to membrane hyperpolarization, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity increase and membrane fluidity decrease. TFSB can improve membrane fluidity and prevent the infection by protecting the cell membrane. But it is possible that the anti-PIV-1 mechanisms of TFSB had nothing to do with membrane potential and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. PMID:21351467

  5. [Therapeutic abortion: a difficult choice].

    PubMed

    Gratton-Jacob, F

    1981-01-01

    Because the primary responsibility for the care and raising of children still falls on women, they should be able to decide freely whether or not to have children. Although many women who do not initially desire their pregnancies turn out to be adequate mothers, studies have shown that unwanted children suffer disproportionately from a variety of emotional and behavioral disorders. Studies have also found that large numbers of women seeking abortions failed to use any contraception while others used less effective methods, sometimes because of lack of knowledge. Even the most reliable contraceptive methods are liable to occasional failures. According to some authors, undesired pregnancy many reflect a struggle of adolescents with authoritarian parents, the search of a lonely person for something to love or possess, a proof of femininity, an expression of conflict with the partner or an attempt to force a marriage, or ambivalence among middle-aged women at the prospect of becoming more independent when their children enter school. Women may obtain abortions at accredited hospitals in the Province of Quebec upon decision of a committee of 3 physicians that continuation of the pregnancy would result in danger to the life or health of the patient. In 1970 some 100-150,000 illegal abortions occurred, resulting in hospitalization of 20,000 women for complications. In 1972, 4 French-speaking hospitals performed 136 of the 2919 therapeutic abortions sought in the Province of Quebec. In recent years the number has increased. Reasons for obtaining an abortion are usually social or economic: poor relationship with the father, sufficient number of children already born, age of the preceding infant, economic difficulties, mother's age, or effect of pregnancy on work. Many adolescents refuse to tell their parents of their pregnancy for fear of their reaction, but others enjoy considerable parental support. A study of about 5000 French speaking adolescents conducted in 1977

  6. Some factors affecting the abortion rate in dairy herds with high incidence of Neospora-associated abortions are different in cows and heifers.

    PubMed

    Yániz, J L; López-Gatius, F; García-Ispierto, I; Bech-Sàbat, G; Serrano, B; Nogareda, C; Sanchez-Nadal, J A; Almeria, S; Santolaria, P

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the factors affecting the abortion rate in dairy herds with high incidence of Neospora-associated abortions are different in pregnancies of cows and heifers chronically infected with Neospora caninum. In heifers (n = 229), an increase in the cumulative number of days with a mean relative humidity (RH) lower than 60% during the second trimester of gestation increases the risk of abortion. Yet, the likelihood of abortion was 7.6 times lower for pregnant heifers inseminated with Limousin bull semen, compared with those inseminated with Holstein-Friesian bull semen. In pregnancies of parous cows (n = 521), an increase in rainfall and in the cumulative number of days with a mean RH lower than 60% during the second trimester of gestation increased the abortion rate. However, in contrast, an increase in the lactation number produced a decrease in the abortion rate, with a likelihood of abortion 4.8 times lower for pregnant cows inseminated with Limousin bull semen, and three times lower for those inseminated with Belgian Blue bull semen, compared with dairy cows inseminated with Holstein-Friesian bull semen. Finally, the likelihood of abortion was 3.2 times lower for pregnancies of parous cows with low antibody titres against N. caninum (6-30 units) as compared to those with high antibody titres (>/=30 units), whereas in heifers this variable had no effect. The practical recommendations of the present study include the control of the cow environment during the second trimester of gestation, the priority of culling for parous cows with higher antibody titres against N. caninum and the insemination of Neospora-seropositive cows with semen from the Limousin breed.

  7. Toxoplasma-induced abortion in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P

    1981-04-01

    Fifteen pregnant goats serologically negative for Toxoplasma gondii were inoculated orally with 10, 100, or 1,000 infective oocysts of the GT-1 strain of T gondii. Four goats received 10 oocysts, 6 received 100 oocysts, and 5 received 1,000 oocysts. Six pregnant goats served as noninoculated controls. All inoculated goats became pyretic (40-41 C) and were dyspneic between 4 and 12 days after inoculation (DAI). Two goats inoculated in early pregnancy (68 and 70 days) with 100 oocysts had enlarged uteri; fetal membranes but no fetuses were found when they were killed 86 and 88 DAI. Three goats aborted or had a stillborn kid 9, 10, and 11 DAI. The remaining 10 goats delivered kids infected with T gondii; 8 goats had at least 1 stillborn kid, and 2 goats had infected but otherwise normal kids at birth. Placenta and tissues of fetuses and kids were inoculated into mice for determination of Toxoplasma infectivity. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from the fetal placenta of 6 of 7 goats as early as 10 DAI and as late as 62 DAI. The organism was isolated from every fetus or kid that was born 18 DAI but not from fetuses or kids born 9, 10, and 11 DAI. Two kids were born 15 DAI; T gondii was isolated from 1 kid but not from the other, suggesting that T gondii invaded fetal tissues between 11 and 15 DAI. Of the 20 transplacentally infected kids, T gondii was isolated more frequently from the skeletal muscle, heart, lung, and brain than from other tissues.

  8. Asymptotic profiles of steady states for a diffusive SIS epidemic model with mass action infection mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yixiang; Zou, Xingfu

    2016-10-01

    Mass action and standard incidence are two major infection mechanisms in modelling spread of infectious diseases. Spatial heterogeneity plays an important role in spread of infectious diseases, and hence, motivates and advocates diffusive models for disease dynamics. By analyzing a diffusive SIS model with the standard incidence infection mechanism, some recent works [2,12] have investigated the asymptotical profiles of the endemic steady state for large and small diffusion rates, and the results show that controlling the diffusion rate of the susceptible individuals can help eradicate the infection, while controlling the diffusion rate of the infectious individuals cannot. This paper aims to reveal the difference between the two infection mechanisms in a spatially heterogeneous environment. To this end, we consider a diffusive SIS model of the same structure but with the mass action infection adopted, and explore the asymptotic profiles of the endemic steady state for small and large diffusion rates. It turns out that the new model poses some new challenges due to the nonlocal term in the equilibrium problem and the unboundedness of the nonlinear term. Our results on this new model reveal some fundamental differences between the two transmission mechanisms in such spatial models, which may provide some implications on disease modelling and controls.

  9. Abort Options for Potential Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, P. V.; Striepe, S. A.; Powell, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    Mars trajectory design options were examined that would accommodate a premature termination of a nominal manned opposition class mission for opportunities between 2010 and 2025. A successful abort must provide a safe return to Earth in the shortest possible time consistent with mission constraints. In this study, aborts that provided a minimum increase in the initial vehicle mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) were identified by locating direct transfer nominal missions and nominal missions including an outbound or inbound Venus swing-by that minimized IMLEO. The ease with which these missions could be aborted while meeting propulsion and time constraints was investigated by examining free return (unpowered) and powered aborts. Further reductions in trip time were made to some aborts by the addition or removal of an inbound Venus swing-by. The results show that, although few free return aborts met the specified constraints, 85% of each nominal mission could be aborted as a powered abort without an increase in propellant. Also, in many cases, the addition or removal of a Venus swing-by increased the number of abort opportunities or decreased the total trip time during an abort.

  10. Is Induced Abortion Really Declining in Armenia?

    PubMed

    Jilozian, Ann; Agadjanian, Victor

    2016-06-01

    As in other post-Soviet settings, induced abortion has been widely used in Armenia. However, recent national survey data point to a substantial drop in abortion rates with no commensurate increase in modern contraceptive prevalence and no change in fertility levels. We use data from in-depth interviews with women of reproductive age and health providers in rural Armenia to explore possible underreporting of both contraceptive use and abortion. While we find no evidence that women understate their use of modern contraception, the analysis suggests that induced abortion might indeed be underreported. The potential for underreporting is particularly high for sex-selective abortions, for which there is growing public backlash, and medical abortion, a practice that is typically self-administered outside any professional supervision. Possible underreporting of induced abortion calls for refinement of both abortion registration and relevant survey instruments. Better measurement of abortion dynamics is necessary for successful promotion of effective modern contraceptive methods and reduction of unsafe abortion practices.

  11. The Incidence of Abortion in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bankole, Akinrinola; Adewole, Isaac F.; Hussain, Rubina; Awolude, Olutosin; Singh, Susheela; Akinyemi, Joshua O.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT Because of Nigeria’s low contraceptive prevalence, a substantial number of women have unintended pregnancies, many of which are resolved through clandestine abortion, despite the country’s restrictive abortion law. Up-to-date estimates of abortion incidence are needed. METHODS A widely used indirect methodology was used to estimate the incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in Nigeria in 2012. Data on provision of abortion and postabortion care were collected from a nationally representative sample of 772 health facilities, and estimates of the likelihood that women who have unsafe abortions experience complications and obtain treatment were collected from 194 health care professionals with a broad understanding of the abortion context in Nigeria. RESULTS An estimated 1.25 million induced abortions occurred in Nigeria in 2012, equivalent to a rate of 33 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–49. The estimated unintended pregnancy rate was 59 per 1,000 women aged 15–49. Fifty-six percent of unintended pregnancies were resolved by abortion. About 212,000 women were treated for complications of unsafe abortion, representing a treatment rate of 5.6 per 1,000 women of reproductive age, and an additional 285,000 experienced serious health consequences but did not receive the treatment they needed. CONCLUSION Levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion continue to be high in Nigeria. Improvements in access to contraceptive services and in the provision of safe abortion and postabortion care services (as permitted by law) may help reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:26871725

  12. Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderman, Lawrence J.; Prichard, Lorraine; Fuller, Scott; Atkinson, Leslie

    1974-01-01

    A questionnaire comprising case histories was administered to 27 Protestant and 27 Catholic clergymen in the San Diego area to test their attitudes toward the use of birth control, sterilization and abortion in families with specific genetic problems. The responses indicated: • Catholic and Protestant clergymen do not always follow the official positions of their churches in these matters, although the majority of them do. • Protestant clergymen were more likely to approve of birth control, sterilization, and abortion than Catholic clergymen. • The approval responses of Protestant and Catholic clergymen were not greatly influenced by whether the illness variables involved high Mendelian risk, high psychological cost, high social cost, or poor prognosis. • The approval responses of Protestant and Catholic clergymen were not significantly influenced by the socio-ethnic background of the families. PMID:4813802

  13. Molecular Mechanisms of Inflammasome Activation during Microbial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Broz, Petr; Monack, Denise M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The innate immune system plays a crucial role in the rapid recognition and elimination of invading microbes. Detection of microbes relies on germ-line encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize essential bacterial molecules, so-called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). A subset of PRRs, belonging to the NOD-like receptor (NLR) and the PYHIN protein families, detects viral and bacterial pathogens in the cytosol of host cells and induces the assembly of a multi-protein signaling platform called the inflammasome. The inflammasome serves as an activation platform for the mammalian cysteine protease caspase-1, a central mediator of innate immunity. Active caspase-1 promotes the maturation and release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 as well as protein involved in cytoprotection and tissue repair. In addition, caspase-1 initiates a novel form of cell death called pyroptosis. Here we discuss latest advances and our insights on inflammasome stimulation by two model intracellular pathogens, Francisella tularensis and Salmonella typhimurium. Recent studies on these pathogens have significantly shaped our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of inflammasome activation and how microbes can evade or manipulate inflammasome activity. In addition, we review the role of the inflammasome adapter ASC in the caspase-1 autoproteolysis and new insights into the structure of the inflammasome complex. PMID:21884176

  14. RHIC Abort Kicker Prefire Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Y.; Perlstein, S.

    2014-07-07

    In an attempt to discover any pattern to prefire events, abort prefire kicker data from 2007 to the present day have been recorded. With the 2014 operations concluding, this comprises 8 years of prefire data. Any activities that the Pulsed Power Group did to decrease prefire occurrences were recorded as well, but some information may be missing. The following information is a compilation of the research to date.

  15. Differential Impact of Abortion on Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Wanda; Reardon, David

    1992-01-01

    Compared adolescent and adult reactions to abortion among 252 women. Compared to adults, adolescents were significantly more likely to be dissatisfied with choice of abortion and with services received, to have abortions later in gestational period, to feel forced by circumstances to have abortion, to report being misinformed at time of abortion,…

  16. Essential Functional Modules for Pathogenic and Defensive Mechanisms in Candida albicans Infections

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, I-Chun; Lin, Che; Chuang, Yung-Jen

    2014-01-01

    The clinical and biological significance of the study of fungal pathogen Candida albicans (C. albicans) has markedly increased. However, the explicit pathogenic and invasive mechanisms of such host-pathogen interactions have not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, the essential functional modules involved in C. albicans-zebrafish interactions were investigated in this study. Adopting a systems biology approach, the early-stage and late-stage protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks for both C. albicans and zebrafish were constructed. By comparing PPI networks at the early and late stages of the infection process, several critical functional modules were identified in both pathogenic and defensive mechanisms. Functional modules in C. albicans, like those involved in hyphal morphogenesis, ion and small molecule transport, protein secretion, and shifts in carbon utilization, were seen to play important roles in pathogen invasion and damage caused to host cells. Moreover, the functional modules in zebrafish, such as those involved in immune response, apoptosis mechanisms, ion transport, protein secretion, and hemostasis-related processes, were found to be significant as defensive mechanisms during C. albicans infection. The essential functional modules thus determined could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions during the infection process and thereby devise potential therapeutic strategies to treat C. albicans infection. PMID:24757665

  17. [Abortions and prevention of pregnancies in 1992].

    PubMed

    Helweg-Larsen, K; Wichmann, B

    1994-03-01

    In January 1994, the Health Service published its statistics about pregnancy prevention and abortion in 1991 and 1992. The number of legal abortions was 19,729 in 1991 and 18,833 in 1992, which was the lowest figure since the law was introduced about elective abortion in 1973. 2623 fewer abortions were carried out in 1992 than five years before. The general abortion rate decreased from 15.8 in 1990 to 14.9 in 1992 (it was the highest in 1975 with 23.7). The age-specific abortion rate fell mostly in the 18-29 age group, with fewer in the 15-19 and 30-34 age groups. The number of children who were born to women over 40 increased from 390 in 1982 to 864 in 1992, while the birth rate of women under 20 decreased to almost half. The abortion rate was the highest in large cities, it was about 2.5 times higher than in the county of Ringkobing, which had the lowest rate, especially in the age groups under 25 years. The combined abortion rate (per 1000 women of reproductive age) was 578 in 1982, 540 in 1990, and 505 in 1992. 97.5% of abortions were performed within 12 weeks of pregnancy in accordance with the abortion law. 2% of abortions were carried out because of the woman's health or for social indications. 80% of abortions were performed in the 10th week of pregnancy mostly with vacuum aspiration. Complications decreased compared to previous years, and made up 2.6% of all abortions in 1992, mainly bleeding and, for 1/5 of them, inflammatory conditions. Half of the women who underwent an abortion in 1992 had given birth to at least one living child, 8% to more than three. Half of the 20% of women who could given birth but chose abortion had given birth in the previous two years and 27% within less than a year before abortion. The number of spontaneous abortions was 10,717 in 1991 and 10,605 in 1992, about 1000 fewer than in 1990. The number of male sterilizations fell from 2784 in 1991 to 1722 in 1992, and female sterilizations from 4777 to 4429. About 13 million condoms

  18. [Abortion. Spain: the keys to the controversy].

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    For many years, illegal abortion has been denounced in Spain. The estimate of 300,000 abortions annually is widely quoted but poorly founded in fact. Weekend "charters" to London and Amsterdam for women seeking abortions have been commented upon, denounced, and caricatured. The evidence indicates that abortions occur in Spain despite their illegality, just as they occur in every other country and have always occurred. Poor women abort in a poor way, with traditional healers, while rich women abort in a rich way, with physicians. "Charters" are the solution of the middle class. Proposed legislation in Spain would permit abortion on 3 grounds: rape, fetal malformation, and risk to the woman's life if the pregnancy continued. Excesses have been committed both by those opposing abortion and by those struggling for liberalization of laws. Defenders of abortion, such as radical feminists, appear to forget that abortion is a medical procedure with possible dangerous psychophysical consequences, and that preventive measures such as sex education and diffusion of contraception or social measures such as assistance for unwed mothers and their children would be preferrable to abortion. There is the question of whether medical personnel should be excused from assisting in abortions on grounds of conscience and whether those who do assist in abortions automatically become "progressive" by doing so. The staunchest defenders of fetal life are not moved to contribute anything beyond words to improvement of the plight of the many millions of already born who live in miserable conditions of hunger and want. Abortion is a violent act against the fetus and the pregnant woman. Its criminalization is a violent act against the woman and a social intrusion into matters better left to personal ethics. The government which proposes abortion on a few grounds fails to initiate a program to promote life through social protection of single mothers and their children or of families in general

  19. Mechanisms of BK virus infection of renal cells and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Mbianda, Christiane; El-Meanawy, Ashraf; Sorokin, Andrey

    2015-10-01

    BK virus (BKV) causes BKV nephritis in renal transplant patients and contributes significantly to the increase of probability of graft loss. BKV, being latent in the urogenital tract, is likely to be transported with the donor kidney to recipients and following reactivation replicates in the nucleus of renal epithelial tubular cells. BKV daughter viruses are released and enter other renal epithelial cells to spread infection. There are still a lot of unknown factors about the mechanism and kinetics of BKV infection. The treatment of BKV infection, with exception of reduction in immunosuppression which increases the risk of allograft rejection, is almost exclusively limited to application of anti-viral drugs with rather inconsistent results. The shortcomings of anti-viral therapies demand the understanding of early steps of infection of permissive cells by BK virus in hope that adequate interventional therapies preventing infection of cells with BK virus could be developed. This review describes the BKV entry in target human cells, intracellular trafficking pathways of BKV particles and potential therapeutic implications based on understanding of mechanisms of BKV infection of renal cells.

  20. Comparative analysis of disease pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms of New World and Old World arenavirus infections

    PubMed Central

    McLay, Lisa; Liang, Yuying

    2014-01-01

    Arenaviruses can cause fatal human haemorrhagic fever (HF) diseases for which vaccines and therapies are extremely limited. Both the New World (NW) and Old World (OW) groups of arenaviruses contain HF-causing pathogens. Although these two groups share many similarities, important differences with regard to pathogenicity and molecular mechanisms of virus infection exist. These closely related pathogens share many characteristics, including genome structure, viral assembly, natural host selection and the ability to interfere with innate immune signalling. However, members of the NW and OW viruses appear to use different receptors for cellular entry, as well as different mechanisms of virus internalization. General differences in disease signs and symptoms and pathological lesions in patients infected with either NW or OW arenaviruses are also noted and discussed herein. Whilst both the OW Lassa virus (LASV) and the NW Junin virus (JUNV) can cause disruption of the vascular endothelium, which is an important pathological feature of HF, the immune responses to these related pathogens seem to be quite distinct. Whereas LASV infection results in an overall generalized immune suppression, patients infected with JUNV seem to develop a cytokine storm. Additionally, the type of immune response required for recovery and clearance of the virus is different between NW and OW infections. These differences may be important to allow the viruses to evade host immune detection. Understanding these differences will aid the development of new vaccines and treatment strategies against deadly HF viral infections. PMID:24068704

  1. Cumulative mechanisms of lymphoid tissue fibrosis and T cell depletion in HIV-1 and SIV infections

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ming; Smith, Anthony J.; Wietgrefe, Stephen W.; Southern, Peter J.; Schacker, Timothy W.; Reilly, Cavan S.; Estes, Jacob D.; Burton, Gregory F.; Silvestri, Guido; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Carlis, John V.; Haase, Ashley T.

    2011-01-01

    The hallmark of HIV-1 and SIV infections is CD4+ T cell depletion. Both direct cell killing and indirect mechanisms related to immune activation have been suggested to cause the depletion of T cells. We have now identified a mechanism by which immune activation-induced fibrosis of lymphoid tissues leads to depletion of naive T cells in HIV-1 infected patients and SIV-infected rhesus macaques. The T regulatory cell response to immune activation increased procollagen production and subsequent deposition as fibrils via the TGF-β1 signaling pathway and chitinase 3-like-1 activity in fibroblasts in lymphoid tissues from patients infected with HIV-1. Collagen deposition restricted T cell access to the survival factor IL-7 on the fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC) network, resulting in apoptosis and depletion of T cells, which, in turn, removed a major source of lymphotoxin-β, a survival factor for FRCs during SIV infection in rhesus macaques. The resulting loss of FRCs and the loss of IL-7 produced by FRCs may thus perpetuate a vicious cycle of depletion of T cells and the FRC network. Because this process is cumulative, early treatment and antifibrotic therapies may offer approaches to moderate T cell depletion and improve immune reconstitution during HIV-1 infection. PMID:21393864

  2. A Rapid Method for the Diagnosis of Equine Virus Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Correa, W. M.

    1970-01-01

    Smears and imprints were made from the liver of 27 equine fetuses, believed to have aborted as a result of Equine Virus Abortion (EVA) infection. Several different fixatives and staining techniques were employed for the demonstration of typical intra-nuclear inclusion bodies in these preparations, and the following conclusions were reached. Methanol proved to be the best fixative and Pappenheim's panoptic method was the best staining technique, giving good contrast and definition of the inclusion bodies. Cytological methods provided a simple and rapid means of diagnosis, but histological sections provided evidence of lesions which was most useful when inclusion bodies were very difficult to find. However, cytological methods proved better than histological sections for the demonstration of EVA intranuclear inclusion bodies. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:4192198

  3. From unwanted pregnancy to safe abortion: Sharing information about abortion in Asia through animation.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Shweta; Dalvie, Suchitra

    2015-05-01

    Although unsafe abortion continues to be a leading cause of maternal mortality in many countries in Asia, the right to safe abortion remains highly stigmatized across the region. The Asia Safe Abortion Partnership, a regional network advocating for safe abortion, produced an animated short film entitled From Unwanted Pregnancy to Safe Abortion to show in conferences, schools and meetings in order to share knowledge about the barriers to safe abortion in Asia and to facilitate conversations on the right to safe abortion. This paper describes the making of this film, its objectives, content, dissemination and how it has been used. Our experience highlights the advantages of using animated films in addressing highly politicized and sensitive issues like abortion. Animation helped to create powerful advocacy material that does not homogenize the experiences of women across a diverse region, and at the same time emphasize the need for joint activities that express solidarity.

  4. From unwanted pregnancy to safe abortion: Sharing information about abortion in Asia through animation.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Shweta; Dalvie, Suchitra

    2015-05-01

    Although unsafe abortion continues to be a leading cause of maternal mortality in many countries in Asia, the right to safe abortion remains highly stigmatized across the region. The Asia Safe Abortion Partnership, a regional network advocating for safe abortion, produced an animated short film entitled From Unwanted Pregnancy to Safe Abortion to show in conferences, schools and meetings in order to share knowledge about the barriers to safe abortion in Asia and to facilitate conversations on the right to safe abortion. This paper describes the making of this film, its objectives, content, dissemination and how it has been used. Our experience highlights the advantages of using animated films in addressing highly politicized and sensitive issues like abortion. Animation helped to create powerful advocacy material that does not homogenize the experiences of women across a diverse region, and at the same time emphasize the need for joint activities that express solidarity. PMID:26278840

  5. [Psychiatric and psychological consequences of abortion].

    PubMed

    Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco

    2007-02-14

    Over the last decades a debate on the psychological and psychiatric consequences of the right to abortion took place. Abortion is a word-wide phenomenon linked to different aspects of public health. Although negative consequences are assumed to occur after abortion, most of the women who decide to terminate their pregnancy show several signs of relief. For instance, a decrease of signs of anxiety and depression may occur during the first month after abortion. Actually, the critical moment is the pre-abortion period. In this phase, most of the psychiatric and psychologic manifestations take place. Moreover, recent studies reinforce the importance to address the consequences of abortion with a multidisciplinary approach integrating somatic and psychologic components.

  6. Abortion in Sri Lanka: the double standard.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramya

    2013-03-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required.

  7. Health benefits of legal abortion: an analysis.

    PubMed

    Tyrer, L B

    1985-01-01

    The abolition of legal abortion in the US would seriously threaten the health, and even the lives, of women and children. Statistics on the relationship between abortion and health attained before and after abortion was legalized were used to project some of the probable consequences of reversing the US Supreme Court's 1973 Roe v. Wade decision. Abortion has been widely practiced throughout US history, but the actual number of procedures performed before some states legalized abortion is unknown. Few legal procedures were performed for medical reasons, yet many illegal abortions took place. In 1955, a panel of experts could only provide a "best estimate" of between 200,000 and 1,200,000 illegally induced abortions occurring annually in the US. The actual number was most likely closer to the higher figure. The complication rates for illegal abortions, most of which were performed by unskilled practitioners in unsafe settings, were much higher than the rates for legal abortion now. Complications were related to ineffective or unsafe methods, Sepsis, particularly with the bacterium "Clostridium prefringens," which causes gas gangrene, was a major problem that has virtually disappeared. Each year prior to the 1970s, more than 100 women in the US died of abortion complications. Due to the fact that vital statistics reflect an incomplete ascertainment of deaths, the actual number of deaths is probably larger, possibly by as much as 50%. In 1983 more than 1.3 million procedures were performed -- a figure close to the estimated number of illegal abortions performed before 1970. In comparison, 672,000 hysterectomies and 424,000 tonsillectomy operations were performed the same year. The number of abortion-related deaths in the US decreased between 1972 and 1980, from 90 to 16. Most of this decrease resulted from the availability and safety of legal abortion. Legal abortion carries an especially low risk of death, particularly when performed in the 1st trimester. For the 1972

  8. Abortion in Thailand: a feminist perspective.

    PubMed

    Lerdmaleewong, M; Francis, C

    1998-01-01

    With the passing of the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, China, women's issues in Asia have moved increasingly to the forefront. One such issue, abortion, continues to generate controversy as many women argue for protection and/or recognition of their reproductive rights. The objectives of this paper are threefold: (1) To examine the abortion debate in Thailand, identifying issues raised by Thai feminist scholars about the status of women; (2) To overview some of the more prominent feminist arguments regarding abortion (particularly those written by Canadian and American scholars) as a tool for defining women's reproductive rights; (3) To focus on a study of attitudes toward abortion among health care personnel and post-induced abortion patients in Bangkok, Thailand in order to discern the degree of support (if any) for feminist abortion arguments.

  9. Abortion in Sri Lanka: The Double Standard

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

  10. Producing change in attitudes toward abortion.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R A

    1977-01-01

    During the 1969-1970 school year, 351 upperclassmen at a southeastern university were used in a study on the use of different communication methods to change attitudes toward abortion. Following the pretest questionnaire, the group was divided into 4 groups and treated in the following ways: 1) a panel from the group presented pros and cons of abortion; 2) the group broke into 5-member discussion groups to talk about attitudes toward abortion; 3) a movie on normal birth was presented to this group; and 4) the 4th group received no interim abortion-related communication. The movie had no effect on abortion attitudes. The discussions had a slight liberalizing effect on abortion attitudes. Less than 3% of the students in the survey changed their attitude. PMID:12308804

  11. The abortion decision: reasons and ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Allanson, S; Astbury, J

    1995-09-01

    Self-in-relation theory and pilot data responses to an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet by 20 women attending an abortion-providing clinic challenge previous formulations of the abortion decision. Pilot data suggest that: women may make an abortion decision based primarily on pragmatics, a belief in their right to choose and knowledge of the safety and simplicity of the procedure. A discrepancy may exist for a significant minority of women between their abstract beliefs/knowledge and the personal meaning for them of the pregnancy, abortion and its safety. Important links may exist between maternal attachment and anxiety about the safety of the abortion procedure. Ramifications for counselling and future research are discussed. PMID:8528379

  12. Hybrid spreading mechanisms and T cell activation shape the dynamics of HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Groppelli, Elisabetta; Pellegrino, Pierre; Williams, Ian; Borrow, Persephone; Chain, Benjamin M; Jolly, Clare

    2015-04-01

    HIV-1 can disseminate between susceptible cells by two mechanisms: cell-free infection following fluid-phase diffusion of virions and by highly-efficient direct cell-to-cell transmission at immune cell contacts. The contribution of this hybrid spreading mechanism, which is also a characteristic of some important computer worm outbreaks, to HIV-1 progression in vivo remains unknown. Here we present a new mathematical model that explicitly incorporates the ability of HIV-1 to use hybrid spreading mechanisms and evaluate the consequences for HIV-1 pathogenenesis. The model captures the major phases of the HIV-1 infection course of a cohort of treatment naive patients and also accurately predicts the results of the Short Pulse Anti-Retroviral Therapy at Seroconversion (SPARTAC) trial. Using this model we find that hybrid spreading is critical to seed and establish infection, and that cell-to-cell spread and increased CD4+ T cell activation are important for HIV-1 progression. Notably, the model predicts that cell-to-cell spread becomes increasingly effective as infection progresses and thus may present a considerable treatment barrier. Deriving predictions of various treatments' influence on HIV-1 progression highlights the importance of earlier intervention and suggests that treatments effectively targeting cell-to-cell HIV-1 spread can delay progression to AIDS. This study suggests that hybrid spreading is a fundamental feature of HIV infection, and provides the mathematical framework incorporating this feature with which to evaluate future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25837979

  13. [Fate of subsequent pregnancies after induced abortion in primiparae].

    PubMed

    Krasomski, G; Gładysiak, A; Krajewski, J

    1987-12-01

    Premature birth, a well-known result of induced abortion in primiparae, was studied on the basis of data obtained at the Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Lodz during the period 1981-1985. The test group was comprised of 1494 births out of a total of 15,711 registered births that occurred prematurely. Another 390 births at term were selected from the rest of the cases to form the control group. 14.93% of the test group had had induced abortions as primiparae, while this ratio was only 7.95% in the control group. According to the results of the + - test this difference was statistically significant at the p 0.05 level calling attention to the harmful effect of induced abortion in primiparae (double risk of premature birth). During the process of induced abortion, the cervical orifice of the uterus is often mechanically hurt resulting in insufficiency, thus causing premature birth in the pregnancies that follow. It is mostly young women who are not appropriately cognizant of these facts of risks. PMID:3451588

  14. Recurrent spontaneous abortion--aetiological factors and subsequent reproductive performance in 76 couples.

    PubMed

    van Iddekinge, B; Hofmeyr, G J

    1991-09-01

    A diagnostic screening programme identified a possible aetiological factor in 32 of 76 couples (42%) evaluated for recurrent spontaneous abortion (three or more consecutive abortions). The abnormalities most commonly observed were endocervical infections (18%), cervical incompetence (11%) and uterine abnormality (9%). Hypothyroidism was present in 3 women and chromosomal abnormality in 2. None were positive for lupus anticoagulant. Treatment of uterine abnormality and cervical incompetence was associated with 75% and 86% success rates, respectively, whereas treatment of infective causes resulted in a 44% successful pregnancy rate, much the same as the 42% rate that occurred in women who had not been thus treated.

  15. "Removal without replacement" strategy for uncontrolled prosthetic tricuspid valve endocarditis associated with abortion sepsis.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, Ahmet; Surgit, Ozgur; Akgul, Ozgur; Bakir, Ihsan

    2011-12-01

    Isolated tricuspid valve (TV) endocarditis associated with abortion is a rare entity with a poor prognosis. We report the case of a 22-year-old woman with a diagnosis of isolated prosthetic TV endocarditis secondary to recurrent abortion. The patient had progressed to multiorgan failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation during her clinical course. Because of the high operative risk and uncontrolled infection, we performed an unusual surgical approach that has not previously been reported. Resection of infected valvular tissue without replacement of the prosthesis led to a rapid convalescence period and complete cure. PMID:22167761

  16. Abortion: a guide to making ethical choices.

    PubMed

    Maguire, M R; Maguire, D C

    1983-09-01

    A mature attitude toward abortion rests on responsible decision-making and action taking, not on the belief in irreversible events. Abortion is therefore a choice which should be made if it is the most correct and responsible action in view of one's own circumstances. There are a number of doubts, concerns and moral--as opposed to medical--questions that women may be asking themselves as they face this serious choice. The guide addresses these issues to help women think through that choice. It is important to know, for instance, that the Pope has never formally proclaimed a doctrine of faith on the matter of abortion. The Catholic Church, when considered in its diversity, teaches that some abortions can be moral; the conscience of a person is the final arbiter of any abortion decision. Conscience is humans' progressively refined ability to think about situations and evaluate their moral goodness/badness. With respect to abortion, this means that a woman should make the choice that seems best to her. The fear that having an abortion will result in excommunication from the Church is dismissed here. A distinction must be made between committing the sin of abortion and having an abortion. The former obtains when people act against their own conscience. The attitude toward abortion as murder and the issue of the fetus' afterlife are responded to in terms of personhood, a complicated concept on which there is no legal, scientific or religious consensus. Instead, the answer is a function of the time period and its prevalent beliefs. Today, the viability of the fetus has become an important determinant of life. Having an abortion, giving birth, and use of contraceptives when no children are wanted, are responses to which a woman is entitled. Her choice is moral when based on responsible and conscious decisions and actions. The views of Protestantism and Judaism on abortion are clarified briefly.

  17. First-trimester surgical abortion technique.

    PubMed

    Yonke, Nicole; Leeman, Lawrence M

    2013-12-01

    New data have emerged to support changes in first-trimester abortion practice in regard to antibiotic prophylaxis, cervical ripening, the use of manual vacuum aspiration, and pain management. This article addresses these new recommendations and reviews techniques in performing manual and electric vacuum uterine aspiration procedures before 14 weeks' gestation, including very early abortion (<7 weeks' gestation), technically difficult abortions, management of complications, and postabortal contraception. The information discussed also applies to miscarriage management.

  18. [Legal abortivity and life project of women].

    PubMed

    Bielli, C; Racioppi, F

    1988-01-01

    This article concerns the relationship between fertility and legal abortivity in the first 5-year period of the 80's. The legal abortivity pattern of married women, by age and prior fertility is studied in 4 typical regions. This typology is stated considering both levels of fertility of abortivity at 1980-81 (low fertility-low abortivity; low fertility-high abortivity; high fertility-high abortivity; high fertility-low abortivity). In each region the change in the age-conception order specifies abortivity rate is examined by a regression model. Same interesting results can be stressed. Young women seem to be the most involved in the changing fertility pattern during the years considered. They appear at 1984-85 with a number of children more strictly reduced than during 1980-81. Of them, those residing in the too low fertility regions, as well as those residing in the high fertility-high abortivity region seem to be exposed to a lower risk of a legal abortion. The same results cannot be found for young residents in the high fertility-low abortivity region. In other words, those above seem to be in progress as it concerns the prevention possibility of an unplanned conception, otherwise the same cannot be stated for these latter. Many more women had a legal abortion in the early 80's, while less younger women, in a similar status, seem to risk the same 5 years later. At least, spreading knowledge about family planning methods seems to be working as outlined in the spirit of the 194 law operating in public health services. (Author's modified).

  19. [Mechanisms underlying interferon-mediated host innate immunity during influenza A virus infection].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Chi, Xiaojuan; Bai, Qingling; Chen, Jilong

    2015-12-01

    Influenza A virus can create acute respiratory infection in humans and animals throughout the world, and it is still one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Numerous studies have shown that influenza A virus infection induces rapidly host innate immune response. Influenza A virus triggers the activation of signaling pathways that are dependent on host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) including toll like receptors (TLRs) and RIG-I like receptors (RLRs). Using a variety of regulatory mechanisms, these signaling pathways activate downstream transcript factors that control expression of various interferons and cytokines, such as type I and type III interferons. Thus, these interferons stimulate the transcript of relevant interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and expression of the antiviral proteins, which are critical components of host innate immunity. In this review, we will highlight the mechanisms by which influenza A virus infection induces the interferon-mediated host innate immunity.

  20. Mechanized Packing and Delivery System for Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Infected Mealworm Cadavers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document describes a mechanized system to pack mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes between two sheets of masking tape. The document is also an operation manual for the machine and provides all the machine specifications, and wiring and pneumatic diagram...

  1. Medical abortion in Australia: a short history.

    PubMed

    Baird, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Surgical abortion has been provided liberally in Australia since the early 1970s, mainly in privately owned specialist clinics. The introduction of medical abortion, however, was deliberately obstructed and consequently significantly delayed when compared to similar countries. Mifepristone was approved for commercial import only in 2012 and listed as a government subsidised medicine in 2013. Despite optimism from those who seek to improve women's access to abortion, the increased availability of medical abortion has not yet addressed the disadvantage experienced by poor and non-metropolitan women. After telling the story of medical abortion in Australia, this paper considers the context through which it has become available since 2013. It argues that the integration of medical abortion into primary health care, which would locate abortion provision in new settings and expand women's access, has been constrained by the stigma attached to abortion, overly cautious institutionalised frameworks, and the lack of public health responsibility for abortion services. The paper draws on documentary sources and oral history interviews conducted in 2013 and 2015. PMID:26719008

  2. Pregnancy complications following legally induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Obel, E B

    1979-01-01

    The frequency of pregnancy and delivery complications in women whose previous pregnancy had been terminated by a legally induced abortion is evaluated in a prospective and a retrospective study. Bleeding before 28 weeks of gestation and retention of placenta or placental tissue occurred more frequently after legal abortion that in a control group matched for age, parity, and socio-economic status. Other pregnancy and delivery complications did not occur more frequently after legal abortion. It is of particular interest that the study could not demonstrate an increased frequency of low birth weight among women whose previous pregnancy had been terminated by legal abortion.

  3. Husbands' involvement in abortion in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Johansson, A; Nga, N T; Huy, T Q; Dat, D D; Holmgren, K

    1998-12-01

    This study analyzes the involvement of men in abortion in Vietnam, where induced abortion is legal and abortion rates are among the highest in the world. Twenty men were interviewed in 1996 about the role they played in their wives' abortions and about their feelings and ethical views concerning the procedure. The results showed that both husbands and wives considered the husband to be the main decisionmaker regarding family size, which included the decision to have an abortion, but that, in fact, some women had undergone an abortion without consulting their husbands in advance. Parents and in-laws were usually not consulted; the couples thought they might object to the decision on moral grounds. Respondents' ethical perspectives on abortion are discussed. When faced with an unwanted pregnancy, the husbands adopted an ethics of care and responsibility toward family and children, although some felt that abortion was immoral. The study highlights the importance of understanding husbands' perspectives on their responsibilities and rights in reproductive decisionmaking and their ethical and other concerns related to abortion.

  4. The abortion battle: the Canadian scene.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, P

    1994-01-01

    In January 1988 the Supreme Court of Canada struck down the country's archaic abortion law on the ground that it imposed arbitrary delays and unfair disparities in access to abortion across the country. Since then, the conservative government of Canada has made a few attempts to introduce a new abortion policy, but it did not get passed in the parliament because the revised bills failed to protect women's right to 'life, liberty, and security of the person' within the meaning of the Canadian Charter. Canada has been without an abortion law for over four years and there has been a wide range of provincial policies and confusion in the country. Despite the legal vacuum, Canadian women are not frenziedly having abortions. However, the militancy of the anti-abortion groups has steadily intensified with continued assault on a woman's right to make reproductive choices. Since no law, short of banning abortions altogether, is going to satisfy abortion opponents, the abortion battle will rage on in Canada. PMID:8065237

  5. The abortion issue in the 1984 elections.

    PubMed

    Granberg, D

    1987-01-01

    In the 1984 election, Ronald Reagan, the Republican presidential incumbent and an opponent of legal abortion, defeated Walter Mondale, a prochoice Democrat, by a wide margin. Despite Reagan's sweep of 49 states, however, conservatives lost a little ground in the Senate, where four of the seven new senators elected take a prochoice position on abortion. On the other hand, antiabortion forces registered some gains in the House of Representatives. The voting groups were more divided over the abortion issue in 1984 than they had been in 1980: In 1980, Reagan voters and Carter voters did not differ significantly in their attitudes toward abortion, but in 1984, Reagan voters were significantly more likely to be opposed to abortion than were Mondale voters. Nevertheless, only a small minority of voters considered abortion to be a major national issue, and the two voter groups were far more divided on several other issues than they were on abortion. There was no antiabortion consensus among the electorate as a whole, or among Reagan voters in particular. The level of approval for legalized abortion has, in fact, remained quite stable since 1973, and a popular base in favor of banning abortion seems to be lacking. PMID:3595819

  6. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Allahbedashti, Neda

    2014-02-01

    Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas) as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA) and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  7. Two steps back: Poland's new abortion law.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, W

    1993-06-01

    After the fall of Communism in Poland, the Catholic church exerted pressure to increase its influence in public life. One way in which this pressure has manifested itself has been in the passing of a restrictive abortion bill which was signed into law on February 15, 1993. Abortion had been legalized in Poland in 1956 and was used as a means of birth control because of a lack of availability and use of contraceptives. The number of abortions performed was variously reported as 60,000 - 300,000/year. In 1990, the Ministry of Health imposed restrictions on abortions at publicly funded hospitals, and 3 deaths were reported from self-induced abortions. In 1 year (1989-90), the number of induced abortions at 1 hospital dropped from 71 to 19, while the number of self-induced abortions increased from 48 to 85. Further restrictions were introduced in May 1992 as part of the "Ethical Code for Physicians," which allows abortions only in cases where the mother's life or health is in danger or in cases or rape. This code brought abortions to a halt at publicly funded hospitals and doubled or even tripled the cost of private abortions. Women have been refused abortions in tragic and life=threatening situations since the code was adopted. When an outright anti family planning bill was drafted in November 1992, the Polish citizenry collected 1,300,000 signatures to force a referendum. The referendum was not held, but the bill was defeated. The amended bill which passed allows abortions in publicly funded hospitals only when the mother's life or health is in danger and in cases of rape, incest, or incurable deformity of the fetus. The implications of this law remain unclear, since its language is strange and vague. The reproductive rights of Polish women face a further threat because the Catholic church is working to limit the availability of contraceptive methods which they deem to be "early abortives." On the other side of the issue, the Federation for Women and Planned

  8. Attitudes towards abortion in the Danish population.

    PubMed

    Norup, Michael

    1997-10-01

    This article reports the results of a survey, by mailed questionnaire, of the attitudes among a sample of the Danish population towards abortion for social and genetic reasons. Of 1080 questionnaires sent to a random sample of persons between 18 and 45 years, 731 (68%) were completed and returned. A great majority of the respondents were liberal towards early abortion both for social reasons and in case of minor disease. In contrast, there was controversy about late abortions for social reasons and in the case of Down syndrome. Further there was strong reluctance to accept late abortion in case of minor disease. An analysis of the response patterns showed that most of the respondents had gradualist views on abortion, i.e. they would allow all early abortions, but only abortions for some reasons later in pregnancy. It was also found that the number who would find an early abortion acceptable in general was much higher than the number who would accept it in their own case. These findings suggest that a great part of the resistance towards abortion does not rest on a concern for the rights and interests for the fetus. Instead it may be explained on a view according to which fetal life is ascribed intrinsic moral value.

  9. [Abortion: 20 years of Brazilian research].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Corrêa, Marilena; Squinca, Flávia; Braga, Kátia Soares

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the main characteristics of the scientific literature on abortion in Brazil. Data were collected from 88 literature bases, and 2,109 documents from 1987 to 2008 were retrieved. Based on the findings, the field of abortion in Brazil is dominated by female researchers affiliated with public universities and nongovernmental organizations from the Southeast, with training in health sciences. There is no research on abortion in the North, while 14% of the studies were conducted in the Northeast and 4% in the Central-West. Abortion has been a constant theme in the scientific literature in Brazil, increasing in the mid-20th century.

  10. Abortion Decision and Ambivalence: Insights via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allanson, Susie

    2007-01-01

    Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…

  11. Prenatal diagnosis, selective abortion, and the Abortion (Amendment) Bill.

    PubMed

    Laurence, K M

    1980-02-01

    The rapid development of early prenatal diagnostic tests for some fetal malformations and abnormalities and the introduction of this approach to malformation into clinical practice in most areas of the United Kingdom has, to a great extent, been made possible by the 1967 Abortion Act. Although at least 30 of every 1000 pregnancies will end in a seriously malformed infant with reduced survival, or survival with impaired quality of life, only less than 1/3 of these abnormal fetuses are currently amenable to early antenatal detection. Yet, it has been estimated that about 10% of all pregnancies can be identified as having a risk of 1 of these detectable abnormalities of more than 1 in 100. Most prenatal diagnostic tests available at this time involve an amniocentesis, which cannot generally be carried out safely and successfully before 15 or 16 weeks' gestation. Laboratory tests on the amniotic fluid itself or on the cells it contains must follow, generally after a period of cell culture. Fetosocopy at about 18 weeks or later is at present rarely used because of its technical difficulties as well as its relatively high risk of complications. Ultrasound is largely used as a preliminary to amniocentesis or to identify anencephaly. 1 of the problems of these prenatal tests often involving lengthy laboratory techniques is reflected in the late termination times reported from 1 large center, where barely 1/2 the terminations for fetal malformations could be performed before 20 weeks' gestation. 2 provisions of John Corrie's Bill now before Parliament may have a profound effect on prenatal diagnosis and related aspects of secondary prevention of fetal malformation. These are the suggested lowering of the gestational age at which abortions can normally be performed, and the strengthening of the conscience clause enabling physicians to refuse to provide a certificate for abortion.

  12. Prevention and treatment of vaginal bleeding after drug-induced abortion by Yaoliuan capsule and its effects on menses recovery.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhichun; Huang, Guangying

    2005-01-01

    In order to explore the effect of Yaoliuan capsule in the prevention and treatment of vaginal bleeding after drug-induced abortion and menses recovery after drug-induced abortion, 323 cases of gestation period < or = 49 days and without contraindication, were divided randomly into study group (168 cases, taking Yaoliuan capsule) and control group (155 cases, taking placebo capsule). The results showed that in the study group, there were 161 cases (95.8%) of complete abortion, 7 cases (4.2%) of incomplete abortion; In the control group, there were 146 cases (94.2%) of complete abortion, 6 cases (3.9%) of incomplete abortion, 3 cases (1.9%) of abortion failure. The vaginal bleeding time was 5-25 days (mean 10.8 days) in study group, while that was 6-62 days (mean 19.1 days) in control group. The menstrual cycle was 30.5+/-5. 2 days and 33.8 d+/-8.6 days respectively in study and control groups. The menstrual period was 6.1+/-3. 5 days and 9.9+/-5.1 days respectively in study and control groups. Yaoliuan capsule is an effective drug to prevent and treat vaginal bleeding following drug-induced abortion, promote menstruation recovery and prevent pelvic infection.

  13. Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access

    MedlinePlus

    Abortion in the U.S.: Utilization, Financing, and Access June 2008 Approximately one-fifth (19%) of the 6. ... occurring annually in the U.S. end in induced abortion. 1 While abortion is one of the most ...

  14. Evidence supporting broader access to safe legal abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal; Shah, Iqbal H

    2015-10-01

    Unsafe abortion continues to be a major cause of maternal death; it accounts for 14.5% of all maternal deaths globally and almost all of these deaths occur in countries with restrictive abortion laws. A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. Despite this evidence, abortion is denied even when the legal condition for abortion is met. The present article aims to contribute to a better understanding that one can be in favor of greater access to safe abortion services, while at the same time not be "in favor of abortion," by reviewing the evidence that indicates that criminalization of abortion only increases mortality and morbidity without decreasing the incidence of induced abortion, and that decriminalization rapidly reduces abortion-related mortality and does not increase abortion rates.

  15. A Neuron-Specific Antiviral Mechanism Prevents Lethal Flaviviral Infection of Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Rudian; Pang, Xiaojing; Liang, Guodong; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are natural vectors for many etiologic agents of human viral diseases. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses can persistently infect the mosquito central nervous system without causing dramatic pathology or influencing the mosquito behavior and lifespan. The mechanism by which the mosquito nervous system resists flaviviral infection is still largely unknown. Here we report that an Aedes aegypti homologue of the neural factor Hikaru genki (AaHig) efficiently restricts flavivirus infection of the central nervous system. AaHig was predominantly expressed in the mosquito nervous system and localized to the plasma membrane of neural cells. Functional blockade of AaHig enhanced Dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), but not Sindbis virus (SINV), replication in mosquito heads and consequently caused neural apoptosis and a dramatic reduction in the mosquito lifespan. Consistently, delivery of recombinant AaHig to mosquitoes reduced viral infection. Furthermore, the membrane-localized AaHig directly interfaced with a highly conserved motif in the surface envelope proteins of DENV and JEV, and consequently interrupted endocytic viral entry into mosquito cells. Loss of either plasma membrane targeting or virion-binding ability rendered AaHig nonfunctional. Interestingly, Culex pipien pallens Hig also demonstrated a prominent anti-flavivirus activity, suggesting a functionally conserved function for Hig. Our results demonstrate that an evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanism prevents lethal flaviviral infection of the central nervous system in mosquitoes, and thus may facilitate flaviviral transmission in nature. PMID:25915054

  16. Incidence of Induced Abortion and Post-Abortion Care in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, Sarah C.; Kimaro, Godfather; Muganyizi, Projestine; Philbin, Jesse; Kahwa, Amos; Ngadaya, Esther; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2015-01-01

    Background Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and unsafe abortion is one of its leading causes. Yet little is known about its incidence. Objectives To provide the first ever estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion in Tanzania, at the national level and for each of the 8 geopolitical zones (7 in Mainland plus Zanzibar). Methods A nationally representative survey of health facilities was conducted to determine the number of induced abortion complications treated in facilities. A survey of experts on abortion was conducted to estimate the likelihood of women experiencing complications and obtaining treatment. These surveys were complemented with population and fertility data to obtain abortion numbers, rates and ratios, using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. Results In Tanzania, women obtained just over 405,000 induced abortions in 2013, for a national rate of 36 abortions per 1,000 women age 15–49 and a ratio of 21 abortions per 100 live births. For each woman treated in a facility for induced abortion complications, 6 times as many women had an abortion but did not receive care. Abortion rates vary widely by zone, from 10.7 in Zanzibar to 50.7 in the Lake zone. Conclusions The abortion rate is similar to that of other countries in the region. Variations by zone are explained mainly by differences in fertility and contraceptive prevalence. Measures to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated maternal mortality include expanding access to post-abortion care and contraceptive services to prevent unintended pregnancies. PMID:26361246

  17. J-2X Abort System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, Louis M.; Butas, John P.; Aguilar, Robert B.; Sowers, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    The J-2X is an expendable liquid hydrogen (LH2)/liquid oxygen (LOX) gas generator cycle rocket engine that is currently being designed as the primary upper stage propulsion element for the new NASA Ares vehicle family. The J-2X engine will contain abort logic that functions as an integral component of the Ares vehicle abort system. This system is responsible for detecting and responding to conditions indicative of impending Loss of Mission (LOM), Loss of Vehicle (LOV), and/or catastrophic Loss of Crew (LOC) failure events. As an earth orbit ascent phase engine, the J-2X is a high power density propulsion element with non-negligible risk of fast propagation rate failures that can quickly lead to LOM, LOV, and/or LOC events. Aggressive reliability requirements for manned Ares missions and the risk of fast propagating J-2X failures dictate the need for on-engine abort condition monitoring and autonomous response capability as well as traditional abort agents such as the vehicle computer, flight crew, and ground control not located on the engine. This paper describes the baseline J-2X abort subsystem concept of operations, as well as the development process for this subsystem. A strategy that leverages heritage system experience and responds to an evolving engine design as well as J-2X specific test data to support abort system development is described. The utilization of performance and failure simulation models to support abort system sensor selection, failure detectability and discrimination studies, decision threshold definition, and abort system performance verification and validation is outlined. The basis for abort false positive and false negative performance constraints is described. Development challenges associated with information shortfalls in the design cycle, abort condition coverage and response assessment, engine-vehicle interface definition, and abort system performance verification and validation are also discussed.

  18. Frequency and causes of infectious abortion in a dairy herd in Queretaro, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Escamilla, H. Patricia; Martínez, M. José Juan; Medina, C. Mario; Morales, S. Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of infectious bovine abortion and to identify some of its causes, specifically brucellosis, leptospirosis, bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and neosporosis. The study was carried out in a dairy herd in the state of Queretaro, Mexico, between September 2002 and March 2003. At the beginning of the study, blood samples were taken from a random 33% of the 300 lactating or pregnant cows; antibodies against Leptospira interrogans were the most commonly identified, in 91% of the 99 samples. Blood samples were also taken 14 to 28 d after the 26 subsequent abortions in the herd in the 6-mo study period, as well as from 22 cows that had not aborted within 5 d after the abortions in the other group. Seroconversion was most frequent for L. hardjo, occurring in 8 (67%) of the 12 dams that aborted after the initial serologic sampling and for which paired serum samples were therefore available. Of the 16 collected fetuses, 10 had histologic lesions suggesting infection in various organs, the features correlating with the serologic results for the dams in 7 cases. Thus, the abortions may have been caused by more than 1 infectious agent. PMID:17955907

  19. Frequency and causes of infectious abortion in a dairy herd in Queretaro, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, H Patricia; Martínez, M José Juan; Medina, C Mario; Morales, S Elizabeth

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of infectious bovine abortion and to identify some of its causes, specifically brucellosis, leptospirosis, bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and neosporosis. The study was carried out in a dairy herd in the state of Queretaro, Mexico, between September 2002 and March 2003. At the beginning of the study, blood samples were taken from a random 33% of the 300 lactating or pregnant cows; antibodies against Leptospira interrogans were the most commonly identified, in 91% of the 99 samples. Blood samples were also taken 14 to 28 d after the 26 subsequent abortions in the herd in the 6-mo study period, as well as from 22 cows that had not aborted within 5 d after the abortions in the other group. Seroconversion was most frequent for L. hardjo, occurring in 8 (67%) of the 12 dams that aborted after the initial serologic sampling and for which paired serum samples were therefore available. Of the 16 collected fetuses, 10 had histologic lesions suggesting infection in various organs, the features correlating with the serologic results for the dams in 7 cases. Thus, the abortions may have been caused by more than 1 infectious agent.

  20. Mechanism of HSV infection through soluble adapter-mediated virus bridging to the EGF receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Kenji; Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Asano, Ryutaro; Kumagai, Izumi; Tahara, Hideaki; Kuwano, Michihiko; Cohen, Justus B.; Glorioso, Joseph C.

    2011-04-25

    Herpes simplex virus entry into cells requires the binding of envelope glycoprotein D (gD) to an entry receptor. Depending on the cell, entry occurs by different mechanisms, including fusion at the cell surface or endocytosis. Here we examined the entry mechanism through a non-HSV receptor mediated by a soluble bi-specific adapter protein composed of recognition elements for gD and the EGF receptor (EGFR). Virus entered into endosomes using either EGF or an EGFR-specific single chain antibody (scFv) for receptor recognition. Infection was less efficient with the EGF adapter which could be attributed to its weaker binding to a viral gD. Infection mediated by the scFv adapter was pH sensitive, indicating that gD-EGFR bridging alone was insufficient for capsid release from endosomes. We also show that the scFv adapter enhanced infection of EGFR-expressing tumor tissue in vivo. Our results indicate that adapters may retarget HSV infection without drastically changing the entry mechanism.

  1. Mechanism of anemia in Schistosoma mansoni-infected school children in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Butler, Sara E; Muok, Erick M; Montgomery, Susan P; Odhiambo, Keziah; Mwinzi, Pauline M N; Secor, W Evan; Karanja, Diana M S

    2012-11-01

    A better understanding of the mechanism of anemia associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection might provide useful information on how treatment programs are implemented to minimize schistosomiasis-associated morbidity and maximize treatment impact. We used a cross-sectional study with serum samples from 206 Kenyan school children to determine the mechanisms in S. mansoni-associated anemia. Serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor levels were measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results suggest that S. mansoni-infected persons are more likely (odds ratio = 3.68, 95% confidence interval = 1.33-10.1) to have levels of serum ferritin (> 100 ng/mL) that are associated with anemia of inflammation (AI) than S. mansoni-uninfected children. Our results suggest that AI is the most common form of anemia in S. mansoni infections. In contrast, the mechanism of anemia in S. mansoni-uninfected children was iron deficiency. Moreover, the prevalence of AI in the study participants demonstrated a significant trend with S. mansoni infection intensity (P < 0.001). Our results are consistent with those observed in S. japonicum-associated anemia.

  2. Abortion and infant mortality before and after the 1973 US Supreme Court decision on abortion.

    PubMed

    Robertson, L S

    1981-07-01

    The 50 states of the US were compared in 1971-72 and 1974-75 with respect to percentage apparent conceptions aborted and infant mortality rates attributed to various causes. Only nonvehicle accidental deaths were consistently related to abortion. The correlation is nonlinear; nonvehicle accidental deaths were especially high in states with little or no abortion. A decline in nonvehicle accidental deaths from before to after the Supreme Court decision was most pronounced in states where there were fewest abortions before the decision and where increases in abortion followed the decision.

  3. Effectiveness of mechanical embolectomy for septic embolus in the cerebral artery complicated with infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Gimoon; Yang, Tae Ki; Choi, Joon Hyouk; Heo, Sang Taek

    2013-08-01

    There has been a controversy over data of thrombolytic and endovascular surgical treatment about cerebral infarction secondary to infective endocarditis. We report a woman who received early mechanical embolectomy as a treatment of acute stroke with infective endocarditis. A 35-yr-old woman was hospitalized due to right hemiparesis. Brain image showed cerebral infarction at the middle cerebral artery and echocardiography demonstrated vegetation at the mitral valve. She was successfully treated with embolectomy and parenteral antibiotics without any neurologic sequelae. This report shows that the early retrieve of septic cerebral emboli can be a helpful treatment of acute stroke associated with endocarditis.

  4. What can obstetrician/gynecologists do to support abortion access?

    PubMed

    Mark, Alice G; Wolf, Merrill; Edelman, Alison; Castleman, Laura

    2015-10-01

    Unsafe abortion causes approximately 13% of all maternal deaths worldwide, with higher rates in areas where abortion access is restricted. Because safe abortion is so low risk, if all women who needed an abortion could access safe care, this rate would drop dramatically. As women's health providers and advocates, obstetrician/gynecologists can support abortion access. By delivering high-quality, evidence-based care ourselves, supporting other providers who perform abortion, helping women who access abortion in the community, providing second-trimester care, and improving contraceptive uptake, we can decrease morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion. PMID:26433507

  5. STS-1 operational flight profile. Volume 6: Abort analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The abort analysis for the cycle 3 Operational Flight Profile (OFP) for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) is defined, superseding the abort analysis previously presented. Included are the flight description, abort analysis summary, flight design groundrules and constraints, initialization information, general abort description and results, abort solid rocket booster and external tank separation and disposal results, abort monitoring displays and discussion on both ground and onboard trajectory monitoring, abort initialization load summary for the onboard computer, list of the key abort powered flight dispersion analysis.

  6. Infection.

    PubMed

    Miclau, Theodore; Schmidt, Andrew H; Wenke, Joseph C; Webb, Lawrence X; Harro, Janette M; Prabhakara, Ranjani; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2010-09-01

    Musculoskeletal infection is a clinical problem with significant direct healthcare costs. The prevalence of infection after closed, elective surgery is frequently estimated to be less than 2%, but in severe injuries, posttraumatic infection rates have been reported as 10% or greater. Although clinical infections are found outside the realm of medical devices, it is clear that the enormous increase of infections associated with the use of implants presents a major challenge worldwide. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of musculoskeletal infections.

  7. A qualitative investigation of low-income abortion clients' attitudes toward public funding for abortion.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Adrianne; Manski, Ruth; Dennis, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    We explored how low-income abortion clients in states where public funding was and was not available perceived the role of public funding for abortion. From October 2010 through February 2011, we conducted 71 semi-structured in-depth telephone interviews with low-income abortion clients in Arizona, Florida, New York, and Oregon. Women reported weighing numerous factors when determining which circumstances warranted public funding. Though most women generally supported coverage, they deviated from their initial support when asked about particular circumstances. Respondents felt most strongly that abortion should not be covered when a woman could not afford another child or was pregnant outside of a romantic relationship. Participants used disparaging language to describe the presumed behavior of women faced with unintended pregnancies. In seeking to discredit "other" women's abortions, women revealed the complex nature of abortion stigma. We propose that women's abortion experiences and subsequent opinions on coverage indicated three distinct manifestations of abortion stigma: women (1) resisted the prominent discourse that marks women who have had abortions as selfish and irresponsible; (2) internalized societal norms that stereotype women based on the circumstances surrounding the abortion; and (3) reproduced stigma by distancing themselves from the negative stereotypes associated with women who have had abortions. PMID:25068780

  8. The persistence of induced abortion in Cuba: exploring the notion of an "abortion culture".

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Danièle; Flynn, Andrea

    2009-03-01

    Cuba's annual induced abortion rate persistently ranks among the highest in the world, and abortion plays a prominent role in Cuban fertility regulation despite widespread contraceptive prevalence and state promotion of modern contraceptives. We explore this phenomenon using the concept of an "abortion culture," typically used in reference to Soviet and post-Soviet countries. We synthesize existing literature to provide a historical account of abortion and contraception in Cuba. We also provide a qualitative analysis of abortion and contraceptive use based on in-depth interviews conducted in 2005 in Havana with 24 women who have had an abortion and 10 men whose partners have had an abortion. Information gained from a focus-group discussion with medical professionals also informed the study. Our four principal findings are: (a) longstanding awareness of abortion, (b) the view of abortion as a personal decision, (c) the influence of economic constraints on the decision to induce an abortion, and (d) general skepticism toward contraceptives. We discuss our results on abortion in Cuba in relation to the notion of social diffusion, an approach commonly used to explain the spread of fertility control throughout a population.

  9. Emotional responses of women following therapeutic abortion.

    PubMed

    Adler, N E

    1975-04-01

    Factor analysis of post-abortion emotional responses revealed three factors. Negative emotions split into two factors: socially-and internally-based. Positive emotions, constituting the third factor, were experienced most strongly. Correlations with background variables suggest two influences on response: the woman's social environment and her internalized concerns about the abortion.

  10. Counseling for Women Who Seek Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth M.

    1972-01-01

    Concerned professionals in various parts of the country have formed crisis-oriented counseling services to meet the needs of women who request abortions. This article presents information obtained from a sample of women seeking abortions and discusses the counselor's role in the decision making process. (Author)

  11. Comment: unethical ethics investment boycotts and abortion.

    PubMed

    Furedi, A

    1998-01-01

    Ethical investment funds have traditionally boycotted the arms industry, companies known to pollute the environment, and those involved in animal research. However, recent newspaper reports suggest that some investment funds plan to also boycott hospitals and pharmaceutical companies involved in abortion-related activities. Ethical Financial, anti-abortion independent financial advisors, are encouraging a boycott of investment in private hospitals and manufacturers of equipment involved in abortions, and pharmaceutical firms which produce postcoital contraception or conduct embryo research. Ethical Financial claims that Family Assurance has agreed to invest along anti-abortion lines, Aberdeen Investment is already boycotting companies linked to abortion, and Hendersons ethical fund plans to follow suit. There is speculation that Standard Life, the largest mutual insurer in Europe, will also refuse to invest in abortion-related concerns when it launches its ethical fund in the spring. Managers of ethical funds should, however, understand that, contrary to the claims of the anti-choice lobby, there is extensive public support for legal abortion, emergency contraception, and embryo research. Individuals and institutions which contribute to the development of reproductive health care services are working to alleviate the distress of unwanted pregnancy and infertility, laudable humanitarian goals which should be encouraged. Those who try to restrict the development of abortion methods and services simply show contempt for women, treating them as people devoid of conscience who are incapable of making moral choices.

  12. Strategies for the prevention of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2012-10-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the main causes of maternal mortality and severe morbidity in countries with restrictive abortion laws. In 2007, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) created a Working Group on the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences (WGPUA). This led to a FIGO initiative with that aim which has the active participation of 43 FIGO member societies. The WGPUA has recommended that the plans of action of the countries participating in the initiative consider several levels of prevention shown to have the potential to successfully reduce unsafe abortions: (1) primary prevention of unintended pregnancy and induced abortion; (2) secondary prevention to ensure the safety of an abortion procedure that could not be avoided; (3) tertiary prevention of further complications of an unsafe abortion procedure that has taken place already, through high-quality postabortion care; and (4) quaternary prevention of repeated abortion procedures through postabortion family planning counseling and contraceptive services. This paper reviews these levels of prevention and the evidence that they can be effective.

  13. Comment: unethical ethics investment boycotts and abortion.

    PubMed

    Furedi, A

    1998-01-01

    Ethical investment funds have traditionally boycotted the arms industry, companies known to pollute the environment, and those involved in animal research. However, recent newspaper reports suggest that some investment funds plan to also boycott hospitals and pharmaceutical companies involved in abortion-related activities. Ethical Financial, anti-abortion independent financial advisors, are encouraging a boycott of investment in private hospitals and manufacturers of equipment involved in abortions, and pharmaceutical firms which produce postcoital contraception or conduct embryo research. Ethical Financial claims that Family Assurance has agreed to invest along anti-abortion lines, Aberdeen Investment is already boycotting companies linked to abortion, and Hendersons ethical fund plans to follow suit. There is speculation that Standard Life, the largest mutual insurer in Europe, will also refuse to invest in abortion-related concerns when it launches its ethical fund in the spring. Managers of ethical funds should, however, understand that, contrary to the claims of the anti-choice lobby, there is extensive public support for legal abortion, emergency contraception, and embryo research. Individuals and institutions which contribute to the development of reproductive health care services are working to alleviate the distress of unwanted pregnancy and infertility, laudable humanitarian goals which should be encouraged. Those who try to restrict the development of abortion methods and services simply show contempt for women, treating them as people devoid of conscience who are incapable of making moral choices. PMID:12321439

  14. Restricting Federal Funds for Abortion: Another Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Paul M.; Thomas, Laura S.

    1983-01-01

    No public funds are saved by forbidding the use of federal funds for abortions among poor women. The future public cost of an unwanted birth is estimated for 1978 to be almost 100 times the cost of an abortion. (Author/RM)

  15. Abortion: The Viewpoint of Potential Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamrick, Michael H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A college survey showed strong support by a majority for legalized abortion, governmental support of abortion and family planning services, voluntary sterilization, and sex education and birth control information and/or services in the schools. Important differences of opinion among subgroups were, however, indicated. (Author/MJB)

  16. Safe abortion: a right for refugees?

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Aimee

    2002-05-01

    Thanks to initiatives since 1994, most reproductive health programmes for refugee women now include family planning and safe delivery care. Emergency contraception and post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortion are recommended, but provision of these services has lagged behind, while services for women who wish to terminate an unwanted pregnancy are almost non-existent. Given conditions in refugee settings, including high levels of sexual violence, unwanted pregnancies are of particular concern. Yet the extent of need for abortion services among refugee women remains undocumented. UNFPA estimates that 25-50% of maternal deaths in refugee settings are due to complications of unsafe abortion. Barriers to providing abortion services may include internal and external political pressure, legal restrictions, or the religious affiliation of service providers. Women too may be pressured to continue pregnancies and are often unable to express their needs or assert their rights. Abortion advocacy efforts should highlight the specific needs of refugee women and encourage provision of services where abortion is legally indicated, especially in cases of rape or incest, and risk to a woman's physical and mental health. Implementation of existing guidelines on reducing the occurrence and consequences of sexual violence in refugee settings is also important. Including refugee women in international campaigns for expanded access to safe abortion is critical in addressing the specific needs of this population. PMID:12369319

  17. Abortion and nursing: a legal update.

    PubMed

    Horsley, J

    1992-12-01

    Almost 2 decades after the Supreme Court's landmark decision in Roe v. Wade, nurses' refusal to assist in abortions is still in question. There are about 1.6 million abortions a year. If Congress passes the Freedom of Choice Act, American women will be guaranteed continued access to abortion. But the effect of new regulations on 2 million nurses is the issue. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 protects those who refuse to participate in abortions because of their religious beliefs. Several states have also enacted laws giving the right to health care workers to refuse to participate on ethical grounds. In Florida a staffer at an ambulatory care center was demoted after refusing to assist in an abortion. The appeals court ruled in the nurse's favor, stating that she should have been given a different assignment. Nurses who oppose abortion are advised by attorneys not to accept jobs where they are likely to be expected to assist in them. A New York City nurse refused to assist in an abortion and was reassigned to an administrative position, which she contested. The arbitrator restored her to her original position indicating that if the Freedom of Choice Act is passed it will not eliminate a nurse's right not to assist. In 1988 the so-called gag rule was issued barring caregivers at 4000 federally funded family planning clinics serving nearly 5 million women/year from recommending abortion to patients.

  18. Adolescents and Abortion: Choice in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Rebecca

    This publication seeks to explain the many facets of adolescent abortion: teenagers' need for access to safe abortion; the need for confidentiality in order to ensure safety; the real intent and effect of parental involvement laws; and the roles of parents and the state in safeguarding the health of pregnant teenagers. The first section looks at…

  19. Induced Abortion: An Ethical Conundrum for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millner, Vaughn S.; Hanks, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most controversial moral issues in American culture, but counselor value struggles regarding abortion are seldom addressed in counseling literature. This article considers the conflictual nature of the ethical principles of autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence as they can occur within the…

  20. Complexifying Commodification, Consumption, ART, and Abortion.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2015-01-01

    This commentary on Madeira's paper complicates the relationships between commodification, consumption, abortion, and assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) she draws in two ways. First, I examine under what conditions the commodification of ARTs, gametes, and surrogacy lead to patients becoming consumers. Second, I show that there are some stark difference between applying commodification critiques to ART versus abortion.

  1. [Abortion: an ethical or political issue?].

    PubMed

    Divay, Sophie

    2015-12-01

    Forty years after the decriminalisation of abortion, what is society's view of this hard-fought right of women? Do they finally have the freedom to control their own bodies? The sociological view put forward here questions the professional positioning of caregivers faced with women requesting an elective abortion.

  2. House seeks restrictions on "bogus" abortion clinics.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    Recent Congressional hearings have identified over 2000 pro-life counseling centers that deceptively portray themselves as abortion clinics. The issue has now become regulating these facilities referred to as bogus clinics. The bogus clinics enjoy a good deal of protection from the Federal Trade Commission because they are all registered as non-profit organizations. Many people investigating the situation feel that the issues of pro-life and pro-choice are not central. What is most important is the fact that these bogus clinics are able to attract people who think they can obtain abortions when in fact these facilities do not offer such services. The staff at the bogus clinics have been reported to detain, harass, and coerce women who want to have abortions. They often show graphic films and employ psychological pressure in an attempt to convince the woman not to have an abortion. The Pearson Foundation published a 93 page manual titled, "How to Start and Operate Your Own Pro-Life Crisis Pregnancy Center". The manual outlines all the steps and procedures necessary to run an operation committed into deceiving women into thinking they offer abortion services. So far, proposed legislation would either require Yellow Pages publishers to list abortion alternatives and abortion services separately, or make facilities that do not provide abortions declare it in a disclaimer. However, federal authority in this situation is unclear. other proposals would give the FTC control of non-profits, or only deceptive non-profits.

  3. Abortion 1982: the Supreme Court once again.

    PubMed

    Healey, J M

    1982-11-01

    Clearly, abortion in the US continues to be a major medico-legal issue which will not go away. 5 major abortion cases are scheduled for review by the US Supreme Court during its 1982-83 term. Taken together, these 5 cases challenge several of the key conclusions of the Court's review of the abortion question. The primary focus of the cases is the state's power to regulate the abortion decision during the 1st and 2nd trimester of the pregnancy. 2 cases involve ordinances passed by the City of Akron regulating access to abortion in areas such as consent and notification requirements and the location of abortions after the 1st trimester. 2 of the cases involve a Missouri statute also dealing with the requirement that abortions after the 1st trimester be performed in a hospital. The final case involves a Virginia criminal prosecution of a physician accused of violating the state's requirement of in-hospital performance of a 2nd trimester abortion. In the case of Roe v. Wade, the Court had established the "trimester trilogy" governing state regulation of the abortion procedure. For the stage of the pregnancy prior to the end of the 1st trimester, the Court held that the abortion decision and its effectuation must be left to the medical judgment of the pregnant women's attending physician. For the stage of the pregnancy subsequent to the end of the 1st trimester, the Court ruled that the state may promote its interest in the health of the mother by regulating the abortion procedure in ways reasonably related to maternal health. For the stage of pregnancy subsequent to viability, the state may promote its interest in the potentiality of human life by regulation, even prohibiting abortion, except where it is necessary to preserve the mother's life or health. These 5 cases challenge the role of the Court in determining the scope of appropriate state regulation at various stages of the pregnancy. Suffering a loss of prestige in the 10 years since the Roe v. Wade and Doe v

  4. To Infection and Beyond: The Multi-Pronged Anti-Cancer Mechanisms of Oncolytic Viruses.

    PubMed

    Cassady, Kevin A; Haworth, Kellie B; Jackson, Josh; Markert, James M; Cripe, Timothy P

    2016-02-01

    Over the past 1-2 decades we have witnessed a resurgence of efforts to therapeutically exploit the attributes of lytic viruses to infect and kill tumor cells while sparing normal cells. We now appreciate that the utility of viruses for treating cancer extends far beyond lytic cell death. Viruses are also capable of eliciting humoral and cellular innate and adaptive immune responses that may be directed not only at virus-infected cells but also at uninfected cancer cells. Here we review our current understanding of this bystander effect, and divide the mechanisms into lytic, cytokine, innate cellular, and adaptive phases. Knowing the key pathways and molecular players during virus infection in the context of the cancer microenvironment will be critical to devise strategies to maximize the therapeutic effects of oncolytic viroimmunotherapy. PMID:26861381

  5. [Counter-acception or abort and lie].

    PubMed

    Maruani, G

    1979-09-01

    In this very short but fiery and violent paper against abortion the author states that most women seeking abortion are actually lying to themselves, pretending they want something which, in reality, they do not want, i.e. an abortion. The laws regulating abortion in most countries are such that a woman is practically forbidden to make an independent decision, despite, or because of the number of counseling sessions and of meetings with doctors that she must go through. Radio, television, newspapers and magazines, friends and relatives, all contribute to make of abortion a run-of-the-mill operation, while it should be seen as scandal, and as the total negation of any maternal instinct. PMID:12158286

  6. [Therapeutic abortion, unjustified absence in health policy].

    PubMed

    Chávez-Alvarado, Susana

    2013-07-01

    Although abortion for health reasons is not considered a crime in Peru, the State does not allow its inclusion in public policy, thus violating women's right to terminate a pregnancy when it affects their health. When examining the article in the Criminal Code which decriminalizes this type of abortion, provisions are identified which protect women and set the conditions to offer this type of service. This document sets the debate about the arguments used by the Peruvian State for not approving a therapeutic abortion protocol which would regulate the provision and financing of therapeutic abortion in public services, and explains why this obligation should be complied with, based on the conceptual framework of "health exception" In addition, it presents two cases brought before the judicial court in which the Peruvian State was found guilty of violating the human rights of two adolescents to whom a therapeutic abortion was denied.

  7. Information needs among Italian abortion patients.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson Agostino, M

    1997-01-01

    Controversy still surrounds abortion and abortion care in many countries. Information for women who seek abortion is not always as objective and complete as desired. In Italy abortion has been legal for the last decades. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate general information needs among patients in a hospital in Rome. A questionnaire concerning information needs, opinions on information to include in a booklet, and methods of information was distributed among 212 women in a public hospital in Rome. Women answered the questionnaire very differently, and general information needs were not shown to be as essential as expected; their present needs seemed especially underestimated. However, a booklet with information as objective and complete as possible is suggested as a way of giving information to abortion patients.

  8. Nonspecific immune responses and mechanisms of resistance to Eimeria papillata infections in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Schito, M L; Barta, J R

    1997-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)-beige mice inoculated with the intracellular parasite Eimeria papillata produced significantly more oocysts during primary infections than inoculated immunodeficient SCID mice. Therefore, the addition of the beige mutation, which detrimentally affects neutrophil and natural killer (NK) cell functions, enhanced the parasites' ability to reproduce within the small intestine. To identify which of these two cell types is responsible for a protective immune response during primary infection, the following groups of mice were inoculated: (i) SCID mice depleted of neutrophils with antigranulocyte monoclonal antibody (RB6-8C5), (ii) C57BL/6 mice depleted of NK cells with the anti-NK-1.1 monoclonal antibody (PK136), and (iii) transgenic Tg epsilon26++ mice (T and NK cell deficient). To identify the mechanisms of immunity during primary and secondary infections, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) knockout and perforin knockout mice were inoculated. Oocyst output was found to be significantly higher during primary infection for mice depleted of NK cells by administration of anti-NK-1.1 antibodies, for Tg epsilon26++ mice, and for IFN-gamma knockout mice. During secondary infections, only perforin knockout mice produced significantly more oocysts compared to control mice. Our observations suggest that NK cells inhibit E. papillata oocyst output during primary infection by the production of IFN-gamma and that this inhibition is independent of perforin. Immunity to reinfection does not require IFN-gamma but appears to be mediated, at least in part, by a perforin-dependent mechanism. PMID:9234770

  9. Medical abortion: the hidden revolution.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Phil

    2015-07-01

    While the medical abortion (MA) drugs, mifepristone and misoprostol, have radically altered reproductive health practices around the world, there has been little field research on the sales and use of these drugs, especially in developing countries. This leaves the family planning community with many unanswered questions. While good profiles of contraceptive use are available for many countries and we have good technical data on the MA drugs' efficacy, dosages and regimens such as home dosage of misoprostol versus clinic dosage, we have very little information about the quantities of MA drugs sold, how they are used, where they are used, and, in the case of misoprostol, for what purposes. Sales data are available from one excellent commercial survey and from social marketing sales of mifepristone and misoprostol and these are presented. Acknowledging the sensitivity of the issue, especially in countries where abortion is severely restricted, the author makes a plea for careful additional research to shed light on an important and growing part of the international reproductive health picture.

  10. If war is "just," so is abortion.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    1991-01-01

    Currently Catholic bishops are applying an inconsistent ethical paradigm to the issues of war and abortion. Based on the seamless garment theory war, abortion and capital punishment are all immoral acts because they are of the same garment. They are all "killing acts" and as such they are immoral. However there is within the Catholic paradigm the idea of a just war. The just war theory states that the destruction of human life in war is justified if it is for a greater good. However abortion has no exceptions, there is no just abortion in the rules of the Catholic Church. The author takes the just war doctrine as presented by the Catholic Church and shows how it could easily apply to abortion. Both war and abortion involve the taking of a human life, but in the case of war the taking of a life is justified if it is done to protect your own life. The same exception in abortion would be to allow abortion when the mother's life is in danger. yet no such exception exists. The just war theory further states that was is necessary to protect national integrity, particularly if the violation erodes the quality of life for its citizens. The same exception for abortion would include allowing abortions for women who already have more children then they can care for or if having the child would erode the quality of life for the woman. Other aspects of the just war theory include the competence and goals of the national leaders. Women must also be allowed to be competent moral agents. Proponents of the seamless garment theory will bring up the fact that in a just war only combatants die yet the fetus is innocent. But no war has ever been fought without the loss of innocent civilians.

  11. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion

    PubMed Central

    Urquia, Marcelo L.; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O’Campo, Patricia J.; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H.; Henry, David A.; Ray, Joel G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. Methods: We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Results: Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75–2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26–2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44–3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02–7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. Interpretation: High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. PMID:27067818

  12. States rebel against Federal abortion orders.

    PubMed

    Kent, C; Tokarski, C

    1994-01-01

    Despite the ascent of Bill Clinton to Presidential power in the US and his early successful repeals of bans on abortion counseling at federally funded clinics, abortions in military hospitals, and fetal tissue research, the controversy and debate over a woman's right to abortion continues in the US. The Hyde Amendment, named after Representative Henry Hyde, Republican from Illinois, has been in effect since 1976 barring Medicaid from funding abortions except to save the life of the pregnant woman. Congress in 1993, however, eased the amendment to allow states to use Medicaid funds to pay for abortions for low-income women in the cases of rape or incest. Anti-abortion lawmakers were assured by the provision's sponsors that the Clinton Administration would not force states to comply. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) instead sent a letter to state Medicaid directors on December 28, 1993, ordering them to use Medicaid funds to pay for abortions for low-income women who were the victims of rape or incest. President Clinton subsequently complained that HHS had bypassed his office in issuing the directive, state Medicaid directors protested that the directive had been imposed without the usual notice and allowance of time for public comment, and states claimed that the order clashes with existing state laws which ban the public funding of abortions not required to save the life of the mother. Officials from Arkansas, Colorado, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, and Utah have stated that they may fight the directive, while the HHS will most likely not move to rescind or change its directive. The issue will probably be resolved in the courts. The authors note that this state/federal battle over Medicaid-funded abortions is only part of a larger war scheduled to take place in Congress over whether pregnancy-related services, including abortion, will be covered in the Administration's Health Security Act.

  13. Innate immune response during Yersinia infection: critical modulation of cell death mechanisms through phagocyte activation

    PubMed Central

    Bergsbaken, Tessa; Cookson, Brad T.

    2009-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, is one of the most deadly pathogens on our planet. This organism shares important attributes with its ancestral progenitor, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, including a 70-kb virulence plasmid, lymphotropism during growth in the mammalian host, and killing of host macrophages. Infections with both organisms are biphasic, where bacterial replication occurs initially with little inflammation, followed by phagocyte influx, inflammatory cytokine production, and tissue necrosis. During infection, plasmid-encoded attributes facilitate bacterial-induced macrophage death, which results from two distinct processes and corresponds to the inflammatory crescendo observed in vivo: Naïve cells die by apoptosis (noninflammatory), and later in infection, activated macrophages die by pyroptosis (inflammatory). The significance of this redirected cell death for the host is underscored by the importance of phagocyte activation for immunity to Yersinia and the protective role of pyroptosis during host responses to anthrax lethal toxin and infections with Francisella, Legionella, Pseudomonas, and Salmonella. The similarities of Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis, including conserved, plasmid-encoded functions inducing at least two distinct mechanisms of cell death, indicate that comparative studies are revealing about their critical pathogenic mechanism(s) and host innate immune responses during infection. Validation of this idea and evidence of similar interactions with the host immune system are provided by Y. pseudotuberculosis-priming, cross-protective immunity against Y. pestis. Despite these insights, additional studies indicate much remains to be understood concerning effective host responses against Yersinia, including chromosomally encoded attributes that also contribute to bacterial evasion and modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:19734471

  14. Mechanics governs single-cell signaling and multi-cell robustness in biofilm infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Vernita

    In biofilms, bacteria and other microbes are embedded in extracellular polymers (EPS). Multiple types of EPS can be produced by a single bacterial strain - the reasons for this redundancy are not well-understood. Our work suggests that different polymers may confer distinct mechanical benefits. Our model organism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic human pathogen that forms chronic biofilm infections associated with increased antibiotic resistance and evasion of the immune defense. Biofilms initiate when bacteria attach to a surface, sense the surface, and change their gene expression. Changes in gene expression are regulated by a chemical signal, cyclic-di-GMP. We find that one EPS material, called ``PEL,'' enhances surface sensing by increasing mechanical coupling of single bacteria to the surface. Measurements of bacterial motility suggest that PEL may increase frictional interactions between the surface and the bacteria. Consistent with this, we show that bacteria increase cyclic-di-GMP signaling in response to mechanical shear stress. Mechanosensing has long been known to be important to the function of cells in higher eukaryotes, but this is one of only a handful of studies showing that bacteria can sense and respond to mechanical forces. For the mature biofilm, the embedding polymer matrix can protect bacteria both chemically and mechanically. P. aeruginosa infections in the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung often last for decades, ample time for the infecting strain(s) to evolve. Production of another EPS material, alginate, is well-known to tend to increase over time in CF infections. Alginate chemically protects biofilms, but also makes them softer and weaker. Recently, it is being increasingly recognized that bacteria in chronic CF infections also evolve to increase PSL production. We use oscillatory bulk rheology to determine the unique contributions of EPS materials to biofilm mechanics. Unlike alginate, increased PSL stiffens biofilms. Increasing both

  15. In vivo mechanisms of vaccine-induced protection against HPV infection

    PubMed Central

    Day, Patricia M.; Kines, Rhonda C.; Thompson, Cynthia D.; Jagu, Subhashini; Roden, Richard B.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Using a human papillomavirus (HPV) cervicovaginal murine challenge model, we microscopically examined the in vivo mechanisms of L1 virus-like particle (VLP) and L2 vaccine-induced inhibition of infection. In vivo HPV infection requires an initial association with the acellular basement membrane (BM) to induce conformational changes in the virion that permit its association with the keratinocyte cell surface. By passive transfer of immune serum, we determined that anti-L1 antibodies can interfere with infection at two stages. Similarly to active VLP immunization, transfer of high L1 antibody concentrations prevented BM binding. In the presence of low concentrations of anti-L1 antibodies, virions associated with the BM, however binding to the epithelial cell surface was not detected. Regardless of the concentration, L2 vaccine-induced antibodies allow BM association, but prevent association with the cell surface. This is the first study to examine the mechanisms of vaccine-induced inhibition of virus infection in vivo. PMID:20833377

  16. Mechanisms linking bacterial infections of the bovine endometrium to disease and infertility.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Luísa Cunha; Cronin, James Graham; Sheldon, Iain Martin

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial infections of the endometrium after parturition commonly cause metritis and endometritis in dairy cattle, and these diseases are important because they compromise animal welfare and incur economic costs, as well as delaying or preventing conception. Here we highlight that uterine infections cause infertility, discuss which bacteria cause uterine disease, and review the evidence for mechanisms of inflammation and tissue damage in the endometrium. Bacteria cultured from the uterus of diseased animals include Escherichia coli, Trueperella pyogenes, and several anaerobic species, but their causative role in disease is challenged by the discovery of many other bacteria in the uterine disease microbiome. Irrespective of the species of bacteria, endometrial cell inflammatory responses to infection initially depend on innate immunity, with Toll-like receptors binding pathogen-associated molecular patterns, such as lipopolysaccharide and bacterial lipopeptides. In addition to tissue damage associated with parturition and inflammation, endometrial cell death is caused by a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin secreted by T. pyogenes, called pyolysin, which forms pores in plasma membranes of endometrial cells. However, endometrial cells surprisingly do not sense damage-associated molecular patterns, but a combination of infections followed by cell damage leads to release of the intracellular cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 alpha from endometrial cells, which then acts to scale inflammatory responses. To develop strategies to limit the impact of uterine disease on fertility, future work should focus on determining which bacteria and virulence factors cause endometritis, and understanding how the host response to infection is regulated in the endometrium. PMID:26952747

  17. [Up-to-date findings in the host defence mechanism to cryptococcus infection].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Keiko; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a medically important opportunistic fungal pathogen with a polysaccharide capsule surrounding the yeast-like cells. In hosts with impaired cell-mediated immunity such as AIDS, uncontrolled infection causes life-threatening meningoencephalitis. In immunocompetent individuals, the host immune response usually limits the growth of the fungal pathogen at the primary infected site, where it may persist, without completely eradicated, in a latent state because of its ability to escape from killing by macrophages. Th1 response in adaptive immunity is essential for the host defense to cryptococcal infection, in which interferon (IFN)-γ polarizes innate macrophages into fungicidal M1 macrophages. Recently, we found that caspase recruitment domain family member (CARD9), an adaptor protein in a signal transduction triggered by C-type lectin receptors, plays a key role in the early production of IFN-γ at the site of infection by recruiting NK cells and CD4(+) and CD8(+) memory-phenotype T cells. We also found that IL-4 produced by Th2 cells stimulates broncoepithelial cells to secrete mucin, which may lead to promotion in the mucociliary clearance of C. neoformans. Here, we summarize the up-to-date findings in the host defense mechanism to this infection with focusing on our recent data.

  18. Tissue-specific localization of pea root infection by Nectria haematococca. Mechanisms and consequences.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Uvini; Rodriguez, Marianela; Straney, David; Romeo, John T; VanEtten, Hans D; Hawes, Martha C

    2005-04-01

    Root infection in susceptible host species is initiated predominantly in the zone of elongation, whereas the remainder of the root is resistant. Nectria haematococca infection of pea (Pisum sativum) was used as a model to explore possible mechanisms influencing the localization of root infection. The failure to infect the root tip was not due to a failure to induce spore germination at this site, suppression of pathogenicity genes in the fungus, or increased expression of plant defense genes. Instead, exudates from the root tip induce rapid spore germination by a pathway that is independent of nutrient-induced germination. Subsequently, a factor produced during fungal infection and death of border cells at the root apex appears to selectively suppress fungal growth and prevent sporulation. Host-specific mantle formation in response to border cells appears to represent a previously unrecognized form of host-parasite relationship common to diverse species. The dynamics of signal exchange leading to mantle development may play a key role in fostering plant health, by protecting root meristems from pathogenic invasion.

  19. Tissue-Specific Localization of Pea Root Infection by Nectria haematococca. Mechanisms and Consequences1

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardena, Uvini; Rodriguez, Marianela; Straney, David; Romeo, John T.; VanEtten, Hans D.; Hawes, Martha C.

    2005-01-01

    Root infection in susceptible host species is initiated predominantly in the zone of elongation, whereas the remainder of the root is resistant. Nectria haematococca infection of pea (Pisum sativum) was used as a model to explore possible mechanisms influencing the localization of root infection. The failure to infect the root tip was not due to a failure to induce spore germination at this site, suppression of pathogenicity genes in the fungus, or increased expression of plant defense genes. Instead, exudates from the root tip induce rapid spore germination by a pathway that is independent of nutrient-induced germination. Subsequently, a factor produced during fungal infection and death of border cells at the root apex appears to selectively suppress fungal growth and prevent sporulation. Host-specific mantle formation in response to border cells appears to represent a previously unrecognized form of host-parasite relationship common to diverse species. The dynamics of signal exchange leading to mantle development may play a key role in fostering plant health, by protecting root meristems from pathogenic invasion. PMID:15778461

  20. Genetic Diversity and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates Associated with Sheep Abortion in the United States and Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zuowei; Sippy, Rachel; Plummer, Paul; Vidal, Ana; Newell, Diane; Zhang, Qijing

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter infection is a leading cause of ovine abortion worldwide. Historically, genetically diverse Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter jejuni strains have been implicated in such infections, but since 2003 a highly pathogenic, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone (named SA) has become the predominant cause of sheep abortions in the United States. Whether clone SA was present in earlier U.S. abortion isolates (before 2000) and is associated with sheep abortions outside the United States are unknown. Here, we analyzed 54 C. jejuni isolates collected from U.S. sheep abortions at different time periods and compared them with 42 C. jejuni isolates associated with sheep abortion during 2002 to 2008 in Great Britain, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Although clone SA (ST-8) was present in the early U.S. isolates, it was not as tetracycline resistant (19% versus 100%) or predominant (66% versus 91%) as it was in the late U.S isolates. In contrast, C. jejuni isolates from Great Britain were genetically diverse, comprising 19 STs and lacking ST-8. PFGE and CGH analyses of representative strains further confirmed the population structure of the abortion isolates. Notably, the Great Britain isolates were essentially susceptible to most tested antibiotics, including tetracycline, while the late U.S. isolates were universally resistant to this antibiotic, which could be explained by the common use of tetracyclines for control of sheep abortions in the United States but not in Great Britain. These results suggest that the dominance of clone SA in sheep abortions is unique to the United States, and the use of tetracyclines may have facilitated selection of this highly pathogenic clone. PMID:24648552

  1. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni isolates associated with sheep abortion in the United States and Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zuowei; Sippy, Rachel; Sahin, Orhan; Plummer, Paul; Vidal, Ana; Newell, Diane; Zhang, Qijing

    2014-06-01

    Campylobacter infection is a leading cause of ovine abortion worldwide. Historically, genetically diverse Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter jejuni strains have been implicated in such infections, but since 2003 a highly pathogenic, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone (named SA) has become the predominant cause of sheep abortions in the United States. Whether clone SA was present in earlier U.S. abortion isolates (before 2000) and is associated with sheep abortions outside the United States are unknown. Here, we analyzed 54 C. jejuni isolates collected from U.S. sheep abortions at different time periods and compared them with 42 C. jejuni isolates associated with sheep abortion during 2002 to 2008 in Great Britain, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Although clone SA (ST-8) was present in the early U.S. isolates, it was not as tetracycline resistant (19% versus 100%) or predominant (66% versus 91%) as it was in the late U.S isolates. In contrast, C. jejuni isolates from Great Britain were genetically diverse, comprising 19 STs and lacking ST-8. PFGE and CGH analyses of representative strains further confirmed the population structure of the abortion isolates. Notably, the Great Britain isolates were essentially susceptible to most tested antibiotics, including tetracycline, while the late U.S. isolates were universally resistant to this antibiotic, which could be explained by the common use of tetracyclines for control of sheep abortions in the United States but not in Great Britain. These results suggest that the dominance of clone SA in sheep abortions is unique to the United States, and the use of tetracyclines may have facilitated selection of this highly pathogenic clone.

  2. [Inactivated saponin vaccine against salmonellal abortion in sheep].

    PubMed

    Girginov, G; Vodas, K; Bozhilov, B

    1978-01-01

    An inactivated saponine vaccine is prepared from five highly immunogenic Salmonella abortus ovis strains, selected by means of a biological test on white rats. Saline was used as a diluent of the vaccine, with the addition of 30 per cent glycerine, 0.012 per cent saponine and 0.1 per cent propiolactone. The optimum immunization dose of 5 cm3 is injected singly subcutaneously behind the elbow, two and a half months after impregnation. The vaccine is applied on infected farms before the disease occurs. The cellular-humoral immunity, which forms 14 days after the injection, lasts 4--5 months and protects the sheep against salmonellosis abortion. PMID:571645

  3. [Induced abortion: a vulnerable public health problem].

    PubMed

    Requena, M

    1991-03-01

    Induced abortion is an urgent public health problem that can be controlled if it is approached in its true complexity and with a social and humanist perspective. Induced abortion has been discussed in Chile since the last century, but not always openly. Abortion is not just an individual and collective medical problem, it is also an ethical, religious, legal, demographic, political, and psychological problem. Above all it is a problem of human rights. In the past 60 years, more than 50 countries representing 76% of the world population have liberalized their abortion legislation. Around 980 million women have some degrees of access of legal abortion. The magnitude of illegal abortion is difficult to determine because of the desire of women to hide their experiences. Estimates of the incidence of abortion in Chile made some 25 years ago are no longer valid because of the numerous social changes in the intervening years. The number of abortions in Chile in 1987 was estimated using an indirect residual method at 195,441, of which 90%, or 175,897, were induced. By this estimate, 38.8% of pregnancies in Chile end in abortion. Data on hospitalizations for complications of induced abortion show an increase from 13.9/1000 fertile aged women in 1940 to 29.1 in 1965. By 1987, with increased contraceptive usage, the rate declined to 10.5 abortions per 1000 fertile aged women. The cost of hospitalization for abortion complications in 1987, despite the decline, was still estimated at US $4.3 million, a large sum in an era of declining health resources. The problem of induced abortion can be analyzed by placing it in the context of elements affecting the desire to control fertility. 4 complexes of variables are involved: those affecting the supply of contraceptive, the demand for contraceptives, the various costs of fertility control measure, and alternatives to fertility control for satisfying various needs. The analysis is further complicated when efforts are made to

  4. Abortion and subsequent excretion of chlamydiae from the reproductive tract of sheep during estrus.

    PubMed Central

    Papp, J R; Shewen, P E; Gartley, C J

    1994-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci serovar 1 infection in pregnant sheep typically causes abortion or the birth of weak lambs. Eight sheep that experienced chlamydia-induced abortion during their first pregnancy were successfully rebred yearly for the past 2 years. Chlamydia-specific lipopolysaccharide was detectable for approximately 3 weeks in vaginal swabs taken from the experimentally infected sheep following abortion. There was no evidence of chlamydiae in vaginal, placental, or neonatal samples obtained immediately after each subsequent successful pregnancy. Sera collected from the experimentally infected sheep had persistent, high antibody levels to C. psittaci, suggesting continued exposure of the immune system to the organism. Examination of vaginal specimens obtained during various stages of the estrus cycle revealed detectable levels of chlamydiae only when the animal was near ovulation. Chlamydiae were not detected in swabs from sheep that did not experience abortion. Enhanced chlamydial excretion during the periovulation period of sheep may provide sufficient stimulation of the immune system to account for the persistent antibody response. Furthermore, the association between estrus and chlamydial shedding has important implications for transmission of infection to other ewes during breeding. PMID:8063395

  5. Epizootic toxoplasmosis associated with abortion in dairy goats in Montana.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P

    1981-04-01

    Perinatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in goats from 2 farms in Montana. Of 7 pregnant does from one farm, 1 aborted a dead fetus and 2 each had a kid infected in utero. Toxoplasma gondii was demonstrated histologically in the placenta of 2 of the infected does and by mouse inoculation in all 3 of them. The organism also was isolated from internal organs of 6 of 7 does, 4 of 4 cats, and 3 of 11 chickens from the farm. A pregnant doe from the other farm delivered 3 kids infected with T gondii. One kid was born dead, 1 was moribund when born, and 1 was healthy when born. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from the placenta and several tissues of all 3 kids.

  6. Can the Danish abortion rate be changed?

    PubMed

    Lawson, C

    1990-06-01

    Topics of interest to women were discussed at a 1-day conference. 85% of the participants were women. The theme was, "Can the abortion rate be changed?" The number of abortions rose from 19,919 in 1985 to 21,199 in 1988, a rate of 6%. The previous 8 years had shown a steady decrease from 25,662 in 1977. This was especially pronounced in women under 25. The birth rate climbed 10% at the same time. With the exception of Ireland, free access to abortion is the rule in the majority of the countries of Europe. Prenatal diagnosis (PD)--chorionic villus biopsies and amniocentesis--was begun in 1970 in Denmark. Investigation of placental biopsies was begun in 1983. The number of diagnoses rose sharply after this. From 1980-1988 the number of legally induced abortions was between 20,000 and 23,000. The number of spontaneous abortions rose from 8000 to over 9000. There were approximately 70 abortions because of PD. This figure reached 133 in 1980. Women aged 35 and above have made increasing use of PD. After PD was brought about, the number of legal abortions dropped. 42% of pregnant women over 35 carried to term;l 46% chose legal abortion. In the 40-year age group, the figures were 23% and 60%, respectively. Data on 140 abortion seekers (AS) (ages 16-21) in Denmark (73.6% replied) were compared to 201 sexually active youngsters who were not pregnant. The abortion seekers showed no difference from those not pregnant. However, more among the AS had started sexual intercourse with the 1st 2 years after menarche; they had had many different sexual partners. 73.9% of the AS used contraception at 1st intercourse, compared to 82.1% of those not pregnant. In the abortion-seeking group, about 1/3 became pregnant despite the use of contraception (generally a condom). 44% had most recently used a pill. In 1973, a law was passed permitting abortion before the end of the 12th week of pregnancy. In the last 17 years, abortions have become more frequent among young career women. The

  7. A prospective survey of cases of complications of induced abortion presenting to Goroka Hospital, Papua New Guinea, 2011.

    PubMed

    Asa, Isaac; de Costa, Caroline; Mola, Glen

    2012-10-01

    Induced abortion on demand or for socio-economic indications is illegal in Papua New Guinea under the 1974 Criminal Code. Nevertheless, the procedure is known to be widely practised. This prospective study examines the demographic and medical features of women presenting with complications of induced abortion to Goroka Hospital in a 6-month period. It was noted that abortion was most commonly induced using the synthetic prostaglandin analogue misoprostol. Although illegal induced abortion cannot be condoned, it appears that misoprostol, much safer in this context than mechanical or traditional herbal methods, is now being widely used for the purpose of induced abortion in Papua New Guinea, as it is in other developing countries.

  8. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lamina, Mustafa Adelaja

    2015-01-01

    Background. Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. Method. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. Results. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. Conclusion. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high. PMID:26078881

  9. Mechanisms by Which Interleukin-12 Corrects Defective NK Cell Anticryptococcal Activity in HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kyei, Stephen K.; Ogbomo, Henry; Li, ShuShun; Timm-McCann, Martina; Xiang, Richard F.; Huston, Shaunna M.; Ganguly, Anutosh; Colarusso, Pina; Gill, M. John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast and a leading cause of life-threatening meningitis in AIDS patients. Natural killer (NK) cells are important immune effector cells that directly recognize and kill C. neoformans via a perforin-dependent cytotoxic mechanism. We previously showed that NK cells from HIV-infected patients have aberrant anticryptococcal killing and that interleukin-12 (IL-12) restores the activity at least partially through restoration of NKp30. However, the mechanisms causing this defect or how IL-12 restores the function was unknown. By examining the sequential steps in NK cell killing of Cryptococcus, we found that NK cells from HIV-infected patients had defective binding of NK cells to C. neoformans. Moreover, those NK cells that bound to C. neoformans failed to polarize perforin-containing granules to the microbial synapse compared to healthy controls, suggesting that binding was insufficient to restore a defect in perforin polarization. We also identified lower expression of intracellular perforin and defective perforin release from NK cells of HIV-infected patients in response to C. neoformans. Importantly, treatment of NK cells from HIV-infected patients with IL-12 reversed the multiple defects in binding, granule polarization, perforin content, and perforin release and restored anticryptococcal activity. Thus, there are multiple defects in the cytolytic machinery of NK cells from HIV-infected patients, which cumulatively result in defective NK cell anticryptococcal activity, and each of these defects can be reversed with IL-12. PMID:27555306

  10. Crew Exploration Vehicle Ascent Abort Coverage Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abadie, Marc J.; Berndt, Jon S.; Burke, Laura M.; Falck, Robert D.; Gowan, John W., Jr.; Madsen, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    An important element in the design of NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is the consideration given to crew safety during various ascent phase failure scenarios. To help ensure crew safety during this critical and dynamic flight phase, the CEV requirements specify that an abort capability must be continuously available from lift-off through orbit insertion. To address this requirement, various CEV ascent abort modes are analyzed using 3-DOF (Degree Of Freedom) and 6-DOF simulations. The analysis involves an evaluation of the feasibility and survivability of each abort mode and an assessment of the abort mode coverage using the current baseline vehicle design. Factors such as abort system performance, crew load limits, thermal environments, crew recovery, and vehicle element disposal are investigated to determine if the current vehicle requirements are appropriate and achievable. Sensitivity studies and design trades are also completed so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle design. An overview of the CEV ascent abort modes is presented along with the driving requirements for abort scenarios. The results of the analysis completed as part of the requirements validation process are then discussed. Finally, the conclusions of the study are presented, and future analysis tasks are recommended.

  11. Abortion: women's demands. Report from Piriapolis.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A

    1993-01-01

    On November 26-28, 1992, the Latin American and Caribbean Women's Health Network convened a meeting in Uruguay entitled, "Abortion in Latin America: Perspectives and Strategies." The first session was devoted to discussion of a paper that argues that a feminist ethic must be developed to counteract the dominant patriarchal ethic, which fails to improve women's lives. The next session covered the World Bank's concerns about the economic consequences of illegal abortion. The third session included descriptions of the experiences of the coordinator of the Sao Paulo Municipal Women's Health Program and of the new Argentine National Women's Health Network. Debate and discussion were generated by the next speaker, who presented a legislative proposal for the decriminalization of abortion in Latin America and noted that restrictive policies, which have failed to reduce abortion rates, will be difficult to change. It was proposed that regional campaigns be launched to legalize abortion as a first step in achieving reproductive rights for women. After a review of abortion-related activities in the region during the past year, participants composed a five-year plan of action in the areas of research, data centralization, petition campaigns, and publication of a review of abortion legislation. Finally, it was proposed that a counselor training course in sexual and reproductive rights be developed. PMID:12179717

  12. Ireland: child rape case undermines abortion ban.

    PubMed

    1992-11-01

    Abortion has been illegal in Ireland since 1861. This position was written into the national Constitution in 1963 and reconfirmed by referendum in 1983. Contraception is also illegal in the country. The pregnancy of a 14-year old adolescent due to an alleged rape, however, has caused many in Ireland to voice their support for abortion in limited circumstances. Approximately 5000 pregnant women go from Ireland to the United Kingdom annually for abortions. This 14-year old youth also planned to make the crossing, but was blocked from leaving by the Irish police and later by an injunction of the Attorney-General. The Irish Supreme Court upheld the injunction even though the young woman was reportedly contemplating suicide. A national outcry ensued with thousands of demonstrators marching in Dublin to demand the availability of information on abortion and that Irish women be allowed to travel whenever and wherever they desire. 66% of respondents to recent public opinion polls favor abortion in certain circumstances. Ultimately, the Irish Supreme Court reversed their stance to allow pregnant Irish women to travel internationally and gave suicidal Irish women the right to abortions. These decisions were made shortly within the time frame needed for the young lady in question to received a legal abortion in the United Kingdom.

  13. Spanish cabinet moves to liberalize abortion law.

    PubMed

    1995-07-14

    On July 7 (1995), the cabinet of Spain's socialist prime minister Felipe Gonzalez approved a measure to expand the country's abortion law by permitting a woman to obtain the procedure during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy in circumstances not currently allowed. Since 1985, abortion has been legal throughout pregnancy in the following situations: when a medical specialist not associated with the procedure determines that an abortion is necessary to "avert a serious risk to [a woman's] physical or mental health;" during the first 12 weeks if the pregnancy results from reported rape; and within the first 22 weeks when two physicians not associated with the abortion certify that the fetus would develop "severe physical or mental defects." The new legislation, which also requires women to receive nonbinding counseling, permits abortions when a health care professional determines that carrying to term will cause a woman severe anxiety for social or economic reasons. Before the measure can become law, it must be approved by the Spanish Parliament, which is expected to vote on the proposal in September. The Catalan nationalist grouping, which has been a key supporter of the socialist government, is among the forces opposing liberalization of the abortion statute. Partly due to the abortion controversy, the Catalan coalition is expected to vote on July 17 to decide whether to continue its backing.

  14. Abortion stigma: a reconceptualization of constituents, causes, and consequences.

    PubMed

    Norris, Alison; Bessett, Danielle; Steinberg, Julia R; Kavanaugh, Megan L; De Zordo, Silvia; Becker, Davida

    2011-01-01

    Stigmatization is a deeply contextual, dynamic social process; stigma from abortion is the discrediting of individuals as a result of their association with abortion. Abortion stigma is under-researched and under-theorized, and the few existing studies focus only on women who have had abortions. We build on this work, drawing from the social science literature to describe three groups whom we posit are affected by abortion stigma: Women who have had abortions, individuals who work in facilities that provide abortion, and supporters of women who have had abortions, including partners, family, and friends, as well as abortion researchers and advocates. Although these groups are not homogeneous, some common experiences within the groups--and differences between the groups--help to illuminate how people manage abortion stigma and begin to reveal the roots of this stigma itself. We discuss five reasons why abortion is stigmatized, beginning with the rationale identified by Kumar, Hessini, and Mitchell: The violation of female ideals of sexuality and motherhood. We then suggest additional causes of abortion stigma, including attributing personhood to the fetus, legal restrictions, the idea that abortion is dirty or unhealthy, and the use of stigma as a tool for anti-abortion efforts. Although not exhaustive, these causes of abortion stigma illustrate how it is made manifest for affected groups. Understanding abortion stigma will inform strategies to reduce it, which has direct implications for improving access to care and better health for those whom stigma affects.

  15. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  16. Emotional Sequelae of Abortion: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemkau, Jeanne Parr

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes literature on normative reactions to abortion and factors that increase risk of negative emotional sequelae. Discusses characteristics of woman, social support and cultural milieu around the abortion, the medical environment and abortion procedure itself, and events subsequent to abortion which may cause conflict. Discusses implications…

  17. The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

  18. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  19. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  20. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine...

  1. The Effect of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli Infection on the Cell Mechanics of Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yin-Quan; Su, Pin-Tzu; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Huang, Chien-Hsiu; Osterday, Kathryn; del Álamo, Juan C.; Syu, Wan-Jr; Chiou, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is a type of human pathogenic bacteria. The main virulence characteristics of EHEC include the formation of attaching and effacing lesions (A/E lesions) and the production of one or more Shiga-like toxins, which may induce human uremic complications. When EHEC infects host cells, it releases translocated intimin receptor (Tir) and effector proteins inside the host cells, inducing the rearrangement and accumulation of the F-actin cytoskeleton, a phenotype leading to the formation of pedestals in the apical cell surface, and the growth of stress fibers at the base of the cells. To examine the effect of EHEC infection on cell mechanics, we carried out a series of experiments to examine HeLa cells with and without EHEC infection to quantify the changes in (1) focal adhesion area, visualized by anti-vinculin staining; (2) the distribution and orientation of stress fibers; and (3) the intracellular viscoelasticity, via directional video particle tracking microrheology. Our results indicated that in EHEC-infected HeLa cells, the focal adhesion area increased and the actin stress fibers became thicker and more aligned. The cytoskeletal reorganization induced by EHEC infection mediated a dramatic increase in the cytoplasmic elastic shear modulus of the infected cells, and a transition in the viscoelastic behavior of the cells from viscous-like to elastic-like. These changes in mechanobiological characteristics might modulate the attachments between EHEC and the host cell to withstand exfoliation, and between the host cell and the extracellular matrix, and might also alter epithelial integrity. PMID:25369259

  2. The deprivation argument against abortion.

    PubMed

    Stretton, Dean

    2004-04-01

    The most plausible pro-life argument claims that abortion is seriously wrong because it deprives the foetus of something valuable. This paper examines two recent versions of this argument. Don Marquis's version takes the valuable thing to be a 'future like ours', a future containing valuable experiences and activities. Jim Stone's version takes the valuable thing to be a future containing conscious goods, which it is the foetus's biological nature to make itself have. I give three grounds for rejecting these arguments. First, they lead to unacceptable inequalities in the wrongness of killing. Second, they lead to counterintuitive results in a range of imaginary cases. Third, they ignore the role of psychological connectedness in determining the magnitude or seriousness of deprivation-based harms: because the foetus is only weakly psychologically connected to its own future, it cannot be seriously harmed by being deprived of that future. PMID:15148946

  3. The Marquis de Sade and induced abortion.

    PubMed Central

    Farr, A D

    1980-01-01

    In 1795 the Marquis de Sade published his La Philosophic dans le boudoir, in which he proposed the use of induced abortion for social reasons and as a means of population control. It is from this time that medical and social acceptance of abortion can be dated, although previously the subject had not been discussed in public in modern times. It is suggested that it was largely due to de Sade's writing that induced abortion received the impetus which resulted in its subsequent spread in western society. PMID:6990001

  4. How technology is reframing the abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Callahan, D

    1986-02-01

    Since the 1973 Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion, medical and scientific developments have focused greater public and professional attention on the status of the fetus. Their cumulative effect may influence legal, social, and moral thought and set the stage for a change in public opinion and a challenge to legalized abortion. There is as yet no inexorable convergence of medical data and legal opinion that would undermine the rational of Roe v. Wade. But the prochoice movement must find room for an open airing of the moral questions if abortion is to remain what it should be--a legally acceptable act.

  5. Selective abortion in Brazil: the anencephaly case.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora

    2007-08-01

    This paper discusses the Brazilian Supreme Court ruling on the case of anencephaly. In Brazil, abortion is a crime against the life of a fetus, and selective abortion of non-viable fetuses is prohibited. Following a paradigmatic case discussed by the Brazilian Supreme Court in 2004, the use of abortion was authorized in the case of a fetus with anencephaly. The objective of this paper is to analyze the ethical arguments of the case, in particular the strategy of avoiding the moral status of the fetus, the cornerstone thesis of the Catholic Church. PMID:17614991

  6. Access to services: advocacy for abortion.

    PubMed

    Edouard, Lindsay

    2014-10-01

    Twenty-five years ago, in 1989, family planning services in Britain faced a serious crisis with contentious cuts for community clinics being contemplated by health authorities. There was extensive discussion on ethical issues relating to the provision of abortion services. Social acceptance of abortion occurred in association with departure from traditional values due to the exigencies of modern life. Twenty-five years later, in 2014, abortion unfortunately continues to cause controversy in international health, despite guidance for its incorporation in comprehensive reproductive health care services.

  7. Public opinion about abortion-related stigma among Mexican Catholics and implications for unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    McMurtrie, Stephanie M; García, Sandra G; Wilson, Kate S; Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Fawcett, Gillian M

    2012-09-01

    A nationally representative survey was conducted among 3000 Catholics in Mexico during 2009 and 2010. Respondents were presented with a hypothetical situation about a young woman who decided to have an abortion and were asked their personal opinion of her. On the basis of a stigma index, it was found that the majority (61%) had stigmatizing attitudes about abortion; however, 81% believed that abortion should be legal in at least some circumstances. Respondents were significantly more likely to stigmatize abortion if they disagreed with the Mexico City law legalizing the procedure (odds ratio 1.66; 95% CI, 1.30-2.11) and believed that abortion should be prohibited in all cases (odds ratio 3.13; 95% CI, 2.28-4.30). Such stigma can lead women to seek unsafe abortions to avoid judgment by society.

  8. Detection of equine arteritis virus by two chromogenic RNA in situ hybridization assays (conventional and RNAscope(®)) and assessment of their performance in tissues from aborted equine fetuses.

    PubMed

    Carossino, Mariano; Loynachan, Alan T; James MacLachlan, N; Drew, Clifton; Shuck, Kathleen M; Timoney, Peter J; Del Piero, Fabio; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2016-11-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis, a respiratory and reproductive disease of equids. EAV infection can induce abortion in pregnant mares, fulminant bronchointerstitial pneumonia in foals, and persistent infection in stallions. Here, we developed two RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) assays (conventional and RNAscope(®) ISH) for the detection of viral RNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and evaluated and compared their performance with nucleocapsid-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC) and virus isolation (VI; gold standard) techniques. The distribution and cellular localization of EAV RNA and antigen were similar in tissues from aborted equine fetuses. Evaluation of 80 FFPE tissues collected from 16 aborted fetuses showed that the conventional RNA ISH assay had a significantly lower sensitivity than the RNAscope(®) and IHC assays, whereas there was no difference between the latter two assays. The use of oligonucleotide probes along with a signal amplification system (RNAscope(®)) can enhance detection of EAV RNA in FFPE tissues, with sensitivity comparable to that of IHC. Most importantly, these assays provide important tools with which to investigate the mechanisms of EAV pathogenesis. PMID:27541817

  9. A perinatal ethics committee on abortion: process and outcome in thirty-one cases.

    PubMed

    La Puma, J; Darling, C M; Stocking, C B; Schiller, K

    1992-01-01

    The US Supreme Court's June 1992 decision to uphold most of Pennsylvania's law restricting access to abortion confirms that while abortion is still permitted in the US, it is being increasingly regulated. Individual institutions may, however, find ways to permit access to abortion. One hospital formed a mandatory, prospective perinatal ethics committee (PEC) in May 1987 to develop clinical guidelines with which to consider and decide requests by physicians for their patients seeking abortions. The authors obtained the consent of this PEC to study its membership, processes, case outcomes, and clinical decision making. Understanding PEC processes and outcomes may help other institutions to decide whether to institute similar mechanisms. Specifically, the investigators determined the backgrounds and abortion-related beliefs of PEC members and obstetric and gynecology department members, whether the PEC affects the number of abortions performed, how PEC members decide in individual cases, and whether requesting physicians find the PEC helpful. All eleven PEC members and 58 of the 65 medical staff ob/gyn physicians returned background surveys. Study results are presented. Overall, the PEC appeared to function as an affirming regulatory body for second-trimester, medically-indicated terminations and for certain personal choice terminations. Institutional interests were well-served by the PEC and with the assurance of informed consent, the interests of some patients were also well served.

  10. Cervical dilation before first-trimester surgical abortion (<14 weeks' gestation).

    PubMed

    Allen, Rebecca H; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2016-04-01

    First-trimester surgical abortion is a common, safe procedure with a major complication rate of less than 1%. Cervical dilation before suction abortion is usually accomplished using tapered mechanical dilators. Risk factors for major complications in the first trimester include increasing gestational age and provider inexperience. Cervical priming before first-trimester surgical abortion has been studied using osmotic dilators and pharmacologic agents, most commonly misoprostol. Extensive data demonstrate that a variety of agents are safe and effective at causing preoperative cervical softening and dilation; however, given the small absolute risk of complications, the benefit of routine use of misoprostol or osmotic dilators in first-trimester surgical abortion is unclear. Although cervical priming results in reduced abortion time and improved provider ease, it requires a delay of at least 1 to 3 h and may confer side effects. The Society of Family Planning does not recommend routine cervical priming for first-trimester suction abortion but recommends limiting consideration of cervical priming for women at increased risk of complications from cervical dilation, including those late in the first trimester, adolescents and women in whom cervical dilation is expected to be challenging. PMID:26683499

  11. Recruitment and retention strategies for expert nurses in abortion care provision

    PubMed Central

    McLemore, Monica R.; Levi, Amy; James, E. Angel

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s) The purpose of this thematic analysis is to describe recruitment, retention, and career development strategies for expert nurses in abortion care provision. Study Design Thematic analysis influenced by grounded theory methods were used to analyze interviews, which examined cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes associated with how nurses make decisions about participation in abortion care provision. The purposive sample consisted of 16 nurses, who were interviewed between November, 2012 and August, 2013, who work (or have worked) with women seeking abortions in abortion clinics, emergency departments, labor and delivery units, and post anesthesia care units. Results Several themes emerged from the broad categories that contribute to successful nurse recruitment, retention, and career development in abortion care provision. All areas were significantly influenced by engagement in leadership activities and professional society membership. The most notable theme specific to recruitment was exposure to abortion through education as a student, or through an employer. Retention is most influenced by flexibility in practice, including: advocating for patients, translating one's skill set, believing that nursing is shared work, and juggling multiple roles. Lastly, providing on the job training opportunities for knowledge and skill advancement best enables career development. Conclusion(s) Clear mechanisms exist to develop expert nurses in abortion care provision. Implications The findings from our study should encourage employers to provide exposure opportunities, develop activities to recruit and retain nurses, and to support career development in abortion care provision. Additionally, future workforce development efforts should include and engage nursing education institutions and employers to design structured support for this trajectory. PMID:25708505

  12. Swine TRIM21 restricts FMDV infection via an intracellular neutralization mechanism.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenchun; Zhang, Dong; Qian, Ping; Qian, Suhong; Wu, Mengge; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Xiangmin

    2016-03-01

    The tripartite motif protein 21 (TRIM21) is a ubiquitously expressed E3 ubiquitin ligase and an intracellular antibody receptor. TRIM21 mediates antibody-dependent intracellular neutralization (ADIN) in cytosol and provides an intracellular immune response to protect host defense against pathogen infection. In this study, swine TRIM21 (sTRIM21) was cloned and its role in ADIN was investigated. The expression of sTRIM21 is induced by type I interferon in PK-15 cells. sTRIM21 restricts FMDV infection in the presence of FMDV specific antibodies. Furthermore, sTRIM21 interacts with Fc fragment of swine immunoglobulin G (sFc) fused VP1 of FMDV and thereby causing its degradation. Both the RING and SPRY domains are essential for sTRIM21 to degrade sFc-fused VP1. These results suggest that the intracellular neutralization features of FMDV contribute to the antiviral activity of sTRIM21. sTRIM21 provide another intracellular mechanism to inhibit FMDV infection in infected cells.

  13. Swine TRIM21 restricts FMDV infection via an intracellular neutralization mechanism.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenchun; Zhang, Dong; Qian, Ping; Qian, Suhong; Wu, Mengge; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Xiangmin

    2016-03-01

    The tripartite motif protein 21 (TRIM21) is a ubiquitously expressed E3 ubiquitin ligase and an intracellular antibody receptor. TRIM21 mediates antibody-dependent intracellular neutralization (ADIN) in cytosol and provides an intracellular immune response to protect host defense against pathogen infection. In this study, swine TRIM21 (sTRIM21) was cloned and its role in ADIN was investigated. The expression of sTRIM21 is induced by type I interferon in PK-15 cells. sTRIM21 restricts FMDV infection in the presence of FMDV specific antibodies. Furthermore, sTRIM21 interacts with Fc fragment of swine immunoglobulin G (sFc) fused VP1 of FMDV and thereby causing its degradation. Both the RING and SPRY domains are essential for sTRIM21 to degrade sFc-fused VP1. These results suggest that the intracellular neutralization features of FMDV contribute to the antiviral activity of sTRIM21. sTRIM21 provide another intracellular mechanism to inhibit FMDV infection in infected cells. PMID:26777733

  14. Virus-based assay for antigen detection using infective growth as signal transduction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Cheok, Hui Shan; Jaworski, Justyn

    2016-03-15

    Viruses have the ability to infect and thereby confer new phenotypes on host cells. E. coli, for example, if infected by viruses containing antibiotic resistance genes, can benefit by surviving in the presence of the corresponding antibiotics to grow into colonies observable by the naked eye. Using this concept as a signal transduction mechanism for our immunoassay, we have engineered ampicillin resistant virions to display a dimer of the z domain from Protein A. This zz-domain selectively binds to the conserved heavy domain of IgG across various species. As commercially available antibodies are in no short supply, this engineered virion can be used modularly with existing antibodies for converting the presence of target antigen into a visually detectable colony forming unit. Here we demonstrate that this scheme for zz-phage transfection and selective growth of infected E. coli can facilitate sub-nanomolar detection limits for target antigen. Moreover, this phage infectivity assay works over a range of concentrations competitive with existing ELISA techniques. Because this system is derived from self-regenerating components (i.e., virus and bacteria) and furthermore obviates the need for chromogenic substrates or spectroscopic equipment, we find it particularly suitable for use in regions where cost effective detection is a necessity.

  15. Women's risk of repeat abortions is strongly associated with alcohol consumption: a longitudinal analysis of a Russian national panel study, 1994-2009.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Katherine; Grundy, Emily; Kenward, Michael G; Leon, David A

    2014-01-01

    Abortion rates in Russia, particularly repeat abortions, are among the highest in the world, and abortion complications make a substantial contribution to the country's high maternal mortality rate. Russia also has a very high rate of hazardous alcohol use. However, the association between alcohol use and abortion in Russia remains unexplored. We investigated the longitudinal predictors of first and repeat abortion, focussing on women's alcohol use as a risk factor. Follow-up data from 2,623 women of reproductive age (16-44 years) was extracted from 14 waves of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), a nationally representative panel study covering the period 1994-2009. We used discrete time hazard models to estimate the probability of having a first and repeat abortion by social, demographic and health characteristics at the preceding study wave. Having a first abortion was associated with demographic factors such as age and parity, whereas repeat abortions were associated with low education and alcohol use. After adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic factors, the risk of having a repeat abortion increased significantly as women's drinking frequency increased (P<0.001), and binge drinking women were significantly more likely to have a repeat abortion than non-drinkers (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.62-3.20). This association was not accounted for by contraceptive use or a higher risk of pregnancy. Therefore the determinants of first and repeat abortion in Russia between 1994-2009 were different. Women who had repeat abortions were distinguished by their heavier and more frequent alcohol use. The mechanism for the association is not well understood but could be explained by unmeasured personality factors, such as risk taking, or social non-conformity increasing the risk of unplanned pregnancy. Heavy or frequent drinkers constitute a particularly high risk group for repeat abortion, who could be targeted in prevention efforts. PMID:24671000

  16. Women's Risk of Repeat Abortions Is Strongly Associated with Alcohol Consumption: A Longitudinal Analysis of a Russian National Panel Study, 1994–2009

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Katherine; Grundy, Emily; Kenward, Michael G.; Leon, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Abortion rates in Russia, particularly repeat abortions, are among the highest in the world, and abortion complications make a substantial contribution to the country's high maternal mortality rate. Russia also has a very high rate of hazardous alcohol use. However, the association between alcohol use and abortion in Russia remains unexplored. We investigated the longitudinal predictors of first and repeat abortion, focussing on women's alcohol use as a risk factor. Follow-up data from 2,623 women of reproductive age (16–44 years) was extracted from 14 waves of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), a nationally representative panel study covering the period 1994–2009. We used discrete time hazard models to estimate the probability of having a first and repeat abortion by social, demographic and health characteristics at the preceding study wave. Having a first abortion was associated with demographic factors such as age and parity, whereas repeat abortions were associated with low education and alcohol use. After adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic factors, the risk of having a repeat abortion increased significantly as women's drinking frequency increased (P<0.001), and binge drinking women were significantly more likely to have a repeat abortion than non-drinkers (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.62–3.20). This association was not accounted for by contraceptive use or a higher risk of pregnancy. Therefore the determinants of first and repeat abortion in Russia between 1994–2009 were different. Women who had repeat abortions were distinguished by their heavier and more frequent alcohol use. The mechanism for the association is not well understood but could be explained by unmeasured personality factors, such as risk taking, or social non-conformity increasing the risk of unplanned pregnancy. Heavy or frequent drinkers constitute a particularly high risk group for repeat abortion, who could be targeted in prevention efforts. PMID:24671000

  17. Women's risk of repeat abortions is strongly associated with alcohol consumption: a longitudinal analysis of a Russian national panel study, 1994-2009.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Katherine; Grundy, Emily; Kenward, Michael G; Leon, David A

    2014-01-01

    Abortion rates in Russia, particularly repeat abortions, are among the highest in the world, and abortion complications make a substantial contribution to the country's high maternal mortality rate. Russia also has a very high rate of hazardous alcohol use. However, the association between alcohol use and abortion in Russia remains unexplored. We investigated the longitudinal predictors of first and repeat abortion, focussing on women's alcohol use as a risk factor. Follow-up data from 2,623 women of reproductive age (16-44 years) was extracted from 14 waves of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), a nationally representative panel study covering the period 1994-2009. We used discrete time hazard models to estimate the probability of having a first and repeat abortion by social, demographic and health characteristics at the preceding study wave. Having a first abortion was associated with demographic factors such as age and parity, whereas repeat abortions were associated with low education and alcohol use. After adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic factors, the risk of having a repeat abortion increased significantly as women's drinking frequency increased (P<0.001), and binge drinking women were significantly more likely to have a repeat abortion than non-drinkers (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.62-3.20). This association was not accounted for by contraceptive use or a higher risk of pregnancy. Therefore the determinants of first and repeat abortion in Russia between 1994-2009 were different. Women who had repeat abortions were distinguished by their heavier and more frequent alcohol use. The mechanism for the association is not well understood but could be explained by unmeasured personality factors, such as risk taking, or social non-conformity increasing the risk of unplanned pregnancy. Heavy or frequent drinkers constitute a particularly high risk group for repeat abortion, who could be targeted in prevention efforts.

  18. Bactericidal Immunity to Salmonella in Africans and Mechanisms Causing Its Failure in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Yun Shan; Necchi, Francesca; O’Shaughnessy, Colette M.; Micoli, Francesca; Gavini, Massimiliano; Young, Stephen P.; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Gondwe, Esther N.; Mandala, Wilson L.; Gordon, Melita A.; Saul, Allan J.; MacLennan, Calman A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Nontyphoidal strains of Salmonella are a leading cause of death among HIV-infected Africans. Antibody-induced complement-mediated killing protects healthy Africans against Salmonella, but increased levels of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibodies in some HIV-infected African adults block this killing. The objective was to understand how these high levels of anti-LPS antibodies interfere with the killing of Salmonella. Methodology/Principal Findings Sera and affinity-purified antibodies from African HIV-infected adults that failed to kill invasive S. Typhimurium D23580 were compared to sera from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected subjects with bactericidal activity. The failure of sera from certain HIV-infected subjects to kill Salmonella was found to be due to an inherent inhibitory effect of anti-LPS antibodies. This inhibition was concentration-dependent and strongly associated with IgA and IgG2 anti-LPS antibodies (p<0.0001 for both). IgG anti-LPS antibodies, from sera of HIV-infected individuals that inhibit killing at high concentration, induced killing when diluted. Conversely, IgG, from sera of HIV-uninfected adults that induce killing, inhibited killing when concentrated. IgM anti-LPS antibodies from all subjects also induced Salmonella killing. Finally, the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of anti-LPS antibodies is seen with IgM as well as IgG and IgA. No correlation was found between affinity or avidity, or complement deposition or consumption, and inhibition of killing. Conclusion/Significance IgG and IgM classes of anti-S. Typhimurium LPS antibodies from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals are bactericidal, while at very high concentrations, anti-LPS antibodies of all classes inhibit in vitro killing of Salmonella. This could be due to a variety of mechanisms relating to the poor ability of IgA and IgG2 to activate complement, and deposition of complement at sites where it cannot insert in the bacterial membrane. Vaccine trials

  19. Immunological mechanisms contributing to the double burden of diabetes and intracellular bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Kelly; Morris, Jodie; Bridson, Tahnee; Govan, Brenda; Rush, Catherine; Ketheesan, Natkunam

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes has been recognized as an important risk factor for a variety of intracellular bacterial infections, but research into the dysregulated immune mechanisms contributing to the impaired host–pathogen interactions is in its infancy. Diabetes is characterized by a chronic state of low-grade inflammation due to activation of pro-inflammatory mediators and increased formation of advanced glycation end products. Increased oxidative stress also exacerbates the chronic inflammatory processes observed in diabetes. The reduced phagocytic and antibacterial activity of neutrophils and macrophages provides an intracellular niche for the pathogen to replicate. Phagocytic and antibacterial dysfunction may be mediated directly through altered glucose metabolism and oxidative stress. Furthermore, impaired activation of natural killer cells contributes to decreased levels of interferon-γ, required for promoting macrophage antibacterial mechanisms. Together with impaired dendritic cell function, this impedes timely activation of adaptive immune responses. Increased intracellular oxidation of antigen-presenting cells in individuals with diabetes alters the cytokine profile generated and the subsequent balance of T-cell immunity. The establishment of acute intracellular bacterial infections in the diabetic host is associated with impaired T-cell-mediated immune responses. Concomitant to the greater intracellular bacterial burden and potential cumulative effect of chronic inflammatory processes, late hyper-inflammatory cytokine responses are often observed in individuals with diabetes, contributing to systemic pathology. The convergence of intracellular bacterial infections and diabetes poses new challenges for immunologists, providing the impetus for multidisciplinary research. PMID:25262977

  20. Exploring the host transcriptome for mechanisms underlying protective immunity and resistance to nematode infections in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Li, Robert W; Choudhary, Ratan K; Capuco, Anthony V; Urban, Joseph F

    2012-11-23

    Nematode infections in ruminants are a major impediment to the profitable production of meat and dairy products, especially for small farms. Gastrointestinal parasitism not only negatively impacts weight gain and milk yield, but is also a major cause of mortality in small ruminants. The current parasite control strategy involves heavy use of anthelmintics that has resulted in the emergence of drug-resistant parasite strains. This, in addition to increasing consumer demand for animal products that are free of drug residues has stimulated development of alternative strategies, including selective breeding of parasite resistant ruminants. The development of protective immunity and manifestations of resistance to nematode infections relies upon the precise expression of the host genome that is often confounded by mechanisms simultaneously required to control multiple nematode species as well as ecto- and protozoan parasites, and microbial and viral pathogens. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes represents a key step toward development of effective new parasite control strategies. Recent progress in characterizing the transcriptome of both hosts and parasites, utilizing high-throughput microarrays and RNA-seq technology, has led to the recognition of unique interactions and the identification of genes and biological pathways involved in the response to parasitism. Innovative use of the knowledge gained by these technologies should provide a basis for enhancing innate immunity while limiting the polarization of acquired immunity can negatively affect optimal responses to co-infection. Strategies for parasite control that use diet and vaccine/adjuvant combination could be evaluated by monitoring the host transcriptome for induction of appropriate mechanisms for imparting parasite resistance. Knowledge of different mechanisms of host immunity and the critical regulation of parasite development, physiology, and virulence can also selectively

  1. Abortion Providers' Experiences with Medicaid Abortion Coverage Policies: A Qualitative Multistate Study

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Amanda; Blanchard, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the implementation of state Medicaid abortion policies and the impact of these policies on abortion clients and abortion providers. Data Source From 2007 to 2010, in-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of 70 abortion-providing facilities in 15 states. Study Design In-depth interviews focused on abortion providers' perceptions regarding Medicaid and their experiences working with Medicaid and securing reimbursement in cases that should receive federal funding: rape, incest, and life endangerment. Data Extraction Data were transcribed verbatim before being coded. Principal Findings In two study states, abortion providers reported that 97 percent of submitted claims for qualifying cases were funded. Success receiving reimbursement was attributed to streamlined electronic billing procedures, timely claims processing, and responsive Medicaid staff. Abortion providers in the other 13 states reported reimbursement for 36 percent of qualifying cases. Providers reported difficulties obtaining reimbursement due to unclear rejections of qualifying claims, complex billing procedures, lack of knowledgeable Medicaid staff with whom billing problems could be discussed, and low and slow reimbursement rates. Conclusions Poor state-level implementation of Medicaid coverage of abortion policies creates barriers for women seeking abortion. Efforts to ensure policies are implemented appropriately would improve women's health. PMID:22742741

  2. A case of toxic shock due to clandestine abortion by misoprostol self-administration.

    PubMed

    Cittadini, Francesca; Loyola, Giovanni; Caradonna, Letizia; Minelli, Natalia; Rossi, Riccardo

    2014-11-01

    Maternal mortality and morbidity are the leading causes of death and illness, respectively, among women of reproductive age in many countries throughout the world. Of all maternal deaths, those related to unsafe abortions are the most widely underestimated, but they are also the most largely preventable. Medical abortion is a safe and reliable method for termination of a pregnancy in early gestation, although it is important to be aware of signs and symptoms of severe infection and toxic shock syndrome after the medical termination of pregnancy; case studies in literature are rarely fatal events. We report the first case of septic shock syndrome following a clandestine pregnancy termination with a misoprostol-only regimen (12 tablets 200 μg each). Autopsy findings and histopathological examination proved that the woman died from septic shock. This case suggests to improve the forensic investigations in case of unsafe, often clandestine, abortion is suspected. PMID:25041279

  3. Receiving versus being denied an abortion and subsequent tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Sarah C M; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-03-01

    The negative health consequences of tobacco use are well documented. Some research finds women receiving abortions are at increased risk of subsequent tobacco use. This literature has methodological problems, most importantly, inappropriate comparison groups. This study uses data from the Turnaway Study, a longitudinal study of women who all sought, but did not all receive, abortions at 30 facilities across the United States. Participants included women presenting just before an abortion facility's gestational age limit who received abortions (Near Limit Abortion Group, n = 452), just after the gestational limit who were denied abortions (Turnaways, n = 231), and who received first trimester abortions (First Trimester Abortion Group, n = 273). This study examined the association between receiving versus being denied an abortion and subsequent tobacco use over 2-years. Trajectories of tobacco use over 2 years were compared using multivariate mixed effects regression. Women receiving abortion maintained their level of tobacco use over 2 years. Women denied abortion initially had lower levels of tobacco use than women receiving abortion, but increased their tobacco use from 1 week through 12-18 months post-abortion seeking and then decreased their use by 2 years post-abortion seeking. Baseline parity modified these associations. Receiving an abortion was not associated with an increase in tobacco use over time. Overall, women who carry unwanted pregnancies to term appear to demonstrate similar cessation and resumption patterns to other pregnant women.

  4. Commercial Crew Program: Launch Abort Systems

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's work in the next generation of launch abort systems (LAS) is significantly different from past programs. Instead of designing a specific system for a given spacecraft or rocket, engineers ar...

  5. Thatcher condemns attacks on abortion mp.

    PubMed

    1987-12-19

    The Prime Minister, Mrs Margaret Thatcher, has stepped in to condemn a series of violent attacks on Liberal MP David Alton who is trying to reduce the [Illegible word] limit on abortions from 28 to 18 weeks.

  6. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone levels normally change throughout ... the development of breast cancer. Important Information about Breast Cancer Risk Factors At present, the factors known to ...

  7. Spiral Kicker for the beam abort system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. L.

    The feasibility of a special kicker to produce a damped spiral beam at the beam dump for the beam abort system was determined. There appears to be no problem with realizing this concept at a reasonably low cost.

  8. Ethnocultural identity and induced abortion in Kazakstan.

    PubMed

    Agadjanian, V; Qian, Z

    1997-12-01

    This study analyzes ethnic differences in induced abortion among ever-married women in Kazakstan, drawing on data from the 1995 Kazakstan Demographic and Health Survey. Instead of conventional ethnic markers, such as "Kazak" or "Russian," it focuses on more complex ethnocultural identities that combine ascribed ethnicity with language use. Because of the history of russification in Kazakstan, three ethnocultural groups are defined and compared--Kazak women who chose to be interviewed in Kazak, Kazak women who chose to be interviewed in Russian, and women of European background interviewed in Russian. Whereas women of European origin were the most likely to undergo induced abortion, the Russian-interviewed Kazaks had higher abortion ratios and were more likely to terminate their pregnancies than were the Kazak-interviewed Kazaks, net of other characteristics. The implications of the results for induced abortion trends and family planning policy in Kazakstan are discussed in addition to other findings. PMID:9431652

  9. A novel mechanism inducing genome instability in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infected cells.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Brian R; Noerenberg, Marko; Whitehouse, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic herpesvirus associated with multiple AIDS-related malignancies. Like other herpesviruses, KSHV has a biphasic life cycle and both the lytic and latent phases are required for tumorigenesis. Evidence suggests that KSHV lytic replication can cause genome instability in KSHV-infected cells, although no mechanism has thus far been described. A surprising link has recently been suggested between mRNA export, genome instability and cancer development. Notably, aberrations in the cellular transcription and export complex (hTREX) proteins have been identified in high-grade tumours and these defects contribute to genome instability. We have previously shown that the lytically expressed KSHV ORF57 protein interacts with the complete hTREX complex; therefore, we investigated the possible intriguing link between ORF57, hTREX and KSHV-induced genome instability. Herein, we show that lytically active KSHV infected cells induce a DNA damage response and, importantly, we demonstrate directly that this is due to DNA strand breaks. Furthermore, we show that sequestration of the hTREX complex by the KSHV ORF57 protein leads to this double strand break response and significant DNA damage. Moreover, we describe a novel mechanism showing that the genetic instability observed is a consequence of R-loop formation. Importantly, the link between hTREX sequestration and DNA damage may be a common feature in herpesvirus infection, as a similar phenotype was observed with the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP27 protein. Our data provide a model of R-loop induced DNA damage in KSHV infected cells and describes a novel system for studying genome instability caused by aberrant hTREX. PMID:24788796

  10. A Novel Mechanism Inducing Genome Instability in Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Brian R.; Noerenberg, Marko; Whitehouse, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic herpesvirus associated with multiple AIDS-related malignancies. Like other herpesviruses, KSHV has a biphasic life cycle and both the lytic and latent phases are required for tumorigenesis. Evidence suggests that KSHV lytic replication can cause genome instability in KSHV-infected cells, although no mechanism has thus far been described. A surprising link has recently been suggested between mRNA export, genome instability and cancer development. Notably, aberrations in the cellular transcription and export complex (hTREX) proteins have been identified in high-grade tumours and these defects contribute to genome instability. We have previously shown that the lytically expressed KSHV ORF57 protein interacts with the complete hTREX complex; therefore, we investigated the possible intriguing link between ORF57, hTREX and KSHV-induced genome instability. Herein, we show that lytically active KSHV infected cells induce a DNA damage response and, importantly, we demonstrate directly that this is due to DNA strand breaks. Furthermore, we show that sequestration of the hTREX complex by the KSHV ORF57 protein leads to this double strand break response and significant DNA damage. Moreover, we describe a novel mechanism showing that the genetic instability observed is a consequence of R-loop formation. Importantly, the link between hTREX sequestration and DNA damage may be a common feature in herpesvirus infection, as a similar phenotype was observed with the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP27 protein. Our data provide a model of R-loop induced DNA damage in KSHV infected cells and describes a novel system for studying genome instability caused by aberrant hTREX. PMID:24788796

  11. Abortion and the search for public policy.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, R L

    1993-01-01

    The social policy towards abortion determined by the Roe vs. Wade decision can be overturned at any time depending upon how the US Supreme Court reacts to challenges to its earlier ruling. Roe vs. Wade was decided by a 7 to 2 vote, and the members of the Supreme Court appointed by Presidents Reagan and Bush were chosen to uphold a conservative (anti-abortion) ideology. Although more than half of the present Court was appointed by these presidents, President Clinton now has the opportunity to appoint 2 more Justices. The public policy positions which are currently available to the Supreme Court or to Congress can be ranked on a chart from liberal to conservative. In this article, 7 different positions are described in detail, and the public policy implications of the implementation of each position are described. The first position considered is the extreme conservative position of "no abortion; no exceptions" as defined by author and Roman Catholic theologian Gerald Kelly. The only procedures allowed which would end the life of a fetus would be those to remove an ovary or fallopian tube in the case of an extrauterine pregnancy (permissible under the doctrine of double effect). In the most extreme interpretation of this situation (which Kelly does not seem to hold), those who perform abortions would be prosecuted for murder. The next position considered is the most liberal position, which is espoused by Michael Tooley, and which holds that abortion and early infanticide are both permissible. The third position is that which allows no abortion but has limited exceptions in cases of rape or incest. The appropriate consideration for abortion presented next is that of the late Joseph Fletcher who believed that whatever love requires is the proper response to the situation. Philosopher Dan Callahan espouses the notion that abortion should be performed for compelling reasons only (after effective counseling). The trimester approach to the problem of abortion is that set

  12. Catholicism and abortion since Roe v. Wade.

    PubMed

    Hisel, L M

    1998-01-01

    This document summarizes a sample of significant activities and events undertaken by Roman Catholics in response to the US Supreme Court's Roe vs. Wade decision legalizing induced abortion. The summaries begin with the 1966 creation of the National Right to Life Committee and cover opposition of Catholic bishops to the Roe decision, the organization of the National Committee for a Human Life Amendment (NCHLA), the mock investiture of a female pope by Catholics for a Free Choice, dismissal of a pro-life priest from the Jesuits, excommunication of various women because of their work with pro-choice agencies or ones that provided abortion services, meetings of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) with presidential candidates, NCHLA lobbying for the Hyde Amendment, open letters and advertisements published by CFC, the effort of Abortion Rights Mobilization to strip the Catholic church of its tax-exempt status, the Vatican order for all priests to leave political office, actions taken by nuns to support the pro-choice position, the proposal of the "seamless garment" argument under the principle of the "consistent ethic of life," initiation of the post-abortion reconciliation project, the actions of Catholic politicians, the filing of amicus curiae briefs, support of bishops for Operation Rescue, forums on abortion conducted by an Archbishop, the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion, targeting by bishops of pro-choice candidates for sanctions and excommunication, testimony and lobbying in opposition of the Freedom of Choice Act, false accusations about the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development leveled by bishops, lobbying by bishops in support of a ban on late-term abortions, lobbying to increase the access of low-income women to abortion, and consideration by the bishops of reinstituting "meatless Fridays" to express Catholic opposition to "attacks on human life and dignity." PMID:12178893

  13. Catholicism and abortion since Roe v. Wade.

    PubMed

    Hisel, L M

    1998-01-01

    This document summarizes a sample of significant activities and events undertaken by Roman Catholics in response to the US Supreme Court's Roe vs. Wade decision legalizing induced abortion. The summaries begin with the 1966 creation of the National Right to Life Committee and cover opposition of Catholic bishops to the Roe decision, the organization of the National Committee for a Human Life Amendment (NCHLA), the mock investiture of a female pope by Catholics for a Free Choice, dismissal of a pro-life priest from the Jesuits, excommunication of various women because of their work with pro-choice agencies or ones that provided abortion services, meetings of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) with presidential candidates, NCHLA lobbying for the Hyde Amendment, open letters and advertisements published by CFC, the effort of Abortion Rights Mobilization to strip the Catholic church of its tax-exempt status, the Vatican order for all priests to leave political office, actions taken by nuns to support the pro-choice position, the proposal of the "seamless garment" argument under the principle of the "consistent ethic of life," initiation of the post-abortion reconciliation project, the actions of Catholic politicians, the filing of amicus curiae briefs, support of bishops for Operation Rescue, forums on abortion conducted by an Archbishop, the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion, targeting by bishops of pro-choice candidates for sanctions and excommunication, testimony and lobbying in opposition of the Freedom of Choice Act, false accusations about the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development leveled by bishops, lobbying by bishops in support of a ban on late-term abortions, lobbying to increase the access of low-income women to abortion, and consideration by the bishops of reinstituting "meatless Fridays" to express Catholic opposition to "attacks on human life and dignity."

  14. Perinatal acquisition of drug-resistant HIV-1 infection: mechanisms and long-term outcome

    PubMed Central

    Delaugerre, Constance; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Blanche, Stephane; Warszawski, Josiane; Cornet, Dorine; Dollfus, Catherine; Schneider, Veronique; Burgard, Marianne; Faye, Albert; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Tubiana, Roland; Rouzioux, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Background Primary-HIV-1-infection in newborns that occurs under antiretroviral prophylaxis that is a high risk of drug-resistance acquisition. We examine the frequency and the mechanisms of resistance acquisition at the time of infection in newborns. Patients and Methods We studied HIV-1-infected infants born between 01 January 1997 and 31 December 2004 and enrolled in the ANRS-EPF cohort. HIV-1-RNA and HIV-1-DNA samples obtained perinatally from the newborn and mother were subjected to population-based and clonal analyses of drug resistance. If positive, serial samples were obtained from the child for resistance testing. Results Ninety-two HIV-1-infected infants were born during the study period. Samples were obtained from 32 mother-child pairs and from another 28 newborns. Drug resistance was detected in 12 newborns (20%): drug resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was seen in 10 cases, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in two cases, and protease inhibitors in one case. For 9 children, the detection of the same resistance mutations in mothers' samples (6 among 10 available) and in newborn lymphocytes (6/8) suggests that the newborn was initially infected by a drug-resistant strain. Resistance variants were either transmitted from mother-to-child or selected during subsequent temporal exposure under suboptimal perinatal prophylaxis. Follow-up studies of the infants showed that the resistance pattern remained stable over time, regardless of antiretroviral therapy, suggesting the early cellular archiving of resistant viruses. The absence of resistance in the mother of the other three children (3/10) and neonatal lymphocytes (2/8) suggests that the newborns were infected by a wild-type strain without long-term persistence of resistance when suboptimal prophylaxis was stopped. Conclusion This study confirms the importance of early resistance genotyping of HIV-1-infected newborns. In most cases (75%), drug resistance was archived in

  15. Cambodia passes new limits on abortion.

    PubMed

    1997-10-17

    According to international news sources, Cambodia's parliament approved a law limiting the circumstances under which abortions can be performed on October 6 [1997]. Members of parliament say the new law, the first ever passed regulating abortion in Cambodia, is intended to reduce maternal morality rates from abortions performed by unlicensed health practitioners under unsanitary conditions. Local news outlets report that the Cambodian Health Ministry estimates the maternal mortality at 4.7 deaths per 1000 live births. The rate in the US is 0.12 deaths per 1000 live births. The law requires that abortions be performed by licensed health professionals in hospitals and certified clinics within the first trimester of pregnancy, and that women under the age of 18 must obtain parental consent. The new law also sets harsh penalties for those who harm women during illegal procedures--up to 5 years in prison if a woman is injured and up to 10 years if she dies. Opponents of the law say they fear that the new restrictions will push abortion even further underground, as the hospital system cannot handle the current demand for abortion. PMID:12292784

  16. Abortion politics and the production of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lisa H

    2013-08-01

    It is common to think of scientific research and the knowledge it generates as neutral and value free. Indeed, the scientific method is designed to produce "objective" data. However, there are always values built into science, as historians of science and technology have shown over and over. The relevant question is not how to rid science of values but, instead, to ask which values and whose values belong? Currently, antiabortion values consistently determine US research policy. Abortion research is declared illegitimate in covert and overt ways, at the level of individual researchers and research policy broadly. Most importantly, federal policy impedes conduct of both basic and clinical research in abortion. However, it is not just research in abortion that is deemed "illegitimate;" research in infertility and in vitro fertilization is as well. Federal funding of any reproductive health research agenda that would pose more than minimal risk to a fetus or embryo is banned. This leaves unanswered scientific questions about abortion, infertility, miscarriage and contraception among other areas. Since moral ground is occupied not just by abortion opponents but also by people who support abortion rights, there is at the very least a competing moral claim to consider changing federal research funding policy. Women and families deserve access to knowledge across the spectrum of reproductive health issues, whether they seek to end or start a pregnancy. Thus, research funding is an issue of reproductive justice. PMID:23815965

  17. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    PubMed

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve.

  18. Abortion issue goes to US courts.

    PubMed

    Charatan, F B

    1995-04-22

    The antiabortion groups and their lawyers have added a new weapon to their arsenal against physicians who perform abortions in the US: malpractice lawsuits. The nonprofit educational organization Life Dynamics generates material for personal injury lawyers and is participating in 80 cases. It has assembled 642 lawyers and 500 physicians in its abortion malpractice program. Life Dynamics calls for persons to support lawsuits to increase malpractice insurance rates of abortionists, thereby forcing them out of business. Its 2-day 1994 seminar in Texas addressed abortion injuries, an alleged link between abortion and breast cancer, and abortion as a likely source of post-traumatic stress disorder. A lawyer and general counsel of the Arizona Right-to-Life has filed two lawsuits against a Phoenix physician who performs abortion. The trial judge dismissed both cases and fined the lawyer for frivolous lawsuits. An appeal overturned the fines. The lawyer has three more lawsuits on the docket. The physician had complained to the Arizona Bar Association about the lawyer. Even though the physician's insurance company did not pay any claims, its underwriters deemed him an actuarial risk, thereby making him essentially uninsurable. Local medical associations have failed to take a position on the lawyer's legal misconduct because they do not want to alienate some members. The Planned Parenthood Federation of America agreed that the lawsuits brought against the Phoenix physician were fraudulent and that they do not aim to protect women but to revoke their right to choose. PMID:7728049

  19. Abortion politics and the production of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lisa H

    2013-08-01

    It is common to think of scientific research and the knowledge it generates as neutral and value free. Indeed, the scientific method is designed to produce "objective" data. However, there are always values built into science, as historians of science and technology have shown over and over. The relevant question is not how to rid science of values but, instead, to ask which values and whose values belong? Currently, antiabortion values consistently determine US research policy. Abortion research is declared illegitimate in covert and overt ways, at the level of individual researchers and research policy broadly. Most importantly, federal policy impedes conduct of both basic and clinical research in abortion. However, it is not just research in abortion that is deemed "illegitimate;" research in infertility and in vitro fertilization is as well. Federal funding of any reproductive health research agenda that would pose more than minimal risk to a fetus or embryo is banned. This leaves unanswered scientific questions about abortion, infertility, miscarriage and contraception among other areas. Since moral ground is occupied not just by abortion opponents but also by people who support abortion rights, there is at the very least a competing moral claim to consider changing federal research funding policy. Women and families deserve access to knowledge across the spectrum of reproductive health issues, whether they seek to end or start a pregnancy. Thus, research funding is an issue of reproductive justice.

  20. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    PubMed

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve. PMID:7716799

  1. Mining Host-Pathogen Protein Interactions to Characterize Burkholderia mallei Infectivity Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Memišević, Vesna; Zavaljevski, Nela; Rajagopala, Seesandra V.; Kwon, Keehwan; Pieper, Rembert; DeShazer, David; Reifman, Jaques; Wallqvist, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pathogenicity relies on protein virulence factors to control and promote bacterial internalization, survival, and replication within eukaryotic host cells. We recently used yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening to identify a small set of novel Burkholderia proteins that were shown to attenuate disease progression in an aerosol infection animal model using the virulent Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344 strain. Here, we performed an extended analysis of primarily nine B. mallei virulence factors and their interactions with human proteins to map out how the bacteria can influence and alter host processes and pathways. Specifically, we employed topological analyses to assess the connectivity patterns of targeted host proteins, identify modules of pathogen-interacting host proteins linked to processes promoting infectivity, and evaluate the effect of crosstalk among the identified host protein modules. Overall, our analysis showed that the targeted host proteins generally had a large number of interacting partners and interacted with other host proteins that were also targeted by B. mallei proteins. We also introduced a novel Host-Pathogen Interaction Alignment (HPIA) algorithm and used it to explore similarities between host-pathogen interactions of B. mallei, Yersinia pestis, and Salmonella enterica. We inferred putative roles of B. mallei proteins based on the roles of their aligned Y. pestis and S. enterica partners and showed that up to 73% of the predicted roles matched existing annotations. A key insight into Burkholderia pathogenicity derived from these analyses of Y2H host-pathogen interactions is the identification of eukaryotic-specific targeted cellular mechanisms, including the ubiquitination degradation system and the use of the focal adhesion pathway as a fulcrum for transmitting mechanical forces and regulatory signals. This provides the mechanisms to modulate and adapt the host-cell environment for the successful establishment of host infections

  2. Geomagnetic excursions reflect an aborted polarity state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valet, Jean-Pierre; Plenier, Guillaume; Herrero-Bervera, E.

    2008-10-01

    Geomagnetic excursions represent short episodes of a few thousand years at most during which the field considerably exceeds its normal range of variability during a polarity state. Paleomagnetic records have now been obtained with extremely high temporal resolution which have improved our knowledge of these short events. We have compiled the most detailed records of excursions that had occurred during the Brunhes and Matuyama chrons. We show that virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) of at least one record of each event are able to reach the opposite polarity. In the next step, we have computed different simulations of excursions during which the dipole progressively vanishes before growing back without reversing. This scenario produces very few reversed directions which are only visible at some latitudes. We infer that it is impossible to reach the ratio of reversed to intermediate VGPs present in the paleomagnetic records if the excursions were not associated with a short period of reversed dipole field. Therefore, excursions should be regarded as two successive reversals bracketing an aborted polarity interval. We propose that the same underlying mechanisms prevail in both situations (excursions or reversals) and that below a certain strength the field reaches an unstable position which preludes either the achievement of a reversal or its return to the former polarity.

  3. Infection.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Gaurav; Nagornaya, Natalya; Post, M Judith D

    2016-01-01

    Imaging is useful in the diagnosis and management of infections of the central nervous system. Typically, imaging findings at the outset of the disease are subtle and nonspecific, but they often evolve to more definite imaging patterns in a few days, with less rapidity than for stroke but faster than for neoplastic lesions. This timing is similar to that of noninfectious inflammatory brain disease, such as multiple sclerosis. Fortunately, imaging patterns help to distinguish the two kinds of processes. Other than for sarcoidosis, the meninges are seldom involved in noninfectious inflammation; in contrast, many infectious processes involve the meninges, which then enhance with contrast on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, brain infection causes a vast array of imaging patterns. Although CT is useful when hemorrhage or calcification is suspected or bony detail needs to be determined, MRI is the imaging modality of choice in the investigation of intracranial infections. Imaging sequences such as diffusion-weighted imaging help in accurately depicting the location and characterizing pyogenic infections and are particularly useful in differentiating bacterial infections from other etiologies. Susceptibility-weighted imaging is extremely useful for the detection of hemorrhage. Although MR spectroscopy findings can frequently be nonspecific, certain conditions such as bacterial abscesses show a relatively specific spectral pattern and are useful in diagnosing and constituting immediate therapy. In this chapter we review first the imaging patterns associated with involvement of various brain structures, such as the epidural and subdural spaces, the meninges, the brain parenchyma, and the ventricles. Involvement of these regions is illustrated with bacterial infections. Next we illustrate the patterns associated with viral and prion diseases, followed by mycobacterial and fungal infections, to conclude with a review of imaging findings

  4. Asc-Dependent and Independent Mechanisms Contribute to Restriction of Legionella Pneumophila Infection in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Abdelaziz, Dalia H. A.; Gavrilin, Mikhail A.; Akhter, Anwari; Caution, Kyle; Kotrange, Sheetal; Khweek, Arwa Abu; Abdulrahman, Basant A.; Hassan, Zeinab A.; El-Sharkawi, Fathia Z.; Bedi, Simranjit S.; Ladner, Katherine; Gonzalez-Mejia, M. Elba; Doseff, Andrea I.; Mostafa, Mahmoud; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; Guttridge, Dennis; Marsh, Clay B.; Wewers, Mark D.; Amer, Amal O.

    2010-01-01

    The apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (Asc) is an adaptor molecule that mediates inflammatory and apoptotic signals. Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of Legionnaire's pneumonia. L. pneumophila is able to cause pneumonia in immuno-compromised humans but not in most inbred mice. Murine macrophages that lack the ability to activate caspase-1, such as caspase-1−/− and Nlrc4−/− allow L. pneumophila infection. This permissiveness is attributed mainly to the lack of active caspase-1 and the absence of its down stream substrates such as caspase-7. However, the role of Asc in control of L. pneumophila infection in mice is unclear. Here we show that caspase-1 is moderately activated in Asc−/− macrophages and that this limited activation is required and sufficient to restrict L. pneumophila growth. Moreover, Asc-independent activation of caspase-1 requires bacterial flagellin and is mainly detected in cellular extracts but not in culture supernatants. We also demonstrate that the depletion of Asc from permissive macrophages enhances bacterial growth by promoting L. pneumophila-mediated activation of the NF-κB pathway and decreasing caspase-3 activation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that L. pneumophila infection in murine macrophages is controlled by several mechanisms: Asc-independent activation of caspase-1 and Asc-dependent regulation of NF-κB and caspase-3 activation. PMID:21713115

  5. Cross-cultural attitudes toward abortion--Greeks versus Americans.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Stephen J; Marcos, Anastasios C

    2003-04-01

    Using data from 1,494 Greeks and 1,993 Americans, this study finds that social abortion attitudes are a separate dimension from physical abortion attitudes. According to our structural equation model, abortion attitudes are influenced significantly by religiosity and sexual liberalism. The model explains social abortion attitudes significantly better than physical abortion attitudes. Although the model is applicable to both countries, there are three major differences between Greece and the United States. First, in Greece religiosity has a smaller impact on sexual liberalism, and sexual liberalism has a much weaker impact on both types of abortion attitudes, particularly social abortion attitudes. Second, in Greece religiosity is more strongly related to abortion attitudes than in the United States, particularly to social abortion attitudes. Third, education has a weaker influence in Greece than in the United States.

  6. Functional Mechanisms of Treg in the Context of HIV Infection and the Janus Face of Immune Suppression

    PubMed Central

    López-Abente, Jacobo; Correa-Rocha, Rafael; Pion, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in infections, by modulating host immune responses and avoiding the overreactive immunity that in the case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to a marked erosion and deregulation of the entire immune system. Therefore, the suppressive function of Treg in HIV-infected patients is critical because of their implication on preventing the immune hyperactivation, even though it could also have a detrimental effect by suppressing HIV-specific immune responses. In recent years, several studies have shown that HIV-1 can directly infect Treg, disturbing their phenotype and suppressive capacity via different mechanisms. These effects include Foxp3 and CD25 downregulation, and the impairment of suppressive capacity. This review describes the functional mechanisms of Treg to modulate immune activation during HIV infection, and how such control is no longer fine-tune orchestrated once Treg itself get infected. We will review the current knowledge about the HIV effects on the Treg cytokine expression, on pathways implying the participation of different ectoenzymes (i.e., CD39/CD73 axis), transcription factors (ICER), and lastly on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), one of the keystones in Treg-suppressive function. To define which are the HIV effects upon these regulatory mechanisms is crucial not only for the comprehension of immune deregulation in HIV-infected patients but also for the correct understanding of the role of Tregs in HIV infection. PMID:27242797

  7. Women's Private Conversations about Abortion: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Herold, Stephanie; Kimport, Katrina; Cockrill, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Abortion is a relatively frequent experience, yet public discourse about abortion is contentious and stigmatizing. Little literature is available on private conversations about abortion, which may be distinct from public discourse. We explored private discourse by documenting the nature of women's discussions about abortion with peers in a book club. We recruited thirteen women's book clubs in nine states. Participants (n = 119) read the book Choice: True Stories of Birth, Contraception, Infertility, Adoption, Single Parenthood, & Abortion, and participated in a book club meeting, which we audio-recorded and transcribed. Data collection occurred between April 2012 and April 2013. In contrast to public discourse of abortion, private discourse was nuanced and included disclosures of multiple kinds of experiences with abortion. Participants disclosed having abortions, considering abortion as an option for past or future pregnancies, and supporting others through an abortion. Distinguishing between public and private discourse enabled us to identify that an "abortion experience" could include personal decisions, hypothetical decisions, or connection with someone having an abortion. The book club atmosphere provided a rare opportunity for participants to explore their relationship to abortion. More research is needed to understand the role of private discourse in reducing abortion stigma. PMID:26086582

  8. Abortion controversy hinders state reform effort.

    PubMed

    Frece, J W

    1993-10-28

    A review of the progress and problems of the state of Maryland on health care reform is provided. The Standard Benefits Package Task Force completed and approved in a preliminary 7 to 2 vote a long list of benefits, including abortion services, to be covered in health plans that must be made available to small businesses by July 1, 1994. Small businesses are those employing at least 2 workers and no more than 50 workers. The value of benefits cannot exceed $3519, or policies, $3034. The new health care law passed in summer, 1993 stipulated that the value of basic policies for small companies cannot exceed 12% of wages. The development of a minimum package of benefits was the first phase of the health care reform law. Final decision on benefits will be made sometime in the first week of November and presented to the full 7-member Health Care Access and Cost Commission by November 4, 1993. Abortion opponents have opposed insurance coverage of abortions on the grounds that it is not health care and it forces employers opposed to abortion to accept this package, or deny coverage to employees. A public hearing is expected to hear from abortion foes about their notion to offer abortion coverage as an option or "rider" to the standard insurance policy. The task force has another option: to describe the benefit in terms that do not mention abortion per se, but refer to "family planning services and services for pregnant women," which is the wording in the Clinton health care plan. The Director of Public Affairs for Planned Parenthood of Maryland, Bebe Verdery, reported that the organization is strongly opposed to abortion as optional coverage. Kevin Appleby, Associate Director of Social Concerns for the Maryland Catholic Conference, finds that respect for rights of those with moral concerns against abortion should be respected. The task force is confronted with issues of cost, since its initial benefits package was too high, and, most troubling, the controversy over

  9. Abortion--a philosophical perspective.

    PubMed

    Jali, M N

    2001-11-01

    The central issue in the abortion debate is the moral status of the conceptus. There are two positions that argue this issue. At one extreme are the views of the pro-life group which argues that human life begins at the moment of conception whilst at the other are views of the pro-choice group that argues in favour of a woman's right to self-determination. Two basic principles come into conflict in this debate, namely the Value of Life and that of Self-determination. In this paper the arguments forwarded by each group in justification of its position are presented. Also discussed is the moderate developmental viewpoint which accepts that the genetic basis of an individual is established at conception. Some development, however, has to occur before the conceptus can be called a person. The fact that an entity is a potential person is a prima facie reason for not destroying it. On the other hand, we need not conclude that a person has a right to life by virtue of that potentiality. Simultaneously we should recognise that the right a potential entity has, may be nullified by the woman's right to self-determination. PMID:11993259

  10. A simplified method for differential staining of aborted and non-aborted pollen grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to use chemical staining to discriminate aborted from non-aborted pollen grains has well-known practical applications in agriculture. A commonly used technique for assessing pollen vitality, Alexander’s stain, uses chloral hydrate, phenol and mercuric chloride, all of which are highly to...

  11. Medical Students’ Attitudes toward Abortion Education: Malaysian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tey, Nai-peng; Yew, Siew-yong; Low, Wah-yun; Su’ut, Lela; Renjhen, Prachi; Huang, M. S. L.; Tong, Wen-ting; Lai, Siow-li

    2012-01-01

    Background Abortion is a serious public health issue, and it poses high risks to the health and life of women. Yet safe abortion services are not readily available because few doctors are trained to provide such services. Many doctors are unaware of laws pertaining to abortion. This article reports survey findings on Malaysian medical students’ attitudes toward abortion education and presents a case for including abortion education in medical schools. Methods and Results A survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward abortion among medical students was conducted in two public universities and a private university in Malaysia in 2011. A total of 1,060 students returned the completed questionnaires. The survey covered about 90% of medical students in Years 1, 3, and 5 in the three universities. About 90% of the students wanted more training on the general knowledge and legal aspects of abortion, and pre-and post-abortion counseling. Overall, 75.9% and 81.0% of the students were in favor of including in medical education the training on surgical abortion techniques and medical abortion, respectively. Only 2.4% and 1.7% were opposed to the inclusion of training of these two methods in the curriculum. The remaining respondents were neutral in their stand. Desire for more abortion education was associated with students’ pro-choice index, their intention to provide abortion services in future practice, and year of study. However, students’ attitudes toward abortion were not significantly associated with gender, type of university, or ethnicity. Conclusions Most students wanted more training on abortion. Some students also expressed their intention to provide abortion counseling and services in their future practice. Their desire for more training on abortion should be taken into account in the new curriculum. Abortion education is an important step towards making available safe abortion services to enable women to exercise their reproductive rights. PMID:23300600

  12. Latin American women’s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades. This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women’s experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal. Women’s personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support. Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and

  13. Current views on the mechanisms of immune responses to trauma and infection

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Grzegorz; Słotwiński, Robert

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, post-traumatic mortality rates are still very high and show an increasing tendency. Disorders of innate immune response that may increase the risk of serious complications play a key role in the immunological system response to trauma and infection. The mechanism of these disorders is multifactorial and is still poorly understood. The changing concepts of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS) early inflammatory response, presented in this work, have been extended to genetic studies. Overexpression of genes and increased production of immune response mediators are among the main causes of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Changes in gene expression detected early after injury precede the occurrence of subsequent complications with a typical clinical picture. Rapid depletion of energy resources leads to immunosuppression and persistent inflammation and immune suppression catabolism syndrome (PICS). Early diagnosis of immune disorders and appropriate nutritional therapy can significantly reduce the incidence of complications, length of hospital stay, and mortality. The study presents the development of knowledge and current views explaining the mechanisms of the immune response to trauma and infection. PMID:26557036

  14. Priming by Rhizobacterium Protects Tomato Plants from Biotrophic and Necrotrophic Pathogen Infections through Multiple Defense Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Il-Pyung; Lee, Sang-Woo; Kim, Min Gab; Park, Sang-Ryeol; Hwang, Duk-Ju; Bae, Shin-Chul

    2011-01-01

    A selected strain of rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida strain LSW17S (LSW17S), protects tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Seokwang) from bacterial speck by biotrophic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (DC3000) and bacterial wilt by necrotrophic Ralstonia solanacearum KACC 10703 (Rs10703). To investigate defense mechanisms induced by LSW17S in tomato plants, transcription patterns of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and H2O2 production were analyzed in plants treated with LSW17S and subsequent pathogen inoculation. LSW17S alone did not induce transcriptions of employed PR genes in leaves and roots. DC3000 challenge following LSW17S triggered rapid transcriptions of PR genes and H2O2 production in leaves and roots. Catalase infiltration with DC3000 attenuated defense-related responses and resistance against DC3000 infection. Despite depriving H2O2 production and PR1b transcription by the same treatment, resistance against Rs10703 infection was not deterred significantly. H2O2 is indispensable for defense signaling and/or mechanisms primed by LSW17S and inhibition of bacterial speck, however, it is not involved in resistance against bacterial wilt. PMID:21710203

  15. Abortion attitudes as determinants of perceptions regarding male involvement in abortion decisions.

    PubMed

    Coleman, P K; Nelson, E S

    1999-01-01

    Abortion decisions have a potentially meaningful effect on the lives of men. Previous research suggests that both men and women generally believe that men have the right to be involved in such decisions. However, very little research attention has been devoted to identifying individual difference correlates of discrepant levels of endorsement for male involvement in abortion decisions. The extent to which abortion attitudes (on a pro-choice to pro-life continuum), conceptualization of abortion as strictly a female issue, and interest in the issue operate as effective predictors of the appropriate level of male involvement in abortion decisions was examined in a sample of 1,387 college students. Results of a multiple regression analysis revealed that 44% of the variance in male involvement scores was explained by the predictor variables. PMID:9919847

  16. Update on infections caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with particular attention to resistance mechanisms and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Ting; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a Gram-negative, biofilm-forming bacterium. Although generally regarded as an organism of low virulence, S. maltophilia is an emerging multi-drug resistant opportunistic pathogen in hospital and community settings, especially among immunocompromised hosts. Risk factors associated with S. maltophilia infection include underlying malignancy, cystic fibrosis, corticosteroid or immunosuppressant therapy, the presence of an indwelling central venous catheter and exposure to broad spectrum antibiotics. In this review, we provide a synthesis of information on current global trends in S. maltophilia pathogenicity as well as updated information on the molecular mechanisms contributing to its resistance to an array of antimicrobial agents. The prevalence of S. maltophilia infection in the general population increased from 0.8-1.4% during 1997-2003 to 1.3-1.68% during 2007-2012. The most important molecular mechanisms contributing to its resistance to antibiotics include β-lactamase production, the expression of Qnr genes, and the presence of class 1 integrons and efflux pumps. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) is the antimicrobial drug of choice. Although a few studies have reported increased resistance to TMP/SMX, the majority of studies worldwide show that S. maltophilia continues to be highly susceptible. Drugs with historically good susceptibility results include ceftazidime, ticarcillin-clavulanate, and fluoroquinolones; however, a number of studies show an alarming trend in resistance to those agents. Tetracyclines such as tigecycline, minocycline, and doxycycline are also effective agents and consistently display good activity against S. maltophilia in various geographic regions and across different time periods. Combination therapies, novel agents, and aerosolized forms of antimicrobial drugs are currently being tested for their ability to treat infections caused by this multi-drug resistant organism.

  17. Update on infections caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with particular attention to resistance mechanisms and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ya-Ting; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a Gram-negative, biofilm-forming bacterium. Although generally regarded as an organism of low virulence, S. maltophilia is an emerging multi-drug resistant opportunistic pathogen in hospital and community settings, especially among immunocompromised hosts. Risk factors associated with S. maltophilia infection include underlying malignancy, cystic fibrosis, corticosteroid or immunosuppressant therapy, the presence of an indwelling central venous catheter and exposure to broad spectrum antibiotics. In this review, we provide a synthesis of information on current global trends in S. maltophilia pathogenicity as well as updated information on the molecular mechanisms contributing to its resistance to an array of antimicrobial agents. The prevalence of S. maltophilia infection in the general population increased from 0.8–1.4% during 1997–2003 to 1.3–1.68% during 2007–2012. The most important molecular mechanisms contributing to its resistance to antibiotics include β-lactamase production, the expression of Qnr genes, and the presence of class 1 integrons and efflux pumps. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) is the antimicrobial drug of choice. Although a few studies have reported increased resistance to TMP/SMX, the majority of studies worldwide show that S. maltophilia continues to be highly susceptible. Drugs with historically good susceptibility results include ceftazidime, ticarcillin-clavulanate, and fluoroquinolones; however, a number of studies show an alarming trend in resistance to those agents. Tetracyclines such as tigecycline, minocycline, and doxycycline are also effective agents and consistently display good activity against S. maltophilia in various geographic regions and across different time periods. Combination therapies, novel agents, and aerosolized forms of antimicrobial drugs are currently being tested for their ability to treat infections caused by this multi-drug resistant organism. PMID:26388847

  18. A cross-cultural history of abortion.

    PubMed

    Shain, R N

    1986-03-01

    Abortion is a universal phenomenon, occurring throughout recorded history and at all levels of societal organization. Techniques are highly varied, as are the circumstances under which it is practised. The status of and attitudes towards abortion in Western civilization are variable and have, in most cases, been changing. As of 1982, 10% and 18% of the world's population respectively, lived in countries where abortion was totally prohibited or where it was permitted only to save the mother's life. In the USA, various national surveys indicate liberalization of public attitudes towards pregnancy termination between 1965 and the years immediately following the Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision (1973) which legalized abortion. More recent polls demonstrate little attitudinal change since 1972-1973: between 80% and 90% of Americans approve of abortion in the case of poor health, a seriously defective fetus, or rape, and between 40% and 50% indicate approval for all other reasons as well. Only 10% of the American population would like to see abortion prohibited under all circumstances. Sociodemographic analyses indicate that individuals who disapprove of abortion differ from those who approve of its availability in that they are more likely to be Roman Catholic or fundamentalist Protestant; are, in general, more strongly committed to organized religion; are on the traditional/conservative end of the spectrum with regard to women's role in life, premarital sex, sex education and civil liberties; and tend to have achieved a relatively low educational level. 'Pro-life' and 'pro-choice' activists tend to be women who are completely different from one another in sociodemographic characteristics and in overall values, particularly as these relate to traditional versus modern female roles.

  19. Influence of induced abortion on gestational duration in subsequent pregnancies.

    PubMed Central

    van der Slikke, J W; Treffers, P E

    1978-01-01

    We studied the effect of previous induced and spontaneous abortion on gestational duration in subsequent pregnancies in 12 obstetric departments in the Netherlands. Only primiparae were studied. Of 504 women who had had a previous induced abortion, 18 (3.6%) delivered before 32 weeks' gestational age. Forty of 1313 women with a history of spontaneous abortion (3.0%) and 259 of 12 678 women with no history of abortion (2.1%) also delivered before 32 weeks. The differences between the three groups were not significant. In the Netherlands there are no significant indications that spontaneous midtrimester abortions or premature deliveries are caused by a previous induced abortion. PMID:620303

  20. [About da tai - abortion in old Chinese folk medicine handwritten manuscripts].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinsheng

    2013-01-01

    Of 881 Chinese handwritten volumes with medical texts of the 17th through mid-20th century held by Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin and Ethnologisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, 48 volumes include prescriptions for induced abortion. A comparison shows that these records are significantly different from references to abortion in Chinese printed medical texts of pre-modern times. For example, the percentage of recipes recommended for artificial abortions in handwritten texts is significantly higher than those in printed medical books. Authors of handwritten texts used 25 terms to designate artificial abortion, with the term da tai [see text], lit.: "to strike the fetus", occurring most frequently. Its meaning is well defined, in contrast to other terms used, such as duo tai [see text], lit: "to make a fetus fall", xia tai [see text], lit. "to bring a fetus down", und duan chan [see text], lit., to interrupt birthing", which is mostly used to indicate a temporary or permanent sterilization. Pre-modern Chinese medicine has not generally abstained from inducing abortions; physicians showed a differentiating attitude. While abortions were descibed as "things a [physician with an attitude of] humaneness will not do", in case a pregnancy was seen as too risky for a woman she was offered medication to terminate this pregnancy. The commercial application of abortifacients has been recorded in China since ancient times. A request for such services has continued over time for various reasons, including so-called illegitimate pregnancies, and those by nuns, widows and prostitutes. In general, recipes to induce abortions documented in printed medical literature have mild effects and are to be ingested orally. In comparison, those recommended in handwritten texts are rather toxic. Possibly to minimize the negative side-effects of such medication, practitioners of folk medicine developed mechanical devices to perform "external", i.e., vaginal approaches.

  1. Spain still in need of a good abortion law.

    PubMed

    Gasco, M

    1991-09-01

    In 1985 Spain adopted a new abortion law that allows women to have abortions if: 1) the pregnancy poses a physical or mental risk, 2) the fetus risks a defect, 3) in cases of rape. 94% of all abortions are carried out in private clinics. Before the law only 411 abortions were reported, after the law 16,766 were reported the next year. 52% of the women were unmarried, 49% had no children, and 93% were less than 12 weeks pregnant. The availability of safe abortions is limited by: 1) lack of centers in most geographical regions and 2) lack of clinics or hospitals in the public health system that will give abortion services. The addition of 4th ground for abortion would not significantly improve access to abortion services since 98% of all abortions are performed under the mental risk indication. A better solution would be to adopt a time limit system similar to other European countries. Since 93% of all abortion occur within 12 weeks of pregnancy, it would accommodate most women. However, whether by executive order or legislation, increasing legal access will still not increase access. There simply is n system in place to accommodate the number of women who would seek abortions i they became legal (it is estimated that 200000 women got to England annually seeking abortion.) Doctors do not want to perform abortions and there is no social or legal standing to force them to do so. PMID:12284545

  2. [Abortion-related mortality in Brazil: decrease in spatial inequality].

    PubMed

    Lima, B G

    2000-03-01

    Abortion is not only a major cause of obstetric hospitalization in poor countries, but it also represents the failure of the public health system to provide enough information about contraceptive methods and thus prevent pregnancies. In Brazil, the high utilization rates of health facilities due to abortions reflect the ongoing difficulties with family planning and contraception. In addition, mortality resulting from abortions serves as an indicator of the quality of abortion procedures, an important point in a country where the practice is illegal and therefore done clandestinely. In this study, we analyzed the rates of mortality resulting from abortions among women 10 to 54 years old, including women who died from spontaneous and induced abortion, from 1980 to 1995, for the various regions of the country. The information we used came from the mortality data bank of the public health system of the Ministry of Health. Population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics. We studied 2,602 deaths, 15% of which were due to missed abortion, spontaneous abortion, or legally permitted induced abortion. The other 85% of the deaths were due to illegal induced abortions or to nonspecified abortions. The mortality rates from abortion-related causes have steadily decreased in all the regions of Brazil, but this improvement has been unevenly distributed in the country. The region with the smallest decrease in this rate (38% over 15 years) was the Northeast. The age of women dying from abortions progressively declined over the period studied.

  3. Restricted access to abortion in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland: exploring abortion tourism and barriers to legal reform.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Fiona; O'Dowd, Kellie

    2014-01-01

    Access to abortion remains a controversial issue worldwide. In Ireland, both north and south, legal restrictions have resulted in thousands of women travelling to England and Wales and further afield to obtain abortions in the last decade alone, while others purchase the 'abortion pill' from Internet sources. This paper considers the socio-legal context in both jurisdictions, the data on those travelling to access abortion and the barriers to legal reform. It argues that moral conservatism in Ireland, north and south, has contributed to the restricted access to abortion, impacting on the experience of thousands of women, resulting in these individuals becoming 'abortion tourists'.

  4. Inhibition of Arenavirus Infection by a Glycoprotein-Derived Peptide with a Novel Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Jennifer S.; Melnik, Lilia I.; Badani, Hussain; Wimley, William C.

    2014-01-01

    and prone to treatment failure, we identified a peptide, AVP-p, derived from the fusion glycoprotein of a nonpathogenic model arenavirus, which demonstrates antiviral activity and no acute cytotoxicity. AVP-p is unique among self-derived inhibitory peptides in that it shows broad, specific activity against pseudoviruses bearing Old and New World arenavirus glycoproteins but not against viruses from other families. Further, the peptide's mechanism of action is highly novel. Biochemical assays and cryo-electron microscopy indicate that AVP-p induces premature activation of viral fusion proteins through membrane perturbance. Peptide treatment, however, does not increase the infectivity of cell-bound virus. We hypothesize that prematurely activated virions are less fit for receptor binding and membrane fusion and that AVP-p may represent a viable therapeutic strategy for arenavirus infection. PMID:24850726

  5. Conservative management of spontaneous abortions. Women's experiences.

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, E.; Janssen, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe women's experiences with expectant management of spontaneous abortions. DESIGN: Descriptive survey using questionnaires with fixed-choice and open-ended questions. The latter were analyzed for themes, using qualitative methods. SETTING: Urban and suburban private primary care family practices. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of family practice patients (59 of 80 eligible) pregnant for less than 12 weeks who had spontaneous abortions without surgery. Response rate was 84.7%; 50 questionnaires were received from the 59 women. METHOD: Women were asked about their physical experiences, including amount of pain and bleeding; emotional effects; their satisfaction with medical care; and their suggestions for improving care. MAIN FINDINGS: The mean worst pain experienced during a spontaneous abortion on an 11-point scale was 5.9. Bleeding varied, but was often very heavy. Satisfaction rate was 92.9% with family physician care and 84.6% with hospital care. Women described the emotional effect of "natural" spontaneous abortions and made recommendations for improving care. CONCLUSIONS: A better understanding of the physical and emotional experiences of the women in this study might help physicians better prepare and support patients coping with expectant management of spontaneous abortions. PMID:10540695

  6. [Pregnancy and induced abortion among teenagers].

    PubMed

    Tado, S

    1985-11-01

    The number of pregnancies and induced abortions among Japanese teenagers has recently increased. 2 of 5 pregnant single women whom social workers assist are teenagers. The teenagers fall into 2 groups: those under 18, who are in a sexually awakening period, or 18 and older, who are maturing. Those under 18, despite a strong tendency toward sexual activity, are predominantly insecure and run away from home to escape adversity and seek friendship among members of the opposite sex. After becoming pregnant, they go home only to embarrass their parents. Ultimately, they choose abortion or, because of their own inability, their babies are taken care of by their families or in foster homes. Those 18 or older, despite their knowledge of the relationship between sexual intercourse and pregnancy, typically did not take it seriously. Consequently, their reaction to their pregnancies tends toward shock and panic. Many try to keep their pregnancy from their parents. Though they do not want abortion, their circumstances may force them to it. Behind the increase of unexpected pregnancy and unwanted abortion in both age groups are several factors: the lack of sexual education suitable to their level of their physical maturity; a lack of responsibility by the male teenagers, who cannot relate their own actions to their partners' pregnancies; and the ignorance of pregnant teenagers, who cannot see that abortions may hurt them not only physically but mentally in the long run. PMID:3854863

  7. Abortion in Brazil: legislation, reality and options.

    PubMed

    Guedes, A C

    2000-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Brazil except when performed to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. This paper gives a brief history of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary efforts to change abortion-related legislation in Brazil in the past 60 years, the contents of some of the 53 bills that have been tabled in that time, the non-governmental stakeholders involved and the debate itself in recent decades. The authorities in Brazil have never assumed full public responsibility for reproductive health care or family planning, let alone legal abortion; the ambivalence of the medical profession is an important obstacle. Most politicians avoid getting involved in the abortion debate, but the majority of bills in the 1990s have favoured less restrictive legislation. Incremental legislative and health service changes could help to improve the situation for women. Advocacy is probably the most important action, to promote an environment conducive to change. Clandestine abortion is a serious public health problem in Brazil, and the inadequacy of family planning services is one of the causes of this problem. The solutions should be made a priority for the Brazilian public health system.

  8. The Supreme Court, liberty, and abortion.

    PubMed

    Annas, G J

    1992-08-27

    While the issue of abortion has fueled a great deal of personal and political debate and controversy in the US, few have actually read the Supreme Court's rulings on Roe v. Wade and Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, which are central to the debate. This essay summarizes both rulings, examines the difference between the 2, and discusses implications for medical practice. Casey is important to states, physicians, and patients. Of central import is the ruling's restriction against states to outlaw abortion before viability. Other measures are, however, included which will complicate record keeping and securing consent. Restrictions against and/or steps required by the physician practicing abortion may also spread to apply to other medical procedures. The essay considers the future of Roe v. Wade. Whether or not a Freedom of Choice Act is ultimately passed in Congress, abortion will continue to divide large segments of the American population. Anti-abortionists will continue to attempt to overthrow women's right of free choice to abortion.

  9. Access to abortion services: abortions performed by mid-level practitioners.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, E A

    1993-01-01

    Because the number of physicians available to perform abortions in the US is dwindling, certified nurse-midwives, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants should be trained and permitted to perform abortions. Roadblocks to this change are the fact that the Supreme Court would likely allow states to prevent mid-level practitioners from performing abortions in the name of protecting the health of the mother. Also, existing statutes would probably not be interpreted by courts to allow mid-level practitioners to perform abortions. However, physician assistants have been performing abortions in Vermont since 1975, and a 1981-82 comparative study affirmed that physician assistants are well-equipped to perform abortions (of 2458 procedures, the complication rate/1000 was 27.4 for physician assistants and 30.8 for physicians). However, controversy surrounds the provision of abortion by these physician assistants in Vermont, since the relevant statute suggests that abortion is illegal unless performed by a physician. However, the statute has not been changed since Roe vs. Wade and is likely unconstitutional. Court cases in Missouri and Tennessee suggest that courts may be willing to include abortion within the scope of progressive nursing practice acts, but a recent similar case in Massachusetts resulted in a narrow interpretation of nursing practice statutes. Because the definition of professional nursing varies with each state statute, it will be a formidable task to convince every jurisdiction to include abortion as a permissible mid-level practice. Even in Vermont, the nursing practice statute defines in an exclusive list what services the professional nurse may perform (whereas the physician assistant regulations limit their scope of practice only to that delegated by a supervising physician). States could, of course, pass statutes which include abortion as a permissible practice for the mid-level practitioner. However, specific legislation would provide a clear

  10. Plac8-dependent and iNOS-dependent mechanisms clear Chlamydia muridarum infections from the genital tract1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Raymond M.; Kerr, Micah S.; Slaven, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital serovars replicate predominately in genital tract epithelium. This tissue tropism poses a unique challenge for host defense and vaccine development. Studies utilizing the Chlamydia muridarum mouse model have shown that CD4 T cells are critical for clearing genital tract infections. In vitro studies have shown that CD4 T cells terminate infection by up regulating epithelial iNOS transcription and nitric oxide production. However, this mechanism is not critical as iNOS-deficient mice clear infections normally. We recently showed that a subset of Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell clones could terminate replication in epithelial cells using an iNOS-independent mechanism requiring T cell degranulation. We advance that work using microarrays to compare iNOS-dependent and iNOS-independent CD4 T cell clones. Plac8 was differentially expressed by clones having the iNOS-independent mechanism. Plac8-deficient mice had delayed clearance of infection, and Plac8-deficient mice treated with the iNOS-inhibitor N-monomethyl-L-arginine were largely unable to resolve genital tract infections over 8 weeks. These results demonstrate that there are two independent and redundant T cell mechanisms for clearing C. muridarum genital tract infections; one dependent on iNOS, the other dependent on Plac8. While T cells subsets are routinely defined by cytokine profiles, there may be important subdivisions by effector function, in this case CD4Plac8. PMID:22238459

  11. Application of Fault Management Theory to the Quantitative Selection of a Launch Vehicle Abort Trigger Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Yunnhon; Johnson, Stephen B.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.

    2014-01-01

    The theory of System Health Management (SHM) and of its operational subset Fault Management (FM) states that FM is implemented as a "meta" control loop, known as an FM Control Loop (FMCL). The FMCL detects that all or part of a system is now failed, or in the future will fail (that is, cannot be controlled within acceptable limits to achieve its objectives), and takes a control action (a response) to return the system to a controllable state. In terms of control theory, the effectiveness of each FMCL is estimated based on its ability to correctly estimate the system state, and on the speed of its response to the current or impending failure effects. This paper describes how this theory has been successfully applied on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program to quantitatively estimate the effectiveness of proposed abort triggers so as to select the most effective suite to protect the astronauts from catastrophic failure of the SLS. The premise behind this process is to be able to quantitatively provide the value versus risk trade-off for any given abort trigger, allowing decision makers to make more informed decisions. All current and planned crewed launch vehicles have some form of vehicle health management system integrated with an emergency launch abort system to ensure crew safety. While the design can vary, the underlying principle is the same: detect imminent catastrophic vehicle failure, initiate launch abort, and extract the crew to safety. Abort triggers are the detection mechanisms that identify that a catastrophic launch vehicle failure is occurring or is imminent and cause the initiation of a notification to the crew vehicle that the escape system must be activated. While ensuring that the abort triggers provide this function, designers must also ensure that the abort triggers do not signal that a catastrophic failure is imminent when in fact the launch vehicle can successfully achieve orbit. That is

  12. Mechanism and role of MCP-1 upregulation upon chikungunya virus infection in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz Silva, Mariana; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Mulder, H. Lie; Smit, Jolanda M.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2)-mediated migration of monocytes is essential for immunological surveillance of tissues. During chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection however, excessive production of MCP-1 has been linked to disease pathogenesis. High MCP-1 serum levels are detected during the viremic phase of CHIKV infection and correlate with the virus titre. In vitro CHIKV infection was also shown to stimulate MCP-1 production in whole blood; yet the role and the mechanism of MCP-1 production upon infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells remain unknown. Here we found that active CHIKV infection stimulated production of MCP-1 in monocytes. Importantly however, we found that communication with other leukocytes is crucial to yield MCP-1 by monocytes upon CHIKV infection. Indeed, blocking interferon-α/β receptor or the JAK1/JAK2 signalling downstream of the receptor abolished CHIKV-mediated MCP-1 production. Additionally, we show that despite the apparent correlation between IFN type I, CHIKV replication and MCP-1, modulating the levels of the chemokine did not influence CHIKV infection. In summary, our data disclose the complexity of MCP-1 regulation upon CHIKV infection and point to a crucial role of IFNβ in the chemokine secretion. We propose that balance between these soluble factors is imperative for an appropriate host response to CHIKV infection. PMID:27558873

  13. Hepatitis C Virus Infection Induces Autophagy as a Prosurvival Mechanism to Alleviate Hepatic ER-Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Srikanta; Chava, Srinivas; Aydin, Yucel; Chandra, Partha K.; Ferraris, Pauline; Chen, Weina; Balart, Luis A.; Wu, Tong; Garry, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection frequently leads to chronic liver disease, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The molecular mechanisms by which HCV infection leads to chronic liver disease and HCC are not well understood. The infection cycle of HCV is initiated by the attachment and entry of virus particles into a hepatocyte. Replication of the HCV genome inside hepatocytes leads to accumulation of large amounts of viral proteins and RNA replication intermediates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), resulting in production of thousands of new virus particles. HCV-infected hepatocytes mount a substantial stress response. How the infected hepatocyte integrates the viral-induced stress response with chronic infection is unknown. The unfolded protein response (UPR), an ER-associated cellular transcriptional response, is activated in HCV infected hepatocytes. Over the past several years, research performed by a number of laboratories, including ours, has shown that HCV induced UPR robustly activates autophagy to sustain viral replication in the infected hepatocyte. Induction of the cellular autophagy response is required to improve survival of infected cells by inhibition of cellular apoptosis. The autophagy response also inhibits the cellular innate antiviral program that usually inhibits HCV replication. In this review, we discuss the physiological implications of the HCV-induced chronic ER-stress response in the liver disease progression. PMID:27223299

  14. Mechanism and role of MCP-1 upregulation upon chikungunya virus infection in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Silva, Mariana; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Mulder, H Lie; Smit, Jolanda M; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2)-mediated migration of monocytes is essential for immunological surveillance of tissues. During chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection however, excessive production of MCP-1 has been linked to disease pathogenesis. High MCP-1 serum levels are detected during the viremic phase of CHIKV infection and correlate with the virus titre. In vitro CHIKV infection was also shown to stimulate MCP-1 production in whole blood; yet the role and the mechanism of MCP-1 production upon infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells remain unknown. Here we found that active CHIKV infection stimulated production of MCP-1 in monocytes. Importantly however, we found that communication with other leukocytes is crucial to yield MCP-1 by monocytes upon CHIKV infection. Indeed, blocking interferon-α/β receptor or the JAK1/JAK2 signalling downstream of the receptor abolished CHIKV-mediated MCP-1 production. Additionally, we show that despite the apparent correlation between IFN type I, CHIKV replication and MCP-1, modulating the levels of the chemokine did not influence CHIKV infection. In summary, our data disclose the complexity of MCP-1 regulation upon CHIKV infection and point to a crucial role of IFNβ in the chemokine secretion. We propose that balance between these soluble factors is imperative for an appropriate host response to CHIKV infection. PMID:27558873

  15. Spontaneous abortion in multiple pregnancy: focus on fetal pathology.

    PubMed

    Joó, József Gábor; Csaba, Ákos; Szigeti, Zsanett; Rigó, János

    2012-08-15

    Multiple pregnancy with its wide array of medical consequences poses an important condition during pregnancy. We performed perinatal autopsy in 49 cases of spontaneous abortion resulting from multiple pregnancies during the study period. Twenty-seven of the 44 twin pregnancies ending in miscarriage were conceived naturally, whereas 17 were conceived through assisted reproductive techniques. Each of the 5 triplet pregnancies ending in miscarriage was conceived through assisted reproductive techniques. There was a positive history of miscarriage in 22.4% of the cases. Monochorial placentation occurred more commonly in multiple pregnancies terminating with miscarriage than in multiple pregnancies without miscarriage. A fetal congenital malformation was found in 8 cases. Three of these cases were conceived through assisted reproductive techniques, and 5 were conceived naturally. Miscarriage was due to intrauterine infection in 36% of the cases. Our study confirms that spontaneous abortion is more common in multiple than in singleton pregnancies. Monochorial placentation predicted a higher fetal morbidity and mortality. In pregnancies where all fetuses were of male gender, miscarriage was more common than in pregnancies where all fetuses were female. Assisted reproductive techniques do not predispose to the development of fetal malformations.

  16. [Cytotec and abortion: the police, the vendors and women].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Madeiro, Alberto

    2012-07-01

    This paper analyzes the illegal trade in misoprostol, the medication predominantly used for abortion in Brazil. The study analyzed ten cases that came to the attention of the Public Prosecution Service for the Federal District between 2004 and 2010. The cases were organized into three categories: 1. women's stories; 2. profile of the vendors; 3. maternal mortality cases. The research was reviewed by an ethics committee. The main outcomes were: 1. young women in steady relationships use misoprostol in the home or with the assistance of drug vendors. Of the seven women indicted, three were reported on arrival at the public hospital to finalize abortion; 2. the drug vendors work at the community drugstore and are local agents for the sale of misoprostol. They instruct women on how to use the drug and how to prevent infections, but refuse to provide them with care in case of emergency. Traffickers operate via the internet and have a larger inventory of drugs; 3. there were two cases of maternal mortality due to the combination of high risk methods, such as a vaginal probe and misoprostol. The main causes for maternal mortality are the delay in seeking medical care, as the women fear criminal prosecution, and the combined use of misoprostol with high risk methods. PMID:22872341

  17. Factors contributes to spontaneous abortion caused by Listeria monocytogenes, in Tehran, Iran, 2015.

    PubMed

    Pourkaveh, B; Ahmadi, M; Eslami, G; Gachkar, L

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous abortion is the loss of a fetus before the 20th week of pregnancy, when occurring naturally without any surgical or pharmaceutical intervention. On the other hand, Listeria monocytogenes, as one of the foodborne pathogens, is a causative agent of listeriosis. The transfer of L. monocytogenes in pregnant women occurs as self-limited flu-like symptoms which may result in abortion, stillbirth or premature birth of infected infants. The purpose of this study was the identification of Listeria monocytogenes risk factors in women with spontaneous abortion admitted to Tehran Province health care centers in 2015. In this cross-sectional study, 317 women were examined for L. monocytogenes using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and the related risk factors. Two questionnaires on "L. monocytogenes Probable Risk Factors" and "Socio Economic Factors" were completed. Out of 317 samples of vaginal swabs, 54 (17%) isolates of L. monocytogenes were identified. In addition significant differences in terms of age of mother and her husband, mother and the husband's level of education , house prices, place of residence, gestational age of first abortion, gestational age of current abortion, gestational age of second abortion, consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, consumption of feta and soft cheese, consumption of smoked see food products, consumption of processed meat products and half-cooked meat products, consumption of ready-to-eat vegetables, history of contact with domestic animals three month before pregnancy and during pregnancy and consumption of smoked meat products during pregnancy were studied between two groups of patients positive and negative with L. monocytogens (P < 0.001). Based on the study, the detection of L. monocytogens risk factor during pregnancy as well as taking the issue into account while giving information and counseling in pregnancy can be vital to reduce the incidence of this bacterium and subsequently its side effects during

  18. Factors contributes to spontaneous abortion caused by Listeria monocytogenes, in Tehran, Iran, 2015.

    PubMed

    Pourkaveh, B; Ahmadi, M; Eslami, G; Gachkar, L

    2016-08-29

    Spontaneous abortion is the loss of a fetus before the 20th week of pregnancy, when occurring naturally without any surgical or pharmaceutical intervention. On the other hand, Listeria monocytogenes, as one of the foodborne pathogens, is a causative agent of listeriosis. The transfer of L. monocytogenes in pregnant women occurs as self-limited flu-like symptoms which may result in abortion, stillbirth or premature birth of infected infants. The purpose of this study was the identification of Listeria monocytogenes risk factors in women with spontaneous abortion admitted to Tehran Province health care centers in 2015. In this cross-sectional study, 317 women were examined for L. monocytogenes using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and the related risk factors. Two questionnaires on "L. monocytogenes Probable Risk Factors" and "Socio Economic Factors" were completed. Out of 317 samples of vaginal swabs, 54 (17%) isolates of L. monocytogenes were identified. In addition significant differences in terms of age of mother and her husband, mother and the husband's level of education , house prices, place of residence, gestational age of first abortion, gestational age of current abortion, gestational age of second abortion, consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, consumption of feta and soft cheese, consumption of smoked see food products, consumption of processed meat products and half-cooked meat products, consumption of ready-to-eat vegetables, history of contact with domestic animals three month before pregnancy and during pregnancy and consumption of smoked meat products during pregnancy were studied between two groups of patients positive and negative with L. monocytogens (P < 0.001). Based on the study, the detection of L. monocytogens risk factor during pregnancy as well as taking the issue into account while giving information and counseling in pregnancy can be vital to reduce the incidence of this bacterium and subsequently its side effects during

  19. Outbreak of Abortions and Infertility in Thoroughbred Mares Associated with Waterborne Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Singh, B R; Gulati, B R; Virmani, Nitin; Chauhan, Mamta

    2011-06-01

    At a thoroughbred equine breeding farm near Hissar (Haryana), three mares aborted in their seventh month of pregnancy. The vaginal swabs of all aborted mares, and stomach contents, heart blood, liver, spleen and placenta of aborted fetuses yielded pure culture of Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, A. hydrophila was also isolated from the vaginal swabs of three repeat breeding mares and faecal sample of a diarrheic foal. The source of infection was possibly water supply as all the water samples collected from taps, mother tank and storage tank were found to be positive for A. hydrophila. The antibiogram of all the isolates was similar showing resistance to ampicillin, carbenicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin and amikacin but sensitive to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cotrimoxazole, cotrimazine, nitrofurantoin, streptomycin and tetracycline. All the 20 sera samples collected from three aborted and three repeat breeding, and eight in-contact mares, a diarrheic foal, three cows and two male buffaloes maintained at the same farm contained antibodies against A. hydrophila with titres ranging from 80 to 640. The water supply was instantly chlorinated using 0.05% sodium hypochlorite for three consecutive days and all the culturally positive mares were treated with intravaginal administration of 1 g ciprofloxacin, while the foal was given nitrofurantoin for three days. After one month, A. hydrophila could not be isolated either from mares or from their environment and antibody titre in all the seropositive animals showed a declining trend. Later, all the aborted and repeat breeding mares were confirmed to be pregnant. Thus, the present study indicated that water-borne A. hydrophila might be associated with equine abortions and infertility, and diarrhea in newborn foals.

  20. Endocarditis tricuspid sub-aigue of post abortion: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Codjo, Léopold Houétondji; Savi de Tove, Kofi-Mensa; Hounkponou, Fanny Ahouingnan; Dohou, Serge Hugues Mahougnon; Houenassi, Martin Dàdonougbo

    2015-03-23

    Tricuspid infective endocarditis is rare and represents five to 10% of all cases of infective endocarditis. It occurs predominantly in intravenous drug users, and patients with central venous catheters or intracardiac probes. We report on the case of subacute tricuspid infective endocarditis in a girl of 17 years. She had no particular cardiovascular history. She was admitted for a persistent fever with cachexy, cough and thoracic pains, and right heart failure that appeared one month after a clandestine abortion. Transthoracic echocardiography found several vegetations on the tricuspid valve with massive tricuspid regurgitation. The chest X-ray showed bilateral excavated lung abscesses and condensation areas. Blood culture was not done and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy was given. She was apyretic after 10 days. However, the massive tricuspid regurgitation with right heart failure persisted. She was discharged from hospital after 40 days of treatment. Although rare, infective endocarditis is one of the more serious complications of gynaecological procedures, particularly clandestine abortion. Therefore any young girl with persistent fever must be suspected of clandestine abortion.