Science.gov

Sample records for above-cloud precipitable water

  1. Above-Cloud Precipitable Water Retrievals using the MODIS 0.94 micron Band with Applications for Multi-Layer Cloud Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, S.; Wind, G.

    2004-01-01

    In order to perform satellite retrievals of cloud properties, it is important to account for the effect of the above-cloud atmosphere on the observations. The solar bands used in the operational MODIS Terra and Aqua cloud optical and microphysical algorithms (visible, NIR, and SWIR spectral windows) are primarily affected by water vapor, and to a lesser extent by well-mixed gases. For water vapor, the above-cloud column amount, or precipitable water, provides adequate information for an atmospheric correction; details of the vertical vapor distribution are not typically necessary for the level of correction required. Cloud-top pressure has a secondary effect due to pressure broadening influences. For well- mixed gases, cloud-top pressure is also required for estimates of above-cloud abundances. We present a method for obtaining above-cloud precipitable water over dark Ocean surfaces using the MODIS 0.94 pm vapor absorption band. The retrieval includes an iterative procedure for establishing cloud-top temperature and pressure, and is useful for both single layer water and ice clouds. Knowledge of cloud thermodynamic phase is fundamental in retrieving cloud optical and microphysical properties. However, in cases of optically thin cirrus overlapping lower water clouds, the concept of a single unique phase is ill- defined and depends, at least, on the spectral region of interest. We will present a method for multi-layer and multi-phase cloud detection which uses above-cloud precipitable water retrievals along with several existing MODIS operational cloud products (cloud-top pressure derived from a C02 slicing algorithm, IR and SWIR phase retrievals). Results are catagorized by whether the radiative signature in the MODIS solar bands is primarily that of a water cloud with ice cloud contamination, or visa-versa. Examples in polar and mid-latitude regions will be shown.

  2. Global Analysis of Aerosol Properties Above Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waquet, F.; Peers, F.; Ducos, F.; Goloub, P.; Platnick, S. E.; Riedi, J.; Tanre, D.; Thieuleux, F.

    2013-01-01

    The seasonal and spatial varability of Aerosol Above Cloud (AAC) properties are derived from passive satellite data for the year 2008. A significant amount of aerosols are transported above liquid water clouds on the global scale. For particles in the fine mode (i.e., radius smaller than 0.3 m), including both clear sky and AAC retrievals increases the global mean aerosol optical thickness by 25(+/- 6%). The two main regions with man-made AAC are the tropical Southeast Atlantic, for biomass burning aerosols, and the North Pacific, mainly for pollutants. Man-made AAC are also detected over the Arctic during the spring. Mineral dust particles are detected above clouds within the so-called dust belt region (5-40 N). AAC may cause a warming effect and bias the retrieval of the cloud properties. This study will then help to better quantify the impacts of aerosols on clouds and climate.

  3. On the source of organic acid aerosol layers above clouds.

    PubMed

    Sorooshian, Armin; Lu, Miao-Ling; Brechtel, Fred J; Jonsson, Haflidi; Feingold, Graham; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2007-07-01

    During the July 2005 Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) and the August-September 2006 Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS), the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter probed aerosols and cumulus clouds in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of northern California and in southeastern Texas, respectively. An on-board particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) quantified inorganic and organic acid species with < or = 5-min time resolution. Ubiquitous organic aerosol layers above cloud with enhanced organic acid levels were observed in both locations. The data suggest that aqueous-phase reactions to produce organic acids, mainly oxalic acid, followed by droplet evaporation is a source of elevated organic acid aerosol levels above cloud. Oxalic acid is observed to be produced more efficiently relative to sulfate as the cloud liquid water content increases, corresponding to larger and less acidic droplets. As derived from large eddy simulations of stratocumulus underthe conditions of MASE, both Lagrangian trajectory analysis and diurnal cloudtop evolution provide evidence that a significant fraction of the aerosol mass concentration above cloud can be accounted for by evaporated droplet residual particles. Methanesulfonate data suggest that entrainment of free tropospheric aerosol can also be a source of organic acids above boundary layer clouds.

  4. Total Precipitable Water

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    The simulation was performed on 64K cores of Intrepid, running at 0.25 simulated-years-per-day and taking 25 million core-hours. This is the first simulation using both the CAM5 physics and the highly scalable spectral element dynamical core. The animation of Total Precipitable Water clearly shows hurricanes developing in the Atlantic and Pacific.

  5. Measurement-based estimates of direct radiative effects of absorbing aerosols above clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Nan; Christopher, Sundar A.

    2015-07-01

    The elevated layers of absorbing smoke aerosols from western African (e.g., Gabon and Congo) biomass burning activities have been frequently observed above low-level stratocumulus clouds off the African coast, which presents an excellent natural laboratory for studying the effects of aerosols above clouds (AAC) on regional energy balance in tropical and subtropical environments. Using spatially and temporally collocated Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System data sets, the top-of-atmosphere shortwave aerosol direct shortwave radiative effects (ARE) of absorbing aerosols above low-level water clouds in the southeast Atlantic Ocean was examined in this study. The regional averaged instantaneous ARE has been estimated to be 36.7 ± 20.5 Wm-2 (regional mean ± standard deviation) along with a mean positive OMI Aerosol Index at 1.3 in August 2006 based on multisensors measurements. The highest magnitude of instantaneous ARE can even reach 138.2 Wm-2. We assess that the 660 nm cloud optical depth (COD) values of 8-12 is the critical value above (below) which aerosol absorption (scattering) effect dominates and further produces positive (negative) ARE values. The results further show that ARE values are more sensitive to aerosols above lower COD values than cases for higher COD values. This is among the first studies to provide quantitative estimates of shortwave ARE due to AAC events from an observational perspective.

  6. Using OMI Observations to Measure Aerosol Absorption of Biomass Burning Aerosols Above Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar; Bhartia, P. K.; Jethva, Hiren

    2011-01-01

    The presence of absorbing aerosol layers above clouds is unambiguously detected by the TOMS/OMI UV Aerosol Index (AI) that uses satellite observations at two near-UV channels. A sensitivity study using radiative transfer calculations shows that the AI signal of resulting from the presence of aerosols above clouds is mainly driven by the aerosol absorption optical depth and the optical depth of the underlying cloud. Based on these results, an inversion algorithm has been developed to retrieve the aerosol optical depth (AOD) of aerosol layers above clouds. In this presentation we will discuss the sensitivity analysis, describe the retrieval approach, and present results of applications of the retrieval method to OMI observations over the South Atlantic Ocean. Preliminary error analyses, to be discussed, indicate that the AOD can be underestimated (up to -30%) or overestimated (up to 60%) depending on algorithmic assumptions.

  7. New Directions: Emerging Satellite Observations of Above-cloud Aerosols and Direct Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Hongbin; Zhang, Zhibo

    2013-01-01

    Spaceborne lidar and passive sensors with multi-wavelength and polarization capabilities onboard the A-Train provide unprecedented opportunities of observing above-cloud aerosols and direct radiative forcing. Significant progress has been made in recent years in exploring these new aerosol remote sensing capabilities and generating unique datasets. The emerging observations will advance the understanding of aerosol climate forcing.

  8. Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth Above Clouds from OMI Observations: Sensitivity Analysis, Case Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Jethva, H.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    A large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol load reaching the free troposphere is frequently located above low clouds. Most commonly observed aerosols above clouds are carbonaceous particles generally associated with biomass burning and boreal forest fires, and mineral aerosols originated in arid and semi-arid regions and transported across large distances, often above clouds. Because these aerosols absorb solar radiation, their role in the radiative transfer balance of the earth atmosphere system is especially important. The generally negative (cooling) top of the atmosphere direct effect of absorbing aerosols, may turn into warming when the light-absorbing particles are located above clouds. The actual effect depends on the aerosol load and the single scattering albedo, and on the geometric cloud fraction. In spite of its potential significance, the role of aerosols above clouds is not adequately accounted for in the assessment of aerosol radiative forcing effects due to the lack of measurements. In this paper we discuss the basis of a simple technique that uses near-UV observations to simultaneously derive the optical depth of both the aerosol layer and the underlying cloud for overcast conditions. The two-parameter retrieval method described here makes use of the UV aerosol index and reflectance measurements at 388 nm. A detailed sensitivity analysis indicates that the measured radiances depend mainly on the aerosol absorption exponent and aerosol-cloud separation. The technique was applied to above-cloud aerosol events over the Southern Atlantic Ocean yielding realistic results as indicated by indirect evaluation methods. An error analysis indicates that for typical overcast cloudy conditions and aerosol loads, the aerosol optical depth can be retrieved with an accuracy of approximately 54% whereas the cloud optical depth can be derived within 17% of the true value.

  9. Absorbing Aerosols Above Cloud: Detection, Quantitative Retrieval, and Radiative Forcing from Satellite-based Passive Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethva, H.; Torres, O.; Remer, L. A.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Light absorbing particles such as carbonaceous aerosols generated from biomass burning activities and windblown dust particles can exert a net warming effect on climate; the strength of which depends on the absorption capacity of the particles and brightness of the underlying reflecting background. When advected over low-level bright clouds, these aerosols absorb the cloud reflected radiation from ultra-violet (UV) to shortwave-IR (SWIR) and makes cloud scene darker-a phenomenon commonly known as "cloud darkening". The apparent "darkening" effect can be seen by eyes in satellite images as well as quantitatively in the spectral reflectance measurements made by space borne sensors over regions where light absorbing carbonaceous and dust aerosols overlay low-level cloud decks. Theoretical radiative transfer simulations support the observational evidence, and further reveal that the strength of the cloud darkening and its spectral signature (or color ratio) between measurements at two wavelengths are a bi-function of aerosol and cloud optical thickness (AOT and COT); both are measures of the total amount of light extinction caused by aerosols and cloud, respectively. Here, we developed a retrieval technique, named as the "color ratio method" that uses the satellite measurements at two channels, one at shorter wavelength in the visible and one at longer wavelength in the shortwave-IR for the simultaneous retrieval of AOT and COT. The present technique requires assumptions on the aerosol single-scattering albedo and aerosol-cloud separation which are supplemented by the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and space borne CALIOP lidar measurements. The retrieval technique has been tested making use of the near-UV and visible reflectance observations made by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for distinct above-cloud smoke and dust aerosol events observed seasonally over the southeast and tropical Atlantic Ocean

  10. Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation.

    PubMed

    Whiteway, J A; Komguem, L; Dickinson, C; Cook, C; Illnicki, M; Seabrook, J; Popovici, V; Duck, T J; Davy, R; Taylor, P A; Pathak, J; Fisher, D; Carswell, A I; Daly, M; Hipkin, V; Zent, A P; Hecht, M H; Wood, S E; Tamppari, L K; Renno, N; Moores, J E; Lemmon, M T; Daerden, F; Smith, P H

    2009-07-01

    The light detection and ranging instrument on the Phoenix mission observed water-ice clouds in the atmosphere of Mars that were similar to cirrus clouds on Earth. Fall streaks in the cloud structure traced the precipitation of ice crystals toward the ground. Measurements of atmospheric dust indicated that the planetary boundary layer (PBL) on Mars was well mixed, up to heights of around 4 kilometers, by the summer daytime turbulence and convection. The water-ice clouds were detected at the top of the PBL and near the ground each night in late summer after the air temperature started decreasing. The interpretation is that water vapor mixed upward by daytime turbulence and convection forms ice crystal clouds at night that precipitate back toward the surface.

  11. Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation.

    PubMed

    Whiteway, J A; Komguem, L; Dickinson, C; Cook, C; Illnicki, M; Seabrook, J; Popovici, V; Duck, T J; Davy, R; Taylor, P A; Pathak, J; Fisher, D; Carswell, A I; Daly, M; Hipkin, V; Zent, A P; Hecht, M H; Wood, S E; Tamppari, L K; Renno, N; Moores, J E; Lemmon, M T; Daerden, F; Smith, P H

    2009-07-01

    The light detection and ranging instrument on the Phoenix mission observed water-ice clouds in the atmosphere of Mars that were similar to cirrus clouds on Earth. Fall streaks in the cloud structure traced the precipitation of ice crystals toward the ground. Measurements of atmospheric dust indicated that the planetary boundary layer (PBL) on Mars was well mixed, up to heights of around 4 kilometers, by the summer daytime turbulence and convection. The water-ice clouds were detected at the top of the PBL and near the ground each night in late summer after the air temperature started decreasing. The interpretation is that water vapor mixed upward by daytime turbulence and convection forms ice crystal clouds at night that precipitate back toward the surface. PMID:19574386

  12. Extending MODIS Deep Blue Aerosol Retrieval Coverage to Cases of Absorbing Aerosols Above Clouds: First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Lee, J.; Redemann, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Schmid, B.

    2015-01-01

    Absorbing smoke or mineral dust aerosols above clouds (AAC) are a frequent occurrence in certain regions and seasons. Operational aerosol retrievals from sensors like MODIS omit AAC because they are designed to work only over cloud-free scenes. However, AAC can in principle be quantified by these sensors in some situations (e.g. Jethva et al., 2013; Meyer et al., 2013). We present a summary of some analyses of the potential of MODIS-like instruments for this purpose, along with two case studies using airborne observations from the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS; http://geo.arc.nasa.gov/sgg/AATS-website/) as a validation data source for a preliminary AAC algorithm applied to MODIS measurements. AAC retrievals will eventually be added to the MODIS Deep Blue (Hsu et al., 2013) processing chain.

  13. Neural Networks algorithm development for polarimetric observations of above cloud aerosols (ACA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Redemann, J.

    2015-12-01

    The direct and indirect radiative effects of above clouds aerosols (ACA) are still highly uncertain in current climate assessments. Much of this uncertainty is observational as most orbital remote sensing algorithms were not designed to simultaneously retrieve aerosol and cloud optical properties. Recently, several algorithms have been developed to infer ACA loading and properties using passive, single view angle instruments (OMI, MODIS). Yet, these are not operational and still require rigorous validation. Multiangle polarimetric instruments like POLDER, and RSP show promise for detection and quantification of ACA. However, the retrieval methods for polarimetric measurements entail some drawbacks such as assuming homogeneity of the underlying cloud field for POLDER and retrieved cloud effective radii as an input into RSP scheme. In addition, these methods require computationally expensive RT calculations, which precludes real-time polarimetric data analysis during field campaigns. Here we describe the development of a new algorithm to retrieve atmospheric aerosol and cloud optical properties from observations by polarimetrically sensitive instruments using Neural Networks (NN), which are computationally efficient and fast enough to produce results in the field. This algorithm is specific for ACA, and developed primarily to support the ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) campaign, which will acquire measurements of ACA in the South-East Atlantic Ocean during episodes of absorbing aerosols above Stratocumulus cloud decks in 2016-18. The algorithm will use a trained NN scheme for concurrent cloud and aerosol microphysical property retrievals that will be input to optimal estimation method. We will discuss the overall retrieval scheme, focusing on the input variables. Specifically, we use principle component analysis (PCA) to examine the information content available to describe the simulated cloud scenes (with adequate noise

  14. Precipitation Recycling and the Vertical Distribution of Local and Remote Sources of Water for Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Precipitation recycling is defined as the amount of water that evaporates from a region that precipitates within the same region. This is also interpreted as the local source of water for precipitation. In this study, the local and remote sources of water for precipitation have been diagnosed through the use of passive constituent tracers that represent regional evaporative sources along with their transport and precipitation. We will discuss the differences between this method and the simpler bulk diagnostic approach to precipitation recycling. A summer seasonal simulation has been analyzed for the regional sources of the United States Great Plains precipitation. While the tropical Atlantic Ocean (including the Gulf of Mexico) and the local continental sources of precipitation are most dominant, the vertically integrated column of water contains substantial water content originating from the Northern Pacific Ocean, which is not precipitated. The vertical profiles of regional water sources indicate that local Great Plains source of water dominates the lower troposphere, predominantly in the PBL. However, the Pacific Ocean source is dominant over a large portion of the middle to upper troposphere. The influence of the tropical Atlantic Ocean is reasonably uniform throughout the column. While the results are not unexpected given the formulation of the model's convective parameterization, the analysis provides a quantitative assessment of the impact of local evaporation on the occurrence of convective precipitation in the GCM. Further, these results suggest that local source of water is not well mixed throughout the vertical column.

  15. Investigating the frequency and trends in global above-cloud aerosol characteristics with CALIOP and OMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro-Contreras, R.; Zhang, J.; Campbell, J. R.; Reid, J. S.

    2015-02-01

    Seven and a half years (June 2006-November 2013) of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aerosol and cloud layer products are compared with collocated Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Aerosol Index (AI) data and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud products, to investigate variability in estimates of bi-annual and monthly above-cloud aerosol (ACA) events globally. The active- (CALIOP) and passive-based (OMI-MODIS) techniques have their advantages and caveats for ACA detection, and thus both are used to get a thorough and robust comparison of daytime cloudy-sky ACA distribution and climatology. For the first time, baseline above-cloud aerosol optical depth (ACAOD) and AI thresholds are derived and examined (AI = 1.0, ACAOD = 0.015) for each sensor. Both OMI-MODIS and CALIOP-based daytime spatial distributions of ACA events show similar patterns during both study periods (December-May) and (June-November). Divergence exists in some regions, however, such as Southeast Asia during June through November, where daytime cloudy-sky ACA frequencies of up to 10% are found from CALIOP yet are non-existent from the OMI-based method. Conversely, annual cloudy-sky ACA frequencies of 20-30% are reported over Northern Africa from the OMI-based method, yet are largely undetected by the CALIOP-based method. This is possibly due to a misclassification of thick dust plumes as clouds by the OMI-MODIS based method. An increasing trend of ~0.5% per year (since 2009) in global monthly cloudy-sky ACA daytime frequency of occurrence is found using the OMI-MODIS based method. Yet, CALIOP-based global daytime ACA frequencies exhibit a near-zero trend. Further analysis suggests that the OMI derived cloudy-sky ACA frequency trend may be affected by OMI row anomalies in later years. A few regions are found to have increasing trends of cloudy-sky ACA frequency, including the Middle-East and India. Regions with slightly negative cloudy-sky ACA

  16. Precipitation Nonstationarity Effects on Water Infrastructure and Risk Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The non-stationary precipitation regime, as increasingly recognized, affects the engineering basis and service functions of drinking water, wastewater, and stormwater infrastructures in urban centers. Small, yet significant rates of temporal precipitation change and diverse spat...

  17. AIRS total precipitable water over high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, H.; Fetzer, E. J.; Bromwich, D. H.; Fishbein, E.; Olsen, E. T.; Granger, S.; Lee, S.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Chen, L.

    2006-12-01

    Given the importance of atmospheric conditions over the Arctic and Antarctica to the global climate system, hydrological cycles, and cryopspheric dynamics, and the poor coverage of traditional data over these region, AIRS data will play a significant role in filling the information gaps. In this study, we examine the quality of AIRS total atmospheric precipitable water (PWV) and explore its potential applications over the Antarctica and Arctic. For Antarctica, both Level II matching files and Level III gridded products of AIRS are compared with radiosonde records at Dome C and ECMWF's analysis products during December 10, 2003 to January 26, 2004. Results will testify to the quality of AIRS moisture data over glacial surfaces. For the Arctic region, AIRS level III data are used to compare with AMSR-E data and ECMWF analysis product during September of 2004. Results will reveal the quality of AIRS data over high-latitude water, sea ice, and land surfaces. The potential of AIRS data to improve model simulation will be discussed.

  18. A comparison of the optical pulse characteristics of intracloud and cloud-to-ground lightning as observed above clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Christian, Hugh J.; Rust, W. David

    1988-01-01

    The optical-pulse characteristics of intracloud (IC) and cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes were investigated. The time-resolved optical waveforms at 777.4 nm and electric-field changes produced by lightning flashes were measured aboard a U2 aircraft flying above clouds at the same time that ground-based lightning measurements were carried out. The pulse shapes and intensities of IC and CG flashes, as viewed from above cloud, were found to exhibit remarkably similar waveshapes, radiances, and radiant energy densities. The median radiance at cloud top was found to be about 0.007 W/sq m per sr, and the median energy density about 0.000003 J/sq m per sr.

  19. A ten-year global record of absorbing aerosols above clouds from OMI's near-UV observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethva, Hiren; Torrres, Omar; Ahn, Changwoo

    2016-05-01

    Aerosol-cloud interaction continues to be one of the leading uncertain components of climate models, primarily due to the lack of an adequate knowledge of the complex microphysical and radiative processes associated with the aerosolcloud system. The situations when aerosols and clouds are found in the same atmospheric column, for instance, when light-absorbing aerosols such as biomass burning generated carbonaceous particles or wind-blown dust overlay low-level cloud decks, are commonly found over several regional of the world. Contrary to the cloud-free scenario over dark surface, for which aerosols are known to produce a net cooling effect (negative radiative forcing) on climate, the overlapping situation of absorbing aerosols over cloud can potentially exert a significant level of atmospheric absorption and produces a positive radiative forcing at top-of-atmosphere. The magnitude of direct radiative effects of aerosols above cloud depends directly on the aerosol loading, microphysical-optical properties of the aerosol layer and the underlying cloud deck, and geometric cloud fraction. We help in addressing this problem by introducing a novel product of optical depth of absorbing aerosols above clouds retrieved from near-UV observations made by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board NASA's Aura platform. The presence of absorbing aerosols above cloud reduces the upwelling radiation reflected by cloud and produces a strong `color ratio' effect in the near-UV region, which can be unambiguously detected in the OMI measurements. Physically based on this effect, the OMACA algorithm retrieves the optical depths of aerosols and clouds simultaneously under a prescribed state of atmosphere. The algorithm architecture and results from a ten-year global record including global climatology of frequency of occurrence and above-cloud aerosol optical depth, and a discussion on related future field campaigns are presented.

  20. The Characterization of Extreme Episodes of Wet and Dry Deposition of Pollutants on an Above Cloud-Base Forest during its Growing Season.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defelice, T. P.; Saxena, V. K.

    1991-11-01

    An analysis of a 3-yr database (1986-88) acquired new Mount Mitchell (35°4405N, 82°1715W, 2038 m MSL) where the forest consists primarily of Fraser fir and some red spruce stands is presented. The site was immersed in clouds for 28%-41% of the time during each of the three growing seasons (15 May-15 September). This study only investigated extreme episodes of wet (cloud-water pH% .3:1)and dry (eg., an ozone concentration 70 ppb) acidic deposition. Extreme wet events occasionally relieved periods of high ozone ( 70 ppb) exposures during the final field intensive. Extreme wet and dry events could activate the decline mechanism in any above cloud-base forest, especially if the trees are exposed to such events during very early or very late stages of their Lives. The exposure of the forest to natural climatic stress, such as drought condition wintertime temperatures during the growing season, snow storm during early spring, etc., would also subject the forest to a stressful period during which the exposure to the aforementioned episodes of pollutant deposition might trigger a decline.On the average, one of three cloud events that traverse this site is extreme. These extreme events usually last about 4 h. form during periods of high atmospheric pressure, have a liquid water content of 0.10 g m3, and contain cloud droplets of mean diameter around 8.0 m. During the dissipating stages, such cloud events result in maximum acidic deposition. When such events are preceded by very high ozone ( 100 ppb), they may prove oven more detrimental to forest health. A precipitating cloud event (pH = 4.4 on the average) preceded by periods of very high ozone concentrations will become an extreme episode. Extreme acidic events can occur in association with 1) an 850-mb closed low, situated just north of Montreal, Canada, that advances southward into New York State, and 2) an 850-mb high extending over the Gulf of Mexico (between Florida and Louisiana) to over eastern Kansas. In

  1. A New Method for Near Real Time Precipitation Estimates Using a Derived Statistical Relationship between Precipitable Water Vapor and Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, J.

    2015-12-01

    The IPCC 5th Assessment found that the predicted warming of 1oC would increase the risk of extreme events such as heat waves, droughts, and floods. Weather extremes, like floods, have shown the vulnerability and susceptibility society has to these extreme weather events, through impacts such as disruption of food production, water supply, health, and damage of infrastructure. This paper examines a new way of near-real time forecasting of precipitation. A 10-year statistical climatological relationship was derived between precipitable water vapor (PWV) and precipitation by using the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder daily gridded PWV product and the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission daily gridded precipitation total. Forecasting precipitation estimates in real time is dire for flood monitoring and disaster management. Near real time PWV observations from AIRS on Aqua are available through the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Service Center. In addition, PWV observations are available through direct broadcast from the NASA Suomi-NPP ATMS/CrIS instrument, the operational follow on to AIRS. The derived climatological relationship can be applied to create precipitation estimates in near real time by utilizing the direct broadcasting capabilities currently available in the CONUS region. The application of this relationship will be characterized through case-studies by using near real-time NASA AIRS Science Team v6 PWV products and ground-based SuomiNet GPS to estimate the current precipitation potential; the max amount of precipitation that can occur based on the moisture availability. Furthermore, the potential contribution of using the direct broadcasting of the NUCAPS ATMS/CrIS PWV products will be demonstrated. The analysis will highlight the advantages of applying this relationship in near-real time for flash flood monitoring and risk management. Relevance to the NWS River Forecast Centers will be discussed.

  2. University of Oregon: GPS-based Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vignola, F.; Andreas, A.

    2013-08-22

    A partnership with the University of Oregon and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) data to compliment existing resource assessment data collection by the university.

  3. Effects of Surface Moisture on Precipitable Water and Precipitation in Southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, C.; Hsieh, M.; Liou, J.

    2010-12-01

    Precipitation plays a key role in meteorology and hydrology and is one of the most important issues for disaster mitigation in Taiwan. During and after the passage of typhoons, the cyclonic circulation and the frequently accompanying southwesterly flow often bring a huge amount of moisture and cause much precipitation in Taiwan, especially in the south. For example, Typhoon Morakot(2009) was the deadliest typhoon to impact Taiwan in recorded history. The extreme amount of rain triggered enormous mudslides and severe flooding throughout southern Taiwan. One mudslide buried the entire village of Shiaolin, killing an estimated 500 people in the village alone. Using upper-air sounding data from stations in southern Taiwan, we relate the surface moisture to the total precipitable water and a statistical relationship between the surface dew point and the natural logarithm of total precipitable water is found. Further, the link between total precipitable water and the occurrence of precipitation is examined and can be used as a quick guide for weather and flood forecasts.

  4. Evaluating cloud precipitation efficiency with satellite retrievals of water isotopologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, A.; Noone, D. C.; Wood, R.

    2015-12-01

    The efficiency with which clouds precipitate is believed to influence climate by modifying cloud lifetime and, ultimately, cloud amount. Aerosols can influence this linkage by reducing the effective radii of cloud droplets and suppressing precipitation. This relationship, however, is not unidirectional. Cloud precipitation efficiency can also regulate particle concentrations, since precipitation effectively scavenges aerosols from the atmosphere. One challenge in studying how aerosols, clouds, and precipitation processes interrelate is that observational constraints are difficult to attain. This work evaluates the ability of isotope ratios in water vapor to quantify cloud precipitation efficiency across the tropical and subtropical oceans. Theory suggests isotope ratios will record the precipitation efficiency of a convective plume, since heavier isotopologues precipitate preferentially; and a recent analysis of in situ measurements from the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO, Hawaii, USA) verifies this to be the case. The challenge now lies in understanding whether satellite retrievals of isotope ratios in water vapor are sensitive enough to track precipitation efficiency globally. To answer this question, vertical profiles of the D/H ratio derived from NASA's Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) are first compared with the MLO in situ measurements. A qualitative match indicates the satellite retrievals can distinguish high from low precipitation efficiency convection. To expand the analysis geographically, TES profiles between 40°S and 40°N are compared with estimates of precipitation efficiency derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and ECMWF's ERA-Interim. Retrievals are binned by lower-tropospheric humidity and by vertical velocity in order to minimize large-scale thermodynamical influences. Co-located cloud retrievals provide the context necessary to evaluate the utility of these new estimates in elucidating cloud feedbacks on climate.

  5. Measurement of atmospheric precipitable water using a solar radiometer. [water vapor absorption effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. E.; Dillinger, A. E.; Mcallum, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is described and tested that allows the determination of atmospheric precipitable water from two measurements of solar intensity: one in a water-vapor absorption band and another in a nearby spectral region unaffected by water vapor.

  6. Effect of antiscalants on precipitation of an RO concentrate: metals precipitated and particle characteristics for several water compositions.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Lauren F; Testa, Fabrice; Lawler, Desmond F; Freeman, Benny D; Moulin, Philippe

    2010-04-01

    Inland brackish water reverse osmosis (RO) is economically and technically limited by the large volume of salty waste (concentrate) produced. The use of a controlled precipitation step, followed by solid/liquid separation (filtration), has emerged as a promising side-stream treatment process to treat reverse osmosis concentrate and increase overall system recovery. The addition of antiscalants to the RO feed prevents precipitation within the membrane system but might have a deleterious effect on a concentrate treatment process that uses precipitation to remove problematic precipitates. The effects of antiscalant type and concentration on salt precipitation and precipitate particle morphology were evaluated for several water compositions. The primary precipitate for the synthetic brackish waters tested was calcium carbonate; the presence of magnesium, sulfate, minor ions, and antiscalant compounds affected the amount of calcium precipitated, as well as the phases of calcium carbonate formed during precipitation. Addition of antiscalant decreased calcium precipitation but increased incorporation of magnesium and sulfate into precipitating calcium carbonate. Antiscalants prevented the growth of nucleated precipitates, resulting in the formation of small (100-200 nm diameter) particles, as well as larger (6-10 microm) particles. Elemental analysis revealed changes in composition and calcium carbonate polymorph with antiscalant addition and antiscalant type. Results indicate that the presence of antiscalants does reduce the extent of calcium precipitation and can worsen subsequent filtration performance.

  7. Effect of antiscalants on precipitation of an RO concentrate: metals precipitated and particle characteristics for several water compositions.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Lauren F; Testa, Fabrice; Lawler, Desmond F; Freeman, Benny D; Moulin, Philippe

    2010-04-01

    Inland brackish water reverse osmosis (RO) is economically and technically limited by the large volume of salty waste (concentrate) produced. The use of a controlled precipitation step, followed by solid/liquid separation (filtration), has emerged as a promising side-stream treatment process to treat reverse osmosis concentrate and increase overall system recovery. The addition of antiscalants to the RO feed prevents precipitation within the membrane system but might have a deleterious effect on a concentrate treatment process that uses precipitation to remove problematic precipitates. The effects of antiscalant type and concentration on salt precipitation and precipitate particle morphology were evaluated for several water compositions. The primary precipitate for the synthetic brackish waters tested was calcium carbonate; the presence of magnesium, sulfate, minor ions, and antiscalant compounds affected the amount of calcium precipitated, as well as the phases of calcium carbonate formed during precipitation. Addition of antiscalant decreased calcium precipitation but increased incorporation of magnesium and sulfate into precipitating calcium carbonate. Antiscalants prevented the growth of nucleated precipitates, resulting in the formation of small (100-200 nm diameter) particles, as well as larger (6-10 microm) particles. Elemental analysis revealed changes in composition and calcium carbonate polymorph with antiscalant addition and antiscalant type. Results indicate that the presence of antiscalants does reduce the extent of calcium precipitation and can worsen subsequent filtration performance. PMID:20172582

  8. Extending "Deep Blue" aerosol retrieval coverage to cases of absorbing aerosols above clouds: Sensitivity analysis and first case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Lee, J.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Shinozuka, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Cases of absorbing aerosols above clouds (AACs), such as smoke or mineral dust, are omitted from most routinely processed space-based aerosol optical depth (AOD) data products, including those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This study presents a sensitivity analysis and preliminary algorithm to retrieve above-cloud AOD and liquid cloud optical depth (COD) for AAC cases from MODIS or similar sensors, for incorporation into a future version of the "Deep Blue" AOD data product. Detailed retrieval simulations suggest that these sensors should be able to determine AAC AOD with a typical level of uncertainty ˜25-50% (with lower uncertainties for more strongly absorbing aerosol types) and COD with an uncertainty ˜10-20%, if an appropriate aerosol optical model is known beforehand. Errors are larger, particularly if the aerosols are only weakly absorbing, if the aerosol optical properties are not known, and the appropriate model to use must also be retrieved. Actual retrieval errors are also compared to uncertainty envelopes obtained through the optimal estimation (OE) technique; OE-based uncertainties are found to be generally reasonable for COD but larger than actual retrieval errors for AOD, due in part to difficulties in quantifying the degree of spectral correlation of forward model error. The algorithm is also applied to two MODIS scenes (one smoke and one dust) for which near-coincident NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sun photometer (AATS) data were available to use as a ground truth AOD data source, and found to be in good agreement, demonstrating the validity of the technique with real observations.

  9. Extending "Deep Blue" Aerosol Retrieval Coverage to Cases of Absorbing Aerosols Above Clouds: Sensitivity Analysis and First Case Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Lee, J.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Shinozuka, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Cases of absorbing aerosols above clouds (AACs), such as smoke or mineral dust, are omitted from most routinely processed space-based aerosol optical depth (AOD) data products, including those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This study presents a sensitivity analysis and preliminary algorithm to retrieve above-cloud AOD and liquid cloud optical depth (COD) for AAC cases from MODIS or similar sensors, for incorporation into a future version of the "Deep Blue" AOD data product. Detailed retrieval simulations suggest that these sensors should be able to determine AAC AOD with a typical level of uncertainty approximately 25-50 percent (with lower uncertainties for more strongly absorbing aerosol types) and COD with an uncertainty approximately10-20 percent, if an appropriate aerosol optical model is known beforehand. Errors are larger, particularly if the aerosols are only weakly absorbing, if the aerosol optical properties are not known, and the appropriate model to use must also be retrieved. Actual retrieval errors are also compared to uncertainty envelopes obtained through the optimal estimation (OE) technique; OE-based uncertainties are found to be generally reasonable for COD but larger than actual retrieval errors for AOD, due in part to difficulties in quantifying the degree of spectral correlation of forward model error. The algorithm is also applied to two MODIS scenes (one smoke and one dust) for which near-coincident NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sun photometer (AATS) data were available to use as a ground truth AOD data source, and found to be in good agreement, demonstrating the validity of the technique with real observations.

  10. Distribution of tritium in precipitation and surface water in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Patrick A.; Visser, Ate; Moran, Jean E.; Esser, Brad K.

    2016-03-01

    The tritium concentration in the surface hydrosphere throughout California was characterized to examine the reasons for spatial variability and to enhance the applicability of tritium in hydrological investigations. Eighteen precipitation samples were analyzed and 148 samples were collected from surface waters across California in the Summer and Fall of 2013, with repeat samples from some locations collected in Winter and Spring of 2014 to examine seasonal variation. The concentration of tritium in present day precipitation varied from 4.0 pCi/L near the California coast to 17.8 pCi/L in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Concentrations in precipitation increase in spring due to the 'Spring Leak' phenomenon. The average coastal concentration (6.3 ± 1.2 pCi/L) in precipitation matches estimated pre-nuclear levels. Surface water samples show a trend of increasing tritium with inland distance. Superimposed on that trend, elevated tritium concentrations are found in the San Francisco Bay area compared to other coastal areas, resulting from municipal water imported from inland mountain sources and local anthropogenic sources. Tritium concentrations in most surface waters decreased between Summer/Fall 2013 and Winter/Spring 2014 likely due to an increased groundwater signal as a result of drought conditions in 2014. A relationship between tritium and electrical conductivity in surface water was found to be indicative of water provenance and anthropogenic influences such as agricultural runoff. Despite low initial concentrations in precipitation, tritium continues to be a valuable tracer in a post nuclear bomb pulse world.

  11. Process Control for Precipitation Prevention in Space Water Recovery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Muirhead, Dean

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, rotary distillation systems have been actively pursued by NASA as one of the technologies for water recovery from wastewater primarily comprised of human urine. A specific area of interest is the prevention of the formation of solids that could clog fluid lines and damage rotating equipment. To mitigate the formation of solids, operational constraints are in place that limits such that the concentration of key precipitating ions in the wastewater brine are below the theoretical threshold. This control in effected by limiting the amount of water recovered such that the risk of reaching the precipitation threshold is within acceptable limits. The water recovery limit is based on an empirically derived worst case wastewater composition. During the batch process, water recovery is estimated by monitoring the throughput of the system. NASA Johnson Space Center is working on means of enhancing the process controls to increase water recovery. Options include more precise prediction of the precipitation threshold. To this end, JSC is developing a means of more accurately measuring the constituent of the brine and/or wastewater. Another means would be to more accurately monitor the throughput of the system. In spring of 2015, testing will be performed to test strategies for optimizing water recovery without increasing the risk of solids formation in the brine.

  12. Precipitation of salt in saline water drop on superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Bongsu; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Kim, Ho-Young

    2012-11-01

    In the membrane distillation process, water vapor of heated, pressurized saline water is transported across the membrane to be collected as pure water. While the water-repellency of the membrane surface has been considered an important parameter affecting the distillation efficiency, the resistance of the membrane to the contamination due to salt has gathered little scientific interest thus far. Here we experimentally investigate the precipitation of salt in sessile saline water drops, to find drastic differences in salt crystallization behavior depending on the water-repellency of solid surface. On a moderately hydrophobic surface with a static contact angle with water being about 150 degrees, salt crystals are aligned and stacked along the initial contact line, forming an interesting structure resembling an igloo. On a superhydrophobic surface with about 164 degrees of static contact angle with water, salt crystallizes only at the center of the drop-solid contact area, forming a pebble-shaped structure. We explain this difference by comparing the evaporation modes (constant contact radius versus constant contact angle) of the sessile drops on those surfaces. We also visualize the liquid flow within drops undergoing evaporation and precipitation at the same time using PIV.

  13. Comparison Between Water Level and Precipitation in Rio Negro Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figliuolo, G. C.; Santos Da Silva, J.; Calmant, S.; Seyler, F.; Correia, F.; Oliveira, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Amazon Basin holds a lot of difficulties for providing data that enable regional researching works, because of its large extension and for having areas, whose access is very difficult. Remote sensing data presents an excellent way for monitoring the Amazon Basin and collecting data for researches. This current study aims matching radar altimetry data from the JASON-2, with the rainfall data from the TRMM satellite in order to analyze the relation between the water level and the precipitation in two different points along the Rio Negro Basin. After data analysis, it was possible noting a difference on the responding process for both regions. Whilst at the NEGRO_089_03 station (located in the city of São Gabriel da Cachoeira) the graphic of precipitation and water level were very similar, in NEGRO_063 station (located in the city of Manaus) the graphic showed a two month discrepancy due to the difference of the river's bottom size in both regions, at NEGRO_089_03's area for having a smaller river and the water level rises faster, whereas in NEGRO_063 the water level takes about two months to respond to precipitation.

  14. Multi-wavelength Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Observations of Aerosol Above Clouds in California during DISCOVER-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostetler, C. A.; Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Rogers, R. R.; Mueller, D.; Chemyakin, E.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Anderson, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    Accurately representing the vertical profile of aerosols is important for determining their radiative impact, which is still one of the biggest uncertainties in climate forcing. Aerosol radiative forcing can be either positive or negative depending on aerosol absorption properties and underlying albedo. Therefore, accurately characterizing the vertical distribution of aerosols, and specifically aerosols above clouds, is vital to understanding climate change. Unlike passive sensors, airborne lidar has the capability to make vertically resolved aerosol measurements of aerosols above and between clouds. Recently, NASA Langley Research Center has built and deployed the world's first airborne multi-wavelength High Spectral Resolution Lidar, HSRL-2. The HSRL-2 instrument employs the HSRL technique to measure extinction at both 355 nm and 532 nm and also measures aerosol depolarization and backscatter at 355 nm, 532 nm and 1064 nm. Additional HSRL-2 data products include aerosol type and range-resolved aerosol microphysical parameters (e.g., effective radius, number concentration, and single scattering albedo). HSRL-2 was deployed in the San Joaquin Valley, California, from January 16 to February 6, 2013, on the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality). On February 6, the observation region was mostly cloudy, and HSRL-2 saw two distinct aerosol layers above the clouds. One layer was aged boundary-layer pollution located just above cloud top at approximately 1.5 km above sea level. An aged smoke layer was also observed over land and over the ocean at altitudes 4-7 km ASL. In this study, we will show HSRL-2 products for these cases, and compare them with airborne in situ measurements of the 1.5-km layer from a coincident flight of the NASA P3B. We will also compare and contrast the HSRL-2 measurements of these two aerosol layers with each other and the clear-air boundary

  15. A Novel Method for Estimating Shortwave Direct Radiative Effect of Above-Cloud Aerosols Using CALIOP and MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Meyer, Kerry G.; Platnick, Steven; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Lee, Dongmin; Yu, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient and unique method for computing the shortwave direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosol residing above low-level liquid-phase clouds using CALIOP and MODIS data. It addresses the overlap of aerosol and cloud rigorously by utilizing the joint histogram of cloud optical depth and cloud top pressure while also accounting for subgrid-scale variations of aerosols. The method is computationally efficient because of its use of grid-level cloud and aerosol statistics, instead of pixel-level products, and a pre-computed look-up table based on radiative transfer calculations. We verify that for smoke over the southeast Atlantic Ocean the method yields a seasonal mean instantaneous (approximately 1:30PM local time) shortwave DRE of above cloud aerosol (ACA) that generally agrees with more rigorous pixel-level computation within 4 percent. We also estimate the impact of potential CALIOP aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval bias of ACA on DRE. We find that the regional and seasonal mean instantaneous DRE of ACA over southeast Atlantic Ocean would increase, from the original value of 6.4 W m(-2) based on operational CALIOP AOD to 9.6 W m(-2) if CALIOP AOD retrieval are biased low by a factor of 1.5 (Meyer et al., 2013) and further to 30.9 W m(-2) if CALIOP AOD retrieval are biased low by a factor of 5 as suggested in (Jethva et al., 2014). In contrast, the instantaneous ACA radiative forcing efficiency (RFE) remains relatively invariant in all cases at about 53 W m(-2) AOD(-1), suggesting a near linear relation between the instantaneous RFE and AOD. We also compute the annual mean instantaneous shortwave DRE of light-absorbing aerosols (i.e., smoke and polluted dust) over global oceans based on 4 years of CALIOP and MODIS data. We find that the variability of the annual mean shortwave DRE of above-cloud light-absorbing aerosol is mainly driven by the optical depth of the underlying clouds. While we demonstrate our method using CALIOP and MODIS

  16. Shortwave Direct Radiative Effects of Above Cloud Aerosols Over Global Oceans Derived From Eight Years of CALIOP and MODIS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Meyer, K.; Yu, H.; Platnick, S. E.; Colarco, P. R.; Liu, Z.; Oreopoulos, L.

    2015-12-01

    Although aerosols are usually found in boundary layer beneath clouds, they can be elevated during long-range transport and rise above low-level clouds. In fact, above-cloud aerosols (ACA) are persistently observed in several regions of the globe during certain time of the year (Devasthale and Thomas, 2011; Winker et al., 2013). For example, marine-boundary layer clouds in SE Atlantic region are persistently covered by light-absorbing smoke aerosols originating from biomass burning acativities in African Savanna during austral winter (July ~ September). ACA is an important and interesting component of the climate system for a number of reasons, above all because its shortwave direct radiative effect (DRE) can differ significantly from that of clear-sky aerosols. The DRE of aerosols at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is strongly dependent on the underlying surface. Over dark surfaces (e.g. ocean surface), the scattering effect of aerosols is generally dominant, leading to negative DRE (i.e., cooling) at TOA. In contrast, when aerosols reside above clouds, their absorption effect can be significantly enhanced by cloud reflection, and offset or even exceed the scattering effect of the aerosol leading to a less negative or even positive (i.e., warming) DRE at TOA. In this study, we used 8 years of CALIOP and MODIS observations to derive the shortwave Direct of ACA over global oceans. We found in regions where ACAs are dominated by light absorbing aerosols (e.g., SE Atlantic and North Pacific), the cloudy-sky DRE at TOA due to ACA is generally positive, while in regions dominated by dust aerosols (e.g., North Atlantic and Arabian Sea) the DRE at TOA is generally negative (see Figure 7). The strongest positive TOA DRE is found in the SE Atlantic region during summer and fall with a seasonal mean over 0.4 W/m2. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to provide a global perspective on the DRE of ACA on global scale. Our results would be very useful for evaluating

  17. Retrieval, Inter-Comparison, and Validation of Above-Cloud Aerosol Optical Depth from A-train Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jethva, Hiren; Torres, Omar; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Remer, Lorraine; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen E.; Livingston, John; Shinozuka, Yohei; Kacenelenbogen, Meloe; Segal-Rosenbeimer, Michal; Spurr, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Absorbing aerosols produced from biomass burning and dust outbreaks are often found to overlay lower level cloud decks and pose greater potentials of exerting positive radiative effects (warming) whose magnitude directly depends on the aerosol loading above cloud, optical properties of clouds and aerosols, and cloud fraction. Recent development of a 'color ratio' (CR) algorithm applied to observations made by the Aura/OMI and Aqua/MODIS constitutes a major breakthrough and has provided unprecedented maps of above-cloud aerosol optical depth (ACAOD). The CR technique employs reflectance measurements at TOA in two channels (354 and 388 nm for OMI; 470 and 860 nm for MODIS) to retrieve ACAOD in near-UV and visible regions and aerosol-corrected cloud optical depth, simultaneously. An inter-satellite comparison of ACAOD retrieved from NASA's A-train sensors reveals a good level of agreement between the passive sensors over the homogeneous cloud fields. Direct measurements of ACA such as carried out by the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS) and Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) can be of immense help in validating ACA retrievals. We validate the ACA optical depth retrieved using the CR method applied to the MODIS cloudy-sky reflectance against the airborne AATS and 4STAR measurements. A thorough search of the historic AATS-4STAR database collected during different field campaigns revealed five events where biomass burning, dust, and wildfire-emitted aerosols were found to overlay lower level cloud decks observed during SAFARI-2000, ACE-ASIA 2001, and SEAC4RS- 2013, respectively. The co-located satellite-airborne measurements revealed a good agreement (RMSE less than 0.1 for AOD at 500 nm) with most matchups falling within the estimated uncertainties in the MODIS retrievals. An extensive validation of satellite-based ACA retrievals requires equivalent field measurements particularly over the regions where ACA are often

  18. Study of de-watering from the gelatinous precipitate formed during co-precipitation of Nd-YAG powder

    SciTech Connect

    Karmakar, Sanjib; Sharma, Rachna; Pathak, S. K.; Gupta, S. M.; Gupta, P. K.

    2013-02-05

    Neodymium doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd:YAG) ceramics have been synthesised using coprecipitation technique and high temperature vacuum sintering. Gelatinous like precipitates were obtained when precursors of Nd, Al and Yb-nitrate solutions are co-precipitated using ammonia co-precipitant. De-watering from the gelatinous like precipitates is a big challenge and it possesses difficulty in filtration. Evaporation of water by heating resulted in strong agglomerated powder. Different agents were used to ease the filtration process, which is correlated with the phase in the calcined powder.

  19. A Novel Method for Estimating Shortwave Direct Radiative Effect of Above-Cloud Aerosols Using CALIOP and MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Z.; Meyer, K.; Platnick, S.; Oreopoulos, L.; Lee, D.; Yu, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient and unique method for computing the shortwave direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosol residing above low-level liquid-phase clouds using CALIOP and MODIS data. It accounts for the overlapping of aerosol and cloud rigorously by utilizing the joint histogram of cloud optical depth and cloud top pressure. Effects of sub-grid scale cloud and aerosol variations on DRE are accounted for. It is computationally efficient through using grid-level cloud and aerosol statistics, instead of pixel-level products, and a pre-computed look-up table in radiative transfer calculations. We verified that for smoke over the southeast Atlantic Ocean the method yields a seasonal mean instantaneous shortwave DRE that generally agrees with more rigorous pixel-level computation within 4. We have also computed the annual mean instantaneous shortwave DRE of light-absorbing aerosols (i.e., smoke and polluted dust) over global ocean based on 4 yr of CALIOP and MODIS data. We found that the variability of the annual mean shortwave DRE of above-cloud light-absorbing aerosol is mainly driven by the optical depth of the underlying clouds.

  20. Water-soluble primary amine compounds in rural continental precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorzelska, Krystyna; Galloway, James N.; Watterson, Karen; Keene, William C.

    Procedures for collecting, storing and analysing precipitation samples for organic nitrogen studies were developed. These procedures preserve chemical integrities of the species of interest, allow for up to 3 months storage and quantitative determination of water-soluble primary amine compounds, with the overall error at the 2 nM detection limit of less than 30%. This methodology was applied to study amino compounds in precipitation samples collected over a period of one year in central Virginia. Nitrogen concentrations of 13 amino acids and 3 aliphatic amines were summed to calculate the total amine nitrogen (TAN). The concentration of TAN ranged from below our detection level to 6658 nM, and possibly reflected a seasonal variation in the source strength of the atmospheric amines. Overall, the most commonly occurring amino compounds were methyl amine, ethyl amine, glutamic acid, glycine and serine. On average, the highest overall contribution to the TAN came from arginine, asparagine, glutamine, methyl amine, serine and alanine. However, large qualitative and quantitative variations observed among samples warrant caution in interpretation and application of the averaged values. TAN in Charlottesville precipitation contributed from less than 1 to ca 10% of the ammonium nitrogen level. However, our estimates show that amino compounds may contribute significantly to reduced nitrogen budget in precipitation in remote regions.

  1. Precipitable water as a predictor of LCL height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugavel, P.; Malap, N.; Balaji, B.; Mehajan, R. K.; Prabha, T. V.

    2016-08-01

    Based on the precipitable water observations easily available from in situ and remote sensing sensors, a simple approach to define the lifting condensation level (LCL) is proposed in this study. High-resolution radiosonde and microwave radiometer observations over peninsular Indian region during the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment Integrated Ground Observational Campaign (CAIPEEX-IGOC) during the monsoon season of 2011 are used to illustrate the unique relationship. The inferences illustrate a linear relationship between the precipitable water (PW) and the LCL temperature. This relationship is especially valuable because PW is easily available as a derived parameter from various remote sensing and ground-based observations. Thus, it could be used to estimate the LCL height and perhaps also the boundary layer height. LCL height and PW correlations are established from historical radiosonde data (1984-2012). This finding could be used to illustrate the boundary layer-cloud interactions during the monsoon and is important for parameterization of boundary layer clouds in numerical models. The relationships are illustrated to be robust and seem promising to get reasonable estimates of the LCL height over other locations as well using satellite observations of PW.

  2. Comparison of aerosol optical properties above clouds between POLDER and AeroCom models over the South East Atlantic Ocean during the fire season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peers, F.; Bellouin, N.; Waquet, F.; Ducos, F.; Goloub, P.; Mollard, J.; Myhre, G.; Skeie, R. B.; Takemura, T.; Tanré, D.; Thieuleux, F.; Zhang, K.

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol properties above clouds have been retrieved over the South East Atlantic Ocean during the fire season 2006 using satellite observations from POLDER (Polarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances). From June to October, POLDER has observed a mean Above-Cloud Aerosol Optical Thickness (ACAOT) of 0.28 and a mean Above-Clouds Single Scattering Albedo (ACSSA) of 0.87 at 550 nm. These results have been used to evaluate the simulation of aerosols above clouds in five Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART), Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model 3 (HadGEM3), European Centre Hamburg Model 5-Hamburg Aerosol Module 2 (ECHAM5-HAM2), Oslo-Chemical Transport Model 2 (OsloCTM2), and Spectral Radiation-Transport Model for Aerosol Species (SPRINTARS)). Most models do not reproduce the observed large aerosol load episodes. The comparison highlights the importance of the injection height and the vertical transport parameterizations to simulate the large ACAOT observed by POLDER. Furthermore, POLDER ACSSA is best reproduced by models with a high imaginary part of black carbon refractive index, in accordance with recent recommendations.

  3. Investigating the frequency and interannual variability in global above-cloud aerosol characteristics with CALIOP and OMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro-Contreras, R.; Zhang, J.; Campbell, J. R.; Reid, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Seven and a half years (June 2006 to November 2013) of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aerosol and cloud layer products are compared with collocated Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index (AI) data and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud products in order to investigate variability in estimates of biannual and monthly above-cloud aerosol (ACA) events globally. The active- (CALIOP) and passive-based (OMI-MODIS) techniques have their advantages and caveats for ACA detection, and thus both are used to derive a thorough and robust comparison of daytime cloudy-sky ACA distribution and climatology. For the first time, baseline above-cloud aerosol optical depth (ACAOD) and AI thresholds are derived and examined (AI = 1.0, ACAOD = 0.015) for each sensor. Both OMI-MODIS and CALIOP-based daytime spatial distributions of ACA events show similar patterns during both study periods (December-May) and (June-November). Divergence exists in some regions, however, such as Southeast Asia during June through November, where daytime cloudy-sky ACA frequencies of up to 10 % are found from CALIOP yet are non-existent from the OMI-based method. Conversely, annual cloudy-sky ACA frequencies of 20-30 % are reported over northern Africa from the OMI-based method yet are largely undetected by the CALIOP-based method. Using a collocated OMI-MODIS-CALIOP data set, our study suggests that the cloudy-sky ACA frequency differences between the OMI-MODIS- and CALIOP-based methods are mostly due to differences in cloud detection capability between MODIS and CALIOP as well as QA flags used. An increasing interannual variability of ˜ 0.3-0.4 % per year (since 2009) in global monthly cloudy-sky ACA daytime frequency of occurrence is found using the OMI-MODIS-based method. Yet, CALIOP-based global daytime ACA frequencies exhibit a near-zero interannual variability. Further analysis suggests that the OMI-derived interannual variability in

  4. Getting water right: A case study in water yield modelling based on precipitation data.

    PubMed

    Pessacg, Natalia; Flaherty, Silvia; Brandizi, Laura; Solman, Silvina; Pascual, Miguel

    2015-12-15

    Water yield is a key ecosystem service in river basins and especially in dry regions around the World. In this study we carry out a modelling analysis of water yields in the Chubut River basin, located in one of the driest districts of Patagonia, Argentina. We focus on the uncertainty around precipitation data, a driver of paramount importance for water yield. The objectives of this study are to: i) explore the spatial and numeric differences among six widely used global precipitation datasets for this region, ii) test them against data from independent ground stations, and iii) explore the effects of precipitation data uncertainty on simulations of water yield. The simulations were performed using the ecosystem services model InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) with each of the six different precipitation datasets as input. Our results show marked differences among datasets for the Chubut watershed region, both in the magnitude of precipitations and their spatial arrangement. Five of the precipitation databases overestimate the precipitation over the basin by 50% or more, particularly over the more humid western range. Meanwhile, the remaining dataset (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission - TRMM), based on satellite measurements, adjusts well to the observed rainfall in different stations throughout the watershed and provides a better representation of the precipitation gradient characteristic of the rain shadow of the Andes. The observed differences among datasets in the representation of the rainfall gradient translate into large differences in water yield simulations. Errors in precipitation of +30% (-30%) amplify to water yield errors ranging from 50 to 150% (-45 to -60%) in some sub-basins. These results highlight the importance of assessing uncertainties in main input data when quantifying and mapping ecosystem services with biophysical models and cautions about the undisputed use of global environmental datasets. PMID:26282756

  5. Getting water right: A case study in water yield modelling based on precipitation data.

    PubMed

    Pessacg, Natalia; Flaherty, Silvia; Brandizi, Laura; Solman, Silvina; Pascual, Miguel

    2015-12-15

    Water yield is a key ecosystem service in river basins and especially in dry regions around the World. In this study we carry out a modelling analysis of water yields in the Chubut River basin, located in one of the driest districts of Patagonia, Argentina. We focus on the uncertainty around precipitation data, a driver of paramount importance for water yield. The objectives of this study are to: i) explore the spatial and numeric differences among six widely used global precipitation datasets for this region, ii) test them against data from independent ground stations, and iii) explore the effects of precipitation data uncertainty on simulations of water yield. The simulations were performed using the ecosystem services model InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) with each of the six different precipitation datasets as input. Our results show marked differences among datasets for the Chubut watershed region, both in the magnitude of precipitations and their spatial arrangement. Five of the precipitation databases overestimate the precipitation over the basin by 50% or more, particularly over the more humid western range. Meanwhile, the remaining dataset (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission - TRMM), based on satellite measurements, adjusts well to the observed rainfall in different stations throughout the watershed and provides a better representation of the precipitation gradient characteristic of the rain shadow of the Andes. The observed differences among datasets in the representation of the rainfall gradient translate into large differences in water yield simulations. Errors in precipitation of +30% (-30%) amplify to water yield errors ranging from 50 to 150% (-45 to -60%) in some sub-basins. These results highlight the importance of assessing uncertainties in main input data when quantifying and mapping ecosystem services with biophysical models and cautions about the undisputed use of global environmental datasets.

  6. Improving Reanalyses Using TRMM and SSM/I-Derived Precipitation and Total Precipitable Water Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.; Zhang, Sara Q.; daSilva, Arlindo M.

    1999-01-01

    Global reanalyses currently contain significant errors in the primary fields of the hydrological cycle such as precipitation, evaporation, moisture, and the related cloud fields, especially in the tropics. The Data Assimilation Office (DAO) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has been exploring the use of rainfall and total precipitable water (TPW) observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and the Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/I) instruments to improve these fields in reanalyses. The DAO has developed a "1+1"D procedure to assimilate 6-hr averaged rainfall and TPW into the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Data Assimilation System (DAS). The algorithm is based on a 6-hr time integration of a column version of the GEOS DAS. The "1+1" designation refers to one spatial dimension plus one temporal dimension. The scheme minimizes the least-square differences between the satellite-retrieved rain rates and those produced by the column model over the 6-hr analysis window. The control variables are analysis increments of moisture within the Incremental Analysis Update (IAU) framework of the GEOS DAS. This 1+1D scheme, in its generalization to four dimensions, is related to the standard 4D variational assimilation but differs in its choice of the control variable. Instead of estimating the initial condition at the beginning of the assimilation cycle, it estimates the constant IAU forcing applied over a 6-hr assimilation cycle. In doing so, it imposes the forecast model as a weak constraint in a manner similar to the variational continuous assimilation techniques. We present results from an experiment in which the observed rain rate and TPW are assumed to be "perfect". They show that assimilating the TMI and SSM/I-derived surface precipitation and TPW observations improves not only the precipitation and moisture fields but also key climate parameters directly linked to convective activities such as clouds, the

  7. GPS Estimates of Integrated Precipitable Water Aid Weather Forecasters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Angelyn W.; Gutman, Seth I.; Holub, Kirk; Bock, Yehuda; Danielson, David; Laber, Jayme; Small, Ivory

    2013-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) meteorology provides enhanced density, low-latency (30-min resolution), integrated precipitable water (IPW) estimates to NOAA NWS (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis tration Nat ional Weather Service) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) to provide improved model and satellite data verification capability and more accurate forecasts of extreme weather such as flooding. An early activity of this project was to increase the number of stations contributing to the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) GPS meteorology observing network in Southern California by about 27 stations. Following this, the Los Angeles/Oxnard and San Diego WFOs began using the enhanced GPS-based IPW measurements provided by ESRL in the 2012 and 2013 monsoon seasons. Forecasters found GPS IPW to be an effective tool in evaluating model performance, and in monitoring monsoon development between weather model runs for improved flood forecasting. GPS stations are multi-purpose, and routine processing for position solutions also yields estimates of tropospheric zenith delays, which can be converted into mm-accuracy PWV (precipitable water vapor) using in situ pressure and temperature measurements, the basis for GPS meteorology. NOAA ESRL has implemented this concept with a nationwide distribution of more than 300 "GPSMet" stations providing IPW estimates at sub-hourly resolution currently used in operational weather models in the U.S.

  8. Precipitable water extremes from ground-based GPS measurements and relationship with precipitation extremes over U.S.A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2010-12-01

    It becomes more and more important to study extreme weather and climate events because of their huge economical and societal impacts. There is also increasing concern on changes of extreme events in frequency and intensity as a result of human influences on climate. Heavy precipitation events are among many types of extreme events and have been studied extensively. Previous studies found statistically significant increases in heavy precipitation and its contribution to total annual precipitation over USA. Given the fact that the moisture supply is one of deciding factors for the precipitation intensity, it is important to document and understand the extremes of atmospheric precipitable water (PW, column-integrated water vapor amount) and their relationship with precipitation extremes. The data are required at daily (or shorter) time scales for the study of extreme events. In this study we use 30-min PW data derived from ground based GPS measurements and hourly precipitation data over the contiguous USA. We found 53 stations where the GPS and rain-gauge stations are within a 50-km distance and 50-m elevation of each other, and the data are available from 2002 to 2009. The main goal of this study is to answer the following four questions. First, how often do PW extremes in warm season (June, July and August) occur? The PW extreme is defined as values exceeding 95th percentile. Second, how many of them result in precipitation extremes? Third, what is the relationship between PW and precipitation extremes, i.e., temporal evolution and intensity correlation? Fourth, is it possible to predict precipitation extremes from PW ones?

  9. Natural chlorine and fluorine in the atmosphere, water and precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, James P.

    1990-01-01

    The geochemical cycles of chlorine and fluorine are surveyed and summarized as framework for the understanding of the global natural abundances of these species in the atmosphere, water, and precipitation. In the cycles the fluxes into and out of the atmosphere can be balanced within the limits of our knowledge of the natural sources and sinks. Sea salt from the ocean surfaces represent the predominant portion of the source of chlorine. It is also an important source of atmospheric fluorine, but volcanoes are likely to be more important fluorine sources. Dry deposition of sea salt returns about 85 percent of the salt released there. Precipitation removes the remainder. Most of the sea salt materials are considered to be cyclic, moving through sea spray over the oceans and either directly back to the oceans or deposited dry and in precipitation on land, whence it runs off into rivers and streams and returns to the oceans. Most of the natural chlorine in the atmosphere is in the form of particulate chloride ion with lesser amounts as gaseous inorganic chloride and methyl chloride vapor. Fluorine is emitted from volcanoes primarily as HF. It is possible that HF may be released directly form the ocean surface but this has not been confirmed by observation. HCl and most likely HF gases are released into the atmosphere by sea salt aerosols. The mechanism for the release is likely to be the provision of protons from the so-called excess sulfate and HNO3. Sea salt aerosol contains fluorine as F(-), MgF(+), CaF(+), and NaF. The concentrations of the various species of chlorine and fluorine that characterize primarily natural, unpolluted atmospheres are summarized in tables and are discussed in relation to their fluxes through the geochemical cycle.

  10. Water Isotope Variability Across Individual Precipitation Events in Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosma, C.; Moerman, J. W.; Cobb, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    The composition of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in rainwater (measured as δ18O and δD) provides vital information about current hydrological dynamics, and forms the basis for many paleoclimate reconstructions of hydroclimate variability. However, many factors - both local and remote - govern water isotope fractionation, complicating the interpretation of water isotope records. While Raleigh distillation serves as a key first-order driver of the well-noted "amount effect", post-condensation evaporative processes are an important influence on intra-event isotope variations (e.g. Moerman, et al. 2013). To further resolve the processes driving this variability, rainwater isotopes from Gunung Mulu National Park in northern Borneo (4°N, 115 °E) were analyzed at one-minute intervals across nine rain events in 2012. To assess the influence of large-scale, remote fractionation processes versus those that act locally, our intra-event time series was compared to daily-resolved isotope records over the same time interval. We quantify a large range of water isotopic compositions over the sampling period (-13.1‰ to 0.2‰ in δ18O and -88.3‰ to -1.2‰ in δD). There is appreciable evidence for evaporative enrichment at our site, with δ18O vs. δD slopes significantly less than eight - the slope of the Global Meteoric Water Line. Large differences in the shape of the intra-event profile, ranging from monotonically increasing to "V-shaped" (e.g. Celle-Jeanton, et al. 2004) to monotonically decreasing isotopic values indicate that different precipitation regimes have a profound impact on water isotope evolution through a precipitation event. As such, we use a suite of meteorological data including in-situ observations, satellite imagery, model reanalysis from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), and NOAA HYSPLIT water vapor back-trajectories to provide an interpretive framework for the observed intra-event isotopic variability. Our study

  11. Relation of bulk precipitation and evapotranspiration to water quality and water resources, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, Donald George; Fisher, Donald W.

    1977-01-01

    St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, lies in what can be considered a true maritime regime, being 600 miles (1000 kilometers) from the nearest continental landmass. The island is composed almost entirely of volcanic rocks mantled by a thin soil seldom more than 2 feet (60 centimeters) thick. Rainfall, averaging about 40 inches (1020 millimeters) annually, has an orographic distribution related to the central ridge of the island, altitude 600 to 1500 feet (180 to 405 meters), and the easterly to northeasterly trade winds. The mineral content of bulk precipitation falling on the island is derived principally from the sea although soil dust contributes much of the calcium, sodium, and bicarbonate. Two-thirds of the sulfate in the precipitation is provided by sea salts; the remainder is derived from other sources. The concentration of the constituents of bulk precipitation fluctuates widely month to month, but the load of the constituents shows little monthly variation. Bulk precipitation is concentrated on the land surface and in the soil zone. From there it is carried into the ground water during recharge or is removed by storm-water runoff. It is the principal source of minerals in the waters of the island. Soil-moisture demand and evaporation limits recharge to 1 to 2 inches (25 to 50 millimeters) annually for the greater part of the island. Evapotranspiration also occurs directly from the aquifer. The salts left further increase the mineralization of the ground water. Water loss from the aquifer by evapotranspiration ranges from 40 to 80 percent of the recharge. Recharge to the aquifers and evapotranspiration of ground water determined by ratios of chloride concentrations in bulk precipitation, surface water, and subsurface water agree favorably with recharge and groundwater loss computed by other means.

  12. Stable isotope investigation of the Columbus, Ohio, water supply by examining precipitation, tap water, and surface/reservoir waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, D. L.; Lyons, W. B.

    2011-12-01

    Management of our water resources requires that human intervention as well as natural processes in the hydrologic cycle be fully understood, and integrated watershed management strategies be implemented to monitor variation and to maximize water resources. In this study of regional water supply, we utilize the stable isotopes of water to characterize the flow and relative residence time of water within a human-dominated watershed-reservoir system. Tap water, precipitation, and water from three reservoirs used for domestic water supply were collected in Franklin County, Ohio, from August 2010 until July 2011. Samples were analyzed for δ18O and δD by a Picarro WS-CRDS Analyzer for Isotopic Water - Model L1102-i at The Ohio State University. Reservoir waters (δ18O= -9.0% to -4.8% and δD= -61% to -30%) are more enriched during the spring/summer months and more depleted during the fall/winter months, following changes in precipitation and capacity of each reservoir. Tap water samples (δ18O= -9.1% to -4.3% and δD= -58% to -29%), distributed from the Dublin Road Water Plant (DRWP) which utilizes surface water from Griggs and O'Shaughnessy Reservoirs on the Scioto River, display an isotopic mixture of these reservoir waters and precipitation. These data demonstrates how quickly precipitation moves through the water conveyance system. Previously collected Columbus, Ohio, tap water samples reported by Bowen et al. (2007) demonstrated a seasonal lag in the city's water supply with more enriched precipitation from the summer months showing up in the water supply during the fall/winter seasons, and more depleted precipitation from winter months being part of the water supply in the spring/summer seasons. The tap water samples from the Bowen et al. (2007) study were distributed by Hap Cremean Water Plant (HPWP) that utilizes surface water from Hoover Reservoir on Big Walnut Creek. This isotopic signature of seasonal enrichment and depletion in the tap water that does not

  13. Aerosol concentration and size distribution measured below, in, and above cloud from the DOE G-1 during VOCALS-REx

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman L. I.; Daum, P. H.; Lee, Y.-N.; Lewis, E. R.; Sedlacek III, A. J.; Senum, G. I.; Springston, S. R.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Jayne, J.; Min, Q.; Yum, S. S.; Allen, G.

    2012-01-04

    During the VOCALS Regional Experiment, the DOE G-1 aircraft was used to sample a varying aerosol environment pertinent to properties of stratocumulus clouds over a longitude band extending 800 km west from the Chilean coast at Arica. Trace gas and aerosol measurements are presented as a function of longitude, altitude, and dew point in this study. Spatial distributions are consistent with an upper atmospheric source for O{sub 3} and South American coastal sources for marine boundary layer (MBL) CO and aerosol, most of which is acidic sulfate. Pollutant layers in the free troposphere (FT) can be a result of emissions to the north in Peru or long range transport from the west. At a given altitude in the FT (up to 3 km), dew point varies by 40 C with dry air descending from the upper atmospheric and moist air having a boundary layer (BL) contribution. Ascent of BL air to a cold high altitude results in the condensation and precipitation removal of all but a few percent of BL water along with aerosol that served as CCN. Thus, aerosol volume decreases with dew point in the FT. Aerosol size spectra have a bimodal structure in the MBL and an intermediate diameter unimodal distribution in the FT. Comparing cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and pre-cloud aerosol (D{sub p} > 100 nm) gives a linear relation up to a number concentration of {approx}150 cm{sup -3}, followed by a less than proportional increase in CDNC at higher aerosol number concentration. A number balance between below cloud aerosol and cloud droplets indicates that {approx}25 % of aerosol with D{sub p} > 100 nm are interstitial (not activated). A direct comparison of pre-cloud and in-cloud aerosol yields a higher estimate. Artifacts in the measurement of interstitial aerosol due to droplet shatter and evaporation are discussed. Within each of 102 constant altitude cloud transects, CDNC and interstitial aerosol were anti-correlated. An examination of one cloud as a case study shows that the

  14. Aerosol concentration and size distribution measured below, in, and above cloud from the DOE G-1 during VOCALS-REx

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, L.I.; Daum, P. H.; Lee, Y.-N.; Lewis, E. R.; Sedlacek III, A. J.; Senum, G. I.; Springston, S. R.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Jayne, J.; Min, Q.; Yum, S. S.; Allen, G.

    2011-06-21

    During the VOCALS Regional Experiment, the DOE G-1 aircraft was used to sample a varying aerosol environment pertinent to properties of stratocumulus clouds over a longitude band extending 800 km west from the Chilean coast at Arica. Trace gas and aerosol measurements are presented as a function of longitude, altitude, and dew point in this study. Spatial distributions are consistent with an upper atmospheric source for O{sub 3} and South American coastal sources for marine boundary layer (MBL) CO and aerosol, most of which is acidic sulfate in agreement with the dominant pollution source being SO{sub 2} from Cu smelters and power plants. Pollutant layers in the free troposphere (FT) can be a result of emissions to the north in Peru or long range transport from the west. At a given altitude in the FT (up to 3 km), dew point varies by 40 C with dry air descending from the upper atmospheric and moist air having a BL contribution. Ascent of BL air to a cold high altitude results in the condensation and precipitation removal of all but a few percent of BL water along with aerosol that served as CCN. Thus, aerosol volume decreases with dew point in the FT. Aerosol size spectra have a bimodal structure in the MBL and an intermediate diameter unimodal distribution in the FT. Comparing cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and pre-cloud aerosol (Dp > 100 nm) gives a linear relation up to a number concentration of {approx}150 cm{sup -3}, followed by a less than proportional increase in CDNC at higher aerosol number concentration. A number balance between below cloud aerosol and cloud droplets indicates that {approx}25% of aerosol in the PCASP size range are interstitial (not activated). One hundred and two constant altitude cloud transects were identified and used to determine properties of interstitial aerosol. One transect is examined in detail as a case study. Approximately 25 to 50% of aerosol with D{sub p} > 110 nm were not activated, the difference between the two

  15. Aerosol concentration and size distribution measured below, in, and above cloud from the DOE G-1 during VOCALS-REx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinman, L. I.; Daum, P. H.; Lee, Y.-N.; Lewis, E. R.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Senum, G. I.; Springston, S. R.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Jayne, J.; Min, Q.; Yum, S. S.; Allen, G.

    2011-06-01

    During the VOCALS Regional Experiment, the DOE G-1 aircraft was used to sample a varying aerosol environment pertinent to properties of stratocumulus clouds over a longitude band extending 800 km west from the Chilean coast at Arica. Trace gas and aerosol measurements are presented as a function of longitude, altitude, and dew point in this study. Spatial distributions are consistent with an upper atmospheric source for O3 and South American coastal sources for marine boundary layer (MBL) CO and aerosol, most of which is acidic sulfate in agreement with the dominant pollution source being SO2 from Cu smelters and power plants. Pollutant layers in the free troposphere (FT) can be a result of emissions to the north in Peru or long range transport from the west. At a given altitude in the FT (up to 3 km), dew point varies by 40 °C with dry air descending from the upper atmospheric and moist air having a BL contribution. Ascent of BL air to a cold high altitude results in the condensation and precipitation removal of all but a few percent of BL water along with aerosol that served as CCN. Thus, aerosol volume decreases with dew point in the FT. Aerosol size spectra have a bimodal structure in the MBL and an intermediate diameter unimodal distribution in the FT. Comparing cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and pre-cloud aerosol (Dp > 100 nm) gives a linear relation up to a number concentration of ~150 cm-3, followed by a less than proportional increase in CDNC at higher aerosol number concentration. A number balance between below cloud aerosol and cloud droplets indicates that ~25 % of aerosol in the PCASP size range are interstitial (not activated). One hundred and two constant altitude cloud transects were identified and used to determine properties of interstitial aerosol. One transect is examined in detail as a case study. Approximately 25 to 50 % of aerosol with Dp > 110 nm were not activated, the difference between the two approaches possibly representing

  16. Aerosol concentration and size distribution measured below, in, and above cloud from the DOE G-1 during VOCALS-REx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinman, L. I.; Daum, P. H.; Lee, Y.-N.; Lewis, E. R.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Senum, G. I.; Springston, S. R.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Jayne, J.; Min, Q.; Yum, S. S.; Allen, G.

    2012-01-01

    During the VOCALS Regional Experiment, the DOE G-1 aircraft was used to sample a varying aerosol environment pertinent to properties of stratocumulus clouds over a longitude band extending 800 km west from the Chilean coast at Arica. Trace gas and aerosol measurements are presented as a function of longitude, altitude, and dew point in this study. Spatial distributions are consistent with an upper atmospheric source for O3 and South American coastal sources for marine boundary layer (MBL) CO and aerosol, most of which is acidic sulfate. Pollutant layers in the free troposphere (FT) can be a result of emissions to the north in Peru or long range transport from the west. At a given altitude in the FT (up to 3 km), dew point varies by 40 °C with dry air descending from the upper atmospheric and moist air having a boundary layer (BL) contribution. Ascent of BL air to a cold high altitude results in the condensation and precipitation removal of all but a few percent of BL water along with aerosol that served as CCN. Thus, aerosol volume decreases with dew point in the FT. Aerosol size spectra have a bimodal structure in the MBL and an intermediate diameter unimodal distribution in the FT. Comparing cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and pre-cloud aerosol (Dp>100 nm) gives a linear relation up to a number concentration of ~150 cm-3, followed by a less than proportional increase in CDNC at higher aerosol number concentration. A number balance between below cloud aerosol and cloud droplets indicates that ~25 % of aerosol with Dp>100 nm are interstitial (not activated). A direct comparison of pre-cloud and in-cloud aerosol yields a higher estimate. Artifacts in the measurement of interstitial aerosol due to droplet shatter and evaporation are discussed. Within each of 102 constant altitude cloud transects, CDNC and interstitial aerosol were anti-correlated. An examination of one cloud as a case study shows that the interstitial aerosol appears to have a background

  17. The Contrast and Relation of Precipitation and Precipitable Water Over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, E.

    2003-12-01

    The precipitable water (W), as an important water vapor parameter, has become a conventional meteorological variable with the development in satellite observations and retrieval techniques. The dataset of W can be utilized to extract useful information on hydroclimate. For example, linkages may exist between the W and cloud, precipitation (P), storm, and other meteorological quantities. In this study, the contrast and relation of P and W are clarified at different time-scales over the United States and Mexico by using ten-year daily observational datasets. The contrast of the two variables shows that they have different spatial patterns in both the means and the perturbations of different time-scales. For the P over the land, the mean and the perturbations all have maximum centers over the three regions: South Mexico, the Northwest Coast, and the Mississippi River area. The mean of W that decreases with latitude in general is large over the eastern U.S. and small over the western U.S. and Mexico. However, the maximal perturbations of W, not appearing over the near-equator oceans where the mean gains its maximum, are "attracted" to the ocean-land adjacent areas due to the effect of small heat capacity of land. The relation of P and W possesses unique spatial patterns for different time-scales. At synoptic time-scale, P and W are well positively correlated over the entire US-Mexico although each of them has weak spatial coherence. Positive correlation is more significant over the eastern U.S., especially along the South and East Coasts. At seasonal time-scale, the W has extremely high spatial coherence over the land, all getting maximum in summer and minimum in winter, thus follows the variation pattern of surface temperature. Theoretical analysis confirms that the seasonal W is truly dominated by temperature due to its large annual range over the land, no matter how the relative humidity changes seasonally. In contrast, the seasonal P, which is influenced by

  18. Enhanced precipitation variability effects on water losses and ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change will result in increased precipitation variability with more extreme events reflected in more frequent droughts as well as more frequent extremely wet conditions. The increase in precipitation variability will occur at different temporal scales from intra to inter-annual and even long...

  19. Maximizing recovery of water-soluble proteins through acetone precipitation.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Andrew M J; Wall, Mark J; Doucette, Alan A

    2013-09-24

    Solvent precipitation is commonly used to purify protein samples, as seen with the removal of sodium dodecyl sulfate through acetone precipitation. However, in its current practice, protein loss is believed to be an inevitable consequence of acetone precipitation. We herein provide an in depth characterization of protein recovery through acetone precipitation. In 80% acetone, the precipitation efficiency for six of 10 protein standards was poor (ca. ≤15%). Poor recovery was also observed for proteome extracts, including bacterial and mammalian cells. As shown in this work, increasing the ionic strength of the solution dramatically improves the precipitation efficiency of individual proteins, and proteome mixtures (ca. 80-100% yield). This is obtained by including 1-30 mM NaCl, together with acetone (50-80%) which maximizes protein precipitation efficiency. The amount of salt required to restore the recovery correlates with the amount of protein in the sample, as well as the intrinsic protein charge, and the dielectric strength of the solution. This synergistic approach to protein precipitation in acetone with salt is consistent with a model of ion pairing in organic solvent, and establishes an improved method to recover proteins and proteome mixtures in high yield.

  20. Validating Above-cloud Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieved from MODIS using NASA Ames Airborne Sun-Tracking Photometric and Spectrometric (AATS and 4STAR) Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethva, H. T.; Torres, O.; Remer, L. A.; Redemann, J.; Dunagan, S. E.; Livingston, J. M.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Absorbing aerosols produced from biomass burning and dust outbreaks are often found to overlay the lower level cloud decks as evident in the satellite images. In contrast to the cloud-free atmosphere, in which aerosols generally tend to cool the atmosphere, the presence of absorbing aerosols above cloud poses greater potential of exerting positive radiative effects (warming) whose magnitude directly depends on the aerosol loading above cloud, optical properties of clouds and aerosols, and cloud fraction. In recent years, development of algorithms that exploit satellite-based passive measurements of ultraviolet (UV), visible, and polarized light as well as lidar-based active measurements constitute a major breakthrough in the field of remote sensing of aerosols. While the unprecedented quantitative information on aerosol loading above cloud is now available from NASA's A-train sensors, a greater question remains ahead: How to validate the satellite retrievals of above-cloud aerosols (ACA)? Direct measurements of ACA such as carried out by the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS) and Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) can be of immense help in validating ACA retrievals. In this study, we validate the ACA optical depth retrieved using the 'color ratio' (CR) method applied to the MODIS cloudy-sky reflectance by using the airborne AATS and 4STAR measurements. A thorough search of the historic AATS-4STAR database collected during different field campaigns revealed five events where biomass burning, dust, and wildfire-emitted aerosols were found to overlay lower level cloud decks observed during SAFARI-2000, ACE-ASIA 2001, and SEAC4RS-2013, respectively. The co-located satellite-airborne measurements revealed a good agreement (root-mean-square-error<0.1 for Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at 500 nm) with most matchups falling within the estimated uncertainties in the MODIS retrievals (-10% to +50%). An extensive validation of

  1. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, A; Cadeddu, M

    2012-12-05

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data measured by the GVR. The GVR reports time-series measurements of brightness temperatures for four channels located at 183.3 ± 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz.

  2. Trends in precipitation and stream-water chemistry in the northeastern United States, water years 1984-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, D.W.; Mast, M. Alisa

    1999-01-01

    Trends in precipitation and stream-water chemistry during water years 1984-96 were examined at eight precipitation monitoring sites and five nearby streams operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in the northeastern United States. The statistical analyses indicate the following: 1)Stream-water sulfate (SO4) concentrations decreased at seven of eight precipitation monitoring sites and in each of five streams. 2)Calcium plus magnesium (Ca + Mg) concentrations decreased at seven of eight precipitation monitoring sites and in three of five streams. 3)Precipitation acidity decreased at five of eight precipitation monitoring sites, but alkalinity increased in only one stream. These results indicate that decreases in atmospheric deposition of SO4 have resulted in decreased precipitation acidity. The chemical response of stream water to changes in precipitation chemistry was complex. Decreases in stream-water SO4 concentrations generally matched decreases of precipitation SO4. In stream water, increases in alkalinity were uncommon because decreases in SO4 concentrations often were accompanied by decreases in Ca + Mg concentrations. The decreases in Ca + Mg concentrations might be related to depletion of base cations from soil caused by long-term exposure to acidic deposition. Increases in streamwater alkalinity might not occur until rates of acidic deposition are reduced to substantially less than the rate of cation resupply by weathering and atmospheric deposition. In areas where forests are aggrading, recovery of stream-water alkalinity will be delayed further because of the acidifying effect of biomass accumulation.

  3. DIURNAL CYCLE OF PRECIPITABLE WATER VAPOR OVER SPAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz de Galisteo, J. P.; Cachorro, V. E.; Toledano, C.; Torres, B.; Laulainen, Nels S.; Bennouna, Yasmine; de Frutos, A. M.

    2011-05-20

    Despite the importance of the diurnal cycle of precipitable water vapor (PWV), its knowledge is very limited due to the lack of data with sufficient temporal resolution. Currently, from GPS receivers, PWV can be obtained with high temporal resolution in all weather conditions for all hours of the day. In this study we have calculated the diurnal cycle of PWV for ten GPS stations over Spain. The minimum value is reached approximately at the same time at all the stations, ~0400-0500 UTC, whereas the maximum is reached in the second half of the day, but with a larger dispersion of its occurrence between stations. The amplitude of the cycle ranges between 0.72 mm and 1.78 mm. The highest values are recorded at the stations on the Mediterranean coast, with a doubling of the values of the stations on the Atlantic coast or inland. The amplitude of the PWV cycle, relative to the annual mean value, ranges between 8.8 % on the Mediterranean coast and 3.6 % on the Atlantic coast. Two distinctly different seasonal diurnal cycles have been identified, one in winter and other in summer, with spring and autumn being only transition states. The winter cycle is quite similar at all locations, whereas in summer, local effects are felt strongly, making the diurnal cycle quite different between stations. The amplitude of the summer cycle is 1.69 mm, it is almost double the winter one (0.93 mm). Analogous to the annual cycles, the seasonal cycles of the different stations are more similar during the night and early morning hours than during the afternoon. The observed features of the PWV diurnal cycle are explained in a qualitative way on the basis of the air temperature, the transport of moisture by local winds, and the turbulent vertical mixing.

  4. On the Vertical Distribution of Local and Remote Sources of Water for Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.

    2001-01-01

    The vertical distribution of local and remote sources of water for precipitation and total column water over the United States are evaluated in a general circulation model simulation. The Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) general circulation model (GCM) includes passive constituent tracers to determine the geographical sources of the water in the column. Results show that the local percentage of precipitable water and local percentage of precipitation can be very different. The transport of water vapor from remote oceanic sources at mid and upper levels is important to the total water in the column over the central United States, while the access of locally evaporated water in convective precipitation processes is important to the local precipitation ratio. This result resembles the conceptual formulation of the convective parameterization. However, the formulations of simple models of precipitation recycling include the assumption that the ratio of the local water in the column is equal to the ratio of the local precipitation. The present results demonstrate the uncertainty in that assumption, as locally evaporated water is more concentrated near the surface.

  5. Validating MODIS above-cloud aerosol optical depth retrieved from "color ratio" algorithm using direct measurements made by NASA's airborne AATS and 4STAR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethva, Hiren; Torres, Omar; Remer, Lorraine; Redemann, Jens; Livingston, John; Dunagan, Stephen; Shinozuka, Yohei; Kacenelenbogen, Meloe; Segal Rosenheimer, Michal; Spurr, Rob

    2016-10-01

    We present the validation analysis of above-cloud aerosol optical depth (ACAOD) retrieved from the "color ratio" method applied to MODIS cloudy-sky reflectance measurements using the limited direct measurements made by NASA's airborne Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS) and Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) sensors. A thorough search of the airborne database collection revealed a total of five significant events in which an airborne sun photometer, coincident with the MODIS overpass, observed partially absorbing aerosols emitted from agricultural biomass burning, dust, and wildfires over a low-level cloud deck during SAFARI-2000, ACE-ASIA 2001, and SEAC4RS 2013 campaigns, respectively. The co-located satellite-airborne matchups revealed a good agreement (root-mean-square difference < 0.1), with most matchups falling within the estimated uncertainties associated the MODIS retrievals (about -10 to +50 %). The co-retrieved cloud optical depth was comparable to that of the MODIS operational cloud product for ACE-ASIA and SEAC4RS, however, higher by 30-50 % for the SAFARI-2000 case study. The reason for this discrepancy could be attributed to the distinct aerosol optical properties encountered during respective campaigns. A brief discussion on the sources of uncertainty in the satellite-based ACAOD retrieval and co-location procedure is presented. Field experiments dedicated to making direct measurements of aerosols above cloud are needed for the extensive validation of satellite-based retrievals.

  6. How do A-train Sensors Intercompare in the Retrieval of Above-Cloud Aerosol Optical Depth? A Case Study-based Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jethva, Hiren T.; Torres, Omar; Waquet, Fabien; Chand, Duli; Hu, Yong X.

    2014-01-15

    We inter-compare the above-cloud aerosol optical depth (ACAOD) of biomass burning plumes retrieved from different A-train sensors, i.e., MODIS, CALIOP, POLDER, and OMI. These sensors have shown independent capabilities to detect and retrieve aerosol loading above marine boundary layer clouds--a kind of situation often found over the Southeast Atlantic Ocean during dry burning season. A systematic one-to-one comparison reveals that, in general, all passive sensors and CALIOP-based research methods derive comparable ACAOD with differences mostly within 0.2 over homogeneous cloud fields. The 532-nm ACAOD retrieved by CALIOP operational algorithm is largely underestimated; however, it’s 1064-nm AOD when converted to 500 nm shows closer agreement to the passive sensors. Given the different types of sensor measurements processed with different algorithms, the close agreement between them is encouraging. Due to lack of adequate direct measurements above cloud, the validation of satellite-based ACAOD retrievals remains an open challenge. The inter-satellite comparison, however, can be useful for the relative evaluation and consistency check.

  7. How Do A-train Sensors Intercompare in the Retrieval of Above-cloud Aerosol Optical Depth? A Case Study-based Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jethva, Hiren; Torres, Omar; Waquet, Fabien; Chand, Duli; Hu, Yongxiang

    2014-01-01

    We intercompare the above-cloud aerosol optical depth (ACAOD) of biomass burning plumes retrieved from A-train sensors, i.e., Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), Polarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances (POLDER), and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). These sensors have shown independent capabilities to retrieve aerosol loading above marine boundary layer clouds-a kind of situation often found over the southeast Atlantic Ocean during dry burning season. A systematic comparison reveals that all passive sensors and CALIOP-based research methods derive comparable ACAOD with differences mostly within 0.2 over homogeneous cloud fields. The 532 nm ACAOD retrieved by CALIOP operational algorithm is underestimated. The retrieved 1064 nm AOD however shows closer agreement with passive sensors. Given the different types of measurements processed with different algorithms, the reported close agreement between them is encouraging. Due to unavailability of direct measurements above cloud, the validation of satellite-based ACAOD remains an open challenge. The intersatellite comparison however can be useful for the relative evaluation and consistency check

  8. How do A-train Sensors Inter-Compare in the Retrieval of Above-Cloud Aerosol Optical Depth? A Case Study based Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethva, H. T.; Torres, O.; Waquet, F.; Chand, D.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are known to produce a net cooling effect in the cloud-free conditions. However, when present over the reflective cloud decks, absorbing aerosols such as biomass burning generated smoke and wind-blown dust can potentially exert a large positive forcing through enhanced atmospheric heating resulting from cloud-aerosol radiative interactions. The interest on this aspect of aerosol science has grown significantly in the recent years. Particularly, development of the satellite-based retrieval techniques and unprecedented knowledge on the above-cloud aerosol optical depth (ACAOD) is of great relevance. A direct validation of satellite ACAOD is a difficult task primarily due to lack of ample in situ and/or remote sensing measurements of aerosols above cloud. In these circumstances, a comparative analysis on the inter-satellite ACAOD retrievals can be performed for the sack of consistency check. Here, we inter-compare the ACAOD of biomass burning plumes observed from different A-train sensors, i.e., MODIS [Jethva et al., 2013], CALIOP [Chand et al., 2008], POLDER [Waquet et al., 2009], and OMI [Torres et al., 2012]. These sensors have been shown to acquire sensitivity and independent capabilities to detect and retrieve aerosol loading above marine stratocumulus clouds--a kind of situation often found over the southeastern Atlantic Ocean during dry burning season. A systematic one-to-one comparison reveals that, in general, all passive sensors and CALIOP-based research methods retrieve comparable ACAOD over homogeneous cloud fields. The high-resolution sensors (MODIS and CALIOP) are able to retrieve aerosols over thin clouds but with larger discrepancies. Given the different types of sensor measurements processed with different algorithms, a reasonable agreement between them is encouraging. A direct validation of satellite-based ACAOD remains an open challenge for which dedicated field measurements over the region of frequent aerosol/cloud overlap are

  9. Mapping Precipitation Patterns from the Stable Isotopic Composition of Surface Waters: Olympic Peninsula, Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, A. M.; Brandon, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Available data indicate that large and persistent precipitation gradients are tied to topography at scales down to a few kilometers, but precipitation patterns in the majority of mountain ranges are poorly constrained at scales less than tens of kilometers. A lack of knowledge of precipitation patterns hampers efforts to understand the processes of orographic precipitation and identify the relationships between geomorphic evolution and climate. A new method for mapping precipitation using the stable isotopic composition of surface waters is tested in the Olympic Mountains of Washington State. Measured δD and δ18O of 97 samples of surface water are linearly related and nearly inseparable from the global meteoric water line. A linear orographic precipitation model extended to include in effects of isotopic fractionation via Rayleigh distillation predicts precipitation patterns and isotopic composition of surface water. Seven parameters relating to the climate and isotopic composition of source water are used. A constrained random search identifies the best-fitting parameter set. Confidence intervals for parameter values are defined and precipitation patterns are determined. Average errors for the best-fitting model are 4.8 permil in δD. The difference between the best fitting model and other models within the 95% confidence interval was less than 20%. An independent high-resolution precipitation climatology documents precipitation gradients similar in shape and magnitude to the model derived from surface water isotopic composition. This technique could be extended to other mountain ranges, providing an economical and fast assessment of precipitation patterns requiring minimal field work.

  10. [Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of Precipitation and Its Water Vapor Sources in Eastern Qaidam Basin].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian-jia; Chen, Hui; Gong, Guo-li

    2015-08-01

    Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes can be used as a tracer to analyze water vapor sources of atmospheric precipitation. We choose Golmud and Delingha as our study areas, Golmud locates in the south of Qaidam basin, and Delingha locates in the northeast. Based on the analysis of monthly change of hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of precipitation during June to September of 2010, and the relationship between deltaD and delta18O in precipitation, we investigated the water vapor sources of precipitation in eastern Qaidam basin. The results show that: (1) meteoric water line between June to September in Golmud is: deltaD = 7.840 delta18O - 4.566 (R2 = 0.918, P < 0.001), and in Delingha is: deltaD = 7.833 delta18O + 8.606 (R2 = 0.986, P < 0.001). The slopes and intercepts of meteoric water line between June to September in both Golmud and Delingha are lower than the global average, and the intercept in Golmud is only -4.566, which indicates the extremely arid climate condition. (2) the delta18O content of precipitation is much higher in Golmud in early July, it shows the enrichment of some heavier isotopes. However, the delta18O content of precipitation becomes lower from late July to early September, especially for the late September. The 8180 content of precipitation in Delingha is higher in June to August than that in late September. (3) the water vapor sources of precipitation in Golmud and Delingha are different, Golmud area is the northern border of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where the southwest monsoon can reach, and the southwest monsoon brings water vapors of precipitation, but the water vapors of precipitation in Delingha are mainly from local evaporation.

  11. Critical analysis of atmospheric turbidity and precipitable water at five Canadian stations

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.; Gueymard, C.

    1997-12-31

    Global and diffuse radiation and surface meteorological measurements at Edmonton, Montreal, Port Hardy, Toronto and Winnipeg for the years 1977--1984 are analyzed to yield estimates of atmospheric precipitable water and turbidity. Three methods of estimating the precipitable water and two methods of estimating the turbidity are used and compared. Measurements of pyranometer response as a function of zenith angle are used to correct the global radiation measurements. Turbidity is corrected for the effect of circumsolar radiation included in the direct radiation obtained from the global and diffuse radiation measurements. A comparison with earlier precipitable water and turbidity results is included.

  12. Solvation agent for disulfide precipitates from inhibited glycol-water solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, M. F.

    1971-01-01

    Small additions /0.01 percent or less/ of triethanoloamine sodium sulfite adduct to mercapto benzothiazole inhibited glycol water heat transfer solutions containing disulfide precipitate produce marked reduction in amount of precipitate. Adduct is useful as additive in glycol base antifreezes and coolants.

  13. Importance of Dry-Season Precipitation to the Water Resources of Monteverde, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guswa, A. J.; Rhodes, A. L.

    2005-12-01

    Monteverde, Costa Rica harbors montane forests that exemplify the delicate balances among climate, hydrology, habitat, and development. Most of the annual precipitation to this region arrives during the wet season, but the importance of orographic precipitation during the dry and transitional seasons should not be underestimated. Changes in regional land-cover and global climate may lead to reduced precipitation and cloud cover and a subsequent decline in endemic species, and a boom in ecotourism has put stress on water resources. A recent attempt to withdraw water from a local stream led to a standoff between conservationists and business developers, and there is a clear need for hydrologic data and understanding in support of policy. Through signals observed in the stable isotopic composition of precipitation and streamflow, we seek to understand how precipitation from the drier seasons propagates through the hydrologic cycle. In precipitation, δ18O and δ2H are heaviest during the dry and transitional seasons and light during the rainy season, consistent with the condensation mechanisms and degree of rainout typical of these periods. The signal in d-excess indicates a contribution of recycled water to precipitation in Monteverde from late in the rainy season through the dry season. Attenuated versions of these seasonal signals propagate through to the stream samples and provide a means of determining the importance of dry-season precipitation to water resources for the region. Results from six catchments on the leeward slope indicate that the Brillante Gap in the continental divide exerts strong control on the input of orographic precipitation to the region. Disparities in the temporal signals of precipitation and streamflow isotopes indicate non-linear behavior in the hydrologic processes that move water through these catchments.

  14. Global aerosol typing from a combination of A-Train satellite observations in clear-sky and above clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Russell, P. B.; Vaughan, M.; Redemann, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Livingston, J. M.; Zhang, Q.

    2014-12-01

    According to the 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the model estimates of Radiative Forcing due to aerosol-radiation interactions (RFari) for individual aerosol types are less certain than the total RFari [Boucher et al., 2013]. For example, the RFari specific to Black Carbon (BC) is uncertain due to an underestimation of its mass concentration near source regions [Koch et al., 2009]. Several recent studies have evaluated chemical transport model (CTM) predictions using observations of aerosol optical properties such as Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) or Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) from satellite or ground-based instruments (e.g., Huneeus et al., [2010]). However, most passive remote sensing instruments fail to provide a comprehensive assessment of the particle type without further analysis and combination of measurements. To improve the predictions of aerosol composition in CTMs, we have developed an aerosol classification algorithm (called Specified Clustering and Mahalanobis Classification, SCMC) that assigns an aerosol type to multi-parameter retrievals by spaceborne, airborne or ground based passive remote sensing instruments [Russell et al., 2014]. The aerosol types identified by our scheme are pure dust, polluted dust, urban-industrial/developed economy, urban-industrial/developing economy, dark biomass smoke, light biomass smoke and pure marine. First, we apply the SCMC method to five years of clear-sky space-borne POLDER observations over Greece. We then use the aerosol extinction and SSA spectra retrieved from a combination of MODIS, OMI and CALIOP clear-sky observations to infer the aerosol type over the globe in 2007. Finally, we will extend the spaceborne aerosol classification from clear-sky to above low opaque water clouds using a combination of CALIOP AOD and backscatter observations and OMI absorption AOD values from near-by clear-sky pixels.

  15. Water vapor sources associated with the early summer precipitation over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, K. C.; Tong, Hang-Wai; Chan, Johnny C. L.

    2008-04-01

    This study investigates the water vapor sources for the early summer precipitation over China in association with the Asian summer monsoon, based on the sensitivity experiments performed by a regional climate model for the year 1998. It is found that the northern South China Sea (NSCS) is an important region for the early summer precipitation over China, particularly the south China region. The evaporative water vapor flux or sea surface temperature over the NSCS could significantly affect the southwesterly water vapor transport towards the NSCS. This in turn may significantly change the water vapor transport from the NSCS to China and so changes the precipitation there. The results of the experiments also show that the precipitation over China does not particularly depend on the water vapor transports from some distant sources by the large-scale flows. Most of the required water vapor could be obtained from the ocean within the monsoon region. The results suggest that the water vapor transport over China is basically a combination of the southeasterly water vapor transport associated with the north Western Pacific subtropical high and the southwesterly water vapor transport associated with the Indian summer monsoon. Without the latter, the early summer precipitation over China could be reduced by up to half of the original amount.

  16. The removal of sulphate from mine water by precipitation as ettringite and the utilisation of the precipitate as a sorbent for arsenate removal.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Hu, Tao; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate sulphate removal from mine water by precipitation as ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O) and the utilisation of the precipitate as a sorbent for arsenate removal. The mine water sulphate concentration was reduced by 85-90% from the initial 1400 mg/L during ettringite precipitation depending on the treatment method. The precipitation conditions were also simulated with MINEQL + software, and the computational results were compared with the experimental results. The precipitated solids were characterised with X-ray diffraction and a scanning electron microscope. The precipitated solids were tested as sorbents for arsenate removal from the model solution. The arsenic(V) model solution concentration reduced 86-96% from the initial 1.5 mg/L with a 1 g/L sorbent dosage. The effect of initial arsenate concentration on the sorption of arsenate on the precipitate was studied and Langmuir, Freundlich, and Langmuir-Freundlich sorption isotherm models were fitted to the experimental data. The maximum arsenate sorption capacity (qm = 11.2 ± 4.7 mg/g) of the precipitate was obtained from the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm. The results indicate that the precipitate produced during sulphate removal from mine water by precipitation as ettringite could be further used as a sorbent for arsenate removal.

  17. Distribution of tritium in water vapour and precipitation around Wolsung nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Chae, Jung-Seok; Lee, Sang-Kuk; Kim, Yongjae; Lee, Jung-Min; Cho, Heung-Joon; Cho, Yong-Woo; Yun, Ju-Yong

    2011-07-01

    The distribution of tritium in water vapour and precipitation with discharge of tritiated water vapour and meteorological factors was studied around the Wolsung nuclear power plant (NPP) site during the period 2004-2008. The tritium concentrations in atmospheric water vapour and precipitation had a temporal variation with relatively high values in the early summer. Spatial distribution of tritium concentrations was affected by various factors such as distance from the NPP site, wind direction, tritium discharge into the atmosphere and atmospheric dispersion factor. The annual mean concentrations of atmospheric HTO and precipitation were correlated with the amount of gaseous tritium released from the Wolsung NPP. The tritium concentrations in precipitation decrease exponentially with an increase of the distance from the Wolsung NPP site.

  18. Tritium and Stable Isotopes of Precipitation and Surface Water in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, P.; Moran, J. E.; Visser, A.; Esser, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Tritium (3H) and stable isotopes (2H and 18O) are effective natural tracers of water molecules through the hydrologic system. The strong topographic gradient in California results in distinct isotopic signatures that are particularly effective in watershed studies. Past studies of meteoric tritium distribution within the United States have focused on large-scale trends, at low spatial resolution. Globally, tritium in precipitation is monitored by the International Atomic Energy Agency contributing to the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) database. The two tritium monitoring stations in California contributing to the GNIP database were discontinued in 1976 (Santa Maria) and 1993 (Menlo Park). Surface water studies have focused on time series in major rivers nationwide or localized studies. Our study focuses on high spatial resolution water isotope data collection in California. Over 140 tritium and stable water isotope samples were collected from surface water and direct precipitation during the 2013 Summer/Fall and 2014 Winter/Spring flow regimes and analyzed by helium accumulation and noble gas mass spectrometry. Surface water samples are collected as a proxy for precipitation and to investigate trends related to water residence times. Tritium concentrations in precipitation show strong spatial trends, with higher concentrations at inland high elevation locations. Surface water tritium trends with spatial location (latitude and longitude) and elevation (reflecting the precipitation signal) and distance downstream (reflecting water residence times). A local meteoric water line (MWL) for California is developed from stable isotope data and analyzed in comparison to the global MWL. Results have implications for tritium tracer and water provenance studies.

  19. Atmospheric energy and water balance perspective to projection of global-scale precipitation increase: may mitigation policies unexpectedly amplify precipitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandri, A.; Fogli, P.; Vichi, M.; Zeng, N.

    2012-12-01

    Future climate scenarios experiencing global warming are expected to strengthen hydrological cycle during 21st century by comparison with the last decades of 20th century. From the perspective of changes in whole atmospheric water and energy budgets, we analyze strengthening of the hydrological cycle as measured by the increase in global-scale precipitation. Furthermore, by combining energy and water equations for the whole atmosphere we profitably obtain constraints for the changes in surface fluxes and for the partitioning at the surface between sensible and latent components. Above approach is applied to investigate difference in precipitation increase in two scenario centennial simulations performed with an Earth System model forced with specified atmospheric concentration pathways. Alongside medium-high non-mitigation scenario (baseline), we considered an aggressive-mitigation scenario (E1) with reduced fossil fuel use for energy production aimed at stabilizing global warming below 2K. Quite unexpectedly, mitigation scenario is shown to strengthen hydrological cycle more than baseline till around 2070, that is a couple of decades after that mitigation of global temperature was already well established in E1. Our analysis shows that this is mostly a consequence of the larger increase in the negative radiative imbalance of atmosphere in E1 compared to baseline. This appears to be primarily related to the abated aerosol concentration in E1, which considerably reduces atmospheric absorption of solar radiation compared to baseline. In contrast, last decades of 21st century (21C) show marked increase of global precipitation in baseline compared to E1, despite the fact that the two scenarios display almost same overall increase of radiative imbalance with respect to 20th century. Our results show that radiative cooling is weakly effective in baseline throughout all 21C, so that two distinct mechanisms characterize the diverse strengthening of hydrological cycle in

  20. Importance of orographic precipitation to the water resources of Monteverde, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guswa, Andrew J.; Rhodes, Amy L.; Newell, Silvia E.

    2007-10-01

    Monteverde, Costa Rica harbors montane forests that exemplify the delicate balances among climate, hydrology, habitat, and development. Most of the annual precipitation to this region arrives during the wet season, but the importance of orographic precipitation during the dry and transitional seasons should not be underestimated. Development associated with ecotourism has put significant stress on water resources, and recent work has shown evidence that changes in regional land-cover and global climate may lead to reduced precipitation and cloud cover and a subsequent decline in endemic species. Precipitation samples collected from 2003 to 2005 reveal a seasonal signal in stable isotope composition, as measured by δ 18O and δ 2H, that is heaviest during the dry and transitional seasons. Attenuated versions of this signal propagate through to stream samples and provide a means of determining the importance of precipitation delivered by the trade winds during the dry and transitional seasons to water resources for the region. Results from six catchments on the leeward slope indicate that topography exerts a strong control on the importance of orographic precipitation to stream baseflow. The contributions are greatest in those catchments that are close to the Brillante Gap in the Continental Divide. Differences in the temporal variation of precipitation and streamflow isotope compositions provide insight to the hydrologic pathways that move water to the streams.

  1. [Characteristics of stable isotopes in precipitation over Northeast China and its water vapor sources].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Ming-Jun; Ma, Qian; Li, Ya-Ju; Wang, Sheng-Jie; Wang, Bao-Long

    2012-09-01

    Based on the data of the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in precipitation over Northeast China provided by the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) and the meteorological statistics, the spatial and temporal variations of stable isotopes in precipitation and their influencing factors were analyzed and the Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL) was established. The results were as follows: delta18O value was low in winter and high in summer; the spatial distribution showed that the weighted delta18O value decreased from the south to the north; the linear relationship between delta18O in precipitation and temperature was significant, but no linear relationship was found for the precipitation amount; delta18O in precipitation can be evaluated quantitatively based on a multiple linear regression equation with delta18O and related parameters (temperature, precipitation amount, elevation, longitude and latitude). The water vapor source of the sampling sites was tracked by HYSPLIT 4. 9 model, and the modeled trajectory of vapor source indicated that there were two main paths, including the cold wet water vapor from the Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic Ocean via Westerlies, and the warm one from the Pacific Ocean.

  2. Mercury and trace elements in cloud water and precipitation collected on Mt. Mansfield, Vermont.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Elizabeth G; Keeler, Gerald J; Lawson, Sean T; Sherbatskoy, Timothy D

    2003-08-01

    The lack of high quality measurements of Hg and trace elements in cloud and fog water led to the design of a new collector for clean sequential sampling of cloud and fog water. Cloud water was collected during nine non-precipitating cloud events on Mt. Mansfield, VT in the northeastern USA between August 1 and October 31, 1998. Sequential samples were collected during six of these events. Mercury cloud water concentrations ranged from 7.5 to 71.8 ng l(-1), with a mean of 24.8 ng l(-1). Liquid water content explained about 60% of the variability in Hg cloud concentrations. Highest Hg cloud water concentrations were found to be associated with transport from the Mid-Atlantic and Ohio River Valley, and lowest concentrations with transport from the north of Mt. Mansfield out of Canada. Twenty-nine event precipitation samples were collected during the ten-week cloud sampling period near the base of Mt. Mansfield as part of a long-term deposition study. The Hg concentrations of cloud water were similar to, but higher on average (median of 12.5 ng l(-1)) than Hg precipitation concentrations (median of 10.5 ng l(-1)). Cloud and precipitation samples were analyzed for fifteen trace elements including Mg, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb by ICP-MS. Mean concentrations were higher in cloud water than precipitation for elements with predominately anthropogenic, but not crustal origin in samples from the same source region. One possible explanation is greater in-cloud scavenging of crustal elements in precipitating than non-precipitating clouds, and greater below-cloud scavenging of crustal than anthropogenic aerosols.

  3. GPS Precipitable Water Measurements Used in the Analysis of California and Nevada Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Means, James Douglas

    Precipitable water (integrated water vapor) can be obtained from zenith travel-time delays of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals, if the atmospheric pressure and temperature at the site are known. There have been large numbers of GPS receivers deployed for geophysics research programs, but unfortunately most of these receivers do not have co-located barometers and thermometers. In this paper archived zenith delays are combined with estimates of GPS site station pressure and temperature from the North American Regional Reanalysis, in order to generate a seven year record of precipitable water at more than 500 sites. The precipitable water values calculated using this method have been found to be in good agreement with GPS precipitable water values from stations with barometers, as well as with radiosonde measurements of precipitable water. Precipitable water has a wide variation across the region, from just a few millimeters in the driest conditions to over 50 mm during strong episodes of the North American Monsoon. The spatial and temporal variations of precipitable water are examined, including the annual and diurnal cycles. Strong annual cycles are seen at almost all sites, and diurnal cycles are also present, increasing away from bodies of water and toward the south, where they reach more than 10% of the daily mean. Precipitable water is found to follow a lognormal distribution at all sites in the region, with some stations showing a small bimodal characteristic due to the influence of the North American Monsoon. An index is proposed that measures the bimodality and hence the "monsooniness" of a site. The elevation dependence of the precipitable water is examined and found to have an exponential decrease which is quite tightly followed in the fall, winter and spring, but more loosely in the summer. It has a greater scale height than has previously been measured elsewhere, ranging from 2.4 km in the winter to 3.1 km in the summer. The landward penetration of

  4. Precipitation patterns and moisture fluxes in a sandy, tropical environment with a shallow water table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minihane, M. R.; Freyberg, D. L.

    2011-08-01

    Identifying the dominant mechanisms controlling recharge in shallow sandy soils in tropical climates has received relatively little attention. Given the expansion of coastal fill using marine sands and the growth of coastal populations throughout the tropics, there is a need to better understand the nature of water balances in these settings. We use time series of field observations at a coastal landfill in Singapore coupled with numerical modeling using the Richards' equation to examine the impact of precipitation patterns on soil moisture dynamics, including percolation past the root zone and recharge, in such an environment. A threshold in total precipitation event depth, much more so than peak precipitation intensity, is the strongest event control on recharge. However, shallow antecedent moisture, and therefore the timing between events along with the seasonal depth to water table, also play significant roles in determining recharge amounts. For example, at our field site, precipitation events of less than 3 mm per event yield little to no direct recharge, but for larger events, moisture content changes below the root zone are linearly correlated to the product of the average antecedent moisture content and the total event precipitation. Therefore, water resources planners need to consider identifying threshold precipitation volumes, along with the multiple time scales that capture variability in event antecedent conditions and storm frequency in assessing the role of recharge in coastal water balances in tropical settings.

  5. Remote sensing of precipitable water over the oceans from Nimbus-7 microwave measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Change, H. D.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1981-01-01

    Global maps of precipitable water over derived from scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) data reveal salient features associated with ocean currents and the large scale general circulation in the atmosphere. Nimbus-7 SMMR brightness temperature measurements in the 21 and 18 GHz channels are used to sense the precipitable water in the atmospheric over oceans. The difference in the brightness temperature (T sub 21 -T sub 18), both in the horizontal and vertical polarization, is found to be essentially a function of the precipitable water in the atmosphere. An equation, based on the physical consideration of the radiative transfer in the microwave region, is developed to relate the precipitable water to (T sub 21 - T sub 18). It shows that the signal (T sub 21- T sub 18) does not suffer severely from the noise introduced by variations in the sea surface temperature, surface winds, and liquid water content in non rain clouds. The rms deviation between the estimated precipitable water from SMMR data and that given by the closely coincident ship radiosondes is about 0.25 g/ sq cm

  6. Prediction of Water-level Changes and Water Use in the High Plains Aquifer from Radar Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittemore, D. O.; Butler, J. J., Jr.; Wilson, B. B.

    2015-12-01

    Meteorological conditions are the primary driver of variations in the annual volume of groundwater pumped for irrigation from the High Plains aquifer (HPA), one of the largest aquifers of the world. Correlations between climatic indices (such as the Standardized Precipitation Index [SPI]) and mean annual water-level changes and water use have been shown to be valuable tools for assessing the aquifer's response to various climatic scenarios in the semi-arid Kansas HPA (Whittemore et al., 2015). The correlations are generally better for a relatively large area (region) of the aquifer (such as that encompassed by a climatic division) because of the number of weather stations from which the climatic indices are computed. Correlations can be poor for county-sized and smaller areas (less than a few to several hundred km2) because of the low density of weather stations. Since 2005, radar precipitation data have been served online by the National Weather Service. The radar data are adjusted based on ground observations and are available at a spatial resolution of ~4x4 km. Correlations between radar precipitation and mean annual water-level changes and water use are comparable to those using SPI for the same region. Correlations using radar precipitation data are generally higher than with SPI computed for smaller areas, such as for counties and areas around individual monitoring wells. The optimum correlations for radar precipitation are determined using sums of different spans of monthly mean precipitation that include the irrigation season for the area of interest. Coefficients of determination, R2, for radar precipitation versus annual water-level change and water use can exceed 0.8 for counties and monitoring well areas in the Kansas HPA. These correlations are being used to assess the impact of drought and water-use management on HPA sustainability. These correlations can also be used to assess the quality of the reported water-use data.

  7. The effects of acid precipitation runoff on source water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Leibfried, R.T.; DeWalle, D.R.; Sharpe, W.A.

    1984-03-01

    The quality of water in two small streams that provide supplies to the water systems of Jennerstown and Boalsburg, Pa., was monitored during episodes of acid runoff in February 1981 (Card Machine Run) and March 1983 (Galbraith Gap Run): Changes in pH, in the concentration of aluminum, and in the Ryznar Stability Index were determined. The magnitude and potential importance of these changes are discussed.

  8. Effects of acid precipitation runoff on source water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Leibfried, R.T.; Sharpe, W.E.; DeWalle, D.R.

    1984-03-01

    The quality of water in two small streams that provide supplies to the water systems of Jennerstown and Boalsburg, Pa., was monitored during episodes of acid runoff in February 1981 (Card Machine Run) and March 1983 (Galbraith Gap Run). Changes in pH, in the concentration of aluminum, and in the Ryznar Stability Index were determined. The magnitude and potential importance of these changes are discussed. 17 references, 2 figures.

  9. Real-time QEXAFS spectroscopy measures rapid precipitate formation at the mineral-water interface.

    PubMed

    Siebecker, Matthew; Li, Wei; Khalid, Syed; Sparks, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Reactions at the mineral-water interface are central to numerous geochemical processes and have consequences at local, regional and global scales. They are also important in materials science research. Kinetics greatly influences mineral-water interface reactions; however, there are few kinetic data in real-time and at the molecular scale. Here we report real-time data illustrating the rapid formation of nickel aluminium-layered double hydroxide precipitates at the mineral-water interface in a flow environment in as little as 31-40 min. Layered double hydroxides have a variety of applications in environmental remediation and materials science. The real-time data shown here enhance our fundamental understanding of the kinetics of mineral-water interface processes, such as adsorption, dissolution and precipitation, by illustrating their rapid and simultaneous occurrence in a dynamic environment. Both precipitation and adsorption can occur on the same rapid timescale. PMID:25233849

  10. Warming combined with more extreme precipitation regimes modifies the water sources used by trees

    DOE PAGES

    Grossiord, Charlotte; Sevanto, Sanna; Dawson, Todd E.; Adams, Henry D.; Collins, Adam D.; Dickman, Lee T.; Newman, Brent D.; Stockton, Elizabeth A.; McDowell, Nate G.

    2016-09-09

    The persistence of vegetation under climate change will depend on a plant's capacity to exploit water resources. In addition, we analyzed water source dynamics in piñon pine and juniper trees subjected to precipitation reduction, atmospheric warming, and to both simultaneously.

  11. Seasonal transfer of oxygen isotopes from precipitation and soil to the tree ring: source water versus needle water enrichment.

    PubMed

    Treydte, Kerstin; Boda, Sonja; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Fonti, Patrick; Frank, David; Ullrich, Bastian; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Werner, Willy; Gessler, Arthur

    2014-05-01

    For accurate interpretation of oxygen isotopes in tree rings (δ(18) O), it is necessary to disentangle the mechanisms underlying the variations in the tree's internal water cycle and to understand the transfer of source versus leaf water δ(18) O to phloem sugars and stem wood. We studied the seasonal transfer of oxygen isotopes from precipitation and soil water through the xylem, needles and phloem to the tree rings of Larix decidua at two alpine sites in the Lötschental (Switzerland). Weekly resolved δ(18) O records of precipitation, soil water, xylem and needle water, phloem organic matter and tree rings were developed. Week-to-week variations in needle-water (18) O enrichment were strongly controlled by weather conditions during the growing season. These short-term variations were, however, not significantly fingerprinted in tree-ring δ(18) O. Instead, seasonal trends in tree-ring δ(18) O predominantly mirrored trends in the source water, including recent precipitation and soil water pools. Modelling results support these findings: seasonal tree-ring δ(18) O variations are captured best when the week-to-week variations of the leaf water signal are suppressed. Our results suggest that climate signals in tree-ring δ(18) O variations should be strongest at temperate sites with humid conditions and precipitation maxima during the growing season.

  12. A Novel Method for Estimating Shortwave Direct Radiative Effect of Above-cloud Aerosols over Ocean Using CALIOP and MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Z.; Meyer, K.; Platnick, S.; Oreopoulos, L.; Lee, D.; Yu, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient and unique method for computing the shortwave direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosol residing above low-level liquid-phase clouds using CALIOP and MODIS data. It accounts for the overlapping of aerosol and cloud rigorously by utilizing the joint histogram of cloud optical depth and cloud top pressure. Effects of sub-grid scale cloud and aerosol variations on DRE are accounted for. It is computationally efficient through using grid-level cloud and aerosol statistics, instead of pixel-level products, and a pre-computed look-up table in radiative transfer calculations. We verified that for smoke over the southeast Atlantic Ocean the method yields a seasonal mean instantaneous shortwave DRE that generally agrees with more rigorous pixel-level computation within 4%. We have also computed the annual mean instantaneous shortwave DRE of light-absorbing aerosols (i.e., smoke and polluted dust) over global ocean based on 4 yr of CALIOP and MODIS data. We found that the variability of the annual mean shortwave DRE of above-cloud light-absorbing aerosol is mainly driven by the optical depth of the underlying clouds.

  13. Analysis of monthly average atmospheric precipitable water and turbidity in Canada and northern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gueymard, C. )

    1994-07-01

    Atmospheric turbidity and precipitable water data are necessary as inputs to solar radiation or daylight availability models, and to daylighting simulation programs. A new model is presented to obtain precipitable water from long-term averages of temperature and humidity. Precipitable water data derived from this model are tabulated for some Canadian and northern U.S. sites. A discussion on the available turbidity data is presented. An analysis of the datasets from the WMO turbidity network is detailed. The effect of volcanic eruptions is discussed, as well as the possible comparisons with indirect determinations of turbidity from radiation data. A tabulation of the monthly average turbidity coefficients for ten Canadian stations and seven northern U.S. stations of the WMO network is presented.

  14. Interpretation of Mauna Loa atmospheric transmission relative to aerosols, using photometric precipitable water amounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, E. G.; Deluisi, J. J.; Austring, A. P.

    1985-06-01

    A parameter depending mostly on total aerosol extinction is derived using precipitable water measurements coinciding with direct broadband solar irradiance measurements in conjunction with an atmospheric transmission model. The atmospheric transmission factor (ATF), independent of the instrument calibration and the extraterrestrial solar constant, is calculated from irradiance measurements. The measured ATF value is then adjusted using precipitable water measurements. Calibrated solar photometrically derived precipitable water amounts observed at MLO are used to analyze the Mauna Loa, Hawaii (MLO) ATF record from 1978 to 1983. It is found that the ATF aerosol residual is approximately equal to the 500 nm aerosol optical depth prior to the eruption of El Chichon and a nonlinear time-dependent relationship between the two values is observed. The spectrally integrated aerosol influence on transmission and the radiation balance perturbations due to aerosols are reflected by the ATF aerosol residuals.

  15. Temperature-dependent daily variability of precipitable water in special sensor microwave/imager observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutowski, William J.; Lindemulder, Elizabeth A.; Jovaag, Kari

    1995-01-01

    We use retrievals of atmospheric precipitable water from satellite microwave observations and analyses of near-surface temperature to examine the relationship between these two fields on daily and longer time scales. The retrieval technique producing the data used here is most effective over the open ocean, so the analysis focuses on the southern hemisphere's extratropics, which have an extensive ocean surface. For both the total and the eddy precipitable water fields, there is a close correspondence between local variations in the precipitable water and near-surface temperature. The correspondence appears particularly strong for synoptic and planetary scale transient eddies. More specifically, the results support a typical modeling assumption that transient eddy moisture fields are proportional to transient eddy temperature fields under the assumption f constant relative humidity.

  16. Understanding the Role of Water Vapor Transport in Extreme Precipitation Events in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, K.; Endreny, T. A.; Ferguson, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    In the future, IPCC global climate models project increased frequency of atmospheric rivers (ARs), which are concentrated bands of high moisture known to cause extreme precipitation and flooding events. While ARs have been studied in the United States (US) and Europe using reanalyses and satellite remote sensing, few if any studies have applied an AR analysis framework to regions in South Asia. In this research, we develop and test AR detection algorithms for Nepal by modifying a proven algorithm used in the western US and Europe. Nepal faces challenges in forecasting extreme precipitation events due to the region's complex topography and lack of forecasting infrastructure. Accordingly, any tools that can lead to enhanced lead time of extreme weather forecasts, or help guide water management decisions, will have a substantial positive impact on the region's coping ability. Our AR algorithm uses ERA-Interim reanalysis data to compute integrated water vapor transport (kg m-1s-1) and determine the latitude specific threshold values, for four seasons. After detecting AR events, we test if those events correlate with observed extreme daily precipitation events. Extreme precipitation is determined annually and for non-monsoon months. Our initial results indicate that ARs coincide with extreme precipitation mostly in the cold season. We are extending our analyses to better understand how ARs relate to extreme precipitation events in all seasons. New methods to monitor the role of ARs in precipitation events will help manage water resources, which is critical given the melting of Himalayan glaciers that feed major watersheds of Nepal. In addition to understanding extreme events, our study will also aid in a better understanding of seasonal climate anomalies and the global water cycle.

  17. Comparison of Remotely Sensed Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Products for a Statewide Water Assessment of New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Fernald, A.; Peterson, K.; Walker, S.; Hewitt, I. C.; Hendrickx, J. M. H.

    2014-12-01

    Precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) are the major components of the water balance in New Mexico. Therefore, it is critical to acquire accurate precipitation and ET data as input into a statewide water balance. Since existing meteorological stations in New Mexico don't cover the entire state and leave many areas without accurate information, we propose to evaluate the accuracy of existing nationwide remotely sensed databases for precipitation and ET to quantify the spatial and temporal distributions of those components in a statewide water balance. In this study we compare five precipitation products and three ET products: the CHIRPS (Climate Hazard Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data) model, the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service product, the PERSIANN-GCCS (Precipitation Estimation from Remote Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Network - Global Cloud Classification System) model, the PRISM (Parameter-elevation Relationships on Independent Slopes) model the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, the ALExI (Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse) model, the MOD 16 ( MODIS Global Evapotranspiration Product) model of NASA, and the SSEB (Simplified Surface Energy Balance) model produced by the USGS. Early results show a strong relationship between all precipitation products across the state of New Mexico from 2000 to 2013 with an average depth of 315 mm, except for the PERSIANN model which has a rainfall depth approximately 53% higher (673mm) than the average of the other models. Additionally there is a strong relationship between the ALExI and SSEB ET models yet these models exceed the precipitation in the state by approximately 35%. The MOD 16 ET model has an average ET depth approximately 42% less than the average of the precipitation models and about 60% less than the ALExI and SSEB ET models. Future work includes validation of precipitation and ET models using high density rain gauge networks, as well as METRIC

  18. Detecting acid precipitation impacts on lake water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loftis, Jim C.; Taylor, Charles H.

    1989-09-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency is planning to expand its long-term monitoring of lakes that are sensitive to acid deposition effects. Effective use of resources will require a careful definition of the statistical objectives of monitoring, a network design which balances spatial and temporal coverage, and a sound approach to data analysis. This study examines the monitoring objective of detecting trends in water quality for individual lakes and small groups of lakes. Appropriate methods of trend analysis are suggested, and the power of trend detection under seasonal (quarterly) sampling is compared to that of annual sampling. The effects of both temporal and spatial correlation on trend detection ability are described.

  19. Precipitation recycling in West Africa - regional modeling, evaporation tagging and atmospheric water budget analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnault, Joel; Kunstmann, Harald; Knoche, Hans-Richard

    2015-04-01

    Many numerical studies have shown that the West African monsoon is highly sensitive to the state of the land surface. It is however questionable to which extend a local change of land surface properties would affect the local climate, especially with respect to precipitation. This issue is traditionally addressed with the concept of precipitation recycling, defined as the contribution of local surface evaporation to local precipitation. For this study the West African monsoon has been simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model using explicit convection, for the domain (1°S-21°N, 18°W-14°E) at a spatial resolution of 10 km, for the period January-October 2013, and using ERA-Interim reanalyses as driving data. This WRF configuration has been selected for its ability to simulate monthly precipitation amounts and daily histograms close to TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) data. In order to investigate precipitation recycling in this WRF simulation, surface evaporation tagging has been implemented in the WRF source code as well as the budget of total and tagged atmospheric water. Surface evaporation tagging consists in duplicating all water species and the respective prognostic equations in the source code. Then, tagged water species are set to zero at the lateral boundaries of the simulated domain (no inflow of tagged water vapor), and tagged surface evaporation is considered only in a specified region. All the source terms of the prognostic equations of total and tagged water species are finally saved in the outputs for the budget analysis. This allows quantifying the respective contribution of total and tagged atmospheric water to atmospheric precipitation processes. The WRF simulation with surface evaporation tagging and budgets has been conducted two times, first with a 100 km2 tagged region (11-12°N, 1-2°W), and second with a 1000 km2 tagged region (7-16°N, 6°W -3°E). In this presentation we will investigate hydro

  20. Q Conversion Factor Models for Estimating Precipitable Water Vapor for Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, Ilke; Mekik, Cetin; Gurbuz, Gokhan

    2015-04-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have recently proved to be one of the crucial tools for determining continuous and precise precipitable water vapor (GNSS-MET networks). GNSS, especially CORS networks such as CORS-TR (the Turkish Network-RTK), provide high temporal and spatial accuracy for the wet tropospheric zenith delays which are then converted to the precipitable water vapor due to the fact that they can operate in all weather conditions continuously and economically. The accuracy of wet tropospheric zenith delay highly depends on the accuracy of precipitable water vapor content in the troposphere. Therefore, the precipitable water vapor is an important element of the tropospheric zenith delay. A number of studies can be found in the literature on the determination of the precipitable water vapor from the tropospheric zenith delay. Studies of Hogg showed that when the precipitable water vapor is known, the tropospheric zenith delay can be computed. Askne and Nodius have developed fundamental equations between the wet tropospheric zenith delay and the precipitable water vapor from the equation of the index of refraction in the troposphere. Furthermore, Bevis have developed a linear regression model to determine the weighted mean temperature (Tm) depending on the surface temperature (Ts) in Askne and Nodius studies. For this reason, nearly 9000 radiosonde profiles in USA were analyzed and the coefficients calculated. Similarly, there are other studies on the calculation of those coefficients for different regions: Solbrig for Germany, Liou for Taiwan, Jihyun for South Korea, Dongseob for North Korea, Suresh Raju for India, Boutiouta and Lahcene for Algeria, Bokoye for Canada, Baltink for Netherlands and Baltic, Bock for Africa. It is stated that the weighted mean temperature can be found with a root mean square error of ±2-5 K. In addition, there are studies on the calculation of the coefficients globally. Another model for the determination of

  1. Next-Generation Satellite Precipitation Products for Understanding Global and Regional Water Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in understanding the space-time variability of continental water fluxes is the lack of accurate precipitation estimates over complex terrains. While satellite precipitation observations can be used to complement ground-based data to obtain improved estimates, space-based and ground-based estimates come with their own sets of uncertainties, which must be understood and characterized. Quantitative estimation of uncertainties in these products also provides a necessary foundation for merging satellite and ground-based precipitation measurements within a rigorous statistical framework. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international satellite mission that will provide next-generation global precipitation data products for research and applications. It consists of a constellation of microwave sensors provided by NASA, JAXA, CNES, ISRO, EUMETSAT, DOD, NOAA, NPP, and JPSS. At the heart of the mission is the GPM Core Observatory provided by NASA and JAXA to be launched in 2013. The GPM Core, which will carry the first space-borne dual-frequency radar and a state-of-the-art multi-frequency radiometer, is designed to set new reference standards for precipitation measurements from space, which can then be used to unify and refine precipitation retrievals from all constellation sensors. The next-generation constellation-based satellite precipitation estimates will be characterized by intercalibrated radiometric measurements and physical-based retrievals using a common observation-derived hydrometeor database. For pre-launch algorithm development and post-launch product evaluation, NASA supports an extensive ground validation (GV) program in cooperation with domestic and international partners to improve (1) physics of remote-sensing algorithms through a series of focused field campaigns, (2) characterization of uncertainties in satellite and ground-based precipitation products over selected GV testbeds, and (3) modeling of atmospheric processes and

  2. Filtration of slime suspension in water-treatment precipitation clarifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Trofimenko, M.A.; Tyagnyryadno, L.A.; Korol'kov, N.M.; Zheleznyak, A.B.

    1988-02-10

    When water is treated in industrial clarifiers a slime suspension is produced that has a pH 11-12.5 and contains up to 5% solid phase. In order to utilize the excess alkalinity of the suspension and save fresh lime milk, the suspension is used to neutralize the acidic regenerates past the cation-exchanger columns. The operation of the vacuum filter is a narrow part of the wastewater treatment area. The filter cloth often gets choked, the sediment being sticky and difficult to remove from the cloth. We proposed to alter the mode of removal of the slime suspension by submitting it to filtration immediately after its exit from the clarifier. For mixing with the acidic regeneration from the cation-exchanger columns the filtrate was delivered after the vacuum filter.

  3. Towards water vapor assimilation into mesoscale models for improved precipitation forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoz, B.; Whiteman, D.; Venable, D.; Joseph, E.

    2006-05-01

    Atmospheric water vapor plays a primary role in the life cycle of clouds, precipitation and is crucial in understanding many aspects of the water cycle. It is very important to short-range mesoscale and storm-scale weather prediction. Specifically, accurate characterization of water vapor at low levels is a necessary condition for quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF), the initiation of convection and various thermodynamic and microphysical processes in mesoscale severe weather systems. However, quantification of its variability (both temporal and spatial) and integration of high quality and high frequency water vapor profiles into mesoscale models have been challenging. We report on a conceptual proposal that attempts to 1) define approporiate lidar-based data and instrumentation required for mesoscale data assimilation and 2) a possible federated network of ground-based lidars that may be capable of acquiring such high resolution water vapor data sets and 3) a possible frame work of assimilation of the data into a mesoscale model.

  4. Effect of a magnetic water treatment on homogeneous and heterogeneous precipitation of calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Alimi; Mohamed, Tlili; Claude, Gabrielli; Maurin, Georges; Mohamed, Ben Amor

    2006-06-01

    In this paper are reported experimental results on the effect of a magnetic field on the precipitation process of calcium carbonate scale from a hard water. Carbonically pure water was circulated at a constant flow rate in a magnetic field. After this treatment, calcium carbonate precipitation was induced by degassing dissolved carbonic gas. The nucleation time was identified from the variations of the pH and the Ca(2+) concentration. The ratio between homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation was determined from the measurement of the mass of precipitated calcium carbonate. It is shown that the magnetic treatment increases the total amount of precipitate. This effect depends on the solution pH, the flow rate and the duration of the treatment. In addition, the magnetic treatment modifies the ratio between homogeneous/heterogeneous nucleation. Homogeneous nucleation is promoted by an increasing the pH of water, the flow rate as well as the residence time. The magnetic treatment enhances these effects with a maximum for a 15 min treatment time. It is shown that the presence of calcium carbonate colloid particles is not necessary. It is advanced that the main magnetic effects concern the associations of ionic species which are present in the solution and which are involved in the nucleation process of calcium carbonate precipitation.

  5. Natural acidity of waters in podzolized soils and potential impacts from acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Stednick, J.D.; Johnson, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Nutrient movements through sites in southeast Alaska and Washington were documented to determine net changes in chemical composition of precipitation water as it passed through a forest soil and became stream flow. These sites were not subject to acid precipitation (rainfall pH 5.8 to 7.2), yet soil water was acidified to 4.2 by natural organic acid forming processes in the podzol soils. Organic acids precipitated in the subsoils, allowing a pH increase. Stream water pH ranged from 6.5 to 7.2 indicating a natural buffering capacity that may exceed any additional acid input from acid rain. Precipitation composition was dominated by magnesium, sodium, and chloride due to the proximity of the ocean at the southeast Alaska site. Anionic constituents of the precipitation were dominated by bicarbonate at the Washington site. Soil podzolization processes concurrently increased solution color and iron concentrations in the litter and surface horizons leachates. The anion flux through the soil profile was dominated by chloride and sulfate at the southwast Alaska site, whereas at the Washington site anion flux appeared to be dominated by organic acids. Electroneutrality calculations indicated a cation deficit for the southeast Alaska site. 10 references, 2 tables.

  6. Watershed flow paths and stream water nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratios under simulated precipitation regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Mark B.; Wang, Dong

    2008-12-01

    Stream water nitrogen-to-phosphorus (N:P) ratios influence algal community composition and nutrient limitation in lotic ecosystems. N:P ratios trend across climates, with low stream water N:P ratios more common in arid climates, yet little is known about mechanisms that cause this spatial and temporal variation. This study evaluates the relationship between precipitation regime (mean annual precipitation and its frequency), watershed flow pathways, and stream water total N-to-total P (TN:TP) ratios, using a model based on a central Minnesota watershed. The purpose of the study was to examine hydrologic mechanisms that control stream water TN:TP ratios. We constructed a model that accounted for hydrological and biogeochemical processes, followed by 161 simulations under a wide range of precipitation frequency and intensity scenarios. Precipitation regime controlled total runoff and subsurface hydrologic connectivity, which had implications for TN and TP concentrations and TN:TP ratios. Results supported the hypothesis that watershed hydrology is an important control on stream water TN:TP ratios and suggested that variation of flow pathways can lead to fundamental changes of N:P ratios.

  7. Modern monsoon extent and moisture dynamics over eastern Asian: evidence from precipitation and water vapor isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongfang; Kei, Yoshimura; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Tian, Lide

    2013-04-01

    The climate of eastern Asia is dominated by the Asia monsoon (AM) system, which controls seasonal patterns of moisture sources and transport to the region. Measurements of water isotopes can provide insight into monsoon extent and moisture dynamics. Here we present an analysis of a spatially dense network of precipitation isotopes (d18O and dD) from a ground-based network and water vapor dD retrieved from satellite measurements. The results show that isotopic seasonality for both precipitation and water vapor exhibits two distinctly different, spatially coherent modes. Summer-season isotope ratios are relatively low to the south of ~35°N and high to the north, with the transition between these zones reflecting the approximate northward extent of Asia summer monsoon influence. In the southern monsoon domain, low isotope values with relatively low precipitation d-excess (9.4‰ in SE China) in summer appear not to reflect the amount effect, but rather the dominance of monsoon moisture with long-distance transport from the Indian and southern Pacific oceans and continental convective recycling (contribute to about 30-48% moisture in SE China). In contrast, other seasons are dominated by dry continental masses, characterized by high d-excess (12.7‰) and isotope values. In northern China, a region that is beyond extent of monsoon, the moisture is derived overwhelmingly from the dry continental air masses. Here, water isotope ratios exhibit stronger temperature dependence, with enriched values in summer and depleted values in other seasons. The relatively low precipitation d-excess (<8‰) in northern China and inverse spatial isotope patterns between precipitation and water vapor across China during the summer further suggest that re-evaporation of falling raindrops is a key driver of water isotope behavior in northern China.

  8. Precipitation based hydrometeorological services of the Deutscher Wetterdienst for water management and flood protection in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, T.; Gratzki, A.; Rudolf, B.

    2009-04-01

    Inland water management agencies of the German "Länder" address flood forecast and prevention in order to mitigate flood risks. Additionally their risk management activities also address assessment of low flow situations (droughts) and freshwater resources availability. Hydrometeorological services for these hydrological applications are operationally provided by the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) and comprise: High spatially and temporally resoluted observational monitoring products and quantitative predictions of precipitation, evaporation and snow cover (storage and melting). The DWD hydrometeorological services processing chain spans from in situ and remotely sensed observations via numerical weather forecast to runoff models. The best precipitation analysis for Germany is achieved by combining weather radar and in situ observations; this QPE product 'RADOLAN' is available near-realtime on an hourly basis. It is currently being spatially extended to cover transboundary river basins in the hydrological catchment area of Germany and will also be used in nowcasting mode. The NWP model COSMO-DE uses RADOLAN precipitation analysis products and provides precipitation forecasts in 2.8 km spatial resolution. Ensemble based weather predictions providing forecast uncertainty information are more and more accepted by hydrological users. The model SNOW uses precipitation observations in order to improve snow melt forecasts. Time series of precipitation and extreme value statistics complete the hydrometeorological services supporting risk management and climate change assessment in Germany.

  9. ASSESSING MINE DRAINAGE WATER QUALITY FROM THE COLOR AND SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE OF CHEMICAL PRECIPITATES

    EPA Science Inventory


    The pH and dissolved sulfate concentrations of mine impacted waters were estimated on the basis of the spectral reflectance of resident sediments composed mostly of chemical precipitates. Mine drainage sediments were collected from sites in the Anthracite Region of eastern Pe...

  10. Hydrologic response of catchments to precipitation: Quantification of mechanical carriers and origins of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.-J.; Sudicky, E. A.; Brookfield, A. E.; Jones, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    Precipitation-induced overland and groundwater flow and mixing processes are quantified to analyze the temporal (event and pre-event water) and spatial (groundwater discharge and overland runoff) origins of water entering a stream. Using a distributed-parameter control volume finite-element simulator that can simultaneously solve the fully coupled partial differential equations describing 2-D Manning and 3-D Darcian flow and advective-dispersive transport, mechanical flow (driven by hydraulic potential) and tracer-based hydrograph separation (driven by dispersive mixing as well as mechanical flow) are simulated in response to precipitation events in two cross sections oriented parallel and perpendicular to a stream. The results indicate that as precipitation becomes more intense, the subsurface mechanical flow contributions tend to become less significant relative to the total pre-event stream discharge. Hydrodynamic mixing can play an important role in enhancing pre-event tracer signals in the stream. This implies that temporally tagged chemical signals introduced into surface-subsurface flow systems from precipitation may not be strong enough to detect the changes in the subsurface flow system. It is concluded that diffusive/dispersive mixing, capillary fringe groundwater ridging, and macropore flow can influence the temporal sources of water in the stream, but any sole mechanism may not fully explain the strong pre-event water discharge. Further investigations of the influence of heterogeneity, residence time, geomorphology, and root zone processes are required to confirm the conclusions of this study.

  11. Hydrologic response of catchments to precipitation: Quantification of mechanical carriers and origins of water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, Y.-J.; Sudicky, E.A.; Brookfield, A.E.; Jones, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Precipitation-induced overland and groundwater flow and mixing processes are quantified to analyze the temporal (event and pre-event water) and spatial (groundwater discharge and overland runoff) origins of water entering a stream. Using a distributed-parameter control volume finite-element simulator that can simultaneously solve the fully coupled partial differential equations describing 2-D Manning and 3-D Darcian flow and advective-dispersive transport, mechanical flow (driven by hydraulic potential) and tracer-based hydrograph separation (driven by dispersive mixing as well as mechanical flow) are simulated in response to precipitation events in two cross sections oriented parallel and perpendicular to a stream. The results indicate that as precipitation becomes more intense, the subsurface mechanical flow contributions tend to become less significant relative to the total pre-event stream discharge. Hydrodynamic mixing can play an important role in enhancing pre-event tracer signals in the stream. This implies that temporally tagged chemical signals introduced into surface-subsurface flow systems from precipitation may not be strong enough to detect the changes in the subsurface flow system. It is concluded that diffusive/dispersive mixing, capillary fringe groundwater ridging, and macropore flow can influence the temporal sources of water in the stream, but any sole mechanism may not fully explain the strong pre-event water discharge. Further investigations of the influence of heterogeneity, residence time, geomorphology, and root zone processes are required to confirm the conclusions of this study. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. The new portfolio of global precipitation data products of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre suitable to assess and quantify the global water cycle and resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Udo; Ziese, Markus; Meyer-Christoffer, Anja; Finger, Peter; Rustemeier, Elke; Becker, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation plays an important role in the global energy and water cycle. Accurate knowledge of precipitation amounts reaching the land surface is of special importance for fresh water assessment and management related to land use, agriculture and hydrology, incl. risk reduction of flood and drought. High interest in long-term precipitation analyses arises from the needs to assess climate change and its impacts on all spatial scales. In this framework, the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) has been established in 1989 on request of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). It is operated by Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, National Meteorological Service of Germany) as a German contribution to the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). This paper provides information on the most recent update of GPCC's gridded data product portfolio including example use cases.

  13. Estimating the Risk of Domestic Water Source Contamination Following Precipitation Events.

    PubMed

    Eisenhauer, Ian F; Hoover, Christopher M; Remais, Justin V; Monaghan, Andrew; Celada, Marco; Carlton, Elizabeth J

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is expected to increase precipitation extremes, threatening water quality. In low resource settings, it is unclear which water sources are most vulnerable to contamination following rainfall events. We evaluated the relationship between rainfall and drinking water quality in southwest Guatemala where heavy rainfall is frequent and access to safe water is limited. We surveyed 59 shallow household wells, measured precipitation, and calculated simple hydrological variables. We compared Escherichia coli concentration at wells where recent rainfall had occurred versus had not occurred, and evaluated variability in the association between rainfall and E. coli concentration under different conditions using interaction models. Rainfall in the past 24 hours was associated with greater E. coli concentrations, with the strongest association between rainfall and fecal contamination at wells where pigs were nearby. Because of the small sample size, these findings should be considered preliminary, but provide a model to evaluate vulnerability to climate change.

  14. Cloud and Aerosol Properties, Precipitable Water, and Profiles of Temperature and Water Vapor from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Menzel, W. Paul; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tanre, Didier; Gao, Bo-Cai; Platnick, Steven; Ackerman, Steven A.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Pincus, Robert; Hubanks, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is an earth-viewing sensor that flies on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites, launched in 1999 and 2002, respectively. MODIS scans a swath width of 2330 km that is sufficiently wide to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km. MODIS provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 pm with spatial resolutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). These bands have been carefully selected to en- able advanced studies of land, ocean, and atmospheric properties. Twenty-six bands are used to derive atmospheric properties such as cloud mask, atmospheric profiles, aerosol properties, total precipitable water, and cloud properties. In this paper we describe each of these atmospheric data products, including characteristics of each of these products such as file size, spatial resolution used in producing the product, and data availability.

  15. CalWater 2 - Precipitation, Aerosols, and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spackman, Ryan; Ralph, Marty; Prather, Kim; Cayan, Dan; DeMott, Paul; Dettinger, Mike; Fairall, Chris; Leung, Ruby; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Rutledge, Steven; Waliser, Duane; White, Allen

    2014-05-01

    Emerging research has identified two phenomena that play key roles in the variability of the water supply and the incidence of extreme precipitation events along the West Coast of the United States. These phenomena include the role of (1) atmospheric rivers (ARs) in delivering much of the precipitation associated with major storms along the U.S. West Coast, and (2) aerosols—from local sources as well as those transported from remote continents—and their modulating effects on western U.S. precipitation. A better understanding of these processes is needed to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of extreme precipitation and its effects, including the provision of beneficial water supply. This presentation summarizes science gaps associated with (1) the evolution and structure of ARs including cloud and precipitation processes and air-sea interaction, and (2) aerosol interaction with ARs and the impact on precipitation, including locally-generated aerosol effects on orographic precipitation along the U.S. West Coast. Observations are proposed for multiple winter seasons as part of a 5-year broad interagency vision referred to as CalWater 2 to address these science gaps (http://esrl.noaa.gov/psd/calwater). In the near term, a science investigation is being planned including a targeted set of aircraft and ship-based measurements and associated evaluation of data in near-shore regions of California and in the eastern Pacific for an intensive observing period between January 2015 and March 2015. DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and NOAA are coordinating on deployment of airborne and ship-borne facilities for this period in a DOE-sponsored study called ACAPEX (ARM Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Experiment) to complement CalWater 2. The motivation for this major study is based on findings that have emerged in the last few years from airborne and ground-based studies including CalWater and NOAA's HydroMeterology Testbed

  16. CalWater 2015 — Atmospheric Rivers and Aerosol Impacts on Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spackman, J. R.; Ralph, F. M.; Prather, K. A.; Cayan, D.; DeMott, P. J.; Dettinger, M. D.; Doyle, J. D.; Fairall, C. W.; Leung, L. R.; Rosenfeld, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Waliser, D. E.; White, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    The CalWater 2015 field experiment was conducted between January and March and consisted of more than fifty science flights, a major research cruise, and continuous ground-based observations coordinated to study phenomena driving the incidence of extreme precipitation events and the variability of water supply along the West Coast of the United States. CalWater 2015 examined key processes linked to (1) atmospheric rivers (ARs) in delivering much of the precipitation associated with major winter storms, and (2) aerosols, originating from local sources as well as from remote continents, within and between storms and their modulating effects on precipitation on the U.S. West Coast. As part of a large interagency field effort including NOAA, DOE, NASA, NSF, and the Naval Research Laboratory, four research aircraft from three government agencies were deployed in coordination with the oceangoing NOAA Ronald H. Brown and were equipped with meteorological and chemical observing systems in near-shore regions of California and the eastern Pacific. At the same time, ground-based measurements from NOAA's HydroMeteorological Testbed (HMT) network on the U.S. West Coast and a major NSF-supported observing site for aerosols and microphysics at Bodega Bay, California provided continuous near surface-level meteorological and chemical observations, respectively, during CalWater 2015. The DOE-sponsored ARM Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) was executed in close coordination with NOAA and NASA facilities and deployed airborne and ship-based observing systems. This presentation summarizes the objectives, implementation strategy, data acquisitions, and some preliminary results from CalWater 2015 addressing science gaps associated with (1) the evolution and structure of ARs including cloud and precipitation processes and air-sea interaction, and (2) aerosol interaction with ARs and the impact on precipitation, including locally-generated aerosol effects on orographic

  17. Natural acidity of waters in podzolized soils and potential impacts from acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Stednick, J.D.; Johnson, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Nutrient movements through sites in southeast Alaska and Washington were documented to determine net changes in chemical composition of precipitation water as it passed through a forest soil and became stream-flow. These sites were not subject to acid precipitation (rainfall pH 5.8 to 7.2), yet soil water was acidified to 4.2 by natural organic acid-forming processes in the podzol soils. Organic acids precipitated in the subsoils, allowing a pH increase. Streamwater pH ranged from 6.5 to 7.2 indicating a natural buffering capacity that may exceed any additional acid input from acid rain. Precipitation composition was dominated by calcium, magnesium, sodium, and chloride due to the proximity of the ocean at the southeast Alaska site. Anionic constituents of the precipitation were dominated by bicarbonate at the Washington site. Soil podzolization processes concurrently increased solution color and iron concentrations in the litter and surface horizons leachates. The anion flux through the soil profile was dominated by chloride and sulfate at the southeast Alaska site, whereas at the Washington site anion flux appeared to be dominated by organic acids. Electroneutrality calculations indicated a cation deficit for the southeast Alaska site.

  18. Effects of atmospheric precipitation additions on phytoplankton photosynthesis in Lake Michigan water samples

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.I.; Tisue, G.T.; Kennedy, C.W.; Seils, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of incremental additions (0.1 to 50% v/v) of atmospheric precipitation on phytoplankton photosynthesis (/sup 14/C uptake) were tested in Lake Michigan water samples. Wet deposition was used in experiments I, III, and IV, and a melted snow core was used in experiment II. Additions of precipitation significantly reduced photosynthesis in the first three experiments, starting at about the 5 to 15% treatment level. No significant difference occurred in experiment IV, but photosynthesis was greater than in the control samples and this precipitation sample appeared to stimulate primary productivity. Soluble reactive phosphate, nitrate, and ammonia levels in the precipitation samples exceeded the lake water averages by factors of 10, 2, and 50, respectively. Silicon levels in precipitation reduced pH very little and no consistent relationship was observed with reduced photosynthesis. Alkalinity was greatly reduced in the treated samples and special precautions were required in ce, Ti, Be, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, P,f the Pd crystals of about 30 A. Possible mechanisms are discussed for isotope exchange in CO molecules in these catalysts and for the promoting effect of Pd on the activity of CuO.

  19. Numerical simulation of the geographical sources of water for Continental Scale Experiments (CSEs) Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Sud, Yogesh; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Walker, Gregory K.

    2003-01-01

    There are several important research questions that the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) is actively pursuing, namely: What is the intensity of the water cycle and how does it change? And what is the sustainability of water resources? Much of the research to address these questions is directed at understanding the atmospheric water cycle. In this paper, we have used a new diagnostic tool, called Water Vapor Tracers (WVTs), to quantify the how much precipitation originated as continental or oceanic evaporation. This shows how long water can remain in the atmosphere and how far it can travel. The model-simulated data are analyzed over regions of interest to the GEWEX community, specifically, their Continental Scale Experiments (CSEs) that are in place in the United States, Europe, Asia, Brazil, Africa and Canada. The paper presents quantitative data on how much each continent and ocean on Earth supplies water for each CSE. Furthermore, the analysis also shows the seasonal variation of the water sources. For example, in the United States, summertime precipitation is dominated by continental (land surface) sources of water, while wintertime precipitation is dominated by the Pacific Ocean sources of water. We also analyze the residence time of water in the atmosphere. The new diagnostic shows a longer residence time for water (9.2 days) than more traditional estimates (7.5 days). We emphasize that the results are based on model simulations and they depend on the model s veracity. However, there are many potential uses for the new diagnostic tool in understanding weather processes and large and small scales.

  20. Short-range precipitation forecasts using assimilation of simulated satellite water vapor profiles and column cloud liquid water amounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Diak, George R.; Hayden, Cristopher M.; Young, John A.

    1995-01-01

    These observing system simulation experiments investigate the assimilation of satellite-observed water vapor and cloud liquid water data in the initialization of a limited-area primitive equations model with the goal of improving short-range precipitation forecasts. The assimilation procedure presented includes two aspects: specification of an initial cloud liquid water vertical distribution and diabatic initialization. The satellite data is simulated for the next generation of polar-orbiting satellite instruments, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS), which are scheduled to be launched on the NOAA-K satellite in the mid-1990s. Based on cloud-top height and total column cloud liquid water amounts simulated for satellite data a diagnostic method is used to specify an initial cloud water vertical distribution and to modify the initial moisture distribution in cloudy areas. Using a diabatic initialization procedure, the associated latent heating profiles are directly assimilated into the numerical model. The initial heating is estimated by time averaging the latent heat release from convective and large-scale condensation during the early forecast stage after insertion of satellite-observed temperature, water vapor, and cloud water formation. The assimilation of satellite-observed moisture and cloud water, together withy three-mode diabatic initialization, significantly alleviates the model precipitation spinup problem, especially in the first 3 h of the forecast. Experimental forecasts indicate that the impact of satellite-observed temperature and water vapor profiles and cloud water alone in the initialization procedure shortens the spinup time for precipitation rates by 1-2 h and for regeneration of the areal coverage by 3 h. The diabatic initialization further reduces the precipitation spinup time (compared to adiabatic initialization) by 1 h.

  1. Cloud and the corresponding precipitation chemistry in south China: Water-soluble components and pollution transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Minghu; Wang, Yan; Wang, Tao; Fan, Shaojia; Wang, Wenxing; Li, Penghui; Guo, Jia; Li, Yuhua

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the transport and deposition of pollutants in south China, the chemical composition of cloud water and rainwater was studied at Mount Heng, which is located in the heart of China's acid rain affected region. A total of 194 cloud samples and 38 event-based precipitation samples from March to May 2009 were analyzed for a wide variety of water-soluble compounds. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH of cloud water was 3.80, indicating an acidic nature. Compared with cloud water, precipitation was much less acidic with a VWM pH value of 4.35. The concentration results show that in cloud water, SO42- was the dominant anion, followed by NO3-, controlling the acidity, while NH4+ accounted for 69.8% of the total cations, dominating the cloud water neutralization. In rainwater, a similar situation appeared, but with a slightly higher Ca2+concentration. In both cloud water and precipitation the acidities were found to be mainly due to sulfuric acid, followed by nitric acid. The calculation of neutralization factors and the application of multiple linear regression analysis showed the higher NH4+ contribution to the neutralization process in both types of samples. The very weak correlations of ions in rain with the ones in cloud water on the event basis suggested that cloud and precipitation events may be associated with different air masses. With relatively high ionic concentrations and higher frequency, air masses from the east and south directions were associated with the high cloud deposition of the major species at our site.

  2. Potential health implications for acid precipitation, corrosion, and metals contamination of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, W E; DeWalle, D R

    1985-11-01

    Potential health effects of drinking water quality changes caused by acid precipitation are presented. Several different types of water supply are discussed and their roles in modifying acid rain impacts on drinking water are explained. Sources of metals contamination in surface water supplies are enumerated. The authors present some results from their research into acid rain impacts on roof-catchment cisterns, small surface water supplies, and lead mobilization in acid soils. A good correlation was obtained between cistern water corrosivity as measured by the Ryznar Index (RI) values and standing tapwater copper concentrations. However, lead concentrations in tapwater did not correlate well with cistern water RI. A modified linear regression model that accounted for Ryznar Index change during storage in vinyl-lined cisterns was used to predict the Ryznar Index value at a copper concentration of 1000 micrograms/L. The predicted RI was greater than the RI of precipitation with a pH of 5.3, indicating that anthropogenically acidified precipitation may result in cistern tapwater copper concentrations in excess of the 1000 micrograms/L suggested drinking water limit. Good correlations between tapwater Ryznar Index and tapwater copper and lead concentrations were not obtained for the small surface water supply. Aluminum concentrations in reservoir water were similar to those in stream source water. Limited data were also presented that indicated lead was present in acid forest soil leachate and streams draining such soils in relatively small concentrations. Where appropriate, recommendations for future research are included with the discussions of research results.

  3. Potential health implications for acid precipitation, corrosion, and metals contamination of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, W E; DeWalle, D R

    1985-11-01

    Potential health effects of drinking water quality changes caused by acid precipitation are presented. Several different types of water supply are discussed and their roles in modifying acid rain impacts on drinking water are explained. Sources of metals contamination in surface water supplies are enumerated. The authors present some results from their research into acid rain impacts on roof-catchment cisterns, small surface water supplies, and lead mobilization in acid soils. A good correlation was obtained between cistern water corrosivity as measured by the Ryznar Index (RI) values and standing tapwater copper concentrations. However, lead concentrations in tapwater did not correlate well with cistern water RI. A modified linear regression model that accounted for Ryznar Index change during storage in vinyl-lined cisterns was used to predict the Ryznar Index value at a copper concentration of 1000 micrograms/L. The predicted RI was greater than the RI of precipitation with a pH of 5.3, indicating that anthropogenically acidified precipitation may result in cistern tapwater copper concentrations in excess of the 1000 micrograms/L suggested drinking water limit. Good correlations between tapwater Ryznar Index and tapwater copper and lead concentrations were not obtained for the small surface water supply. Aluminum concentrations in reservoir water were similar to those in stream source water. Limited data were also presented that indicated lead was present in acid forest soil leachate and streams draining such soils in relatively small concentrations. Where appropriate, recommendations for future research are included with the discussions of research results. PMID:4076096

  4. An approach to improve precipitation estimation to model the water budget in Alpine catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mair, E.; Bertoldi, G.; Della Chiesa, S.; Niedrist, G.; Egarter Vigl, L.; Tappeiner, U.

    2012-04-01

    Accurate quantification of precipitation is still one of the major sources of uncertainty in quantifying the water budget of Alpine catchments. In fact, besides increasing data availability, usually most of the stations are located in the bottom of the valleys, while, at high elevations, rain gauge accuracy is limited by snow and wind, with strong underestimation of the total precipitation. Similar problems exist for snow measurement devices. In this contribution we present a novel empirical approach to improve precipitation estimation using rain gauge data, snow height and standard meteorological observations, and we evaluate the improvements in estimating the water budget of the Mazia Valley (100 km2 - Central Alps - South Tyrol, Italy). In fact, due to the screening effect of the surrounding mountains (mostly glaciated, maximum elevation: 3750 m a.s.l.) this valley has a relatively dry cold continental climate with strong precipitation gradients. In the framework of the projects "Klimawandel" and "HydroAlp", 17 monitoring stations were installed to measure standard micrometeorological variables, vegetation properties and soil moisture. For a correct climate analysis, a distinction between snow and rainfall is necessary. Due to energy limitations in remote alpine areas no heated rain gauges were installed. However, four stations are equipped with snow height sensors, from which snow data can be retrieved. For other stations the calculation of the snow water equivalent was more complicated because of the lack of snow height sensors. In the empirical approach, for every registered precipitation data record snow height change was reviewed and compared to air temperature and relative humidity, as well as to the calculated wet bulb temperature, in order to distinguish between rainfall and snowfall events. Also the global solar radiation was controlled to identify melt water production coming from accumulated snow on the top of the unheated rain gauges. With a formula

  5. Impact of AIRS Thermodynamic Profiles on Precipitation Forecasts for Atmospheric River Cases Affecting the Western United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Blakenship, Clay B.; Wick, Gary A.; Neiman, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    This project is a collaborative activity between the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center and the NOAA Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) to evaluate a SPoRT Advanced Infrared Sounding Radiometer (AIRS: Aumann et al. 2003) enhanced moisture analysis product. We test the impact of assimilating AIRS temperature and humidity profiles above clouds and in partly cloudy regions, using the three-dimensional variational Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation (DA) system (Developmental Testbed Center 2012) to produce a new analysis. Forecasts of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model initialized from the new analysis are compared to control forecasts without the additional AIRS data. We focus on some cases where atmospheric rivers caused heavy precipitation on the US West Coast. We verify the forecasts by comparison with dropsondes and the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) Blended Total Precipitable Water product.

  6. [Effects of ground cover and water-retaining agent on winter wheat growth and precipitation utilization].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ji-Cheng; Guan, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Yong-Hui

    2011-01-01

    An investigation was made at a hilly upland in western Henan Province to understand the effects of water-retaining agent (0, 45, and 60 kg x hm(-2)), straw mulching (3000 and 6000 kg x hm(-2)), and plastic mulching (thickness < 0.005 mm) on winter wheat growth, soil moisture and nutrition conditions, and precipitation use. All the three measures promoted winter wheat growth, enhanced grain yield and precipitation use efficiency, and improved soil moisture and nutritional regimes. These positive effects were more obvious when the straw- or plastic mulching was combined with the use of water-retaining agent. Comparing with the control, all the measures increased the soil moisture content at different growth stages by 0.1%-6.5%. Plastic film mulching had the best water-retention effect before jointing stage, whereas water-retaining agent showed its best effect after jointing stage. Soil moisture content was the lowest at flowering and grain-filling stages. Land cover increased the grain yield by 2.6%-20.1%. The yield increment was the greatest (14.2%-20.1%) by the combined use of straw mulching and water-retaining agent, followed by plastic mulching combined with water-retaining agent (11.9% on average). Land cover also improved the precipitation use efficiency (0.4-3.2 kg x mm(-1) x hm(-2)) in a similar trend as the grain yield. This study showed that land cover and water-retaining agent improved soil moisture and nutrition conditions and precipitation utilization, which in turn, promoted the tillering of winter wheat, and increased the grain number per ear and the 1000-grain mass.

  7. Estimation of precipitable water over the Amazon Basin using GOES imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, John Andrew

    The Amazon Rainforest is the largest continuous rainforest on Earth. It holds a rich abundance of life containing approximately one-half of all existing plant and animal species and 20% of the world's fresh water. Climatologically, the Amazon Rainforest is a massive storehouse of carbon dioxide and water vapor and hosts hydrologic and energy cycles that influence regional and global patterns. However, this region has gone through vast land cover changes during the past several decades. Lack of conventional, in situ data sources prohibits detailed measurements to assess the climatological impact these changes may cause. This thesis applies a satellite-based, thermal infrared remote sensing algorithm to determine precipitable water in the Amazon Basin to test its applicability in the region and to measure the diurnal changes in water vapor. Imagery from the GOES geostationary satellite and estimated atmospheric conditions and radiance values derived from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis project were used as inputs to the Physical Split Window (PSW) technique. Retrievals of precipitable water were made every 3 hours throughout each day from 12Z to 24Z for the months of June and October, 1988 and 1995. These months correspond to when the atmosphere is not dominated by clouds during the rainy (wet) season or smoke and haze during the burning (dry) season. Monthly, daily, and diurnal aggregates of precipitable water Fields were analyzed spatially through seven zones located uniformly throughout the region. Monthly average precipitable water values were found to be 20mm to 25mm in the southeast and 45mm to 50mm in the northwest zones. Central and northwest zones showed little variation throughout the day with most areas peaking between 15Z and 21Z, representing early to late afternoon local time. Comparisons were made to nearby, coincident radiosonde observations with r ranging from 0.7 to 0.9 and MAE from 6mm to 12 mm.

  8. The Effect of Fire, Extreme Precipitation and Drought on Ecosystem Fluxes of Water-Limited Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, R.

    2014-12-01

    Current observations reveal substantial changes in precipitation patterns across globally distributed water-limited ecosystems. Consequently, changes in the amount and frequency of rainfall will influence biophysical drivers that regulate the strength and timing of ecosystem fluxes including soil CO2 efflux, gross primary productivity, and evapotranspiration. First, a classic example is presented using fire and changes in precipitation to illustrate how soil CO2 efflux rates respond to these disturbances in arid grasslands. Second, multi-year evapotranspiration patterns are explored in an arid shrubland subject to monsoon rains, arguably extreme water pulses for these water-limited ecosystems. Finally, a multi-year record of ecosystem scale CO2 fluxes and evapotranspiration is presented for coastal water-limited shrublands, where the effects of extreme precipitation and drought are explored along with potential transport of moisture from the ocean. Water-limited ecosystems are subject to different disturbances and climate extremes; however, is still unclear how ecosystems respond and which are the variety of processes that may provide resilience to these events.

  9. Evaluation of Technologies to Prevent Precipitation During Water Recovery from Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Pickering, Karen D.; Adam, Niklas M.; Mitchell, Julie L.; Anderson, Molly S.; Carter, Layne; Muirhead, Dean; Gazda, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) experienced a hardware failure in the Distillation Assembly (DA) in October 2010. Initially the UPA was operated to recover 85% of the water from urine through distillation, concentrating the contaminants in the remaining urine. The DA failed due to precipitation of calcium sulfate (gypsum) which caused a loss of UPA function. The ISS UPA operations have been modified to only recover 70% of the water minimizing gypsum precipitation risk but substantially increasing water resupply needs. This paper describes the feasibility assessment of several technologies (ion exchange, chelating agents, threshold inhibitors, and Lorentz devices) to prevent gypsum precipitation. The feasibility assessment includes the development of assessment methods, chemical modeling, bench top testing, and validation testing in a flight-like ground UPA unit. Ion exchange technology has been successfully demonstrated and has been recommended for further development. The incorporation of the selected technology will enable water recovery to be increased from 70% back to the original 85% and improve the ISS water balance.

  10. Ikaite precipitation by mixing of shoreline springs and lake water, Mono Lake, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Stine, S.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Fitzpatrick, J.A.; Stafford, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    Metastable ikaite (CaCO3??6H2O) forms abundantly during winter months along the south shoreline of Mono Lake where shoreline springs mix with lake water. Ikaite precipitates because of its decreased solubility at low temperature and because of orthophosphate-ion inhibition of calcite and aragonite. During the spring some of the ikaite is transformed to anhydrous CaCO3 and is incorporated into tufa, but most is dispersed by wave action into the lake where it reacts to form gaylussite (Na2Ca(CO3)2?? 5H2O). Spring waters have low pH values, are dominantly Ca-Na-HCO3, have low radiocarbon activities, and are mixtures of deep-seated geothermal and cold groundwaters. Chemical modeling reveals that precipitation of CaCO3 can occur over a broad range of mixtures of spring and lake water with a maximum production occurring at 96% spring water and 4% lake water. Under these conditions all the Ca and a significant fraction of the CO3 of the precipitate is spring supplied. A radiocarbon age of 19,580 years obtained on a natural ikaite sample supports this conclusion. With the springs supplying a large and probably variable portion of the carbonate, and with apparent 14C age of the carbonate varying from spring to spring, tufa of similar actual antiquity may yield significantly different 14C dates, making tufa at this location unsuitable for absolute age dating by the radiocarbon method. ?? 1993.

  11. Shortwave direct radiative effects of above-cloud aerosols over global oceans derived from 8 years of CALIOP and MODIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Meyer, Kerry; Yu, Hongbin; Platnick, Steven; Colarco, Peter; Liu, Zhaoyan; Oreopoulos, Lazaros

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we studied the frequency of occurrence and shortwave direct radiative effects (DREs) of above-cloud aerosols (ACAs) over global oceans using 8 years (2007-2014) of collocated CALIOP and MODIS observations. Similar to previous work, we found high ACA occurrence in four regions: southeastern (SE) Atlantic region, where ACAs are mostly light-absorbing aerosols, i.e., smoke and polluted dust according to CALIOP classification, originating from biomass burning over the African Savanna; tropical northeastern (TNE) Atlantic and the Arabian Sea, where ACAs are predominantly windblown dust from the Sahara and Arabian deserts, respectively; and the northwestern (NW) Pacific, where ACAs are mostly transported smoke and polluted dusts from Asian. From radiative transfer simulations based on CALIOP-MODIS observations and a set of the preselected aerosol optical models, we found the DREs of ACAs at the top of atmosphere (TOA) to be positive (i.e., warming) in the SE Atlantic and NW Pacific regions, but negative (i.e., cooling) in the TNE Atlantic Ocean and the Arabian Sea. The cancellation of positive and negative regional DREs results in a global ocean annual mean diurnally averaged cloudy-sky DRE of 0.015 W m-2 (range of -0.03 to 0.06 W m-2) at TOA. The DREs at surface and within the atmosphere are -0.15 W m-2 (range of -0.09 to -0.21 W m-2), and 0.17 W m-2 (range of 0.11 to 0.24 W m-2), respectively. The regional and seasonal mean DREs are much stronger. For example, in the SE Atlantic region, the JJA (July-August) seasonal mean cloudy-sky DRE is about 0.7 W m-2 (range of 0.2 to 1.2 W m-2) at TOA. All our DRE computations are publicly available1. The uncertainty in our DRE computations is mainly caused by the uncertainties in the aerosol optical properties, in particular aerosol absorption, the uncertainties in the CALIOP operational aerosol optical thickness retrieval, and the ignorance of cloud and potential aerosol diurnal cycle. In situ and remotely sensed

  12. Physicochemical characteristics of drip waters: Influence on mineralogy of recent cave carbonate precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, Sylvia; Schröder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Wassenburg, Jasper A.; Richter, Detlev K.; Riechelmann, Dana FC; Terente, Mihai; Constantin, Silviu; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Speleothems are one of the most intensively explored archives of palaeoclimate variability in continental settings. Considerable advances with respect to climatic and cave forcing of drip characteristics and related speleothem proxy data have been made during the last decades. The parameters, however, that control speleothem mineralogy and its changes with time and space are still poorly understood. In order to shed light on processes influencing speleothem mineralogy, precipitation experiments of recent carbonate crystals on watch glasses and glass plates were performed in seven selected caves. These include three caves in Germany as well as Morocco and one cave in Romania, which are situated in both limestone and dolostone. Drip water sites of these caves were analysed for their fluid Mg/Ca molar ratio, pH, degree of saturation for calcite and aragonite and drip rates. Corresponding precipitates were analysed with respect to their mineralogy using a high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). The following results are found: High fluid Mg/Ca ratios are observed only for caves situated in dolostone, hence the hostrock lithology indirectly controls the carbonate mineralogy of speleothems. The precipitation of aragonite in place of calcite occurred only in dolostone caves and is bound to very specific conditions, which are: high fluid Mg/Ca ratios (≥ 0.5), high fluid pH (> 8.2) and low fluid saturation indices for calcite (< 0.8). These specific conditions are induced by slow drip rates of < 0.2 ml/min (often under more arid conditions), causing the precipitation of calcite / aragonite prior to reaching the stalagmite top. Due to this, fluid chemistry is altered, which in turn leads to changes in carbonate mineralogy and geochemistry on the stalagmite top. Interestingly, all of the above mentioned factors must act in a concerted manner. If this is not the case, calcite is the dominant phase. The threshold, where only aragonite precipitates is at fluid Mg

  13. Tracer water transport and subgrid precipitation variation within atmospheric general circulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal D.; Eagleson, Peter S.; Broecker, Wallace S.

    1988-01-01

    A capability is developed for monitoring tracer water movement in the three-dimensional Goddard Institute for Space Science Atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM). A typical experiment with the tracer water model follows water evaporating from selected grid squares and determines where this water first returns to the Earth's surface as precipitation or condensate, thereby providing information on the lateral scales of hydrological transport in the GCM. Through a comparison of model results with observations in nature, inferences can be drawn concerning real world water transport. Tests of the tracer water model include a comparison of simulated and observed vertically-integrated vapor flux fields and simulations of atomic tritium transport from the stratosphere to the oceans. The inter-annual variability of the tracer water model results is also examined.

  14. Influence of precipitation events on phytoplankton biomass in coastal waters of the eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Najjar, Raymond G.; Lee, Kitack

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation over the ocean surface in the vicinity of industrialized and populated coastlines can increase the ocean nitrate concentration and consequently enhance ocean primary productivity. Using satellite data and a meteorological reanalysis product, we evaluated the impact of precipitation events on the chlorophyll a concentration in coastal and offshore waters located downwind of the eastern United States. We found that in low-nutrient areas (defined as having nitrate concentrations < 1 μM) precipitation events were associated with increased levels of chlorophyll a (up to approximately 15%), but in high-nutrient areas (nitrate concentrations > 1 μM) they were associated with decreased levels. These contrasting responses of chlorophyll a concentration to precipitation were attributed to the correlation of precipitation with wind speed and to other factors (nutrients and light) limiting phytoplankton growth. Increases in wind speed accompanied by precipitation events typically deepen the mixed layer, which can entrain additional nutrients into the mixed layer but simultaneously reduce light availability. We suggest that in nutrient-depleted areas (south of 36°N) the added nutrients were a dominant factor increasing the chlorophyll a concentration, whereas in the nutrient-replete areas (north of 36°N), where phytoplankton growth was light limited, reduced light availability was the dominant factor determining reduced chlorophyll a concentration. Our results indicate that an increase in wind speed accompanied by precipitation events was a major contributor to the observed changes in chlorophyll a concentration during wet days, whereas the wet deposition of pollutant nitrogen slightly increased the chlorophyll a concentration (< 5%) only in nutrient-depleted areas.

  15. Horizontal Precipitation in a Semiarid Cloud Forest: A Feedback Between Vegetation and Water Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, A.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2005-12-01

    We investigate the particular hydrology of an endangered semiarid cloud forest in the governorate of Dhofar (Oman). This forest is currently overexploited by browsing cattle feeding on tree canopies, leading to degradation of forest into grassland. In this region the forests survive in a relatively dry climate (annual rainfall below 250mm/year, annual temperature 21degC) as a result of the microclimate provided by annual reoccurrence of seasonal cloud immersion, which coincides with the wet summer season. Besides decreasing incoming radiation, the cloud cover provides for an additional water source besides rainfall. Due to turbulent exchange cloud droplets are mixed from surrounding clouds into the vegetation canopy, where they are captured by leaves, and eventually drip down to the ground (horizontal precipitation). In Dhofar, horizontal precipitation was estimated to account for up to two times the rainfall amount, based on results of a field experiment in 2004. Horizontal precipitation, and therefore plant available water, depends on the surface roughness, which is greatly enhanced by the presence of tall vegetation. On the other hand, water availability determines vegetation height in a water limited environment. We included a model for horizontal precipitation into a dynamical vegetation model (IBIS) to investigate, if the degradation of forest into grassland leads to a decrease in plant available water that is strong enough to substantially limit net primary productivity and vegetation height. Our model results suggest that tree removal triggers a feedback leading to substantially smaller water gain by the vegetation, resulting in an overall drier environment that prevents re-establishment of tree vegetation, and sustains the landscape in a degraded state.

  16. Tropical convective onset statistics and establishing causality in the water vapor-precipitation relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelin, J. D.; Kuo, Y. H.; Schiro, K. A.; Langenbrunner, B.; Mechoso, C. R.; Sahany, S.; Bernstein, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    Previous work by various authors has pointed to the role of humidity in the lower free troposphere in affecting the onset of deep convection in the tropics. Empirical relations between column water vapor and the onset of precipitation have been inferred to be related to this. Evidence includes deep-convective conditional instability calculations for entraining plumes, in which the lower free-tropospheric environment affects the onset of deep convection due to the impact on buoyancy of turbulent entrainment of dry versus moist air. Tropical Western Pacific in situ observations, and tropical ocean basin satellite retrievals in comparison to climate model diagnostics each indicate that substantial entrainment is required to explain the observed relationship. In situ observations from the GoAmazon field campaign confirm that the basic relationship holds over tropical land much as it does over tropical ocean (although with greater additional sensitivity to boundary layer variations and to freezing processes). The relationship between deep convection and water vapor is, however, a two-way street, with convection moistening the free troposphere. One might thus argue that there has not yet been a smoking gun in terms of establishing the causality of the precipitation-water vapor relationship. Parameter perturbation experiments in the coupled Community Earth System Model show that when the deep convective scheme has low values of entrainment, the set of statistics associated with the transition to deep convection are radically altered, and the observed pickup of precipitation with column water vapor is no longer seen. In addition to cementing the dominant direction of causality in the fast timescale precipitation-column water vapor relationship, the results point to impacts of this mechanism on the climatology. Because at low entrainment the convection can fire before the lower troposphere is moistened, the climatology of water vapor remains lower than observed. These

  17. Stable isotopes in water vapor and precipitation for a coastal lagoon at mid latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zannoni, Daniele; Bergamasco, Andrea; Dreossi, Giuliano; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Stenni, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    The stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition in precipitation can be used in hydrology to describe the signature of local meteoric water. The isotopic composition of water vapor is usually obtained indirectly from measurements of δD and δ18O in precipitation, assuming the isotopic equilibrium between rain and water vapor. Only few studies report isotopic data in both phases for the same area, thus providing a complete Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL). The goal of this study is to build a complete LMWL for the lagoon of Venice (northern Italy) with observations of both water vapor and precipitation. The sampling campaign has started in March 2015 and will be carried out until the end of 2016. Water vapor is collected once a week with cold traps at low temperatures (-77°C). Precipitation is collected on event and monthly basis with a custom automatic rain sampler and a rain gauge, respectively. Liquid samples are analyzed with a Picarro L1102-i and results are reported vs VSMOW. The main meteorological parameters are continuously recorded in the same area by the campus automatic weather station. Preliminary data show an LMWL close to the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL) with lower slope and intercept. An evaporation line is clearly recognizable, considering samples that evaporated between the cloud base and the ground. The deviation from the GMWL parameters, especially intercept, can be attributed to evaporated rain or to the humidity conditions of the water vapor source. Water vapor collected during rainfall shows that rain and vapor are near the isotopic equilibrium, just considering air temperature measured at ground level. Temperature is one of the main factor that controls the isotopic composition of the atmospheric water vapor. Nevertheless, the circulation of air masses is a crucial parameter which has to be considered. Water vapor samples collected in different days but with the same meteorological conditions (air temperature and relative humidity

  18. Proportions of convective and stratiform precipitation revealed in water isotope ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Pradeep K.; Romatschke, Ulrike; Araguas-Araguas, Luis; Belachew, Dagnachew; Longstaffe, Frederick J.; Berg, Peter; Schumacher, Courtney; Funk, Aaron

    2016-08-01

    Tropical and midlatitude precipitation is fundamentally of two types, spatially limited and high-intensity convective or widespread and lower-intensity stratiform, owing to differences in vertical air motions and microphysical processes governing rain formation. These processes are difficult to observe or model and precipitation partitioning into rain types is critical for understanding how the water cycle responds to changes in climate. Here, we combine two independent data sets--convective and stratiform precipitation fractions, derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite or synoptic cloud observations, and stable isotope and tritium compositions of surface precipitation, derived from a global network--to show that isotope ratios reflect rain type proportions and are negatively correlated with stratiform fractions. Condensation and riming associated with boundary layer moisture produces higher isotope ratios in convective rain, along with higher tritium when riming in deep convection occurs with entrained air at higher altitudes. On the basis of our data, stable isotope ratios can be used to monitor changes in the character of precipitation in response to periodic variability or changes in climate. Our results also provide observational constraints for an improved simulation of convection in climate models and a better understanding of isotope variations in proxy archives, such as speleothems and tropical ice.

  19. Spectroscopic study of Se(IV) removal from water by reductive precipitation using sulfide.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bahngmi; Safan, Aya; Batchelor, Bill; Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates the removal of selenium (IV) from water by reductive precipitation using sodium sulfide at neutral pH. Also, it examines the application of UV light as an activating method to enhance reductive precipitation. Furthermore, this work evaluates the effects of sulfide dose and solution pH on behavior of Se(IV) reduction. Selenium was effectively removed in sulfide solution at both neutral and acidic pH. UV irradiation did not enhance removal efficiency of Se(IV) at conditions tested, but it affected solids morphology and composition. SEM/EDS and XPS results showed that selenite was reduced to elemental Se or Se-S precipitates (e.g. SenS8-n) in sulfide solution. High resolution S 2p XPS spectra suggested the presence of sulfur-containing anions (e.g. S2O3(2-), HSO3(-), etc.) or elemental S (S(0)), monosulfide (S(2-)), and polysulfides (Sn(2-)), which could be produced from sulfide photolysis or reaction with Se. In addition, large aggregates of irregular shape, which suggest Se-S precipitates or elemental sulfur, were found more prominently at pH 4 than at pH 7, and they were more noticeable in the presence of UV with longer reaction times. In addition, XRD patterns showed that gray elemental Se solids were dominant in experiments without UV, whereas Se-S precipitates (Se3S5) with an orange color were found in those with UV. PMID:27552695

  20. Advances in Global Water Cycle Science Made Possible by Global Precipitation Mission (GPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Within this decade the internationally sponsored Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) will take an important step in creating a global precipitation observing system from space. One perspective for understanding the nature of GPM is that it will be a hierarchical system of datastreams from very high caliber combined dual frequency radar/passive microwave (PMW) rain-radiometer retrievals, to high caliber PMW rain-radiometer only retrievals, and on to blends of the former datastreams with other less-high caliber PMW-based and IR-based rain retrievals. Within the context of NASA's role in global water cycle science and its own Global Water & Energy Cycle (GWEC) program, GPM is the centerpiece mission for improving our understanding of the global water cycle from a space-based measurement perspective. One of the salient problems within our current understanding of the global water and energy cycle is determining whether a change in the rate of the water cycle is accompanying changes in global temperature. As there are a number of ways in which to define a rate-change of the global water cycle, it is not entirely clear as to what constitutes such a determination, This paper presents an overview of the Global Precipitation Mission and how its datasets can be used in a set of quantitative tests within the framework of the oceanic and continental water budget equations to determine comprehensively whether substantive rate changes do accompany perturbations in global temperatures and how such rate changes manifest themselves in both water storage and water flux transport processes.

  1. Advances in Understanding Global Water Cycle with Advent of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Within this decade the internationally organized Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission will take an important step in creating a global precipitation observing system from space. One perspective for understanding the nature of GPM is that it will be a hierarchical system of datastreams beginning with very high caliber combined dual frequency radar/passive microwave (PMW) rain-radiometer retrievals, to high caliber PMW rain-radiometer only retrievals, and then on to blends of the former datastreams with additional lower-caliber PMW-based and IR-based rain retrievals. Within the context of the now emerging global water & energy cycle (GWEC) programs of a number of research agencies throughout the world, GPM serves as a centerpiece space mission for improving our understanding of the global water cycle from a global measurement perspective. One of the salient problems within our current understanding of the global water and energy cycle is determining whether a change in the rate of the water cycle is accompanying changes in climate, e.g., climate warming. As there are a number of ways in which to define a rate-change of the global water cycle, it is not entirely clear as to what constitutes such a determination. This paper presents an overview of the GPM Mission and how its observations can be used within the framework of the oceanic and continental water budget equations to determine whether a given perturbation in precipitation is indicative of an actual rate change in the global water cycle, consistent with required responses in water storage and/or water flux transport processes, or whether it is the natural variability of a fixed rate cycle.

  2. Assessing surface water consumption using remotely-sensed groundwater, evapotranspiration, and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ray G.; Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S.

    2012-08-01

    Estimates of consumptive use of surface water by agriculture are vital for assessing food security, managing water rights, and evaluating anthropogenic impacts on regional hydrology. However, reliable, current, and public data on consumptive use can be difficult to obtain, particularly in international and less developed basins. We combine remotely-sensed precipitation and satellite observations of evapotranspiration and groundwater depletion to estimate surface water consumption by irrigated agriculture in California's Central Valley for the 2004-09 water years. We validated our technique against measured consumption data determined from streamflow observations and water export data in the Central Valley. Mean satellite-derived surface water consumption was 291.0 ± 32.4 mm/year while measured surface water consumption was 308.1 ± 6.5 mm/year. The results show the potential for remotely-sensed hydrologic data to independently observe irrigated agriculture's surface water consumption in contested or unmonitored basins. Improvements in the precision and spatial resolution of satellite precipitation, evapotranspiration and gravimetric groundwater observations are needed to reduce the uncertainty in this method and to allow its use on smaller basins and at shorter time scales.

  3. Water Isotopes in Precipitation: Data/Model Comparison for Present-Day and Past Climates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jouzel, J.; Hoffmann, G.; Masson, V.

    1998-01-01

    Variations of HDO and H2O-18 concentrations are observed in precipitation both on a geographical and on a temporal basis. These variations, resulting from successive isotopic fractionation processes at each phase change of water during its atmospheric cycle, are well documented through the IAEA/WMO network and other sources. Isotope concentrations are, in middle and high latitudes, linearly related to the annual mean temperature at the precipitation site. Paleoclimatologists have used this relationship to infer paleotemperatures from isotope paleodata extractable from ice cores, deep groundwater and other such sources. For this application to be valid, however, the spatial relationship must also hold in time at a given location as the location undergoes a series of climatic changes. Progress in water isotope modeling aimed at examining and evaluating this assumption has been recently reviewed with a focus on polar regions and, more specifically, on Greenland. This article was largely based on the results obtained using the isotopic version of the NASA/GISS Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) fitted with isotope tracer diagnostics. We extend this review in comparing the results of two different isotopic AGCMs (NASA/GISS and ECHAM) and in examining, with a more global perspective, the validity of the above assumption, i.e. the equivalence of the spatial and temporal isotope-temperature relationship. We also examine recent progress made in modeling the relationship between the conditions prevailing in moisture source regions for precipitation and the deuterium-excess of that precipitation.

  4. Geochemical and petrographic analyses of travertine-precipitating waters and travertine deposits, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Utech, N.M.; Chafetz, H.S.

    1989-03-01

    Waters in Honey and Falls Creeks, Arbuckel Mountains region of Oklahoma, are supersaturated in CO/sub 2/ with respect to the overlying atmosphere and are up to 10 times saturated with respect to calcite (I/sub sat/ = 10). Loss of CO/sub 2/ from the system results in a downstream increase in saturation levels, with the highest I/sub sat/ at sites of maximum travertine deposition. High supersaturation is the result of natural kinetic processes (rapid CO/sub 2/ outgassing vs. slow precipitation) rather than the effects of foreign ion inhibitors. Temporal variations in the composition of the waters indicate that, contrary to expectations, prolonged periods of heavy rainfall cause a significant increase in I/sub sat/ levels. At any sample site, no consistent chemical variation occurred between organically mediated and inorganic precipitates. However, all deposits show a significant increase in magnesium concentration in a down-stream direction; this may be a result of higher I/sub sat/ values and corresponding higher rates of precipitation. Carbon isotopes for creek waters are highly variable, from /minus/0.6 to /minus/12.2 /per thousand/, reflecting a variety of sinks and sources for C/sup 12/. Oxygen isotopes are relatively constant, from /minus/3.7 to /minus/6.0 /per thousand/, average = /minus/5.2 /per thousand/, indicating an open-water system. Based on calculations from water data, travertine should exhibit a 2 /per thousand/ difference in /delta//sup 18/O values for precipitates formed in the summer vs. those formed in the winter. Algally laminated crusts, which have been postulated to be of seasonal origin, exhibit variation in /delta//sup 18/O values between laminae, confirming the seasonal origin of the laminae.

  5. Anticipated Improvements in Precipitation Physics and Understanding of Water Cycle from GPM Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2003-01-01

    The GPM mission is currently planned for start in the late-2007 to early-2008 time frame. Its main scientific goal is to help answer pressing scientific problems arising within the context of global and regional water cycles. These problems cut across a hierarchy of scales and include climate-water cycle interactions, techniques for improving weather and climate predictions, and better methods for combining observed precipitation with hydrometeorological prediction models for applications to hazardous flood-producing storms, seasonal flood/draught conditions, and fresh water resource assessments. The GPM mission will expand the scope of precipitation measurement through the use of a constellation of some 9 satellites, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like core satellite carrying a dual-frequency Ku-Ka band precipitation radar and an advanced, multifrequency passive microwave radiometer with vertical-horizontal polarization discrimination. The other constellation members will include new dedicated satellites and co-existing operational/research satellites carrying similar (but not identical) passive microwave radiometers. The goal of the constellation is to achieve approximately 3-hour sampling at any spot on the globe -- continuously. The constellation s orbit architecture will consist of a mix of sun-synchronous and non-sun-synchronous satellites with the core satellite providing measurements of cloud-precipitation microphysical processes plus calibration-quality rainrate retrievals to be used with the other retrieval information to ensure bias-free constellation coverage. GPM is organized internationally, involving existing, pending, projected, and under-study partnerships which will link NASA and NOAA in the US, NASDA in Japan, ESA in Europe, ISRO in India, CNES in France, and possibly AS1 in Italy, KARI in South Korea, CSA in Canada, and AEB in Brazil. Additionally, the program is actively pursuing agreements with other international collaborators and

  6. Specific lignin precipitation for oligosaccharides recovery from hot water wood extract.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoqian; Wang, Zhaojiang; Fu, Yingjuan; Li, Zongquan; Qin, Menghua

    2014-01-01

    Hot water extraction is an important strategy of wood fractionation, by which the hemicelluloses can be separated for value-added products, while the residual solid can still be processed into traditional wood products. In this study, a combined process consisting of specific lignin precipitation and dialysis was proposed to recover hemicellulosic oligosaccharides (OS) from hot water extract (HWE). The results showed that polyaluminium chloride (PAC) precipitation was highly specific to large molecular lignin, leading to 25.1% lignin removal with negligible OS loss through charge neutralization mechanism. The separation was further enhanced by dialysis, reaching 37.6% OS recovery from HWE with remarkable purity of 94.1%. By the proposed process, 56.36 g OS, mainly xylooligosaccharides with two fractions of 5.2 and 0.51 kDa was recovered from one kg dried wood. This process can be envisaged as a great contribution to wood biorefinery.

  7. Removal of particulate matter in a tubular wet electrostatic precipitator using a water collection electrode.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Ho; Yoo, Hee-Jung; Hwang, You-Seong; Kim, Hyeok-Gyu

    2012-01-01

    As one of the effective control devices of air pollutants, the wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is an effective technique to eliminate acid mist and fine particles that are re-entrained in a collection electrode. However, its collection efficiency can deteriorate, as its operation is subject to water-induced corrosion of the collection electrode. To overcome this drawback, we modified the wet ESP system with the installation of a PVC dust precipitator wherein water is supplied as a replacement of the collection electrode. With this modification, we were able to construct a compact wet ESP with a small specific collection area (SCA, 0.83 m(2)/(m(3)/min)) that can acquire a high collection efficiency of fine particles (99.7%).

  8. Removal of Particulate Matter in a Tubular Wet Electrostatic Precipitator Using a Water Collection Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Ho; Yoo, Hee-Jung; Hwang, You-Seong; Kim, Hyeok-Gyu

    2012-01-01

    As one of the effective control devices of air pollutants, the wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is an effective technique to eliminate acid mist and fine particles that are re-entrained in a collection electrode. However, its collection efficiency can deteriorate, as its operation is subject to water-induced corrosion of the collection electrode. To overcome this drawback, we modified the wet ESP system with the installation of a PVC dust precipitator wherein water is supplied as a replacement of the collection electrode. With this modification, we were able to construct a compact wet ESP with a small specific collection area (SCA, 0.83 m2/(m3/min)) that can acquire a high collection efficiency of fine particles (99.7%). PMID:22577353

  9. Modelling stable water isotopes during "high-precipitation" events at Dome C, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, Elisabeth; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Risi, Camille; Stenni, Barbara; Valt, Mauro; Powers, Jordan G.; Manning, Kevin W.; Duda, Michael G.; Cagnati, Anselmo

    2014-05-01

    For a correct paleoclimatologic interpretation of stable water isotopes from ice cores both pre- and post-depositional processes and their role for isotope fractionation have to be better understood. Our study focusses on "pre-depositional processes", namely the atmospheric processes that determine moisture transport and precipitation formation. At the deep ice core drilling site "Dome C", East Antarctica, fresh snow samples have been taken since 2006. These samples have been analysed crystallographically, which enables us to clearly distinguish between blowing snow, diamond dust, and "synoptic precipitation". Also the stable oxygen/hydrogen isotope ratios of the snow samples were measured, including measurements of 17-O. This is the first and only multi-year fresh-snow data series from an Antarctic deep drilling site. The Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) employs Polar WRF for aviation weather forecasts in Antarctica. The data are archived and can be used for scientific purposes. The mesoscale atmospheric model was adapted especially for polar regions. The horizontal resolution for the domain that covers the Antarctic continent is 10 km. It was shown that precipitation at Dome C is temporally dominated by diamond dust. However, comparatively large amounts of precipitation are observed during several "high-precipitation" events per year, caused by synoptic activity in the circumpolar trough and related advection of relatively warm and moist air from lower latitudes to the interior of Antarctica. AMPS archive data are used to investigate the synoptic situations that lead to "high-precipitation" events at Dome C; in particular, possible moisture sources are determined using back-trajectories. With this meteorological information, the isotope ratios are calculated using two different isotope models, the Mixed Cloud Isotope Model, a simple Rayleigh-type model, and the LMDZ-iso (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamic Zoom), a General Circulation Model (GCM

  10. Stable isotope compositions of waters in the Great Basin, United States 2. Modern precipitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Smith, G.I.; Johnson, C.A.; Moscati, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Precipitation was collected between 1991 and 1997 at 41 locations within and adjacent to parts of the Great Basin lying in California, Oregon, Nevada, and Utah. These samples were analyzed for their deuterium (??D) and oxygen-18 (??18O) contents. Separate collections were made of summer and winter season precipitation at stations ranging in elevation from -65 m to 3246 m. The ??D per mil values of stations that were closely spaced but at different elevations showed an average ??D decrease of approximately 10???/km rise in elevation. Data for all samples representing winter precipitation, when plotted on a ??D versus ??18O plot, fall close to the Meteoric Water Line (??D = 8 ??18O + 10); samples representing summer precipitation define a line of slightly lower slope due to evaporation of the raindrops during their passage from cloud to ground. Comparison of our 1991-1997 ??D data with those from the same three stations reported by an earlier study in the southeastern California shows seasonal differences ranging from 0 per mil to 19??? (average: 15) and annual differences ranging from 0 to 13 per mil (average: 2), illustrating the degree of annual and seasonal variability in this region. When contoured, the ??D values display gradients indicating a north to northwest decrease in deuterium, with values ranging from -60 to -125??? in winter precipitation and from -40 to -110??? in summer precipitation. These gradient trends can be explained by the predominance of air mass trajectories originating in the tropical Pacific, the Gulf of California, and (in summer) the Gulf of Mexico.

  11. Tropical intercontinental optical measurement network of aerosol, precipitable water and total column ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, B. N.; Tanre, D.; Reagan, J. A.; Eck, T. F.; Setzer, A.; Kaufman, Y. A.; Vermote, E.; Vassiliou, G. D.; Lavenu, F.

    1992-01-01

    A new generation of automatic sunphotometers is used to systematically monitor clear sky total column aerosol concentration and optical properties, precipitable water and total column ozone diurnally and annually in West Africa and South America. The instruments are designed to measure direct beam sun, solar aureole and sky radiances in nine narrow spectral bands from the UV to the near infrared on an hourly basis. The instrumentation and the algorithms required to reduce the data for subsequent analysis are described.

  12. Modeling Aerosol Effects on Clouds and Precipitation: Insights from CalWater 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, L. R.; Lim, K. S. S.; Fan, J.; Prather, K. A.; DeMott, P. J.; Spackman, J. R.; Ralph, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    The CalWater 2015 field campaign took place in northern California from mid January through early March of 2015. The field campaign, including collaborations between CalWater 2 and ACAPEX, aims to improve understanding and modeling of large-scale dynamics and cloud and precipitation processes associated with atmospheric rivers (ARs) and aerosol-cloud interactions that influence precipitation variability and extremes in the western U.S. An observational strategy was employed using land and offshore assets to monitor (1) the evolution and structure of ARs from near their regions of development, (2) long range transport of aerosols in eastern North Pacific and potential interactions with ARs, and (3) how aerosols from long-range transport and local sources influence cloud and precipitation in the U.S. During the field campaign, an AR developed in the Northeast Pacific Ocean in early February and made landfall in northern California. In-situ aerosol and cloud measurements from the G-1 aircraft; remote sensing data of clouds and aerosols; and meteorological measurements from aircraft, ship, and ground-based instruments collected from February 5 - 8, 2015 are analyzed to characterize the large-scale environment and cloud and precipitation forming processes. Modeling experiments are designed using a regional model for simulations with a cloud resolving limited area domain and quasi-global coarser resolution domain to evaluate the impacts of aerosols on clouds and precipitation, and to explore the relative contributions of long-range transported and regional aerosols that interacted with the clouds before, during, and after AR landfall. Preliminary results will be discussed in the context of the field data as well as a multi-year simulation of the climatological contributions of long-range transported dust during AR landfall in California.

  13. Visualizing Organophosphate Precipitation at the Calcite-Water Interface by in Situ Atomic-Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Qin, Lihong; Putnis, Christine V; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnación; King, Helen E; Putnis, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Esters of phosphoric acid constitute a large fraction of the total organic phosphorus (OP) in the soil environment and, thus, play an important role in the global phosphorus cycle. These esters, such as glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), exhibit unusual reactivity toward various mineral particles in soils, especially those containing calcite. Many important processes of OP transformation, including adsorption, hydrolysis, and precipitation, occur primarily at mineral-fluid interfaces, which ultimately governs the fate of organophosphates in the environment. However, little is known about the kinetics of specific mineral-surface-induced adsorption and precipitation of organophosphates. Here, by using in situ atomic-force microscopy (AFM) to visualize the dissolution of calcite (1014) faces, we show that the presence of G6P results in morphology changes of etch pits from the typical rhombohedral to a fan-shaped form. This can be explained by a site-selective mechanism of G6P-calcite surface interactions that stabilize the energetically unfavorable (0001) or (0112) faces through step-specific adsorption of G6P. Continuous dissolution at calcite (1014)-water interfaces caused a boundary layer at the calcite-water interface to become supersaturated with respect to a G6P-Ca phase that then drives the nucleation and growth of a G6P-Ca precipitate. Furthermore, after the introduction of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (AP), the precipitates were observed to contain a mixture of components associated with G6P-Ca, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-hydroxyapatite (HAP) and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD). These direct dynamic observations of the transformation of adsorption- and complexation-surface precipitation and enzyme-mediated pathways may improve the mechanistic understanding of the mineral-interface-induced organophosphate sequestration in the soil environment. PMID:26636475

  14. Visualizing Organophosphate Precipitation at the Calcite-Water Interface by in Situ Atomic-Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Qin, Lihong; Putnis, Christine V; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnación; King, Helen E; Putnis, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Esters of phosphoric acid constitute a large fraction of the total organic phosphorus (OP) in the soil environment and, thus, play an important role in the global phosphorus cycle. These esters, such as glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), exhibit unusual reactivity toward various mineral particles in soils, especially those containing calcite. Many important processes of OP transformation, including adsorption, hydrolysis, and precipitation, occur primarily at mineral-fluid interfaces, which ultimately governs the fate of organophosphates in the environment. However, little is known about the kinetics of specific mineral-surface-induced adsorption and precipitation of organophosphates. Here, by using in situ atomic-force microscopy (AFM) to visualize the dissolution of calcite (1014) faces, we show that the presence of G6P results in morphology changes of etch pits from the typical rhombohedral to a fan-shaped form. This can be explained by a site-selective mechanism of G6P-calcite surface interactions that stabilize the energetically unfavorable (0001) or (0112) faces through step-specific adsorption of G6P. Continuous dissolution at calcite (1014)-water interfaces caused a boundary layer at the calcite-water interface to become supersaturated with respect to a G6P-Ca phase that then drives the nucleation and growth of a G6P-Ca precipitate. Furthermore, after the introduction of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (AP), the precipitates were observed to contain a mixture of components associated with G6P-Ca, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-hydroxyapatite (HAP) and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD). These direct dynamic observations of the transformation of adsorption- and complexation-surface precipitation and enzyme-mediated pathways may improve the mechanistic understanding of the mineral-interface-induced organophosphate sequestration in the soil environment.

  15. Relationships between Water Vapor Path and Precipitation over the Tropical Oceans.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretherton, Christopher S.; Peters, Matthew E.; Back, Larissa E.

    2004-04-01

    The relationship between water vapor path W and surface precipitation rate P over tropical oceanic regions is analyzed using 4 yr of gridded daily SSM/I satellite microwave radiometer data. A tight monthly mean relationship P (mm day-1) = exp[11.4(r - 0.522)] for all tropical ocean regions and seasons is found between P and a column-relative humidity r obtained by dividing W by the corresponding saturation water vapor path. A similar relation, albeit with more scatter, also holds at daily time scales, and can be interpreted as a moisture adjustment time scale of 12 h for convective rainfall to affect humidity anomalies on 300-km space scales. Cross-spectral analysis shows statistically significant covariability of actual and r-predicted precipitation at all frequencies, with negligible phase lag. The correlation of actual and r-predicted precipitation exceeds 0.5 on intraseasonal and longer time scales.The SSM/I retrievals of W and P are found to be skillful even at daily time scales when compared with in situ radiosonde and radar-derived area-averaged precipitation data from Kwajalein Island, but the microwave estimates of daily P scatter considerably about the radar estimates (which are considered to be more reliable). Using the radar-derived precipitation in combination with microwave-derived W yields a daily r P relationship at Kwajalein similar to that derived solely from microwave measurements, but with somewhat less P associated with the highest values of r. This emphasizes that the absolute calibration of the r P relationship is somewhat dependent on the datasets used to derive r and especially P. Nevertheless, the results provide a useful constraint on conceptual models and parameterizations of tropical deep convection.

  16. Alterations in 'water yield' associated with land use changes under different precipitation regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohatyn, Shani; Ramati, Efrat; Tatarinov, Fyodor; Rotenberg, Eyal; Tas, Eran; Yakir, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Changes in rainfall regimes and land cover results in complex alterations in plant water use and in ecosystem water balance, which are not well quantified. This results in poor estimates of the 'water yield' (WY; the difference between precipitation, P, input and evapotranspiration, ET, losses), which provides the water available for runoff and re-charge, and ultimately also for human consumption. The objective of this study was to examine the interactions between the effects of land use change (from sparse shrubland to pine forest) on ecosystem WY, and changes in the precipitation regime (from humid Mediterranean to semi-arid conditions). We hypothesized that the forestation increased ET and reduced WY, but this impact diminishes with decreasing precipitation. We used a new approach centered on a custom-built mobile laboratory of eddy co-variance measurements deployed on a campaign basis (about two weeks per site repeated along the seasonal cycle), that allowed us to measure ecosystem-scale ET together with carbon and energy fluxes and meteorological parameters. Measurements were carried out between the years of 2012-2015 in three paired sites of Pinus halepensis forests and adjacent non-forest ecosystems along the rainfall gradient in Israel, from 755 to 290 mm in annual precipitation. Annual ET was estimated from the campaigns results based on multiple regression analyses with meteorological parameters (relative humidity, RH, temperature, T, and global radiation, Rg) from local meteorological stations that provided continuous data records. The results indicated that decrease in annual precipitation by a factor of ~2.5, resulted in decrease in ET by a factor of 2.4 from 685 mm, with WY=210 mm, in the humid forest, to 290 mm, with WY= 0 mm, in the dry forest. In the non-forest ecosystems ET showed relatively small decrease (by a factor of 1.3) from 285 mm, with WY=460 mm, to 220 mm, with WY=95 mm. The differences 'Forest-shrubland' in ET decreased from 400 mm to

  17. Retrieving moisture profiles from precipitable water measurements using a variational data assimilation approach

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.R.; Zou, X.; Kuo, Y.H.

    1996-04-01

    Atmospheric moisture distribution is directly related to the formation of clouds and precipitation and affects the atmospheric radiation and climate. Currently, several remote sensing systems can measure precipitable water (PW) with fairly high accuracy. As part of the development of an Integrated Data Assimilation and Sounding System in support of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, retrieving the 3-D water vapor fields from PW measurements is an important problem. A new four dimensional variational (4DVAR) data assimilation system based on the Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) mesoscale model (MM5) has been developed by Zou et al. (1995) with the adjoint technique. In this study, we used this 4DVAR system to retrieve the moisture profiles. Because we do not have a set of real observed PW measurements now, the special soundings collected during the Severe Environmental Storm and Mesoscale Experiment (SESAME) in 1979 were used to simulate a set of PW measurements, which were then assimilated into the 4DVAR system. The accuracy of the derived water vapor fields was assessed by direct comparison with the detailed specific humidity soundings. The impact of PW assimilation on precipitation forecast was examined by conducting a series of model forecast experiments started from the different initial conditions with or without data assimilation.

  18. Evaluation of precipitates used in strainer head loss testing : Part III. Long-term aluminum hydroxide precipitation tests in borated water.

    SciTech Connect

    Bahn, C. B.; Kasza, K. E.; Shack, W. J.; Natesan, K.; Klein, P.

    2011-05-01

    Long-term aluminum (Al) hydroxide precipitation tests were conducted in slightly alkaline solutions containing 2500 ppm boron. The solution temperature was cycled to obtain a temperature history more representative of emergency core cooling system temperatures after a loss-of-coolant accident. The observed Al precipitation boundary was close to predicted results for amorphous precipitates, which are higher than the solubility expected for crystalline forms. Bench-scale and loop head loss test results under various conditions were successfully combined into single map in a temperature - 'pH + p[Al]{sub T}' domain, which yielded two bounding lines for Al hydroxide solubility in borated alkaline water that depend on whether or not loop head loss tests with Al alloy coupons are included. Precipitates were observed to form either as fine, cloudy suspensions, which showed very little tendency to settle, or as flocculated precipitates. The flocculation tendency of the precipitates can be qualitatively explained by a colloid stability theory or a phase diagram for protein solutions.

  19. Summary of precipitation data for the Black Hills area of South Dakota, water years 1931-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Kenner, Scott J.

    2000-01-01

    Long-term precipitation records are sum-marized for the Black Hills area of South Dakota. Precipitation data are available for numerous gaging locations; however, few gages have continuous, long-term records, and periods of missing record are common. Thus, a geographic information system (GIS) utilizing an inverse-distance weighting method was developed to generate spatial precipitation distributions from point precipitation data for the Black Hills area, based on available monthly records. The spatial distributions were used to estimate periods of missing record for all 94 gages considered. The resulting monthly records of measured and estimated precipitation are tabulated for water years 1931-98. Average values for water years 1961-90, which is the period used for calculation of climatic normals, were used to develop an isohyetal map of normal annual precipitation for the Black Hills area. Temporal trends in precipitation for the Black Hills area also were examined. Sustained periods of deficit precipitation occurred during 1931-40 and 1948-61. Sustained periods of surplus precipitation occurred during 1941-47, 1962-68, and 1991-98, with the late 1990's identified as the wettest period since 1931. The driest 30-year period was 1931-60, when annual precipitation averaged 17.17 inches for the study area. The wettest 30-year period was 1969-98, when annual precipitation averaged 19.61 inches. Normal annual precipitation (1961-90) for the study area is 19.06 inches, compared with the long-term (1931-98) annual average of 18.61 inches. Annual extremes for the study area have ranged from 10.22 inches in water year 1936 to 27.39 inches in water year 1995.

  20. Geochemical mass-balance relationships for selected ions in precipitation and stream water, Catoctin Mountains, Maryland.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; Bricker, O.P.; Kennedy, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Results of a study of input/output mass balances for major ions based on the chemical composition of precipitation and stream-water, geochemical reactions with different loading rates of hydrogen ion, and watershed processes influencing the chemical character of stream-waters in two small watershed areas are reported with a view to predicting the effect of additions of acidic rain to the watershed systems. Geochemical weathering processes account for the observed changes in the chemistry of stream flow. Although present in bedrock in extremely small quantities, calcite plays an important role in neutralization of the total hydrogen-ion input.-M.S.

  1. Melting of the precipitated ice IV in LiCl aqueous solution and polyamorphism of water.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Osamu

    2011-12-01

    Melting of the precipitated ice IV in supercooled LiCl-H(2)O solution was studied in the range of 0-0.6 MPa and 160-270 K. Emulsified solution was used to detect this metastable transition. Ice IV was precipitated from the aqueous solution of 2.0 mol % LiCl (or 4.8 mol % LiCl) in each emulsion particle at low-temperature and high-pressure conditions, and the emulsion was decompressed at different temperatures. The melting of ice IV was detected from the temperature change of the emulsified sample during the decompression. There was an apparently sudden change in the slope of the ice IV melting curve (liquidus) in the pressure-temperature diagram. At the high-pressure and high-temperature side of the change, the solute-induced freezing point depression was observed. At the low-pressure and low-temperature side, ice IV transformed into ice Ih on the decompression, and the transition was almost unrelated to the concentration of LiCl. These experimental results were roughly explained by the presumed existence of two kinds of liquid water (low-density liquid water and high-density liquid water), or polyamorphism in water, and by the simple assumption that LiCl dissolved maily in high-density liquid water. PMID:21736291

  2. Precipitation Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

    1996-01-01

    The water cycle regulates and reflects natural variability in climate at the regional and global scales. Large-scale human activities that involve changes in land cover, such as tropical deforestation, are likely to modify climate through changes in the water cycle. In order to understand, and hopefully be able to predict, the extent of these potential global and regional changes, we need first to understand how the water cycle works. In the past, most of the research in hydrology focused on the land branch of the water cycle, with little attention given to the atmospheric branch. The study of precipitation recycling which is defined as the contribution of local evaporation to local precipitation, aims at understanding hydrologic processes in the atmospheric branch of the water cycle. Simply stated, any study on precipitation recycling is about how the atmospheric branch of the water cycle works, namely, what happens to water vapor molecules after they evaporate from the surface, and where will they precipitate?

  3. Trace Perchlorate in Background Ground Water and Local Precipitation, Northern Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, M.; Longmire, P.; Granzow, K. P.; Englert, D.; Yanicak, S.; Larson, T.; Rearick, M.; Heikoop, J.; Perkins, G.

    2007-12-01

    Perchlorate occurs at detectable concentrations of 0.07 to 0.45 parts per billion (ppb) in ground water of background quality within the northern Rio Grande basin, New Mexico. Ground-water samples were collected from 47 wells and springs near Los Alamos, Santa Fe, and Taos, New Mexico. Analytical methods consisted of liquid and ion chromatography-mass spectrometry mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS and IC/MS/MS). An upper tolerance limit (mean plus two standard deviations) of 0.40 ppb was calculated from 184 analytical results for the background samples. Six distinguishable ground-water zones were sampled based on location, age, and hydrochemistry. In the Los Alamos area, ground water within the mountain-front and mountain-block region is mostly young or modern (less than 50 years). The regional aquifer including the White Rock Canyon springs are of sub-modern age (greater than 50 years). Tritium data from springs north of Taos indicate ground water of modern and sub-modern ages. Background perchlorate concentrations within the Los Alamos area were consistently higher than those measured in the Taos area. Ground water from the Taos area contains less perchlorate and has lower δ18O and δ2H values than ground water from the Los Alamos area. The elevation at which precipitation occurs with respect to recharge and/or the amount of evapotranspiration may play a role in perchlorate concentration in ground water. Natural variability, hydrogeology, and atmospheric inputs may also affect perchlorate concentration in ground water. A linear regression through perchlorate and chloride concentrations for all stations resulted in an r2 = 0. However, the r2 value of the Los Alamos regional aquifer for perchlorate versus chloride was 0.66. Thirteen precipitation samples were collected in the Los Alamos area. Results from eleven of these samples showed no perchlorate greater than 0.05 and 0.009 ppb, the method detection limit (MDL). Two precipitation samples analyzed using the IC

  4. The effect of antiscalant addition on calcium carbonate precipitation for a simplified synthetic brackish water reverse osmosis concentrate.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Lauren F; Testa, Fabrice; Lawler, Desmond F; Freeman, Benny D; Moulin, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    The primary limitations to inland brackish water reverse osmosis (RO) desalination are the cost and technical feasibility of concentrate disposal. To decrease concentrate volume, a side-stream process can be used to precipitate problematic scaling salts and remove the precipitate with a solid/liquid separation step. The treated concentrate can then be purified through a secondary reverse osmosis stage to increase overall recovery and decrease the volume of waste requiring disposal. Antiscalants are used in an RO system to prevent salt precipitation but might affect side-stream concentrate treatment. Precipitation experiments were performed on a synthetic RO concentrate with and without antiscalant; of particular interest was the precipitation of calcium carbonate. Particle size distributions, calcium precipitation, microfiltration flux, and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the effects of antiscalant type, antiscalant concentration, and precipitation pH on calcium carbonate precipitation and filtration. Results show that antiscalants can decrease precipitate particle size and change the shape of the particles; smaller particles can cause an increase in microfiltration flux decline during the solid/liquid separation step. The presence of antiscalant during precipitation can also decrease the mass of precipitated calcium carbonate.

  5. The effect of antiscalant addition on calcium carbonate precipitation for a simplified synthetic brackish water reverse osmosis concentrate.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Lauren F; Testa, Fabrice; Lawler, Desmond F; Freeman, Benny D; Moulin, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    The primary limitations to inland brackish water reverse osmosis (RO) desalination are the cost and technical feasibility of concentrate disposal. To decrease concentrate volume, a side-stream process can be used to precipitate problematic scaling salts and remove the precipitate with a solid/liquid separation step. The treated concentrate can then be purified through a secondary reverse osmosis stage to increase overall recovery and decrease the volume of waste requiring disposal. Antiscalants are used in an RO system to prevent salt precipitation but might affect side-stream concentrate treatment. Precipitation experiments were performed on a synthetic RO concentrate with and without antiscalant; of particular interest was the precipitation of calcium carbonate. Particle size distributions, calcium precipitation, microfiltration flux, and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the effects of antiscalant type, antiscalant concentration, and precipitation pH on calcium carbonate precipitation and filtration. Results show that antiscalants can decrease precipitate particle size and change the shape of the particles; smaller particles can cause an increase in microfiltration flux decline during the solid/liquid separation step. The presence of antiscalant during precipitation can also decrease the mass of precipitated calcium carbonate. PMID:20350741

  6. Soil water and vegetation responses to precipitation and changes in depth to ground water in Owens Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorenson, Stephen K.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Branson, Farrel A.

    1991-01-01

    Vegetation on the floor of Owens Valley, California, is composed predominantly of phreatophytic desert communities that are adapted to small quantities of precipitation and alkaline soils. These plant communities are believed to be dependent on the continuing presence of a shallow water table. Maintaining existing plant communities is important to preserve the environmental quality of the valley. Proposals to pump additional quantities of ground water from the valley for export to the city of Los Angeles caused concern about the effect of pumping on the existing vegetation and how the plants would adapt to short- or long-term declines of the shallow water table. To test the ability of selected major shrub species to adapt to water-table decline, four sites were selected, pump-equipped wells were installed, and water-table drawdown was monitored. Soil samples were collected with a hand auger and analyzed by using the filter-paper method to monitor changes in soil water content and soil matric potential at test sites. Plant reactions were determined by measurements of plant cover, shoot growth, and xylem pressure potential. Results of 3 years of monitoring show that growth and cover repetition of the shrubs studied are affected greatly by the quantity of annual precipitation, especially at sites with coarse-textured soils. Plants were not affected by drying soil in the root zone until the maximum matric potential exceeded 4.3 pF (-1,950 kilopascal) at depths greater than 0.5 meter. Rabbit-brush was most sensitive to dry soil and was the only shrub species that died as the result of water stress from water-table drawdown. The change in cover repetition correlated positively with the magnitude of water-table drawdown at one site and negatively at another site. Measurements of xylem pressure potential taken before dawn correlated well with water content in the upper 1.5 meters of soil. The magnitude of water-table drawdown achieved by the pump-equipped wells was less

  7. Comparison of precipitable water over Ghana using GPS signals and reanalysis products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acheampong, A. A.; Fosu, C.; Amekudzi, L. K.; Kaas, E.

    2015-11-01

    Signals from Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS) when integrated with surface meteorological parameters can be used to sense atmospheric water vapour. Using gLAB software and employing precise point positioning techniques, zenith troposphere delays (ZTD) for a GPS base station at KNUST, Kumasi have been computed and used to retrieve Precipitable Water (PW). The PW values obtained were compared with products from ERA-Interim and NCEP reanalysis data. The correlation coefficients, r, determined from these comparisons were 0.839 and 0.729 for ERA-interim and NCEP respectively. This study has demonstrated that water vapour can be retrieved with high precision from GNSS signal. Furthermore, a location map have been produced to serve as a guide in adopting and installing GNSS base stations in Ghana to achieve a country wide coverage of GNSS based water vapour monitoring.

  8. Impacts of precipitation variability on plant species and community water stress in a temperate deciduous forest in the central US

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Lianhong; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hosman, Kevin P.; Sun, Ying

    2015-12-11

    Variations in precipitation regimes can shift ecosystem structure and function by altering frequency, severity and timing of plant water stress. There is a need for predictively understanding impacts of precipitation regimes on plant water stress in relation to species water use strategies. Here we first formulated two complementary, physiologically-linked measures of precipitation variability (PV) - Precipitation Variability Index (PVI) and Average Recurrence Interval of Effective Precipitation (ARIEP). We then used nine-year continuous measurements of Predawn Leaf Water Potential Integral (PLWPI) in a central US forest to relate PVI and ARIEP to actual plant water availability and comparative water stress responses of six species with different capacities to regulate their internal water status. We found that PVI and ARIEP explained nearly all inter-annual variations in PLWPI for all species as well as for the community scaled from species measurements. The six species investigated showed differential sensitivities to variations in precipitation regimes. Their sensitivities were reflected more in the responses to PVI and ARIEP than to the mean precipitation rate. Further, they exhibited tradeoffs between responses to low and high PV. Finally, PVI and ARIEP were closely correlated with temporal integrals of positive temperature anomalies and vapor pressure deficit. We suggest that the comparative responses of plant species to PV are part of species-specific water use strategies in a plant community facing the uncertainty of fluctuating precipitation regimes. In conclusion, PVI and ARIEP should be adopted as key indices to quantify physiological drought and the ecological impacts of precipitation regimes in a changing climate.

  9. Impacts of precipitation variability on plant species and community water stress in a temperate deciduous forest in the central US

    DOE PAGES

    Gu, Lianhong; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hosman, Kevin P.; Sun, Ying

    2015-12-11

    Variations in precipitation regimes can shift ecosystem structure and function by altering frequency, severity and timing of plant water stress. There is a need for predictively understanding impacts of precipitation regimes on plant water stress in relation to species water use strategies. Here we first formulated two complementary, physiologically-linked measures of precipitation variability (PV) - Precipitation Variability Index (PVI) and Average Recurrence Interval of Effective Precipitation (ARIEP). We then used nine-year continuous measurements of Predawn Leaf Water Potential Integral (PLWPI) in a central US forest to relate PVI and ARIEP to actual plant water availability and comparative water stress responsesmore » of six species with different capacities to regulate their internal water status. We found that PVI and ARIEP explained nearly all inter-annual variations in PLWPI for all species as well as for the community scaled from species measurements. The six species investigated showed differential sensitivities to variations in precipitation regimes. Their sensitivities were reflected more in the responses to PVI and ARIEP than to the mean precipitation rate. Further, they exhibited tradeoffs between responses to low and high PV. Finally, PVI and ARIEP were closely correlated with temporal integrals of positive temperature anomalies and vapor pressure deficit. We suggest that the comparative responses of plant species to PV are part of species-specific water use strategies in a plant community facing the uncertainty of fluctuating precipitation regimes. In conclusion, PVI and ARIEP should be adopted as key indices to quantify physiological drought and the ecological impacts of precipitation regimes in a changing climate.« less

  10. Macroscale water fluxes 1. Quantifying errors in the estimation of basin mean precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milly, P. C. D.; Dunne, K. A.

    2002-10-01

    Developments in analysis and modeling of continental water and energy balances are hindered by the limited availability and quality of observational data. The lack of information on error characteristics of basin water supply is an especially serious limitation. Here we describe the development and testing of methods for quantifying several errors in basin mean precipitation, both in the long-term mean and in the monthly and annual anomalies. To quantify errors in the long-term mean, two error indices are developed and tested with positive results. The first provides an estimate of the variance of the spatial sampling error of long-term basin mean precipitation obtained from a gauge network, in the absence of orographic effects; this estimate is obtained by use only of the gauge records. The second gives a simple estimate of the basin mean orographic bias as a function of the topographic structure of the basin and the locations of gauges therein. Neither index requires restrictive statistical assumptions (such as spatial homogeneity) about the precipitation process. Adjustments of precipitation for gauge bias and estimates of the adjustment errors are made by applying results of a previous study. Additionally, standard correlation-based methods are applied for the quantification of spatial sampling errors in the estimation of monthly and annual values of basin mean precipitation. These methods also perform well, as indicated by network subsampling tests in densely gauged basins. The methods are developed and applied with data for 175 large (median area of 51,000 km2) river basins of the world for which contemporaneous, continuous (missing fewer than 2% of data values), long-term (median record length of 54 years) river discharge records are also available. Spatial coverage of the resulting river basin data set is greatest in the middle latitudes, though many basins are located in the tropics and the high latitudes, and the data set spans the major climatic and

  11. Long-term trends in stream water and precipitation chemistry at five headwater basins in the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, D.W.; Mast, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Stream water data from five headwater basins in the northeastern United States covering water years 1968-1996 and precipitation data from eight nearby precipitation monitoring sites covering water years 1984-1996 were analyzed for temporal trends in chemistry using the nonparametric seasonal Kendall test. Concentrations of SO4 declined at three of five streams during 1968,1996 (p < 0.1), and all of the streams exhibited downward trends in SO4 over the second half of the period (1984-1996). Concentrations of SO4 in precipitation declined at seven of eight sites from 1984 to 1996, and the magnitudes of the declines (-0.7 to -2.0 ??eq L-1 yr-1) generally were similar to those of stream water SO4. These results indicate that changes in precipitation SO4 were of sufficient magnitude to account for changes in stream water SO4. Concentrations of Ca + Mg declined at three of five streams and five of eight precipitation sites from 1984 to 1996. Precipitation acidity decreased at five of eight sites during the same period, but alkalinity increased in only one stream. In most cases the decreases in stream water SO4 were similar in magnitude to declines in stream water Ca + Mg, which is consistent with the theory of leaching by mobile acid anions in soils. In precipitation the magnitudes of SO4 declines were similar to those of hydrogen, and declines in Ca + Mg were much smaller. This indicates that recent decreases in SO4 deposition are now being reflected in reduced precipitation acidity. The lack of widespread increases in stream water alkalinity, despite the prevalence of downward trends in Stream water SO4, suggests that at most sites, increases in stream water pH and acid-neutralizing capacity may be delayed until higher soil base-saturation levels are achieved.

  12. The Potential of Water Vapor & Precipitation Estimation with a Differential-frequency Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, Robert; Liao, Liang; Tian, Lin

    2006-01-01

    In the presence of rain, the radar return powers from a three-frequency radar, with center frequency at 22.235 GHz and upper and lower frequencies chosen with equal water vapor absorption coefficients, can be used to estimate water vapor density and parameters of the precipitation. A linear combination of differential measurements between the center and lower frequencies on one hand and the upper and lower frequencies on the other provide an estimate of differential water vapor absorption. Conversely, the difference in radar reflectivity factors (in dB) between the upper and lower frequencies is independent of water vapor absorption and can be used to estimate the median mass diameter of the hydrometeors. For a down-looking radar, path-integrated estimates of water vapor absorption may be possible under rain-free as well as raining conditions by using the surface returns at the three frequencies. Cross-talk or interference between the precipitation and water vapor estimates depends on the frequency separation of the channels as well as on the phase state and the median mass diameter of the hydrometeors. Simulations of the retrieval of water vapor absorption show that the largest source of variability arises from the variance in the measured radar return powers while the largest biases occur in the mixed-phase region. Use of high pulse repetition frequencies and signal whitening methods may be needed to obtain the large number of independent samples required. Measurements over a fractional bandwidth, defined as the ratio of the difference between the upper and lower frequencies to the center frequency, up to about 0.2 should be passible in a differential frequency mode, where a single transceiver and antenna are used. Difficulties in frequency allocation may require alternative choices of frequency where the water vapor absorptions at the low and high frequencies are unequal. We consider the degradation in the retrieval accuracy when the frequencies are not optimum.

  13. Numerical sensitivity analysis of passive EHF and SMMW channels to tropospheric water vapor, clouds, and precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasiewski, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    Potential uses of specific extremely High Frequency (EHF) and Sub-Millimeter-Wave (SMMW) channels at 90, 166, 183, 220, 325, 340, and 410 GHz for passive spaceborne remote sensing of the troposphere and lower stratosphere are investigated using an iterative numerical radiative transfer model. Collectively, these channels offer potential for high spatial resolution imaging using diffraction-limited apertures of practical size, along with the ability to profile water vapor, map precipitation beneath optically opaque cloud cover, and to measure nonprecipitating cloud (e.g., cirrus) parameters. A widely-spaced set of EHF and SMMW channels can yield observable degrees of freedom related to clouds and precipitation not available by exclusively using the more thoroughly studied microwave channels below 183 GHz. A new passive airborne imaging instrument for tropospheric meteorological sensing is described.

  14. Climate Change Impacts on US Precipitation Extremes and Consequences for Hydraulic Infrastructures and Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.; Kumar, D.; Mishra, V.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Precipitation extremes in the conterminous United States are expected to intensify and grow more frequent with climate change. However, translating this climate insight to metrics relevant for hydraulic infrastructures or water resources remains a challenge. The primary issue is one of scale, which in turn may ultimately stem from the space-time variability in, and our lack of understanding of, fine-scale precipitation processes. Here we examine the hypothesis that credible metrics for civil engineers and hydrologists can be obtained through extreme value analysis of regional climate model simulations. Specifically, we develop intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) simulations, and characterize uncertainties by comparing with observations. We attempt to understand the nature of the insights, if any, that can be extracted despite the uncertainties.

  15. Aragonite precipitation induced by anaerobic oxidation of methane in shallow-water seeps, Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedling, Johanna; Kuhfuß, Hanna; Lott, Christian; Böttcher, Michael E.; Lichtschlag, Anna; Wegener, Gunter; Deusner, Christian; Bach, Wolfgang; Weber, Miriam

    2014-05-01

    In the shallow-water organic-poor silicate sands off the West coast of Elba, Italy, we found aragonite precipitates within a radius of 10 cm to methane seeps in 20 - 40 cm sediment depth. The shallow seep site was mapped by SCUBA diving and in an area of 100 m2 nine gas emission spots were observed. The gas emission, containing 73 Vol. % methane, was measured to be 0.72 L m-2 d-1. Findings of anaerobic methane oxidizing archea (ANME 1, 2, 2a, 2b) and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) as well as in vitro rate measurements of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with a maximum of 67 ± 7 nmol CH4 cm-3 d-1 led to the hypothesis that carbonate precipitation is coupled to these microbial processes. Porewater analysis showed elevated concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) (up to 15.5 mmol L-1) and hydrogen sulfide (up to 6.6 mmol L-1). The presence of bicarbonate and the ambient temperature (14 - 25 ° C) facilitate the precipitation of needle-shaped aragonite. Oxygen isotope compositions of the mineral are consistent with the ambient temperatures and may indicate a recent diagenetic formation of this mineral. Although precipitation should not be preserved in these sandy permeable sediments, influenced by seasonality, wave action, and fluid flow, we found up to 10-50 cm3 irregular pieces of cemented sand grains, very often encrusting dead seagrass rhizomes. Commonly known carbonate structures, especially from the deep sea, are chimneys, mounds, hardgrounds and nodules. These structures are well known from seep and vent sites, usually showing the same range of stable carbon isotope fractionation as the escaping methane. The permeable sediment at the Elba site possibly allows the gas to frequently change its pathway to the sediment surface and thus precipitation can occure at several spots and more irregular than in the reported sites. Preservation of precipitates, however, requires sufficient authigenic aragonite to be formed before fluid dynamics changed the

  16. MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    KL Gaustad; DD Turner

    2007-09-30

    This report provides a short description of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) microwave radiometer (MWR) RETrievel (MWRRET) Value-Added Product (VAP) algorithm. This algorithm utilizes complimentary physical and statistical retrieval methods and applies brightness temperature offsets to reduce spurious liquid water path (LWP) bias in clear skies resulting in significantly improved precipitable water vapor (PWV) and LWP retrievals. We present a general overview of the technique, input parameters, output products, and describe data quality checks. A more complete discussion of the theory and results is given in Turner et al. (2007b).

  17. Predictability of horizontal water vapor transport relative to precipitation: Enhancing situational awareness for forecasting western U.S. extreme precipitation and flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavers, David A.; Waliser, Duane E.; Ralph, F. Martin; Dettinger, Michael D.

    2016-03-01

    The western United States is vulnerable to socioeconomic disruption due to extreme winter precipitation and floods. Traditionally, forecasts of precipitation and river discharge provide the basis for preparations. Herein we show that earlier event awareness may be possible through use of horizontal water vapor transport (integrated vapor transport (IVT)) forecasts. Applying the potential predictability concept to the National Centers for Environmental Prediction global ensemble reforecasts, across 31 winters, IVT is found to be more predictable than precipitation. IVT ensemble forecasts with the smallest spreads (least forecast uncertainty) are associated with initiation states with anomalously high geopotential heights south of Alaska, a setup conducive for anticyclonic conditions and weak IVT into the western United States. IVT ensemble forecasts with the greatest spreads (most forecast uncertainty) have initiation states with anomalously low geopotential heights south of Alaska and correspond to atmospheric rivers. The greater IVT predictability could provide warnings of impending storminess with additional lead times for hydrometeorological applications.

  18. Predictability of horizontal water vapor transport relative to precipitation: Enhancing situational awareness for forecasting western U.S. extreme precipitation and flooding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lavers, David A.; Waliser, Duane E.; Ralph, F. Martin; Dettinger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The western United States is vulnerable to socioeconomic disruption due to extreme winter precipitation and floods. Traditionally, forecasts of precipitation and river discharge provide the basis for preparations. Herein we show that earlier event awareness may be possible through use of horizontal water vapor transport (integrated vapor transport (IVT)) forecasts. Applying the potential predictability concept to the National Centers for Environmental Prediction global ensemble reforecasts, across 31 winters, IVT is found to be more predictable than precipitation. IVT ensemble forecasts with the smallest spreads (least forecast uncertainty) are associated with initiation states with anomalously high geopotential heights south of Alaska, a setup conducive for anticyclonic conditions and weak IVT into the western United States. IVT ensemble forecasts with the greatest spreads (most forecast uncertainty) have initiation states with anomalously low geopotential heights south of Alaska and correspond to atmospheric rivers. The greater IVT predictability could provide warnings of impending storminess with additional lead times for hydrometeorological applications.

  19. Evaluating shallow convective mixing and precipitation processes using isotope ratios in water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raudzens Bailey, Adriana

    Water vapor and clouds both respond to and influence global temperature. Consequently, understanding the processes that control humidity patterns and cloudiness is key for predicting future climate accurately. To elucidate the physical processes controlling water cycle feedbacks in the subtropics, this thesis applies new observational techniques to evaluate moisture and pollutant transport between the Hawaiian boundary layer--near ocean surface--and the dry free troposphere above. Beginning with a case study, paired measurements of humidity and the ratio of heavy-to-light oxygen isotopes in vapor are used to characterize vertical moisture transport as a simple mixing process. Strong mixing events are found to shape moisture transport for multiple days at a time, highlighting the need to understand which factors control the strength of convective mixing. Large-scale dynamical controls on convective mixing near Hawaii are subsequently evaluated, and the relative importance of large-scale transport and microphysical processes in modifying humidity and pollutant distributions is investigated. Based on isotopic theory, strong convective events are classified as having either high or low precipitation efficiency. While the latter are associated with a branching of the subtropical jet, which facilitates advection of relatively high concentrations of methane and ozone from Eurasia, the former are associated with tropical plumes that transport relatively clean and moist air. Particle number concentrations, in comparison, exhibit clear sensitivity to the precipitation processes associated with convection, with higher precipitation efficiency events resulting in scavenging of pre-existing aerosol that, in turn, appears to facilitate new particle formation at higher altitudes. To determine whether the resultant variations in vertical distributions of moisture and pollutants influence cloud fields, isotopic retrievals from satellite are used to define precipitation efficiency

  20. Simulating the effects of ground-water withdrawals on streamflow in a precipitation-runoff model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zarriello, P.J.; Barlow, P.M.; Duda, P.B.

    2004-01-01

    Precipitation-runoff models are used to assess the effects of water use and management alternatives on streamflow. Often, ground-water withdrawals are a major water-use component that affect streamflow, but the ability of surface-water models to simulate ground-water withdrawals is limited. As part of a Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) precipitation-runoff model developed to analyze the effect of ground-water and surface-water withdrawals on streamflow in the Ipswich River in northeastern Massachusetts, an analytical technique (STRMDEPL) was developed for calculating the effects of pumped wells on streamflow. STRMDEPL is a FORTRAN program based on two analytical solutions that solve equations for ground-water flow to a well completed in a semi-infinite, homogeneous, and isotropic aquifer in direct hydraulic connection to a fully penetrating stream. One analytical method calculates unimpeded flow at the stream-aquifer boundary and the other method calculates the resistance to flow caused by semipervious streambed and streambank material. The principle of superposition is used with these analytical equations to calculate time-varying streamflow depletions due to daily pumping. The HSPF model can readily incorporate streamflow depletions caused by a well or surface-water withdrawal, or by multiple wells or surface-water withdrawals, or both, as a combined time-varying outflow demand from affected channel reaches. These demands are stored as a time series in the Watershed Data Management (WDM) file. This time-series data is read into the model as an external source used to specify flow from the first outflow gate in the reach where these withdrawals are located. Although the STRMDEPL program can be run independently of the HSPF model, an extension was developed to run this program within GenScn, a scenario generator and graphical user interface developed for use with the HSPF model. This extension requires that actual pumping rates for each well be stored

  1. Effects of changes in seasonal precipitation in Catskill Mountain region on NYC water supply system management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matonse, A. H.; Pierson, D. C.; Frei, A.; Zion, M.; Mukundan, R.

    2010-12-01

    Simulated future air temperature and precipitation derived from General Circulation Models (GCMs) are used as input to the Generalized Watershed Loading Functions - Variable Source Area (GWLF-VSA) watershed model to simulate future inflows to reservoirs that are part of the New York City Water Supply System (NYCWSS). This ongoing study focuses on the effect of projected changes in temperature and rainfall in the Catskill Mountain region and consequent changes in snow accumulation, snowmelt and the timing of runoff on NYC water supply system storage and operation as simulated by the NYC reservoir system OASIS model. Future scenarios that use current system operation rules and demands, but changed reservoir inflows, suggest that changes in precipitation and snowmelt in this region will affect water availability on a seasonal basis. Despite increased evapotranspiration during non-winter periods, greater runoff earlier in the winter period leads to a reduction in the number of days the system is under drought conditions, and earlier reservoir refill in the spring. Since reservoir storage levels fill up earlier in winter, total volume of water releases and spills also appear to increase during the winter. Of importance is how much (if any) indication of this possible future trend is already captured in current observations and at what level these changes will require operation rules to be adjusted in order to continue to achieve the management objectives of the system.

  2. Determination of trifluoroacetic acid in 1996--1997 precipitation and surface waters in California and Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wujcik, C.E.; Cahill, T.M.; Seiber, J.N.

    1999-05-15

    The atmospheric degradation of three chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) replacement compounds, namely HFC-134a, HCFC-123, and HCFC-124, results in the formation of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Concentrations of TFA were determined in precipitation and surface water samples collected in California and Nevada during 1996--1997. Terminal lake systems were found to have concentrations 4--13 times higher than their calculated yearly inputs, providing evidence for accumulation. The results support dry deposition as the primary contributor of TFA to surface waters in arid and semiarid environments. Precipitation samples obtained from three different locations contained 20.7--1530 ng/L with significantly higher concentrations in fogwater over rainwater. Elevated levels of TFA were observed for rainwater collected in Nevada over those collected in California, indicating continual uptake and concentration as clouds move from a semiarid to arid climate. Thus several mechanisms exist, including evaporative concentration, vapor-liquid phase partitioning, lowered washout volumes of atmospheric deposition water, and dry deposition, which may lead to elevated concentrations of TFA in atmospheric and surface waters above levels expected from usual rainfall washout.

  3. Contrasting precipitation seasonality influences evapotranspiration dynamics in water-limited shrublands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarreal, Samuel; Vargas, Rodrigo; Yepez, Enrico A.; Acosta, Jose S.; Castro, Angel; Escoto-Rodriguez, Martin; Lopez, Eulogio; Martínez-Osuna, Juan; Rodriguez, Julio C.; Smith, Stephen V.; Vivoni, Enrique R.; Watts, Christopher J.

    2016-02-01

    Water-limited ecosystems occupy nearly 30% of the Earth, but arguably, the controls on their ecosystem processes remain largely uncertain. We analyzed six site years of eddy covariance measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) from 2008 to 2010 at two water-limited shrublands: one dominated by winter precipitation (WP site) and another dominated by summer precipitation (SP site), but with similar solar radiation patterns in the Northern Hemisphere. We determined how physical forcing factors (i.e., net radiation (Rn), soil water content (SWC), air temperature (Ta), and vapor pressure deficit (VPD)) influence annual and seasonal variability of ET. Mean annual ET at SP site was 455 ± 91 mm yr-1, was mainly influenced by SWC during the dry season, by Rn during the wet season, and was highly sensitive to changes in annual precipitation (P). Mean annual ET at WP site was 363 ± 52 mm yr-1, had less interannual variability, but multiple variables (i.e., SWC, Ta, VPD, and Rn) were needed to explain ET among years and seasons. Wavelet coherence analysis showed that ET at SP site has a consistent temporal coherency with Ta and P, but this was not the case for ET at WP site. Our results support the paradigm that SWC is the main control of ET in water-limited ecosystems when radiation and temperature are not the limiting factors. In contrast, when P and SWC are decoupled from available energy (i.e., radiation and temperature), then ET is controlled by an interaction of multiple variables. Our results bring attention to the need for better understanding how climate and soil dynamics influence ET across these globally distributed ecosystems.

  4. Precipitation and river water chemistry of the Piracicaba River basin, southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Williams, M R; Filoso, S; Martinelli, L A; Lara, L B; Camargo, P B

    2001-01-01

    Annual precipitation and river water volumes and chemistry were measured from 1995 to 1998 in a mesoscale agricultural area of southeast Brazil. Precipitation was mildly acidic and solute concentrations were higher in the west than in the east of the basin. Combustion products from biomass burning, automobile exhaust, and industry typically accumulate in the atmosphere from March until October and are responsible for seasonal differences observed in precipitation chemistry. In river waters, the volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of major solutes at 10 sites across the basin were generally lower at upriver than at downriver sampling sites for most solutes. Mass balances for major solutes indicate that, as a regional entity, the Piracicaba River basin was a net sink of H+, PO4(3-), and NH4+, and a net source of other solutes. The main stem of the Piracicaba River had a general increase in solute concentrations from upriver to downriver sampling sites. In contrast, NO3- and NH4+ concentrations increased in the mid-reach sampling sites and decreased due to immobilization or utilization in the mid-reach reservoir, and there was denitrification immediately downriver of this reservoir. Compared with tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay estuary, the Piracicaba River is affected more by point-source inputs of raw sewage and industrial wastes than nonpoint agricultural runoff high in N and P. Inputs of N and C are responsible for a degradation of water quality at downriver sampling sites of the Piracicaba River drainage, and water quality could be considerably improved by augmenting sewage treatment.

  5. Soil Water Balance and Water Use Efficiency of Dryland Wheat in Different Precipitation Years in Response to Green Manure Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dabin; Yao, Pengwei; Na, Zhao; Cao, Weidong; Zhang, Suiqi; Li, Yangyang; Gao, Yajun

    2016-05-01

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) monoculture is conventionally cultivated followed by two to three months of summer fallow in the Loess Plateau. To develop a sustainable cropping system, we conducted a six-year field experiment to investigate the effect of leguminous green manure (LGM) instead of bare fallow on the yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat and the soil water balance (SWB) in different precipitation years in a semi-arid region of northwest China. Results confirmed that planting LGM crop consumes soil water in the fallow season can bring varied effects to the subsequent wheat. The effect is positive or neutral when the annual precipitation is adequate, so that there is no significant reduction in the soil water supplied to wheat. If this is not the case, the effect is negative. On average, the LGM crop increased wheat yield and WUE by 13% and 28%, respectively, and had considerable potential for maintaining the SWB (0–200 cm) compared with fallow management. In conclusion, cultivation of the LGM crop is a better option than fallow to improve the productivity and WUE of the next crop and maintain the soil water balance in the normal and wet years in the Loess Plateau.

  6. Soil Water Balance and Water Use Efficiency of Dryland Wheat in Different Precipitation Years in Response to Green Manure Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dabin; Yao, Pengwei; Na, Zhao; Cao, Weidong; Zhang, Suiqi; Li, Yangyang; Gao, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) monoculture is conventionally cultivated followed by two to three months of summer fallow in the Loess Plateau. To develop a sustainable cropping system, we conducted a six-year field experiment to investigate the effect of leguminous green manure (LGM) instead of bare fallow on the yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat and the soil water balance (SWB) in different precipitation years in a semi-arid region of northwest China. Results confirmed that planting LGM crop consumes soil water in the fallow season can bring varied effects to the subsequent wheat. The effect is positive or neutral when the annual precipitation is adequate, so that there is no significant reduction in the soil water supplied to wheat. If this is not the case, the effect is negative. On average, the LGM crop increased wheat yield and WUE by 13% and 28%, respectively, and had considerable potential for maintaining the SWB (0-200 cm) compared with fallow management. In conclusion, cultivation of the LGM crop is a better option than fallow to improve the productivity and WUE of the next crop and maintain the soil water balance in the normal and wet years in the Loess Plateau. PMID:27225842

  7. Soil Water Balance and Water Use Efficiency of Dryland Wheat in Different Precipitation Years in Response to Green Manure Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dabin; Yao, Pengwei; Na, Zhao; Cao, Weidong; Zhang, Suiqi; Li, Yangyang; Gao, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) monoculture is conventionally cultivated followed by two to three months of summer fallow in the Loess Plateau. To develop a sustainable cropping system, we conducted a six-year field experiment to investigate the effect of leguminous green manure (LGM) instead of bare fallow on the yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat and the soil water balance (SWB) in different precipitation years in a semi-arid region of northwest China. Results confirmed that planting LGM crop consumes soil water in the fallow season can bring varied effects to the subsequent wheat. The effect is positive or neutral when the annual precipitation is adequate, so that there is no significant reduction in the soil water supplied to wheat. If this is not the case, the effect is negative. On average, the LGM crop increased wheat yield and WUE by 13% and 28%, respectively, and had considerable potential for maintaining the SWB (0–200 cm) compared with fallow management. In conclusion, cultivation of the LGM crop is a better option than fallow to improve the productivity and WUE of the next crop and maintain the soil water balance in the normal and wet years in the Loess Plateau. PMID:27225842

  8. Estimating Ground-Water Recharge from Precipitation on Whidbey and Camano Islands, Island County, Washington, Water Years 1998 and 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumioka, S.S.; Bauer, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    Ground-water recharge from precipitation to unconsolidated deposits on Whidbey and Camano Islands, Washington, was estimated for water years 1998-99 using a near-surface water-balance method and a chloride mass-balance method. A daily near-surface water-balance method, the Deep Percolation Model (DPM), was used to simulate water budgets for October 1, 1997 through September 30, 1999 (water years 1998-99) for six small drainage basins?four on Whidbey Island and two on Camano Island. Adjusted parameters from the DPM for each small basin were then used in island-wide DPM simulations. A spatial distribution of annual recharge was simulated for each island, with island averages of 5.71 inches per year for Whidbey Island and 5.98 inches per year for Camano Island. The spatial distribution of simulated annual recharge for each island reflects variations in precipitation amounts and the distribution of surficial materials. DPM results indicate that recharge generally is higher in areas underlain by coarse-grained deposits (outwash) than in areas underlain by fine-grained deposits (till). A chloride mass-balance method was used to estimate combined recharge to unconsolidated deposits on Whidbey and Camano Islands. The average combined recharge for Whidbey and Camano Islands estimated by this method was 2.00 inches per year. The range of chloride concentrations in ground-water samples from selected wells indicates that the average recharge to unconsolidated deposits ranges from 0.78 to 7.81 inches per year. Sources of chloride in ground water other than from the atmosphere would cause recharge estimated by the chloride mass-balance method to be less than the actual recharge, therefore, these estimates may represent lower limits.

  9. Precipitation and the transfer of water, nutrients and pollutants in tree canopies.

    PubMed

    McCune, D C; Boyce, R L

    1992-01-01

    The functioning of a forest community depends upon the routes, rates and transformations of material flowing through it. The canopy's interaction with precipitation can result in the interception of rainfall and the scavenging of water from clouds and fog. But this movement of water through the canopy also mediates the transfer of mineral nutrients and the deposition of some atmospheric pollutants. The past decade has seen the development of increasingly complex models of transfer processes in the canopy and new methodologies for studying them. One impulse for these advances has been the need to understand not only the movement of water, nutrients and pollutants but also their reciprocal effects. Another has been the need to evaluate the nature of pollutant-induced effects with respect to the costs and effectiveness of possible remedies.

  10. Implications of Changes in Precipitation Amount and Pattern for Water Resources: Global Study of Rainwater Harvesting Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadieh, B.; Krakauer, N.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is expected to change the distribution, frequency and intensity of precipitation events, which can affect the reliability of renewable water resources. We compare the historical (1951-2010) changes in annual-mean and annual-maximum daily precipitation in a global set of weather station observations (GHCN-Daily) and bias-corrected precipitation projections of 5 global climate models from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP), temporally and spatially subsampling the models as observations, and develop the study to the period 2011-2099 for model projections under the RCP8.5 forcing scenario. We also develop a Rainwater Harvesting System (RWHS) model and drive it with observational and modeled daily precipitation data to study the changes in reliability of the RWHS for each station in order to study the impact of changes in precipitation pattern on reliability of precipitation-based water supply. Results show that historical mean and maximum precipitation has increased at a rate of 7.64 and 10.14 % per K global warming, respectively, which is higher than the subsampled ISI-MIP models' average trends of 1.36 and 7.34 % per K, respectively. Despite the faster increase in maximum precipitation than mean precipitation, the reliability of the RWHS driven by observed precipitation has increased by an average of 0.2% per decade over 1951-2010. By contrast, all 5 ISI-MIP model daily precipitation series imply decreases in mean reliability over the station locations, for an average 0.15% per decade decrease over 1951-2010. By scaling the decadal precipitation to the initial decade's average, to factor out the impact of change in precipitation amount on the RWHS reliability, observations show an average 0.11%/decade increase while models show an average 0.13%/decade decrease in the reliability. Our results show that, compared to station observations, climate models underestimate the increasing trends in mean and maximum precipitation

  11. Precipitation and Topography as Drivers of Tree Water Use and Productivity at Multiple Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. T.; Hu, J.; Looker, N. T.; Jencso, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    Water is commonly the primary limiting factor for tree growth in semi-arid regions of the Western U.S. and tree productivity can vary drastically across landscapes as a function of water availability. The role of topography as a first order control on soil and ground water has been well studied; however, the strategies trees use to cope with water limitation in different landscape positions and across time remain unclear. As growing seasons progress, the availability of water changes temporally, as water inputs transition from snowmelt to rainfall, and spatially, as divergent positions dry more than convergent ones. We seek to understand how the interaction of these processes dictate where trees access water and which strategies most successfully avert water limitation of growth. We take advantage of clear differences in the isotopic signatures of snow and summer rain to track water utilized by Douglas fir, Ponderosa pine, Subalpine fir, Engelmann spruce, and Western larch in both convergent and divergent landscape positions and across time. We couple these data with evidence of growth limitation inferred from reductions in lateral growth rates observed by continuous dendrometer measurements to link tree water use and productivity. Xylem waters reflect both the precipitation type and soil profile distribution of water used by trees for growth and dendrometer measurements reflect the effects of water limitation through changes in the lateral growth curve as soil moistures decline. Isotope signatures from rain, snow and stream water fell predictably along the local meteoric water line with values from xylem samples falling between those of rain and snow. Trees on southern aspects exhibit more growth limitation in divergent than convergent positions while this effect appears muted or non-existent on northern aspects. Trees in convergent hollow positions rely more on snow water while trees on slopes utilize more rain water. Surprisingly, trees at lower elevation rely

  12. Are the earthquakes of Central Virginia influenced by underground water fed by precipitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muco, B.

    2012-12-01

    Even though Central Virginia is far from the nearest plate boundaries, the zone is well-known for frequent small-to-moderate shocks that have occurred since at least 18th century. People in central Virginia have felt small earthquakes and suffered damage from infrequent larger ones. The largest damaging earthquake (magnitude 5.8) in this seismic zone occurred in August 2011. Smaller earthquakes that cause little or no damage are felt each year or two. It is difficult to link the earthquakes of this zone to known small faults which are numerous, deeply buried and which don't show up at the surface. The mean earthquake depth since 1960 is 6.7 km. On the other hand, Central Virginia is a big collector and transporter of the precipitation water which run for the Atlantic Ocean through James River and its tributaries. There are about 2,000 abandoned mine lands sites in Virginia which with their underground opening can facilitate the interception and conveying of surface water. Looking for a correlation between earthquake time series for Central Virginia and monthly precipitation series for some hydrometeorological stations of the zone, we got that the best cross-correlation is obtained for a time log of three months. This time period approximately three months, has been observed also in the case of some historical earthquakes which have occurred preceded by large amount of precipitation. A good cross-correlations results also matching earthquake time series with levels of James River and Rivanna River. These results support the hydroseismicity hypothesis which suggests the role of water in the generation of intraplate seismicity

  13. Application of pulsed spark discharge for calcium carbonate precipitation in hard water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Kim, Hyoungsup; Starikovskiy, Andrey; Fridman, Alexander; Cho, Young I

    2010-06-01

    The effect of underwater pulsed spark discharge on the precipitation of dissolved calcium ions was investigated in the present study. Water samples with different calcium hardness were prepared by continuous evaporation of tap water using a laboratory cooling tower. It was shown that the concentration of calcium ions dropped by 20-26% after 10-min plasma treatment, comparing with no drop for untreated cases. A laser particle counting method demonstrated that the total number of solid particles suspended in water increased by over 100% after the plasma treatment. The morphology and the crystal form of the particles were identified by both scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Calcite with rhombohedron morphology was observed for plasma treated cases, comparing with the round structure observed for no-treatment cases. It was hypothesized that the main mechanisms for the plasma-assisted calcium carbonate precipitation might include electrolysis, local heating in the vicinity of plasma channel and a high electric field at the tip of plasma streamers, inducing structural changes in the electric double layer of hydrated ions. PMID:20494397

  14. Wet Tropospheric Zenith Delay and Precipitable Water Vapor Estimated From Radiosonde Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, Ilke; Mekik, Cetin

    2014-05-01

    Continuously Operating GPS Networks are being used for meteorological and climate research. The wet tropospheric zenith delays derived from these networks are converted to the precipitable water vapour. Thus, an important data is produced for the development of numerical models of the tropospheric zenith delay and the precipitable water vapor for local, regional and global areas and for the meteorology and climate research. The radiosonde observation data and the results derived from them are taken as references for the determination of accurate and reliable transformation parameters between the wet tropospheric zenith delay and the precipitable water vapor. In this study, an algorithm is developed using Matlab to calculate the values of the weighted mean temperature (Tm), the wet tropospheric zenith delay, and the precipitable water vapor from the parameters of radiosonde profile data such as height (h), temperature (T), dew point temperature (Td), pressure (p) and humidity (H). The results of the algorithm using the parameters from Istanbul, Ankara, Diyarbakir and Samsun radiosonde stations are also given. The radiosonde temperature profile values are modelled using polynomial by the least squares method, because it is easy to integrate the polynomial as a function of height. The degree of the polynomial is taken as 5-8 and the precision of modelling depending on the amount of water vapor is found ±0.1-2.0 K. In addition, the surface temperature (Ts) is obtained by using estimated temperature values. The values of water vapor pressure (e), one of the most important parameter in the meteorological research, are calculated by Tetens equations for water and ice separately. In this calculation, the values of wet bulb temperature (Tw) are found by using iteration from the model given by Danish Meteorological Institute. Henceforth, the values of (e/T) and (e/T2) are modelled as a function of height using the polynomial again. Definite integrals are calculated from the

  15. Dispersion-precipitation synthesis of nanosized magnetic iron oxide for efficient removal of arsenite in water.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Xu, Jing; Wang, Yajie; Wu, Feng; Xu, Xiuyan; Li, Jinjun

    2015-05-01

    Nanosized magnetic iron oxide was facilely synthesized by a dispersion-precipitation method, which involved acetone-promoted precipitation of colloidal hydrous iron oxide nanoparticles and subsequent calcination of the precipitate at 250°C. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, nitrogen sorption, and vibrating-sample magnetometry revealed that the material was a composite of α-Fe2O3 and γ-Fe2O3 with primary particle size of 15-25 nm and specific surface area of 121 m(2)/g, as well as superparamagnetic property. The material was used as adsorbent for the removal of arsenite in water. Batch experiments showed that the adsorption isotherms at pH 3.0-11.0 fit the Langmuir equation and the adsorption obeys pseudo-second-order kinetics. Its maximum sorption capability for arsenite is 46.5 mg/g at pH 7.0. Coexisting nitrate, carbonate, sulfate, chloride, and fluoride have no significant effect on the removal efficiency of arsenite, while phosphate and silicate reduce the removal efficiency to some extent. The As(III) removal mechanism is chemisorption through forming inner-sphere surface complexes. The efficiency of arsenic removal is still maintained after five cycles of regeneration-reuse. PMID:25612934

  16. Atmospheric water vapor transport: Estimation of continental precipitation recycling and parameterization of a simple climate model. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brubaker, Kaye L.; Entekhabi, Dara; Eagleson, Peter S.

    1991-01-01

    The advective transport of atmospheric water vapor and its role in global hydrology and the water balance of continental regions are discussed and explored. The data set consists of ten years of global wind and humidity observations interpolated onto a regular grid by objective analysis. Atmospheric water vapor fluxes across the boundaries of selected continental regions are displayed graphically. The water vapor flux data are used to investigate the sources of continental precipitation. The total amount of water that precipitates on large continental regions is supplied by two mechanisms: (1) advection from surrounding areas external to the region; and (2) evaporation and transpiration from the land surface recycling of precipitation over the continental area. The degree to which regional precipitation is supplied by recycled moisture is a potentially significant climate feedback mechanism and land surface-atmosphere interaction, which may contribute to the persistence and intensification of droughts. A simplified model of the atmospheric moisture over continents and simultaneous estimates of regional precipitation are employed to estimate, for several large continental regions, the fraction of precipitation that is locally derived. In a separate, but related, study estimates of ocean to land water vapor transport are used to parameterize an existing simple climate model, containing both land and ocean surfaces, that is intended to mimic the dynamics of continental climates.

  17. Fine-Scale Spatial Variability of Precipitation, Soil, and Plant Water Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, G. R.; Braun, S.; Romero, C.; Engbersen, N.; Gessler, A.; Siegwolf, R. T.; Schmid, L.

    2015-12-01

    Introduction: The measurement of stable isotope ratios of water has become fundamental in advancing our understanding of environmental patterns and processes, particularly with respect to understanding the movement of water within the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. While considerable research has explored the temporal variation in stable isotope ratios of water in the environment, our understanding of the spatial variability of these isotopes remains poorly understood. Methods: We collected spatially explicit samples of throughfall and soil water (n=150 locations) from a 1 ha plot delineated in a mixed deciduous forest in the northern Alps of Switzerland. We complemented this with fully sunlit branch and leaf samples (n = 60 individuals) collected from Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica between 14:00 and 16:00 on the same day by means of a helicopter. Soil and plant waters were extracted using cryogenic vacuum distillation and all samples were analyzed for δ18O using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Results: The mean δ18O of throughfall (-3.3 ± 0.8‰) indicated some evaporative enrichment associated with passage through the canopy, but this did not significantly differ from the precipitation collected in nearby open sites (-4.05‰). However, soil was depleted (-7.0 ± 1.8‰) compared to throughfall and there was no significant relationship between the two, suggesting that the sampling for precipitation inputs did not capture all the sources (e.g. stream water, which was -11.5‰) contributing to soil water δ18O ratios. Evaporative enrichment of δ18O was higher in leaves of Fagus (14.8 ± 1.8‰) than in leaves of Picea (11.8 ± 1.7‰). Sampling within crowns of each species (n = 5 branches each from 5 individuals) indicated that variability in a single individual is similar to that among individuals. Discussion: Stable isotopes of water are frequently engaged for studies of ecohydrology, plant ecophysiology, and paleoclimatology. Our results help

  18. The Alaska Water Isotope Network (AKWIN): Precipitation, lake, river and stream dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, M.; Welker, J. M.; Toohey, R.

    2011-12-01

    The hydrologic cycle is central to the structure and function of northern landscapes. The movement of water creates interactions between terrestrial, aquatic, marine and atmospheric processes. Understanding the processes and the spatial patterns that govern the isotopic (δ18O & δD) characteristics of the hydrologic cycle is especially important today as: a) modern climate/weather-isotope relations allow for more accurate interpretation of climate proxies and the calibration of atmospheric models, b) water isotopes facilitate understanding the role of storm tracks in regulating precipitation isotopic variability, c) water isotopes allow for estimates of glacial melt water inputs into aquatic systems, d) water isotopes allow for quantification of surface and groundwater interactions, e) water isotopes allow for quantification of permafrost meltwater use by plant communities, f) water isotopes aid in migratory bird forensics, g) water isotopes are critical to estimating field metabolic rates, h) water isotopes allow for crop and diet forensics and i) water isotopes can provide insight into evaporation and transpiration processes. As part of a new NSF MRI project at the Environment and Natural Resources Institute (ENRI) at the University of Alaska Anchorage and as an extension of the US Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (USNIP); we are forming AKWIN. The network will utilize long-term weekly sampling at Denali National Park and Caribou Poker Creek Watershed (USNIP sites-1989 to present), regular sampling across Alaska involving land management agencies (USGS, NPS, USFWS, EPA), educators, volunteers and citizen scientists, UA extended campuses, individual research projects, opportunistic sampling and published data to construct isoscapes and time series databases and information packages. We will be using a suite of spatial and temporal analysis methods to characterize water isotopes across Alaska and will provide web portals for data products. Our network is

  19. Inter-comparison of precipitable water among reanalyses and its effect on downscaling in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, H. G.; Fujita, M.; Hara, M.

    2012-12-01

    This paper compared precipitable water (PW) among four major reanalyses. In addition, we also investigated the effect of the boundary conditions on downscaling in the tropics, using a regional climate model. The spatial pattern of PW in the reanalyses agreed closely with observations. However, the absolute amounts of PW in some reanalyses were very small compared to observations. The discrepancies of the 12-year mean PW in July over the Southeast Asian monsoon region exceeded the inter-annual standard deviation of the PW. There was also a discrepancy in tropical PWs throughout the year, an indication that the problem is not regional, but global. The downscaling experiments were conducted, which were forced by the different four reanalyses. The atmospheric circulation, including monsoon westerlies and various disturbances, was very small among the reanalyses. However, simulated precipitation was only 60 % of observed precipitation, although the dry bias in the boundary conditions was only 6 %. This result indicates that dry bias has large effects on precipitation in downscaling over the tropics. This suggests that a simulated regional climate downscaled from ensemble-mean boundary conditions is quite different from an ensemble-mean regional climate averaged over the several regional ones downscaled from boundary conditions of the ensemble members in the tropics. Downscaled models can provide realistic simulations of regional tropical climates only if the boundary conditions include realistic absolute amounts of PW. Use of boundary conditions that include realistic absolute amounts of PW in downscaling in the tropics is imperative at the present time. This work was partly supported by the Global Environment Research Fund (RFa-1101) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan.

  20. Atmospheric Precipitable Water and its association with Surface Air Temperatures over Different Climate Regims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, H.; Fetzer, E. J.; Olsene, E. T.; Granger, S. L.; Kahn, B. H.; Fishbein, E. F.; Chen, L.; Teixeira, J.; Lambrigtsen, B. H.

    2008-12-01

    As a greenhouse gas and a key component in the hydrologic cycle, atmospheric water vapor is very important in the earth's climate system. The relationship between air temperature and water vapor content at the surface and in different layers of the atmosphere have been examined in many studies in trying to better understand the magnitude of water vapor feedback in our climate system. Studies have found large spatial variability and large regional and vertical deviations from the Clapeyron-Clausius relation of constant relative humidity. However, there is an ongoing need to understand the climatology of the relationship between the surface air temperature and total column water vapor, and to examine any potential thresholds associated with sudden changes in this relationship as air temperatures continue to increase. This study uses 5-year total precipitable water vapor records measured by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounders (AIRS) and surface air temperature to examine their relationships at tropical to mid latitude conditions found at 60°S- 60°N for winter and summer seasons. In addition, the relationships will be examined for different climate regimes based on Koppen's system. This will help distinguish the geographical regions and physical processes where different relationships are found. This information will improve our understanding of the regional patterns of water vapor feedback associated with warming climate.

  1. A COMPARISON OF FOUR METHODS FOR DETERMINING PRECIPITABLE WATER VAPOR CONTENT FROM MULTI-SPECTRAL DATA

    SciTech Connect

    K. HIRSCH; ET AL

    2001-03-01

    Determining columnar water vapor is a fundamental problem in remote sensing. This measurement is important both for understanding atmospheric variability and also from removing atmospheric effects from remotely sensed data. Therefore discovering a reliable and if possible automated method for determining water vapor column abundance is important. There are two standard methods for determining precipitable water vapor during the daytime from multi-spectral data. The first method is the Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) (see for example King et al. 1996). This method assumes a baseline and measures the depth of a water vapor feature as compared to this baseline. The second method is the Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption technique (APDA) (see Schlaepfer et al. 1998); this method accounts for the path radiance contribution to the top of atmosphere radiance measurement which is increasingly important at lower and lower reflectance values. We have also developed two methods of modifying CIBR. We use a simple curve fitting procedure to account for and remove any systematic errors due to low reflectance while still preserving the random spread of the CIBR values as a function of surface reflectance. We also have developed a two-dimensional look-up table for CIBR; CIBR using this technique is a function of both water vapor (as with all CIBR techniques) and surface reflectance. Here we use data recently acquired with the Multi-spectral Thermal Imager spacecraft (MTI) to compare these four methods of determining columnar water vapor content.

  2. The Precipitation Behavior of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs with an Emphasis on the Digestion of Lipid Based Formulations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Jamal; Rades, Thomas; Boyd, Ben

    2016-03-01

    An increasing number of newly discovered drugs are poorly water-soluble and the use of natural and synthetic lipids to improve the oral bioavailability of these drugs by utilizing the digestion pathway in-vivo has proved an effective formulation strategy. The mechanisms responsible for lipid digestion and drug solubilisation during gastrointestinal transit have been explored in detail, but the implications of drug precipitation beyond the potential adverse effect on bioavailability have received attention only in recent years. Specifically, these implications are that different solid forms of drug on precipitation may affect the total amount of drug absorbed in-vivo through their different physico-chemical properties, and the possibility that the dynamic environment of the small intestine may afford re-dissolution of precipitated drug if present in a high-energy form. This review describes the events that lead to drug precipitation during the dispersion and digestion of lipid based formulations, common methods used to inhibit precipitation, as well as conventional and newly emerging characterization techniques for studying the solid state form of the precipitated drug. Moreover, selected case studies are discussed where drug precipitation has ensued from the digestion of lipid based formulations, as well as the apparent link between drug ionisability and altered solid forms on precipitation, culminating in a discussion about the importance of the solid form on precipitation with relevance to the total drug absorbed.

  3. Simulation of Water Sources and Precipitation Recycling for the MacKenzie, Mississippi and Amazon River Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Chern, Jiun-Dar

    2005-01-01

    An atmospheric general circulation model simulation for 1948-1997 of the water budgets for the MacKenzie, Mississippi and Amazon River basins is presented. In addition to the water budget, we include passive tracers to identify the geographic sources of water for the basins, and the analysis focuses on the mechanisms contributing to precipitation recycling in each basin. While each basin s precipitation recycling has a strong dependency on evaporation during the mean annual cycle, the interannual variability of the recycling shows important relationships with the atmospheric circulation. The MacKenzie River basin has only a weak interannual dependency on evaporation, where the variations in zonal moisture transport from the Pacific Ocean can affect the basin water cycle. On the other hand, the Mississippi River basin has strong interannual dependencies on evaporation. While the precipitation recycling weakens with increased low level jet intensity, the evaporation variations exert stronger influence in providing water vapor for convective precipitation at the convective cloud base. High precipitation recycling is also found to be partly connected to warm SSTs in the tropical Pacific Ocean. The Amazon River basin evaporation exhibits small interannual variations, so that the interannual variations of precipitation recycling are related to atmospheric moisture transport from the tropical south Atlantic Ocean. Increasing SSTs over the 50-year period are causing increased easterly transport across the basin. As moisture transport increases, the Amazon precipitation recycling decreases (without real time varying vegetation changes). In addition, precipitation recycling from a bulk diagnostic method is compared to the passive tracer method used in the analysis. While the mean values are different, the interannual variations are comparable between each method. The methods also exhibit similar relationships to the terms of the basin scale water budgets.

  4. Physicochemical characteristics of drip waters: Influence on mineralogy and crystal morphology of recent cave carbonate precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, Sylvia; Schröder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Wassenburg, Jasper A.; Schreuer, Jürgen; Richter, Detlev K.; Riechelmann, Dana F. C.; Terente, Mihai; Constantin, Silviu; Mangini, Augusto; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2014-11-01

    Speleothems are one of the most intensively explored continental archives for palaeoclimate variability. The parameters, however, that control speleothem petrography and its changes with time and space, specifically calcite crystal morphology and carbonate mineralogy, are still poorly understood. In order to shed light on processes and their products, precipitation experiments of recent carbonate crystals on watch glasses and glass plates were performed in seven selected caves. Drip water sites were analysed for their fluid Mg/Ca molar ratio, pH, degree of saturation for calcite and aragonite and drip rates. Corresponding precipitates were analysed with respect to their mineralogy, calcite crystal morphology and Mg/Ca molar ratio of calcite. The following results are found: High fluid Mg/Ca ratios are found only for caves situated in dolostone, thus the hostrock lithology indirectly controls the carbonate mineralogy and calcite crystal morphology of speleothems. The precipitation of aragonite in place of calcite occurred only in dolostone caves and is bound to very specific conditions. These are: high fluid Mg/Ca ratios (⩾0.5), high fluid pH (>8.2) and low fluid saturation indices for calcite (<0.8). These specific conditions are induced by slow drip rates of <0.2 ml/min as often under more arid conditions, causing the precipitation of calcite/aragonite prior to reaching the stalagmite top. Due to this, fluid chemistry is altered, which in turn leads to changes in carbonate mineralogy and geochemistry on the stalagmite top. Calcite growth is inhibited at high fluid Mg/Ca ratios and hence, aragonite precipitation is kinetically stabilised. An increase of the drip water Mg/Ca ratio leads to an increased incorporation of Mg2+ into the calcite crystal lattice and thus, to a change in calcite crystal morphology. Four distinctive changes occur with increasing Mg2+ incorporation: (i) development of new forms (steeper rhombohedra and base pinacoid) at the edges and

  5. Statistical relation between monthly mean precipitable water and surface-level humidity over global oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    Monthly summaries of atmospheric soundings taken over 17 years from 49 midocean stations at small islands and weather ships distributed over major oceans are examined. Over tropical oceans, precipitable water is found to be a better predictor of surface-level humidity than surface-level air temperature. A statistical relation in the form of a polynomial is derived; from this relation, the monthly-mean, surface-level mixing ratio can be computed from monthly-mean precipitable water. The root-mean-square differences between the measured and derived values were found to be less than 8 x 10 to the -4th over most ocean areas. Such a relation is useful in deriving large-scale evaporation and latent heat flux data from the ocean, using spaceborne observations. The temporal and spatial variabilities of data deviations from this relation are examined. This relation is found to be applicable to all major ocean basins and can be used to monitor interannual variability. Boundary-layer thermodynamics of different air masses are suggested as an explanation of some characteristics of this relation.

  6. Faulting induced by precipitation of water at grain boundaries in hot subducting oceanic crust.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng; Green, Harry W; Bozhilov, Krassimir; Jin, Zhenmin

    2004-04-01

    Dehydration embrittlement has been proposed to explain both intermediate- and deep-focus earthquakes in subduction zones. Because such earthquakes primarily occur at shallow depths or within the core of the subducting plate, dehydration at relatively low temperatures has been emphasized. However, recent careful relocation of subduction-zone earthquakes shows that at depths of 100-250 km, earthquakes continue in the uppermost part of the slab (probably the former oceanic crust that has been converted to eclogite) where temperatures are higher. Here we show that at such pressures and temperatures, eclogite lacking hydrous phases but with significant hydroxyl incorporated as defects in pyroxene and garnet develops a faulting instability associated with precipitation of water at grain boundaries and the production of very small amounts of melt. This new faulting mechanism satisfactorily explains high-temperature earthquakes in subducting oceanic crust and could potentially be involved in much deeper earthquakes in connection with similar precipitation of water in the mantle transition zone (400-700 km depth). Of potential importance for all proposed high-pressure earthquake mechanisms is the very small amount of fluid required to trigger this instability.

  7. Attribution of the United States "warming hole": aerosol indirect effect and precipitable water vapor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shaocai; Alapaty, Kiran; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Zhang, Yuanhang; Nolte, Chris; Eder, Brian; Foley, Kristen; Nagashima, Tatsuya

    2014-11-06

    Aerosols can influence the climate indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and/or ice nuclei, thereby modifying cloud optical properties. In contrast to the widespread global warming, the central and south central United States display a noteworthy overall cooling trend during the 20(th) century, with an especially striking cooling trend in summertime daily maximum temperature (Tmax) (termed the U.S. "warming hole"). Here we used observations of temperature, shortwave cloud forcing (SWCF), longwave cloud forcing (LWCF), aerosol optical depth and precipitable water vapor as well as global coupled climate models to explore the attribution of the "warming hole". We find that the observed cooling trend in summer Tmax can be attributed mainly to SWCF due to aerosols with offset from the greenhouse effect of precipitable water vapor. A global coupled climate model reveals that the observed "warming hole" can be produced only when the aerosol fields are simulated with a reasonable degree of accuracy as this is necessary for accurate simulation of SWCF over the region. These results provide compelling evidence of the role of the aerosol indirect effect in cooling regional climate on the Earth. Our results reaffirm that LWCF can warm both winter Tmax and Tmin.

  8. Discussion of band selection and methodologies for the estimation of precipitable water vapour from AVIRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schanzer, Dena; Staenz, Karl

    1992-01-01

    An Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data set acquired over Canal Flats, B.C., on 14 Aug. 1990, was used for the purpose of developing methodologies for surface reflectance retrieval using the 5S atmospheric code. A scene of Rogers Dry Lake, California (23 Jul. 1990), acquired within three weeks of the Canal Flats scene, was used as a potential reference for radiometric calibration purposes and for comparison with other studies using primarily LOWTRAN7. Previous attempts at surface reflectance retrieval indicated that reflectance values in the gaseous absorption bands had the poorest accuracy. Modifications to 5S to use 1 nm step size, in order to make fuller use of the 20 cm(sup -1) resolution of the gaseous absorption data, resulted in some improvement in the accuracy of the retrieved surface reflectance. Estimates of precipitable water vapor using non-linear least squares regression and simple ratioing techniques such as the CIBR (Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio) technique or the narrow/wide technique, which relate ratios of combinations of bands to precipitable water vapor through calibration curves, were found to vary widely. The estimates depended on the bands used for the estimation; none provided entirely satisfactory surface reflectance curves.

  9. Attribution of the United States "warming hole": aerosol indirect effect and precipitable water vapor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shaocai; Alapaty, Kiran; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Zhang, Yuanhang; Nolte, Chris; Eder, Brian; Foley, Kristen; Nagashima, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Aerosols can influence the climate indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and/or ice nuclei, thereby modifying cloud optical properties. In contrast to the widespread global warming, the central and south central United States display a noteworthy overall cooling trend during the 20(th) century, with an especially striking cooling trend in summertime daily maximum temperature (Tmax) (termed the U.S. "warming hole"). Here we used observations of temperature, shortwave cloud forcing (SWCF), longwave cloud forcing (LWCF), aerosol optical depth and precipitable water vapor as well as global coupled climate models to explore the attribution of the "warming hole". We find that the observed cooling trend in summer Tmax can be attributed mainly to SWCF due to aerosols with offset from the greenhouse effect of precipitable water vapor. A global coupled climate model reveals that the observed "warming hole" can be produced only when the aerosol fields are simulated with a reasonable degree of accuracy as this is necessary for accurate simulation of SWCF over the region. These results provide compelling evidence of the role of the aerosol indirect effect in cooling regional climate on the Earth. Our results reaffirm that LWCF can warm both winter Tmax and Tmin. PMID:25373416

  10. Attribution of the United States “warming hole”: Aerosol indirect effect and precipitable water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shaocai; Alapaty, Kiran; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Zhang, Yuanhang; Nolte, Chris; Eder, Brian; Foley, Kristen; Nagashima, Tatsuya

    2014-11-01

    Aerosols can influence the climate indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and/or ice nuclei, thereby modifying cloud optical properties. In contrast to the widespread global warming, the central and south central United States display a noteworthy overall cooling trend during the 20th century, with an especially striking cooling trend in summertime daily maximum temperature (Tmax) (termed the U.S. ``warming hole''). Here we used observations of temperature, shortwave cloud forcing (SWCF), longwave cloud forcing (LWCF), aerosol optical depth and precipitable water vapor as well as global coupled climate models to explore the attribution of the ``warming hole''. We find that the observed cooling trend in summer Tmax can be attributed mainly to SWCF due to aerosols with offset from the greenhouse effect of precipitable water vapor. A global coupled climate model reveals that the observed ``warming hole'' can be produced only when the aerosol fields are simulated with a reasonable degree of accuracy as this is necessary for accurate simulation of SWCF over the region. These results provide compelling evidence of the role of the aerosol indirect effect in cooling regional climate on the Earth. Our results reaffirm that LWCF can warm both winter Tmax and Tmin.

  11. Attribution of the United States “warming hole”: Aerosol indirect effect and precipitable water vapor

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shaocai; Alapaty, Kiran; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Zhang, Yuanhang; Nolte, Chris; Eder, Brian; Foley, Kristen; Nagashima, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Aerosols can influence the climate indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and/or ice nuclei, thereby modifying cloud optical properties. In contrast to the widespread global warming, the central and south central United States display a noteworthy overall cooling trend during the 20th century, with an especially striking cooling trend in summertime daily maximum temperature (Tmax) (termed the U.S. “warming hole”). Here we used observations of temperature, shortwave cloud forcing (SWCF), longwave cloud forcing (LWCF), aerosol optical depth and precipitable water vapor as well as global coupled climate models to explore the attribution of the “warming hole”. We find that the observed cooling trend in summer Tmax can be attributed mainly to SWCF due to aerosols with offset from the greenhouse effect of precipitable water vapor. A global coupled climate model reveals that the observed “warming hole” can be produced only when the aerosol fields are simulated with a reasonable degree of accuracy as this is necessary for accurate simulation of SWCF over the region. These results provide compelling evidence of the role of the aerosol indirect effect in cooling regional climate on the Earth. Our results reaffirm that LWCF can warm both winter Tmax and Tmin. PMID:25373416

  12. Precipitable water: Its linear retrieval using leaps and bounds procedure and its global distribution from SEASAT SMMR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, P. C.

    1982-01-01

    Eight subsets using two to five frequencies of the SEASAT scanning multichannel microwave radiometer are examined to determine their potential in the retrieval of atmospheric water vapor content. Analysis indicates that the information concerning the 18 and 21 GHz channels are optimum for water vapor retrieval. A comparison with radiosonde observations gave an rms accuracy of approximately 0.40 g sq cm. The rms accuracy of precipitable water using different subsets was within 10 percent. Global maps of precipitable water over oceans using two and five channel retrieval (average of two and five channel retrieval) are given. Study of these maps reveals the possibility of global moisture distribution associated with oceanic currents and large scale general circulation in the atmosphere. A stable feature of the large scale circulation is noticed. The precipitable water is maximum over the Bay of Bengal and in the North Pacific over the Kuroshio current and shows a general latitudinal pattern.

  13. The role of precipitation type, intensity, and spatial distribution in source water quality after wildfire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Sheila F.; Writer, Jeffrey H.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Martin, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Storms following wildfires are known to impair drinking water supplies in the southwestern United States, yet our understanding of the role of precipitation in post-wildfire water quality is far from complete. We quantitatively assessed water-quality impacts of different hydrologic events in the Colorado Front Range and found that for a three-year period, substantial hydrologic and geochemical responses downstream of a burned area were primarily driven by convective storms with a 30 min rainfall intensity >10 mm h−1. These storms, which typically occur several times each year in July–September, are often small in area, short-lived, and highly variable in intensity and geographic distribution. Thus, a rain gage network with high temporal resolution and spatial density, together with high-resolution stream sampling, are required to adequately characterize post-wildfire responses. We measured total suspended sediment, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate, and manganese concentrations that were 10–156 times higher downstream of a burned area compared to upstream during relatively common (50% annual exceedance probability) rainstorms, and water quality was sufficiently impaired to pose water-treatment concerns. Short-term water-quality impairment was driven primarily by increased surface runoff during higher intensity convective storms that caused erosion in the burned area and transport of sediment and chemical constituents to streams. Annual sediment yields downstream of the burned area were controlled by storm events and subsequent remobilization, whereas DOC yields were closely linked to annual runoff and thus were more dependent on interannual variation in spring runoff. Nitrate yields were highest in the third year post-wildfire. Results from this study quantitatively demonstrate that water quality can be altered for several years after wildfire. Because the southwestern US is prone to wildfires and high-intensity rain storms, the role of storms in post

  14. Trend Analysis of GPS Precipitable Water Vapor Above South Korea Over the Last 10 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Dong-Hyo; Cho, Jungho

    2010-09-01

    We analyzed global positioning system (GPS)-derived precipitable water vapor (PWV) trends of the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 5 stations (Seoul, Daejeon, Mokpo, Milyang, Sokcho) where Korea Meteorological Administration meteorological data can be obtained at the same place. In the least squares analysis, the GPS PWV time series showed consistent positive trends (0.11 mm/year) over South Korea from 2000 to 2009. The annual increase of GPS PWV was comparable with the 0.17 mm/year and 0.02 mm/year from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Earth Observing Laboratory and Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder, respectively. For seasonal analysis, the increasing tendency was found by 0.05 mm/year, 0.16 mm/year, 0.04 mm/year in spring (March-May), summer (June-August) and winter (December-February), respectively. However, a negative trend (-0.14 mm/year) was seen in autumn (September-November). We examined the relationship between GPS PWV and temperature which is the one of the climatic elements. Two elements trends increased during the same period and the correlation coefficient was about 0.8. Also, we found the temperature rise has increased more GPS PWV and observed a stronger positive trend in summer than in winter. This is characterized by hot humid summer and cold dry winter of Korea climate and depending on the amount of water vapor the air contains at a certain temperature. In addition, it is assumed that GPS PWV positive trend is caused by increasing amount of saturated water vapor due to temperature rise in the Korean Peninsula. In the future, we plan to verify GPS PWV effectiveness as a tool to monitor changes in precipitable water through cause analysis of seasonal trends and indepth/ long-term comparative analysis between GPS PWV and other climatic elements.

  15. Desalination of brackish ground waters and produced waters using in-situ precipitation.

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Pless, Jason; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Voigt, James A.; Phillips, Mark L. F.; Axness, Marlene; Moore, Diana Lynn; Sattler, Allan Richard

    2004-08-01

    The need for fresh water has increased exponentially during the last several decades due to the continuous growth of human population and industrial and agricultural activities. Yet existing resources are limited often because of their high salinity. This unfavorable situation requires the development of new, long-term strategies and alternative technologies for desalination of saline waters presently not being used to supply the population growth occurring in arid regions. We have developed a novel environmentally friendly method for desalinating inland brackish waters. This process can be applied to either brackish ground water or produced waters (i.e., coal-bed methane or oil and gas produced waters). Using a set of ion exchange and sorption materials, our process effectively removes anions and cations in separate steps. The ion exchange materials were chosen because of their specific selectivity for ions of interest, and for their ability to work in the temperature and pH regions necessary for cost and energy effectiveness. For anion exchange, we have focused on hydrotalcite (HTC), a layered hydroxide similar to clay in structure. For cation exchange, we have developed an amorphous silica material that has enhanced cation (in particular Na{sup +}) selectivity. In the case of produced waters with high concentrations of Ca{sup 2+}, a lime softening step is included.

  16. Enhancements to the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System for simulating in-stream water temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markstrom, S. L.; Hay, L.

    2010-12-01

    A stream temperature module has been developed for the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) for simulating maximum- and mean-daily stream temperature. This module provides additional simulation capabilities by coupling PRMS with the U.S. Geological Survey Stream Network Temperature (SNTEMP) model. PRMS is a modular, deterministic, distributed-parameter, physical-process watershed model that simulates watershed response to various combinations of climate and land use. Normal and extreme rainfall and snowmelt can be simulated to evaluate changes in water-balance relations, streamflow regimes, soil-water relations, and ground-water recharge. SNTEMP was developed to help aquatic biologists and engineers predict the effects of flow regime changes on water temperatures. This coupling of PRMS with SNTEMP will allow scientists and watershed managers to evaluate the effects of historical climate and projected climate change, landscape evolution, and resource management scenarios on watershed hydrology and in-stream water temperature. The prototype of this coupled model was developed for the U.S. Geological Survey Southeast Regional Assessment Project (SERAP) and tested in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin in the southeastern United States. Preliminary results from the prototype are presented.

  17. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation, evaporated mine water, and river water in Montana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammons, Christopher H.; Poulson, Simon R.; Pellicori, Damon A.; Reed, Pamela J.; Roesler, Amber J.; Petrescu, Eugene M.

    2006-08-01

    SummaryThe isotopic composition of 42 samples of rain and snow collected in 2004 were used to construct a local meteoric water line (LMWL) for Butte, Montana. The derived equation (δD = 7.31δ 18O - 7.5, r2 = 0.987), represents one of the first published LMWLs based on direct precipitation for any location in the northern Rocky Mountains. Samples of underground and surface mine waters in Butte, including the Berkeley pit-lake and a nearby tailings pond, define a linear trend with a much lower slope and intercept than the LMWL (δD = 5.00δ 18O - 49.5, r2 = 0.991), consistent with non-equilibrium evaporation at an average relative humidity of roughly 65%. Detailed evaporation calculations are presented which indicate that the shallow Berkeley pit-lake was approximately 25% evaporated in October, 2003, whereas the surface of the tailings pond was at least 50% evaporated. The intersection of the LMWL and mine water evaporation trend was used to calculate the average composition of recharge water to the flooded mine complex (δD = -139‰, δ 18O = -18.0‰). These values are considerably lighter than the weighted total of precipitation for the 2004 calendar year (δD = -118‰, δ 18O = -15.3‰), which is partly explained by the unusually low snowfall that Montana experienced in 2004. Based on this study, the LMWL recently proposed by Kendall and Coplen (2001) [Kendall, C., Coplen, T.B., 2001. Distribution of oxygen-18 and deuterium in river waters across the United States, Hydrological Processes 15, 1363-1393] from regression of isotopic data from a number of Montana rivers is more accurately interpreted as an evaporation line. Isotopic trends based on river data should be treated with caution, particularly in a semi-arid region such as Montana where rivers are often influenced by dams and irrigation withdrawals.

  18. Climatic study of the future drinking-water availability in Bergen, Norway, using a linear model for orographic precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsen, E.; Valved, A.; Barstad, I.; Drange, H.; Mesquita, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the rainy conditions on the west side of the mountains in southern Norway, there have been challenges in providing enough drinking water of high quality to the inhabitants of Bergen. Naturally, the municipality of Bergen is concerned about the provision of drinking water in the future, and will need some projections of the future supply for planning purposes. This work concentrates on the precipitation over the mountain "Gullfjellet". This mountain provides fresh water to the main reservoir in Bergen. It accounts for the water supply of 40 percent of the 260,000 inhabitants in the city. The starting point of the analysis is the output from 10 General Circulation Models from the European ENSEMBLES project - run with the SRES A1B scenario. The Smith-Barstad (2004) linear model of orographic precipitation is then used for downscaling. The input data for the linear model are velocity U, temperature T and static stability N (Brunt-Väisälä frequency). The model simulates precipitation by doing a Fourier transform, which include the orographic lifting-effect. The model includes user-defined time constants for conversion from cloud water to hydrometeor and fall-out of hydrometeors. This allows drift of cloud water and hydrometeors. In the event of zero-time constants, instantaneous precipitation of supersaturated water will occur. The linear model has been previously used to evaluate heavy precipitation in, among other places, mountain regions in the state of Washington, Germany, France and Norway. The linear model has been found to represent orographic precipitation over complex terrain well, describing the most essential dynamics and physics. The amount of leeside precipitation tends, however, to be overestimated. The analysis is done for the two time windows 2021 - 2050 and 2071 - 2100, and is being compared to the control period 1971 - 2000. Results from these model runs will be presented at the conference.

  19. Precipitation variability in High Mountain Asia from multiple datasets and implication for water balance analysis in large lake basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chunqiao; Huang, Bo; Ke, Linghong; Ye, Qinghua

    2016-10-01

    For the period 1979-2011, eight gridded monthly precipitation datasets, including GPCP, CMAP-1/2, TRMM, PREC/L, APHRODITE, NCEP-2 and ERA-Interim, are inter-compared with each other and station observations over High Mountain Asia (HMA). The precipitation variability from the first six gauge-based or merged analysis datasets agree better with each other than with the two reanalysis data. The long-term trend analysis of GPCP, CMAP-1, PREC/L and APHRODITE precipitation datasets consistently reveals moderate increases in the inner and northeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) and northwest Xinjiang, and obvious decreases in the southeast TP. However, in the Himalayas and Karakorum, there are large discrepancies among different datasets, where GPCP and APHRODITE precipitation datasets show significant decreases along the Himalayas while other datasets show strong spatial heterogeneity or slight variations. The larger uncertainties in the rugged area may be largely attributed to scarce station observations, as well as the stronger snow-induced scattering by microwave measurement. To assess which precipitation datasets tend to be more suitable for hydrologic analysis in HMA, we further investigate the accuracy of precipitation estimates at basin scale by comparing with gauge-based observations, and examine the coherences of annual lake water budgets and precipitation variability over four large closed lake catchments. The results indicate that two reanalysis precipitation datasets show evidently weaker correlations with station observations; the other six datasets perform better in indicating inter-annual variations of lake water budgets. It suggests that these merged analysis precipitation datasets, especially for GPCP, CMAP-1/2 and PREC/L, have the potential in examining regional water balances of the inner basins in HMA.

  20. Investigating the Effectiveness of Mineral Precipitate as a Tool in the Removal of Heavy Metals from Mine Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abongwa, P. T.; Geyer, C.; Puckette, J.

    2014-12-01

    Mine water from a precious metal mine in Colorado drains into an underground tunnel and flows for about 8 km before being discharged into a series of sequentially connected settling ponds (5) aimed at removing suspended particulate. Our results suggest these ponds also remove heavy metals from solution through adsorption and mineral precipitation. Analyses of the precipitates and water in the settling ponds showed relatively higher metal concentration on the precipitates than in the corresponding aqueous solutions. Speciation modeling showed that the precipitates were mainly travertine, ferrihydrite, fe-oxyhdroxide and gypsum and these are expected to provide surfaces for metal adsorption. Overall, the average concentrations of trace metals were such that, Al concentration was 0.0 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 9.4 mg/L for the precipitate; Fe concentration was 0.04 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 20.1 mg/L for the precipitate; Mn concentration was 0.2 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 10.2 mg/L for the precipitate; Sr concentration was 3 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 8 mg/L for the precipitate; Zn concentration was 0.1 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 1.4 mg/L for the precipitate. Sulfate concentrations in solutions (1346 mg/L) were about seventeen times higher than on the precipitate (80 mg/L). As the water exits the tunnel, its carbon is expected to consistently decrease over space as it moves along the settling ponds while precipitating carbonates. The dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations showed consistent drop from 109 mg/L at the tunnel exit to 96 mg/L at middle pond and 92 mg/L at the exit pond, which corresponds to decreasing pCO2 and removal of carbon from solution through travertine precipitation and CO2 outgassing. This data indicate a strong influence of mineral precipitate as an effective component in the attenuation of metals in mine

  1. Global analyses of water vapor, cloud and precipitation derived from a diagnostic assimilation of SSM/I geophysical retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Cohen, Charles

    1990-01-01

    An analytical approach is described for diagnostically assimilating moisture data from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) into a global analysis of water vapor, cloud content, and precipitation. In this method, 3D fields of wind and temperature values taken from ECMWF gridded analysis are used to drive moisture conservation equations with parameterized microphysical treatment of vapor, liquid, and ice; the evolving field of water vapor is periodically updated or constrained by SSM/I retrievals of precipitable water. Initial results indicate that this diagnostic model can produce realistic large-scale fields of cloud and precipitation. The resulting water vapor analyses agree well with SSM/I and have an additional advantage of being synoptic.

  2. [Impact of precipitation and underground water level in the edge of oases on growth and decline of Nitraria tangugtorum community].

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Gao, Z

    2000-12-01

    Based on the data from underground water monitoring, meterological measuring and fixed sample square investigating in successive years at the edge of the oasis in Minqin, Gansu, the impact of precipitation and underground water on the growth and decline of Nitraria tangutorum community was studied. The result showed that the desiccated environment in oases driven by the decline of underground water level was favorable for the growth and develoment of N. tangutorum community, and made this species more xerophilous. This declining underground water level was not a limiting factor for N. tangutorum growth in late years. These N. tangutorum-dominated communities were predicted to survive comparatively longer, and to function as sand fixer and wind breaker at oasis edge in Minqin. When average annual precipitation was about 110 mm, N. tangutorum would maintain its normal growth, but the community couldn't spread freely. Only when the annual precipitation was up 140 mm in two years running, could its growth be improved.

  3. Enhanced precipitation-variability effects on water losses and ecosystem functioning: Differential response of arid and mesic regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change will result in increased precipitation variability with more extreme events across a range of temporal scales. We used a process-based ecosystem model to simulate water losses and soil water availability to plants at 35 grassland locations in the central U.S. under four level of prec...

  4. Comparison of precipitable water observations in the near tropics by GPS, microwave radiometer and radiosondes.

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, Y. A.; Teng, Y. T.; VanHove, T.; Liljegren, J. C.; Environmental Research; National Central Univ.; UCAR

    2001-01-01

    The sensing of precipitable water (PW) using the Global Positioning System (GPS) in the near Tropics is investigated. GPS data acquired from the Central Weather Bureau's Taipei weather station in Banchao (Taipei), Taiwan, and each of nine International GPS Service (IGS) stations were utilized to determine independently the PW at the Taipei site from 18 to 24 March 1998. Baselines between Taipei and the other nine stations range from 676 to 3009 km. The PW determined from GPS observations for the nine baseline cases are compared with measurements by a dual-channel water vapor radiometer (WVR) and radiosondes at the Taipei site. Although previous results from other locations show that the variability in the rms difference between GPS- and WVR-observed PW ranges from 1 to 2 mm, a variability of 2.2 mm is found. The increase is consistent with scaling of the variability with the total water vapor burden (PW). In addition, accurate absolute PW estimates from GPS data for baseline lengths between 1500 and 3000 km were obtained. Previously, 500 and 2000 km have been recommended in the literature as the minimum baseline length needed for accurate absolute PW estimation. An exception occurs when GPS data acquired in Guam, one of the nine IGS stations, were utilized. This result is a possible further indication that the rms difference between GPS- and WVR-measured PW is dependent on the total water vapor burden, because both Taipei and Guam are located in more humid regions than the other stations.

  5. Continuous Estimates of Precipitable Water Vapor from Caribbean GPS Stations During the 2007 Atlantic Hurricane Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, J. J.; Iwabuchi, T.; van Hove, T.

    2007-12-01

    Hurricanes derive their strength through water vapor that is both evaporated from warm ocean surfaces and the existing moisture in the surrounding atmospheric environment. Observationally, there are relatively few instruments that can accurately measure water vapor in the presence of clouds and rain. Retrievals of precipitable water vapor (PW) using Global Positioning System (GPS) stations may be the most reliable way to continuously monitor column integrated water vapor. We present PW estimates collected during the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season derived from a network of GPS stations recently installed in the Caribbean. This network produced 30-minute estimates of PW from more than 20 stations in the region. Preliminary results indicate a wet bias in the Global Forecast System (GFS) analysis fields of approximately 1 mm in PW, with root mean square differences greater than 3 mm. Both of these statistical comparisons are significantly larger than those derived from analysis fields over the continental United States, which suggests that there is significant room for improvement in the initial conditions used for numerical weather prediction forecasts. We present results in the temporal and spatial changes in PW as hurricanes Dean and Felix moved through the Caribbean. We also will show what impact these observations have on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model forecasts using various data assimilation strategies and methods.

  6. Seasonal change in precipitation, snowpack, snowmelt, soil water and streamwater chemistry, northern Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stottlemyer, R.; Toczydlowski, D.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied weekly precipitation, snowpack, snowmelt, soil water and streamwater chemistry throughout winter for over a decade in a small (176 ha) northern Michigan watershed with high snowfall and vegetated by 60 to 80 year-old northern hardwoods. In this paper, we examine physical, chemical, and biological processes responsible for observed seasonal change in streamwater chemistry based upon intensive study during winter 1996-1997. The objective was to define the contributions made to winter and spring streamwater chemical concentration and flux by processes as snowmelt, over-winter forest floor and surface soil mineralization, immobilization, and exchange, and subsurface flowpath. The forest floor and soil were unfrozen beneath the snowpack which permitted most snowmelt to enter. Over-winter soil mineralization and other biological processes maintain shallow subsurface ion and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reservoirs. Small, but steady, snowmelt throughout winter removed readily mobilized soil NO3- which resulted in high over-winter streamwater concentrations but little flux. Winter soil water levels and flowpaths were generally deep which increased soil water and streamwater base cation (C(B)), HCO3-, and Si concentrations. Spring snowmelt increased soil water levels and removal of ions and DOC from the biologically active forest floor and shallow soils. The snowpack solute content was a minor component in determining streamwater ion concentration or flux during and following peak snowmelt. Exchangeable ions, weakly adsorbed anions, and DOC in the forest floor and surface soils dominated the chemical concentration and flux in soil water and streamwater. Following peak snowmelt, soil microbial immobilization and rapidly increased plant uptake of limiting nutrients removed nearly all available nitrogen from soil water and streamwater. During the growing season high evapotranspiration increased subsurface flowpath depth which in turn removed weathering

  7. Precipitation; ground-water age; ground-water nitrate concentrations, 1995-2002; and ground-water levels, 2002-03 in Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The eastern Bernalillo County study area consists of about 150 square miles and includes all of Bernalillo County east of the crests of the Sandia and Manzanita Mountains. Soil and unconsolidated alluvial deposits overlie fractured and solution-channeled limestone in most of the study area. North of Interstate Highway 40 and east of New Mexico Highway 14, the uppermost consolidated geologic units are fractured sandstones and shales. Average annual precipitation at three long-term National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration precipitation and snowfall data-collection sites was 14.94 inches at approximately 6,300 feet (Sandia Ranger Station), 19.06 inches at about 7,020 feet (Sandia Park), and 23.07 inches at approximately 10,680 feet (Sandia Crest). The periods of record at these sites are 1933-74, 1939-2001, and 1953-79, respectively. Average annual snowfall during these same periods of record was 27.7 inches at Sandia Ranger Station, 60.8 inches at Sandia Park, and 115.5 inches at Sandia Crest. Seven precipitation data-collection sites were established during December 2000-March 2001. Precipitation during 2001-03 at three U.S. Geological Survey sites ranged from 66 to 94 percent of period-of-record average annual precipitation at corresponding National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration long-term sites in 2001, from 51 to 75 percent in 2002, and from 34 to 81 percent during January through September 2003. Missing precipitation records for one site resulted in the 34-percent value in 2003. Analyses of concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 in ground-water samples from nine wells and one spring were used to estimate when the sampled water entered the ground-water system. Apparent ages of ground water ranged from as young as about 10 to 16 years to as old as about 20 to 26 years. Concentrations of dissolved nitrates in samples collected from 24 wells during 2001-02 were similar to concentrations in samples collected from the same

  8. Comparison of Daily Total Precipitable Water From Satellite and Model Reanalysis Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Suggs, R. J.; Haines, S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that there is fairly good agreement between the monthly values of total precipitable water (TPW) from the NVAP data set, a multi satellite and radiosonde merged data product, and the NCEP reanalysis TPW data. However, there are regions and time periods where significant differences between the data sets are found in the monthly mean TPW time series and period of record trends. To better understand these differences seen in the monthly data values, the daily mean TPW data are examined. Possible contributions to the TPW differences such as data quality of the individual NVAP data set components associated with missing or irregular daily values are addressed. Also, effects associated with the weighting of the individual NVAP data set components to form a merged product are considered. The daily variations in TPW exhibited by each data set are also quantified and compared between the data sets.

  9. Measurement of Low Amounts of Precipitable Water Vapor Using Ground-Based Millimeterwave Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racette, Paul E.; Westwater, Ed R.; Han, Yong; Gasiewski, Albin J.; Klein, Marian; Cimini, Domenico; Jones, David C.; Manning, WIll; Kim, Edward J.; Wang, James R.

    2003-01-01

    Extremely dry conditions characterized by amounts of precipitable water vapor (PWV) as as 1-2 mm commonly occur in high-latitude regions during the winter months. While such atmospheres carry only a few percent of the latent heat energy compared to tropical atmospheres, the effects of low vapor amounts on the polar radiation budget - both directly through modulation of longwave radiation and indirectly through the formation of clouds - are considerable. Accurate measurements of precipitable water vapor (PWV) during such dry conditions are needed to improve polar radiation models for use in understanding and predicting change in the climatically sensitive polar regions. To this end, the strong water vapor absorption at 183.310 GHz provides a unique means of measuring low amounts of PWV. Weighting function analysis, forward model calculations based upon a 7-year radiosonde dataset, and retrieval simulations consistently predict that radiometric measurements made using several millimeter-wavelength (MMW) channels near the 183 GHz line, together with established microwave (MW) measurements at the 22.235 GHz water vapor line and -3 1 GHz atmospheric absorption window can be used to determine within 5% uncertainty the full range of PWV expected in the Arctic. This unique collective capability stands in spite of accuracy limitations stemming from uncertainties due to the sensitivity of the vertical distribution of temperature and water vapor at MMW channels. In this study the potential of MMW radiometry using the 183 GHz line for measuring low amounts of PWV is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. The study uses data obtained during March 1999 as part of an experiment conducted at the Department of Energy s Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) near Barrow, Alaska. Several radiometers from both NOAA and NASA were deployed during the experiment to provide the first combined MMW and MW ground-based data set during dry arctic conditions. Single-channel retrievals

  10. Simultaneous measurements of stable water isotopes in near-surface vapor and precipitation to constrain below-cloud processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Pascal; Sodemann, Harald; Pfahl, Stephan; Schneebeli, Marc; Ventura, Jordi Figueras i.; Leuenberger, Andreas; Grazioli, Jacopo; Raupach, Tim; Berne, Alexis; Wernli, Heini

    2016-04-01

    Present-day observations of stable water isotopes (SWI) in precipitation on monthly time scales are abundant and the processes governing the variation of SWI on these time scales have been investigated by many studies. However, also on much shorter time scales of hours mesoscale meteorological processes lead to significant variations of SWIs, which are important to understand. There are only few studies investigating the variations of SWI on this short time scale, for which, e.g., frontal dynamics, convection and cloud microphysics play an essential role. In particular, the isotopic composition of both near-surface vapor and precipitation is significantly influenced by below-cloud processes that include precipitation evaporation and isotopic exchange between falling precipitation and surrounding vapor. In this study, simultaneous measurements of SWI in near-surface vapor and precipitation with high (sub-hourly) temporal resolution in combination with observational data from radars, disdrometers, radiosondes and standard meteorological instruments are used for a detailed analysis of the relative importance of below-cloud and in-cloud (i.e., precipitation formation) processes during the course of three rain events in Switzerland in spring 2014. Periods are identified when the isotopic composition of near-surface vapor and equilibrium vapor above liquid rain drops agree and when they differ due to either evaporation of precipitation or incomplete equilibration of precipitation with surrounding vapor. These findings are verified by the supporting observational data. In addition, calculations with a simple rain-shaft model fed with observational data are compared to the actual isotopic composition of precipitation. This combination of isotope measurements and model calculations allows us to test the sensitivity of the precipitation isotope signal to rain intensity, drop-size distribution and temperature and humidity profiles.

  11. Precipitable Water Variability Using SSM/I and GOES VAS Pathfinder Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, Jeffrey A.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Kidder, Stanley Q.

    1996-01-01

    Determining moisture variability for all weather scenes is critical to understanding the earth's hydrologic cycle and global climate changes. Remote sensing from geostationary satellites provides the necessary temporal and spatial resolutions necessary for global change studies. Due to antenna size constraints imposed with the use of microwave radiometers, geostationary satellites have carried instruments passively measuring radiation at infrared wavelengths or shorter. The shortfall of using infrared instruments in moisture studies lies in its inability to sense terrestrial radiation through clouds. Microwave emissions, on the other hand, are mostly unaffected by cloudy atmospheres. Land surface emissivity at microwave frequencies exhibit both high temporal and spatial variability thus confining moisture retrievals at microwave frequencies to over marine atmospheres (a near uniform cold background). This study intercompares the total column integrated water content Precipitable Water, (PW) as derived from both the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) pathfinder data sets. PW is a bulk parameter often used to quantify moisture variability and is important to understanding the earth's hydrologic cycle and climate system. This research has been spawned in an effort to combine two different algorithms which together can lead to a more comprehensive quantification of global water vapor. The approach taken here is to intercompare two independent PW retrieval algorithms and to validate the resultant retrievals against an existing data set, namely the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model analysis data.

  12. Modelled effects of precipitation on ecosystem carbon and water dynamics in different climatic zones

    SciTech Connect

    Gerten, Dieter; Luo, Yiqi; Le Maire, Guerric; Parton, William; Keough, Cindy; Weng, Ensheng; Beier, Claus; Ciais, Philippe; Cramer, Wolfgang; Dukes, Jeff; Hanson, Paul J; Knapp, Alan; Linder, Sune; Nepstad, Daniel; Rustad, Lindsey; Sowerby, ALWYN

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing changes in the global climate expose the world s ecosystems not only to increasing CO2 concentrations and temperatures but also to altered precipitation (P) regimes. Using four well-established process-based ecosystem models (LPJ, DayCent, ORCHIDEE, TECO), we explored effects of potential P changes on water limitation and net primary production (NPP) in seven terrestrial ecosystems with distinctive vegetation types in different hydroclimatic zones. We found that NPP responses to P changes differed not only among sites but also within a year at a given site. The magnitudes of NPP change were basically determined by the degree of ecosystem water limitation, which was quantified here using the ratio between atmospheric transpirational demand and soil water supply. Humid sites and/or periods were least responsive to any change in P as compared with moderately humid or dry sites/periods. We also found that NPP responded more strongly to doubling or halving of P amount and a seasonal shift in P occurrence than that to altered P frequency and intensity at constant annual amounts. The findings were highly robust across the four models especially in terms of the direction of changes and largely consistent with earlier P manipulation experiments and modelling results. Overall, this study underscores the widespread importance of P as a driver of change in ecosystems, although the ultimate response of a particular site will depend on the detailed nature and seasonal timing of P change.

  13. Radiosonde-based trends in precipitable water over the Northern Hemisphere: An update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durre, Imke; Williams, Claude N.; Yin, Xungang; Vose, Russell S.

    2009-03-01

    In an effort to update previous analyses of long-term changes in column-integrated water vapor, we have analyzed trends in surface-to-500-hPa precipitable water (PW) calculated from radiosonde measurements of dew point depression, temperature, and pressure at approximately 300 stations in the Northern Hemisphere for the period 1973-2006. Inhomogeneities were addressed by applying a homogenization algorithm that adjusts for both documented and undocumented change points. The trends of the adjusted PW time series are predominantly upward, with a statistically significant trend of 0.45 mm decade-1 for the Northern Hemisphere land areas included in the analysis. Particularly significant increases are found in all seasons over the islands of the western tropical Pacific, and trends are also positive and statistically significant for the year as a whole and in at least one season in Japan and the United States. These results indicate that the widespread increases in tropospheric water vapor, which earlier studies had reported and shown to be physically consistent with concurrent increases in temperature and changes in moisture transport, have continued in recent years.

  14. A CloudSat Perspective of the Atmospheric Water Cycle and Precipitation: Recent Progress and Grand Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Graeme L.; Im, Eastwood; Vane, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Summary Global - mean precipitation - is controlled by Earth's energy balance and is a quantifiable consequence of the water vapor feedback. Predictability rests on the degree to which the water vapor feedback is predictable. Regional scale - to a significant extent, changes are shaped by atmospheric circulation changes but we do not know the extent to which regional scale changes are predictable. The impacts of changes to atmospheric circulation on regional scale water cycle changes can be dramatic. Process - scale - significant biases to the CHARACTER of precipitation (frequency and intensity) is related to how the precipitation process is parameterized in models. Aerosol - We still do not know the extent to which the water cycle is influenced by aerosol but anecdotal evidence is building. The character of precipitation is affected by the way aerosol influence clouds and thus affects the forcing of the climate system through the albedo effect. Observations - we still have a way to go and need to approach the problem in a more integrated way (tie clouds, aerosol and precipitation together and then link to soil moisture, etc). Globally our capabilities seriously lag behind the science and model development.

  15. Determination of the sources and impacts of aerosols on clouds and orographic precipitation during CalWater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, K. A.; Suski, K.; Cazorla, A.; Cahill, J. F.; Creamean, J.; Collins, D. B.; Ralph, F. M.; Cayan, D. R.; Rosenfeld, D.; DeMott, P. J.; Sullivan, R. C.; Comstock, J. M.; Leung, L.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Roberts, G. C.; Nenes, A.; Lin, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Climate projections for the remainder of this century for the U.S. Southwest, including parts of California, suggest a drying trend (reductions ~ 10 -15 %). Thus, understanding factors which could potentially influence the amount and type of precipitation is critical to future water resources in California. Previous studies suggest aerosols transported from the Central Valley into the mountains may be reducing the amount of orographic precipitation in the Sierra Nevada mountain range, the key region for water storage in the snowpack. CalWater, which commenced in the Winter of 2009, is an ongoing multi-year, multi-agency field campaign to investigate the primary sources of aerosols influencing clouds and precipitation in this region. Single particle measurements, used in both ground as well as PNNL G1 aircraft measurements, in the recent campaign provide insight into the sources of aerosols impacting the clouds and precipitation. Biomass burning, Central Valley pollution, long range transported Asian dust and pollution, locally generated newly formed particles, and marine aerosols all show strong impacts on the cloud microphysical properties. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the objective and key findings from CalWater measurements of aerosols, precipitation, clouds, and meteorology conducted from 2009-2011 in this region.

  16. Purification of a water extract of Chinese sweet tea plant (Rubus suavissimus S. Lee) by alcohol precipitation.

    PubMed

    Koh, Gar Yee; Chou, Guixin; Liu, Zhijun

    2009-06-10

    The aqueous extraction process of the leaves of Rubus suavissimus often brings in a large amount of nonactive polysaccharides as part of the constituents. To purify this water extract for potential elevated bioactivity, an alcohol precipitation (AP) consisting of gradient regimens was applied, and its resultants were examined through colorimetric and HPLC analyses. AP was effective in partitioning the aqueous crude extract into a soluble supernatant and an insoluble precipitant, and its effect varied significantly with alcohol regimens. Generally, the higher the alcohol concentration, the purer was the resultant extract. At its maximum, approximately 36% (w/w) of the crude extract, of which 23% was polysaccharides, was precipitated and removed, resulting in a purified extract consisting of over 20% bioactive marker compounds (gallic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, rubusoside, and steviol monoside). The removal of 11% polysaccharides from the crude water extract by using alcohol precipitation was complete at 70% alcohol regimen. Higher alcohol levels resulted in even purer extracts, possibly by removing some compounds of uncertain bioactivity. Alcohol precipitation is an effective way of removing polysaccharides from the water extract of the sweet tea plant and could be used as an initial simple purification tool for many water plant extracts that contain large amounts of polysaccharides.

  17. [Characteristics of delta18O in precipitation and water vapor sources in Lanzhou City and its surrounding area].

    PubMed

    Chen, Fen-Li; Zhang, Ming-Jun; Ma, Qian; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Sheng-Jie; Li, Fei

    2013-10-01

    Based on the 243 daily precipitation samples and meteorological statistics at the four stations at Lanzhou city and its surrounding area (Yongdeng, Gaolan and Yuzhong) from April 2011 to March 2012, the characteristics of stable isotopes in precipitation, as well as the correlation between stable isotopes and meteorological records, were analyzed. The precipitation equation of Lanzhou city and its surrounding area were calculated through the regression analysis, and the water vapor source of the four sites was tracked by the HYSPLIT 4. 9 model, and water vapor transmission regime was established. Results showed that the precipitation equation of deltaD =7.48 delta18O + 8.13 indicated intense evaporation; delta18O value was low in winter but high in summer; The variations of observed d-excess was stable all over the year, but there was variation in different time periods; The spatial distribution showed that the weighted delta18O value decreased from the west to the east; The linear relationships between delta18O and temperature was positive correlation, but the linear relationships between delta18O and precipitation was negative correlation; The seasonal variations of delta18O indicated that westerly water vapor, local moisture and summer monsoon all had influence on this region in a large scale, but the westerly water vapor played a dominant role. However, the impact of monsoon moisture had a seasonal limitation, mainly during the period from June to early August.

  18. Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over La Silla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querel, Richard R.; Kerber, Florian; Lo Curto, Gaspare; Thomas-Osip, Joanna E.; Prieto, Gabriel; Chacón, Arlette; Cuevas, Omar; Pozo, Diana; Marín, Julio; Naylor, David A.; Curé, Michel; Sarazin, Marc S.; Guirao, Carlos; Avila, Gerardo

    2010-07-01

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO), the Institute for Space Imaging Science (ISIS) and the AstroMeteorology group at the Universidad de Valparaiso collaborated on a project to understand the precipitable water vapour (PWV) over the La Silla Paranal Observatory. Both La Silla and Paranal were studied with the goal of using them as reference sites to evaluate potential E-ELT sites. As ground-based infrared astronomy matures, our understanding of the atmospheric conditions over the observatories becomes paramount, specifically water vapour since it is the principle source of atmospheric opacity at infrared wavelengths. Several years of archival optical spectra (FEROS) have been analysed to reconstruct the PWV history above La Silla using an atmospheric radiative transfer model (BTRAM) developed by ISIS. In order to better understand the systematics involved, a dedicated atmospheric water vapour measurement campaign was conducted in May 2009 in close collaboration with Las Campanas observatory and the GMT site testing team. Several methods of determining the water column were employed, including radiosonde launches, continuous measurements by infrared radiometers (IRMA), a compact echelle spectrograph (BACHES) and several high-resolution optical echelle spectrographs (FEROS, HARPS and MIKE). All available observations were compared to concurrent satellite estimates of water vapour in an attempt to ground-truth the satellite data. We present a comparison of the methods used, and results from the archival study and measurement campaign. A mean PWV of 3.4 ± 2.4 mm is found for La Silla using FEROS data covering the period 2005-2009. Important lessons on the strengths and limitations of satellite data are presented. The value of a stand-alone high time resolution PWV monitor has been demonstrated in the context of parallel observations from Las Campanas and La Silla.

  19. Precipitation efficiency derived from isotope ratios in water vapor distinguishes dynamical and microphysical influences on subtropical atmospheric constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, A.; Nusbaumer, J.; Noone, D.

    2015-09-01

    With water vapor and clouds expected to effect significant feedbacks on climate, moisture transport through convective processes has important implications for future temperature change. The precipitation efficiency—the ratio of the rates at which precipitation and condensation form (e = P/C)—is useful for characterizing how much boundary layer moisture recycles through precipitation versus mixes into the free troposphere through cloud detrainment. Yet it is a difficult metric to constrain with traditional observational techniques. This analysis characterizes the precipitation efficiency of convection near the Big Island of Hawaii, USA, using a novel tracer: isotope ratios in water vapor. The synoptic circulation patterns associated with high and low precipitation efficiency are identified, and the importance of large-scale dynamics and local convective processes in regulating vertical distributions of atmospheric constituents important for climate is evaluated. The results suggest that high e days are correlated with plume-like transport originating from the relatively clean tropics, while low e days are associated with westerly transport, generated by a branching of the jet stream. Differences in transport pathway clearly modify background concentrations of water vapor and other trace gases measured at Mauna Loa Observatory; however, local convective processes appear to regulate aerosols there. Indeed, differences between observed and simulated diurnal cycles of particle number concentration indicate that precipitation scavenges aerosols and possibly facilitates new particle formation when e is high. As measurements of isotope ratios in water vapor expand across the subtropics, the techniques presented here can further our understanding of how synoptic weather, precipitation processes, and climate feedbacks interrelate.

  20. Precipitation data for water years 1992 and 1993 from a network of nonrecording gages at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ambos, D.S.; Flint, A.L.; Hevesi, J.A.

    1995-10-01

    This report presents precipitation data collected in a storage gage network at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, from October 1, 1991, to September 30, 1993. The measured values indicate total accumulated precipitation for specified time intervals approximately corresponding to separate storm events. Installation of a precipitation monitoring network was initiated in January 1990, and was continually expanded and upgraded throughout the period ending in September 1993. The final network included 3 different gage types for a total of 133 gages at 108 locations within the three drainages overlying the potential repository site. Measured precipitation indicated above average accumulations for water years 1992 and 1993 relative to the most recent estimate of 6.7 inches for long-term average annual precipitation over the area of the network. The total precipitation averaged over the network in 1992 was about 8.2 inches with a maximum of about 11.2 inches measured at borehole USW GA-1. The total precipitation averaged over the network in 1993 was about 10.3 inches with a maximum of about 12.1 inches at neutron-access borehole UE-25 UZN {number_sign}4.

  1. NASA-modified precipitation products to improve USEPA nonpoint source water quality modeling for the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Joseph; Toll, David; Partington, Ed; Ni-Meister, Wenge; Lee, Shihyan; Gutierrez-Magness, Angelica; Engman, Ted; Arsenault, Kristi

    2010-01-01

    The USEPA has estimated that over 20,000 water bodies within the United States do not meet water quality standards. One of the regulations in the Clean Water Act of 1972 requires states to monitor the total maximum daily load, or the amount of pollution that can be carried by a water body before it is determined to be "polluted," for any watershed in the United States (Copeland, 2005). In response to this mandate, the USEPA developed Better Assessment Science Integrating Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) as a decision support tool for assessing pollution and to guide the decision-making process for improving water quality. One of the models in BASINS, the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF), computes continuous streamflow rates and pollutant concentration at each basin outlet. By design, precipitation and other meteorological data from weather stations serve as standard model input. In practice, these stations may be unable to capture the spatial heterogeneity of precipitation events, especially if they are few and far between. An attempt was made to resolve this issue by substituting station data with NASA-modified/NOAA precipitation data. Using these data within HSPF, streamflow was calculated for seven watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Basin during low flow periods, convective storm periods, and annual flows. In almost every case, the modeling performance of HSPF increased when using the NASA-modified precipitation data, resulting in better streamflow statistics and, potentially, in improved water quality assessment. PMID:20830927

  2. NASA-modified precipitation products to improve USEPA nonpoint source water quality modeling for the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Joseph; Toll, David; Partington, Ed; Ni-Meister, Wenge; Lee, Shihyan; Gutierrez-Magness, Angelica; Engman, Ted; Arsenault, Kristi

    2010-01-01

    The USEPA has estimated that over 20,000 water bodies within the United States do not meet water quality standards. One of the regulations in the Clean Water Act of 1972 requires states to monitor the total maximum daily load, or the amount of pollution that can be carried by a water body before it is determined to be "polluted," for any watershed in the United States (Copeland, 2005). In response to this mandate, the USEPA developed Better Assessment Science Integrating Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) as a decision support tool for assessing pollution and to guide the decision-making process for improving water quality. One of the models in BASINS, the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF), computes continuous streamflow rates and pollutant concentration at each basin outlet. By design, precipitation and other meteorological data from weather stations serve as standard model input. In practice, these stations may be unable to capture the spatial heterogeneity of precipitation events, especially if they are few and far between. An attempt was made to resolve this issue by substituting station data with NASA-modified/NOAA precipitation data. Using these data within HSPF, streamflow was calculated for seven watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Basin during low flow periods, convective storm periods, and annual flows. In almost every case, the modeling performance of HSPF increased when using the NASA-modified precipitation data, resulting in better streamflow statistics and, potentially, in improved water quality assessment.

  3. Application of precipitation methods for the production of water-insoluble drug nanocrystals: production techniques and stability of nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Xia, Dengning; Gan, Yong; Cui, Fude

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on using precipitation (bottom-up) method to produce water-insoluble drug nanocrystals, and the stability issues of nanocrystals. The precipitation techniques for production of ultra-fine particles have been widely researched for last few decades. In these techniques, precipitation of solute is achieved by addition of a non-solvent for solute called anti-solvent to decrease the solvent power for the solute dissolved in a solution. The anti-solvent can be water, organic solvents or supercritical fluids. In this paper, efforts have been made to review the precipitation techniques involving the anti-solvent precipitation by simple mixing, impinging jet mixing, multi-inlet vortex mixing, the using of high-gravity, ultrasonic waves and supercritical fluids. The key to the success of yielding stable nanocrystals in these techniques is to control the nucleation kinetics and particle growth through mixing during precipitation based on crystallization theories. The stability issues of the nanocrystals, such as sedimentation, Ostwald ripening, agglomeration and cementing of crystals, change of crystalline state, and the approaches to stabilizing nanocrystals are also discussed in detail.

  4. Retrieving vertical profiles of water-cloud droplet effective radius: Algorithm modification and preliminary application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Fu-Lung; Li, Zhanqing

    2003-12-01

    [2002] proposed a new cloud microphysics retrieval technique that can estimate the vertical profile of droplet effective radius (DER) for water clouds using multispectral near-infrared (NIR) measurements. The underlying principle of the retrieval technique is that radiance measurements at distinct multi-NIR wavelengths possess different penetration depths inside the cloud and this conveys certain information on the DER vertical profile (DVP). However, this information is insufficient to retrieve any shape of DVP and thus a linear DVP was assumed. In this study, three DVPs are examined: (1) as in [2002], a linear DVP proportional to the in-cloud optical depth, (2) a linear DVP proportional to the height within the cloud, and (3) a DVP where the liquid water content (LWC) within the cloud varies linearly with height. The latter two assumptions are in closer conformity with in-situ observations. Algorithms that can retrieve both the DVP and cloud liquid water path (LWP) are presented. The cloud LWPs derived based on the retrieved DVPs are more sound than those obtained from assuming a vertical-constant DER profile. To enhance the DVP retrievals, a split-window technique is presented to better estimate the amount of above-cloud precipitable water (PW). The retrieval algorithms are applied to the MODIS Level-1B 1-km data and presently tested for two stratiform cloud cases observed over the north-central Oklahoma where independent cloud microphysics data are available from the United States Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Good agreements in the retrieved DER profile, LWP, and above-cloud PW are found in a preliminary demonstration of the new approach. Sensitivity of the retrieved DER profile to uncertainties in the above-cloud PW and surface albedos is also discussed.

  5. Precipitation Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Although weather, including its role in the water cycle, is included in most elementary science programs, any further examination of raindrops and snowflakes is rare. Together rain and snow make up most of the precipitation that replenishes Earth's life-sustaining fresh water supply. When viewed individually, raindrops and snowflakes are quite…

  6. Association between Precipitation Upstream of a Drinking Water Utility and Nurse Advice Calls Relating to Acute Gastrointestinal Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Tornevi, Andreas; Axelsson, Gösta; Forsberg, Bertil

    2013-01-01

    Background The River Göta Älv is a source of fresh-water for the City of Gothenburg (Sweden). We recently identified a clear association between upstream precipitation and indicator bacteria concentrations in the river water outside the intake to the drinking water utility. This study aimed to determine if variation in the incidence of acute gastrointestinal illnesses is associated with upstream precipitation. Methods We acquired data, covering 1494 days, on the daily number of telephone calls to the nurse advice line from citizens in Gothenburg living in areas with Göta Älv as a fresh-water supply. We separated calls relating to gastrointestinal illnesses from other medical concerns, and analyzed their association with precipitation using a distributed lag non-linear Poisson regression model, adjusting for seasonal patterns and covariates. We used a 0–21-day lag period for precipitation to account for drinking water delivery times and incubation periods of waterborne pathogens. Results The study period contained 25,659 nurse advice calls relating to gastrointestinal illnesses. Heavy rainfall was associated with increased calls the same day and around 5–6 days later. Consecutive days of wet weather were also found to be associated with an increase in the daily number of gastrointestinal concerns. No associations were identified between precipitation and nurse advice calls relating to other medical concerns. Conclusion An increase in nurse advice calls relating to gastrointestinal illnesses around 5–6 days after heavy rainfall is consistent with a hypothesis that the cause could be related to drinking water due to insufficient barriers in the drinking water production, suggesting the need for improved drinking water treatment. PMID:23875009

  7. Observations of precipitable water vapor fluctuations in convective boundary layer via microwave interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, X.M.; Carlos, R.C.; Kirkland, M.W.; Kao, C.J.; Jacobson, A.R.

    1999-07-01

    At microwave frequencies, each centimeter of precipitable water vapor (PWV) causes about 6.45 cm of extra electrical path length relative to the {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} air. The fluctuations of the water vapor dominate the changes of the effective path length through the atmosphere in a relatively short time period of a few hours. In this paper we describe a microwave interferometer developed for water vapor investigations and present the observation results. The interferometer consists of 10 antennas along two orthogonal 400-m arms that form many baselines (antenna pairs) ranging from 100 to 400 m. All the antennas receive a common CW signal (11.7 GHz) from a geostationary television satellite, and phase differences between pairs of antennas are measured. The phase differences reflect the column-integrated water vapor differences from the top of the atmosphere to the spatially separated antennas at the ground. The interferometric, baseline-differential measurements allow us to study the statistical properties of the PWV fluctuations, as well as the turbulent activity of the convective boundary layer (CBL). Structure function analysis of the interferometer measurements shows good agreement with results obtained from the Very Large Array (VLA) and with a theoretical model developed for radio astronomical very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), reported previously by other investigators. The diurnally varying structure constant correlates remarkably well with the combination of the latent and sensible heat fluxes measured simultaneously from a 10-m meteorological tower. The average drift velocity of the PWV over the interferometer was also derived from the measurements. The derived velocity agrees well during the morning hours with the wind measured by an anemometer at the center of the interferometer. {copyright} 1999 American Geophysical Union

  8. Colorado river basin and climatic change. The sensitivity of streamflow and water supply to variations in temperature and precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, L.L.; Gleick, P.H.

    1993-12-01

    Growing international concern about the greenhouse effect has led to increased interest in the regional implications of changes in temperature and precipitation patterns for a wide range of societal and natural systems, including agriculture, sea level, biodiversity, and water resources. The accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere due to human activities are likely to have significant, though still poorly understood, impacts on water quality and availability. One method developed over the last several years for determining how regional water resources might be affected by climatic change is to develop scenarios of changes in temperature and precipitation and to use hydrologic simulation models to study the impacts of these scenarios on runoff and water supply. In the paper the authors present the results of a multi-year study of the sensitivity of the hydrology and water resources systems in the Colorado River Basin to plausible climatic changes.

  9. The Impact of Urbanization on the Precipitation Component of the Water Cycle: A New Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shephard, J. Marshal

    2002-01-01

    It is estimated that by the year 2025, 60% of the world s population will live in cities (UNFP, 1999). As cities continue to grow, urban sprawl (e.g., the expansion of urban surfaces outward into rural surroundings) creates unique problems related to land use, transportation, agriculture, housing, pollution, and development. Urban expansion also has measurable impacts on environmental processes. Urban areas modify boundary layer processes through the creation of an urban heat island (UHI). The literature indicates that the signature of the urban heat island effect may be resolvable in rainfall patterns over and downwind of metropolitan areas. However, a recent U.S. Weather Research Program panel concluded that more observational and modeling research is needed in this area (Dabberdt et al. 2000). NASA and other agencies initiated programs such as the Atlanta Land-use Analysis: Temperature and Air Quality Project (ATLANTA) (Quattrochi et al. 1998) which aimed to identify and understand how urban heat islands impact the environment. However, a comprehensive assessment of the role of urban-induced rainfall in the global water and energy cycle (GWEC) and cycling of freshwater was not a primary focus of these efforts. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) seeks to develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its response to natural or human-induced changes to enable improved prediction capability for climate, weather, and natural hazards (NASA, 2000). Within this mission, the ESE has three basic thrusts: science research to increase Earth system knowledge; an applications program to transfer science knowledge to practical use in society; and a technology program to enable new, better, and cheaper capabilities for observing the earth. Within this framework, a research program is underway to further address the co-relationship between land cover use and change (e.g. urban development) and its impact on key components of the GWEC (e.g., precipitation). This

  10. Atmospheric total precipitable water from AIRS and ECMWF during Antarctic summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hengchun; Fetzer, Eric J.; Bromwich, David H.; Fishbein, Evan F.; Olsen, Edward T.; Granger, Stephanie L.; Lee, Sung-Yung; Chen, Luke; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.

    2007-10-01

    This study compares the atmospheric total precipitable water (PWV) obtained by Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) with radiosondes and the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analysis products during December 2003 and January 2004. We find that PWV from AIRS Level 3 (daily gridded) data is about 9% drier while ECMWF is 14% moister than sondes at the two grid points closest to the Dome C radiosonde site on the Antarctic Plateau at 3233 m elevation. The largest ECMWF moist biases occur on warmer days at Dome C. When AIRS Level 3 data are compared with ECMWF over the entire Antarctic continent, AIRS and ECMWF PWV have similar variability (correlation coefficients are predominantly 0.8 or higher), but with AIRS drier over most of the Antarctic by a consistent offset of about 0.1-0.2 mm. Because of this constant difference, the largest percentage differences are found over the highland areas of about 2500 meters and above, where absolute water vapor amounts are smallest.

  11. The comparison of IR and MW ground-based measurements of total precipitable water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, I. A.; Virolainen, Ya. A.; Timofeyev, Yu. M.; Poberovskii, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    Water vapor is one of the basic climate gases playing a key role in various processes at different altitudes of the Earth's atmosphere. An intercomparison and validation of different total precipitable water (TPW) measurement methods are important for determining the true accuracy of these methods, the shared use of data from multiple sources, the creation of data archives of different measurements, etc. In this paper, the TPW values obtained from measurements of solar IR spectral radiation (~8-9 μm absorption band) and thermal MW radiation of the atmosphere (1.35 cm absorption line) for 138 days of observation are compared. Measurements have been carried out from March 2013 to June 2014 at Peterhof station of the St. Petersburg State University in (59.88° N, 29.82° E). It is shown that MW measurements usually give higher TPW values than IR measurements. The bias between the two methods varies from 1 to 8% for small and large TPW values, respectively. With increasing TPW values, the bias reduces and for TPW > 1 cm it is ~1%. Standard deviation (SD) between the two methods reaches 7% for TPW < 0.4 cm and 3-5% for TPW > 1 cm. These data show the high quality of both remote sensing methods. Moreover, the IR measurements have a higher accuracy than MW measurements for small TPW values.

  12. Methodology to assess water presence on speleothems during periods of low precipitation, with implications for recharge sources - Kartchner Caverns, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blasch, Kyle W.

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in January 2005, recharge processes and the presence of water on speleothems were monitored in Kartchner Caverns during a 44-month period when annual rainfall rates were 6 to 18 percent below the long-term mean. Electrical-resistance sensors designed to detect the presence of water were used to identify ephemeral streamflow in the channels overlying the cave as well as the movement of water within the cave system. Direct infiltration of precipitation through overhead rocks provided consistent inflow to the cave, but precipitation rates and subsequent infiltration rates were reduced during the comparatively dry years. Ephemeral stream-channel recharge through autogenic and allogenic processes, the predominant recharge mechanism during wetter periods, was limited to two low-volume events. From visual observations, it appeared that recharge from channel infiltration was equal to or less than recharge from overhead infiltration. Electrical-resistance sensors were able to detect thin films of water on speleothems, including stalactites, ribbons, and stalagmites. These films of water were directly attributed to overhead infiltration of precipitation. Periods of low precipitation resulted in decreased speleothem wetness.

  13. The Use of Water Vapor for Detecting Environments that Lead to Convectively Produced Heavy Precipitation and Flash Floods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scofield, Rod; Vicente, Gilberto; Hodges, Mike

    2000-01-01

    This Tech Report summarizes years of study and experiences on using GOES Water vapor (6.7 micron and precipitable water) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/1) from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) derived Precipitable Water (PNAI) for detecting environments favorable for convectively produced flash floods. An emphasis is on the moisture. upper air flow, and equivalent potential temperature (Theta(sub e)) patterns that lead to devastating flood events. The 15 minute 6.7 micron water vapor imagery is essential for tracking middle to upper tropospheric disturbances that produce upward vertical motion and initiate flash flood producing systems. Water vapor imagery at 6.7 micron is also used to detect surges of upper level moisture (called tropical water vapor plumes) that have been associated with extremely heavy rainfall. Since the water vapor readily depicts lifting mechanisms and upper level moisture, water vapor imagery is often an excellent source of data for recognizing patterns of heavy precipitation and flash floods. In order to analyze the depth of the moisture, the PW aspects of the troposphere must be measured. The collocation (or nearby location) of high values ofP\\V and instability are antecedent conditions prior to the flash flood or heavy rainfall events. Knowledge of PW magnitudes have been used as thresholds for impending flash flood events, PW trends are essential in flash flood prediction. Conceptual models and water vapor products are used to study some of the characteristics of convective systems that occurred over the United States of America (USA) during the summer of 1997 and the 1997-1998 El Nino. P\\V plumes were associated with most of the \\vest coast heavy precipitation events examined during the winter season of 1997 - 1998, In another study, conducted during the summer season of 1997. results showed that the collocation of water vapor (6.7 micron) and P\\N' plumes possessed higher correlations with predicted

  14. Precipitation, Ground-water Hydrology, and Recharge Along the Eastern Slopes of the Sandia Mountains, Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, Kurt J.; Blanchard, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of recharge to carbonate and clastic aquifers along the eastern slopes of the Sandia Mountains was investigated by using precipitation, water-level, dissolved chloride, and specific-conductance data. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bernalillo County Public Works Division, conducted a study to assess ground-water conditions and provide technical data that could be used as a basis for management and future planning of eastern Bernalillo County water resources. The intent of the investigation was to improve the current understanding of subsurface mechanisms controlling recharge dynamics in a geologically complex aquifer system. In the Sandia Mountains, precipitation events are generally limited to snowfalls in winter months and monsoon rainfall in late summer. Monthly meteorological data from weather stations in the study area indicate that monsoon rainfall during July and August constitutes close to one-third of annual precipitation totals. Following precipitation and snowmelt events, daily ground-water level data show low-amplitude, long-duration peaks in hydrographs of wells north and west of the Tijeras Fault. Hydrographs of monthly and biannual water-level data from across the study area show seasonal variation and water-level fluctuations in excess of 30 ft during a period of below-average precipitation. Water level observations in 67 percent of wells showing drought-induced water-level declines rebounded to at or near predrought conditions within 6 months of return to normal climate conditions. Cross-correlation of annual hydrologic data shows aquifer response to periods of monsoon recharge to persist from 1 to 6 months following events. The lag time between precipitation input and response of water levels or solute concentrations was largest near the Tijeras and Gutierrez Faults. These results indicate regional faults hydrologically isolate the Tijeras Graben from groundwater recharge originating

  15. Biases in Total Precipitable Water Vapor Climatologies from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric J.; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Eldering, Annmarie; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Chahine, Moustafa T.

    2006-01-01

    We examine differences in total precipitable water vapor (PWV) from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) experiments sharing the Aqua spacecraft platform. Both systems provide estimates of PWV over water surfaces. We compare AIRS and AMSR-E PWV to constrain AIRS retrieval uncertainties as functions of AIRS retrieved infrared cloud fraction. PWV differences between the two instruments vary only weakly with infrared cloud fraction up to about 70%. Maps of AIRS-AMSR-E PWV differences vary with location and season. Observational biases, when both instruments observe identical scenes, are generally less than 5%. Exceptions are in cold air outbreaks where AIRS is biased moist by 10-20% or 10-60% (depending on retrieval processing) and at high latitudes in winter where AIRS is dry by 5-10%. Sampling biases, from different sampling characteristics of AIRS and AMSR-E, vary in sign and magnitude. AIRS sampling is dry by up to 30% in most high-latitude regions but moist by 5-15% in subtropical stratus cloud belts. Over the northwest Pacific, AIRS samples conditions more moist than AMSR-E by a much as 60%. We hypothesize that both wet and dry sampling biases are due to the effects of clouds on the AIRS retrieval methodology. The sign and magnitude of these biases depend upon the types of cloud present and on the relationship between clouds and PWV. These results for PWV imply that climatologies of height-resolved water vapor from AIRS must take into consideration local meteorological processes affecting AIRS sampling.

  16. Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Ground Water, Air, and Precipitation at North Windham, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Martha G.; Peckenham, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Thirty-one monitoring wells in the Windham aquifer in North Windham, Maine, were sampled for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) from July 1998 to May 1999. MTBE was detected in 35 percent of the wells sampled in the Windham aquifer. MTBE was detected in 64 percent of wells in the high-yielding part of the aquifer; these wells account for 82 percent of all wells with detectable MTBE. Land cover also was found to be associated with MTBE in the wells in the study area, with the urban and low-density residential areas having more MTBE than undeveloped areas. The median concentration in wells with detectable MTBE was 1.13 micrograms per liter. Air and precipitation samples were collected in North Windham along with ground-water samples. Air samples were collected every 10 days from December 1998 to July 1999 (20 samples). MTBE was present in all 20 air samples collected, at concentrations ranging from 0.03 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) to 1.0 ppbv. Before Maine opted out of the reformulated gasoline (RFG) program in the spring of 1999, median concentrations in air at the North Windham site were 0.25 ppbv. After Maine stopped using RFG, the median concentration in air dropped to 0.09 ppbv. No MTBE was detected in four samples of precipitation at North Windham. The lack of rainfall during the study period prevented the collection of an adequate number of samples, and technical difficulties negated the results of some of the analyses of the samples that were collected. Based on the equilibrium partitioning of MTBE from the air into rain, the hypothetical average concentration of MTBE in rainfall during months when recharge typically occurs (March-April and October-December) would be approximately 0.3 to 0.4 micrograms per liter during the time that RFG was being used in Maine. After the phaseout of RFG, the maximum average concentration of MTBE in rainfall during these months would be approximately 0.1 micrograms per liter. The distribution and concentrations of MTBE that

  17. Global Positioning System (GPS) Precipitable Water in Forecasting Lightning at Spaceport Canaveral

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehrer, Kristen; Graf, Brian G.; Roeder, William

    2005-01-01

    Using meteorology data, focusing on precipitable water (PW), obtained during the 2000-2003 thunderstorm seasons in Central Florida, this paper will, one, assess the skill and accuracy measurements of the current Mazany forecasting tool and, two, provide additional forecasting tools that can be used in predicting lightning. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) are located in east Central Florida. KSC and CCAFS process and launch manned (NASA Space Shuttle) and unmanned (NASA and Air Force Expendable Launch Vehicles) space vehicles. One of the biggest cost impacts is unplanned launch scrubs due to inclement weather conditions such as thunderstorms. Each launch delay/scrub costs over a quarter million dollars, and the need to land the Shuttle at another landing site and return to KSC costs approximately $ 1M. Given the amount of time lost and costs incurred, the ability to accurately forecast (predict) when lightning will occur can result in significant cost and time savings. All lightning prediction models were developed using binary logistic regression. Lightning is the dependent variable and is binary. The independent variables are the Precipitable Water (PW) value for a given time of the day, the change in PW up to 12 hours, the electric field mill value, and the K-index value. In comparing the Mazany model results for the 1999 period B against actual observations for the 2000-2003 thunderstorm seasons, differences were found in the False Alarm Rate (FAR), Probability of Detection (POD) and Hit Rate (H). On average, the False Alarm Rate (FAR) increased by 58%, the Probability of Detection (POD) decreased by 31% and the Hit Rate decreased by 20%. In comparing the performance of the 6 hour forecast period to the performance of the 1.5 hour forecast period for the Mazany model, the FAR was lower by 15% and the Hit Rate was higher by 7%. However, the POD for the 6 hour forecast period was lower by 16% as compared to the POD of the 1

  18. Global Positioning System (GPS) Precipitable Water in Forecasting Lightning at Spaceport Canaveral

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehrer, Kristen C.; Graf, Brian; Roeder, William

    2006-01-01

    This paper evaluates the use of precipitable water (PW) from Global Positioning System (GPS) in lightning prediction. Additional independent verification of an earlier model is performed. This earlier model used binary logistic regression with the following four predictor variables optimally selected from a candidate list of 23 candidate predictors: the current precipitable water value for a given time of the day, the change in GPS-PW over the past 9 hours, the KIndex, and the electric field mill value. This earlier model was not optimized for any specific forecast interval, but showed promise for 6 hour and 1.5 hour forecasts. Two new models were developed and verified. These new models were optimized for two operationally significant forecast intervals. The first model was optimized for the 0.5 hour lightning advisories issued by the 45th Weather Squadron. An additional 1.5 hours was allowed for sensor dwell, communication, calculation, analysis, and advisory decision by the forecaster. Therefore the 0.5 hour advisory model became a 2 hour forecast model for lightning within the 45th Weather Squadron advisory areas. The second model was optimized for major ground processing operations supported by the 45th Weather Squadron, which can require lightning forecasts with a lead-time of up to 7.5 hours. Using the same 1.5 lag as in the other new model, this became a 9 hour forecast model for lightning within 37 km (20 NM)) of the 45th Weather Squadron advisory areas. The two new models were built using binary logistic regression from a list of 26 candidate predictor variables: the current GPS-PW value, the change of GPS-PW over 0.5 hour increments from 0.5 to 12 hours, and the K-index. The new 2 hour model found the following for predictors to be statistically significant, listed in decreasing order of contribution to the forecast: the 0.5 hour change in GPS-PW, the 7.5 hour change in GPS-PW, the current GPS-PW value, and the KIndex. The new 9 hour forecast model found

  19. A continuous and highly effective static mixing process for antisolvent precipitation of nanoparticles of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuancai; Ng, Wai Kiong; Hu, Jun; Shen, Shoucang; Tan, Reginald B H

    2010-02-15

    Rapid and homogeneous mixing of the solvent and antisolvent is critical to achieve submicron drug particles by antisolvent precipitation technique. This work aims to develop a continuous and highly effective static mixing process for antisolvent precipitation of nanoparticles of poorly water-soluble drugs with spironolactone as a model drug. Continuous antisolvent production of drug nanoparticles was carried out with a SMV DN25 static mixer comprising 6-18 mixing elements. The total flow rate ranged from 1.0 to 3.0 L/min while the flow rate ratio of solvent to antisolvent was maintained at 1:9. It is found that only 6 mixing elements were sufficient to precipitate the particles in the submicron range. Increasing the number of elements would further reduce the precipitated particle size. Increasing flow rate from 1.0 to 3.0 L/min did not further reduce the particle size, while higher drug concentrations led to particle size increase. XRD and SEM results demonstrated that the freshly precipitated drug nanoparticles are in the amorphous state, which would, in presence of the mixture of solvent and antisolvent, change to crystalline form in short time. The lyophilized spironolactone nanoparticles with lactose as lyoprotectant possessed good redispersibility and showed 6.6 and 3.3 times faster dissolution rate than that of lyophilized raw drug formulation in 5 and 10 min, respectively. The developed static mixing process exhibits high potential for continuous and large-scale antisolvent precipitation of submicron drug particles. PMID:19922777

  20. Where Does the Irrigation Water Go? An Estimate of the Contribution of Irrigation to Precipitation Using MERRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Jiangfeng; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Wisser, Dominik; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Mocko, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation is an important human activity that may impact local and regional climate, but current climate model simulations and data assimilation systems generally do not explicitly include it. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) shows more irrigation signal in surface evapotranspiration (ET) than the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) because ERA-Interim adjusts soil moisture according to the observed surface temperature and humidity while MERRA has no explicit consideration of irrigation at the surface. But, when compared with the results from a hydrological model with detailed considerations of agriculture, the ET from both reanalyses show large deficiencies in capturing the impact of irrigation. Here, a back-trajectory method is used to estimate the contribution of irrigation to precipitation over local and surrounding regions, using MERRA with observation-based corrections and added irrigation-caused ET increase from the hydrological model. Results show substantial contributions of irrigation to precipitation over heavily irrigated regions in Asia, but the precipitation increase is much less than the ET increase over most areas, indicating that irrigation could lead to water deficits over these regions. For the same increase in ET, precipitation increases are larger over wetter areas where convection is more easily triggered, but the percentage increase in precipitation is similar for different areas. There are substantial regional differences in the patterns of irrigation impact, but, for all the studied regions, the highest percentage contribution to precipitation is over local land.

  1. Retrieval of Water Vapor Anisotropy using the Japanese Nationwide GPS Array and its Potential for Monitoring of Convective Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Procedures for retrieving two indices indicating the degree of anisotropy of water vapor using the carrier phase of a Global Positioning System (GPS) are introduced. One index describes the spatial concentration of water vapor; the other indicates higher-order water vapor inhomogeneity. GPS analysis can provide more atmospheric information than just PWV. Following MacMillan (1995), the slant path delay (SPD) between a GPS satellite and a receiver at the elevation angle θ and direction angle φ can be written in the following form: SPD(θ,φ)=m(θ)[ZTD+cotθ(Gncosφ+Gesinφ)]+ɛ, where ɛ is postfit residual. The postfit residuals contain information on higher-order atmospheric inhomogeneity (HI). However, other errors that do not originate from the atmosphere are also included (e.g., antenna phase center variation (PCV), signal scattering, multipath, and satellite orbit errors). Therefore, in order to estimate SPD accurately, it is necessary to remove all errors not due to atmospheric inhomogeneity. Shoji et al. (2004) demonstrated that the horizontal scale of the ZTD can be considered as about 600 km, the gradient component (Gn and Ge) as 60 km, and the HI as 2 to 3 km. This result insists that ZTD, Gn and Ge, and HI relate to atmospheric motion of the meso- , meso- , and meso- scales, respectively. The fact allows us defining two new atmospheric indices from GPS SPD as: (1) Water vapor concentration (WVC) index Inner product of nabla operator and gradient vector (Gn and Ge) (2) Water vapor inhomogeneity (WVI) index Standard deviation of ɛ after removing non-atmospheric noises The characteristics of the water vapor field over Japan in August 2011 were studied using the temporal-spatial variation in the two indices along with GPS-derived precipitable water vapor (PWV). The monthly averaged indices indicate distinct diurnal variation in the mountainous region of central Honshu and coincidence with the diurnal variation in precipitation frequencies in the area. The

  2. Relations Between Grace-Derived Water Storage Change with Precipitation and Temperature Over Kaidu River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Zhou, Q.

    2016-06-01

    Water is essential for human survival and well-being, and important to virtually all sectors of the economy. In the aridzone of China's west, water resource is the controlling factor on the distribution of human settlements. Water cycle variation is sensitive to temperature and precipitation, which are influenced by human activity and climate change. Satellite observations of Earth's time-variable gravity field from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, which enable direct measurement of changes of total terrestrial water storage, could be useful to aid this modelling. In this pilot study, TWS change from 2002 to 2013 obtained from GRACE satellite mission over the Kaidu River Basin in Xinjiang, China is presented. Precipitation and temperature data from in-situ station and National Satellite Meteorological Centre of China (NSMC) are analysed to examine whether there is a statistically significant correlation between them.

  3. Trend and interannual variability of summer precipitation and the atmospheric water vapor convergence in the Arctic circumpolar region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiyama, T.; Fujinami, H.; Oshima, K.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated trend and interannual variability of summer (June, July and August) precipitation and the atmospheric water vapor convergence in the Arctic circumpolar region, with an emphasis on recent increase of those around the Lena river basin in eastern Siberia. Data used in this study are an archived precipitation data (PREC/L) and atmospheric re-analysis data (JRA-25, JRA-55). Previous studies have revealed a negative correlation in the summer atmospheric circulation pattern between the Lena and Ob river basins. However little is known about the atmospheric water cycles in the Arctic circumpolar region, including the Mackenzie river basin. Hence we compared the trend and interannual variability of summer precipitation and the atmospheric water vapor convergence in three large North Eurasian river (Lena, Yenisei, and Ob) basins together with the Mackenzie basin. The analyzed results are as follows. 1) In the highest five-year summer precipitation in the Lena river basin during the period 1958 to 2012, the center of the cyclonic circulation shifted to the east, from the Kara and Barents Seas over the region across the Yenisei and Lena. In the years, significant cyclonic deviation was present. The deviation distribution of the height field and the atmospheric water vapor flux from the west to the Lena river basin were significantly increased, so as to form a positive deviation of summer precipitation. 2) Significant increases (positive trend) in the summer precipitation were detected from 1984 to 2011 in the Lena, Yenisei, and the Mackenzie river basins. However, summer precipitation showed significant decreases (negative trend) over Mongolia and Europe/Russia. This was because anticyclones dominated in these regions. 3) A significant enhancement of cyclonic circulation was detected from 2005 to 2008 on the Eurasian side of the Arctic Ocean. However, anticyclones appeared over Mongolia. These probably increased the atmospheric water vapor convergence

  4. Precipitation and temperature variations affecting glacierised Himalayan headwaters and water resources in the upper Indus and Sutlej basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, D. N.; Eaton, D.; Entwistle, N. S.

    2013-12-01

    Both the main stem upper Indus and Sutlej rivers feed major reservoirs for hydropower plants and supply water for irrigated agriculture in the Punjab plains. Flows in both rivers have shown significant decreases since the mid-20th century. Monsoon precipitation, which dominates flow in lower Himalayan section of the Sutlej as the upper basin on the Tibetan plateau is fairly dry, has declined by about 30% since the 1950s maximum. Air temperatures decreased from the 1960s to 1980s before recovering in the early 2000s to previous levels. Any enhanced glacier melt in the late twentieth century failed to offset declining precipitation and river flow continued to fall. In the upper Indus basin, precipitation derived in winter from the westerlies was enhanced but temperatures remained flat at stations in valleys at which measurements were undertaken. Runoff from tributary basins of the Indus, which have variable percentages of ice-cover, appears to be subdued as precipitation gently increased. Temperature was more stable than in mountain basins farther east. Valley bottoms in the Karakoram are arid, so that precipitation on glaciers reduces flow but there is little seasonal slow to melt to contribute to runoff in the ice-free areas. Changes in glacierised area seem to have limited impact on flow in these two significant rivers. Precipitation in Himalayan sub-catchments dominates flow, but has contrasting effects on runoff downstream. Temporal variations in both winter and summer precipitation along the Himalayan arc therefore have strong influences on the sustainability of water resources in the adjacent plains.

  5. Rocks, soils, and water quality. Relationships and implications for effects of acid precipitation on surface water in the northeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, E.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Protas, A.

    1981-05-01

    Distribution of rocks and soils in Northeast counties were investigated for the degree to which they influence pH and alkalinity in surface waters. Using 283 counties, path analysis resulted in two models of equivalent explanatory power. Each model indicated the importance of both rocks and soils as determinants of pH and alkalinity in surface waters, and as important factors in the sensitivity of natural waters to acidification from acid precipitation. Previous studies have emphasized the importance of bedrock geology, at the expense of knowledge about soils, in an understanding of waters sensitive to the effects of acid precipitation. Our regional analysis found that rocks were contributors to the buffering capacity of surface water; however, the presence of a large percentage of alfisol soils better indicates locations of waters with higher levels of alkalinity, and thus of greater resistance to effects of acid rain.

  6. Analytical studies assessing the association between extreme precipitation or temperature and drinking water-related waterborne infections: a review.

    PubMed

    Guzman Herrador, Bernardo R; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben; MacDonald, Emily; Nichols, Gordon; Sudre, Bertrand; Vold, Line; Semenza, Jan C; Nygård, Karin

    2015-03-27

    Determining the role of weather in waterborne infections is a priority public health research issue as climate change is predicted to increase the frequency of extreme precipitation and temperature events. To document the current knowledge on this topic, we performed a literature review of analytical research studies that have combined epidemiological and meteorological data in order to analyze associations between extreme precipitation or temperature and waterborne disease.A search of the databases Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS and Web of Science was conducted, using search terms related to waterborne infections and precipitation or temperature. Results were limited to studies published in English between January 2001 and December 2013.Twenty-four articles were included in this review, predominantly from Asia and North-America. Four articles used waterborne outbreaks as study units, while the remaining articles used number of cases of waterborne infections. Results presented in the different articles were heterogeneous. Although most of the studies identified a positive association between increased precipitation or temperature and infection, there were several in which this association was not evidenced. A number of articles also identified an association between decreased precipitation and infections. This highlights the complex relationship between precipitation or temperature driven transmission and waterborne disease. We encourage researchers to conduct studies examining potential effect modifiers, such as the specific type of microorganism, geographical region, season, type of water supply, water source or water treatment, in order to assess how they modulate the relationship between heavy rain events or temperature and waterborne disease. Addressing these gaps is of primary importance in order to identify the areas where action is needed to minimize negative impact of climate change on health in the future.

  7. Behavior of precipitating water drops under the influence of electrical and aerodynamical forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coquillat, Sylvain; Chauzy, Serge

    1993-06-01

    The present work performs a realistic modeling of precipitating charged water drops under the influence of electrical and dynamical forces in the vertical and downward electric field of a thundercloud. The following factors which control the shape of an individual raindrop are taken into account: surface tension, internal hydrostatic pressure, aerodynamic pressure, and electrostatic pressure. Unlike a recent and notable work by Chuang and Beard (1990) in which this problem is approached by adjusting an empirical pressure distribution for the distortion, our model considers simple local pressure balance to determine the drop shape. This computation aims at characterizing drop distortion, falling speed modification, and disruption. The overall present results are similar to those of Chuang and Beard's more sophisticated model, and the predicted critical fields are even closer to wind tunnel measurements by Richards and Dawson (1971). The disruption of positively charged drops requires lower ambient fields than that of the negatively charged drops, and for highly charged and large drops they are of the order of those commonly measured within thunderclouds. At last, the terminal velocity is highly affected by net charge and ambient field. These processes are probably important in lightning initiation during drop disruption.

  8. Forecasting the precipitable water vapour content: validation for astronomical observatories using radiosoundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Jordán, G.; Castro-Almazán, J. A.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Codina, B.; Vernin, J.

    2015-09-01

    The atmospheric precipitable water vapour content (PWV) strongly affects astronomical observations in the infrared (IR). We have validated the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model as an operational forecasting tool for PWV. In the validation, we used atmospheric radiosounding data obtained directly at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory [ORM: ≈2200 metres above sea level (masl)] during three intensive runs and an aditional verification sample of 1 yr of radiosonde data from World Meteorological Organization (WMO) station 60018 in Güímar (Tenerife, TFE: ≈105 masl). These data sets allowed us to calibrate the model at the observatory site and to validate it under different PWV and atmospheric conditions. The ability of the WRF model in forecasting the PWV at astronomical observatories and the effects of horizontal model grid size on the computed PWV and vertical profiles of humidity are discussed. An excellent agreement between model forecasts and observations was found at both locations, with correlations above 0.9 in all cases. Subtle but significant differences between model horizontal resolutions have been found, the 3 km grid size being the most accurate and the one selected for future work. Absolute calibrations are given for the lowest and finest grid resolutions. The median PWV values obtained were 3.8 and 18.3 mm at ORM and TFE, respectively. WRF forecasts will complement the PWV measured by the GPS monitoring system at the Canarian Observatories.

  9. Comparison of Precipitable Water Vapor Observations by GPS, Radiosonde and NWP Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chang-Geun; Baek, Jeongho; Cho, Jungho

    2009-12-01

    Precipitable water vapor (PWV) derived from a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model were compared to observations derived from ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. The model data compared were from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model short-range forecasts on nested grids. The numerical experiments were performed by selecting the cloud microphysics schemes and for the comparisons, the Changma period of 2008 was selected. The observational data were derived from GPS measurements at 9-sites in South Korea over a 1-month period, in the middle of June-July 2008. In general, the WRF model demonstrated considerable skill in reproducing the temporal and spatial evolution of the PWV as depicted by the GPS estimations. The correlation between forecasts and GPS estimates of PWV depreciated slowly with increasing forecast times. Comparing simulations with a resolution of 18 km and 6 km showed no obvious PWV dependence on resolution. Besides, GPS and the model PWV data were found to be in quite good agreement with data derived from radiosondes. These results indicated that the GPS-derived PWV data, with high temporal and spatial resolution, are very useful for meteorological applications.

  10. Whole-plant water flux in understory red maple exposed to altered precipitation regimes.

    PubMed

    Wullschleger, Stan D.; Hanson, Paul J.; Tschaplinski, Tim J.

    1998-02-01

    Sap flow gauges were used to estimate whole-plant water flux for five stem-diameter classes of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) growing in the understory of an upland oak forest and exposed to one of three large-scale (0.64 ha) manipulations of soil water content. This Throughfall Displacement Experiment (TDE) used subcanopy troughs to intercept roughly 30% of the throughfall on a "dry" plot and a series of pipes to move this collected precipitation across an "ambient" plot and onto a "wet" plot. Saplings with a stem diameter larger than 10 cm lost water at rates 50-fold greater than saplings with a stem diameter of 1 to 2 cm (326 versus 6.4 mol H(2)O tree(-1) day(-1)). These size-class differences were driven largely by differences in leaf area and cross-sectional sapwood area, because rates of water flux expressed per unit leaf area (6.90 mol H(2)O m(-2) day(-1)) or sapwood area (288 mol H(2)O dm(-2) day(-1)) were similar among saplings of the five size classes. Daily and hourly rates of transpiration expressed per unit leaf area varied throughout much of the season, as did soil matrix potentials, and treatment differences due to the TDE were observed during two of the seven sampling periods. On July 6, midday rates of transpiration averaged 1.88 mol H(2)O m(-2) h(-1) for saplings in the "wet" plot, 1.22 mol H(2)O m(-2) h(-1) for saplings in the "ambient" plot, and 0.76 mol H(2)O m(-2) h(-1) for saplings in the "dry" plot. During the early afternoon of August 28, transpiration rates were sevenfold lower for saplings in the "dry" plot compared to saplings in the "wet" plot and 2.5-fold lower compared to saplings in the "ambient" plot. Treatment differences in crown conductance followed a pattern similar to that of transpiration, with values that averaged 60% lower for saplings in the "dry" plot compared to saplings in the "wet" plot and 35% lower compared to saplings in the "ambient" plot. Stomatal and boundary layer conductances were roughly equal in magnitude

  11. The effects of precipitation, river discharge, land use and coastal circulation on water quality in coastal Maine.

    PubMed

    Tilburg, Charles E; Jordan, Linda M; Carlson, Amy E; Zeeman, Stephan I; Yund, Philip O

    2015-07-01

    Faecal pollution in stormwater, wastewater and direct run-off can carry zoonotic pathogens to streams, rivers and the ocean, reduce water quality, and affect both recreational and commercial fishing areas of the coastal ocean. Typically, the closure of beaches and commercial fishing areas is governed by the testing for the presence of faecal bacteria, which requires an 18-24 h period for sample incubation. As water quality can change during this testing period, the need for accurate and timely predictions of coastal water quality has become acute. In this study, we: (i) examine the relationship between water quality, precipitation and river discharge at several locations within the Gulf of Maine, and (ii) use multiple linear regression models based on readily obtainable hydrometeorological measurements to predict water quality events at five coastal locations. Analysis of a 12 year dataset revealed that high river discharge and/or precipitation events can lead to reduced water quality; however, the use of only these two parameters to predict water quality can result in a number of errors. Analysis of a higher frequency, 2 year study using multiple linear regression models revealed that precipitation, salinity, river discharge, winds, seasonality and coastal circulation correlate with variations in water quality. Although there has been extensive development of regression models for freshwater, this is one of the first attempts to create a mechanistic model to predict water quality in coastal marine waters. Model performance is similar to that of efforts in other regions, which have incorporated models into water resource managers' decisions, indicating that the use of a mechanistic model in coastal Maine is feasible.

  12. The effects of precipitation, river discharge, land use and coastal circulation on water quality in coastal Maine

    PubMed Central

    Tilburg, Charles E.; Jordan, Linda M.; Carlson, Amy E.; Zeeman, Stephan I.; Yund, Philip O.

    2015-01-01

    Faecal pollution in stormwater, wastewater and direct run-off can carry zoonotic pathogens to streams, rivers and the ocean, reduce water quality, and affect both recreational and commercial fishing areas of the coastal ocean. Typically, the closure of beaches and commercial fishing areas is governed by the testing for the presence of faecal bacteria, which requires an 18–24 h period for sample incubation. As water quality can change during this testing period, the need for accurate and timely predictions of coastal water quality has become acute. In this study, we: (i) examine the relationship between water quality, precipitation and river discharge at several locations within the Gulf of Maine, and (ii) use multiple linear regression models based on readily obtainable hydrometeorological measurements to predict water quality events at five coastal locations. Analysis of a 12 year dataset revealed that high river discharge and/or precipitation events can lead to reduced water quality; however, the use of only these two parameters to predict water quality can result in a number of errors. Analysis of a higher frequency, 2 year study using multiple linear regression models revealed that precipitation, salinity, river discharge, winds, seasonality and coastal circulation correlate with variations in water quality. Although there has been extensive development of regression models for freshwater, this is one of the first attempts to create a mechanistic model to predict water quality in coastal marine waters. Model performance is similar to that of efforts in other regions, which have incorporated models into water resource managers' decisions, indicating that the use of a mechanistic model in coastal Maine is feasible. PMID:26587258

  13. The effects of precipitation, river discharge, land use and coastal circulation on water quality in coastal Maine.

    PubMed

    Tilburg, Charles E; Jordan, Linda M; Carlson, Amy E; Zeeman, Stephan I; Yund, Philip O

    2015-07-01

    Faecal pollution in stormwater, wastewater and direct run-off can carry zoonotic pathogens to streams, rivers and the ocean, reduce water quality, and affect both recreational and commercial fishing areas of the coastal ocean. Typically, the closure of beaches and commercial fishing areas is governed by the testing for the presence of faecal bacteria, which requires an 18-24 h period for sample incubation. As water quality can change during this testing period, the need for accurate and timely predictions of coastal water quality has become acute. In this study, we: (i) examine the relationship between water quality, precipitation and river discharge at several locations within the Gulf of Maine, and (ii) use multiple linear regression models based on readily obtainable hydrometeorological measurements to predict water quality events at five coastal locations. Analysis of a 12 year dataset revealed that high river discharge and/or precipitation events can lead to reduced water quality; however, the use of only these two parameters to predict water quality can result in a number of errors. Analysis of a higher frequency, 2 year study using multiple linear regression models revealed that precipitation, salinity, river discharge, winds, seasonality and coastal circulation correlate with variations in water quality. Although there has been extensive development of regression models for freshwater, this is one of the first attempts to create a mechanistic model to predict water quality in coastal marine waters. Model performance is similar to that of efforts in other regions, which have incorporated models into water resource managers' decisions, indicating that the use of a mechanistic model in coastal Maine is feasible. PMID:26587258

  14. Real-time retrieval of precipitable water vapor from GPS and BeiDou observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cuixian; Li, Xingxing; Nilsson, Tobias; Ning, Tong; Heinkelmann, Robert; Ge, Maorong; Glaser, Susanne; Schuh, Harald

    2015-09-01

    The rapid development of the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) brings a promising prospect for the real-time retrieval of zenith tropospheric delays (ZTD) and precipitable water vapor (PWV), which is of great benefit for supporting the time-critical meteorological applications such as nowcasting or severe weather event monitoring. In this study, we develop a real-time ZTD/PWV processing method based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and BDS observations. The performance of ZTD and PWV derived from BDS observations using real-time precise point positioning (PPP) technique is carefully investigated. The contribution of combining BDS and GPS for ZTD/PWV retrieving is evaluated as well. GPS and BDS observations of a half-year period for 40 globally distributed stations from the International GNSS Service Multi-GNSS Experiment and BeiDou Experiment Tracking Network are processed. The results show that the real-time BDS-only ZTD series agree well with the GPS-only ZTD series in general: the RMS values are about 11-16 mm (about 2-3 mm in PWV). Furthermore, the real-time ZTD derived from GPS-only, BDS-only, and GPS/BDS combined solutions are compared with those derived from the Very Long Baseline Interferometry. The comparisons show that the BDS can contribute to real-time meteorological applications, slightly less accurately than GPS. More accurate and reliable water vapor estimates, about 1.3-1.8 mm in PWV, can be obtained if the BDS observations are combined with the GPS observations in the real-time PPP data processing. The PWV comparisons with radiosondes further confirm the performance of BDS-derived real-time PWV and the benefit of adding BDS to standard GPS processing.

  15. Instrumenting Wildlife Water Developments to Measure Precipitation and Estimate Runoff in Remote Catchments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Nevada, available data on precipitation and runoff in remote catchments are extremely limited. The National Weather Service’s Cooperative Observer Network (COOP) includes 178 weather stations, most of which collect precipitation data and qualitative weather observations. Most of these stations ar...

  16. Using Wildlife Water Developments to Measure Precipitation and Estimate Runoff in Remote Catchments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Nevada, available data on precipitation and runoff in remote catchments is extremely limited. The National Weather Service’s Cooperative Observer Network (COOP) includes 178 weather stations, most of which collect precipitation data and qualitative weather observations. Most of these stations a...

  17. Summary and statistical analysis of precipitation and groundwater data for Brunswick County, North Carolina, Water Year 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Strickland, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater conditions in Brunswick County, North Carolina, have been monitored continuously since 2000 through the operation and maintenance of groundwater-level observation wells in the surficial, Castle Hayne, and Peedee aquifers of the North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. Groundwater-resource conditions for the Brunswick County area were evaluated by relating the normal range (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean groundwater-level and precipitation data for water years 2001 to 2008 to median monthly mean groundwater levels and monthly sum of daily precipitation for water year 2008. Summaries of precipitation and groundwater conditions for the Brunswick County area and hydrographs and statistics of continuous groundwater levels collected during the 2008 water year are presented in this report. Groundwater levels varied by aquifer and geographic location within Brunswick County, but were influenced by drought conditions and groundwater withdrawals. Water levels were normal in two of the eight observation wells and below normal in the remaining six wells. Seasonal Kendall trend analysis performed on more than 9 years of monthly mean groundwater-level data collected in an observation well located within the Brunswick County well field indicated there is a strong downward trend, with water levels declining at a rate of about 2.2 feet per year.

  18. Calculation of Precipitable Water for Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy Aircraft (SOFIA): Airplane in the Night Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, Pey Chun; Busby, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, is the new generation airborne observatory station based at NASA s Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility, Palmdale, CA, to study the universe. Since the observatory detects infrared energy, water vapor is a concern in the atmosphere due to its known capacity to absorb infrared energy emitted by astronomical objects. Although SOFIA is hoping to fly above 99% of water vapor in the atmosphere it is still possible to affect astronomical observation. Water vapor is one of the toughest parameter to measure in the atmosphere, several atmosphere modeling are used to calculate water vapor loading. The water vapor loading, or Precipitable water, is being calculated by Matlab along the planned flight path. Over time, these results will help SOFIA to plan flights to regions of lower water vapor loading and hopefully improve the imagery collection of these astronomical features.

  19. NASA-Modified Precipitation Products to Improve EPA Nonpoint Source Water Quality Modeling for the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nigro, Joseph; Toll, David; Partington, Ed; Ni-Meister, Wenge; Lee, Shihyan; Gutierrez-Magness, Angelica; Engman, Ted; Arsenault, Kristi

    2010-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has estimated that over 20,000 water bodies within the United States do not meet water quality standards. Ninety percent of the impairments are typically caused by nonpoint sources. One of the regulations in the Clean Water Act of 1972 requires States to monitor the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), or the amount of pollution that can be carried by a water body before it is determined to be "polluted", for any watershed in the U.S.. In response to this mandate, the EPA developed Better Assessment Science Integrating Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) as a Decision Support Tool (DST) for assessing pollution and to guide the decision making process for improving water quality. One of the models in BASINS, the Hydrological Simulation Program -- Fortran (HSPF), computes daily stream flow rates and pollutant concentration at each basin outlet. By design, precipitation and other meteorological data from weather stations serve as standard model input. In practice, these stations may be unable to capture the spatial heterogeneity of precipitation events especially if they are few and far between. An attempt was made to resolve this issue by substituting station data with NASA modified/NOAA precipitation data. Using these data within HSPF, stream flow was calculated for seven watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Basin during low flow periods, convective storm periods, and annual flows. In almost every case, the modeling performance of HSPF increased when using the NASA-modified precipitation data, resulting in better stream flow statistics and, ultimately, in improved water quality assessment.

  20. Support for site testing of the European Extremely Large Telescope: precipitable water vapor over Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, Florian; Querel, Richard R.; Hanuschik, Reinhard W.; Chacón, Arlette; Caneo, Marta; Cortes, Lissette; Cure, Michel; Illanes, Lizett; Naylor, David A.; Smette, Alain; Sarazin, Marc; Rabanus, David; Tompkins, Gregory

    2010-07-01

    In support of characterization of potential sites for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the Institute for Space Imaging Science (ISIS) and the astrometeorology group of the Universidad Valparaiso have jointly established an improved understanding of atmospheric precipitable water vapour (PWV) above ESO's La Silla Paranal Observatory. In a first step, 8 years worth of high resolution near-IR spectra taken with VLT-UVES have been statistically analysed to reconstruct the PWV history above Paranal. To this end a radiative transfer model of Earth's atmosphere (BTRAM) developed by ISIS has been used. A median PWV of 2.1 mm is found for Paranal based on UVES data covering the period 2001-2008. Furthermore we conclude that Paranal can serve as a reference site for Northern Chile due to the stable atmospheric conditions in the region. The median offset between Paranal and Armazones is derived to be 0.3 mm, but local arbitrary variations of a few tenths of a mm between the sites have been found by measurement. In order to better understand the systematics involved two dedicated campaigns were conducted in August and November 2009. Several methods for determining the water column were employed, including radiosonde launches, continuous measurements by infrared radiometer, and VLT instruments operating at various wavelengths: CRIRES, UVES, VISIR and X-shooter. In a first for astronomical instruments all methods have been evaluated with respect to the radiosondes, the established standard in atmospheric research. Agreement between the radiosondes and the IR radiometer (IRMA) is excellent while all other astronomical methods covering a wavelength range from 700 - 20000 nm have also been successfully validated in a quantitative manner. All available observations were compared to satellite estimates of water vapour above the observatory in an attempt to ground-truth the satellite data. GOES can successfully be used for site

  1. Multilayer Cloud Detection with the MODIS Near-Infrared Water Vapor Absorption Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wind, Galina; Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Hubanks, Paul A,; Pavolonis, Michael J.; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Yang, Ping; Baum, Bryan A.

    2009-01-01

    Data Collection 5 processing for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the NASA Earth Observing System EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft includes an algorithm for detecting multilayered clouds in daytime. The main objective of this algorithm is to detect multilayered cloud scenes, specifically optically thin ice cloud overlying a lower-level water cloud, that presents difficulties for retrieving cloud effective radius using single layer plane-parallel cloud models. The algorithm uses the MODIS 0.94 micron water vapor band along with CO2 bands to obtain two above-cloud precipitable water retrievals, the difference of which, in conjunction with additional tests, provides a map of where multilayered clouds might potentially exist. The presence of a multilayered cloud results in a large difference in retrievals of above-cloud properties between the CO2 and the 0.94 micron methods. In this paper the MODIS multilayered cloud algorithm is described, results of using the algorithm over example scenes are shown, and global statistics for multilayered clouds as observed by MODIS are discussed. A theoretical study of the algorithm behavior for simulated multilayered clouds is also given. Results are compared to two other comparable passive imager methods. A set of standard cloudy atmospheric profiles developed during the course of this investigation is also presented. The results lead to the conclusion that the MODIS multilayer cloud detection algorithm has some skill in identifying multilayered clouds with different thermodynamic phases

  2. Investigation of the Potential for 90Sr Immobilization in INTEC Perched Water via Microbially Facilitated Calcite Precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshiko Fujita; Karen E. Wright; William A. Smith

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this work is to evaluate the applicability of a biogeochemical sequestration approach for remediation of 90Sr contamination in perched water zones underlying the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). The approach is based on the accelerated co-precipitation of the contaminant in calcite, where the acceleration is catalyzed by the microbial urea hydrolysis. We have previously demonstrated the potential for this remediation mechanism to immobilize strontium. Urea hydrolysis promotes calcite precipitation (and trace metal co-precipitation) by increasing groundwater pH and alkalinity. Ureolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which is produced by many environmental microorganisms. In the Snake River Plain Aquifer, which is saturated with respect to calcite, any co-precipitated 90Sr should be effectively sequestered over the long-term, even after return to pre-manipulation conditions. Another advantage of the ureolysis approach is that the NH4+ ions produced by the reaction can exchange with cations sorbed to subsurface minerals, thereby enhancing the availability of the radionuclides for re-capture via a more stable mechanism (co-precipitation rather than adsorption).

  3. Isotopic equilibrium between precipitation and water vapor: evidence from continental rains in central Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderberg, K.; Gerlein, C.; Kemeny, P. C.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    An accurate understanding of the relationships between the isotopic composition of liquid water and that of water vapor in the environment can help describe hydrologic processes across many scales. One such relationship is the isotopic equilibrium between falling raindrops and the surrounding vapor. The degree of equilibration is used to model the isotopic composition of precipitation in isotope-enable general circulation models and land-atmosphere exchange models. Although this equilibrium has been a topic of isotope hydrology research for more than four decades, few studies have included vapor measurements to validate modeling efforts. Recent advances in laser technology have allowed for in situ vapor measurements at high temporal resolution (e.g., >1 Hz). Here we present concomitant rain and vapor measurements for a series of 17 rain events during the 'Continental' rainy season (June through August) at Mpala Research Center in central Kenya. Rain samples (n=218) were collected at intervals of 2 to 35 minutes (median of 3 minutes) depending on the rain rate (0.4 to 10.5 mm/hr). The volume-weighted mean rain values for δ18O, δ2H and D-excess (δ2H - 8* δ18O) were 0.1 ‰, 10.7 ‰, and 10.1 ‰. These values are more enriched than the annual weighted means reported for the area (-2.2 ‰, -7.6 ‰, and 11.0 ‰, respectively). Vapor was measured continuously at ~2Hz (DLT-100, Los Gatos Research), with an inverted funnel intake 4m above the ground surface. The mean vapor isotopic composition during the rain events was -10.0 +/- 1.2 ‰ (1 σ) for δ18O and -73.9 +/- 7.0 ‰ for δ2H. The difference between the rain sample isotopic composition and that of liquid in isotopic equilibrium with the corresponding vapor at the ambient temperature was 0.8 +/- 2.2 ‰ for δ18O and 6.2 +/- 7.0 ‰ for δ2H. This disequilibrium was found to correlate with the natural log of rain rate (R2 of 0.26 for δ18O and 0.46 for δ2H), with lower rain rates having larger

  4. Characteristics of global precipitable water in ENSO events revealed by COSMIC measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Wen-Hsin; Huang, Ching-Yuang; Ho, Shu-Peng; Kuo, Ying-Hwa; Zhou, Xin-Jia

    2013-08-01

    Precipitable water (PW) retrievals from FORMOSAT-3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) measurements were analyzed and compared with those derived from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observation System (AMSR-E) during the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events from 2007 to 2011. For the three ENSO events in 2007-2011, monthly mean binned COSMIC PW results are in a very high correlation (up to 0.98) with those of SSM/I and AMSR-E over the ocean, generally with root-mean-square differences less than 4 mm. PW retrievals from the three satellites are also of similar latitudinal variations. However, the PW is slightly underestimated by GPS RO, in particular, in the tropical regions. This underestimate may be caused partially by the fact that not all RO measurements can reach the surface. Inter-satellite PW anomaly comparisons for the winter months in the ENSO events, with respect to those during the neutral (non-ENSO) months, show consistent ENSO signals with major PW anomaly near the central Pacific in the warm event and near the Indonesian region and east of Australia in the two cold events. However, the 2007/2008 La Niña is somewhat less correlated for COSMIC with AMSR-E and SSM/I. For the stronger 2010/2011 La Niña, their PW anomalies are in higher correlations of about 0.8.

  5. Evaluation of Atmospheric Precipitable Water from Reanalysis Products Using Homogenized Radiosonde Observations over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, T.; Wang, J.; Dai, A.

    2015-12-01

    Many multi-decadal atmospheric reanalysis products are avialable now, but their consistencies and reliability are far from perfect. In this study, atmospheric precipitable water (PW) from the NCEP/NCAR, NCEP/DOE, MERRA, JRA-55, JRA-25, ERA-Interim, ERA-40, CFSR and 20CR reanalyses is evaluated against homogenized radiosonde observations over China during 1979-2012 (1979-2001 for ERA-40). Results suggest that the PW biases in the reanalyses are within ˜20% for most of northern and eastern China, but the reanalyses underestimate the observed PW by 20%-40% over western China, and by ˜60% over the southwestern Tibetan Plateau. The newer-generation reanalyses (e.g., JRA25, JRA55, CFSR and ERA-Interim) have smaller root-mean-square error (RMSE) than the older-generation ones (NCEP/NCAR, NCEP/DOE and ERA-40). Most of the reanalyses reproduce well the observed PW climatology and interannual variations over China. However, few reanalyses capture the observed long-term PW changes, primarily because they show spurious wet biases before about 2002. This deficiency results mainly from the discontinuities contained in reanalysis RH fields in the mid-lower troposphere due to the wet bias in older radiosonde records that are assimilated into the reanalyses. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis revealed two leading modes that represent the long-term PW changes and ENSO-related interannual variations with robust spatial patterns. The reanalysis products, especially the MERRA and JRA-25, roughly capture these EOF modes, which account for over 50% of the total variance. The results show that even during the post-1979 satellite era, discontinuities in radiosonde data can still induce large spurious long-term changes in reanalysis PW and other related fields. Thus, more efforts are needed to remove spurious changes in input data for future long-term reanlayses.

  6. Precipitation of arsenic sulphide from acidic water in a fixed-film bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Battaglia-Brunet, Fabienne; Crouzet, Catherine; Burnol, André; Coulon, Stéphanie; Morin, Dominique; Joulian, Catherine

    2012-08-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic element frequently present in acid mine waters and effluents. Precipitation of trivalent arsenic sulphide in sulphate-reducing conditions at low pH has been studied with the aim of removing this hazardous element in a waste product with high As content. To achieve this, a 400m L fixed-film column bioreactor was fed continuously with a synthetic solution containing 100mg L(-1) As(V), glycerol and/or hydrogen, at pH values between 2.7 and 5. The highest global As removal rate obtained during these experiments was close to 2.5mg L(-1)h(-1). A switch from glycerol to hydrogen when the biofilm was mature induced an abrupt increase in the sulphate-reducing activity, resulting in a dramatic mobilisation of arsenic due to the formation of soluble thioarsenic complexes. A new analytical method, based on ionic chromatography, was used to evaluate the proportion of As present as thioarsenic complexes in the bioreactor. Profiles of pH, total As and sulphate concentrations suggest that As removal efficiency was linked to solubility of orpiment (As(2)S(3)) depending on pH conditions. Molecular fingerprints revealed fairly homogeneous bacterial colonisation throughout the reactor. The bacterial community was diverse and included fermenting bacteria and Desulfosporosinus-like sulphate-reducing bacteria. arrA genes, involved in dissimilatory reduction of As(V), were found and the retrieved sequences suggested that As(V) was reduced by a Desulfosporosinus-like organism. This study was the first to show that As can be removed by bioprecipitation of orpiment from acidic solution containing up to 100mg L(-1) As(V) in a bioreactor.

  7. Stable isotope compositions of waters in the Great Basin, United States 3. Comparison of groundwaters with modern precipitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.I.; Friedman, I.; Veronda, G.; Johnson, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater samples from wells and springs, scattered over most of the Great Basin province, were collected and analyzed for their isotopic makeup. They were augmented by previously published isotopic data on groundwaters from southeast California and by several hundred unpublished isotopic analyses. The ratio of 2H (deuterium, D) to 1H, in water samples from valleys in parts of California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Utah, are here compared with the winter, summer, and annual isotopic compositions of precipitation falling in or near the sampled areas. The main goal of this study was to identify basins where the groundwaters have isotopic compositions that are "lighter" (depleted in the heavier isotope, D) relative to modern winter precipitation. Where these basins do not adjoin substantially higher terrain, we consider those light groundwaters to be of Pleistocene age and thus more than 10,000 years old. Where the groundwater is 10 to 19??? lighter than local winter precipitation, we consider it to be possibly an indication of Pleistocene water; where the ??D makeup is >20??? lighter, we consider it to be probably Pleistocene water. More than 80 sites underlain by waters of possible or probable Pleistocene age were identified.

  8. Concentration of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus from water samples by tangential flow filtration and polyethylene glycol precipitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was concentrated from water samples by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, tangential flow filtration (TFF), and by a combination of TFF followed by PEG precipitation of the retentate. Used alone, PEG increased virus titers more than 200-fold, and the efficiency of recovery was as great as 100%. Used alone, TFF concentrated IHNV more than 20-fold, and average recovery was 70%. When the two techniques were combined, 10-L water samples were reduced to about 300 mL by TFF and the virus was precipitated with PEG into a 1 to 2 g pellet; total recovery was as great as 100%. The combined techniques were used to isolate IHNV from water samples taken from a river containing adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and from a hatchery pond containing adult spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha). The combination of these methods was effective in concentrating and detecting IHNV from water containing only three infectious particles per 10-L sample.

  9. Precipitation isotopes link regional climate patterns to water supply in a tropical mountain forest, eastern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, Martha A.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2014-01-01

    Like many mountainous areas in the tropics, watersheds in the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico have abundant rainfall and stream discharge and provide much of the water supply for the densely populated metropolitan areas nearby. Projected changes in regional temperature and atmospheric dynamics as a result of global warming suggest that water availability will be affected by changes in rainfall patterns. It is essential to understand the relative importance of different weather systems to water supply to determine how changes in rainfall patterns, interacting with geology and vegetation, will affect the water balance. To help determine the links between climate and water availability, stable isotope signatures of precipitation from different weather systems were established to identify those that are most important in maintaining streamflow and groundwater recharge. Precipitation stable isotope values in the Luquillo Mountains had a large range, from fog/cloud water with δ2H, δ18O values as high as +12 ‰, −0.73 ‰ to tropical storm rain with values as low as −127 ‰, −16.8 ‰. Temporal isotope values exhibit a reverse seasonality from those observed in higher latitude continental watersheds, with higher isotopic values in the winter and lower values in the summer. Despite the higher volume of convective and low-pressure system rainfall, stable isotope analyses indicated that under the current rainfall regime, frequent trade -wind orographic showers contribute much of the groundwater recharge and stream base flow. Analysis of rain events using 20 years of 15 -minute resolution data at a mountain station (643 m) showed an increasing trend in rainfall amount, in agreement with increased precipitable water in the atmosphere, but differing from climate model projections of drying in the region. The mean intensity of rain events also showed an increasing trend. The determination of recharge sources from stable isotope tracers indicates that water

  10. Association between winter precipitation and water level fluctuations in the Great Lakes and atmospheric circulation patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Rodionov, S.N.

    1994-11-01

    Atmospheric precipitation in the Great Lakes basin, as a major mediating variable between atmospheric circulation and lake levels, is analyzed relative to both. The effect of cumulative winter precipitation on lake levels varies from lake to lake and depends on both the state of the lake level itself and air temperature. For periods with a quasi-stable temperature regime, the correlation coefficient between winter precipitation and changes in lake levels from November to spring months reaches 0.8. An analysis of composite maps of mean winter 700-mb heights and sea level pressure for the years with well-above and well-below normal precipitation in the lower Great Lakes basin (Lakes Michigan-Huron, St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario) has shown that changes in precipitation are associated with the wave train structure in the lower and midtroposphere that is similar to the Pacific/North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern. During the positive phase of the PNA-like pattern, when the upper-atmospheric ridge/trough system is amplified, cyclones passing over the Great Lakes basin are frequently of Alberta (Canada) origin and carry relatively small amounts of precipitation. As a result, lake levels tend to decline. On the contrary, during the negative phase of the pattern when the atmospheric circulation is more zonal, the main storm track is oriented from the southwest to the northeast and cyclones bring enough precipitation to induce a rise in lake levels. The effect of the position of the upper-atmospheric trough over the east coast of North America on the precipitation regime in the Great Lakes basin is also demonstrated. 42 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. A Feasibility Study for Simultaneous Measurements of Water Vapor and Precipitation Parameters using a Three-frequency Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, R.; Liao, L.; Tian, L.

    2005-01-01

    The radar return powers from a three-frequency radar, with center frequency at 22.235 GHz and upper and lower frequencies chosen with equal water vapor absorption coefficients, can be used to estimate water vapor density and parameters of the precipitation. A linear combination of differential measurements between the center and lower frequencies on one hand and the upper and lower frequencies on the other provide an estimate of differential water vapor absorption. The coupling between the precipitation and water vapor estimates is generally weak but increases with bandwidth and the amount of non-Rayleigh scattering of the hydrometeors. The coupling leads to biases in the estimates of water vapor absorption that are related primarily to the phase state and the median mass diameter of the hydrometeors. For a down-looking radar, path-averaged estimates of water vapor absorption are possible under rain-free as well as raining conditions by using the surface returns at the three frequencies. Simulations of the water vapor attenuation retrieval show that the largest source of error typically arises from the variance in the measured radar return powers. Although the error can be mitigated by a combination of a high pulse repetition frequency, pulse compression, and averaging in range and time, the radar receiver must be stable over the averaging period. For fractional bandwidths of 20% or less, the potential exists for simultaneous measurements at the three frequencies with a single antenna and transceiver, thereby significantly reducing the cost and mass of the system.

  12. Chemistry and isotopic composition of precipitation and surface waters in Khumbu valley (Nepal Himalaya): N dynamics of high elevation basins.

    PubMed

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Polesello, Stefano; Sacchi, Elisa

    2014-07-01

    We monitored the chemical and isotopic compositions of wet depositions, at the Pyramid International Laboratory (5050 ma.s.l.), and surrounding surface waters, in the Khumbu basin, to understand precipitation chemistry and to obtain insights regarding ecosystem responses to atmospheric inputs. The major cations in the precipitation were NH4(+) and Ca(2+), whereas the main anion was HCO3(-), which constituted approximately 69% of the anions, followed by NO3(-), SO4(2-) and Cl(-). Data analysis suggested that Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+) were derived from the long-range transport of marine aerosols. Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and HCO3(-) were related to rock and soil dust contributions and the NO3(-) and SO4(2-) concentrations were derived from anthropogenic sources. Furthermore, NH4(+) was derived from gaseous NH3 scavenging. The isotopic composition of weekly precipitation ranged from -1.9 to -23.2‰ in δ(18)O, and from -0.8 to -174‰ in δ(2)H, with depleted values characterizing the central part of the monsoon period. The chemical composition of the stream water was dominated by calcite and/or gypsum dissolution. However, the isotopic composition of the stream water did not fully reflect the composition of the monsoon precipitation, which suggested that other water sources contributed to the stream flow. Precipitation contents for all ions were the lowest ones among those measured in high elevation sites around the world. During the monsoon periods the depositions were not substantially influenced by anthropogenic inputs, while in pre- and post-monsoon seasons the Himalayas could not represent an effective barrier for airborne pollution. In the late monsoon phase, the increase of ionic contents in precipitation could also be due to a change in the moisture source. The calculated atmospheric N load (0.30 kg ha(-1) y(-1)) was considerably lower than the levels that were measured in other high-altitude environments. Nevertheless, the NO3(-) concentrations in the surface waters

  13. Management Choices in an Uncertain Future: Navigating Snow, Precipitation, and Temperature Projections in the Pacific Northwest U.S. to Assess Water Management Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luce, C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate and hydrology models are regularly applied to assess potential changes in water resources and to inform adaptation decisions. An increasingly common question is, "What if we are wrong?" While climate models show substantial agreement on metrics such as pressure, temperature, and wind, they are notoriously uncertain in projecting precipitation change. The response to that uncertainty varies depending on the water management context and the nature of the uncertainty. In the southwestern U.S., large storage reservoirs (relative to annual supply) and general expectations of decreasing precipitation have guided extensive discussion on water management towards uncertainties in annual-scale water balances, precipitation, and evapotranspiration. In contrast, smaller reservoirs and little expectation for change in annual precipitation have focused discussions of Pacific Northwest water management toward shifts in runoff seasonality. The relative certainty of temperature impacts on snowpacks compared to the substantial uncertainty in precipitation has yielded a consistent narrative on earlier snowmelt. This narrative has been reinforced by a perception of essentially the same behavior in the historical record. This perception has led to calls in the political arena for more reservoir storage to replace snowpack storage for water supplies. Recent findings on differences in trends in precipitation at high versus low elevations, however, has recalled the uncertainty in precipitation futures and generated questions about alternative water management strategies. An important question with respect to snowpacks is whether the precipitation changes matter in the context of such substantial projections for temperature change. Here we apply an empirical snowpack model to analyze spatial differences in the uncertainty of snowpack responses to temperature and precipitation forcing across the Pacific Northwest U.S. The analysis reveals a strong geographic gradient in uncertainty

  14. An evaluation of trends in the acidity of precipitation and the related acidification of surface water in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turk, John T.

    1983-01-01

    The acidity of precipitation in the Northeastern United States and Southeastern Canada has increased in the past, probably as a result of anthropogenic emissions. The increase in New England and New York occurred primarily before the mid-1950's. Since the mid1960's, there has been no significant change in the acidity of precipitation in this region; however, sulfate concentrations have decreased and nitrate concentrations may have increased. The time of initial acidification in Southeastern Canada is not known because of a lack of historical data. In the Southeastern United States, the evaluation of whether precipitation has been acidified is complicated by meager data. The available data show that precipitation is more acidic than would be expected for sites unaffected by anthropogenic emissions. In addition, comparison of recent data with the meager historical data suggests, but does not unambiguously prove, increased acidification since the 1950's. In the Western United States, available data indicate that precipitation at individual sites has been acidified by anthropogenic emissions. The acidification generally has been attributable to localized sources, and the time of initial acidification is undefined. Acidification of lakes and streams in the Northeastern United States has occurred in a time frame compatible with the hypothesis that acidification of precipitation was the cause. The acidification of surface waters appears to have occurred before the mid- to late 1960's. In Southeastern Canada, the best-documented cases of acidified lakes point to localized sources of acidic emissions as the cause. Sparse evidence of recent regional acidification of lakes and streams exists, but evidence for acidification of precipitation as the cause is largely lacking. In the Southeastern United States, most data on acidification of surface waters are ambiguous, and in the West, most of the data reflect local conditions. However, recent analysis of a national network of

  15. Streamflow and selected precipitation data for Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada, water years 1983-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pabst, M.E.; Beck, D.A.; Glancy, P.A.; Johnson, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Streamflow and precipitation data collected at and near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, during water years 1983-85, are presented. The data were collected and compiled as part of the studies the U.S. Geological Survey is making, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, to characterize surface water hydrology in the Yucca Mountain area. Streamflow data include daily mean discharges and peak discharges at 4 complete-record gaging stations and peak discharges at 10 crest-stage, partial-record stations and 12 miscellaneous sites. Precipitation data include cumulative totals at 12 stations maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey and daily totals at 17 stations maintained by the Weather Service Nuclear Support Office, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

  16. Streamflow and Selected Precipitation Data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, Water Years 1986-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Thomas G.; Bauer, David J.; Martinez, Clair M.

    1994-01-01

    Streamflow and precipitation data collected at and near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, during water years 1986-90 are presented in this report. The data were collected and compiled as part of the studies by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, to characterize surface-water hydrology in the Yucca Mountain area. Streamflow data include daily-mean discharges and peak discharges at 5 continuous-record gaging stations, and peak discharges at 10 crest-stage, partial-record stations and 2 miscellaneous sites. Precipitation data include cumulative totals at 20 stations maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey and daily totals at 15 stations maintained by the Weather Service Nuclear Support Office, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

  17. Precipitation of iron in microbial mats of the spring waters of Borra Caves, Vishakapatnam, India: some geomicrobiological aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskar, Sushmitha; Baskar, R.; Lee, Natuschka; Kaushik, A.; Theophilus, P. K.

    2008-11-01

    The Borra caves, Vishakapatnam, India, can be described as a speleothem cave with significant amounts of unexplored microbial mats in spring waters. Here, we present the first observations and hypotheses on the possible impact of the microorganisms in these mats on the cave formation, focusing on their role on iron mineral precipitation. The spring waters (pH neutral 7.5 7.7) contained dissolved metals like iron and the organic mat sludge (pH 7.0 7.3) had a TOC content of approximately 5.4 wt%. Geochemically, the spring waters deep below the microbial mats contained Fe 369 ppb, Sr 198 ppb; and the organic mat sludge contained Mg 9 ppm, Fe 427 ppb, Zn 149 ppb, Sr 190 ppb. XRD observations displayed Fe minerals (dominantly hematite), minor amounts of zinc gallium sulfide and nitrofuryl compounds. At least four groups of bacteria identified by direct microscopy and SEM-EDX on the basis of morphology could be observed in all samples: Leptothrix-like organisms, entombed bacterial mineral sheaths, a few stalks of Gallionella-like organisms and some additional bacteria that could not be further identified. Leptothrix-like organisms contained 43.22 60.08 wt % Fe and the mineral precipitated near and around these bacteria (in the actual unaltered samples on site) contained 30.76 45.22 wt% Fe as identified and quantified by SEM-EDX. This study indicates that the precipitation of these iron-rich mats in the spring waters could be linked to the presence of abundant active communities of iron precipitating bacteria at Borra caves, Vishakapatanam.

  18. Stable isotopes in monsoon precipitation and water vapour in Nagqu, Tibet, and their implications for monsoon moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Siyuan; Richards, Keith

    2016-09-01

    Understanding climate variations over the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau has become essential because the high plateau sustains various ecosystems and water sources, and impacts on the Asian monsoon system. This paper provides new information from isotopic signals in meteoric water and atmospheric water vapour on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau using high frequency observation data over a relatively short period. The aim is to explore temporal moisture changes and annual variations at the onset and during the summer monsoon season at a transitional site with respect to the monsoon influence. Data show that high frequency and short period observations can reveal typical moisture changes from the pre-monsoon to the monsoon seasons (2010), and the large variation in isotopic signals in different years with respect to active/inactive periods during a mature phase of the monsoon (2011), especially inferring from the temporal changes in the d-excess of precipitation and its relationship with δ18O values, when higher d-excess is found in the pre-monsoon precipitation. In this transition zone on a daily basis, δ18O values in precipitation are controlled mainly by the amount of rainfall during the monsoon season, while temperature seems more important before the onset of monsoon. Furthermore, the "amount effect" is significant for night-time rain events. From comparison of signals in both the precipitation and water vapour, an inconsistent relationship between d-excess values suggests various moisture fluxes are active in a short period. The temporal pattern of isotopic signal change from the onset of the monsoon to the mature monsoon phase provides information about the larger circulation dynamics of the Asian monsoon.

  19. Exploring the influence of precipitation extremes and human water use on total water storage (TWS) changes in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandu; Forootan, Ehsan; Schumacher, Maike; Awange, Joseph L.; Müller Schmied, Hannes

    2016-03-01

    Climate extremes such as droughts and intense rainfall events are expected to strongly influence global/regional water resources in addition to the growing demands for freshwater. This study examines the impacts of precipitation extremes and human water usage on total water storage (TWS) over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) River Basin in South Asia. Monthly TWS changes derived from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) (2002-2014) and soil moisture from three reanalyses (1979-2014) are used to estimate new extreme indices. These indices are applied in conjunction with standardized precipitation indices (SPI) to explore the impacts of precipitation extremes on TWS in the region. The results indicate that although long-term precipitation do not indicate any significant trends over the two subbasins (Ganges and Brahmaputra-Meghna), there is significant decline in rainfall (9.0 ± 4.0 mm/decade) over the Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin from 1998 to 2014. Both river basins exhibit a rapid decline of TWS from 2002 to 2014 (Ganges: 12.2 ± 3.4 km3/yr and Brahmaputra-Meghna: 9.1 ± 2.7 km3/yr). While the Ganges River Basin has been regaining TWS (5.4 ± 2.2 km3/yr) from 2010 onward, the Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin exhibits a further decline (13.0 ± 3.2 km3/yr) in TWS from 2011 onward. The impact of human water consumption on TWS appears to be considerably higher in Ganges compared to Brahmaputra-Meghna, where it is mainly concentrated over Bangladesh. The interannual water storage dynamics are found to be strongly associated with meteorological forcing data such as precipitation. In particular, extreme drought conditions, such as those of 2006 and 2009, had profound negative impacts on the TWS, where groundwater resources are already being unsustainably exploited.

  20. Precipitation-runoff processes in the Feather River basin, northeastern California, and streamflow predictability, water years 1971-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koczot, Kathryn M.; Jeton, Anne E.; McGurk, Bruce; Dettinger, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Precipitation-runoff processes in the Feather River Basin of northern California determine short- and long-term streamflow variations that are of considerable local, State, and Federal concern. The river is an important source of water and power for the region. The basin forms the headwaters of the California State Water Project. Lake Oroville, at the outlet of the basin, plays an important role in flood management, water quality, and the health of fisheries as far downstream as the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Existing models of the river simulate streamflow in hourly, daily, weekly, and seasonal time steps, but cannot adequately describe responses to climate and land-use variations in the basin. New spatially detailed precipitation-runoff models of the basin have been developed to simulate responses to climate and land-use variations at a higher spatial resolution than was available previously. This report characterizes daily rainfall, snowpack evolution, runoff, water and energy balances, and streamflow variations from, and within, the basin above Lake Oroville. The new model's ability to predict streamflow is assessed. The Feather River Basin sits astride geologic, topographic, and climatic divides that establish a hydrologic character that is relatively unusual among the basins of the Sierra Nevada. It straddles a north-south geologic transition in the Sierra Nevada between the granitic bedrock that underlies and forms most of the central and southern Sierra Nevada and volcanic bedrock that underlies the northernmost parts of the range (and basin). Because volcanic bedrock generally is more permeable than granitic, the northern, volcanic parts of the basin contribute larger fractions of ground-water flow to streams than do the southern, granitic parts of the basin. The Sierra Nevada topographic divide forms a high altitude ridgeline running northwest to southeast through the middle of the basin. The topography east of this ridgeline is more like the rain

  1. Effect of some organic solvent-water mixtures composition on precipitated calcium carbonate in carbonation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopacka-Łyskawa, Donata; Kościelska, Barbara; Karczewski, Jakub

    2015-05-01

    Precipitated calcium carbonate particles were obtained during carbonation of calcium hydroxide slurry with carbon dioxide. Aqueous solutions of isopropyl alcohol, n-butanol and glycerol were used as solvents. Concentration of organic additives in the reactive mixture was from 0% to 20% (vol). Precipitation process were performed in a stirred tank reactor equipped with gas distributor. Multimodal courses of particles size distribution were determined for produced CaCO3 particles. Calcium carbonate as calcite was precipitated in all experiments. The mean Sauter diameter of CaCO3 particles decreased when the concentration of all used organic additives increased. The amount of small particle fraction in the product increased with the increasing concentration of organic solvents. Similar physical properties of used liquid phase resulted in the similar characteristics of obtained particles.

  2. Evaluation of atmospheric precipitable water from reanalysis products using homogenized radiosonde observations over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tianbao; Wang, Juanhuai; Dai, Aiguo

    2015-10-01

    Many multidecadal atmospheric reanalysis products are available now, but their consistencies and reliability are far from perfect. In this study, atmospheric precipitable water (PW) from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR), NCEP/Department of Energy (DOE), Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), Japanese 55 year Reanalysis (JRA-55), JRA-25, ERA-Interim, ERA-40, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), and 20th Century Reanalysis version 2 is evaluated against homogenized radiosonde observations over China during 1979-2012 (1979-2001 for ERA-40). Results suggest that the PW biases in the reanalyses are within ˜20% for most of northern and eastern China, but the reanalyses underestimate the observed PW by 20%-40% over western China and by ˜60% over the southwestern Tibetan Plateau. The newer-generation reanalyses (e.g., JRA25, JRA55, CFSR, and ERA-Interim) have smaller root-mean-square error than the older-generation ones (NCEP/NCAR, NCEP/DOE, and ERA-40). Most of the reanalyses reproduce well the observed PW climatology and interannual variations over China. However, few reanalyses capture the observed long-term PW changes, primarily because they show spurious wet biases before about 2002. This deficiency results mainly from the discontinuities contained in reanalysis relative humidity fields in the middle-lower troposphere due to the wet bias in older radiosonde records that are assimilated into the reanalyses. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis revealed two leading modes that represent the long-term PW changes and El Niño-Southern Oscillation-related interannual variations with robust spatial patterns. The reanalysis products, especially the MERRA and JRA-25, roughly capture these EOF modes, which account for over 50% of the total variance. The results show that even during the post-1979 satellite era, discontinuities in radiosonde data can still

  3. Temporal trends in the acidity of precipitation and surface waters of New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Norman E.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Troutman, David E.

    1982-01-01

    Statistical analyses of precipitation data from a nine-station monitoring network indicate little change in pH from 1965-78 within New York State as a whole but suggest that pH of bulk precipitation has decreased in the western part of the State by approximately 0.2 pH units since 1965 and increased in the eastern part by a similar amount. This trend is equivalent to an annual change in hydrogen-ion concentration of 0.2 microequivalents per liter. An average annual increase in precipitation quantity of 2 to 3 percent since 1965 has resulted in an increased acid load in the western and central parts of the State. During 1965-78, sulfate concentration in precipitation decreased an average of 1-4 percent annually. In general, no trend in nitrate was detected. Calculated trends in hydrogen-ion concentration do not correlate with measured trends of sulfate and nitrate, which suggests variable neutralization of hydrogen ion, possibly by particles from dry deposition. Neutralization has produced an increase of about 0.3 pH units in nonurban areas and 0.7 pH units in urban areas. Statistical analyses of chemical data from several streams throughout New York suggest that sulfate concentrations decreased an average of 1 to 4 percent per year. This decrease is comparable to the sulfate decrease in precipitation during the same period. In most areas of the State, chemical contributions from urbanization and farming, as well as the neutralizing effect of carbonate soils, conceal whatever effects acid precipitation may have on pH of streams.

  4. Effects of landuse and precipitation on pesticides and water quality in playa lakes of the southern high plains.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Todd A; Salice, Christopher J; Erickson, Richard A; McMurry, Scott T; Cox, Stephen B; Smith, Loren M

    2013-06-01

    The 25000 playa wetlands within the Southern High Plains (SHP) of the United States of America (USA) are the dominant hydrogeomorphic feature in the region, providing habitat for numerous plants and wildlife. The SHP are among the most intensively cultivated regions; there are concerns over the degradation and/or loss of playa wetland habitat. We examined water quality in playa wetlands surrounded by both grassland and agriculture and measured water concentrations of pesticides used on cotton (acephate, trifluralin, malathion, pendimethalin, tribufos, bifenthrin, λ-cyhalothrin, acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam), the dominant crop in the SHP. Pesticides used on cotton were detected in water samples collected from all playas. Precipitation events and the amount of cultivation were related to pesticide concentrations in sediment and water. Our results show that pesticide concentrations were related in some circumstances to time, precipitation, and tilled-index for some but not all pesticides. We further compared measured pesticide concentrations in playas to toxicity benchmarks used by the US EPA in pesticide ecological risk assessments to obtain some insight into the potential for ecological effects. For all pesticides in water, the maximum measured concentrations exceeded at least one toxicity benchmark, while median concentrations did not exceed any benchmarks. This analysis indicates that there is a potential for adverse effects of pesticides to aquatic organisms. PMID:23541358

  5. Intraspecific variation in precipitation responses of a widespread C4 grass depends on site water limitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Changes in precipitation expected with climate change have important implications for plant growth and fitness, as well as species genetic diversity and ecological distributions. Intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity – the ability of a genotype to alter its phenotype in response to e...

  6. Influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on water resources in central Iberia: Precipitation, streamflow anomalies, and reservoir management strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Moreno, Juan I.; BegueríA, Santiago; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; GarcíA-Ruiz, José M.

    2007-09-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of the extreme phases of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on water resources in the Spanish region of the Tagus River basin. By analyzing a winter NAO index based on station sea level pressure, the years between 1957 and 2003 were classified as normal, positive, and negative NAO years. A statistical test was then applied to monthly data series of precipitation, river discharge, reservoir storage, and reservoir release to analyze the variations in these variables. For all four variables, significant differences were found between positive and negative NAO years, the former resulting in reduced water availability (negative anomalies) and the latter resulting in increased water availability (positive anomalies). The influence of extreme NAO winters was found to act with different time lags on different variables: The effect of extreme NAO winters on precipitation was found to be quite immediate (and significant for December to March), but this effect was observed later in the year and lasted longer for river discharge, reservoir storage, and water release. Positive and negative NAO years were also found to have different effects on these variables, in that the effects of positive years were more sustained and those of negative years were more rapid and less prolonged. In spite of the high variability of the availability of water resources, the strategies for management of the reservoir system of the basin were found in most cases to provide a regular supply that meets water demands. However, our results also indicate that these water management practices are not adequate for the expected scenarios of climate change and increasing water demand.

  7. Controls on oxygen isotope variability in precipitation and drip water at eight caves in the monsoon regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wuhui; Ruan, Jiaoyang; Luo, Weijun; Li, Tingyong; Tian, Lijun; Zeng, Guangneng; Zhang, Dezhong; Bai, Yijun; Li, Jilong; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Pingzhong; Tan, Ming

    2015-04-01

    Cave monitoring is important to fully understand the climatic significance of stalagmite δ18O records. Most previous studies focus on one cave, or several caves in one area. A large regional-scale investigation on the isotopic composition of precipitation and drip water is scarce. To investigate the regional-scale climate forcing on the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation in the monsoon regions of China (MRC) and how the isotopic signals are transmitted to various drip sites, a three-year-long (2011-2014) on-site rainfall and drip water monitoring program has been carried out with approximately monthly sampling at 37 drip sites in eight caves in the MRC. Neither rainfall amount nor air temperature are the predominant controls on the oxygen isotopic composition of monthly precipitation. The rain in the wet season (May to October), with relatively low δ18O values, is sourced from tropical air masses, whereas the rainfall in the dry season (November to April), with relatively high δ18O values, is mostly sourced from continental air masses. Additionally, the weighted summer rainwater δ18O values decrease from coastal southwest China to inland northeast China, which suggests that the moisture of monsoon rainfall in China originates mainly from Indian Ocean, and transports to the north along the southwest-northeast path. 28 of the 37 drip sites are constant drips with little discernable variation in drip water δ18O through the whole study period. For most of the constant drips, the mean value of each drip water δ18O is nearly identical to or slightly higher than the three-year weighted mean value of the corresponding local rainwater δ18O, indicating these drips may be mainly recharged by none-evaporated or slightly evaporated, well-mixed older water stored in the vadose zone. 7 of all the 37 drip sites are seasonal drips, for which, although the amplitude of drip water δ18O is narrower than that of rainfall, the monthly response of drip water δ18O to

  8. Time series study of concentrations of SO4(2-) and H+ in precipitation and soil waters in Norway.

    PubMed

    Kvaalen, H; Solberg, S; Clarke, N; Torp, T; Aamlid, D

    2002-01-01

    Along with a steady reduction of acid inputs during 14 years of intensive forest monitoring in Norway, the influence of acid deposition upon soil water acidity is gradually reduced in favour of other and internal sources of H+ and sulphate, in particular from processes in the upper soil layer. We used statistical analyses in two steps for precipitation, throughfall and soil water at 5, 15 and 40 cm depths. Firstly, we employed time series analyses to model the temporal variation as a long-term linear trend and a monthly variation, and by this filtered out residual, weekly variation. Secondly, we used the parameter estimates and the residuals from this to show that the long term, the monthly and the weekly variation in one layer were correlated to similar temporal variation in the above, adjacent layer. This was strongly evident for throughfall correlated to precipitation, but much weaker for soil water. Continued acidification in soil water on many plots suggests that the combined effects of anthropogenic and natural acid inputs exceed in places the buffering capacity of the soil.

  9. An assessment of the isotopic (2H/18O) integrity of water samples collected and stored by unattended precipitation totalizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzer, Stefan; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Douence, Cedric; Araguas-Araguas, Luis

    2016-04-01

    The IAEA-WMO Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) provides worldwide δ18O and δ2H data for numerous hydrological and climatological studies. The traditional GNIP sample collection method relies on weather station operators to accumulate precipitation obtained from manual rain gauges. Over the past decades, widespread weather station automatization resulted in the increased use of unattended precipitation totalizers that accumulate and store the rainwater in the field for up to one month. Several low-tech measures were adopted to prevent in situ secondary evaporative isotopic enrichment (SEE) of totalized water samples (i.e. disequilibrium isotopic fractionation after precipitation is stored in the collection device). These include: (a) adding a 0.5-1 cm floating layer of paraffin oil to the totalizer bottle, (b) using an intake tube leading from the collection funnel and submerged to the bottom of the totalizer bottle, or (c) placing a table tennis ball in the funnel aiming to reduce evaporation of the collected water from the receiving bottle to the atmosphere. We assessed the isotopic integrity of stored rainwater samples for three totalizers under controlled settings: each aforementioned totalizer was filled with a 100 or 500 mL of isotopically known water and installed in the field with the intake funnels sheltered to prevent rainwater collection. Potential evapotranspiration (PET) was obtained from on-site meteorological recordings. Stored evaporative loss from each totalizer was evaluated on a monthly basis; gravimetrically and by analysing δ18O and δ2H of the stored water, for a period of 6 months and a cumulative PET of ˜500 mm. The gravimetric and isotope results revealed that for smaller water volumes (100 ml, corresponding to ca. 5 mm of monthly precipitation), negligible isotope enrichment (δ18O) was observed in the paraffin-oil based totalizer, whereas unacceptable evaporative isotope effects were observed for the ball

  10. Acid precipitation. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the causes, and ecological and economic consequences of acid precipitation and deposition. Emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds, loading rates at specific study sites, the role of buffering materials on the acidification of lakes and streams, and the effects on aquatic life are considered. The effects on soil chemistry and vegetation are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Stable isotope study of precipitation and cave drip water in Florida (USA): implications for speleothem-based paleoclimate studies.

    PubMed

    Onac, Bogdan P; Pace-Graczyk, Kali; Atudirei, Viorel

    2008-06-01

    Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen were used to examine how the isotopic signal of meteoric water is modified as it travels through soil and epikarst into two caves in Florida. Surface and cave water samples were collected every week from February 2006 until March 2007. The isotopic composition of precipitation at the investigated sites is highly variable and shows little seasonal control. The delta18O vs. delta2H plot shows a mixing line having a slope of 5.63, suggesting evaporation effects dominate the isotopic composition of most rainfall events of less than 8 cm/day, as indicated by their low d-excess values. The delta18O values of the drip water show little variability (<0.6 per thousand), which is loosely tied to local variations in the seasonal amount of precipitation. This is only seen during wintertime at the Florida Caverns site. The lag time of over two months and the lack of any relationship between rainfall amount and the increase in drip rate indicate a dominance of matrix flow relative to fracture/conduit flow at each site. The long residence time of the vadose seepage waters allows for an effective isotopic homogenisation of individual and seasonal rainfall events. We find no correlation between rainfall and drip water delta18O at any site. The isotopic composition of drip water in both caves consistently tends to resemble the amount-weighted monthly mean rainfall input. This implies that the delta18O of speleothems from these two caves in Florida cannot record seasonal cycle in rainfall delta18O, but are suitable for paleoclimate reconstructions at inter-annual time scales.dagger. PMID:18569187

  12. Intercomparison of Total Atmospheric Precipitable Water Vapor Retrieval Products during the 2009 and 2010 CAPABLE Summer Intensives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pippin, M. R.; Knepp, T. N.; Bedka, S.; Cowen, L.; Murray, J.; Deslover, D.; Feltz, W.; Yesalusky, M. A.; Smith, W.; Cede, A.; Abuhassan, N.; Herman, J. R.; Szykamn, J.

    2011-12-01

    In support of NASA's GEO-CAPE mission and Air Quality Applied Sciences, the Chemistry and Physics Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (CAPABLE) site at NASA Langley Research Center has been established in coordination with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (VA DEQ) to assess the relationship between high temporal resolution measurements from space and continuous in situ surface observations. During the 2009 and 2010 CAPABLE summer intensives, three methods for determining total atmospheric precipitable water vapor were utilized. Continuous total column measurements of water vapor were provided using a Pandora spectrometer, the DOE/NSTec Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST) operated by the Hampton University and the University of Wisconsin Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). Continuous meteorological parameters were measured on a 5m tower and rawinsondes were launched intermittently throughout both measurement periods. We present preliminary results of the intercomparison of total precipitable water vapor from the three instrumental methods and compare with estimated values from dew point temperature and satellite overpass data. Results from this study will have applications to satellite validation and Pandora retrieval algorithm development. Disclaimer: Although this work was reviewed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

  13. Influence of orbital forcing and solar activity on water isotopes in precipitation during the mid- and late Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, S.; Werner, M.; Spangehl, T.; Lohmann, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigate the impact of mid- and late Holocene orbital forcing and solar activity on variations of the oxygen isotopic composition in precipitation. The investigation is motivated by a recently published speleothem δ18O record from the well-monitored Bunker Cave in Germany. The record reveals some high variability on multi-centennial to millennial scales that does not linearly correspond to orbital forcing. Our model study is based on a set of novel climate simulations performed with the atmosphere general circulation model ECHAM5-wiso enhanced by explicit water isotope diagnostics. From the performed model experiments, we derive the following major results: (1) the response of both orbital and solar forcing lead to changes in surface temperatures and δ18O in precipitation with similar magnitudes during the mid- and late Holocene. (2) Past δ18O anomalies correspond to changing temperatures in the orbital driven simulations. This does not hold true if an additional solar forcing is added. (3) Two orbital driven mid-Holocene experiments, simulating the mean climate state approximately 5000 and 6000 yr ago, yield very similar results. However, if an identical additional solar activity-induced forcing is added, the simulated changes of surface temperatures as well as δ18O between both periods differ. We conclude from our simulation results that non-linear effects and feedbacks of the orbital and solar activity forcing substantially alter the δ18O in precipitation pattern and its relation to temperature change.

  14. The transfer of seasonal isotopic variability between precipitation and drip water at eight caves in the monsoon regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wuhui; Ruan, Jiaoyang; Luo, Weijun; Li, Tingyong; Tian, Lijun; Zeng, Guangneng; Zhang, Dezhong; Bai, Yijun; Li, Jilong; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Pingzhong; Baker, Andy; Tan, Ming

    2016-06-01

    This study presents new stable isotope data for precipitation (δ18Op) and drip water (δ18Od) from eight cave sites in the monsoon regions of China (MRC), with monthly to bi-monthly sampling intervals from May-2011 to April-2014, to investigate the regional-scale climate forcing on δ18Op and how the isotopic signals are transmitted to various drip sites. The monthly δ18Op values show negative correlation with surface air temperature at all the cave sites except Shihua Cave, which is opposite to that expected from the temperature effect. In addition, although the monthly δ18Op values are negatively correlated with precipitation at all the cave sites, only three sites are significant at the 95% level. These indicate that, due to the various vapor sources, a large portion of variability in δ18Op in the MRC cannot be explained simply by either temperature or precipitation alone. All the thirty-four drip sites are classified into three types based on the δ18Od variability. About 82% of them are static drips with little discernable variation in δ18Od through the whole study period, but the drip rates of these drips are not necessary constant. Their discharge modes are site-specific and the oxygen isotopic composition of the stalagmites growing from them may record the average of multi-year climatic signals, which are modulated by the seasonality of recharge and potential effects of evaporation, and in some cases infiltration from large rainfall events. About 12% of the thirty-four drip sites are seasonal drips, although the amplitude of δ18Od is narrower than that of δ18Op, the monthly response of δ18Od to coeval precipitation is not completely damped, and some of them follow the seasonal trend of δ18Op very well. These drips may be mainly recharged by present-day precipitation, mixing with some stored water. Thus, the stalagmites growing under them may record portions of the seasonal climatic signals embedded in δ18Op. About 6% of the thirty-four drip sites

  15. Effects of the eruptions of Mount St. Helens on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface water, ground water, and precipitation in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Douglas B.

    1996-01-01

    Over 120 publications that describe the 1980 eruption effects of Mount St. Helens on rivers, lakes, and the Columbia River estuary are reviewed. Water-quality changes ranged from minor, short-lived effects, to totally altered drainage basins and newly created lakes. Turbidity increased; concentrations of cations, anions, and dissolved organic carbon increased. Migrating fish were adversely affected; benthic-invertebrate populations changed. Ground-water levels rose near the Cowlitz River. Precipitation effects included transient, but increased specific conductance and decreased pH.

  16. MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Gaustad, KL; Turner, DD; McFarlane, SA

    2011-07-25

    This report provides a short description of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility microwave radiometer (MWR) Retrieval (MWRRET) value-added product (VAP) algorithm. This algorithm utilizes a complementary physical retrieval method and applies brightness temperature offsets to reduce spurious liquid water path (LWP) bias in clear skies resulting in significantly improved precipitable water vapor (PWV) and LWP retrievals. We present a general overview of the technique, input parameters, output products, and describe data quality checks. A more complete discussion of the theory and results is given in Turner et al. (2007b).

  17. MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Datasets May 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Gaustad, KL; Turner, DD

    2009-05-30

    This report provides a short description of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) microwave radiometer (MWR) RETrievel (MWRRET) value-added product (VAP) algorithm. This algorithm utilizes a complementary physical retrieval method and applies brightness temperature offsets to reduce spurious liquid water path (LWP) bias in clear skies resulting in significantly improved precipitable water vapor (PWV) and LWP retrievals. We present a general overview of the technique, input parameters, output products, and describe data quality checks. A more complete discussion of the theory and results is given in Turner et al. (2007b).

  18. Effects of nitrate and water on the oxygen isotopic analysis of barium sulfate precipitated from solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hannon, Janet E.; Bohlke, Johnkarl F.; Mroczkowski, Stanley J.

    2008-01-01

    BaSO4 precipitated from mixed salt solutions by common techniques for SO isotopic analysis may contain quantities of H2O and NOthat introduce errors in O isotope measurements. Experiments with synthetic solutions indicate that δ18O values of CO produced by decomposition of precipitated BaSO4 in a carbon reactor may be either too low or too high, depending on the relative concentrations of SO and NO and the δ18O values of the H2O, NO, and SO. Typical δ18O errors are of the order of 0.5 to 1‰ in many sample types, and can be larger in samples containing atmospheric NO, which can cause similar errors in δ17O and Δ17O. These errors can be reduced by (1) ion chromatographic separation of SO from NO, (2) increasing the salinity of the solutions before precipitating BaSO4 to minimize incorporation of H2O, (3) heating BaSO4 under vacuum to remove H2O, (4) preparing isotopic reference materials as aqueous samples to mimic the conditions of the samples, and (5) adjusting measured δ18O values based on amounts and isotopic compositions of coexisting H2O and NO. These procedures are demonstrated for SO isotopic reference materials, synthetic solutions with isotopically known reagents, atmospheric deposition from Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA, and sulfate salt deposits from the Atacama Desert, Chile, and Mojave Desert, California, USA. These results have implications for the calibration and use of O isotope data in studies of SOsources and reaction mechanisms.

  19. A precipitation-runoff model for analysis of the effects of water withdrawals on streamflow, Ipswich River basin, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zarriello, Phillip J.; Ries, Kernell G.

    2000-01-01

    Water withdrawals from the 155-square-mile Ipswich River Basin in northeastern Massachusetts affect aquatic habitat, water quality, and recreational use of the river. To better understand the effects of these withdrawals on streamflow, particularly low flow, the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to develop a watershed-scale precipitation-runoff model of the Ipswich River to simulate its hydrology and complex water-use patterns.An analytical solution was used to compute time series of streamflow depletions resulting from ground-water withdrawals at wells. The flow depletions caused by pumping from the wells were summed along with any surface-water withdrawals to calculate the total withdrawal along a stream reach. The water withdrawals, records of precipitation, and streamflow records on the Ipswich River at South Middleton and at Ipswich for the period 1989?93 were used to calibrate the model. Model-fit analysis indicates that the simulated flows matched observed flows over a wide range of conditions; at a minimum, the coefficient of model-fit efficiency indicates that the model explained 79 percent of the variance in the observed daily flow.Six alternative water-withdrawal and land-use scenarios were simulated with the model. Three scenarios were examined for the 1989?93 calibration period, and three scenarios were examined for the 1961?95 period to test alternative withdrawals and land use over a wider range of climatic conditions, and to compute 1-, 7-, and 30-day low-flow frequencies using a log-Pearson Type III analysis. Flow-duration curves computed from results of the 1989?93 simulations indicate that, at the South Middleton and Ipswich gaging stations, streamflows when no water withdrawals are being made are nearly identical to streamflows when no ground-water withdrawals are made. Streamflow under no water withdrawals at both stations are about an order of magnitude larger at the 99.8 percent exceedence probability than simulations

  20. The effects of acid precipitation runoff episodes on reservoir and tapwater quality in an Appalachian Mountain water supply.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, W E; DeWalle, D R

    1990-01-01

    The aluminum concentration and Ryznar Index increased and the pH decreased in a small Appalachian water supply reservoir following acid precipitation runoff episodes. Concomitant increases in tapwater aluminum and decreases in tapwater pH were also observed at two homes in the water distribution system. Lead concentrations in the tapwater of one home frequently exceeded recommended levels, although spatial and temporal variation in tapwater copper and lead concentrations was considerable. Since source water and reservoir water copper and lead concentrations were much lower, the increased copper and lead concentrations in tapwater were attributed to corrosion of household plumbing. Tapwater copper concentration correlated well with tapwater pH and tapwater temperature. Asbestos fibers were not detected in tapwater. The asbestos-cement pipe in the water distribution system was protected by a spontaneous metallic coating that inhibited fiber release from the pipe. Several simultaneous reactions were hypothesized to be taking place in the distribution system that involved corrosion of metallic components and coating of asbestos-cement pipe components in part with corrosion products and in part by cations of watershed origin. Greater water quality changes might be expected in areas of higher atmospheric deposition. Images FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. PMID:2088742

  1. The effects of acid precipitation runoff episodes on reservoir and tapwater quality in an Appalachian Mountain water supply

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, W.E.; DeWalle, D.R. )

    1990-11-01

    The aluminum concentration and Ryznar Index increased and the pH decreased in a small Appalachian water supply reservoir following acid precipitation runoff episodes. Concomitant increases in tapwater aluminum and decreases in tapwater pH were also observed at two homes in the water distribution system. Lead concentrations in the tapwater of one home frequently exceeded recommended levels, although spatial and temporal variation in tapwater copper and lead concentrations was considerable. Since source water and reservoir water copper and lead concentrations were much lower, the increased copper and lead concentrations in tapwater were attributed to corrosion of household plumbing. Tapwater copper concentration correlated well with tapwater pH and tapwater temperature. Asbestos fibers were not detected in tapwater. The asbestos-cement pipe in the water distribution system was protected by a spontaneous metallic coating that inhibited fiber release from the pipe. Several simultaneous reactions were hypothesized to be taking place in the distribution system that involved corrosion of metallic components and coating of asbestos-cement pipe components in part with corrosion products and in part by cations of watershed origin. Greater water quality changes might be expected in areas of higher atmospheric deposition.

  2. The effects of acid precipitation runoff episodes on reservoir and tapwater quality in an Appalachian Mountain water supply.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, W E; DeWalle, D R

    1990-11-01

    The aluminum concentration and Ryznar Index increased and the pH decreased in a small Appalachian water supply reservoir following acid precipitation runoff episodes. Concomitant increases in tapwater aluminum and decreases in tapwater pH were also observed at two homes in the water distribution system. Lead concentrations in the tapwater of one home frequently exceeded recommended levels, although spatial and temporal variation in tapwater copper and lead concentrations was considerable. Since source water and reservoir water copper and lead concentrations were much lower, the increased copper and lead concentrations in tapwater were attributed to corrosion of household plumbing. Tapwater copper concentration correlated well with tapwater pH and tapwater temperature. Asbestos fibers were not detected in tapwater. The asbestos-cement pipe in the water distribution system was protected by a spontaneous metallic coating that inhibited fiber release from the pipe. Several simultaneous reactions were hypothesized to be taking place in the distribution system that involved corrosion of metallic components and coating of asbestos-cement pipe components in part with corrosion products and in part by cations of watershed origin. Greater water quality changes might be expected in areas of higher atmospheric deposition.

  3. A Rapid Protoyping Approach for the Evaluation of Potential GPM-Era Precipitation Products for Water Resources Management Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anantharaj, V. G.; Houser, P. R.; Turk, F. J.; Peterson, C. A.; Hossain, F.; Moorhead, R. J.; Toll, D. L.; Mostovoy, G.

    2009-04-01

    societal benefits related to human health (soil moisture, climate and disease outbreak), homeland security (removal of chemical/biological/nuclear agents), flooding potential and warning, water availability, water quality, and agriculture and food security. In 2006, the NASA ASP sponsored two RPC experiments to evaluate potential GPM-era high resolution satellite precipitation products for water management applications. One of the current uncertainties involved in the GPM missions is the nature of the exact configuration of the constellations of satellites and hence the potential for the dynamic error characteristics over time of the precipitation estimates. For the RPC evaluations, we needed a satellite precipitation product that would be analogous to the GPM-era products. Our solution was to develop a suite of high resolution precipitation products, based on the NRL-Blend algorithm. We created a set of 10 different satellite precipitation estimates (hereafter referred to as the "GPM-proxy data"), using the currently available IR and microwave sensors. However, in each product we systematically left out sets of observations and/or sensors, such as AM orbits. The geographical focus of our study was the operational domain of the Arkansas Basin River Forecast Center (ABRFC) of the U.S. National Weather Service. We have evaluated the GPM-proxy data against the operational product (radar and gauge based) used by ABRFC. Further, we also performed a set of soil water content (SWC) sensitivity experiments using the Noah and Mosaic Land Surface Models (LSM) to quantify the impacts on water management applications involving land surface hydrology. Both the LSMs were forced with the same set of GPM-proxy data. Though the overall spatial patterns for both the models were similar, there were subtle differences in the respective model sensitivities to the different precipitation forcings. These experimental results illustrate the need for comprehensive pre-evaluations of applications

  4. Biogeochemical effects of forest vegetation on acid precipitation-related water chemistry: a case study in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Li, Wei; Gao, Fang

    2010-10-01

    The elemental composition of rainwater, throughfall, and soil solutions of a forest ecosystem in the acid rain control region of southwest China was investigated during 2007-2008 to assess the acid buffering capacity of different forest covers. A possible seasonal distribution of wet deposition was identified. Sulfur was determined as the dominant acidification precursor in this region. The chemical composition of rainfall intercepted by the forest canopy was modified substantially; generally the ion concentrations were increased by dry deposition and foliar leaching. As an exception, the concentration of NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) decreased in throughfall, which was probably due to the absorption of nitrogen by the leaves. Elemental concentrations in soil solutions decreased with depth. The water conservation capacity of different forests was also evaluated. The most appropriate forest vegetation for water conservation and remediation of acid precipitation in this region was explored for the sake of ecosystem management, ecological restoration and economic development.

  5. Chemical Data for Rock, Sediment, Biological, Precipitate, and Water Samples from Abandoned Copper Mines in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koski, Randolph A.; Munk, LeeAnn

    2007-01-01

    Introduction In the early 20th century, approximately 6 million metric tons of copper ore were mined from numerous deposits located along the shorelines of fjords and islands in Prince William Sound, Alaska. At the Beatson, Ellamar, and Threeman mine sites (fig. 1), rocks containing Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb sulfide minerals are exposed to chemical weathering in abandoned mine workings and remnant waste piles that extend into the littoral zone. Field investigations in 2003 and 2005 as well as analytical data for rock, sediment, precipitate, water, and biological samples reveal that the oxidation of sulfides at these sites is resulting in the generation of acid mine drainage and the transport of metals into the marine environment (Koski and others, 2008; Stillings and others, 2008). At the Ellamar and Threeman sites, plumes of acidic and metal-enriched water are flowing through beach gravels into the shallow offshore environment. Interstitial water samples collected from beach sediment at Ellamar have low pH levels (to ~3) and high concentrations of metals including iron, copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, and mercury. The abundant precipitation of the iron sulfate mineral jarosite in the Ellamar gravels also signifies a low-pH environment. At the Beatson mine site (the largest copper mine in the region) seeps containing iron-rich microbial precipitates drain into the intertidal zone below mine dumps (Foster and others, 2008). A stream flowing down to the shoreline from underground mine workings at Beatson has near-neutral pH, but elevated levels of zinc, copper, and lead (Stillings and others, 2008). Offshore sediment samples at Beatson are enriched in these metals. Preliminary chemical data for tissue from marine mussels collected near the Ellamar, Threeman, and Beatson sites reveal elevated levels of copper, zinc, and lead compared to tissue in mussels from other locations in Prince William Sound (Koski and others, 2008). Three papers presenting results of this ongoing

  6. Chemical Data for Rock, Sediment, Biological, Precipitate, and Water Samples from Abandoned Copper Mines in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koski, Randolph A.; Munk, LeeAnn

    2007-01-01

    In the early 20th century, approximately 6 million metric tons of copper ore were mined from numerous deposits located along the shorelines of fjords and islands in Prince William Sound, Alaska. At the Beatson, Ellamar, and Threeman mine sites (fig. 1), rocks containing Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb sulfide minerals are exposed to chemical weathering in abandoned mine workings and remnant waste piles that extend into the littoral zone. Field investigations in 2003 and 2005 as well as analytical data for rock, sediment, precipitate, water, and biological samples reveal that the oxidation of sulfides at these sites is resulting in the generation of acid mine drainage and the transport of metals into the marine environment (Koski and others, 2008; Stillings and others, 2008). At the Ellamar and Threeman sites, plumes of acidic and metal-enriched water are flowing through beach gravels into the shallow offshore environment. Interstitial water samples collected from beach sediment at Ellamar have low pH levels (to ~3) and high concentrations of metals including iron, copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, and mercury. The abundant precipitation of the iron sulfate mineral jarosite in the Ellamar gravels also signifies a low-pH environment. At the Beatson mine site (the largest copper mine in the region) seeps containing iron-rich microbial precipitates drain into the intertidal zone below mine dumps (Foster and others, 2008). A stream flowing down to the shoreline from underground mine workings at Beatson has near-neutral pH, but elevated levels of zinc, copper, and lead (Stillings and others, 2008). Offshore sediment samples at Beatson are enriched in these metals. Preliminary chemical data for tissue from marine mussels collected near the Ellamar, Threeman, and Beatson sites reveal elevated levels of copper, zinc, and lead compared to tissue in mussels from other locations in Prince William Sound (Koski and others, 2008). Three papers presenting results of this ongoing investigation of

  7. Biogeochemical effects of forest vegetation on acid precipitation-related water chemistry: a case study in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Li, Wei; Gao, Fang

    2010-10-01

    The elemental composition of rainwater, throughfall, and soil solutions of a forest ecosystem in the acid rain control region of southwest China was investigated during 2007-2008 to assess the acid buffering capacity of different forest covers. A possible seasonal distribution of wet deposition was identified. Sulfur was determined as the dominant acidification precursor in this region. The chemical composition of rainfall intercepted by the forest canopy was modified substantially; generally the ion concentrations were increased by dry deposition and foliar leaching. As an exception, the concentration of NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) decreased in throughfall, which was probably due to the absorption of nitrogen by the leaves. Elemental concentrations in soil solutions decreased with depth. The water conservation capacity of different forests was also evaluated. The most appropriate forest vegetation for water conservation and remediation of acid precipitation in this region was explored for the sake of ecosystem management, ecological restoration and economic development. PMID:20859590

  8. Effects of water addition on soil arthropods and soil characteristics in a precipitation-limited environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikoski, Jennifer M.; Ferguson, Steven H.; Meyer, Lense

    2006-09-01

    We investigated the effect of water addition and season on soil arthropod abundance and soil characteristics (%C, %N, C:N, moisture, pH). The experimental design consisted of 24 groups of five boxes distributed within a small aspen stand in Saskatchewan, Canada. The boxes depressed the soil to create a habitat with suitable microclimate for soil arthropods, and by overturning boxes we counted soil arthropods during weekly surveys from April to September 1999. Soil samples were collected at two-month intervals and water was added once per week to half of the plots. Of the eleven recognizable taxonomic units identified, only mites (Acari) and springtails (Collembola) responded to water addition by increasing abundance, whereas ants decreased in abundance with water addition. During summer, springtail numbers increased with water addition, whereas pH was a stronger determinant of mite abundance. In autumn, springtails were positively correlated with water and negatively correlated with mites, whereas mite abundance was negatively correlated with increasing C:N ratio, positively correlated to water addition, and negatively correlated with springtail abundance. Although both mite and springtail numbers decreased in autumn with a decrease in soil moisture, mites became more abundant than springtails suggesting a predator-prey (mite-springtail) relationship. Water had a significant effect on both springtails and mites in summer and autumn supporting the assertion that prairie soil communities are water limited.

  9. High-spatial-resolution mapping of precipitable water vapour using SAR interferograms, GPS observations and ERA-Interim reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wei; Liao, Mingsheng; Zhang, Lu; Li, Wei; Yu, Weimin

    2016-09-01

    A high spatial and temporal resolution of the precipitable water vapour (PWV) in the atmosphere is a key requirement for the short-scale weather forecasting and climate research. The aim of this work is to derive temporally differenced maps of the spatial distribution of PWV by analysing the tropospheric delay "noise" in interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). Time series maps of differential PWV were obtained by processing a set of ENVISAT ASAR (Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar) images covering the area of southern California, USA from 6 October 2007 to 29 November 2008. To get a more accurate PWV, the component of hydrostatic delay was calculated and subtracted by using ERA-Interim reanalysis products. In addition, the ERA-Interim was used to compute the conversion factors required to convert the zenith wet delay to water vapour. The InSAR-derived differential PWV maps were calibrated by means of the GPS PWV measurements over the study area. We validated our results against the measurements of PWV derived from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) which was located together with the ASAR sensor on board the ENVISAT satellite. Our comparative results show strong spatial correlations between the two data sets. The difference maps have Gaussian distributions with mean values close to zero and standard deviations below 2 mm. The advantage of the InSAR technique is that it provides water vapour distribution with a spatial resolution as fine as 20 m and an accuracy of ˜ 2 mm. Such high-spatial-resolution maps of PWV could lead to much greater accuracy in meteorological understanding and quantitative precipitation forecasts. With the launch of Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-1B satellites, every few days (6 days) new SAR images can be acquired with a wide swath up to 250 km, enabling a unique operational service for InSAR-based water vapour maps with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution.

  10. Quantifying the Usefulness of Ensemble-Based Precipitation Forecasts with Respect to Water Use and Yield during a Field Trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christ, E.; Webster, P. J.; Collins, G.; Byrd, S.

    2014-12-01

    Recent droughts and the continuing water wars between the states of Georgia, Alabama and Florida have made agricultural producers more aware of the importance of managing their irrigation systems more efficiently. Many southeastern states are beginning to consider laws that will require monitoring and regulation of water used for irrigation. Recently, Georgia suspended issuing irrigation permits in some areas of the southwestern portion of the state to try and limit the amount of water being used in irrigation. However, even in southern Georgia, which receives on average between 23 and 33 inches of rain during the growing season, irrigation can significantly impact crop yields. In fact, studies have shown that when fields do not receive rainfall at the most critical stages in the life of cotton, yield for irrigated fields can be up to twice as much as fields for non-irrigated cotton. This leads to the motivation for this study, which is to produce a forecast tool that will enable producers to make more efficient irrigation management decisions. We will use the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) vars EPS (Ensemble Prediction System) model precipitation forecasts for the grid points included in the 1◦ x 1◦ lat/lon square surrounding the point of interest. We will then apply q-to-q bias corrections to the forecasts. Once we have applied the bias corrections, we will use the check-book method of irrigation scheduling to determine the probability of receiving the required amount of rainfall for each week of the growing season. These forecasts will be used during a field trial conducted at the CM Stripling Irrigation Research Park in Camilla, Georgia. This research will compare differences in yield and water use among the standard checkbook method of irrigation, which uses no precipitation forecast knowledge, the weather.com forecast, a dry land plot, and the ensemble-based forecasts mentioned above.

  11. Effects of nitrate and water on the oxygen isotopic analysis of barium sulfate precipitated from water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hannon, J.E.; Böhlke, J.K.; Mroczkowski, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    BaSO4 precipitated from mixed salt solutions by common techniques for SO42- isotopic analysis may contain quantities of H2O and NO3- that introduce errors in O isotope measurements. Experiments with synthetic solutions indicate that ??18O values of CO produced by decomposition of precipitated BaSO4 in a carbon reactor may be either too low or too high, depending on the relative concentrations of SO42- and NO3- and the ??18O values of the H2O, NO3-, and SO42-. Typical ??18O errors are of the order of 0.5 to 1??? in many sample types, and can be larger in samples containing atmospheric NO 3-, which can cause similar errors in ?? 17O and ??17O. These errors can be reduced by (1) ion chromatographic separation of SO42- from NO 3-, (2) increasing the salinity of the solutions before precipitating BaSO4 to minimize incorporation of H2O, (3) heating BaSO4 under vacuum to remove H2O, (4) preparing isotopic reference materials as aqueous samples to mimic the conditions of the samples, and (5) adjusting measured ??18O values based on amounts and isotopic compositions of coexisting H2O and NO 3-. These procedures are demonstrated for SO 42- isotopic reference materials, synthetic solutions with isotopically known reagents, atmospheric deposition from Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA, and sulfate salt deposits from the Atacama Desert, Chile, and Mojave Desert, California, USA. These results have implications for the calibration and use of O isotope data in studies of SO42- sources and reaction mechanisms.

  12. Controls on the isotopic composition of surface water and precipitation in the Northern Andes, Colombian Eastern Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, Joel E.; Mora, Andrés; Horton, Brian K.; Nie, Junsheng

    2009-12-01

    Empirical datasets provide the constraints on the variability and causes of variability in stable isotope compositions (δD or δ 18O) of surface water and precipitation that are essential not only for models of modern and past climate but also for investigations of paleoelevation. This study presents stable isotope data for 76 samples from four elevation transects and three IAEA GNIP stations in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and the northern Andean foreland. These data are largely consistent with theories of stable isotope variability developed based on a global dataset. On a monthly basis, the precipitation-amount effect exerts the dominant control on δD p and δ 18O p values at the IAEA GNIP stations. At the Bogotá station (2547 m), the δD p and δ 18O p values vary seasonally, with isotopic minima correlating with maxima in precipitation-amount. Although surface water samples from Eastern Cordilleran streams and rivers fall on the Global Meteoric Water Line, samples from three of four lakes (2842-3459 m) have evaporatively elevated δD sw and δ 18O sw values. The IAEA GNIP station data averaged over multiple years, combined with stream and river water data, define vertical lapse rates of -1.8‰ km -1 for Δδ 18O and -14.6‰ km -1 for ΔδD, and are a close fit to a common thermodynamically based Rayleigh distillation model. Elevation uncertainties for these relationships are also evaluated. Comparison of this Colombian dataset with the elevation uncertainties generated by the thermodynamically based model shows that the model underestimates uncertainty at high Δδ 18O and ΔδD values while overestimating it for low Δδ 18O and ΔδD values. This study presents an independent, empirical assessment of stable isotope-based elevation uncertainties for the northern Andes based on a dataset of sufficient size to ensure statistical integrity. These vertical lapse rates and associated uncertainties form the basis for stable isotope paleoelevation studies

  13. Evaluation of the Effects of Precipitation on Ground-Water Levels from Wells in Selected Alluvial Aquifers in Utah and Arizona, 1936-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, Philip M.; Heilweil, Victor M.

    2009-01-01

    Increased withdrawals from alluvial aquifers of the southwestern United States during the last half-century have intensified the effects of drought on ground-water levels in valleys where withdrawal for irrigation is greatest. Furthermore, during wet periods, reduced withdrawals coupled with increased natural recharge cause rising ground-water levels. In order to manage water resources more effectively, analysis of ground-water levels under the influence of natural and anthropogenic stresses is useful. This report evaluates the effects of precipitation patterns on ground-water levels in areas of Utah and Arizona that have experienced different amounts of ground-water withdrawal. This includes a comparison of water-level records from basins that are hydrogeologically and climatologically similar but have contrasting levels of ground-water development. Hydrologic data, including records of ground-water levels, basin-wide annual ground-water withdrawals, and precipitation were examined from two basins in Utah (Milford and central Sevier) and three in Arizona (Aravaipa Canyon, Willcox, and Douglas). Most water-level records examined in this study from basins experiencing substantial ground-water development (Milford, Douglas, and Willcox) showed strong trends of declining water levels. Other water-level records, generally from the less-developed basins (central Sevier and Aravaipa Canyon) exhibited trends of increasing water levels. These trends are likely the result of accumulating infiltration of unconsumed irrigation water. Water-level records that had significant trends were detrended by subtraction of a low-order polynomial in an attempt to eliminate the variation in the water-level records that resulted from ground-water withdrawal or the application of water for irrigation. After detrending, water-level residuals were correlated with 2- to 10-year moving averages of annual precipitation from representative stations for the individual basins. The water

  14. Identification of intestinal bicarbonate transporters involved in formation of carbonate precipitates to stimulate water absorption in marine teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Yukihiro; Nakada, Tsutomu; Kato, Akira; Doi, Hiroyuki; Mistry, Abinash C; Chang, Min-Hwang; Romero, Michael F; Hirose, Shigehisa

    2008-04-01

    Marine teleost fish precipitate divalent cations as carbonate deposits in the intestine to minimize the potential for excessive Ca2+ entry and to stimulate water absorption by reducing luminal osmotic pressure. This carbonate deposit formation, therefore, helps maintain osmoregulation in the seawater (SW) environment and requires controlled secretion of HCO3(-) to match the amount of Ca2+ entering the intestinal lumen. Despite its physiological importance, the process of HCO3(-) secretion has not been characterized at the molecular level. We analyzed the expression of two families of HCO3(-) transporters, Slc4 and Slc26, in fresh-water- and SW-acclimated euryhaline pufferfish, mefugu (Takifugu obscurus), and obtained the following candidate clones: NBCe1 (an Na+-HCO3(-) cotransporter) and Slc26a6A and Slc26a6B (putative Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchangers). Heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes showed that Slc26a6A and Slc26a6B have potent HCO3(-)-transporting activity as electrogenic Cl(-)/nHCO3(-) exchangers, whereas mefugu NBCe1 functions as an electrogenic Na+-nHCO3(-) cotransporter. Expression of NBCe1 and Slc26a6A was highly induced in the intestine in SW and expression of Slc26a6B was high in the intestine in SW and fresh water, suggesting their involvement in HCO3(-) secretion and carbonate precipitate formation. Immunohistochemistry showed staining on the apical (Slc26a6A and Slc26a6B) and basolateral (NBCe1) membranes of the intestinal epithelial cells in SW. We therefore propose a mechanism for HCO3(-) transport across the intestinal epithelial cells of marine fish that includes basolateral HCO3(-) uptake (NBCe1) and apical HCO3(-) secretion (Slc26a6A and Slc26a6B). PMID:18216137

  15. Unit operation optimization for the manufacturing of botanical injections using a design space approach: a case study of water precipitation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xingchu; Chen, Huali; Chen, Teng; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    Quality by design (QbD) concept is a paradigm for the improvement of botanical injection quality control. In this work, water precipitation process for the manufacturing of Xueshuantong injection, a botanical injection made from Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, was optimized using a design space approach as a sample. Saponin recovery and total saponin purity (TSP) in supernatant were identified as the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of water precipitation using a risk assessment for all the processes of Xueshuantong injection. An Ishikawa diagram and experiments of fractional factorial design were applied to determine critical process parameters (CPPs). Dry matter content of concentrated extract (DMCC), amount of water added (AWA), and stirring speed (SS) were identified as CPPs. Box-Behnken designed experiments were carried out to develop models between CPPs and process CQAs. Determination coefficients were higher than 0.86 for all the models. High TSP in supernatant can be obtained when DMCC is low and SS is high. Saponin recoveries decreased as DMCC increased. Incomplete collection of supernatant was the main reason for the loss of saponins. Design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with acceptable probability of 0.90. Recommended normal operation region are located in DMCC of 0.38-0.41 g/g, AWA of 3.7-4.9 g/g, and SS of 280-350 rpm, with a probability more than 0.919 to attain CQA criteria. Verification experiment results showed that operating DMCC, SS, and AWA within design space can attain CQA criteria with high probability.

  16. Simulated polarization diversity lidar returns from water and precipitating mixed phase clouds.

    PubMed

    Sassen, K; Zhao, H; Dodd, G C

    1992-05-20

    The dependence of polarization lidar returns on basic microphysical and thermodynamic variables is assessed by using a cloud model to simulate the growth of water and mixed (water and ice) phase clouds. Cloud contents that evolve with height in updrafts are converted, by using Mie theory, into cloud droplet single and double backscattering and attenuation coefficients. The lidar equation includes forward multiple scattering attenuation corrections based on diffraction theory for droplets and ice crystals, whose relative scattering contributions are treated empirically. Lidar depolarization is computed from droplet and crystal single scattering and an analytical treatment of droplet double scattering. Water cloud results reveal the expected increases in linear depolarization ratios (delta) with increasing lidar field of view and distance to cloud but also show that depolarization is a function of cloud liquid water content, which depends primarily on temperature. Ice crystals modulate mixed phase cloud liquid water contents through water vapor competition effects, thereby affecting multiple scattering delta values as functions of updraft velocity, temperature, and crystal size and concentration. Although the minimum delta at cloud base increases with increasing ice content, the peak measurable delta in the cloud decreases. Comparison with field data demonstrate that this modeling approach is a valuable supplement to cloud measurements.

  17. Simulated polarization diversity lidar returns from water and precipitating mixed phase clouds.

    PubMed

    Sassen, K; Zhao, H; Dodd, G C

    1992-05-20

    The dependence of polarization lidar returns on basic microphysical and thermodynamic variables is assessed by using a cloud model to simulate the growth of water and mixed (water and ice) phase clouds. Cloud contents that evolve with height in updrafts are converted, by using Mie theory, into cloud droplet single and double backscattering and attenuation coefficients. The lidar equation includes forward multiple scattering attenuation corrections based on diffraction theory for droplets and ice crystals, whose relative scattering contributions are treated empirically. Lidar depolarization is computed from droplet and crystal single scattering and an analytical treatment of droplet double scattering. Water cloud results reveal the expected increases in linear depolarization ratios (delta) with increasing lidar field of view and distance to cloud but also show that depolarization is a function of cloud liquid water content, which depends primarily on temperature. Ice crystals modulate mixed phase cloud liquid water contents through water vapor competition effects, thereby affecting multiple scattering delta values as functions of updraft velocity, temperature, and crystal size and concentration. Although the minimum delta at cloud base increases with increasing ice content, the peak measurable delta in the cloud decreases. Comparison with field data demonstrate that this modeling approach is a valuable supplement to cloud measurements. PMID:20725225

  18. Kinetics of precipitation of cellulose from cellulose-NMMO-water solutions.

    PubMed

    Biganska, Olga; Navard, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The regeneration of a solid, crystallized cellulose solution in a N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO)-water mixture was studied by measuring the diffusion coefficient of both the water uptake from the regenerating bath and the NMMO outflow to this bath. The diffusion coefficient of water going to the cellulose solution is about 10 times larger than the diffusion coefficient of NMMO leaving the solution. This difference expresses the strongly hygroscopic character of NMMO. None of these coefficients depends on cellulose molecular weight showing that no major rearrangement of cellulose chains occurs at the beginning of the regeneration. The diffusion coefficient of water is not influenced by the cellulose concentration, whereas the diffusion coefficient of NMMO decreases strongly when the cellulose concentration increases. Extrapolating the diffusion coefficient of NMMO versus cellulose concentration to zero shows that the maximal concentration of cellulose in NMMO-water is about 15%. Above this value, undissolved cellulose should be present. From the influence of the NMMO content in the water regenerating bath, it is possible to see that NMMO is removed from the solution if the bath has a NMMO content lower than 60%, to be compared with the 80% NMMO concentration in the solution. PMID:16004432

  19. [Seasonal characteristics of δD and δ18O in precipitation and its water vapor sources in the Xiaolangdi Reservoir area of Yellow River, China].

    PubMed

    Tian, Chao; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jin-song; Sun, Shou-jia; He, Chun-xia; Jia, Chang-rong; Li, Jian-zhong

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal characteristics of δD and δ¹⁸O in precipitation and the influence factors were studied in the Xiaolangdi Reservoir area at the eastern monsoon region of China. The precipitation samples and the corresponding meteorological data were collected between April and October from the year 2011 to 2014. The local meteoric water lines (LMWL) of different seasons were established, and the water vapor sources in different seasons were investigated. The results showed that the δD and δ¹⁸O in precipitation exhibited an extremely wide range and a distinct seasonal variation, and they were enriched in the spring, and depleted in the fall. The δD and δ¹⁸O values showed negative correlations with the amount of precipitation from April to October and the fall, respectively. The δD values and the mean air temperature showed a negative correlation from April to October, but showed no correlation in seasonal precipitation. Both the slopes of LMWL and excess deuterium (d values) of precipitation were the smallest in the summer, and the largest in the fall. The results of air mass back trajectories of seasonal precipitation using the HYSPLIT model indicated a dominant effect of southeast and southwest maritime monsoon air masses in the summer and the co-influence of continental and oceanic monsoons air masses in the spring and fall in the study area. PMID:27111992

  20. [Seasonal characteristics of δD and δ18O in precipitation and its water vapor sources in the Xiaolangdi Reservoir area of Yellow River, China].

    PubMed

    Tian, Chao; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jin-song; Sun, Shou-jia; He, Chun-xia; Jia, Chang-rong; Li, Jian-zhong

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal characteristics of δD and δ¹⁸O in precipitation and the influence factors were studied in the Xiaolangdi Reservoir area at the eastern monsoon region of China. The precipitation samples and the corresponding meteorological data were collected between April and October from the year 2011 to 2014. The local meteoric water lines (LMWL) of different seasons were established, and the water vapor sources in different seasons were investigated. The results showed that the δD and δ¹⁸O in precipitation exhibited an extremely wide range and a distinct seasonal variation, and they were enriched in the spring, and depleted in the fall. The δD and δ¹⁸O values showed negative correlations with the amount of precipitation from April to October and the fall, respectively. The δD values and the mean air temperature showed a negative correlation from April to October, but showed no correlation in seasonal precipitation. Both the slopes of LMWL and excess deuterium (d values) of precipitation were the smallest in the summer, and the largest in the fall. The results of air mass back trajectories of seasonal precipitation using the HYSPLIT model indicated a dominant effect of southeast and southwest maritime monsoon air masses in the summer and the co-influence of continental and oceanic monsoons air masses in the spring and fall in the study area.

  1. Modeled Interactive Effects of Precipitation, temperature, and [CO2] on Ecosystem Carbon and Water Dynamics in Different Climatic Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Yiqi; Gerten, Dieter; Le Maire, Guerric; Parton, William; Weng, Ensheng; Zhou, Xuhuui; Keough, Cindy; Beier, Claus; Ciais, Philippe; Cramer, Wolfgang; Dukes, Jeff; Emmett, Bridget; Hanson, Paul J; Knapp, Alan; Linder, Sune; Nepstad, Daniel; Rustad, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Interactive effects of multiple global change factors on ecosystem processes are complex. It is relatively expensive to explore those interactions in manipulative experiments. We conducted a modeling analysis to identify potentially important interactions and to stimulate hypothesis formulation for experimental research. Four models were used to quantify interactive effects of climate warming (T), altered precipitation amounts [doubled (DP) and halved (HP)] and seasonality (SP, moving precipitation in July and August to January and February to create summer drought), and elevated [CO2] (C) on net primary production (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh), net ecosystem production (NEP), transpiration, and runoff.We examined those responses in seven ecosystems, including forests, grasslands, and heathlands in different climate zones. The modeling analysis showed that none of the threeway interactions among T, C, and altered precipitation was substantial for either carbon or water processes, nor consistent among the seven ecosystems. However, two-way interactive effects on NPP, Rh, and NEP were generally positive (i.e. amplification of one factor s effect by the other factor) between T and C or between T and DP. A negative interaction (i.e. depression of one factor s effect by the other factor) occurred for simulated NPP between T and HP. The interactive effects on runoff were positive between T and HP. Four pairs of two-way interactive effects on plant transpiration were positive and two pairs negative. In addition, wet sites generally had smaller relative changes in NPP, Rh, runoff, and transpiration but larger absolute changes in NEP than dry sites in response to the treatments. The modeling results suggest new hypotheses to be tested in multifactor global change experiments. Likewise, more experimental evidence is needed for the further improvement of ecosystem models in order to adequately simulate complex interactive processes.

  2. Seasonal Controls on Water and Carbon Fluxes Responding to Pulse Precipitation Events in Dryland Systems: Examples from Southern African Savannas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. A.; Hanan, N. P.; Scholes, R. J.

    2005-12-01

    Water and carbon fluxes from savanna landscapes are tightly coupled to soil water availability through physiological limitation from plant water stress. This general principle has been used to broadly characterize savanna vegetation distributions based almost solely on rainfall or soil moisture. However, a number of other physical and biotic drivers vary seasonally and interannually, including radiation, humidity, leaf area, and plant functional type. It remains unclear to what degree these other drivers limit our ability to accurately predict vegetation distributions in water-limited systems. In this study, we analyze five years of eddy flux data collected at Kruger National Park, South Africa, to investigate the degree to which these other drivers modulate soil moisture control of water and carbon fluxes. Our analysis focuses on what controls seasonal variation in the response of canopy-scale fluxes to pulse precipitation events and subsequent drydown. From more than thirty drydown response curves, we find pronounced seasonal variation in the time rate of decay of soil moisture and evapotranspiration, which are both well represented as either a logarithm or power of time since a rainfall pulse. Radiation and humidity explain most of the residuals in the response of evapotranspiration to soil moisture, with only weak explanatory power of leaf area. We also find little difference in the drydown responses of Combretum versus Acacia dominated savannas. Marked seasonal shifts in canopy-scale water use efficiency (carbon / water fluxes) documents transitions from early wet season greening, to dry season moisture stress, to dormancy and decay prior to first rains. These results suggest that generalized relations between soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and carbon exchange are robust when adjusted to incorporate seasonal dependence on radiation and humidty. Broader implications for modeling savanna vegetation distributions will be discussed.

  3. The use of stream flow routing for direct channel precipitation with isotopically-based hydrograph separations: the role of new water in stormflow generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renshaw, Carl E.; Feng, Xiahong; Sinclair, Kelsey J.; Dums, Raymond H.

    2003-03-01

    Understanding the pathways by which event water contributes to stream stormflow provides insight into stormflow generation mechanisms. We analyze the impact of storm size on the relative contribution of event water to stormflow by using natural variations in the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation and stream water to separate multiple stormflow hydrographs from a single fourth-order, 1212 ha catchment. We extend previous isotope-based hydrograph separations by independently accounting for the contribution of event water via direct channel precipitation to the stream hydrograph. The direct channel precipitation contribution is determined using a numerical model of stream flow routing though the catchment, taking precipitation and digital elevation data as input variables. For the range of storm sizes sampled, having recurrence intervals ranging from less than a week to ˜4 months, essentially all the event water in stream stormflow can be attributed to direct channel precipitation. Event water not directly falling on the stream channel indirectly contributes to stormflow by increasing the subsurface discharge of pre-event water to the stream. Neither the hydrograph separation data, field observations during the precipitation events, nor experimental observations of flow in a large-scale natural soil column extracted from the watershed are consistent with macropore flow or groundwater ridging as the primary mechanism responsible for increasing subsurface discharge. Results from a series of artificial rain experiments using the unsaturated natural soil column are consistent with a preferential kinematic flow model and indicate that the discharge of pre-event water to the stream during a storm event may be controlled by kinematic flow processes within the watershed soils.

  4. Novel precipitated zirconia-based DGT technique for high-resolution imaging of oxyanions in waters and sediments.

    PubMed

    Guan, Dong-Xing; Williams, Paul N; Luo, Jun; Zheng, Jian-Lun; Xu, Hua-Cheng; Cai, Chao; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-03-17

    Water-sediment exchange is a fundamental component of oxyanion cycling in the environment. Yet, many of the (im)mobilization processes overlay complex spatial and temporal redox regimes that occur within millimeters of the interface. Only a few methods exist that can reliably capture these porewater fluxes, with the most popular being high-resolution diffusive gradients in thin films (HR-DGT). However, functionality of HR-DGT is restricted by the availability of suitable analyte binding agents within the sampler, which must be simple to cast and homogeneously distributed in the binding layer, exhibit adequate sorption capacities, be resistive to chemical change, and possess a very fine particle size (≤10 μm). A novel binding layer was synthesized to meet these requirements by in situ precipitation of zirconia into a precast hydrogel. The particle diameter≤0.2 μm of zirconia in this precipitated gel was uniform and at least 50-times smaller than the conventional molding approach. Further, this gel had superior binding and stability characteristics compared with the commonly used ferrihydrite HR-DGT technique and could be easily fabricated as an ultrathin gel (60 μm) for simultaneous oxygen imaging in conjunction with planar-optodes. Chemical imaging of anion and oxygen fluxes using the new sampler were evaluated on Lake Taihu sediments. PMID:25655234

  5. Annual Variations in Water Storage and Precipitation in the Amazon Basin: Bounding Sink Terms in the Terrestrial Hydrological Balance using GRACE Satellite Gravity Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, John W.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Bailey, Richard C.; Tamisiea, Mark E.; Davis, James L.

    2007-01-01

    We combine satellite gravity data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and precipitation measurements from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction Center's (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), over the period from mid-2002 to mid-2006, to investigate the relative importance of sink (runoff and evaporation) and source (precipitation) terms in the hydrological balance of the Amazon Basin. When linear and quadratic terms are removed, the time series of land water storage variations estimated from GRACE exhibits a dominant annual signal of 250 mm peak-to-peak, which is equivalent to a water volume change of approximately 1800 cubic kilometers. A comparison of this trend with accumulated (i.e., integrated) precipitation shows excellent agreement and no evidence of basin saturation. The agreement indicates that the net runoff and evaporation contributes significantly less than precipitation to the annual hydrological mass balance. Indeed, raw residuals between the detrended water storage and precipitation anomalies range from plus or minus 40 mm. This range is consistent with streamflow measurements from the region, although the latter are characterized by a stronger annual signal than ow residuals, suggesting that runoff and evaporation may act to partially cancel each other.

  6. Annual variations in water storage and precipitation in the Amazon Basin. Bounding sink terms in the terrestrial hydrological balance using GRACE satellite gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, John W.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Bailey, Richard C.; Tamisiea, Mark E.; Davis, James L.

    2008-01-01

    We combine satellite gravity data from the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) and precipitation measurements from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction Center’s (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), over the period from mid-2002 to mid-2006, to investigate the relative importance of sink (runoff and evaporation) and source (precipitation) terms in the hydrological balance of the Amazon Basin. When linear and quadratic terms are removed, the time-series of land water storage variations estimated from GRACE exhibits a dominant annual signal of 250 mm peak-to-peak, which is equivalent to a water volume change of ~1,800 km3. A comparison of this trend with accumulated (i.e., integrated) precipitation shows excellent agreement and no evidence of basin saturation. The agreement indicates that the net runoff and evaporation contributes significantly less than precipitation to the annual hydrological mass balance. Indeed, raw residuals between the de-trended water storage and precipitation anomalies range from ±40 mm. This range is consistent with stream-flow measurements from the region, although the latter are characterized by a stronger annual signal than our residuals, suggesting that runoff and evaporation may act to partially cancel each other.

  7. Influence of water repellents on the moisture contents of precipitates (filter cakes)

    SciTech Connect

    Barbin, M.B.; Tkachev, Yu.D.; Barbin, N.M.

    1982-02-20

    The influence of water-repellent treatment of galenite with xanthates was studied in experiments on particles in the size range between 189 and 122 ..mu..m. To a suspension of 30 g of galenite in distilled water a definite amount of the given xanthate was added in solution form. After 3 min of stirring with the solution, the suspension was transferred to a filter funnel and experiments were conducted by the method described in previous reports under reduced pressure (66.6 kPa). The experimental final moisture content was calculated from the weight of water after 5 min of suction, and the calculated value was obtained. The dry and moist galenite was weighed on an analytical balance. The results of experiments on removal of water after 5 min of suction from galenite cakes (height approx. 12.5 mm) in presence and absence of xanthates are presented graphically. An equation for the relationship between the moisture contents of filter cakes and the cosine of the contact angle has been derived. This equation was verified by experiments on galenite suspensions containing various amounts of potassium ethyl, butyl, isoamyl, and octyl xanthates, taken as typical water repellents. In the range of xanthate contents from 0 to 1000 g/ton the calculated moisture contents of filter cakes are almost identical with experimental values. The maximum lowering of moisture contents of the cakes is achieved only at the optimal concentrations of water repellents; this effect becomes more pronounced with shortening of the hydrocarbon chain in the xanthate molecule.

  8. Millimeter-wave imaging radiometer for cloud, precipitation and atmospheric water vapor studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racette, P. E.; Dod, L. R.; Shiue, J. C.; Adler, R. F.; Jackson, D. M.; Gasiewski, A. J.; Zacharias, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    A millimeter-wave imaging radiometer (MIR) developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is described. The MIR is a nine-channel total power radiometer developed for atmospheric research. Three dual-pass band channels are centered about the strongly opaque 183-GHz water vapor absorption line; the frequencies are 183 +/- 1, +/- 3, and +/- 7 GHz. Another channel is located on the wing of this band at 150 GHz. These four channels have varying degrees of opacity from which the water vapor profile can be inferred. The design and salient characteristics of this instrument are discussed, together with its expected benefits.

  9. Factors Affecting P Loads to Surface Waters: Comparing the Roles of Precipitation and Land Management Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motew, M.; Booth, E.; Carpenter, S. R.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Surface water quality is a major concern in the Yahara watershed (YW) of southern Wisconsin, home to a thriving dairy industry, the city of Madison, and five highly valued lakes that are eutrophic. Despite management interventions to mitigate runoff, there has been no significant trend in P loading to the lakes since 1975. Increases in manure production and heavy rainfall events over this time period may have offset any effects of management. We developed a comprehensive, integrated modeling framework that can simulate the effects of multiple drivers on ecosystem services, including surface water quality. The framework includes process-based representation of terrestrial ecosystems (Agro-IBIS) and groundwater flow (MODFLOW), hydrologic routing of water and nutrients across the landscape (THMB), and assessment of lake water quality (YWQM). Biogeochemical cycling and hydrologic transport of P have been added to the framework to enable detailed simulation of P dynamics within the watershed, including interactions with climate and management. The P module features in-soil cycling of organic, inorganic, and labile forms of P; manure application, decomposition, and subsequent loss of dissolved P in runoff; loss of particulate-bound P with erosion; and transport of dissolved and particulate P within waterways. Model results will compare the effects of increased heavy rainfall events, increased manure production, and implementation of best management practices on P loads to the Yahara lakes.

  10. Relationship between precipitation and water-table fluctuation in a coastal dune aquifer: northeastern coast of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretero, Silvina C.; Kruse, Eduardo E.

    2012-12-01

    The water-table fluctuation (WTF) method is one of the most widely used means to estimate aquifer recharge. In the northeastern coast of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina, the geomorphological and climatic characteristics, as well as the presence of a shallow, homogeneous unconfined aquifer, make it possible to apply this methodology. The relationship between water-table fluctuations and precipitation in a humid climate, considering its seasonal variations, is assessed. Water tables were measured monthly between February 2008 and September 2010 in a monitoring network; rainfall data were analysed. The water table rises when the accumulated precipitation between measurements is more than 53 mm/month in the dry season and more than 97 mm/month in the rainy season. The index, relating water-table fluctuations and precipitation occurring between measurements, shows that values below 0 suggest no increase in the water reserves, whereas higher values entail an increase. In the study area, where there is a lack of historical data, finding out the relationship between water-table fluctuations and precipitation will constitute a tool for groundwater use and management, and set up an early warning system for dry periods. It could also be extrapolated to other regions with similar hydrological conditions lacking in data.

  11. Use of NADP archive samples to determine the isotope composition of precipitation: characterizing the meteoric input function for use in ground water studies.

    PubMed

    Harvey, F E

    2001-01-01

    Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes have been used in ground water studies to investigate recharge, mixing, ground water/surface water interaction, advective-diffusive transport, paleohydrogeologic interactions and to estimate ground water ages. Such studies require that the isotopic composition of precipitation be known, as precipitation is a major input to ground water and surface water systems. As oxygen-18 and deuterium data for precipitation are lacking across much of the United States, there is need to establish additional local meteoric water lines as isotope input functions across the region, as well as to develop better understanding of the isotopic climate linkages that control oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios in precipitation. In the absence of long-term monitoring stations, one possible solution to this problem is to determine the delta 18O and delta 2H values of precipitation using archive samples collected at monitoring stations managed by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP). This study describes and interprets the seasonal delta 18O and delta 2H composition of archived precipitation samples collected in eastern Nebraska near the town of Mead during the years 1992-1994. Values for delta 18O range from -23.6 to -0.7@1000. Values for delta 2H range from -172 to 0@1000. Yearly arithmetic mean delta 18O and delta 2H values for the Mead station are -8.1@1000 and -53@1000, respectively. Weighted yearly means for delta 18O and delta 2H were -7.4@1000 and -48@1000, respectively. Mead values show a strong isotopic enrichment between winter and summer precipitation, and a strong delta 18O-T correlation (r2 = 0.91) for mean monthly values of about 0.5@1000 per degree Celsius. The local meteoric water line for the Mead site is delta 2H = 7.40 delta 18O + 7.32. Deuterium excess values suggest that most of the moisture across the region is derived primarily from a Gulf of Mexico source. The results of this study demonstrate that in the absence of

  12. The bovine immune response to Brucella abortus I. A water soluble antigen precipitated by sera of some naturally infected cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Stemshorn, B; Nielsen, K

    1977-01-01

    Selected sera from cattle naturally infected with Brucella abortus precipitate water soluble antigens extracted by sonication from B. abortus. One of these antigens resembles antigen E (Baughn and Freeman) as it is excluded from Sephadex G-200 gels, migrates anodally when electrophoresed at pH 8.6, resists heating at 100 degrees C for ten minutes and appears to be susceptible to papain digestion. Precipitins specific for this antigen remained in sera from which all detectable Brucella agglutinating antibody had been removed by adsorption with live or heat killed B. abortus. The antigen has been extracted from smooth and rough strains of B abortus. Precipitins specific for this antigen have been detected in antisera produced against Brucella canis. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:405088

  13. Time distribution of the precipitable water vapor in central Saudi Arabia and its relationship to solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrabi, A. H.; Al Dajani, H. M.

    2014-04-01

    Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas. It plays a major role in the dynamics of atmospheric circulation, radiation exchange within the atmosphere, and climate variability. Knowledge of the distribution of water vapor is important for understanding climate change and global warming. In this study, radiosonde data from 1985 to 2012 were used to examine the monthly, interannual, and annual variations and trends of precipitable water vapor (PWV) in central Saudi Arabia in the city of Riyadh (24° 43‧N; 46° 40‧E, 764 m a.s.l.). The results revealed a clear seasonal cycle of PWV with a maximum during the summer months (June-August) and a minimum during the winter (December-February). This variation follows the mean monthly variation of air temperature. The PWV displays considerable variability at the interannual scale. We could not attribute the variations to the air temperature because no relationship was found between the two variables when the interannual variations were examined. Study of the annual variations of the PWV showed cyclic variations with a period of approximately 10-11 years. The two maximums and minimums were in 1996 and 2007 and 1989 and 2000, respectively. The results showed that the annual PWV values are anticorrelated with solar activity, represented by sunspot number, during solar cycles 22 and 23. The physical mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. This finding is preliminary, and future investigations are recommended.

  14. Data Assimilation of AIRS Water Vapor Profiles: Impact on Precipitation Forecasts for Atmospheric River Cases Affecting the Western of the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary; Wick, Gary; Neiman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric rivers are transient, narrow regions in the atmosphere responsible for the transport of large amounts of water vapor. These phenomena can have a large impact on precipitation. In particular, they can be responsible for intense rain events on the western coast of North America during the winter season. This paper focuses on attempts to improve forecasts of heavy precipitation events in the Western US due to atmospheric rivers. Profiles of water vapor derived from from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations are combined with GFS forecasts by a three-dimensional variational data assimilation in the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI). Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) forecasts initialized from the combined field are compared to forecasts initialized from the GFS forecast only for 3 test cases in the winter of 2011. Results will be presented showing the impact of the AIRS profile data on water vapor and temperature fields, and on the resultant precipitation forecasts.

  15. Precipitation chemistry - Atmospheric loadings to the surface waters of the Indian River lagoon basin by rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.; Madsen, Brooks C.; Maull, Lee A.; Hinkle, C. R.; Knott, William M., III

    1990-01-01

    Rain volume and chemistry monitoring as part of the Kennedy Space Center Long Term Environmental Monitoring Program included the years 1984-1987 as part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. Atmospheric deposition in rainfall consisted primarily of sea salt and hydrogen ion, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions. The deposition of nitrogen (a principal plant nutrient) was on the order of 200-300 metric tons per year to the surface waters.

  16. Sustained Water Changes in California during Drought and Heavy Precipitation Inferred from GPS, InSAR, and GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argus, D. F.; Fu, Y.; Landerer, F. W.; Wiese, D. N.; Farr, T. G.; Liu, Z.; Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    About 1200 GPS sites in the westernmost United States are used to weigh changes in surface water as a function of location from 2006 to 2015. The effect of known changes in water in artificial reservoirs is removed, allowing changes in the total of snow, soil moisture, and mountain fracture groundwater to be inferred from GPS. In this study water changes inferred from GPS are placed into the context of complementary InSAR and GRACE data. The southern Central Valley (the San Joaquin Valley and Tulare Basin) is subsiding at spectacular rates of 0.01 m/yr to 0.2 m/yr in response to groundwater management. We construct an elastic model of groundwater change of the southern Central Valley, using GRACE as the basis of total groundwater loss and InSAR to infer the lateral distribution of that groundwater loss. This elastic model of Central Valley groundwater loss is removed from the GPS displacements. Because snow in California is insignificant in October, and because changes in soil moisture between successive autumns are small, we can infer changes in Sierra Nevada mountain fracture groundwater to be: -19 km3 during drought from 2006 to 2009, +35 km3 during heavy precipitation from 2009 to 2011, and -38 km3 during drought from 2011 to 2014 (start and end times are all in October). We infer changes in Sierra Nevada mountain groundwater to be playing an important role in modulating Central Valley groundwater loss. Total water in the Sierra Nevada recovered by 16 km3 from October 2014 to April 2015, but water is being lost again in summer 2015.

  17. Analysis of precipitable water vapor from GPS measurements in Chengdu region: Distribution and evolution characteristics in autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Wei, Ming; Li, Guoping; Zhou, Shenghui; Zeng, Qingfeng

    2013-08-01

    The rainfall process of Chengdu region in autumn has obvious regional features. Especially, the night-time rain rate of this region in this season is very high in China. Studying the spatial distribution and temporal variation of regional atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV) is important for our understanding of water vapor related processes, such as rainfall, evaporation, convective activity, among others in this area. Since GPS detection technology has the unique characteristics, such as all-weather, high accuracy, high spatial and temporal resolution as well as low cost, tracking and monitoring techniques on water vapor has achieved rapid developments in recent years. With GPS-PWV data at 30-min interval gathered from six GPS observational stations in Chengdu region in two autumns (September 2007-December 2007 and September 2008-December 2008), it is revealed that negative correlations exist between seasonally averaged value of GPS-PWV as well as its variation amplitude and local terrain altitude. The variation of PWV in the upper atmosphere of this region results from the water vapor variation from surface to 850 hPa. With the help of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), it is found that the autumn PWV in Chengdu region has a multi-scale feature, which includes a seasonal cycle, 22.5 days period (quasi-tri-weekly oscillation). The variation of the GPS-PWV is related to periodical change in the transmitting of the water vapor caused by zonal and meridional wind strengths’ change and to the East Asian monsoon system. According to seasonal variation characteristics, we concluded that the middle October is the critical turning point in PWV content. On a shorter time scale, the relationship between autumn PWV and ground meteorological elements was obtained using the composite analysis approach.

  18. Triple isotope (δD, δ17O, δ18O) study on precipitation, drip water and speleothem fluid inclusions for a Western Central European cave (NW Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affolter, Stéphane; Häuselmann, Anamaria D.; Fleitmann, Dominik; Häuselmann, Philipp; Leuenberger, Markus

    2015-11-01

    Deuterium (δD) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopes are powerful tracers of the hydrological cycle and have been extensively used for paleoclimate reconstructions as they can provide information on past precipitation, temperature and atmospheric circulation. More recently, the use of 17Oexcess derived from precise measurement of δ17O and δ18O gives new and additional insights in tracing the hydrological cycle whereas uncertainties surround this proxy. However, 17Oexcess could provide additional information on the atmospheric conditions at the moisture source as well as about fractionations associated with transport and site processes. In this paper we trace water stable isotopes (δD, δ17O and δ18O) along their path from precipitation to cave drip water and finally to speleothem fluid inclusions for Milandre cave in northwestern Switzerland. A two year-long daily resolved precipitation isotope record close to the cave site is compared to collected cave drip water (3 months average resolution) and fluid inclusions of modern and Holocene stalagmites. Amount weighted mean δD, δ18O and δ17O are -71.0‰, -9.9‰, -5.2‰ for precipitation, -60.3‰, -8.7‰, -4.6‰ for cave drip water and -61.3‰, -8.3‰, -4.7‰ for recent fluid inclusions respectively. Second order parameters have also been derived in precipitation and drip water and present similar values with 18 per meg for 17Oexcess whereas d-excess is 1.5‰ more negative in drip water. Furthermore, the atmospheric signal is shifted towards enriched values in the drip water and fluid inclusions (Δ of ˜ + 10‰ for δD). The isotopic composition of cave drip water exhibits a weak seasonal signal which is shifted by around 8-10 months (groundwater residence time) when compared to the precipitation. Moreover, we carried out the first δ17O measurement in speleothem fluid inclusions, as well as the first comparison of the δ17O behaviour from the meteoric water to the fluid inclusions entrapment in speleothems

  19. Precipitation driving of droplet concentration variability in marine low clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Robert; Leon, David; Lebsock, Matthew; Snider, Jefferson; Clarke, Antony D.

    2012-10-01

    The concentration Nd of cloud droplets in marine low clouds is a primary determinant of their ability to reflect sunlight and modulates their ability to precipitate. Previous studies have focused upon aerosol source variability as the key driver of variability in Nd. Here, we use a highly simplified aerosol budget model to examine the impact of precipitation on Nd. This model considers: precipitation (coalescence) scavenging, constrained using new satellite measurements of light precipitation; entrainment of aerosol from above cloud combined with constant aerosol concentration based on recent field observations of aerosol particles in the free troposphere; and sea-surface aerosol production estimated using a wind speed dependent source function. Despite the highly simplified nature of this model, it skillfully predicts the geographical variability ofNd in regions of extensive marine low clouds. Inclusion of precipitation results in reduction in Nd by factors of 2-3 over the remote oceans. Within 500 km of coastlines the reduction in Nd due to precipitation is weak but in these regions the model is not able to accurately predict Ndbecause of strong pollution sources. In general, neither free-tropospheric nor surface CCN sources alone are sufficient to maintainNd against precipitation losses. The results demonstrate that even the light precipitation rates typical of marine stratocumulus profoundly impact the radiative properties of marine low clouds.

  20. Jarosite Precipitation from Acidic Saline Waters in Kachchh, Gujarat, India: an Appropriate Martian Analogue?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, S.; Gupta, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Banerjee, S.; Chauhan, P.; Parthasarathy, G.

    2014-12-01

    The origin of jarosite [KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6] on the Martian surface has been an intriguing problem since the Mars Exploration Rover 'Opportunity' first revealed its presence at the Meridiani Planum on Mars. To explain its origin, several terrestrial analogue sites have been studied in different geographical zones. Although several models have been suggested, there is a consensus that only the prevalence of acidic and oxidizing aqueous environmental conditions are conducive to form jarosite. In the Kachchh region of Gujarat, western India, jarosite has been recently discovered from gorges dissecting the Paleocene Matanumadh Formation sediments, that overlie basalts of the Deccan Volcanic Province. This formation comprises pebble conglomerates, carbonaceous shales and purple sandstones capped by a laterite on top. Jarosite, in association with gypsum and goethite, has been detected through FTIR and VNIR spectrometry in almost all litho-units of the succession, albeit in different modes and concentrations. The occurrence of jarosite within black shale in other parts of the world, has been attributed to the oxidation of pyrites within the shale layers. However, in shales of the Matanumadh Formation, jarosite is restricted to fractures that cut across the bedding, while the overlying purple sandstone unit only preserves jarosite in shale clasts within the sandstone. Since the sandstone overlies the black shale layer, downward percolation of sulfate-bearing water from the oxidation of pyrite within the shale layer cannot explain jarosite formation in this unit. In addition, no jarosite is observed below or within pyrite-rich lignite bearing sections in other parts of Kachchh. Alternative suggestions, that jarosite developed in the immediate aftermath of Deccan volcanism as surface waters were rendered acidic by interaction with the final phase of volcanic effusives, are also unlikely as on-going studies suggest that jarosite is not restricted to the Matanumadh Formation. The

  1. A heat and water transfer model for seasonally frozen soils with application to a precipitation-runoff model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, Douglas G.

    1994-01-01

    A model that simulates heat and water transfer in soils during freezing and thawing periods was developed and incorporated into the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System. The model's transfer of heat is based on an equation developed from Fourier's equation for heat flux. The model's transfer of water within the soil profile is based on the concept of capillary forces. Field capacity and infiltration rate can vary throughout the freezing and thawing period, depending on soil conditions and rate and timing of snowmelt. The model can be used to determine the effects of seasonally frozen soils on ground-water recharge and surface-water runoff. Data collected for two winters, 1985-86 and 1986-87, on three runoff plots were used to calibrate and verify the model. The winter of 1985-86 was colder than normal, and snow cover was continuous throughout the winter. The winter of 1986-87 was warmer than normal, and snow accumulated for only short periods of several days. Runoff, snowmelt, and frost depths were used as the criteria for determining the degree of agreement between simulated and measured data. The model was calibrated using the 1985-86 data for plot 2. The calibration simulation agreed closely with the measured data. The verification simulations for plots 1 and 3 using the 1985-86 data and for plots 1 and 2 using the 1986-87 data agreed closely with the measured data. The verification simulation for plot 3 using the 1986-87 data did not agree closely. The recalibration simulations for plots 1 and 3 using the 1985-86 data indicated little improvement because the verification simulations for plots 1 and 3 already agreed closely with the measured data.

  2. Aerosol Impacts on California Winter Clouds and Precipitation during CalWater 2011: Local Pollution versus Long-Range Transported Dust

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; DeMott, Paul J.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Singh, Balwinder; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Tomlinson, Jason M.; White, Allen B.; Prather, Kimberly; Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J. K.; Min, Qilong

    2014-01-03

    Mineral dust aerosols often observed over California in winter and spring, associated with long-range transport from Asia and Sahara, have been linked to enhanced precipitation based on observations. Local anthropogenic pollution, on the other hand, was shown in previous observational and modeling studies to reduce precipitation. Here we incorporate recent developments in ice nucleation parameterizations to link aerosols with ice crystal formation in a spectral-bin cloud microphysical model coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, to examine the relative and combined impacts of dust and local pollution particles on cloud properties and precipitation type and intensity. Simulations are carried out for two cloud cases with contrasting meteorology and cloud dynamics that occurred on February 16 (FEB16) and March 02 (MAR02) from the CalWater 2011 field campaign. In both cases, observations show the presence of dust and biological particles in a relative pristine environment. The simulated cloud microphysical properties and precipitation show reasonable agreement with aircraft and surface measurements. Model sensitivity experiments indicate that in the pristine environment, the dust and biological aerosol layers increase the accumulated precipitation by 10-20% from the Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada Mountains for both FEB16 and MAR02 due to a ~40% increase in snow formation, validating the observational hypothesis. Model results show that local pollution increases precipitation over the windward slope of the mountains by few percent due to increased snow formation when dust is present but reduces precipitation by 5-8% if dust is removed on FEB16. The effects of local pollution on cloud microphysics and precipitation strongly depend on meteorology including the strength of the Sierra Barrier Jet, and cloud dynamics. This study further underscores the importance of the interactions between local pollution, dust, and environmental conditions for

  3. Response of surface water chemistry to reduced levels of acid precipitation: comparison of trends in two regions of New York, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Douglas A.; McHale, Michael R.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Roy, Karen M.

    2006-04-01

    In light of recent reductions in sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) emissions mandated by Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, temporal trends and trend coherence in precipitation (1984-2001 and 1992-2001) and surface water chemistry (1992-2001) were determined in two of the most acid-sensitive regions of North America, i.e. the Catskill and Adirondack Mountains of New York. Precipitation chemistry data from six sites located near these regions showed decreasing sulphate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), and base cation (CB) concentrations and increasing pH during 1984-2001, but few significant trends during 1992-2001. Data from five Catskill streams and 12 Adirondack lakes showed decreasing trends in SO42- concentrations at all sites, and decreasing trends in NO3-, CB, and H+ concentrations and increasing trends in dissolved organic carbon at most sites. In contrast, acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) increased significantly at only about half the Adirondack lakes and in one of the Catskill streams. Flow correction prior to trend analysis did not change any trend directions and had little effect on SO42- trends, but it caused several significant non-flow-corrected trends in NO3- and ANC to become non-significant, suggesting that trend results for flow-sensitive constituents are affected by flow-related climate variation. SO42- concentrations showed high temporal coherence in precipitation, surface waters, and in precipitation-surface water comparisons, reflecting a strong link between S emissions, precipitation SO42- concentrations, and the processes that affect S cycling within these regions. NO3- and H+ concentrations and ANC generally showed weak coherence, especially in surface waters and in precipitation-surface water comparisons, indicating that variation in local-scale processes driven by factors such as climate are affecting trends in acid-base chemistry in these two regions.

  4. Response of surface water chemistry to reduced levels of acid precipitation: Comparison of trends in two regions of New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Douglas A.; McHale, M.R.; Driscoll, C.T.; Roy, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    In light of recent reductions in sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) emissions mandated by Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, temporal trends and trend coherence in precipitation (1984-2001 and 1992-2001) and surface water chemistry (1992-2001) were determined in two of the most acid-sensitive regions of North America, i.e. the Catskill and Adirondack Mountains of New York. Precipitation chemistry data from six sites located near these regions showed decreasing sulphate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), and base cation (CB) concentrations and increasing pH during 1984-2001, but few significant trends during 1992-2001. Data from five Catskill streams and 12 Adirondack lakes showed decreasing trends in SO42- concentrations at all sites, and decreasing trends in NO3-, CB, and H+ concentrations and increasing trends in dissolved organic carbon at most sites. In contrast, acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC increased significantly at only about half the Adirondack lakes and in one of the Catskill streams. Flow correction prior to trend analysis did not change any trend directions and had little effect on SO42- trends, but it caused several significant non-flow-corrected trends in NO3- and ANC to become non-significant, suggesting that trend results for flow-sensitive constituents are affected by flow-related climate variation. SO42- concentrations showed high temporal coherence in precipitation, surface waters, and in precipitation-surface water comparisons, reflecting a strong link between S emissions, precipitation SO42- concentrations, and the processes that affect S cycling within these regions. NO3- and H+ concentrations and ANC generally showed weak coherence, especially in surface waters and in precipitation-surface water comparisons, indicating that variation in local-scale processes driven by factors such as climate are affecting trends in acid-base chemistry in these two regions. Copyright ?? 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Nanoparticles with photoinduced precipitation for the extraction of pollutants from water and soil

    PubMed Central

    Brandl, Ferdinand; Bertrand, Nicolas; Lima, Eliana Martins; Langer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology may offer fast and effective solutions for environmental clean-up. Herein, amphiphilic diblock copolymers are used to develop a platform of photosensitive core-shell nanoparticles. Irradiation with ultraviolet light removes the protective layer responsible for colloidal stability; as a result, the nanoparticles are rapidly and irreversibly converted to macroscopic aggregates. The associated phase separation allows measuring the partitioning of small molecules between the aqueous phase and nanoparticles; data suggests that interactions are enhanced by decreasing the particle size. Adsorption onto nanoparticles can be exploited to efficiently remove hydrophobic pollutants from water and contaminated soil. Preliminary in vivo experiments suggest that treatment with photocleavable nanoparticles can significantly reduce the teratogenicity of bisphenol A, triclosan and 17α-ethinyl estradiol without generating obviously toxic byproducts. Small-scale pilot experiments on wastewater, thermal printing paper and contaminated soil demonstrate the applicability of the approach. PMID:26196119

  6. Nanoparticles with photoinduced precipitation for the extraction of pollutants from water and soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandl, Ferdinand; Bertrand, Nicolas; Lima, Eliana Martins; Langer, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Nanotechnology may offer fast and effective solutions for environmental clean-up. Herein, amphiphilic diblock copolymers are used to develop a platform of photosensitive core-shell nanoparticles. Irradiation with ultraviolet light removes the protective layer responsible for colloidal stability; as a result, the nanoparticles are rapidly and irreversibly converted to macroscopic aggregates. The associated phase separation allows measuring the partitioning of small molecules between the aqueous phase and nanoparticles; data suggests that interactions are enhanced by decreasing the particle size. Adsorption onto nanoparticles can be exploited to efficiently remove hydrophobic pollutants from water and contaminated soil. Preliminary in vivo experiments suggest that treatment with photocleavable nanoparticles can significantly reduce the teratogenicity of bisphenol A, triclosan and 17α-ethinyl estradiol without generating obviously toxic byproducts. Small-scale pilot experiments on wastewater, thermal printing paper and contaminated soil demonstrate the applicability of the approach.

  7. Resolving precipitation-induced water content profiles through inversion of dispersive GPR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangel, A. R.; Moysey, S. M.; Van Der Kruk, J.

    2015-12-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has become a popular tool for monitoring hydrologic processes. When monitoring infiltration, the thin wetted zone that occurs near the ground surface at early times may act as a dispersive waveguide. This low-velocity layer traps the GPR waves, causing specific frequencies of the signal to travel at different phase velocities, confounding standard traveltime analysis. In a previous numerical study we demonstrated the potential of dispersion analysis for estimating the depth distribution of waveguide water contents. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of the methodology when applying it to experimental time-lapse dispersive GPR data collected during a laboratory infiltration experiment in a relatively homogenous soil. A large sand-filled tank is equipped with an automated gantry to independently control the position of 1000 MHz source and receiver antennas. The system was programmed to repeatedly collect a common mid-point (CMP) profile at the center of the tank followed by two constant offset profiles (COP) in the x and y direction. Each collection was completed in 30 s and repeated 50 times during a 28 min experiment. Two minutes after the start of measurements, the surface of the sand was irrigated at a constant flux rate of 0.006 cm/sec for 23 minutes. Time-lapse COPs show increases in traveltime to reflectors in the tank associated with increasing water content, as well as the development of a wetting front reflection. From 4-10 min, the CMPs show a distinct shingling characteristic that is indicative of waveguide dispersion. Forward models where the waveguide is conceptualized as discrete layers and a piece-wise linear function were used to invert picked dispersion curves for waveguide properties. We show the results from both inversion approaches for multiple dispersive CMPs and show how the single layer model fails to represent the gradational nature of the wetting front.

  8. Detecting 1mm/Year Signals in Altimetric Global Sea Level: Effect of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zlotnicki, Victor

    1999-01-01

    Several research efforts exist to use Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/ Projet d'Observatorie de Surveillance et d'Etudes Integrees de la Dynamique des Oceans (Poseidon) (T/P) to detect changes in global sea level possibly associated with climate change. This requires much better than 1 mm/yr accuracy, something that none of the instruments in T/P [or the European Remote Sensing (ERS-2) satellite, or the U.S. Navy's Geosat Follow-On (GFO) satellite] were designed for. This work focuses on the ability of the T/P microwave radiometer (TMR) to retrieve the path delay due to atmospheric water vapor along the altimeter's path with accuracy in the time changes below 1 mm/yr on global average. In collaboration with Stephen Keihm of JPL and Christopher Ruf of Pennsylvania State University, we compared TMR path delay (PD) estimates with atmospheric precipitable water (PW) from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) aboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) series of satellites for 1992-1998 to selected radiosondes, and we also looked at the brightness temperatures measured by TMR in the lowest 1% of the histogram. The conclusion is that TMR had a slow instrumental drift, associated with the 18-GHz channel, which causes an approximate underestimation of water vapor at a rate equivalent to 1.2 mm/yr in path delay between 1992 and 1996; this effect stopped and no drift is detected in 1997. The same study concluded that there is no detectable scale error (one which is proportional to measured vapor) in TMR. In related work, carried out with graduate student Damien Cailliau, we investigated the relative abilities of TMR, SSMI and the UP dual-frequency radar altimeter to detect rain, relative to a climatology of shipborne observations. Rain is a crucial but poorly measured variable in studies of the climate system, and a dedicated mission, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), was recently launched to measure it. However, the climatologies built over the

  9. Climate Change Impacts on Precipitation Patterns and Water Storage in the High-latitude Dry Interior Climate of Northern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, G.; Prowse, T. D.; Dibike, Y. B.; Bonsal, B. R.

    2012-12-01

    It is recognized that climate warming is causing an overall intensification of the hydrologic cycle. This intensification results not only in an increase in globally averaged precipitation, evaporation, and water vapour, but also in dramatic changes to the temporal and spatial distribution of the planet's water and extreme events. At local and regional scales, a change in the occurrence and intensity of extreme precipitation and evaporation events can have significant consequences, such as on natural and anthropogenic storage of freshwater on the land surface. Floods caused by overtopping of surface water storages pose infrastructure risks and may allow previously sequestered materials to interact with the surrounding environment. Conversely, extreme drying events may deplete surface water storages in a way that threatens both anthropogenic and ecosystem demands for clean water. This research uses observed and projected precipitation data from a suite of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) to compare current and future rainfall patterns in the high-latitude, dry, interior hydroclimatic regime of the Athabasca River catchment in Northern Alberta, Canada. Fitted statistical distributions and trend analysis tools such as the Mann-Kendall test are used to evaluate if significant differences are seen between late 20th century and late 21st century precipitation patterns, with a special focus on extreme events. This work is further applied to a comprehensive water balance study that examines the effects of climate change on future water balances over surface water storages of different depths in the Athabasca catchment. Climatic data from the suite of RCMs drive a lake model, MyLake, which considers the effects of heat storage and ice-cover dynamics on water balance components, especially evaporation. The outcome of this research will help inform efforts to prevent and mitigate the effects of a changing climate on water storage in hydroclimatic regimes sensitive to climate

  10. Evaluation of effects of changes in canal management and precipitation patterns on salinity in Biscayne Bay, Florida, using an integrated surface-water/groundwater model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lohmann, Melinda A.; Swain, Eric D.; Wang, John D.; Dixon, Joann

    2012-01-01

    Biscayne National Park, located in Biscayne Bay in southeast Florida, is one of the largest marine parks in the country and sustains a large natural marine fishery where numerous threatened and endangered species reproduce. In recent years, the bay has experienced hypersaline conditions (salinity greater than 35 practical salinity units) of increasing magnitude and duration. Hypersalinity events were particularly pronounced during April to August 2004 in nearshore areas along the southern and middle parts of the bay. Prolonged hypersaline conditions can cause degradation of water quality and permanent damage to, or loss of, brackish nursery habitats for multiple species of fish and crustaceans as well as damage to certain types of seagrasses that are not tolerant of extreme changes in salinity. To evaluate the factors that contribute to hypersalinity events and to test the effects of possible changes in precipitation patterns and canal flows into Biscayne Bay on salinity in the bay, the U.S. Geological Survey constructed a coupled surface-water/groundwater numerical flow model. The model is designed to account for freshwater flows into Biscayne Bay through the canal system, leakage of salty bay water into the underlying Biscayne aquifer, discharge of fresh and salty groundwater from the Biscayne aquifer into the bay, direct effects of precipitation on bay salinity, indirect effects of precipitation on recharge to the Biscayne aquifer, direct effects of evapotranspiration (ET) on bay salinity, indirect effects of ET on recharge to the Biscayne aquifer, and maintenance of mass balance of both water and solute. The model was constructed using the Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density Dependent System (FTLOADDS) simulator, version 3.3, which couples the two-dimensional, surface-water flow and solute-transport simulator SWIFT2D with the density-dependent, groundwater flow an solute-transport simulator SEAWAT. The model was calibrated by a trial

  11. Intercomparisons of Total Precipitable Water from Satellite and Other Long Term Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Fong-Chiau; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Suggs, Ronnie J.; Guillory, Anthony R.

    1998-01-01

    Global water vapor data sets from satellite (NVAP) and reanalysis (NCEP and DAO) are intercompared for a 5 year period (1988-1992). Global average indicates that the NCEP and DAO reanalyses are dryer than NVAP over much of the period. Spatial patterns of the NCEP/NVAP and DAO/NVAP differences show regional variations in the 60 month climatogical fields. For example, in the Eastern Pacific just south of the equator NVAP is much dryer than the NCEP and more moist than DAO. Rather large discrepancies exist in other regions as well. North Africa, Saudi Arabia, India, and Australia show that NVAP TPW values are more moist than the NCEP and DAO model analyses by 4-8 mm. In general, the NCEP and DAO exhibits a tendency to be dryer than NVAP over the tropical ocean region. Over the Americas little differences exist except over the west coast. The shapes of the differences fields over the Eastern Pacific region are significantly different between NCEP/NVAP and DAO/NVAP differences. Over South America and Central Africa, DAO TPW values are significantly higher than those of NVAP. These difference fields show monthly and seasonal variability as well. These results will be highlighted in the paper and on the poster.

  12. My NASA Data Precipitation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This lesson has two activities that help students develop a basic understanding of the relationship between cloud type and the form of precipitation and the relationship between the amount of water...

  13. Linking the isotopic composition of monthly precipitation, cave drip water and tree ring cellulose - 15 years of monitoring and data-model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labuhn, Inga; Genty, Dominique; Daux, Valérie; Bourges, François; Hoffmann, Georg

    2013-04-01

    The isotopic composition of proxies used for palaeoclimate reconstruction, like tree ring cellulose or speleothem calcite, is controlled to a large extent by the isotopic composition of precipitation. In order to calibrate and interpret these proxies in terms of climate, it is necessary to study water isotopes in rainfall and their link with the proxies' source water. We present 10 to 15-year series of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in monthly precipitation from three sites in the south of France, along with corresponding REMOiso model simulations, a monitoring of cave drip water from two of these sites (Villars cave in the south-west and Chauvet cave in the south-east), as well as measurements of oxygen isotopes in tree ring cellulose from oak trees growing in the same area. The isotopic composition of monthly precipitation at the three sites displays a typical annual cycle. At the south-west sites, under Atlantic influence, the interannual variability is much more pronounced during the winter months than during the summer, whereas the south-eastern Mediterranean site shows the same variability throughout the year. The model simulations are able to reproduce the annual cycle of monthly precipitation δ18O as well as the intra-seasonal variability. Compared to the data, however, the modelled average isotopic values and the seasonal amplitude are overestimated. Correlations between temperature and precipitation δ18O are generally weak at all our sites, on both the monthly and the annual scale, even when using temperature averages weighted by the amount of precipitation. Consequently, a proxy which is controlled by the δ18O of precipitation cannot be directly interpreted in terms of temperature in this region. The isotopic composition of cave drip water in both caves remains stable throughout the monitoring period. By calculating different weighted averages of precipitation δ18O for time periods ranging from months to years, we demonstrate that the cave drip

  14. Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Thermodynamic Profiles on Regional Precipitation Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, S.-H.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Jedloved, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and lead to better forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), provides temperature and moisture profiles in clear and cloudy regions with accuracy which approaches that of radiosondes. The purpose of this paper is to describe an approach to assimilate AIRS thermodynamic profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) model using WRF-Var. Quality indicators are used to select only the highest quality temperature and moisture profiles for assimilation in clear and partly cloudy regions, and uncontaminated portions of retrievals above clouds in overcast regions. Separate error characteristics for land and water profiles are also used in the assimilation process. Assimilation results indicate that AIRS profiles produce an analysis closer to in situ observations than the background field. Forecasts from a 37-day case study period in the winter of 2007 show that AIRS profile data can lead to improvements in 6-h cumulative precipitation forecasts resulting from improved thermodynamic fields. Additionally, in a convective heavy rainfall event from February 2007, assimilation of AIRS profiles produces a more unstable boundary layer resulting in enhanced updrafts in the model. These updrafts produce a squall line and precipitation totals that more closely reflect ground-based observations than a no AIRS control forecast. The location of available high-quality AIRS profiles ahead of approaching storm systems is found to be of paramount importance to the amount of impact the observations will have on the resulting forecasts.

  15. Occult precipitation as an input to the small catchment: observation, evaluation and new technics of fog water collection in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesar, M.; Fisak, J.; M., Sir; Bartunkova, K.

    2010-07-01

    The main objectives of the present contribution are to: (i) describe the monitoring network created in the mountainous regions in the Czech Republic; (ii) assess the input of water and pollutants from the wind driven low clouds and fogs onto the forest canopy; and (iii) introduce new ground-level cloud water sampler designs. Montane ecosystems can receive considerable inputs of water and dissolved substances from ground-level cloud and fog events. In order to study the input of water and matter from wind driven low clouds and fogs on the water balance and chemistry of mountainous forested catchments, three experimental watersheds were established: (1) the Liz basin (Sumava Mts. - southern Bohemia; 0,99 km2, 828 - 1073 m a.s.l., prevailing type of tree: spruce aged up to 120 years); (2) the Uhlirska basin (the Jizerske hory Mts. - northern Bohemia; 1,87 km2, 774 - 870 m a.s.l., prevailing type of tree: spruce aged up to 80 years); (3) the Modry potok basin (the Giant Mts. - north-eastern Bohemia; 2,62 km2, 1010 - 1554 m a.s.l., prevailing type of tree: spruce and dwarf pine 62 % and meadow 38 % of the area). These experimental catchments are placed in the main massifs of the Bohemian border mountains. They differ especially in the level of anthropogenic impacts on vegetation cover. The hydrological and ecological significance of occult precipitation will be demonstrated. The chemistry of falling bulk precipitation sampled at the open area will be compared with the throughfall and with surface water sampled at the closing profile of each watershed. For the whole observed time period analytical results of the chemical analyses will be summarized. Based on the model predictions and on the water balance of the forest canopy the annual occult precipitation totals were estimated by the 10 % of the annual falling precipitation total in the Sumava Mts., by 10 - 15 % in the Jizerske hory Mts., and even more than 20 - 25 % in the Giant Mts. A fog water study carried out over

  16. Impact of MODIS and AIRS total precipitable water on modifying the vertical shear and Hurricane Emily simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi-Chin; Chen, Shu-Hua; Chien, Fang-Ching

    2011-01-01

    The impact of retrieved total precipitable water (TPW) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) infrared (IR), MODIS near-infrared (NIR), and the combined Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)-IR and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-Microwave channels on simulations of Hurricane Emily was assessed and compared using the Weather Research and Forecasting model and its three-dimensional variation data assimilation (3D-Var) system. After assimilating MODIS IR TPW, the model clearly better reproduced storm tracking, intensity, and the 10 m wind field, while the improvement was limited or nil when assimilating either MODIS NIR TPW or AIRS TPW. After the data assimilation of MODIS IR TPW, a positive moisture increment was present to the east of the simulated storm in 3D-Var analysis (i.e., initial conditions). The positive TPW increment enhanced a convective cloud, which was also observed by satellites. The convective cloud effectively modulated the height and wind fields, resulting in a weakening of the vertical wind shear (VWS) over the region. The weak VWS band was then advected to the north of the storm, preventing the storm from attaching to the strong VWS zone located between 20°N and 30°N. There was no such positive moisture increment, convective cloud, or weak VWS band occurring to the east of the simulated storm in the other data assimilation experiments. This explains why the simulated storm intensified with assimilation of MODIS IR TPW but not for the other experiments.

  17. Determining the precipitable water vapor with ground-based GPS and comparing its yearly variation to rainfall over Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Ta-Kang; Hong, Jing-Shan; Wang, Chuan-Sheng; Chen, Chieh-Hung; Chen, Kwo-Hwa; Fong, Chin-Tzu

    2016-06-01

    Water vapor plays an important role in weather prediction. Thus, it would be helpful to use precipitable water vapor (PWV) data from Global Positioning System (GPS) signals to understand weather phenomena. Approximately 100 ground GPS stations that cooperate with approximately 500 ground weather stations were used in this study. The relationship between the PWV and rainfall was investigated by analyzing the amplitude and phase that resulted from harmonic analyses. The results indicated that the maximum PWV amplitudes were between 10.98 and 13.10 mm and always occurred at the end of July. The magnitudes of the PWV growth rate were between 0.65 and 0.81 mm/yr. These rates increased from 9.2% to 13.0% between 2006 and 2011. The largest peak PWV amplitude occurred in the Western region. However, the largest rainfall amplitude occurred in the Southern region. The presented peak rainfall time agreed with the peak PWV time in the Western, Southern, and Central Mountain regions. Although rainfall decreased with time in Taiwan, this decrease was not large. The greatest rainfall consistently occurred during the months in which typhoons occurred, and the greatest PWV values occurred at the end of July. Although the end of July had the greatest monthly average PWV values, the rainfall magnitude during this period was smaller than that during the typhoons, which only occurred for a few days; the PWV also increased during typhoons. Because this effect was short-term, it did not significantly contribute to the PWV monthly average.

  18. Total ozone column, aerosol optical depth and precipitable water effects on solar erythemal ultraviolet radiation recorded in Malta.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilbao, Julia; Román, Roberto; Yousif, Charles; Mateos, David; Miguel, Argimiro

    2013-04-01

    The Universities of Malta and Valladolid (Spain) developed a measurement campaign, which took place in the Institute for Energy Technology in Marsaxlokk (Southern Malta) between May and October 2012, and it was supported by the Spanish government through the Project titled "Measurement campaign about Solar Radiation, Ozone, and Aerosol in the Mediterranean area" (with reference CGL2010-12140-E). This campaign provided the first ground-based measurements in Malta of erythemal radiation and UV index, which indicate the effectiveness of the sun exposure to produce sunburn on human skin. A wide variety of instruments was involved in the campaign, providing a complete atmospheric characterization. Data of erythemal radiation and UV index (from UVB-1 pyranometer), total shortwave radiaton (global and diffuse components from CM-6B pyranometers), and total ozone column, aerosol optical thickness, and precitable water column (from a Microtops-II sunphotometer) were available in the campaign. Ground-based and satellite instruments were used in the analysis, and several intercomparisons were carried out to validate remote sensing data. OMI, GOME, GOME-2, and MODIS instruments, which provide data of ozone, aerosol load and optical properties, were used to this end. The effects on solar radiation, ultraviolet and total shortwave ranges, of total ozone column, aerosol optical thickness and precipitable water column were obtained using radiation measurements at different fixed solar zenith angles. The empirical results shown a determinant role of the solar position, a negligible effect of ozone on total shortwave radiation, and a stronger attenuation provided by aerosol particles in the erythemal radiation. A variety of aerosol types from different sources (desert dust, biomass burning, continental, and maritime) reach Malta, in this campaign several dust events from the Sahara desert occurred and were analyzed establishing the air mass back-trajectories ending at Malta at

  19. Characterization and interaction of precipitation, river water and groundwater in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta - A case study in the Plain of Reeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duy Nguyen, Le; Heidbüchel, Ingo; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    An understanding of the interactions between surface water and groundwater systems in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) is important not only for water resources planning and management, but also for the livelihood of the majority of the population in the delta. Precipitation and ground water, but also river water is used as drinking water in the communes of the Delta. Particularly the ground water is increasingly exploited, but the important processes like river - aquifer interaction and ground water recharge rates are largely unknown. This study thus aims at the characterization of processes between the different water resources. For this the different water sources were sampled over longer time periods and analysed for isotopic composition (2H, 18O). Additionally surface and ground water levels were recorded, as well as the temperature profile at and under the river bed in order to identify the river-ground water interaction. First results indicate that the isotopic composition and the local meteoric water line of the precipitation is very similar to the GNIP data for Bangkok, indicating similar isotopic sequestration and origin of the rainfall in the region (near ocean areas of SE-Asia). The isotopic composition of precipitation and river water exhibits a strong seasonal signal indicating the monsoonal influence. During the monsoon season both precipitation and river water is depleted in stable isotopes, while the dry season shows an enriched composition. This also indicates the different composition of the river water over the seasons. During the rainy season the portion of rain water, i.e. surface runoff stemming from the Mekong basin but also direct rainfall contribution in the Mekong Delta is considerably larger, as expected. The enriched composition during the dry season indicates a larger ground water, i.e. base flow portion, but also a generally higher evaporation due to the lower atmospheric moisture. The isotopic composition of the ground water differs

  20. Study on the properties of the Integrated Precipitable Water (IPW) maps derived by GPS, SAR interferometry and numerical forecasting models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateus, Pedro; Nico, Giovanni; Tomé, Ricardo; Catalão, João.; Miranda, Pedro

    2010-05-01

    The knowledge of spatial distribution of relative changes in atmospheric Integrated Precipitable Water (IPW) density is important for climate studies and numerical weather forecasting. An increase (or decrease) of the IPW density affects the phase of electromagnetic waves. For this reason, this quantity can be measured by techniques such as GPS and space-borne SAR interferometry (InSAR). The aim of this work is to study the isotropic properties of the IPW maps obtained by GPS and SAR InSAR measurements and derived by a Numerical Weather Forecasting Model. The existence of a power law in their phase spectrum is verified. The relationship between the interferometric phase delay and the topographic height of the observed area is also investigated. The Lisbon region, Portugal, was chosen as a study area. This region is monitored by a network of GPS permanent stations covering an area of about squared kilometers. The network consists of 12 GPS stations of which 4 belonging to the Instituto Geográfico Português (IGP) and 8 to Instituto Geográfico do Exercito (IGEOE). All stations were installed between 1997 and the beginning of 2009. The GAMIT package was used to process GPS data and to estimate the total zenith delay with a temporal sampling of 15 minutes. A set of 25 SAR interferograms with a 35-day temporal baseline were processed using ASAR-ENVISAT data acquired over the Lisbon region during the period from 2003 to 2005 and from 2008 to 2009. These interferograms give an estimate of the variation of the global atmospheric delay. Terrain deformations related to known geological phenomena in the Lisbon area are negligible at this time scale of 35 days. Furthermore, two interferometric SAR images acquired by ERS-1/2 over the Lisbon region on 20/07/1995 and 21/07/1995, respectively, and so with a temporal baseline of just 1 day, were also processed. The Weather Research & Forecasting Model (WRF) was used to generate the three-dimensional fields of temperature

  1. Hydrological Modeling of Storm Water Drainage System due to Frequent and Intense Precipitation of Dhaka city using Storm Water Management Model (SWMM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, S., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Rainfall induced flooding during rainy season is a regular phenomenon in Dhaka City. Almost every year a significant part of the city suffers badly with drainage congestion. There are some highly dense areas with lower ground elevation which submerge under water even with an intense precipitation of few hours. The higher areas also suffer with the drainage problem due to inadequate maintenance of the system and encroachment or illegal filling up of the drainage canals and lakes. Most part of the city suffered from long term urban flooding during historical extreme rainfall events in September 2004, 2007 and July 2009. The situation is likely to worsen in the future due to Climate Change, which may lead to more frequent and intense precipitation. To assess the major and minor drainage systems and elements of the urban basins using the hydrodynamic modelling and, through this, identifying the flooding events and areas, taking into account the current situation and future flood or drainage scenarios. Stormwater modeling has a major role in preventing issues such as flash floods and urban water-quality problems. Stormwater models of a lowered spatial resolution would thus appear valuable if only their ability to provide realistic results could be proved. The present scenario of urban morphology of Dhaka city and existing drainage system is complex for hydrological and hydrodynamic modeling. Furthermore limitations of background data and uncertain future urban scenarios may confine the potential outputs of a model. Although several studies were carried out including modeling for drainage master planning, a detail model for whole DAP (Detaile Area Plan) of Dhaka city area is not available. The model developed under this study is covering the existing drainage system in the study area as well as natural flows in the fringe area. A good number of models are available for hydrological and hydraulic analysis of urban areas. These are MIKE 11, MOUSE, HEC-RAS, HEC HMS and EPA

  2. Effects on Storm-Water Management for Three Major US Cities Using Location Specific Extreme Precipitation Dynamical Downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelle, A.; Allen, M.; Fu, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    With rising population and increasing urban density, it is of pivotal importance for urban planners to plan for increasing extreme precipitation events. Climate models indicate that an increase in global mean temperature will lead to increased frequency and intensity of storms of a variety of types. Analysis of results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) has demonstrated that global climate models severely underestimate precipitation, however. Preliminary results from dynamical downscaling indicate that Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is expected to experience the greatest increase of precipitation due to an increase in annual extreme events in the US. New York City, New York and Chicago, Illinois are anticipated to have similarly large increases in annual extreme precipitation events. In order to produce more accurate results, we downscale Philadelphia, Chicago, and New York City using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). We analyze historical precipitation data and WRF output utilizing a Log Pearson Type III (LP3) distribution for frequency of extreme precipitation events. This study aims to determine the likelihood of extreme precipitation in future years and its effect on the of cost of stormwater management for these three cities.

  3. Detailed study of precipitation of a poorly water soluble test compound using methodologies as in activity and solubility screening - mixing and automation effects.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Cheska; Kennedy, Alan R; Edwards, Darren; Dowden, Lee; Daublain, Pierre; Halling, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Storage of pharmaceutical discovery compounds dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is commonplace within industry. Often, the DMSO stock solution is added to an aqueous system (e.g. in bioassay or kinetic solubility testing)- since most test compounds are hydrophobic, precipitation could occur. Little is known about the factors affecting this precipitation process at the low (µM) concentrations used in screening analyses. Here, a poorly water soluble test compound (tolnaftate) was used to compare manual and automated pipetting, and explore the effect of mixing variables on precipitation. The amount of drug present in the supernatant after precipitation and centrifugation of the samples was quantified. An unusual result was obtained in three different laboratories: results of experiments performed initially were statistically significantly higher than those performed after a few days in the same lab. No significant differences were found between automated and manual pipetting, including in variability. Vortex mixing was found to give significantly lower supernatant amounts compared to milder mixing types. The mixing employed affects the particle growth of the precipitate. These findings are of relevance to discovery stage bioassay and kinetic solubility analyses.

  4. Field Evaluation Of Arsenic Transport Across The Ground-Water/Surface Water Interface: Ground-Water Discharge And Iron Oxide Precipitation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of arsenic in ground water, surface water, and sediments at a Superfund Site in the northeastern United States (see companion presentation by K. G. Scheckel et al). Ground-water discharge into the study area was cha...

  5. Negative δ 18O values in Allan Hills 84001 carbonate: Possible evidence for water precipitation on mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, G.; Saxton, J. M.; Lyon, I. C.; Turner, G.

    2005-03-01

    The Martian meteorite ALH84001 contains ˜1% by weight of carbonate formed by secondary processes on the Martian surface or in the shallow subsurface. The major form of this carbonate is chemically and isotopically zoned rosettes which have been well documented elsewhere. This study concentrates upon carbonate regions ˜200 μm across which possess previously unobserved magnesium rich inner cores, interpreted here as rosette fragments, surrounded by a later stage cement containing rare Ca-rich carbonates (up to Ca 81Mg 07Fe 04Mn 07) intimately associated with feldspar. High spatial resolution ion probe analyses of Ca-rich carbonate surrounding rosette fragments have δ 18O V-SMOW values as low as -10 ‰. These values are not compatible with deposition from a global Martian atmosphere invoked to explain ALH84001 rosettes. The range of δ 18O values are also incompatible with a fluid that has equilibrated with the Martian crust at high temperature or from remobilisation of carbonate of rosette isotopic composition. At Martian atmospheric temperatures, the small CO 2(gas)-CO 2(ice) fractionation makes meteoric CO 2 an unlikely source for -10 ‰ carbonates. In contrast, closed system Rayleigh fractionation of H 2O can generate δ 18O H2O -30 ‰, as observed at high latitudes on Earth. We suggest that atmospheric transport and precipitation of H 2O in a similar fashion to that on Earth provides a source of suitably 18O depleted water for generation of carbonate with δ 18O V-SMOW = -10 ‰.

  6. Changes in acid precipitation-related water chemistry of lakes from southwestern New Brunswick, Canada, 1986-2001.

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, W; Clair, T A; Choate, J; Hughes, R

    2003-01-01

    Between 1986 and 2001, thirty-nine lakes in southwestern New Brunswick in Atlantic Canada were surveyed for acid precipitation-related water quality changes. Most of the study lakes are located on granite bedrock and represent the most acid sensitive lakes in the province. Between 1987 and 1992, hydrogen ion deposition to the lake study area averaged 452 eq ha(-1) yr(-1), compared to 338 eq ha(-1) yr(-1) between 1993 and 2000, a 25% reduction. The lake chemistry data were evaluated by dividing the lakes into four clusters for each survey year based on their acid neutralizing capacity. Twenty percent of the lakes (cluster IV) had an average ANC of 40 microeq L(-1) or greater and maintained an average pH of greater than 6 over the duration of the study period. A pH of 6 or greater is considered a healthy benchmark for maintaining biodiversity. The remaining 31 lakes (clusters I to III) had an average ANC of less than 40 microeq L(-1) and maintained an average pH of less than 6. Other lake chemistry changes included a general decline in lake sulphate and colour over the duration of the survey period, followed by more recent improvements in calcium ion, pH and ANC, and notably higher but declining aluminum levels in lower ANC and pH lakes. Nitrate accounted for 37% of the acid deposition to the study area, however it was not detectable in the lakes. Although acid deposition has declined and these lakes are beginning to show signs of acid recovery, 80% of the study lakes remain acid sensitive having little buffering capacity with low calcium, pH and ANC.

  7. A model for the spatial distribution of snow water equivalent parameterized from the spatial variability of precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaugen, Thomas; Weltzien, Ingunn H.

    2016-09-01

    Snow is an important and complicated element in hydrological modelling. The traditional catchment hydrological model with its many free calibration parameters, also in snow sub-models, is not a well-suited tool for predicting conditions for which it has not been calibrated. Such conditions include prediction in ungauged basins and assessing hydrological effects of climate change. In this study, a new model for the spatial distribution of snow water equivalent (SWE), parameterized solely from observed spatial variability of precipitation, is compared with the current snow distribution model used in the operational flood forecasting models in Norway. The former model uses a dynamic gamma distribution and is called Snow Distribution_Gamma, (SD_G), whereas the latter model has a fixed, calibrated coefficient of variation, which parameterizes a log-normal model for snow distribution and is called Snow Distribution_Log-Normal (SD_LN). The two models are implemented in the parameter parsimonious rainfall-runoff model Distance Distribution Dynamics (DDD), and their capability for predicting runoff, SWE and snow-covered area (SCA) is tested and compared for 71 Norwegian catchments. The calibration period is 1985-2000 and validation period is 2000-2014. Results show that SDG better simulates SCA when compared with MODIS satellite-derived snow cover. In addition, SWE is simulated more realistically in that seasonal snow is melted out and the building up of "snow towers" and giving spurious positive trends in SWE, typical for SD_LN, is prevented. The precision of runoff simulations using SDG is slightly inferior, with a reduction in Nash-Sutcliffe and Kling-Gupta efficiency criterion of 0.01, but it is shown that the high precision in runoff prediction using SD_LN is accompanied with erroneous simulations of SWE.

  8. Concrete-Water-Interaction and Ikaite (CaCO3.6H2O) Precipitation in a Man-Made River Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boch, R.; Dietzel, M.; Reichl, P.; Leis, A.; Pölt, P.; Baldermann, A.

    2014-12-01

    Centimetre-thick, beige-colored and soft crusts were observed shortly after construction of a man-made river bed, i.e. a small natural river was bypassed flowing through a new bed lined with concrete and blocks. Hydrochemical investigations during wintertime - when water temperatures dropped down close to freezing - showed surprisingly high pH values up to 13.0 and elevated Ca2+ concentrations up to 200 mg/l. Both, the artifical and natural (downstream) section of the river bed were affected by the anomalous hydrochemistry and formation of prominent secondary precipitates. In order to better understand the particular and rapid water-rock-interaction, a hydrochemical monitoring program was launched and several of the delicate precipitates were recovered in refrigerator boxes in their original solution. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory within a few hours after sampling and stored at 1 °C. XRD and FT-IR patterns clearly revealed the predominant occurrence of "ikaite" in the crusts next to minor amounts of other carbonates (calcite, aragonite, vaterite) and detrital minerals. Ikaite - calcium carbonate hexahydrate - is a worldwide rarely documented carbonate mineral. This mineral is metastable and needs particular and narrow conditions in order to precipitate from solutions, i.e. a very limited water-temperature range between 0 and 4 °C (with ambient-pressure and low-salinity), highly alkaline pH conditions, high supersaturation values, and in many cases carbonate precipitation inhibitors (e.g. phosphates). Outside these conditions it disintegrates into calcite and water within minutes to hours. The few places of ikaite formation include Ikka Fjord in Greenland, Arctic- and Antarctic sea-ice and some sites of water mixing at Mono Lake, California. Combining detailed field monitoring results, solid-phase analyses and regional meteorological data (rainfall, water discharge, temperature) with hydrogeochemical modeling allows constraining the mechanisms of

  9. Effects of emission reductions at the Hayden powerplant on precipitation, snowpack, and surface-water chemistry in the Mount Zirkel Wilderness Area, Colorado, 1995-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa; Campbell, Donald H.; Ingersoll, George P.

    2005-01-01

    Precipitation, snowpack, and surface-water samples collected during 1995-2003 were analyzed to evaluate the effects of emission reductions at the Hayden powerplant on water chemistry in the Mount Zirkel Wilderness Area. The Hayden powerplant, one of two large coal-fired powerplants in the Yampa Valley, was retrofitted with control systems during late 1998 and 1999 to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide--the primary precursors of haze and acidic precipitation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, evaluated three water-chemistry data sets: wet-only precipitation chemistry from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program, snowpack chemistry from the Rocky Mountain snowpack network, and surface-water chemistry from a U.S. Geological Survey long-term lakes monitoring program. Concentrations and deposition rates of selected constituents were compared for the periods before and after emission reductions at the Hayden powerplant. Data collected during 1995-98 were used to represent the pre-control period, and data collected during 2000-2003 were used to represent the post-control period. Ten stations in the National Atmospheric Deposition Program were evaluated including two that were directly downwind from the Hayden powerplant (Dry Lake and Buffalo Pass) and eight that were upwind or more distant (more than 100 kilometers) from the powerplant. Precipitation amount at all 10 precipitation stations was lower in the post-control period than the pre-control period as a result of a regional drought that persisted during the post-control period. In contrast to precipitation amount, there was no consistent pattern of change in sulfate concentrations between periods, indicating that the drought did not have a concentrating effect on sulfate or that trends in regional sulfur dioxide emissions masked its influence. Sulfate concentrations increased at three stations between periods, remained the

  10. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as an Analytical Process Technology for the On-Line Quantification of Water Precipitation Processes during Danhong Injection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuesong; Wu, Chunyan; Geng, Shu; Jin, Ye; Luan, Lianjun; Chen, Yong; Wu, Yongjiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper used near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the on-line quantitative monitoring of water precipitation during Danhong injection. For these NIR measurements, two fiber optic probes designed to transmit NIR radiation through a 2 mm flow cell were used to collect spectra in real-time. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was developed as the preferred chemometrics quantitative analysis of the critical intermediate qualities: the danshensu (DSS, (R)-3, 4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid), protocatechuic aldehyde (PA), rosmarinic acid (RA), and salvianolic acid B (SAB) concentrations. Optimized PLSR models were successfully built and used for on-line detecting of the concentrations of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB of water precipitation during Danhong injection. Besides, the information of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB concentrations would be instantly fed back to site technical personnel for control and adjustment timely. The verification experiments determined that the predicted values agreed with the actual homologic value. PMID:26839549

  11. GSFLOW - Coupled Ground-Water and Surface-Water Flow Model Based on the Integration of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW-2005)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markstrom, Steven L.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Regan, R. Steven; Prudic, David E.; Barlow, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    The need to assess the effects of variability in climate, biota, geology, and human activities on water availability and flow requires the development of models that couple two or more components of the hydrologic cycle. An integrated hydrologic model called GSFLOW (Ground-water and Surface-water FLOW) was developed to simulate coupled ground-water and surface-water resources. The new model is based on the integration of the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW). Additional model components were developed, and existing components were modified, to facilitate integration of the models. Methods were developed to route flow among the PRMS Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) and between the HRUs and the MODFLOW finite-difference cells. This report describes the organization, concepts, design, and mathematical formulation of all GSFLOW model components. An important aspect of the integrated model design is its ability to conserve water mass and to provide comprehensive water budgets for a location of interest. This report includes descriptions of how water budgets are calculated for the integrated model and for individual model components. GSFLOW provides a robust modeling system for simulating flow through the hydrologic cycle, while allowing for future enhancements to incorporate other simulation techniques.

  12. Fusing enhanced radar precipitation, in-situ hydrometeorological measurements and airborne LIDAR snowpack estimates in a hyper-resolution hydrologic model to improve seasonal water supply forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochis, D. J.; Busto, J.; Howard, K.; Mickey, J.; Deems, J. S.; Painter, T. H.; Richardson, M.; Dugger, A. L.; Karsten, L. R.; Tang, L.

    2015-12-01

    Scarcity of spatially- and temporally-continuous observations of precipitation and snowpack conditions in remote mountain watersheds results in fundamental limitations in water supply forecasting. These limitationsin observational capabilities can result in strong biases in total snowmelt-driven runoff amount, the elevational distribution of runoff, river basin tributary contributions to total basin runoff and, equally important for water management, the timing of runoff. The Upper Rio Grande River basin in Colorado and New Mexico is one basin where observational deficiencies are hypothesized to have significant adverse impacts on estimates of snowpack melt-out rates and on water supply forecasts. We present findings from a coordinated observational-modeling study within Upper Rio Grande River basin whose aim was to quanitfy the impact enhanced precipitation, meteorological and snowpack measurements on the simulation and prediction of snowmelt driven streamflow. The Rio Grande SNOwpack and streamFLOW (RIO-SNO-FLOW) Prediction Project conducted enhanced observing activities during the 2014-2015 water year. Measurements from a gap-filling, polarimetric radar (NOXP) and in-situ meteorological and snowpack measurement stations were assimilated into the WRF-Hydro modeling framework to provide continuous analyses of snowpack and streamflow conditions. Airborne lidar estimates of snowpack conditions from the NASA Airborne Snow Observatory during mid-April and mid-May were used as additional independent validations against the various model simulations and forecasts of snowpack conditions during the melt-out season. Uncalibrated WRF-Hydro model performance from simulations and forecasts driven by enhanced observational analyses were compared against results driven by currently operational data inputs. Precipitation estimates from the NOXP research radar validate significantly better against independent in situ observations of precipitation and snow-pack increases

  13. Coordinated changes in photosynthesis, water relations and leaf nutritional traits of canopy trees along a precipitation gradient in lowland tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Louis S; Kitajima, Kaoru; Wright, S Joseph; Mulkey, Stephen S

    2004-05-01

    We investigated leaf physiological traits of dominant canopy trees in four lowland Panamanian forests with contrasting mean annual precipitation (1,800, 2,300, 3,100 and 3,500 mm). There was near complete turn-over of dominant canopy tree species among sites, resulting in greater dominance of evergreen species with long-lived leaves as precipitation increased. Mean structural and physiological traits changed along this gradient as predicted by cost-benefit theories of leaf life span. Nitrogen content per unit mass (Nmass) and light- and CO2-saturated photosynthetic rates per unit mass (Pmass) of upper canopy leaves decreased with annual precipitation, and these changes were partially explained by increasing leaf thickness and decreasing specific leaf area (SLA). Comparison of 1,800 mm and 3,100 mm sites, where canopy access was available through the use of construction cranes, revealed an association among extended leaf longevity, greater structural defense, higher midday leaf water potential, and lower Pmass, Nmass, and SLA at wetter sites. Shorter leaf life spans and more enriched foliar delta15N values in drier sites suggest greater resorption and re-metabolism of leaf N in drier forest. Greater dominance of short-lived leaves with relatively high Pmass in drier sites reflects a strategy to maximize photosynthesis when water is available and to minimize water loss and respiration costs during rainless periods. Overall, our study links coordinated change in leaf functional traits that affect productivity and nutrient cycling to seasonality in lowland tropical forests.

  14. Seasonal precipitation and soil moisture recharge as competing drivers of carbon and water fluxes across a gradient of semi-arid ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, G. E.; Litvak, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Ecosystems of the southwestern U.S. receive precipitation in two prevailing weather patterns, the convective monsoon storms prevalent in late summer months, and synoptic-scale storm systems that are most frequent in late fall and winter. We examined a seven year record of eddy covariance data from six ecosystem types along an elevation/aridity gradient in the southwestern U.S. to determine the degree to which CO2 and H2O fluxes correlate with seasonal and interannual patterns in precipitation and soil water availability. Our results show that the majority of total annual primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Reco), and evapotranspiration (ET) occurred during the monsoon season at most sites and in most years. During spring, typically the driest period in this region, the sites frequently had high rates of GPP and comparatively low Reco and ET, meaning this time period is important for annual carbon sequestration. Correlation between seasonal productivity measures and precipitation are generally weak, suggesting that some productivity peaks, such as the one in spring, are supported by stored soil water. We estimated the size of available soil water pools at multiple depths using extensive measurements of soil volumetric water content. Preliminary findings show strong relationships between seasonal CO2 and H2O fluxes and estimated available water in deeper soil layers. Our work indicates that relatively infrequent soil water recharge events are key to understanding the temporal distribution of ecosystem CO2 and H2O fluxes in the southwestern U.S., and potentially in other semi-arid ecosystems.

  15. Co-precipitation of radium with barium and strontium sulfate and its impact on the fate of radium during treatment of produced water from unconventional gas extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tieyuan; Gregory, Kelvin; Hammack, Richard W; Vidic, Radisav D

    2014-04-15

    Radium occurs in flowback and produced waters from hydraulic fracturing for unconventional gas extraction along with high concentrations of barium and strontium and elevated salinity. Radium is often removed from this wastewater by co-precipitation with barium or other alkaline earth metals. The distribution equation for Ra in the precipitate is derived from the equilibrium of the lattice replacement reaction (inclusion) between the Ra(2+) ion and the carrier ions (e.g., Ba(2+) and Sr(2+)) in aqueous and solid phases and is often applied to describe the fate of radium in these systems. Although the theoretical distribution coefficient for Ra-SrSO4 (Kd = 237) is much larger than that for Ra-BaSO4 (Kd = 1.54), previous studies have focused on Ra-BaSO4 equilibrium. This study evaluates the equilibria and kinetics of co-precipitation reactions in Ra-Ba-SO4 and Ra-Sr-SO4 binary systems and the Ra-Ba-Sr-SO4 ternary system under varying ionic strength (IS) conditions that are representative of brines generated during unconventional gas extraction. Results show that radium removal generally follows the theoretical distribution law in binary systems and is enhanced in the Ra-Ba-SO4 system and restrained in the Ra-Sr-SO4 system by high IS. However, the experimental distribution coefficient (Kd') varies widely and cannot be accurately described by the distribution equation, which depends on IS, kinetics of carrier precipitation and does not account for radium removal by adsorption. Radium removal in the ternary system is controlled by the co-precipitation of Ra-Ba-SO4, which is attributed to the rapid BaSO4 nucleation rate and closer ionic radii of Ra(2+) with Ba(2+) than with Sr(2+). Carrier (i.e., barite) recycling during water treatment was shown to be effective in enhancing radium removal even after co-precipitation was completed. Calculations based on experimental results show that Ra levels in the precipitate generated in centralized waste treatment facilities far

  16. Co-precipitation of radium with barium and strontium sulfate and its impact on the fate of radium during treatment of produced water from unconventional gas extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tieyuan; Gregory, Kelvin; Hammack, Richard W; Vidic, Radisav D

    2014-04-15

    Radium occurs in flowback and produced waters from hydraulic fracturing for unconventional gas extraction along with high concentrations of barium and strontium and elevated salinity. Radium is often removed from this wastewater by co-precipitation with barium or other alkaline earth metals. The distribution equation for Ra in the precipitate is derived from the equilibrium of the lattice replacement reaction (inclusion) between the Ra(2+) ion and the carrier ions (e.g., Ba(2+) and Sr(2+)) in aqueous and solid phases and is often applied to describe the fate of radium in these systems. Although the theoretical distribution coefficient for Ra-SrSO4 (Kd = 237) is much larger than that for Ra-BaSO4 (Kd = 1.54), previous studies have focused on Ra-BaSO4 equilibrium. This study evaluates the equilibria and kinetics of co-precipitation reactions in Ra-Ba-SO4 and Ra-Sr-SO4 binary systems and the Ra-Ba-Sr-SO4 ternary system under varying ionic strength (IS) conditions that are representative of brines generated during unconventional gas extraction. Results show that radium removal generally follows the theoretical distribution law in binary systems and is enhanced in the Ra-Ba-SO4 system and restrained in the Ra-Sr-SO4 system by high IS. However, the experimental distribution coefficient (Kd') varies widely and cannot be accurately described by the distribution equation, which depends on IS, kinetics of carrier precipitation and does not account for radium removal by adsorption. Radium removal in the ternary system is controlled by the co-precipitation of Ra-Ba-SO4, which is attributed to the rapid BaSO4 nucleation rate and closer ionic radii of Ra(2+) with Ba(2+) than with Sr(2+). Carrier (i.e., barite) recycling during water treatment was shown to be effective in enhancing radium removal even after co-precipitation was completed. Calculations based on experimental results show that Ra levels in the precipitate generated in centralized waste treatment facilities far

  17. A precipitation-runoff model for simulating natural streamflow conditions in the Smith River watershed, Montana, water years 1996-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chase, Katherine J.; Caldwell, Rodney R.; Stanley, Andrea K.

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the construction of a precipitation-runoff model for simulating natural streamflow in the Smith River watershed, Montana. This Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model, constructed in cooperation with the Meagher County Conservation District, can be used to examine the general hydrologic framework of the Smith River watershed, including quantification of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and streamflow; partitioning of streamflow between surface runoff and subsurface flow; and quantifying contributions to streamflow from several parts of the watershed. The model was constructed by using spatial datasets describing watershed topography, the streams, and the hydrologic characteristics of the basin soils and vegetation. Time-series data (daily total precipitation, and daily minimum and maximum temperature) were input to the model to simulate daily streamflow. The model was calibrated for water years 2002–2007 and evaluated for water years 1996–2001. Though water year 2008 was included in the study period to evaluate water-budget components, calibration and evaluation data were unavailable for that year. During the calibration and evaluation periods, simulated-natural flow values were compared to reconstructed-natural streamflow data. These reconstructed-natural streamflow data were calculated by adding Bureau of Reclamation’s depletions data to the observed streamflows. Reconstructed-natural streamflows represent estimates of streamflows for water years 1996–2007 assuming there was no agricultural water-resources development in the watershed. Additional calibration targets were basin mean monthly solar radiation and potential evapotranspiration. The model estimated the hydrologic processes in the Smith River watershed during the calibration and evaluation periods. Simulated-natural mean annual and mean monthly flows generally were the same or higher than the reconstructed-natural streamflow values during the calibration period, whereas

  18. Assessment of precipitable water vapor derived from ground-based BeiDou observations with Precise Point Positioning approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Li, Wenwen; Shi, Chuang; Zhao, Qile; Su, Xing; Qu, Lizhong; Liu, Zhizhao

    2015-01-01

    Precipitable water vapor (PWV) estimation from Global Positioning System (GPS) has been extensively studied and used for meteorological applications. However PWV estimation using the emerging BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) is very limited. In this paper the PWV estimation strategy and the evaluation of the results inferred from ground-based BDS observations using Precise Point Positioning (PPP) method are presented. BDS and GPS data from 10 stations distributed in the Asia-Pacific and West Indian Ocean regions during the year 2013 are processed using the PANDA (Position and Navigation Data Analyst) software package. The BDS-PWV and GPS-PWV are derived from the BDS-only and GPS-only observations, respectively. The PPP positioning differences between BDS-only and GPS-only show a standard deviation (STD) <1 cm in the east and north components and 1-3 cm in vertical component. The BDS-PWV and GPS-PWV at the HKTU station (Hong Kong, China) is compared with PWV derived from a radiosonde station (about 1 km distance) over a 6-month period. The GPS-PWV shows a good agreement with radiosonde-PWV with a bias of 0.002 mm and a STD of 2.49 mm while BDS-PWV has with a bias of -2.04 mm and STD 2.68 mm with respect to radiosonde-PWV. This indicates that the PWV estimated from the BDS can achieve similar precision as PWV from GPS. The BDS-PWV is compared to GPS-PWV at 10 stations. The mean bias and STD of their differences at 10 stations are 0.78 mm and 1.77 mm, respectively. The mean root mean square (RMS) value is 2.00 mm by considering the GPS-PWV as reference truth. This again confirms that the BDS-PWV has a good agreement with the GPS-PWV. It clearly indicates that the BDS is ready for the high precision meteorological applications in the Asia-Pacific and West Indian Ocean regions and that BDS alone can be used for PWV estimation with an accuracy comparable to GPS.

  19. Stable isotope (δ18O and δ2H) data for precipitation, stream water, and groundwater in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, Martha A.; Torres-Sanchez, Angel; Rosario-Torres, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Puerto Rico is located in the northeastern Caribbean Sea (18.2 °N, 66.3 °W), with the Atlantic Ocean on its northern coast. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program study area in which most of these data were collected comprises the El Yunque National Forest and surrounding area of eastern Puerto Rico. Samples were collected in two forested watersheds, the Rio Mameyes and the Rio Icacos/Rio Blanco, on opposite sides of a ridge in the Luquillo Mountains on the eastern end of the island (fig. 1). Elevation in both watersheds ranges from sea level to approximately 1,000 meters (m). Near sea level, land use is mixed pasture, moist forest, and residential, grading to completely forested within the boundaries of El Yunque National Forest. Forest type changes with elevation from tabonuco to palo colorado to sierra palm to cloud forest above approximately 950 m (Murphy and others, 2012). The Rio Mameyes watershed is oriented north-northeast, and the basin is underlain by volcaniclastic bedrock (basaltic to andesitic volcanic sandstone/mudstone/conglomerate/breccia). The Rio Icacos/Rio Blanco watershed is oriented south-southeast. The Rio Icacos is one of the headwaters of the Rio Blanco and is underlain by quartz diorite. The lower Rio Blanco basin is underlain by andesitic volcaniclastic bedrock. This report also contains a long-term rain isotope dataset from the San Agustin site, in north-central Puerto Rico (fig. 1). Puerto Rico has a tropical climate dominated by easterly trade winds, and seasonal climate patterns affect the hydrology of the study area. The summer wet season is characterized by convective precipitation from tropical easterly waves, troughs, and cyclonic low-pressure systems, including tropical storms and hurricanes; in contrast, the drier winter season is characterized by trade-wind showers and frontal systems. The highest single-event rainfall totals tend to be associated with tropical storms

  20. Understanding the Global Water and Energy Cycle Through Assimilation of Precipitation-Related Observations: Lessons from TRMM and Prospects for GPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur; Zhang, Sara; daSilva, Arlindo; Li, Frank; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the Earth's climate and how it responds to climate perturbations relies on what we know about how atmospheric moisture, clouds, latent heating, and the large-scale circulation vary with changing climatic conditions. The physical process that links these key climate elements is precipitation. Improving the fidelity of precipitation-related fields in global analyses is essential for gaining a better understanding of the global water and energy cycle. In recent years, research and operational use of precipitation observations derived from microwave sensors such as the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) have shown the tremendous potential of using these data to improve global modeling, data assimilation, and numerical weather prediction. We will give an overview of the benefits of assimilating TRMM and SSM/I rain rates and discuss developmental strategies for using space-based rainfall and rainfall-related observations to improve forecast models and climate datasets in preparation for the proposed multi-national Global Precipitation Mission (GPM).

  1. Evaluation of effects of changes in canal management and precipitation patterns on salinity in Biscayne Bay, Florida, using an integrated surface-water/groundwater model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lohmann, Melinda A.; Swain, Eric D.; Wang, John D.; Dixon, Joann

    2012-01-01

    Biscayne National Park, located in Biscayne Bay in southeast Florida, is one of the largest marine parks in the country and sustains a large natural marine fishery where numerous threatened and endangered species reproduce. In recent years, the bay has experienced hypersaline conditions (salinity greater than 35 practical salinity units) of increasing magnitude and duration. Hypersalinity events were particularly pronounced during April to August 2004 in nearshore areas along the southern and middle parts of the bay. Prolonged hypersaline conditions can cause degradation of water quality and permanent damage to, or loss of, brackish nursery habitats for multiple species of fish and crustaceans as well as damage to certain types of seagrasses that are not tolerant of extreme changes in salinity. To evaluate the factors that contribute to hypersalinity events and to test the effects of possible changes in precipitation patterns and canal flows into Biscayne Bay on salinity in the bay, the U.S. Geological Survey constructed a coupled surface-water/groundwater numerical flow model. The model is designed to account for freshwater flows into Biscayne Bay through the canal system, leakage of salty bay water into the underlying Biscayne aquifer, discharge of fresh and salty groundwater from the Biscayne aquifer into the bay, direct effects of precipitation on bay salinity, indirect effects of precipitation on recharge to the Biscayne aquifer, direct effects of evapotranspiration (ET) on bay salinity, indirect effects of ET on recharge to the Biscayne aquifer, and maintenance of mass balance of both water and solute. The model was constructed using the Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density Dependent System (FTLOADDS) simulator, version 3.3, which couples the two-dimensional, surface-water flow and solute-transport simulator SWIFT2D with the density-dependent, groundwater flow an solute-transport simulator SEAWAT. The model was calibrated by a trial

  2. Dynamic Fe-precipitate formation induced by Fe(II) oxidation in aerated phosphate-containing water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voegelin, Andreas; Senn, Anna-Caterina; Kaegi, Ralf; Hug, Stephan J.; Mangold, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    We studied the effect of phosphate on the precipitation of Fe during the oxidation of 1 mM Fe(II) in aerated 8 mM NaHCO3-CO2 buffered aqueous solutions at near-neutral pH. The structure and morphology of the precipitates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy at the Fe K-edge, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Up to an initial dissolved P/Fe ratio of ˜0.55, most phosphate was incorporated into the fresh Fe(III)-precipitates. At dissolved P/Fe ratios from 0.55 to 1.91, the precipitate P/Fe ratios only exhibited a minor increase from 0.56 to 0.72. XRD patterns and Fe EXAFS spectra indicated a shift in precipitate type from mostly poorly-crystalline lepidocrocite in the absence of phosphate to amorphous Fe(III)-phosphate (mostly monomeric and oligomeric Fe(III) coordinated with phosphate) at dissolved P/Fe ratios >0.55. A time-resolved oxidation experiment at an initial dissolved P/Fe ratio of 0.29 revealed that amorphous Fe(III)-phosphate formed during Fe(II) oxidation until phosphate was nearly depleted from solution. During continuing Fe(II) oxidation, about half of the newly formed Fe(III) contributed to the polymerization of Fe-phosphate into phosphate-rich hydrous ferric oxide with a maximum P/Fe ratio of 0.25 (HFO-P; edge-sharing linkage of Fe(III) octahedra) and about half precipitated as poorly-crystalline lepidocrocite in the phosphate-depleted solution. At initial P/Fe ratios <0.2, initially formed Fe(III)-phosphate was fully transformed into HFO-P during continuing Fe(II) oxidation. The dynamic interactions between phosphate and Fe described in this study impact the structure of fresh Fe(III)-precipitates at redox transitions in environmental and technical systems. The modulating effects of other dissolved species such as silicate and Ca on Fe precipitate formation and implications for co-transformed trace elements require further study.

  3. Water-Rock Interaction Simulations of Iron Oxide Mobilization and Precipitation: Implications of Cross-diffusion Reactions for Terrestrial and Mars 'Blueberry' Hematite Concretions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, A. J.; Chan, M. A.; Parry, W. T.

    2005-12-01

    Modeling of how terrestrial concretions form can provide valuable insights into understanding water-rock interactions that led to the formation of hematite concretions at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Numerical simulations of iron oxide concretions in the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone of southern Utah provide physical and chemical input parameters for emulating conditions that may have prevailed on Mars. In the terrestrial example, iron oxide coatings on eolian sand grains are reduced and mobilized by methane or petroleum. Precipitation of goethite or hematite occurs as Fe interacts with oxygen. Conditions that produced Navajo Sandstone concretions can range from a regional scale that is strongly affected by advection of large pore volumes of water, to small sub-meter scale features that are dominantly controlled by diffusive processes. Hematite concretions are results of a small-scale cross-diffusional process, where Fe and oxygen are supplied from two opposite sides from the 'middle' zone of mixing where concretions precipitate. This is an ideal natural system where Liesegang banding and other self-organized patterns can evolve. A complicating variable here is the sedimentologic (both mineralogic and textural) heterogeneity that, in reality, may be the key factor controlling the nucleation and precipitation habits (including possible competitive growth) of hematite concretions. Sym.8 water-rock interaction simulator program was used for the Navajo Sandstone concretions. Sym.8 is a water-rock simulator that accounts for advective and diffusive mass-transfer, and equilibrium and kinetic reactions. The program uses a dynamic composite media texture model to address changing sediment composition and texture to be consistent with the reaction progress. Initial one-dimensional simulation results indicate precipitation heterogeneity in the range of sub-meters, e.g., possible banding and distribution of iron oxide nodules may be centimeters apart for published diffusivities and

  4. STRONTIUM PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, T.R.

    1960-09-13

    A process is given for improving the precipitation of strontium from an aqueous phosphoric-acid-containing solution with nickel or cobalt ferrocyanide by simultaneously precipitating strontium or calcium phosphate. This is accomplished by adding to the ferrocyanide-containing solution calcium or strontium nitrate in a quantity to yield a concentration of from 0.004 to 0.03 and adjusting the pH of the solution to a value of above 8.

  5. A new method for As(V) removal from waters by precipitation of mimetite Pb5(AsO4)3Cl on Pb-activated zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manecki, Maciej; Buszkiewicz, Urszula

    2016-04-01

    A new method for removal of arsenate AsO43- ions from aqueous solutions is proposed. The principle of the method stems from precipitation of very insoluble crystalline lead arsenate apatite (mimetite Pb5(AsO4)3Cl) induced by bringing in contact Pb-activated zeolite and As-contaminated water in the presence of Cl-. Zeolite is activated by sorption of Pb2+ followed by washing with water to remove the excess of Pb and to desorbe weakly adsorbed ions. Lead adsorbed on zeolite is bound strong enough to prevent desorption by water but weak enough to undergo desorption induced by heterogeneous precipitation of mimetite nanocrystals on the surface of zeolite. The experiment consisted of two steps. In the first step, aliquots of 0.5 g of natural clinoptilolite zeolite (from Zeocem a.s., Bystré, Slovak Republic) were reacted with 40 mL of solutions containing 20, 100, 500, and 2000 mg Pb/L (pH =4.5; reaction for 30 minutes followed by centrifugation). The amount of Pb sorbed was calculated from the drop of Pb concentration in solution. Centrifuged zeolite was washed three times by mixing with 10 mL of DDI water, followed by centrifugation. No Pb was detected in the water after second washing. Wet pulp resulting from this stage was exposed to solutions containing 70 mg/L Cl- and various concentrations of AsO43- (2 and 100 mg As/L; pH=4). Complete removal of As was observed for 2 mg As/L solutions mixed with zeolite-20 and zeolite-100. The precipitation of mimetite Pb5(AsO4)3Cl in the form of hexagonal crystals ca. 0.25 μm in size was observed using SEM/EDS. This work is partially funded by AGH research grant no 11.11.140.319.

  6. Leaf gas exchange and water status responses of a native and non-native grass to precipitation across contrasting soil surfaces in the Sonoran Desert.

    PubMed

    Ignace, Danielle D; Huxman, Travis E; Weltzin, Jake F; Williams, David G

    2007-06-01

    Arid and semi-arid ecosystems of the southwestern US are undergoing changes in vegetation composition and are predicted to experience shifts in climate. To understand implications of these current and predicted changes, we conducted a precipitation manipulation experiment on the Santa Rita Experimental Range in southeastern Arizona. The objectives of our study were to determine how soil surface and seasonal timing of rainfall events mediate the dynamics of leaf-level photosynthesis and plant water status of a native and non-native grass species in response to precipitation pulse events. We followed a simulated precipitation event (pulse) that occurred prior to the onset of the North American monsoon (in June) and at the peak of the monsoon (in August) for 2002 and 2003. We measured responses of pre-dawn water potential, photosynthetic rate, and stomatal conductance of native (Heteropogon contortus) and non-native (Eragrostis lehmanniana) C(4) bunchgrasses on sandy and clay-rich soil surfaces. Soil surface did not always amplify differences in plant response to a pulse event. A June pulse event lead to an increase in plant water status and photosynthesis. Whereas the August pulse did not lead to an increase in plant water status and photosynthesis, due to favorable soil moisture conditions facilitating high plant performance during this period. E. lehmanniana did not demonstrate heightened photosynthetic performance over the native species in response to pulses across both soil surfaces. Overall accumulated leaf-level CO(2) response to a pulse event was dependent on antecedent soil moisture during the August pulse event, but not during the June pulse event. This work highlights the need to understand how desert species respond to pulse events across contrasting soil surfaces in water-limited systems that are predicted to experience changes in climate.

  7. Variations in High-density Precipitation under Climate Changes in the LMRB and Implications on Drinking Water Supply Security - Paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    A systematic temporal and spatial analysis is being conducted at the U.S. EPA on historical precipitation and stream flow over the continental U.S. and their relationships with Atlantic hurricanes and lower Mississippi river basin flooding. The objective is to decipher the period...

  8. Variations in High-Intensity Precipitation under Climate Changes in the LMRB and Implications on Drinking Water Supply Security

    EPA Science Inventory

    A systematic temporal and spatial analysis is being conducted at the U.S. EPA on historical precipitation and stream flow over the continental U.S. and their relationships with Atlantic hurricanes and lower Mississippi river basin flooding. The objective is to decipher the perio...

  9. Microbial community responses to 17 years of altered precipitation are seasonally dependent and coupled to co-varying effects of water content on vegetation and soil C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorensen, Patrick O.; Germino, Matthew J.; Feris, Kevin P.

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation amount and seasonal timing determine the duration and distribution of water available for plant and microbial activity in the cold desert sagebrush steppe. In this study, we sought to determine if a sustained shift in the amount and timing of precipitation would affect soil microbial diversity, community composition, and soil carbon (C) storage. Field plots were irrigated (+200 mm) during the dormant or growing-season for 17 years. Microbial community responses were assessed over the course of a year at two depths (15–20 cm, 95–100 cm) by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), along with co-occurring changes in plant cover and edaphic properties. Bacterial richness, Shannon Weaver diversity, and composition in shallow soils (15–20 cm) as well as evenness in deep soils (95–100 cm) differed across irrigation treatments during July. Irrigation timing affected fungal community diversity and community composition during the dormant season and most strongly in deep soils (95–100 cm). Dormant-season irrigation increased the ratio of shrubs to forbs and reduced soil C in shallow soils by 16% relative to ambient conditions. It is unclear whether or not soil C will continue to decline with continued treatment application or if microbial adaptation could mitigate sustained soil C losses. Future changes in precipitation timing will affect soil microbes in a seasonally dependent manner and be coupled to co-varying effects of water content on vegetation and soil C.

  10. Evaluation of different interpolation schemes for precipitation and reference evapotranspiration and the impact on simulated large-scale water balance in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qianwen; Molkenthin, Frank; Wendland, Frank; Herrmann, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) are two main climate input components for hydrological models, which are often recorded or calculated based on measuring stations. Interpolation schemes are implemented to regionalize data from measuring stations for distributed hydrological models. This study had been conducted for 5 months, with the aim of: (1) evaluating three interpolation schemes for precipitation and reference evapotranspiration (ET0); (2) assessing the impact of the interpolation schemes on actual evapotranspiration and total runoff simulated by a distributed large-scale water balance model - mGROWA. The study case was the Republic of Slovenia, including a high variability in topography and climatic conditions, with daily meteorological data measured in 20 stations for a period of 44 years. ET0 were computed by both FAO Penman-Monteith equation and Hargreaves equation. The former equation is recommended as the standard equation, while the ET0 calculated by the latter one for Slovenia had a certain deviation (+150 mm/a) from it. Ordinary Kriging, Regression Kriging and Linear Regression were selected to regionalize precipitation and ET0. Reliability of the three interpolation schemes had been assessed based on the residual obtained from cross-validation. Monthly regionalized precipitation and ET0 were subsequently used as climate input for mGROWA model simulation. Evaluation of the interpolation schemes showed that the application of Regression Kriging and Linear Regression led to an acceptable interpolation result for reference evapotranspiration, especially in case the FAO Penman-Monteith equation was used. On the other hand, Regression Kriging also provided a more convincing interpolated result for precipitation. Meanwhile, mGROWA simulation results were affected by climate input data sets generated by applying difference interpolation schemes. Therefore, it is essential to select an appropriate interpolation scheme, in order to generate

  11. Characterization of the Calcination Products of the Precipitates Obtained from the Bio-Oxidation with Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans of Sulphuric Water Pickling Liquors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, J. F.; Gancedo, J. R.; López, F. A.

    1998-12-01

    The characterization of the calcination products of the precipitates obtained from the bio-oxidation with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans of sulphuric water pickling liquors has been carried out by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy, x-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that a full transformation of the precipitates into α-Fe2O3 is achieved at temperatures higher than 850°C. Calcination at 700°C during two hours results in the formation of α-Fe2O3, ζ-Fe2O3 and Fe12O3(SO4)15. The Mössbauer parameters of ζ-Fe2O3 and Fe12O3(SO4)15 at 298 and 17K are reported.

  12. Modeling precipitation and sorption of elements during mixing of river water and porewater in the Coeur d'Alene River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Box, S.E.; Tonkin, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Reddish brown flocs form along the edge of the Coeur d'Alene River when porewater drains into river water during the annual lowering of water level in the basin. The precipitates are efficient scavengers of dissolved elements and have characteristics that may make metals associated with them bioavailable. This work characterizes the geochemistry of the porewater and models the formation and composition of the flocs. Porewater is slightly acidic, has suboxic to anoxic characteristics, tends to have higher alkalinity, and contains elevated concentrations of many constituents relative to river water. Laboratory mixing experiments involving porewater and river water were done to produce the precipitates. Thermodynamic predictions using PHREEQC indicate that predicted amounts of ferrihydrite and gibbsite agree with removal of Fe and Al. Predictions of element removal by adsorption onto ferrihydrite are consistent with observed removal using a combination of surface complexation constants for the generalized two-layer model (As and Se), alternative surface constants derived from experiments at high sorbate-to-sorbent ratios (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn), and adjusted surface constants to fit experimental data (Cr, Mo, and Sb). This new set of surface complexation constants needs further testing in other contaminated systems.

  13. Acidification of soil-water in low base-saturated sand soils of the superior uplands under acid and normal precipitation.

    PubMed

    Harris, A R

    1989-04-01

    Lakes and streams are acidified by direct precipitation and water channeled through nearby soils, but water in low base-saturation soils can produce highly acidic percolate after prolonged contact and subsequent degassing in surface waters. Theories advanced by Reuss (1983), Reuss and Johnson (1985), and Seip and Rustad (1984) suggest that soils with less than 15% base saturation are susceptible to soil-water pH depression of up to 0.4 unit, which is sufficient to cause negative alkalinity in soil solutions. High concentrations of mobile anions (notably sulfate) are responsible for the negative alkalinity and these solutions on CO2 degassing in surface waters can retain acidities equivalent to a pH value of 5.0 or less. This mechanism purports to explain why some lakes acidify when they are surrounded by acid soils and cation leaching is not required.Ambient precipitation set to pH 5.4 and pH 4.2 was applied to columns of low base-saturated, sand, soils, starting in 1985. The columns (15 cm diameter and 150 cm long) were collected from soils with base saturations falling into one of three groups (0-10, 10-20, and 20-40%) from national forests in the Superior Uplands area (includes Boundary Waters Canoe Area, Rainbow Lakes, Sylvania, Moquah Barrens, and other Wilderness and Natural areas). The soils were Haplorthods and Udipsamments mainly from outwash plains.The soil columns were instrumented and reburied around a subterranean structure used to collect leachate water and to maintain natural temperature, air, and light conditions. Three humus treatments were applied to soil column (none, northern hardwood, and jack pine) to measure the effect of natural acidification compared to acidification by acid precipitation. The cores were treated with precipitation buffered to pH 5.4 to simulate natural rain and pH 4.2 to simulate acid rain.Columns were treated in 1985 and 1986 with approximately 200 cm of buffered precipitation each year over the frost-free season. Data is

  14. Acidification of soil-water in low base-saturated sand soils of the superior uplands under acid and normal precipitation.

    PubMed

    Harris, A R

    1989-04-01

    Lakes and streams are acidified by direct precipitation and water channeled through nearby soils, but water in low base-saturation soils can produce highly acidic percolate after prolonged contact and subsequent degassing in surface waters. Theories advanced by Reuss (1983), Reuss and Johnson (1985), and Seip and Rustad (1984) suggest that soils with less than 15% base saturation are susceptible to soil-water pH depression of up to 0.4 unit, which is sufficient to cause negative alkalinity in soil solutions. High concentrations of mobile anions (notably sulfate) are responsible for the negative alkalinity and these solutions on CO2 degassing in surface waters can retain acidities equivalent to a pH value of 5.0 or less. This mechanism purports to explain why some lakes acidify when they are surrounded by acid soils and cation leaching is not required.Ambient precipitation set to pH 5.4 and pH 4.2 was applied to columns of low base-saturated, sand, soils, starting in 1985. The columns (15 cm diameter and 150 cm long) were collected from soils with base saturations falling into one of three groups (0-10, 10-20, and 20-40%) from national forests in the Superior Uplands area (includes Boundary Waters Canoe Area, Rainbow Lakes, Sylvania, Moquah Barrens, and other Wilderness and Natural areas). The soils were Haplorthods and Udipsamments mainly from outwash plains.The soil columns were instrumented and reburied around a subterranean structure used to collect leachate water and to maintain natural temperature, air, and light conditions. Three humus treatments were applied to soil column (none, northern hardwood, and jack pine) to measure the effect of natural acidification compared to acidification by acid precipitation. The cores were treated with precipitation buffered to pH 5.4 to simulate natural rain and pH 4.2 to simulate acid rain.Columns were treated in 1985 and 1986 with approximately 200 cm of buffered precipitation each year over the frost-free season. Data is

  15. An approach to estimate the freshwater contribution from glacial melt and precipitation in East Greenland shelf waters using colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedmon, Colin A.; Granskog, Mats A.; Dodd, Paul A.

    2015-02-01

    Changes in the supply and storage of freshwater in the Arctic Ocean and its subsequent export to the North Atlantic can potentially influence ocean circulation and climate. In order to understand how the Arctic freshwater budget is changing and the potential impacts, it is important to develop and refine empirical approaches for tracing freshwater contributions. This in turn can help develop and validate model simulations. Arctic rivers are an important source of freshwater and stable oxygen isotope measurements are used to separate contributions from meteoric water (river, glacial, and precipitation) and sea ice melt. We develop this approach further and investigate the use of an additional tracer, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), which is largely specific to freshwater originating from Arctic rivers. A robust relationship between the freshwater contribution from meteoric water and CDOM is derived from 4 years of measurements in Fram Strait (2009-2012), combined with measurements from the East Greenland shelf and Dijmpha Sound (NE Greenland). Results confirm a high contribution of riverine CDOM in Arctic halocline waters with salinities >31.5 and indicate the importance of shelf processes (riverine input and sea ice formation), while previously, these waters where thought to be derived from open sea processes (cooling and sea ice formation) in the northern Barents and Kara Seas. In Greenlandic coastal waters the meteoric water contribution is influenced by Greenland ice sheet meltwater and deviations from the CDOM-meteoric water relationships found are applied to quantify meltwater contribution along the East Greenland shelf waters (0-13%).

  16. Annual and average estimates of water-budget components based on hydrograph separation and PRISM precipitation for gaged basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelms, David L.; Messinger, Terence; McCoy, Kurt J.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, annual and average estimates of water-budget components based on hydrograph separation and precipitation data from parameter-elevation regressions on independent slopes model (PRISM) were determined at 849 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations from Mississippi to New York and covered the period of 1900 to 2011. Only complete calendar years (January to December) of streamflow record at each gage were used to determine estimates of base flow, which is that part of streamflow attributed to groundwater discharge; such estimates can serve as a proxy for annual recharge. For each year, estimates of annual base flow, runoff, and base-flow index were determined using computer programs—PART, HYSEP, and BFI—that have automated the separation procedures. These streamflow-hydrograph analysis methods are provided with version 1.0 of the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Toolbox, which is a new program that provides graphing, mapping, and analysis capabilities in a Windows environment. Annual values of precipitation were estimated by calculating the average of cell values intercepted by basin boundaries where previously defined in the GAGES–II dataset. Estimates of annual evapotranspiration were then calculated from the difference between precipitation and streamflow.

  17. Annual and average estimates of water-budget components based on hydrograph separation and PRISM precipitation for gaged basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelms, David L.; Messinger, Terence; McCoy, Kurt J.

    2015-07-14

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, annual and average estimates of water-budget components based on hydrograph separation and precipitation data from parameter-elevation regressions on independent slopes model (PRISM) were determined at 849 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations from Mississippi to New York and covered the period of 1900 to 2011. Only complete calendar years (January to December) of streamflow record at each gage were used to determine estimates of base flow, which is that part of streamflow attributed to groundwater discharge; such estimates can serve as a proxy for annual recharge. For each year, estimates of annual base flow, runoff, and base-flow index were determined using computer programs—PART, HYSEP, and BFI—that have automated the separation procedures. These streamflow-hydrograph analysis methods are provided with version 1.0 of the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Toolbox, which is a new program that provides graphing, mapping, and analysis capabilities in a Windows environment. Annual values of precipitation were estimated by calculating the average of cell values intercepted by basin boundaries where previously defined in the GAGES–II dataset. Estimates of annual evapotranspiration were then calculated from the difference between precipitation and streamflow.

  18. Precipitation-runoff relations and water-quality characteristics at edge-of-field stations, Discovery Farms and Pioneer Farm, Wisconsin, 2003-8

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Peppler, Marie C.; Owens, David W.; Frame, Dennis R.

    2011-01-01

    A cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison Discovery Farms program (Discovery Farms), and the UW-Platteville Pioneer Farm program (Pioneer Farm) was developed to identify typical ranges and magnitudes, temporal distributions, and principal factors affecting concentrations and yields of sediment, nutrients, and other selected constituents in runoff from agricultural fields. Hydrologic and water-quality data were collected year-round at 23 edge-of-field monitoring stations on 5 privately owned Discovery Farms and on Pioneer Farm during water years 2003-8. The studied farms represented landscapes, soils, and farming systems typical of livestock farms throughout southern Wisconsin. Each farm employed a variety of soil, nutrient, and water-conservation practices to help minimize sediment and nutrient losses from fields and to improve crop productivity. This report summarizes the precipitation-runoff relations and water-quality characteristics measured in edge-of-field runoff for 26 "farm years" (aggregate years of averaged station data from all 6 farms for varying monitoring periods). A relatively wide range of constituents typically found in agricultural runoff were measured: suspended sediment, phosphorus (total, particulate, dissolved reactive, and total dissolved), and nitrogen (total, nitrate plus nitrite, organic, ammonium, total Kjeldahl and total Kjeldahl-dissolved), chloride, total solids, total suspended solids, total volatile suspended solids, and total dissolved solids. Mean annual precipitation was 32.8 inches for the study period, about 3 percent less than the 30-year mean. Overall mean annual runoff was 2.55 inches per year (about 8 percent of precipitation) and the distribution was nearly equal between periods of frozen ground (54 percent) and unfrozen ground (46 percent). Mean monthly runoff was highest during two periods: February to March and May to June. Ninety percent of annual runoff occurred

  19. Acid precipitation: Effects on fresh water ecosystems. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of acidification on fresh water ecosystems. Algae and diatom distribution, survival and reproduction rates of specific fish species under acid lake conditions, and tolerance to stress caused by acidic conditions in fresh water ecosystems are studied. Effects of water pH on trace metal toxicity to fresh water organisms are briefly considered. Control and reduction of acidification are excluded from this bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Simulation of stable isotopic pools and fluxes by a land-surface scheme forced with observed isotopic ratios in precipitation and atmospheric water vapour.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson-Sellers, A.; Griffith, D.; Irannejad, P.; Williams, A.; Stone, D.

    2004-12-01

    Stable isotopes provide independent tools for evaluating key components of the hydrological and carbon cycles as simulated by land-surface schemes (LSS). The Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterisation Schemes (PILPS http://www.pilps.mq.edu.au) is initiating a new type of experiment (IPILPS) to assess the ability of LSSs to reproduce isotopic components of water and mass (carbon) budgets. The project aims to intercompare LSS simulations of diurnal and annual cycles of isotopic pools and fluxes, and to evaluate the performance of isotope-enabled LSSs under varying environmental conditions. The need for evaluation data is driving a new experimental effort concentrating on the measurement of stable water isotopes (SWI), in precipitation, atmospheric and canopy water vapour, soil water and leaf/stem water, on annual and diurnal time scales at three sites in the GEWEX CSE Amazon, Murray-Darling and Baltic Sea basins. We present diurnal and annual cycles of stable isotopes in the ecosystem as simulated by an isotope enabled LSS (ISOLSM)1 over an agricultural pasture in Wagga Wagga (SE Australia). Climatological values of SWI in precipitation and water vapour, as well as continuous in situ D/H ratios of atmospheric water vapour obtained during a three-week field campaign, are used to force the LSS. The D/H ratio was measured using a fully automated and mobile Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)2 spectrometer. The sensitivity of simulated isotopes (in soil water, plants and canopy air space, as well as isotopic exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere) to the atmospheric forcing is analysed. The results highlight the importance of intensive field campaigns for measuring SWI in the environment as both forcing and evaluation data for land surface simulations. 1. A. Henderson-Sellers et al., 2004, Using stable water isotopes to evaluate basin-scale simulations of surface water budgets, in press, J. Hydrometeorol. 2. D.W.T. Griffith et al., 2002

  1. Electrostatic precipitator with precipitator electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Junkers, G.

    1980-12-16

    The invention relates to an electrostatic precipitator with collecting electrodes which are arranged in rows adjacent to each other and in respective pairs at equal distances from a respective discharge electrode with which they cooperate. Spring elements are provided between the collecting electrodes and influence the stiffness and oscillating properties of the array of the collecting electrodes.

  2. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  3. An investigation of the existence of a surface water layer on aircraft radomes during simulated flight in heavy precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branstetter, J. R.; Bailey, M. C.; Hearn, C. P.; Dunham, R. E., Jr.; Couch, R. H.; Verstynen, H. A.; Gentry, L., Jr.; Williams, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment to investigate the electromagnetic attenuation effects of an impacting water spray on an aircraft weather radome was conducted in Langley's 4 X 7 m. wind tunnel equipped with a water spray system. Results indicate no significant liquid water film formed at the stagnation point of the radome under the test conditions. However, a water sheath was observed standing away from the radome surface, which could possibly have significant attenuation properties of its own. Due to the lack of fidelity in modeling both the natural environment with the tunnel apparatus and the water sheath, it is recommended that further studies be undertaken to better define the water distribution in the vicinity of the radome and measure its effect on weather radar performance.

  4. Dissolution and absorption modeling: model expansion to simulate the effects of precipitation, water absorption, longitudinally changing intestinal permeability, and controlled release on drug absorption.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kevin C

    2003-09-01

    A previously described model for simulating drug dissolution, absorption, and pharmacokinetics has been expanded beyond the original application of simulating immediate-release dosage forms to include simulation of drug precipitation, water absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, changing gastrointestinal permeability, disintegration, and controlled-release and dissolution from a GITS-type dosage form. A mathematical description of the model is presented as well as a retrospective analysis of nifedipine to demonstrate the utility of the model. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical method was used to solve the series of coupled differential equations used to simulate the process of dissolution, absorption, and drug disposition. The model was able to simulate the clinically demonstrated effect for drug particle size on nifedipine plasma concentrations for an immediate-release dosage form. Further simulations indicated that drug particle size was less important for a GITS-type dosage form at a release rate of 1.7 mg/hr compared to rate of 17 mg/hr. Hypothetical calculations simulated the potential effect of drug precipitation, water absorption, and changing permeability on drug plasma concentrations. The expanded model increases the utility of a previously described model in providing guidance in drug development and selection.

  5. Leaching behavior of microtektite glass compositions in sea water and the effect of precipitation on glass leaching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The present study attempts to account for the slow corrosion rates of microtektite glass in nature by comparing the leach rates of synthetic microtektite glass samples in deionized water and in sea-water, respectively. In order to obtain systematic data about leachant composition effects, leach tests were also carried out with synthetic leachant compositions enriched with respect to silica or depleted with respect to certain major components of sea-water (Mg, Ca).

  6. Ground-water levels and precipitation data at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site near Morehead, Kentucky, October 1988-September 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zettwoch, Douglas D.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet--Department for Environmental Protection--Division of Waste Management, has an ongoing program to monitor water levels at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site near Morehead, Kentucky. Ground-water-level and precipitation data were collected from 112 wells and 1 rain gage at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site during October 1988-September 2000. Data were collected on a semi-annual basis from 62 wells, continuously from 6 wells, and monthly or bimonthly from 44 wells (13 of which had continuous recorders installed for the period October 1998-September 2000). One tipping-bucket rain gage was used to collect data at the Maxey Flats site for the period October 1988-September 2000.

  7. Variation of Ground GPS Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor Estimates among GPS Processing Packages and Strategies in the Context of Forecaster Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, A. W.; Haase, J. S.; Bock, Y.; Gutman, S. I.; Laber, J. L.; Small, I. J.; Dumas, J. L.; Holub, K.; Jackson, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Integrated precipitable water vapor (PW) estimated from ground GPS has for many years been assimilated into operational weather models, and under a NASA AIST project, our collaboration of JPL, SIO, NOAA Weather Forecasting Offices in southern California, and NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory demonstrated that GPS PW estimates enhance forecaster situational awareness during North American Monsoon events. However, during a rigorous investigation of operational near real-time processing, we discovered some interesting discrepancies between ESRL GAMIT 30-minute and JPL GIPSY 5-minute zenith delay and PW solutions. Exploring this more deeply, we observed that PW timeseries determined with various GPS software packages and mapping functions have variations that manifest themselves on seasonal timescales. We use radiosonde, water vapor radiometer (WVR), and weather model data to explore the underlying cause of the differences, with particular attention to processing artifacts that could lend themselves to misinterpretation in subjective forecasting.

  8. Water Chemistry Impacts on Arsenic Mobilization from Arsenopyrite Dissolution and Secondary Mineral Precipitation: Implications for Managed Aquifer Recharge

    EPA Science Inventory

    Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is one water reuse technique with the potential to meet growing water demands. However, MAR sites have encountered arsenic remobilization resulting from recharge operations. To combat this challenge, it is important to identify the mechanism of arse...

  9. Cultivar by environment effects of perennial ryegrass cultivars selected for high water soluble carbohydrates managed under differing precipitation levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historic results of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) breeding include improved disease resistance, biomass, and nutritional quality. Yet, lack of tolerance to water stress limits its wise use. Recent efforts to increase water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content in perennial ryegrass may incre...

  10. A simulation study of the recession coefficient for antecedent precipitation index. [soil moisture and water runoff estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Blanchard, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The antecedent precipitation index (API) is a useful indicator of soil moisture conditions for watershed runoff calculations and recent attempts to correlate this index with spaceborne microwave observations have been fairly successful. It is shown that the prognostic equation for soil moisture used in some of the atmospheric general circulation models together with Thornthwaite-Mather parameterization of actual evapotranspiration leads to API equations. The recession coefficient for API is found to depend on climatic factors through potential evapotranspiration and on soil texture through the field capacity and the permanent wilting point. Climatologial data for Wisconsin together with a recently developed model for global isolation are used to simulate the annual trend of the recession coefficient. Good quantitative agreement is shown with the observed trend at Fennimore and Colby watersheds in Wisconsin. It is suggested that API could be a unifying vocabulary for watershed and atmospheric general circulation modelars.

  11. Removal of H 2S via an iron catalytic cycle and iron sulfide precipitation in the water column of dead end tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shufen; Noble, Abigail; Butcher, Derek; Trouwborst, Robert E.; Luther, George W., III

    2006-11-01

    The oxidation and precipitation of H 2S were investigated in Torquay Canal and Bald Eagle Creek, two tributaries of northern Rehoboth Bay, one of the Delaware Inland Bays. These man-made dead end canals develop seasonal anoxia and have been the site of past fish kills and harmful algal blooms. The canals have multiple holes over 5.5 m deep compared to an average low tide depth of 2 m. In situ determination for dissolved O 2, H 2S and other Fe and S redox species were conducted with a solid-state Au/Hg microelectrode in 2003 and 2004. Laboratory analyses of discrete samples were also performed to measure dissolved and particulate Fe, Mn, and S 8 to follow the seasonal dynamics of O, S, Fe and Mn redox species. Our results indicate that the water in the holes becomes stratified with O 2 decreasing with depth and H 2S increasing with depth. Dissolved Fe was as high as 30 μM whereas dissolved Mn was only 0.2 μM in the water column, indicating that Fe is the dominant metal involved in S redox cycling and precipitation. In surface oxic waters, the dominant form of Fe was particulate Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides. When seasonal anoxia developed, Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides were reduced by H 2S to Fe(II) at the oxic-anoxic interface. The Fe(II) reduced from particulate Fe can be re-oxidized to Fe(III) by O 2 above and at the interface to form a catalytic cycle to oxidize H 2S. Elemental S is the predominant oxidation product and was as high as 30 μM level (as S 0) at the interface. When the system was stable, the Fe catalytic cycle prevented H 2S from being released into surface waters during seasonal anoxia. However, when storms came, the water column was overturned and H 2S was released to the surface water. The reaction rates for the Fe catalytic cycle are not fast enough and the concentration of Fe was not high enough to regulate the high concentration of H 2S in surface waters during storm and mixing events.

  12. Electrostatic precipitator

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, T.

    1982-08-03

    An electrostatic precipitator c