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Sample records for above-ground storage tank

  1. Installation of new bottom in existing above ground storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleton, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    New bottom installation in existing aboveground storage tanks is a simple process when the correct procedures are followed in preparation for the bottom replacement. An in-depth inspection must be conducted to determine the exact modifications required during the installation of the new bottom, internal decisions made as to type of construction required, and a detailed scope of work prepared to insure all aspects of the tank bottom replacement are detailed. Determining the scope of work requires an in-depth tank inspection, making decisions on the type of bottom to be installed, tank modifications required, tank appurtenance modifications and relocation, whether leak detection, cathodic protection, and secondary containment are to be installed and a decision on whether the old tank bottom will remain in place or be removed. Upon completion of the new bottom installation, a final check to ensure all modifications were performed per API-650 and API-653 and all non-destructive testing procedures were conducted, will insure a safe, leak free bottom providing many years of maintenance free service.

  2. Regulation of above ground storage tank emissions (Rube Goldberg and the reinvention of government)

    SciTech Connect

    Ferry, R.L.

    1997-05-01

    Much fanfare has been made of the Clinton administration`s reinvention of government. In the environmental arena, this is expressed as a sensitivity to the overlapping and duplicate nature of EPA regulations and the associated burden to perform unnecessary monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting. While EPA has put forth numerous initiatives bearing labels such as simplification, burden reduction, and common sense, this reinvention has taken on a form that only Rube Goldberg could love. The overall outcome seems to be that a byzantine system of overlapping regulations with an associated monumental paperwork burden is now being buried under a byzantine system of overlapping simplification initiatives which carry an additional reporting and recordkeeping burden. This paper will examine the impact of these EPA actions on the regulations governing emissions from aboveground storage tanks.

  3. Advanced Coupled Simulation of Borehole Thermal Energy Storage Systems and Above Ground Installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, Bastian; Rühaak, Wolfram; Schulte, Daniel O.; Bär, Kristian; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal thermal energy storage in borehole heat exchanger arrays is a promising technology to reduce primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. These systems usually consist of several subsystems like the heat source (e.g. solarthermics or a combined heat and power plant), the heat consumer (e.g. a heating system), diurnal storages (i.e. water tanks), the borehole thermal energy storage, additional heat sources for peak load coverage (e.g. a heat pump or a gas boiler) and the distribution network. For the design of an integrated system, numerical simulations of all subsystems are imperative. A separate simulation of the borehole energy storage is well-established but represents a simplification. In reality, the subsystems interact with each other. The fluid temperatures of the heat generation system, the heating system and the underground storage are interdependent and affect the performance of each subsystem. To take into account these interdependencies, we coupled a software for the simulation of the above ground facilities with a finite element software for the modeling of the heat flow in the subsurface and the borehole heat exchangers. This allows for a more realistic view on the entire system. Consequently, a finer adjustment of the system components and a more precise prognosis of the system's performance can be ensured.

  4. Selecting fuel storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, R. )

    1993-07-01

    Until the use of underground storage tanks (USTs) for fuel storage was mandated by the 1970 Uniform Fire Code, above-ground storage tanks (ASTs) were widely used. The tanks were relatively crude by today's standards so the technical superiority and fire protection afforded by use of underground tanks soon made USTs the system of choice for almost all uses. As a result, tens of thousands of tanks have been underground for more than 20 years, and at some point, many of them began leaking. Often, the first sign of these leaks appeared when groundwater became contaminated. The EPA responded to this major environmental problem by strictly regulating the use of below-ground tanks to store flammable liquids. These added regulations have had a severe effect on both service stations and private fueling. The removal of underground tanks and the removal and disposal of any contaminated soil is an extremely expensive proposition. Furthermore, new Uniform Fire Code regulations have added to the costs, imposing requirements for double-walled tanks, corrosion protection, electronic leak monitoring, and annual tank testing. These requirements, plus the financial responsibility requirements the EPA imposed on owners and users of below-ground tanks, led directly to a reconsideration of the use of above-ground tanks for some applications.

  5. Storage tanks under earthquake loading

    SciTech Connect

    Rammerstorfer, F.G.; Scharf, K. ); Fisher, F.D. )

    1990-11-01

    This is a state-of-the-art review of various treatments of earthquake loaded liquid filled shells by the methods of earthquake engineering, fluid dynamics, structural and soil dynamics, as well as the theory of stability and computational mechanics. Different types of tanks and different possibilities of tank failure will be discussed. The authors will emphasize cylindrical above-ground liquid storage tanks with vertical axis. But many of the treatments are also valid for other tank configurations. For the calculation of the dynamically activated pressure due to an earthquake a fluid-structure-soil interaction problem must be solved. The review will describe the methods, proposed by different authors, to solve this interaction problem. To study the dynamic behavior of liquid storage tanks, one must distinguish between anchored and unanchored tanks. In the case of an anchored tank, the tank bottom edge is fixed to the foundation. If the tank is unanchored, partial lifting of the tank's bottom may occur, and a strongly nonlinear problem has to be solved. They will compare the various analytical and numerical models applicable to this problem, in combination with experimental data. An essential aim of this review is to give a summary of methods applicable as tools for an earthquake resistant design, which can be used by an engineer engaged in the construction of liquid storage tanks.

  6. Aboveground storage tanks -- Better safe than sorry

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    With the 1988 promulgation of the comprehensive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for underground storage of petroleum and hazardous substances, many existing underground storage tank (UST) owners have been considering making the move to aboveground storage. While on the surface, this may appear to be the cure-all to avoiding the underground leakage dilemma, there are many other new and different issues to consider with aboveground storage. The greatest misconception is that by storing materials above ground, there is no risk of subsurface environmental problems. It should be noted that with aboveground storage tank (AGST) systems, there is still considerable risk of environmental contamination, either by the failure of onground tank bottoms or the spillage of product onto the ground surface where it subsequently finds its way to the ground water. In addition, there are added safety concerns that must be addressed. So what are the other specific areas of concern besides environmental to be addressed when making the decision between underground and aboveground tanks? The primary issues that will be addressed in this presentation are: safety; product losses; cost comparison of UST vs AGSTs; space availability/accessibility; precipitation handling; aesthetics and security; and existing and pending regulations.

  7. Concrete storage tanks: Design and construction. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning reinforced concrete used for high-rise, above ground, and underground storage tanks. Topics include design criteria for tanks, tank construction, prestressed concrete, concrete formulations, and concrete repair. Applications of reinforced concrete tanks are presented, including storage of drinking water, oils, liquefied gases, and sewage. Pressure testing, and structural analyses of concrete storage tanks are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Above- and underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Canning, K.; Kilbourne, A.

    1997-09-01

    Storage tanks are the primary means of storing liquid, fluid and gas products. Federal and state environmental regulations, as well as local building and fire codes, take into account leaks and spills, tank emissions, underground tank seepage and safety issues, and they define standards for tank manufacturers and owners. For specific regulatory information pertaining to your application, contact the local authorities having jurisdiction. Storage tanks listed within this product guide have been classified as underground or aboveground, with subcategories including modular, process and temporary tanks. Tank construction materials include aluminum, carbon steel, concrete, fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) and stainless steel. A variety of accessories, including automatic tank gauging systems, level monitors, leak detectors, overfill protection and tank inspection systems, also are listed. Aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) have less than 10 percent of their tank volume and piping below ground. Available in both vertical and horizontal configurations, they can be either erected in the field or fabricated in a factory. Underground storage tanks (USTs) are primarily used to contain regulated substances; USTs have at least 10% of their tank volume and piping buried belowground. Common UST construction materials include carbon steel, coated steel, cathodically protected steel and FRP. USTs are required to have corrosion protection, spill and overfill prevention and control and release detection in place by December 1998.

  9. LINE-ABOVE-GROUND ATTENUATOR

    DOEpatents

    Wilds, R.B.; Ames, J.R.

    1957-09-24

    The line-above-ground attenuator provides a continuously variable microwave attenuator for a coaxial line that is capable of high attenuation and low insertion loss. The device consists of a short section of the line-above- ground plane type transmission lime, a pair of identical rectangular slabs of lossy material like polytron, whose longitudinal axes are parallel to and indentically spaced away from either side of the line, and a geared mechanism to adjust amd maintain this spaced relationship. This device permits optimum fineness and accuracy of attenuator control which heretofore has been difficult to achieve.

  10. Storage tanks ASTs and USTs

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, D.E.; Lehmann, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    Risks of storage tank failure and ground contamination are just two of the problems facing storage tank owners and operators today. As governmental concern for public safety increases, so does the pressure on operators to implement the necessary changes to satisfy the new regulations within the specified time frame. There is a lot of legislation pending on aboveground storage tanks that will affect companies planning construction in the future. The paper presented here are being presented not only to cover pending legislation, but also prospective legislation. Besides the important regulatory issues, the technical program covers corrosion, leak detection and prevention, contingency planning, emergency response, asset preservation, design, construction, and maintenance. All paper have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  11. Energy storage-boiler tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, T. A.; Nemecek, J. J.; Simmons, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Activities performed in an effort to demonstrate heat of fusion energy storage in containerized salts are reported. The properties and cycle life characteristics of a eutectic salt having a boiling point of about 385 C (NaCl, KCl, Mg Cl2) were determined. M-terphenyl was chosen as the heat transfer fluid. Compatibility studies were conducted and mild steel containers were selected. The design and fabrication of a 2MWh storage boiler tank are discussed.

  12. Integral Radiator and Storage Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Miller, John R.; Jakupca, Ian; Sargi,Scott

    2007-01-01

    A simplified, lightweight system for dissipating heat of a regenerative fuel- cell system would include a heat pipe with its evaporator end placed at the heat source and its condenser end integrated into the wall of the regenerative fuel cell system gas-storage tanks. The tank walls act as heat-radiating surfaces for cooling the regenerative fuel cell system. The system was conceived for use in outer space, where radiation is the only physical mechanism available for transferring heat to the environment. The system could also be adapted for use on propellant tanks or other large-surface-area structures to convert them to space heat-radiating structures. Typically for a regenerative fuel cell system, the radiator is separate from the gas-storage tanks. By using each tank s surface as a heat-radiating surface, the need for a separate, potentially massive radiator structure is eliminated. In addition to the mass savings, overall volume is reduced because a more compact packaging scheme is possible. The underlying tank wall structure provides ample support for heat pipes that help to distribute the heat over the entire tank surface. The heat pipes are attached to the outer surface of each gas-storage tank by use of a high-thermal conductance, carbon-fiber composite-material wrap. Through proper choice of the composite layup, it is possible to exploit the high longitudinal conductivity of the carbon fibers (greater than the thermal conductivity of copper) to minimize the unevenness of the temperature distribution over the tank surface, thereby helping to maximize the overall heat-transfer efficiency. In a prototype of the system, the heat pipe and the composite wrap contribute an average mass of 340 g/sq m of radiator area. Lightweight space radiator panels have a mass of about 3,000 g/sq m of radiator area, so this technique saves almost 90 percent of the mass of separate radiator panels. In tests, the modified surface of the tank was found to have an emissivity of 0

  13. Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 1986, Congress created the Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund to address releases from federally regulated underground storage tanks (USTs) by amending Subtitle I of the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

  14. 131. NORTH PLANT TANK CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS FROM GB MANUFACTURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    131. NORTH PLANT TANK CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS FROM GB MANUFACTURING PLANT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  15. Thermal stratification in liquid storage tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, D. L.; Han, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    Comprehensive literature survey indicates thermal stratification in solarenergy/liquid-storage tank improves system performance by as much as 15 percent. Collector efficiency increases when collector inlet fluid is drawn from bottom of storage tank, where fluid is coolest; warmest liquid drawn top of tank to satisfy thermal load.

  16. 19 CFR 151.44 - Storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage tanks. 151.44 Section 151.44 Customs... Storage tanks. (a) Plans and gauge tables. When petroleum or petroleum products subject to duty at a specific rate per barrel are imported in bulk in tank vessels and are to be transferred into shore...

  17. 19 CFR 151.44 - Storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Storage tanks. 151.44 Section 151.44 Customs... Storage tanks. (a) Plans and gauge tables. When petroleum or petroleum products subject to duty at a specific rate per barrel are imported in bulk in tank vessels and are to be transferred into shore...

  18. Pad B Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Felicia

    2007-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is home to two liquid hydrogen storage tanks, one at each launch pad of Launch Complex 39. The liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad B has a significantly higher boil off rate that the liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad A. This research looks at various calculations concerning the at Launch Pad B in an attempt to develop a solution to the excess boil off rate. We will look at Perlite levels inside the tank, Boil off rates, conductive heat transfer, and radiant heat transfer through the tank. As a conclusion to the research, we will model the effects of placing an external insulation to the tank in order to reduce the boil off rate and increase the economic efficiency of the liquid hydrogen storage tanks.

  19. Compartmentalized storage tank for electrochemical cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piecuch, Benjamin Michael (Inventor); Dalton, Luke Thomas (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A compartmentalized storage tank is disclosed. The compartmentalized storage tank includes a housing, a first fluid storage section disposed within the housing, a second fluid storage section disposed within the housing, the first and second fluid storage sections being separated by a movable divider, and a constant force spring. The constant force spring is disposed between the housing and the movable divider to exert a constant force on the movable divider to cause a pressure P1 in the first fluid storage section to be greater than a pressure P2 in the second fluid storage section, thereby defining a pressure differential.

  20. Comparative safety analysis of LNG storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Fecht, B.A.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, K.O.; Marr, G.D.

    1982-07-01

    LNG storage tank design and response to selected release scenarios were reviewed. The selection of the scenarios was based on an investigation of potential hazards as cited in the literature. A review of the structure of specific LNG storage facilities is given. Scenarios initially addressed included those that most likely emerge from the tank facility itself: conditions of overfill and overflow as related to liquid LNG content levels; over/underpressurization at respective tank vapor pressure boundaries; subsidence of bearing soil below tank foundations; and crack propagation in tank walls due to possible exposure of structural material to cryogenic temperatures. Additional scenarios addressed include those that result from external events: tornado induced winds and pressure drops; exterior tank missile impact with tornado winds and rotating machinery being the investigated mode of generation; thermal response due to adjacent fire conditions; and tank response due to intense seismic activity. Applicability of each scenario depended heavily on the specific tank configurations and material types selected. (PSB)

  1. State Certification of Underground Storage Tanks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-15

    This audit was part of the overall audit of "DoD Management of Underground Storage Tanks ," (Project No. 6CK-5051). The overall audit was jointly...Committee inquiry about whether state environmental regulatory agencies would be able to certify that DoD underground storage tanks were compliant

  2. 8. VIEW FROM NORTHWEST OF CONDENSATE STORAGE TANK (LEFT), PRIMARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW FROM NORTHWEST OF CONDENSATE STORAGE TANK (LEFT), PRIMARY WATER STORAGE TANK (CENTER), CANAL WATER STORAGE TANK (RIGHT) (LOCATIONS E,F,D) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  3. Cathodic protection design for aboveground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Koszewski, L.; Quincy, G.L.

    1995-12-31

    The application of cathodic protection for aboveground storage tank (AST) bottoms has been accomplished in a variety of approaches, with varying degrees of success. Recent State regulations, requiring corrosion protection for new tanks and secondary containment for double bottom tanks, have prompted new application techniques to be developed for AST cathodic protection. Improved design applications are now available to todays` tank owners and operators to provide effective long term cathodic protection.

  4. Environmental projects. Volume 2: Underground storage tanks compliance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, L.

    1987-01-01

    Six large parabolic dish antennas are located at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex north of Barstow, California. As a large-scale facility located in a remote, isolated desert region, the GDSCC operations require numerous on-site storage facilities for gasoline, diesel and hydraulic oil. These essential fluids are stored in underground storage tanks (USTs). Because USTs may develop leaks with the resultant seepage of their hazardous contents into the surrounding soil, local, State and Federal authorities have adopted stringent regulations for the testing and maintenance of USTs. Under the supervision of JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition, a year-long program has brought 27 USTs at the Goldstone Complex into compliance with Federal, State of California and County of San Bernadino regulations. Of these 27 USTs, 15 are operating today, 11 have been temporary closed down, and 1 abandoned in place. In 1989, the 15 USTs now operating at the Goldstone DSCC will be replaced either by modern, double-walled USTs equipped with automatic sensors for leak detection, or by above ground storage tanks. The 11 inactivated USTs are to be excavated, removed and disposed of according to regulation.

  5. Cryogenic-storage-tank support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisdom, G. H.

    1980-01-01

    Support isolates tank from thermal and mechanical loading by environment. Design uses combination of well-known common mechanisms to isolate tank and allow for tank expansion and contraction due to temperature and pressure changes. Similar support method is used on nitrogen tanks.

  6. Cathodic protection installation for underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Koszewski, L.

    1995-12-31

    The 1998 deadline is fast approaching for upgrading Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) with cathodic protection. With so many tanks requiring upgrades over the next few years, tank owners and operators will likely find a shrinking pool of quality cathodic protection installation contractors to perform the necessary upgrading. The proper installation of cathodic protection components is critical to long term effective operation of the cathodic protection system.

  7. Underground storage tank management plan

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  8. 7 CFR 58.321 - Cream storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cream storage tanks. 58.321 Section 58.321 Agriculture....321 Cream storage tanks. Cream storage tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.128(d). Cream storage tanks for continuous churns should be equipped with effective temperature controls and recording...

  9. Stabilization of Underground Solvent Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Smail, T.R.

    2003-08-15

    The Old Solvent Tanks (OST), located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are comprised of 22 underground storage tanks that were used to store spent radioactive solvent and aqueous wastes generated from the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) process. The OSTs were installed at various dates between 1955 and 1968 and used to store the spent solvents until 1974. The spent solvents stored in the OSTs were transferred out from 1976 through 1981 leaving only residual liquids and sludges that could not be pumped out.Final remediation goals include an overlying infiltration control system. If the tanks were to structurally fail, they would collapse causing potential for onsite worker exposure and release of tank contents to the environment. Therefore, as an interim action, methods for stabilizing the tanks were evaluated. This paper will discuss the systems designed to perform and monitor the grouting operation, the grouting process, and the radiological controls and wastes associated with grouting the Old Solvent Tanks.

  10. Compliance review for the UNH Storage Tank

    SciTech Connect

    Low, J.M.

    1992-05-19

    The purpose of Project S-4257, USF-UNH 150,000 Gallon Storage Tank, is to provide interim storage for the liquid uranyl nitrate (UNH) product from H-Canyon until the UNH can be processed in the new Uranium Solidification Facility (Project S-2052). NPSR was requested by Project Management and DOE-SR to perform a design compliance review for the UNH Storage Tank to support the Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and the Operational Readiness Evaluation (ORE), respectively. The project was reviewed against the design criteria contained in the DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria. This report documents the results of the compliance review.

  11. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance...

  12. Cryogenic storage tank thermal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Parametric study discusses relationship between cryogenic boil-off and factors such as tank size, insulation thickness and performance, structural-support heat leaks and use of vapor-cooled shields. Data presented as series of nomographs and curves.

  13. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  14. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  15. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  17. Atmospheric storage tank inspection certification programs

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.L.; Mason, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    Recently, spectacular Atmospheric Storage Tank (AST) failures have attracted national attention. An AST near Pittsburgh leaked one million gallons of petroleum product into the Monongahela River which is a tributary of the Ohio River. Drinking water supplies for the towns down-river were disrupted. Incidents such as this sparked the development of American Petroleum Institute (API) Standard 653 for Tank Inspection, Repair, Alteration and Reconstruction. The quality of a tank inspection is directly related to the education and experience of the inspector. API 653 references two qualification and certification programs based on specific education and experience requirements.

  18. 19 CFR 151.45 - Storage tanks bonded as warehouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Storage tanks bonded as warehouses. 151.45 Section... Products § 151.45 Storage tanks bonded as warehouses. (a) Application. Tanks for the storage of imported... the storage of petroleum or petroleum products belonging or consigned to the owner or lessee of...

  19. Improved Polyurethane Storage Tank Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-30

    onto the berm liner next to tank. 5.3.4.2 Pump Pressure and Volume Totalizing Discharge flow rate or total volumetric flow and pressure are...exist per sample. For example, a dead load sample which undergoes an IUS may also exhibit TA and SKEW, like cylinder 12 in Table 6.1.4.a. A seen in

  20. Summary report for the tank tightness testing of underground storage tanks, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Between August 14, 1989, and August 26, 1989, 16 underground storage tanks were tank tightness tested for leaks as part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory tank management program. This report summarizes the results of these tank tightness tests, the modifications and repairs made to the tank systems, fuel transfer records, and any problems that affected the tank testing schedule. Of the 16 underground storage tanks tested, five failed the tank tightness test. Attempts were made to repair the tanks that failed the tank tightness test. Of those tanks, two were tested three times (one passed and one failed), and three were tested twice (two passed and one failed). The five failed tanks were removed and will be replaced with tanks that meet the Environmental Protection Agency regulations of underground storage tanks. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 significantly affected federal and state underground storage tank programs, required major changes to the programs, and is aimed at reducing underground storage tank releases to our environment.

  2. 4. VIEW OF BASE FOR HEADFRAME AND STORAGE TANKS (FEATURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF BASE FOR HEADFRAME AND STORAGE TANKS (FEATURE 18), FACING SOUTHEAST. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Base for Headframe & Storage Tank, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  3. 3. VIEW OF BASE FOR HEADFRAME AND STORAGE TANKS (FEATURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF BASE FOR HEADFRAME AND STORAGE TANKS (FEATURE 18), FACING NORTHEAST. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Base for Headframe & Storage Tank, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  4. 1. VIEW OF BASE FOR HEADFRAME AND STORAGE TANKS (FEATURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF BASE FOR HEADFRAME AND STORAGE TANKS (FEATURE 18), FACING NORTH. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Base for Headframe & Storage Tank, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  5. Leak detection for underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Durgin, P.B. ); Young, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This symposium was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on January 29, 1992. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on leak detection for underground storage tanks that leaked fuel. A widespread concern was protection of groundwater supplies from these leaking tanks. In some cases, the papers report on research that was conducted two or three years ago but has never been adequately directed to the underground storage tank leak-detection audience. In other cases, the papers report on the latest leak-detection research. The symposium was divided into four sessions that were entitled: Internal Monitoring; External Monitoring; Regulations and Standards; and Site and Risk Evaluation. Individual papers have been cataloged separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  6. Aboveground storage tank double bottom cathodic protection

    SciTech Connect

    Surkein, M.B.

    1995-12-31

    Cathodic protection is typically used to achieve corrosion control between bottoms of aboveground storage tanks with double bottoms. To determine the proper design of such systems, an investigation was conducted on the performance of two different cathodic protection system designs utilizing zinc ribbon anodes. A full scale field test on a 35 meter (115 feet) diameter tank was conducted to determine cathodic protection system performance. The test included periodic measurement of tank bottom steel potentials including on, instant off and polarization decay, anode current output and tank product level measurements.Results showed that zinc ribbon anode spacing in a chord fashion of 1.2 meter (4 feet) or less can be effective to achieve cathodic protection according to industry accepted standards. Utilizing the design information gained by the study, a standard sacrificial anode and impressed current anode cathodic protection system has been developed.

  7. Leakage Potential of Underground Storage Tanks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments , Title 17. Underground Storage Tanks, Sabitle I...Regulations The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) 10 of 1984 require all UST owners to comply with all applicable Federal, State, interstate and...Recovery Act, 1976. Public Law 98-616, Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments , 1984. Public Law 98-616, Hazardous and Solid Waste

  8. Reference electrodes for aboveground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Ansuini, F.J.; Dimond, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses several factors affecting the reference potential established by copper/copper sulfate and silver/silver chloride reference electrodes. Guidelines for using references in aboveground storage tank applications are presented and some causes of misleading readings are discussed.

  9. Reference electrodes for underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Ansuini, F.J.; Dimond, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses several factors affecting the reference potential established by copper/copper sulfate and silver/silver chloride reference electrodes. Guidelines for using permanent references in underground storage tank applications are presented and some causes of misleading readings with portable references are discussed.

  10. 19 CFR 151.45 - Storage tanks bonded as warehouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage tanks bonded as warehouses. 151.45 Section... Products § 151.45 Storage tanks bonded as warehouses. (a) Application. Tanks for the storage of imported petroleum or petroleum products in bulk may be bonded as warehouses of class 2 if to be used exclusively...

  11. 30 CFR 56.4401 - Storage tank foundations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 56.4401 Storage tank foundations. Fixed, unburied, flammable or combustible liquid storage tanks shall be securely mounted on firm foundations. Piping shall be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage tank foundations. 56.4401 Section...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4401 - Storage tank foundations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4401 Storage tank foundations. Fixed, unburied, flammable or combustible liquid storage tanks shall be securely mounted on firm foundations... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage tank foundations. 57.4401 Section...

  13. 7 CFR 58.321 - Cream storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cream storage tanks. 58.321 Section 58.321 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....321 Cream storage tanks. Cream storage tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.128(d). Cream...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4401 - Storage tank foundations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage tank foundations. 57.4401 Section 57... and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4401 Storage tank foundations. Fixed, unburied, flammable or combustible liquid storage tanks shall be securely mounted on firm...

  15. 30 CFR 56.4401 - Storage tank foundations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage tank foundations. 56.4401 Section 56... Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 56.4401 Storage tank foundations. Fixed, unburied, flammable or combustible liquid storage tanks shall be securely mounted on firm foundations. Piping shall...

  16. Cryogenic Storage Tank Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of cryogenic storage tanks. Four large cryogenic tanks, constructed in 1965 with perlite insulation in the annular regions, are of concern. The construction of the tanks, two Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and two Liquid Hydrogen (LH2), are described. The loss rate for the LOX tank at Pad A is slightly higher than that for the one at Pad B. The concerns for the LH2 tank at Pad B are that there is a significantly higher boil-off rate than that at Pad A, that there is mold growth, indicative of increased heat flow, that there is a long down-time needed for repairs, and that 3 of 5 full thermal cycles have been used on the Pad B LH2 tank. The advantages and disadvantages of thermal imaging are given. A detailed description of what is visible of the structures in the infra-red is given and views of the thermal images are included. Missing Perlite is given as the probable cause of the cold spot on the Pad B LH2 tank. There is no indications of problematic cold regions on the Pad A LH2 tank, as shown by the thermal images given in the presentation. There is definite indication of a cold region on the Pad A LOX tank. There is however concerns with thermal imaging, as thermal images can be significantly effected by environmental conditions, image differences on similar days but with different wind speeds. Other effects that must be considered include ambient temperature, humidity levels/dew, and cloud reflections

  17. Development of an energy storage tank model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Robert Christopher

    A linearized, one-dimensional finite difference model employing an implicit finite difference method for energy storage tanks is developed, programmed with MATLAB, and demonstrated for different applications. A set of nodal energy equations is developed by considering the energy interactions on a small control volume. The general method of solving these equations is described as are other features of the simulation program. Two modeling applications are presented: the first using a hot water storage tank with a solar collector and an absorption chiller to cool a building in the summer, the second using a molten salt storage system with a solar collector and steam power plant to generate electricity. Recommendations for further study as well as all of the source code generated in the project are also provided.

  18. Underground storage tank cathodic protection design

    SciTech Connect

    Garrity, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency has enacted rules regulating the use, installation and operation of underground storage tanks. Effective December 22, 1988, the rule applies to underground storage tanks and piping containing regulated substances. These rules supersede the Interim Prohibition issued in May, 1985. Owners must comply with the rules by December, 1998. These regulations mandate that the installation prevent releases (leaks) due to corrosion or structural failure for the operational life of the tank. Further, the tank and piping must be cathodically protected against corrosion, constructed of noncorrosive material, steel clad with a noncorrosive material or designed in a manner to prevent the release or threatened release of any stored substance. The regulations also mandate that material used in construction or lining of the tank be compatible with the substance to be stored. This paper discusses the basic corrosion mechanisms which affect direct buried steel tankage and piping systems as well as basic principles for applying cathodic protection as a means of corrosion control intended to satisfy EPA Regulations.

  19. Underground storage tank 291-D1U1: Closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mancieri, S.; Giuntoli, N.

    1993-09-01

    The 291-D1U1 tank system was installed in 1983 on the north side of Building 291. It supplies diesel fuel to the Building 291 emergency generator and air compressor. The emergency generator and air compressor are located southwest and southeast, respectively, of the tank (see Appendix B, Figure 2). The tank system consists of a single-walled, 2,000- gallon, fiberglass tank and a fuel pump system, fill pipe, vent pipe, electrical conduit, and fuel supply and return piping. The area to be excavated is paved with asphalt and concrete. It is not known whether a concrete anchor pad is associated with this tank. Additionally, this closure plan assumes that the diesel tank is below the fill pad. The emergency generator and air compressor for Building 291 and its associated UST, 291-D1U1, are currently in use. The generator and air compressor will be supplied by a temporary above-ground fuel tank prior to the removal of 291-D1U1. An above-ground fuel tank will be installed as a permanent replacement for 291-D1U1. The system was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984, as 291-41D and has subsequently been renamed 291-D1U1. Figure 1 (see Appendix B) shows the location of the 291-D1U1 tank system in relation to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Figure 2 (see Appendix B) shows the 291-D1U1 tank system in relation to Building 291. Figure 3 (see Appendix B) shows a plan view of the 291-D1U1 tank system.

  20. Liquid storage tank with floating roof structure

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, L.G.

    1993-07-27

    In a cylindrical wall storage tank for containing a liquid, said tank is described having a floor, a floatable roof supportable by said contained liquid, said roof including a peripheral seal for engaging the cylindrical wall to maintain a fluid-tight sliding seal therewith, and support means associated with said roof including, the improvement in said tank of, at least one cylindrical guide sleeve extending downwardly from said floatable roof; a shoe depending laterally from said at least one cylindrical guide sleeve's lower end for engaging the tank floor when the level of contained liquid is insufficient to support said floatable roof, said shoe having means forming a passage there through to register a support column and, an elongated support column removably positioned in said at least one cylindrical guide sleeve, of being sufficient length to extend downward beyond the shoe to engage the tank floor, whereby to sustain the floatable roof a predetermined distance above said floor after the contained liquid has drained from the tank.

  1. 49 CFR 195.254 - Above ground components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Above ground components. 195.254 Section 195.254 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.254 Above ground components. (a) Any component may be installed above ground...

  2. 49 CFR 195.254 - Above ground components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Above ground components. 195.254 Section 195.254 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.254 Above ground components. (a) Any component may be installed above ground...

  3. 49 CFR 195.254 - Above ground components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Above ground components. 195.254 Section 195.254 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.254 Above ground components. (a) Any component may be installed above ground...

  4. 49 CFR 195.254 - Above ground components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Above ground components. 195.254 Section 195.254 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.254 Above ground components. (a) Any component may be installed above ground...

  5. 49 CFR 195.254 - Above ground components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Above ground components. 195.254 Section 195.254 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.254 Above ground components. (a) Any component may be installed above ground...

  6. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States.

  7. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of Earth tempering as a practice and of specific Earth sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground are included. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 20 locations in the United States.

  8. Physical underground storage tank internal inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Hattaway, L.

    1995-12-31

    Internal inspection of Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) is a vital part of compliance, called for under the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations (40 CFR, Part 280). Understanding the fundamentals of this technique is important for achieving compliance, economically. Internal physical inspections of buried tanks have been a valued service long before EPA regulations. Placing an experienced, well trained inspector inside of a tank can provide information, data and assessment that is unavailable by any other method. The capability of cleaning metal surfaces and truly inspecting corrosion damage is most important. Inspections include visual evaluations, plus a wide range of tools, instruments and techniques that provide in-depth analysis of real conditions. Assessment is based on specific facts that are completely understandable to the non-technical, as well as engineers and scientists. This paper is an overview of the Physical UST Internal Inspection needed to assess existing steel USTs.

  9. Fluid damping of cylindrical liquid storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Habenberger, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    A method is proposed in order to calculate the damping effects of viscous fluids in liquid storage tanks subjected to earthquakes. The potential equation of an ideal fluid can satisfy only the boundary conditions normal to the surface of the liquid. To satisfy also the tangential interaction conditions between liquid and tank wall and tank bottom, the potential flow is superimposed by a one-dimensional shear flow. The shear flow in this boundary layer yields to a decrease of the mechanical energy of the shell-liquid-system. A damping factor is derived from the mean value of the energy dissipation in time. Depending on shell geometry and fluid viscosity, modal damping ratios are calculated for the convective component.

  10. Maintenance, Leak Detection in Large Underground Storage Tanks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Responsive! FISC Puget Sound Manchester Fuel Department Maintenance, Leak Detection in Large Underground Storage Tanks Report Documentation Page Form...COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maintenance, Leak Detection in Large Underground Storage Tanks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Manchester 13 Regulatory Drivers 40 CFR 280/281 Derives Basic Regulation of Underground Storage Tanks These tanks are Field Constructed – therefore

  11. Cathodic protection maintenance for aboveground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Koszewski, L.

    1995-12-31

    Cathodic protection systems are utilized to mitigate corrosion on the external bottom surfaces of aboveground storage tanks (ASTs). Cathodic protection systems should be part of a preventative maintenance program to minimize in-service failures. A good maintenance program will permit determination of continuous adequate cathodic protection of ASTs, through sustained operation and also provide the opportunity to detect cathodic protection system malfunctions, through periodic observations and testing.

  12. Computer modeling of ORNL storage tank sludge mobilization and mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Terrones, G.; Eyler, L.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents and analyzes the results of the computer modeling of mixing and mobilization of sludge in horizontal, cylindrical storage tanks using submerged liquid jets. The computer modeling uses the TEMPEST computational fluid dynamics computer program. The horizontal, cylindrical storage tank configuration is similar to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) at Oak Ridge National (ORNL). The MVST tank contents exhibit non-homogeneous, non-Newtonian rheology characteristics. The eventual goals of the simulations are to determine under what conditions sludge mobilization using submerged liquid jets is feasible in tanks of this configuration, and to estimate mixing times required to approach homogeneity of the contents of the tanks.

  13. Storage tanks -- Advances in environmental control technology series

    SciTech Connect

    Cheremisinoff, P.N.

    1996-10-01

    This volume helps in identifying and assessing problems regarding the technical issues as well as regulatory requirements regarding storage tank use, replacement, and remediation. The volume is divided into ten chapters dealing with aboveground and underground storage tanks composition; underground storage tanks; aboveground tanks; aboveground storage tanks regulations and engineering; aboveground tank farm specifications; a comparison of steel and fiberglass construction for underground storage tanks; fuel dispensing tanks--factors to consider in location; a comparison of steel fiber-glass construction; air stripping VOCs from groundwater; and minimizing ecological damage during cleanup of terrestrial and wetland oil spills. It should be found useful as an up-to-date reference to concerned engineers, technicians, scientists, and contractors.

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 135: Areas 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. H. Cox

    2001-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, was closed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan (DOE/NV, 2000). CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CAS). Two of these CAS's were identified in the Corrective Action Investigation Data Quality Objective meeting as being improperly identified as underground storage tanks. CAS 25-02-03 identified as the Deluge Valve Pit was actually an underground electrical vault and CAS 25-02-10 identified as an Underground Storage Tank was actually a former above ground storage tank filled with demineralized water. Both of these CAS's are recommended for a no further action closure. CAS 25-02-01 the Underground Storage Tanks commonly referred to as the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault was closed by decontaminating the vault structure and conducting a radiological verification survey to document compliance with the Nevada Test Site unrestricted use release criteria. The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, (CAS 25-02-01), referred to as the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault, were used to receive liquid waste from all of the radioactive and cell service area drains at the E-MAD Facility. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation conducted in June 1999, discussed in ''The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (DOE/NV, 199a), one sample from the radiological survey of the concrete vault interior exceeded radionuclide preliminary action levels. The analytes from the sediment samples exceeded the preliminary action levels for polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. The CAU 135 closure activities consisted of scabbling radiological ''hot spots'' from the concrete vault, and the drilling

  15. Ventless pressure control of cryogenic storage tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsi, Stephen

    Future operations in space exploration will require the ability to store cryogenic liquids for long durations. During storage, the tanks may self-pressurize due to heat leaks from the ambient environment. When heat leaks into the tank, the cryogenic liquid vaporizes causing the ullage pressure to rise. Being able to effectively control tank pressure will make these long duration storage concepts feasible. One way to control tank pressure involves the use of a subcooled axial liquid jet to both thermally destratify the bulk liquid and remove energy from the tank. In this dissertation, the effectiveness of using subcooled jet mixing as a pressure control scheme is analyzed by performing a small-scale experiment in a normal gravity environment with a refrigerant. Following a period of self-pressurization, the jet's speed and degree of subcooling are parametrically varied so that relevant trends can be identified. Experimental results show that mixing the bulk liquid is not sufficient to control pressure. To sustain any pressure reduction, subcooling the mixing jet is necessary. The rate of pressure reduction is greater for increased jet speeds and subcooling. Analytical and computational models were developed in order to predict the pressurization behavior. Model comparisons reveal that generally a thermodynamic model underpredicts the self-pressurization and depressurization rates. The lack of agreement is primarily attributed to the homogeneity assumption inherent in the model. To improve model predictions, a zonal model is developed which relaxes the global homogeneity assumption. Comparisons between the experimental data and the zonal model predictions are excellent for moderate to high jet flow rates. For slower jet speeds, buoyant flow in the bulk liquid adversely affects the effectiveness of a subcooled mixing jet and a more detailed computational model is required to capture this intraphase phenomena.

  16. 11. VIEW OF THE TANKS FOR STORAGE OF PLUTONIUMCONTAINING SOLUTIONS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF THE TANKS FOR STORAGE OF PLUTONIUM-CONTAINING SOLUTIONS. THE TANKS ARE IN A VAULT. (1/80) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. Chemical Safety Alert: Catastrophic Failure of Storage Tanks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Aboveground, atmospheric storage tanks can fail when flammable vapors in the tank explode and break either the shell-to-bottom or side seam, resulting in hazardous release accidents. Proper maintenance practices can help prevent accidents.

  18. 19 CFR 151.45 - Storage tanks bonded as warehouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Products § 151.45 Storage tanks bonded as warehouses. (a) Application. Tanks for the storage of imported petroleum or petroleum products in bulk may be bonded as warehouses of class 2 if to be used exclusively for the storage of petroleum or petroleum products belonging or consigned to the owner or lessee of...

  19. 19 CFR 151.45 - Storage tanks bonded as warehouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Products § 151.45 Storage tanks bonded as warehouses. (a) Application. Tanks for the storage of imported petroleum or petroleum products in bulk may be bonded as warehouses of class 2 if to be used exclusively for the storage of petroleum or petroleum products belonging or consigned to the owner or lessee of...

  20. Environmental Protection: MTBE Contamination From Underground Storage Tanks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Underground Storage Tanks Statement of John Stephenson Director, Natural Resources and Environment GAO-02-753T Report Documentation Page Report Date...00MAY2002 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION: MTBE Contamination From Underground Storage Tanks Contract...Protection: Improved Inspections and Enforcement Would Better Ensure the Safety of Underground Storage Tanks (GAO-01-464, May 4, 2001). Page 2

  1. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  2. Underground storage tank corrective action technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, R.

    1987-01-01

    The document contains information on corrective action technologies for releases from underground storage tanks (UST). It probes general background information on UST construction techniques, leak detection methods, and failure mechanisms. It also addresses transport pathways of released substances, techniques for evaluating the extent of a release, factors influencing risk to human health and the environment, techniques for selecting initial corrective-action response technologies, and detailed technical profiles of corrective action technologies. Emphasis is on corrective actions associated with releases from gasoline and petroleum USTs.

  3. 7. General Viewacid storage tank to east of building with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. General View-acid storage tank to east of building with accumulation vats in foreground. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Battery Test Office & Storage Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. VOLUMETRIC LEAK DETECTION IN LARGE UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS - VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    A set of experiments was conducted to determine whether volumetric leak detection system presently used to test underground storage tanks (USTs) up to 38,000 L (10,000 gal) in capacity could meet EPA's regulatory standards for tank tightness and automatic tank gauging systems whe...

  5. Permanent Closure of the TAN-664 Underground Storage Tank

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley K. Griffith

    2011-12-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the TAN-664 gasoline underground storage tank in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, 'Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.'

  6. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ATOP A STORAGE TANK, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ATOP A STORAGE TANK, LOOKING AT THE CATALYZER BUILDINGS. NOTE CIRCULAR FOUNDATION FOR AMMONIA STORAGE TANK AND THE LIQUID AIR BUILDING IN THE UPPPER RIGHT CORNER OF PHOTO. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  7. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each...

  8. 2. VIEW OF BASE FOR HEADFRAME AND STORAGE TANKS (FEATURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF BASE FOR HEADFRAME AND STORAGE TANKS (FEATURE 18), FACING SOUTH. CRUSHING PLANT AND CONVEYOR BELT (FEATURE 19) IN BACKGROUND. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Base for Headframe & Storage Tank, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  9. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each...

  10. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each...

  11. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each LNG... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section...

  12. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each LNG... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1931 - Petroleum storage tank controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Petroleum storage tank controls. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oklahoma § 52.1931 Petroleum... plan, the petroleum storage tanks listed in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section shall be...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1931 - Petroleum storage tank controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petroleum storage tank controls. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oklahoma § 52.1931 Petroleum... plan, the petroleum storage tanks listed in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section shall be...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1931 - Petroleum storage tank controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum storage tank controls. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oklahoma § 52.1931 Petroleum... plan, the petroleum storage tanks listed in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section shall be...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1931 - Petroleum storage tank controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Petroleum storage tank controls. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oklahoma § 52.1931 Petroleum... plan, the petroleum storage tanks listed in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section shall be...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1931 - Petroleum storage tank controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Petroleum storage tank controls. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oklahoma § 52.1931 Petroleum... plan, the petroleum storage tanks listed in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section shall be...

  18. Vapor sampling of the headspace of radioactive waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-22

    This paper recants the history of vapor sampling in the headspaces of radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The first two tanks to receive extensive vapor pressure sampling were Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-C-103. At various times, a gas chromatography, on-line mass spectrometer, solid state hydrogen monitor, FTIR, and radio acoustic ammonia monitor have been installed. The head space gas sampling activities will continue for the next few years. The current goal is to sample the headspace for all the tanks. Some tank headspaces will be sampled several times to see the data vary with time. Other tanks will have continuous monitors installed to provide additional data.

  19. Installation of aboveground storage tank cathodic protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Garrity, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    The application of cathodic protection is an effective means of controlling corrosion on tank bottom undersides. The success of the cathodic protection system is dependent upon proper design and system selection and effective monitoring of the level of protection being afforded to the entire tank bottom underside. The use of angle drilled anodes around the periphery of the storage tank should provide a better distribution of current to the tank center on existing tanks. The use of undertank ribbon anode system and secondary containment should prove effective for newly constructed tanks.

  20. A robotic end effector for inspection of storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, G.; Gittleman, M.

    1995-10-01

    The structural integrity of waste storage tanks is of primary importance to the DOE, and is one aspect of the High-Level Waste Tank Remediation focus area. Cracks and/or corrosion damage in the inner tank walls can lead to the release of dangerous substances into the environment. The detection and sizing of corrosion and cracking in steel tank walls through remote non destructive evaluation (NDE) is the primary focus of this work.

  1. Underground storage tank 431-D1U1, Closure Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mancieri, S.

    1993-09-01

    This document contains information about the decommissioning of Tank 431-D1U1. This tank was installed in 1965 for diesel fuel storage. This tank will remain in active usage until closure procedures begin. Soils and ground water around the tank will be sampled to check for leakage. Appendices include; proof of proper training for workers, health and safety briefing record, task hazard analysis summary, and emergency plans.

  2. A robotic end effector for inspection of storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, G.; Gittleman, M.

    1995-12-31

    The structural integrity of waste storage tanks is of primary importance to the DOE, and is one aspect of the High-Level Waste Tank Remediation focus area. Cracks and/or corrosion damage in the inner tank walls can lead to the release of dangerous substances into the environment. The detection and sizing of corrosion and cracking in steel tank walls through remote non destructive evaluation (NDE) is the primary focus of this work.

  3. Hydrogen Peroxide Storage in Small Sealed Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.

    1999-10-20

    Unstabilized hydrogen peroxide of 85% concentration has been prepared in laboratory quantities for testing material compatibility and long term storage on a small scale. Vessels made of candidate tank and liner materials ranged in volume from 1 cc to 2540 cc. Numerous metals and plastics were tried at the smallest scales, while promising ones were used to fabricate larger vessels and liners. An aluminum alloy (6061-T6) performed poorly, including increasing homogeneous decay due to alloying elements entering solution. The decay rate in this high strength aluminum was greatly reduced by anodizing. Better results were obtained with polymers, particularly polyvinylidene fluoride. Data reported herein include ullage pressures as a function of time with changing decay rates, and contamination analysis results.

  4. Polymer containment barriers for underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser, J.; Colombo, P.

    1994-12-31

    Contaminated soils, buried waste and leaking underground storage tanks pose a threat to the environment through contaminant transport. One of the options for control of contaminant migration from buried waste sites is the construction of a subsurface barrier that consists of a wall of low permeability material. Brookhaven National Laboratory has been involved in several tasks to develop, demonstrate and implement advanced polymer materials for use in subsurface barriers throughout the DOE complex. Binders investigated as barrier composites include polyester styrenes, vinylester styrenes, high molecular weight acrylics, sulfur polymer cement, polyacrylic acids, bitumen and a furfuryl alcohol based furan polymer. Aggregates include: recycled glass, stone, sand, and natural soils (from Hanford). A series of performance tests were used to determine the performance characteristics of polymer composites. This paper details a substrate of this characterization pertaining to subsurface barriers for containing underground storage tanks with emphasis on the DOE`s Hanford site. Testing includes measuring permeability to water, wet-dry cycling, chemical resistivity to ground water, acid, base, and nitrate brine, resistance to irradiation, and measuring compressive strengths. Polymer grouts having a wide range of viscosities have been demonstrated to have desirable qualities for a subterranean barrier. The goal of soil mortar permeabilities of 1 x 10{sup -10} m/s and {open_quotes}clean{close_quotes} aggregate composites of 1 x 10{sup -11} m/s was met. Performance values indicate polymers exist that can meet the requirements for containment barriers for USTs throughout the DOE complex. Proper choice of binder and aggregate followed by the appropriate site specific compatibility testing will result in a durable, high strength, low permeability barrier.

  5. DETAIL OF ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA FRIEZE ABOVE GROUND FLOOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA FRIEZE ABOVE GROUND FLOOR AND TYPICAL TERRA COTTA WINDOW SILL. CORNER OF CLAY AND 15TH STREETS - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. Vehicular hydrogen storage using lightweight tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Mitlitsky, F; Weisberg, A H; Myers, B

    2000-07-22

    Lightweight hydrogen storage for vehicles is enabled by adopting and adapting aerospace tankage technology. The weight, volume, and cost are already acceptable and improving. Prototype tankage was demonstrated with 11.3% hydrogen by weight, 1.74 million inch (44.3 km) burst performance factor (P{sub b}V/W), and 3.77 kWh/kg specific energy for the tank and hydrogen (LHV). DOE cannot afford full scale aerospace development costs. For example, it costs many tens of $M to develop a rocket motor casing with a safety factor (SF) of 1.25. Large teams of experts are required to design, develop, and test new processes. Car companies are buying existing technology with only modest investments in research and development (R&D). The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) team is maximizing the leverage from DOE funding by joining with industry to solve technical risks at the component level. LLNL is developing fabrication processes with IMPCO Technologies, Thiokol Propulsion, and Aero Tec Laboratories (ATL). LLNL is creating commercial products that are close to adoption under DOE solicitation. LLNL is breaking ground to achieve greater than 10% hydrogen by weight tankage with safety that exceeds the requirements of NGV2 standards modified for hydrogen. Risk reduction is proceeding along three axes: (1) Commercializable products will be available next year with {approx}90% confidence; (2) R&D progress is pushing the envelope in lightweight tankage for vehicles; and (3) Integration challenges are being met with partners in industry and DOE demo programs. This project is a key part of LLNL's effort to develop high cycle life energy storage systems with >600 Wh/kg specific energy for various applications, including: high altitude long endurance solar rechargeable aircraft, zero emission vehicles, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems for spacecraft, energy storage for premium power, remote power sources, and peak shaving.

  7. Storage tank for cryogenic liquefied gas

    SciTech Connect

    Guilhem, J. R.

    1985-02-12

    The invention is related to a tank designed to contain a cryogenic liquefied gas and formed in addition to the main tank by two other tight walls. In the upper part of this tank an aperture duct connects the ceiling of the tank to the exterior of the tank, a holder supporting a device sensing in various areas wall temperatures of the tank, can be fitted into this aperture duct, a remote temperature sensor is actually hold by this support and is introduced into the tank. The invention finds an application as a means to easily localize leaking failures of the intermediate wall.

  8. Shop fabricated corrosion-resistant underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, W.B.; Stellmach, W.A.

    1995-12-31

    Integral corrosion resistance has long been incorporated into shop fabricated steel underground storage tank design. Since 1969, an industry standard has been the sti-P{sub 3}{reg_sign} (P3) tank. However, the past decade has seen the development of several alternative corrosion resistant and secondary containment technologies. Fiberglass-coated steel composite tanks, and jacketed tanks utilizing various materials as a secondary wall, provide corrosion resistance without the cathodic protection monitoring requirements mandated by the EPA for single-wall P3 tanks. On the other hand, the P3 tank is the only tank technology commonly marketed today with an integral ability to verify its corrosion resistance over the life of the tank. Many existing USTs remain to be replaced or upgraded with corrosion resistance (and other requirements) by the end of 1998. Steel tanks built and installed prior to the advent of pre-engineered, factory-supplied protection against corrosion can be retrofitted with cathodic protection or can be internally lined. Specific installation standards developed by the steel tank industry and the petroleum industry must be followed so as to assure the integrity of the various corrosion resistant technologies developed by the Steel Tank Institute. The technologies describes in this paper will ensure compliance with the corrosion protection requirements of new storage tanks.

  9. Approach to evaluating leak detection methods in underground storage tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, J.; Broscious, J.; Niaki, S.

    1986-10-01

    The detection and evaluation of leaks in underground storage tanks require a detailed knowledge of conditions both within the tank and in the nearby surroundings. The test apparatus, as constructed, enables data regarding these environmental conditions to be readily obtained and incorporated in a carefully structured test program that minimizes the amount of costly full-scale testing that would otherwise be required to evaluate volumetric leak detection methods for underground storage tanks. In addition, sufficient flexibility has been designed into the apparatus to enable additional evaluations of non-volumetric test methods to be conducted, and different types of tanks and products to be tested in a cost-effective manner.

  10. Volumetric leak detection in large underground storage tanks. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.W.; Wise, R.F.; Maresca, J.W.

    1991-08-01

    A set of experiments was conducted to determine whether volumetric leak detection system presently used to test underground storage tanks (USTs) up to 38,000 L (10,000 gal) in capacity could meet EPA's regulatory standards for tank tightness and automatic tank gauging systems when used to test tanks up to 190,000 L (50,000 gal) in capacity. The experiments, conducted on two partially filled 190,000-L (50,000-gal) USTs at Griffiss Air Force Base in upstate New York during late August 1990, showed that a system's performance in large tanks depends primarily on the accuracy of the temperature compensation, which is inversely proportional to the volume of product in the tank. Errors in temperature compensation that were negligible in tests in small tanks were important in large tanks. The experiments further suggest that a multiple-test strategy is also required.

  11. CFD Simulation of SDHW Storage Tank with and Without Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaumik, Mainak

    2012-07-01

    2D-Single Phase heat and fluid flow analysis of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) storage tank has been carried out by using CFD tools, ICEM for modelling & meshing and FLUENT for analysis. The tank fluid is in static mode. Heat diffusion and convective heat loss from the tank without heater and with the involvement of additional heater is studied. After heating water gets lighter and moves upward in the tank and cold denser water remains at the bottom of the tank. The movement of the water particles are also analysed to find the effect on heat transfer and heat loss. Time transient analysis is focused on for a constant fixed temperature of water inside the tank and the heat drop is captured. Investigation gives guidelines how long the water temperature can be maintain warmer within the tank while the tank is uninsulated. If it is required to maintain temperature constant then the involvement of heater can be useful in what extend.

  12. Earthquake response considerations of broad liquid storage tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambra, F. J.

    1982-11-01

    The influences of tank geometry and foundation stiffness variation on the simulated seismic structural response of a model broad tank are discussed. An empirical method for describing tank bottom plate uplift geometry is proposed which recognizes radial catenary force and foundation stiffness. Axial symmetric lift, static tilt and dynamic shaking table tests were performed in the University of California, Berkeley, earthquake simulator laboratory. A structural geometric survey of a 63 ft - 10 inches tall by 289 ft - 6 inches diameter crude oil storage tank was conducted to establish a comparative base by which to evaluate the model tank eccentricities.

  13. Risk Based Inspection Methodology and Software Applied to Atmospheric Storage Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topalis, P.; Korneliussen, G.; Hermanrud, J.; Steo, Y.

    2012-05-01

    A new risk-based inspection (RBI) methodology and software is presented in this paper. The objective of this work is to allow management of the inspections of atmospheric storage tanks in the most efficient way, while, at the same time, accident risks are minimized. The software has been built on the new risk framework architecture, a generic platform facilitating efficient and integrated development of software applications using risk models. The framework includes a library of risk models and the user interface is automatically produced on the basis of editable schemas. This risk-framework-based RBI tool has been applied in the context of RBI for above-ground atmospheric storage tanks (AST) but it has been designed with the objective of being generic enough to allow extension to the process plants in general. This RBI methodology is an evolution of an approach and mathematical models developed for Det Norske Veritas (DNV) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The methodology assesses damage mechanism potential, degradation rates, probability of failure (PoF), consequence of failure (CoF) in terms of environmental damage and financial loss, risk and inspection intervals and techniques. The scope includes assessment of the tank floor for soil-side external corrosion and product-side internal corrosion and the tank shell courses for atmospheric corrosion and internal thinning. It also includes preliminary assessment for brittle fracture and cracking. The data are structured according to an asset hierarchy including Plant, Production Unit, Process Unit, Tag, Part and Inspection levels and the data are inherited / defaulted seamlessly from a higher hierarchy level to a lower level. The user interface includes synchronized hierarchy tree browsing, dynamic editor and grid-view editing and active reports with drill-in capability.

  14. Glass Bubbles Insulation for Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sass, J. P.; SaintCyr, W. W.; Barrett, T. M.; Baumgartner, R. G.; Lott, J. W.; Fesmire, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    A full-scale field application of glass bubbles insulation has been demonstrated in a 218,000 L liquid hydrogen storage tank. This work is the evolution of extensive materials testing, laboratory scale testing, and system studies leading to the use of glass bubbles insulation as a cost efficient and high performance alternative in cryogenic storage tanks of any size. The tank utilized is part of a rocket propulsion test complex at the NASA Stennis Space Center and is a 1960's vintage spherical double wall tank with an evacuated annulus. The original perlite that was removed from the annulus was in pristine condition and showed no signs of deterioration or compaction. Test results show a significant reduction in liquid hydrogen boiloff when compared to recent baseline data prior to removal of the perlite insulation. The data also validates the previous laboratory scale testing (1000 L) and full-scale numerical modeling (3,200,000 L) of boiloff in spherical cryogenic storage tanks. The performance of the tank will continue to be monitored during operation of the tank over the coming years. KEYWORDS: Glass bubble, perlite, insulation, liquid hydrogen, storage tank.

  15. 15. DETAILED VIEW OF ENRICHED URANIUM STORAGE TANK. THE ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAILED VIEW OF ENRICHED URANIUM STORAGE TANK. THE ADDITION OF THE GLASS RINGS SHOWN AT THE TOP OF THE TANK HELPS PREVENT THE URANIUM FROM REACHING CRITICALITY LIMITS. (4/12/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. Underground storage tank 511-D1U1 closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mancieri, S.; Giuntoli, N.

    1993-09-01

    This document contains the closure plan for diesel fuel underground storage tank 511-D1U1 and appendices containing supplemental information such as staff training certification and task summaries. Precision tank test data, a site health and safety plan, and material safety data sheets are also included.

  17. MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. Equations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reation rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. An analytical solution for ...

  18. CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-PETROLEUM UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is generally acknowledged that a small fraction of the total underground storage tank population is used to store chemicals. The detailed characteristics of these tanks, however, are not well understood. Additional information is required if competent decisions are to be made ...

  19. RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619. INTERIOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2489. Unknown Photographer, 6/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. 41. PATTERN STORAGE, GRIND STONE, WATER TANK, SHAFTING, AND TABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. PATTERN STORAGE, GRIND STONE, WATER TANK, SHAFTING, AND TABLE SAW (L TO R)-LOOKING WEST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  1. 2. SOUTHEAST SIDE. HIGH PRESSURE HELIUM STORAGE TANKS AT LEFT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTHEAST SIDE. HIGH PRESSURE HELIUM STORAGE TANKS AT LEFT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Helium Compression Plant, Test Area 1-115, intersection of Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. 20. VIEW OF THE WASTE STORAGE TANKS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF THE WASTE STORAGE TANKS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PLATING LABORATORY. (11/15/89) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  3. Public Record About Underground Storage Tanks - 2005 Energy Policy Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These grant guidelines implement the public record provision in Section 9002(d) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, enacted by the Underground Storage Tank Compliance Act, part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  4. 79. VIEW FROM SOUTH OF NITROGEN AND HELIUM STORAGE TANKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. VIEW FROM SOUTH OF NITROGEN AND HELIUM STORAGE TANKS AND CONTROL SKIDS ON SLC-3W FUEL APRON - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS AND STEEL BEAMS), SUB-BASEMENT LEVEL -27’, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  6. VIEW OF SOUTHERNMOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHERN-MOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMN, WITH ADJACENT PIPING, LEVEL -27’, LOOKING WEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  7. 65. SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS, WITH SECONDARY CONTAINMENT BERM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS, WITH SECONDARY CONTAINMENT BERM IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. 66. SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  9. 64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. 78. DETAIL OF SOUTH PLANT MAILBOX, WITH CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. DETAIL OF SOUTH PLANT MAILBOX, WITH CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 86. DETAIL OF SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. DETAIL OF SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS. VIEW TO EAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 84. SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND FILLING STATION. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND FILLING STATION. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. 3. View southeast, detail of storage tank platform Harvey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View southeast, detail of storage tank platform - Harvey L. White Farm, Sap House, East side of Route 202, approximately 600 feet north of Hillsborough-Antrim town line, Hillsboro, Hillsborough County, NH

  14. 60. VIEW OF RADAR AREA, STORAGE BUILDINGS AND TANKS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. VIEW OF RADAR AREA, STORAGE BUILDINGS AND TANKS, LOOKING WEST Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 5. HORIZONTAL COOLEDWATER STORAGE TANKS. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. HORIZONTAL COOLED-WATER STORAGE TANKS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  16. 71. DETAIL OF NITROGEN GAS STORAGE TANKS AND TRANSFER TUBING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. DETAIL OF NITROGEN GAS STORAGE TANKS AND TRANSFER TUBING ON SLC-3W LIQUID OXYGEN APRON - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. 19. Oil Storage Tanks, view to the northwest. Washington ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Oil Storage Tanks, view to the northwest. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  18. Spill containment and overfill prevention requirements for underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    McCann, M.T.

    1995-12-31

    Federal Regulations require Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) to be equipped with spill containment and overfill prevention devices by December 22, 1998. Spill containers are designed to contain the product that is often spilled when the delivery hose is disconnected. Spill containers are commercially available in different styles, sizes, and construction materials for various applications. Overfill prevention devices are designed to prevent large releases of product at the fill pipe or through the tank fittings because a tank has been filled beyond its capacity. There are three types of overfill prevention devices. Ball float valves installed on the vapor return line restrict flow into tank when the level in the tank approaches capacity. Overfill alarms provide a warning signal when the level in the tank approaches capacity. Overfill prevention valves shut off flow into the tank when the level approaches capacity.

  19. Technology Successes in Hanford Tank Waste Storage and Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, E. J.

    2002-02-26

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is leading the River Protection Project (RPP), which is responsible for dispositioning approximately 204,000 cubic meters (54 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste that has accumulated in 177 large underground tanks at the Hanford Site since 1944. The RPP is comprised of five major elements: storage of the waste, retrieval of the waste from the tanks, treatment of the waste, disposal of treated waste, and closure of the tank facilities. Approximately 3785 cubic meters (1 million gallons) of waste have leaked from the older ''single-shell tanks.'' Sixty-seven of the 147 single shell tanks are known or assumed ''leakers.'' These leaks have resulted in contaminant plumes that extend from the tank to the groundwater in a number of tank farms. Retrieval and closure of the leaking tanks complicates the ORP technical challenge because cleanup decisions must consider the impacts of past leaks along with a strategy for retrieving the waste in the tanks. Completing the RPP mission as currently planned and with currently available technologies will take several decades and tens of billions of dollars. RPP continue to pursue the benefits from deploying technologies that reduce risk to human health and the environment, as well as, the cost of cleanup. This paper discusses some of the recent technology partnering activities with the DOE Office of Science and Technology activities in tank waste retrieval and storage.

  20. Treatment of radioactive wastes from DOE underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Spencer, B.B.; Chase, C.W.; Anderson, K.K.; Bell, J.T.

    1994-06-01

    Bench-scale batch tests have been conducted with sludge and supernate tank waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation technology process for use in a comprehensive sludge processing flow sheet as a means of concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volumes of storage tank waste at national sites for final disposal. This paper discusses the separation of the sludge solids and supernate, the basic washing of the sludge solids, the acidic dissolution of the sludge solids, and the removal of the radionuclides from the supernate.

  1. ETR WASTE GAS STACK. ABOVE GROUND DUCTWORK AND ETR STACK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR WASTE GAS STACK. ABOVE GROUND DUCTWORK AND ETR STACK, CLOSER VIEW. PERSONNEL LADDER AND CIRCULAR WORK PLATFORM MIDWAY UP STACK. CAMERA FACES NORTH. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-7-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Automated in-situ inspection systems for underground storage tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromme, Chris C.; Whittaker, Warren C.

    1993-12-01

    The Army-has 20,000 underground fuel storage tanks (UST's) that must be brought into compliance with the new federal regulations by 1998. To be compliant, a tank must be closed, upgraded or replaced. This report covers the investigative research for the development of a robotic system capable of performing an in situ ultrasonic thickness inspection on the interior of a fueled UST. The robotic system is designed to meet the criteria outlined in the Draft Standard for the Robotic inspection of Underground Storage Tanks developed for the EPA. This robotic inspection will allow the Army to make an informed decision on the appropriate action to be taken for a given tank. The robotic system offers a cost effective way to monitor a tank when compared with the existing manual technology that produces the same results. The robotic technology also moves the human out of the UST which eliminates the human liability factor in the hazardous environment.

  3. 200-Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks locations

    SciTech Connect

    Brevick, C.H.

    1997-12-01

    Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) has been tasked by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) to incorporate current location data for 64 of the 200-Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUST) into the centralized mapping computer database for the Hanford facilities. The IMUST coordinate locations and tank names for the tanks currently assigned to the Hanford Site contractors are listed in Appendix A. The IMUST are inactive tanks installed in underground vaults or buried directly in the ground within the 200-East and 200-West Areas of the Hanford Site. The tanks are categorized as tanks with a capacity of less than 190,000 liters (50,000 gal). Some of the IMUST have been stabilized, pumped dry, filled with grout, or may contain an inventory or radioactive and/or hazardous materials. The IMUST have been out of service for at least 12 years.

  4. OVERVIEW FROM OIL STORAGE TANKS. FOUNDATION OF 1980 POWER PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW FROM OIL STORAGE TANKS. FOUNDATION OF 1980 POWER PLANT IN FOREGROUND, CORNER OF CARPENTER SHOP TO THE RIGHT, CORNER OF BAGASSE STORAGE BUILDING TO THE LEFT. MACHINE SHOP AND BOILER HOUSE IN MIDDLE GROUND, 1948 STACK AND BOILING HOUSE TO REAR. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  5. Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of storage tank bottom plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syafaat, Taufik A.; Ismail, Mokhtar Che

    2015-07-01

    Aboveground atmospheric storage tanks (AST) receive crude oil from offshore for storage and further processing. Integrity issue of AST storing crude oil is not only affected by external corrosion but also internal corrosion from crude oil that supports the growth of the microorganisms originating from the reservoir. The objective of this research is to study the effect of sulfate reduction bacteria (SRB) on the corrosion of AST. The results indicates that SRB has significant effect on the corrosion rate of storage tank bottom plate.

  6. Stress evaluation of the primary tank of a double-shell underground storage tank facility

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, M.B.; Stine, M.D.; Farnworth, S.K.

    1994-12-01

    A facility called the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) is being designed at the Department of Energy`s Hanford site. The MWTF is expected to be completed in 1998 and will consist of six underground double-shell waste storage tanks and associated systems. These tanks will provide safe and environmentally acceptable storage capacity to handle waste generated during single-shell and double-shell tank safety mitigation and remediation activities. This paper summarizes the analysis and qualification of the primary tank structure of the MWTF, as performed by ICF Kaiser Hanford during the latter phase of Title 1 (Preliminary) design. Both computer finite element analysis (FEA) and hand calculations methods based on the so-called Tank Seismic Experts Panel (TSEP) Guidelines were used to perform the analysis and evaluation. Based on the evaluations summarized in this paper, it is concluded that the primary tank structure of the MWTF satisfies the project design requirements. In addition, the hand calculations performed using the methodologies provided in the TSEP Guidelines demonstrate that, except for slosh height, the capacities exceed the demand. The design accounts for the adverse effect of the excessive slosh height demand, i.e., inadequate freeboard, by increasing the hydrodynamic wall and roof pressures appropriately, and designing the tank for such increased pressures.

  7. Case Study in Corporate Memory Recovery: Hanford Tank Farms Miscellaneous Underground Waste Storage Tanks - 15344

    SciTech Connect

    Washenfelder, D. J.; Johnson, J. M.; Turknett, J. C.; Barnes, T. J.; Duncan, K. G.

    2015-01-07

    In addition to managing the 177 underground waste storage tanks containing 212,000 m3 (56 million gal) of radioactive waste at the U. S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms, Washington River Protection Solutions LLC is responsible for managing numerous small catch tanks and special surveillance facilities. These are collectively known as “MUSTs” - Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks. The MUSTs typically collected drainage and flushes during waste transfer system piping changes; special surveillance facilities supported Tank Farm processes including post-World War II uranium recovery and later fission product recovery from tank wastes. Most were removed from service following deactivation of the single-shell tank system in 1980 and stabilized by pumping the remaining liquids from them. The MUSTs were isolated by blanking connecting transfer lines and adding weatherproofing to prevent rainwater entry. Over the next 30 years MUST operating records were dispersed into large electronic databases or transferred to the National Archives Regional Center in Seattle, Washington. During 2014 an effort to reacquire the historical bases for the MUSTs’ published waste volumes was undertaken. Corporate Memory Recovery from a variety of record sources allowed waste volumes to be initially determined for 21 MUSTs, and waste volumes to be adjusted for 37 others. Precursors and symptoms of Corporate Memory Loss were identified in the context of MUST records recovery.

  8. Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options

    SciTech Connect

    Klem, M.J.

    1996-10-23

    This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

  9. [Vegetation above-ground biomass and its affecting factors in water/wind erosion crisscross region on Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-guo; Fan, Jun; Wang, Quan-jiu; Wang, Li

    2011-03-01

    Field investigations were conducted in Liudaogou small watershed in late September 2009 to study the differences of vegetation above-ground biomass, soil moisture content, and soil nutrient contents under different land use patterns, aimed to approach the vegetation above-ground biomass level and related affecting factors in typical small watershed in water/wind erosion crisscross region on Loess Plateau. The above-ground dry biomass of the main vegetations in Liudaogou was 177-2207 g x m(-2), and that in corn field, millet field, abandoned farmland, artificial grassland, natural grassland, and shrub land was 2097-2207, 518-775, 248-578, 280-545, 177-396, and 372-680 g x m(-2), respectively. The mean soil moisture content in 0-100 layer was the highest (14.2%) in farmlands and the lowest (10.9%) in shrub land. The coefficient of variation of soil moisture content was the greatest (26. 7% ) in abandoned farmland, indicating the strong spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture in this kind of farmland. The mean soil water storage was in the order of farmland > artificial grassland > natural grassland > shrub land. Soil dry layer was observed in alfalfa and caragana lands. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.639, P < 0.05) between above-ground dry biomass and 0-100 cm soil water storage, and also, a very significant positive correlation between above-ground fresh biomass and vegetation height. The above-ground biomass of the higher vegetations could potentially better control the wind and water erosion in the water/wind erosion crisscross region. Vegetation above-ground biomass was highly correlated with soil moisture and nutrient contents, but had no significant correlations with elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, and soil bulk density.

  10. Microbiological profile of crude oil in storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Atagana, H I

    1996-07-01

    Microbiological quality of crude oil storage tanks was determined. The samples were taken from crude oil storage tanks in three stations, at Ughelli, Escravos and Forcados tank farms in the Delta State of Nigeria. Two tanks were sampled at each station with samples collected from three levels of the tank, namely the oil layer, oil water interface, and effluent layer. Samples from the inner walls and bottom sediment of the only empty tank in Ughelli during the study were also taken. The total heterotrophic count of bacteria and total fungal count were obtained by plating samples on nutrient agar and sabouraud's glucose agar respectively and incubated for 14 days at 28 °C±2 °C. Oilutilizing bacteria and fungi were isolated on oil agar using fungizone and antibiotics to inhibit fungal and bacterial growth respectively. Pure cultures of bacteria and fungi were prepared on nutrient agar and sabouraud's glucose agar respectively at 28 °C±2 °C for 4 days. Isolates were identified using approved standard methods. Three bacterial genera, Pseudomonas, Proteus and Bacillus, and one actinomycete, Actinomyces and two fungal genera, Penicillium and Cunninghamella, were isolated. Pseudomonas was dominant among the bacteria (41.62%) and Penicillium dominant among the fungi (94%). It was also found that the total microbial load of the effluent layer was higher than that of the oil layer.

  11. CHEM-Based Self-Deploying Planetary Storage Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Witold; Bhattacharya, Kaushik

    2007-01-01

    A document proposes self-deploying storage tanks, based on the cold elastic hibernated memory (CHEM) concept, to be used on remote planets. The CHEM concept, described in previous NASA Tech Briefs articles, involves the use of open-cell shape-memory-polymer (SMP) foam sandwich structures to make lightweight, space-deployable structures that can be compressed for storage and can later be expanded, then rigidified for use. A tank according to the proposal would be made of multiple SMP layers (of which at least one could be an SMP foam). The tank would be fabricated at full size in the rigid, deployed condition at ambient temperature, the SMP material(s) having been chosen so that ambient temperature would be below the SMP glass-transition temperature (T(sub g)). The tank would then be warmed to a temperature above T(sub g), where it would be compacted and packaged, then cooled to below T(sub g) and kept there during launch and transport to a distant planet. At the assigned position on the planet, the compacted tank would be heated above T(sub g) by the solar radiation making it rebound to its original size and shape. Finally, the tank would be rigidified through natural cooling to below T(sub g) in the planetary ambient environment.

  12. Notification: Evaluation of EPA Efforts to Protect Tribal Communities From Risks Related to Underground Storage Tanks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY16-0013, March 8, 2016. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on the EPA’s work related to Underground Storage Tank and Leaking Underground Storage Tank programs in Indian country.

  13. Health and safety training for underground storage tank inspectors. Student`s guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-01

    This document is a training manual which provides information to educate inspectors and others who work around underground storage tanks about potential health and safety hazards associated with underground storage tanks.

  14. Petroleum storage tank cleaning using commercial microbial culture products

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, D.R.; Entzeroth, L.C.; Timmis, A.; Whiteside, A.; Hoskins, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The removal of paraffinic bottom accumulations from refinery storage tanks represents an increasingly costly area of petroleum storage management. Microorganisms can be used to reduce paraffinic bottoms by increasing the solubility of bottom material and by increasing the wax-carrying capacity of carrier oil used in the cleaning process. The economic savings of such treatments are considerable. The process is also intrinsically safer than alternative methods, as it reduces and even eliminates the need for personnel to enter the tank during the cleaning process. Both laboratory and field sample analyses can be used to document changes in tank material during the treatment process. These changes include increases in volatile content and changes in wax distribution. Several case histories illustrating these physical and chemical changes are presented along with the economics of treatment.

  15. Juvenile turtles for mosquito control in water storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Borjas, G; Marten, G G; Fernandez, E; Portillo, H

    1993-09-01

    Juvenile turtles, Trachemys scripta, provided highly effective control of mosquito larvae in cement tanks (pilas) where water was stored for household cleaning. When single turtles were introduced to tanks with histories of high mosquito production, nearly all turtles remained in good health and no mosquito larvae survived to the pupal stage. Families welcome turtles in their water storage containers in Honduras. Humane conditions for turtles can be assured by providing small quantities of table scraps to supplement their diet and by placing a small floating platform in the tank for basking. Although turtles can serve as alternate hosts for Salmonella, available evidence suggests that turtles in tanks should not be a source of human infection. Further confirmation that there is no Salmonella hazard should precede routine use of turtles for mosquito control.

  16. Model based, sensor-directed remediation of underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.; Thunborg, S. )

    1990-06-01

    Sensor-rich, intelligent robots that function with respect to models of their environment have significant potential to reduce the time and cost for the cleanup of hazardous waste while increasing operator safety. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is performing technology development and experimental investigations into the application of intelligent robot control technology to the problem of cleaning up waste stored in underground tanks. The tasks addressed in the SNL experiments are in situ physical characterizations of underground storage tanks (USTs) as well as the contained waste and the removal of the waste from the tank both for laboratory analysis and as part of the tank cleanup process. Both fully automatic and manual robot control technologies are being developed and demonstrated. The SNL-developed concept of human-assisted computer control will be employed whenever manual control of the robot is required. The UST Robot Technology Development Laboratory (URTDL) consists of a commercial gantry robot modified to allow hybrid force/position control.

  17. K Basins sludge removal temporary sludge storage tank system

    SciTech Connect

    Mclean, M.A.

    1997-06-12

    Shipment of sludge from the K Basins to a disposal site is now targeted for August 2000. The current path forward for sludge disposal is shipment to Tank AW-105 in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). Significant issues of the feasibility of this path exist primarily due to criticality concerns and the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) in the sludge at levels that trigger regulation under the Toxic Substance Control Act. Introduction of PCBs into the TWRS processes could potentially involve significant design and operational impacts to both the Spent Nuclear Fuel and TWRS projects if technical and regulatory issues related to PCB treatment cannot be satisfactorily resolved. Concerns of meeting the TWRS acceptance criteria have evolved such that new storage tanks for the K Basins sludge may be the best option for storage prior to vitrification of the sludge. A reconunendation for the final disposition of the sludge is scheduled for June 30, 1997. To support this decision process, this project was developed. This project provides a preconceptual design package including preconceptual designs and cost estimates for the temporary sludge storage tanks. Development of cost estimates for the design and construction of sludge storage systems is required to help evaluate a recommendation for the final disposition of the K Basin sludge.

  18. 73. View of line of stainless steel coolant storage tanks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. View of line of stainless steel coolant storage tanks for bi-sodium sulfate/water coolant solution at first floor of transmitter building no. 102. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  19. 89. EAST EDGE OF SOUTH PLANT FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. EAST EDGE OF SOUTH PLANT FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK, SHOWING ROOF OF MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AT CENTER FOREGROUND, WAREHOUSE (BUILDING 729) AT RIGHT AND ARMY RESERVE CENTER (BUILDING 732) AT RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO EAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. 12. SOUTH PLANT FROM SHELL OIL COMPANY CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. SOUTH PLANT FROM SHELL OIL COMPANY CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK, SHOWING FACILITIES MAINTENANCE BUILDING (543) AT LEFT AND WHITE PHOSPHOROUS FILLING BUILDING (541) AND WAREHOUSE (542) AT CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  1. 26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT NORTH EDGE FROM DECEMBER 7TH AVENUE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  2. 90. EAST SECTION OF SOUTH PLANT FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. EAST SECTION OF SOUTH PLANT FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK, SHOWING MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AT LEFT AND WAREHOUSE (BUILDING 729) AT RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  3. 88. EAST SECTION OF SOUTH PLANT FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. EAST SECTION OF SOUTH PLANT FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK, SHOWING MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AT RIGHT FOREGROUND AND ARMY RESERVE CENTER (BUILDING 732) AT CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  4. 132. NORTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS WEST OF CASE FILLING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    132. NORTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS WEST OF CASE FILLING PLANT (BUILDING 1601). VIEW TO NORTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  5. 85. SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND FILLING STATION FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    85. SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND FILLING STATION FROM DECEMBER 7TH AVENUE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  6. 81. GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTH OF FUEL STORAGE TANK ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTH OF FUEL STORAGE TANK ON SOUTH END OF SLC-3W FUEL APRON. CORNER OF CONTROL SKID VISIBLE ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. 20. DECOMMISIONED HYDROGEN TANK IN FORMER LIQUID OXYGEN STORAGE AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DECOMMISIONED HYDROGEN TANK IN FORMER LIQUID OXYGEN STORAGE AREA, BETWEEN TEST STAND 1-A AND INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL BUILDING. Looking northwest. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. EPA settles underground storage tank violations at RFK Stadium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA (November 18, 2015) - The District of Columbia Department of General Services has agreed to pay a $10,000 penalty to settle alleged violations of underground storage tank regulations at Robert F. Kennedy Stadium, the U.S. Environmental Protect

  9. 14. VIEW OF THE LIQUID CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS. THE FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF THE LIQUID CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS. THE FLOOR IS SURFACED WITH STAINLESS STEEL TO CONTAIN SPILLS AND FACILITATE CLEANING. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  10. Legislative and regulatory update of aboveground storage tank requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, J.L. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Today, a patchwork of federal and state requirements regulate the three general categories of aboveground storage tanks: petroleum tanks (which comprise about 90% of all ASTs in use), hazardous substances tanks, and hazardous waste tanks. Various federal regulatory programs address ASTs, including the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). At the state or local level, regulations and building codes have incorporated industry guidelines for designing, building, and testing tanks for fire prevention and safety purposes. With respect to environmental protection requirements, only the hazardous waste tanks are subject to a comprehensive federal regulatory program, under RCRA, and the states have adopted these federal regulations or promulgated their own. Some states have enacted comprehensive tank programs governing petroleum, and a few have addressed hazardous substances. The prospects for comprehensive legislation or regulation for petroleum ASTs in 1995, however, are dim. Federal legislation has been introduced, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is studying ASTs, and most states are waiting for Congress and EPA to act. The paper briefly summarizes the applicable federal and state regulations and then discusses federal legislative and regulatory developments.

  11. Decision and systems analysis for underground storage tank waste retrieval systems and tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.; Jardine, L.J.

    1993-10-01

    Hanford`s underground storage tanks (USTs) pose one of the most challenging hazardous and radioactive waste problems for the Department of Energy (DOE). Numerous schemes have been proposed for removing the waste from the USTs, but the technology options for doing this are largely unproven. To help assess the options, an Independent Review Group (IRG) was established to conduct a broad review of retrieval systems and the tank waste remediation system. The IRG consisted of the authors of this report. The IRG`s Preliminary Report assessed retrieval systems for underground storage tank wastes at Hanford in 1992. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) concurred with the report`s recommendation that a tool should be developed for evaluating retrieval concepts. The report recommended that this tool include (1) important considerations identified previously by the IRG, (2) a means of documenting important decisions concerning retrieval systems, and (3) a focus on evaluations and assessments for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) and the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID).

  12. LESSONS LEARNED FROM PREVIOUS WASTE STORAGE TANK VAPOR CONTROL ATTEMPTS ON SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) & DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) FARMS

    SciTech Connect

    BAKER, D.M.

    2004-08-03

    This report forms the basis for a feasibility study and conceptual design to control vapor emissions from waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The Carbtrol, Vapor Mixing, and High Efficiency Gas Absorber (HEGA) vapor controls were evaluated to determine the lessons learned from previous failed vapor control attempts. This document illustrates the resulting findings based on that evaluation.

  13. 40 CFR 63.11497 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for storage tanks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section for periods of planned routine maintenance of a control device for storage tanks. (1) Add no... requirements for storage tanks? 63.11497 Section 63.11497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... compliance requirements for storage tanks? (a) You must comply with the emission limits and...

  14. 40 CFR 63.11497 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for storage tanks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... section for periods of planned routine maintenance of a control device for storage tanks. (1) Add no... requirements for storage tanks? 63.11497 Section 63.11497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... compliance requirements for storage tanks? (a) You must comply with the emission limits and...

  15. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Storage Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... information specified above for Items 1.b., 1.c., 1.d, and 1.e, as applicable. 4. Storage tank described by... Requirements for Storage Tanks 5 Table 5 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...—Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Storage Tanks As required in § 63.11497, you must...

  16. 77 FR 11750 - Idaho: Final Approval of State Underground Storage Tank Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 281 Idaho: Final Approval of State Underground Storage Tank Program AGENCY... final approval of its underground storage tank program for petroleum and hazardous substances under... State of Idaho's underground storage tank program for petroleum and hazardous substances satisfies...

  17. 76 FR 76684 - Idaho: Tentative Approval of State Underground Storage Tank Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ...-0896; FRL-9502-6] Idaho: Tentative Approval of State Underground Storage Tank Program AGENCY... approval of its Underground Storage Tank (UST) Program under Subtitle I of the Resource Conservation and...--Health; Title 39, Chapter 72, Idaho Land Remediation Act; Chapter 88, Idaho Underground Storage Tank...

  18. 76 FR 57659 - Oregon: Final Approval of State Underground Storage Tank Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 281 Oregon: Final Approval of State Underground Storage Tank Program AGENCY... final approval of its underground storage tank program for petroleum and hazardous substances under... State of Oregon's underground storage tank program for petroleum and hazardous substances satisfies...

  19. Numerical Modeling of Propellant Boiloff in Cryogenic Storage Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, A. K.; Steadman, T. E.; Maroney, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) describes the thermal modeling effort undertaken at Marshall Space Flight Center to support the Cryogenic Test Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for a study of insulation materials for cryogenic tanks in order to reduce propellant boiloff during long-term storage. The Generalized Fluid System Simulation program has been used to model boiloff in 1,000-L demonstration tanks built for testing the thermal performance of glass bubbles and perlite insulation. Numerical predictions of boiloff rate and ullage temperature have been compared with the measured data from the testing of demonstration tanks. A satisfactory comparison between measured and predicted data has been observed for both liquid nitrogen and hydrogen tests. Based on the experience gained with the modeling of the demonstration tanks, a numerical model of the liquid hydrogen storage tank at launch complex 39 at KSC was built. The predicted boiloff rate of hydrogen has been found to be in good agreement with observed field data. This TM describes three different models that have been developed during this period of study (March 2005 to June 2006), comparisons with test data, and results of parametric studies.

  20. Detecting leaks in hydrocarbon storage tanks using electrical resistance tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.; LaBrecque, D.; Binley, A.

    1995-04-03

    Large volumes of hydrocarbons are stored worldwide in surface and underground tanks. It is well documented [1] that all too often these tanks are found to leak, resulting in not only a loss of stored inventory but, more importantly, contamination to soil and groundwater. Two field experiments are reported herein to evaluate the utility of electrical resistance tomography (ERT) for detecting and locating leaks as well as delineating any resulting plumes emanating from steel underground storage tanks (UST). Current leak detection methods for single shell tanks require careful inventory monitoring, usually from liquid level sensors within the tank, or placement of chemical sensors in the soil under and around the tank. Liquid level sensors can signal a leak but are limited in sensitivity and, of course, give no information about the location or the leak or the distribution of the resulting plume. External sensors are expensive to retrofit and must be very densely spaced to assure reliable detection, especially in heterogeneous soils. The rational for using subsurface tomography is that it may have none of these shortcomings.

  1. Nondestructive examination technologies for inspection of radioactive waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.T.; Kunerth, D.C.; Davidson, J.R.

    1995-08-01

    The evaluation of underground radioactive waste storage tank structural integrity poses a unique set of challenges. Radiation fields, limited access, personnel safety and internal structures are just some of the problems faced. To examine the internal surfaces a sensor suite must be deployed as an end effector on a robotic arm. The purpose of this report is to examine the potential failure modes of the tanks, rank the viability of various NDE technologies for internal surface evaluation, select a technology for initial EE implementation, and project future needs for NDE EE sensor suites.

  2. Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.; Hayashi, Kanetoshi

    1999-08-01

    A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

  3. Integrated heat exchanger design for a cryogenic storage tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Tomsik, T. M.; Bonner, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Conyers, H. J.; Johnson, W. L.; Notardonato, W. U.

    2014-01-01

    Field demonstrations of liquid hydrogen technology will be undertaken for the proliferation of advanced methods and applications in the use of cryofuels. Advancements in the use of cryofuels for transportation on Earth, from Earth, or in space are envisioned for automobiles, aircraft, rockets, and spacecraft. These advancements rely on practical ways of storage, transfer, and handling of liquid hydrogen. Focusing on storage, an integrated heat exchanger system has been designed for incorporation with an existing storage tank and a reverse Brayton cycle helium refrigerator of capacity 850 watts at 20 K. The storage tank is a 125,000-liter capacity horizontal cylindrical tank, with vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation, and a small 0.6-meter diameter manway opening. Addressed are the specific design challenges associated with the small opening, complete modularity, pressure systems re-certification for lower temperature and pressure service associated with hydrogen densification, and a large 8:1 length-to-diameter ratio for distribution of the cryogenic refrigeration. The approach, problem solving, and system design and analysis for integrated heat exchanger are detailed and discussed. Implications for future space launch facilities are also identified. The objective of the field demonstration will be to test various zero-loss and densified cryofuel handling concepts for future transportation applications.

  4. Integrated heat exchanger design for a cryogenic storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Fesmire, J. E.; Bonner, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Notardonato, W. U.; Tomsik, T. M.; Conyers, H. J.

    2014-01-29

    Field demonstrations of liquid hydrogen technology will be undertaken for the proliferation of advanced methods and applications in the use of cryofuels. Advancements in the use of cryofuels for transportation on Earth, from Earth, or in space are envisioned for automobiles, aircraft, rockets, and spacecraft. These advancements rely on practical ways of storage, transfer, and handling of liquid hydrogen. Focusing on storage, an integrated heat exchanger system has been designed for incorporation with an existing storage tank and a reverse Brayton cycle helium refrigerator of capacity 850 watts at 20 K. The storage tank is a 125,000-liter capacity horizontal cylindrical tank, with vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation, and a small 0.6-meter diameter manway opening. Addressed are the specific design challenges associated with the small opening, complete modularity, pressure systems re-certification for lower temperature and pressure service associated with hydrogen densification, and a large 8:1 length-to-diameter ratio for distribution of the cryogenic refrigeration. The approach, problem solving, and system design and analysis for integrated heat exchanger are detailed and discussed. Implications for future space launch facilities are also identified. The objective of the field demonstration will be to test various zero-loss and densified cryofuel handling concepts for future transportation applications.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Shock Interaction with Above-Ground Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    d. Pressure Contours on Several X-Y Planes; a) Z=0.5 m, 200 steps; b) Z=1.5 m, 200 steps ; c ) Z=1.5 m, 600 steps; d) Z=1.0 m, 800 steps...Contours on the Tank Surfaces: a) Tank, 300 Time Steps; b) Expanded View Between the Wheels, 300 Time Steps ; c ) Tank, 600 Time Steps; d) Tank, 800 Time...Several X-Y Planes: a) Z=0.5 m, 200 Steps; b) Z=1.5 m, 200 Steps ; c ) Z=1.5 m, 600 Steps; d) Z=1.0 m, 800 Steps. 76 a e C Figure 3-15e-g. Press ’ure

  6. Management of petroleum underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, L.M.; Mihalic, M.A.

    1991-09-01

    This report represents the timetables, responsible organizations, and methods required to comply with the newly promulgated Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-360 Underground Storage Tank (UST) Regulations which became effective December 29, 1990. This report only addresses UST systems that contain nonradioactive material. A total of 84 tanks at the Hanford Site are currently regulated under WAC 173-360. In addition, 32 regulated tanks have been removed as a result of the federally mandated program and the newly implemented state regulations. The majority of the USTs at the Hanford Site are operated by Westinghouse Hanford; however, one is operated by Kaiser Engineers Hanford (KEH) and one by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). 6 refs.

  7. Hazardous Materials: Upgrading of Underground Storage Tanks Can Be Improved to Avoid Costly Cleanups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-13

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that hundreds of thousands of underground storage tanks containing petroleum or hazardous...chemicals are leaking and pose a threat to public health and the environment. Most of DOD’s underground storage tanks are single-walled steel tanks that do...United States. They can also cause fires and explosions. Regulations require the following: (1) Ensure that new underground storage tanks have automatic

  8. Environmental Protection: Improved Inspections and Enforcement Would Ensure Safer Underground Storage Tanks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    Enforcement Would Ensure Safer Underground Storage Tanks Statement of John Stephenson, Director, Natural Resources and Environment GAO-01-176T Report...Inspections and Enforcement Would Ensure Safer Underground Storage Tanks Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number...resources they need to improve tank compliance and safety. Therefore, to better ensure that underground storage tanks meet federal requirements to prevent

  9. Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID). Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The DOE complex currently has 332 underground storage tanks (USTs) that have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production. Very little of the over 100 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste has been treated and disposed of in final form. Two waste storage tank design types are prevalent across the DOE complex: single-shell wall and double-shell wall designs. They are made of stainless steel, concrete, and concrete with carbon steel liners, and their capacities vary from 5000 gallons (19 m{sup 3}) to 10{sup 6} gallons (3785 m{sup 3}). The tanks have an overburden layer of soil ranging from a few feet to tens of feet. Responding to the need for remediation of tank waste, driven by Federal Facility Compliance Agreements (FFCAs) at all participating sites, the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Program was created by the US DOE Office of Technology Development in February 1991. Its mission is to focus the development, testing, and evaluation of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat to concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in USTs at DOE facilities. The ultimate goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to the public and the regulators. The UST-ID has focused on five DOE locations: the Hanford Site, which is the host site, in Richland, Washington; the Fernald Site in Fernald, Ohio; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site in Savannah River, South Carolina.

  10. Bus water storage tank as a reservoir of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Jurčev-Savičević, Anamarija; Bradarić, Nikola; Paić, Vlado Ozic; Mulić, Rosanda; Puntarić, Dinko; Miše, Kornelija

    2014-09-01

    Health concerns associated with Legionnaires' disease have been identified as an area of the increasing public and professional interest. Any natural water or man-made water systems worldwide might be reservoirs of Legionellae. We presented a sporadic, community-acquired case of Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionellapneumophila serogroup 1 in a bus driver who used water for hand and face washing from a bus water storage tank. The history of any other usual place of exposure to Legionellae was negative. The water from the tank was dirty, filled with sediment and leaves, at the temperature of 22 degrees C. The water was heavily contaminated with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolated from each sample with the concentration of 66,000, 16,000, 42,000, 56,000 and 34,000 CFU/L. The disinfection of the bus water storage tank was made using hyperclorination with 50 mg/L of free residual chlorine. The control sampling one week after the disinfection yielded negative results. So far, there are no recommendations on regular management or disinfection of water in bus storage tanks, but it seems to be reasonable to assume that passengers as well as bus drivers may be exposed to Legionella and therefore at risk of acquiring the infection. These recommendations should include regular empting, rinsing and filling the tank with fresh tap water, at least once a week. Finally, we have to be aware that Legionella bacteria are ubiquitous and any potential mode of producing contaminated aerosol should not be overlooked during an epidemiological field investigation and proposed appropriate measures.

  11. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Ffff of... - Emission Limits for Storage Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... your storage tanks: For each . . . For which . . . Then you must . . . 1. Group 1 storage tank a. The maximum true vapor pressure of total HAP at the storage temperature is ≥76.6 kilopascals i. Reduce total... true vapor pressure of total HAP at the storage temperature is <76.6 kilopascals i. Comply with...

  12. Testing cathodic protection systems on aboveground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Garrity, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    The evaluation of cathodic protection systems on aboveground storage tanks presents a unique challenge. Paramount with selection of system type is the method of verification that corrosion control has indeed been achieved. Past experience indicates that standard monitoring procedures intended to determine satisfaction of the industry recognized criteria may not be adequate in analyzing the degree of protection being afforded a storage tank resting on the ground. The standard method of determining the effectiveness of cathodic protection on any structure is the structure-to-electrolyte potential measurement. These measurements are performed utilizing a high impedance voltmeter and a stable, reproducible reference electrode contacting the electrolyte. The paper describes several case histories to illustrate methods.

  13. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

    2014-01-08

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The ability to

  14. Monitoring of Detection Probability in QNDE Devices for Storage Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michlin, Y. H.

    2005-04-01

    Tightness-testing devices for underground storage tanks have to be monitored for their probability of detection, and that of a false alarm, during exploitation. The monitoring methods used in Israel is presented, and data on the distributions of the leakage measurement results and of fuel temperatures — and on the rates of change of the latter in the course of the measurements, in terms of their effect on accuracy. Other factors are also discussed.

  15. Sequential Evaluation of QNDE Devices for Underground Storage Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michlin, Y. H.

    2003-03-01

    Data showing that QNDE devices for tightness testing of storage tanks require periodic precision checks under maximum reproduction of the field conditions. The measurement error was larger than the accuracy prescribed by standards, and much larger than that claimed by the manufacturer. In the paper, the algorithm based on the sequential approach for such tests, and the probability distributions of the number of measurements up to a positive/negative serviceability decision -are substantiated.

  16. Fluid manifold design for a solar energy storage tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.; Hewitt, H. C.; Griggs, E. I.

    1975-01-01

    A design technique for a fluid manifold for use in a solar energy storage tank is given. This analytical treatment generalizes the fluid equations pertinent to manifold design, giving manifold pressures, velocities, and orifice pressure differentials in terms of appropriate fluid and manifold geometry parameters. Experimental results used to corroborate analytical predictions are presented. These data indicate that variations in discharge coefficients due to variations in orifices can cause deviations between analytical predictions and actual performance values.

  17. The importance of compliance: Underground storage tanks (UST) requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    Upgrading of steel Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) to meet compliance with State and Federal Regulations (i.e., EPA 40 CFR Part 280) is required by December of 1998. Planning and implementation needs to be done early. Waiting until 1998 can be very costly and lead to multiple problems. Employing experienced, certified technical personnel to design, install and maintain UST upgrade systems is vitally important. Quality products and workmanship will achieve trouble-free compliance.

  18. Bioventing to treat fuel spills from underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Kampbell, D.H.; Wilson, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Bioventilation is a procedure to cleanse soil gas of volatile fuel hydrocarbons originating from storage tank leaks. The rate of vapor degradation is a controlling parameter in the design of a bioventing system. A laboratory microcosm procedure using sandy soil from an aviation gasoline spill site was used to measure relative kinetics of some fuel vapors. (Copyright (c) 1991 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.)

  19. Structural analysis of underground gunite storage tanks. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This report documents the structural analysis of the 50-ft diameter underground gunite storage tanks constructed in 1943 and located in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) South Tank Farm, known as Facility 3507 in the 3500-3999 area. The six gunite tanks (W-5 through W-10) are spaced in a 2 {times} 3 matrix at 60 ft on centers with 6 ft of soil cover. Each tank (Figures 1, 2, and 3) has an inside diameter of 50 ft, a 12-ft vertical sidewall having a thickness of 6 in. (there is an additional 1.5-in. inner liner for much of the height), and a spherical domed roof (nominal thickness is 10 in.) rising another 6 ft, 3 in. at the center of the tank. The thickness of both the sidewall and the domed roof increases to 30 in. near their juncture. The tank floor is nominally 3-in. thick, except at the juncture with the wall where the thickness increases to 9 in. The tanks are constructed of gunite (a mixture of Portland cement, sand, and water in the form of a mortar) sprayed from the nozzle of a cement gun against a form or a solid surface. The floor and the dome are reinforced with one layer of welded wire mesh and reinforcing rods placed in the radial direction. The sidewall is reinforced with three layers of welded wire mesh, vertical {1/2}-in. rods, and 21 horizontal rebar hoops (attached to the vertical rods) post-tensioned to 35,000 psi stress. The haunch at the sidewall/roof junction is reinforced with 17 horizontal rebar hoops post-tensioned with 35,000 to 40,000 psi stress. The yield strength of the post-tensioning steel rods is specified to be 60,000 psi, and all other steel is 40,000 psi steel. The specified 28-day design strength of the gunite is 5,000 psi.

  20. Above-ground Antineutrino Detection for Nuclear Reactor Monitoring

    DOE PAGES

    Sweany, Melinda; Brennan, James S.; Cabrera-Palmer, Belkis; ...

    2014-08-01

    Antineutrino monitoring of nuclear reactors has been demonstrated many times, however the technique has not as of yet been developed into a useful capability for treaty verification purposes. The most notable drawback is the current requirement that detectors be deployed underground, with at least several meters-water-equivalent of shielding from cosmic radiation. In addition, the deployment of liquid-based detector media presents a challenge in reactor facilities. We are currently developing a detector system that has the potential to operate above ground and circumvent deployment problems associated with a liquid detection media: the system is composed of segments of plastic scintillator surroundedmore » by 6LiF/ZnS:Ag. ZnS:Ag is a radio-luminescent phosphor used to detect the neutron capture products of lithium-6. Because of its long decay time compared to standard plastic scintillators, pulse-shape discrimination can be used to distinguish positron and neutron interactions resulting from the inverse beta decay (IBD) of antineutrinos within the detector volume, reducing both accidental and correlated backgrounds. Segmentation further reduces backgrounds by identifying the positron’s annihilation gammas, which are absent for most correlated and uncorrelated backgrounds. This work explores different configurations in order to maximize the size of the detector segments without reducing the intrinsic neutron detection efficiency. We believe this technology will ultimately be applicable to potential safeguards scenarios such as those recently described.« less

  1. Above-ground Antineutrino Detection for Nuclear Reactor Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Sweany, Melinda; Brennan, James S.; Cabrera-Palmer, Belkis; Kiff, Scott D.; Reyna, David; Throckmorton, Daniel J.

    2014-08-01

    Antineutrino monitoring of nuclear reactors has been demonstrated many times, however the technique has not as of yet been developed into a useful capability for treaty verification purposes. The most notable drawback is the current requirement that detectors be deployed underground, with at least several meters-water-equivalent of shielding from cosmic radiation. In addition, the deployment of liquid-based detector media presents a challenge in reactor facilities. We are currently developing a detector system that has the potential to operate above ground and circumvent deployment problems associated with a liquid detection media: the system is composed of segments of plastic scintillator surrounded by 6LiF/ZnS:Ag. ZnS:Ag is a radio-luminescent phosphor used to detect the neutron capture products of lithium-6. Because of its long decay time compared to standard plastic scintillators, pulse-shape discrimination can be used to distinguish positron and neutron interactions resulting from the inverse beta decay (IBD) of antineutrinos within the detector volume, reducing both accidental and correlated backgrounds. Segmentation further reduces backgrounds by identifying the positron’s annihilation gammas, which are absent for most correlated and uncorrelated backgrounds. This work explores different configurations in order to maximize the size of the detector segments without reducing the intrinsic neutron detection efficiency. We believe this technology will ultimately be applicable to potential safeguards scenarios such as those recently described.

  2. RP1 (KEROSENE) STORAGE TANKS ON HILLSIDE EAST OF TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RP1 (KEROSENE) STORAGE TANKS ON HILLSIDE EAST OF TEST STAND 1-B. THIS TANK FARM SERVES BOTH TEST STANDS 1-A AND 1-B - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Combined Fuel Storage Tank Farm, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. Development of simulated tank wastes for the US Department of Energy's Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, M.R.; Colton, N.G.; Jones, E.O.

    1992-08-01

    The purpose of the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (USTID) is to identify and evaluate technologies that may be used to characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of hazardous and radioactive wastes contained in tanks on US Department of Energy sites. Simulated wastes are an essential component of the evaluation process because they provide controlled samples for technology assessment, and minimize costs and risks involved when working with radioactive wastes. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed a recipe to simulate Hanford single-shell tank, (SST) waste. The recipe is derived from existing process recipes, and elemental concentrations are based on characterization data from 18 SSTs. In this procedure, salt cake and metal oxide/hydroxide sludge are prepared individually, and mixed together at varying ratios depending on the specific tank, waste to be simulated or the test being conducted. Elemental and physical properties of the stimulant are comparable with analyzed tank samples, and chemical speciation in the simulant is being improved as speciation data for actual wastes become available. The nonradioactive chemical waste simulant described here is useful for testing technologies on a small scale.

  4. [Study on the quantitative estimation method for VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks based on tanks 4.0.9d model].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wang, Min-Yan; Zhang, Jian; He, Wan-Qing; Nie, Lei; Shao, Xia

    2013-12-01

    VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks is one of the important emission sources in the petrochemical industry. In order to find out the VOCs emission amount of petrochemical storage tanks, Tanks 4.0.9d model is utilized to calculate the VOCs emission from different kinds of storage tanks. VOCs emissions from a horizontal tank, a vertical fixed roof tank, an internal floating roof tank and an external floating roof tank were calculated as an example. The consideration of the site meteorological information, the sealing information, the tank content information and unit conversion by using Tanks 4.0.9d model in China was also discussed. Tanks 4.0.9d model can be used to estimate VOCs emissions from petrochemical storage tanks in China as a simple and highly accurate method.

  5. Mechanistic modeling of destratification in cryogenic storage tanks using ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Jagannathan, T K; Mohanan, Srijith; Nagarajan, R

    2014-01-01

    Stratification is one of the main causes for vaporization of cryogens and increase of tank pressure during cryogenic storage. This leads subsequent problems such as cavitation in cryo-pumps, reduced length of storage time. Hence, it is vital to prevent stratification to improve the cost efficiency of storage systems. If stratified layers exist inside the tank, they have to be removed by suitable methods without venting the vapor. Sonication is one such method capable of keeping fluid layers mixed. In the present work, a mechanistic model for ultrasonic destratification is proposed and validated with destratification experiments done in water. Then, the same model is used to predict the destratification characteristics of cryogenic liquids such as liquid nitrogen (LN₂), liquid hydrogen (LH₂) and liquid ammonia (LNH₃). The destratification parameters are analysed for different frequencies of ultrasound and storage pressures by considering continuous and pulsed modes of ultrasonic operation. From the results, it is determined that use of high frequency ultrasound (low-power/continuous; high-power/pulsing) or low frequency ultrasound (continuous operation with moderate power) can both be effective in removing stratification.

  6. In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) Structures Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, T.; Mertz, G.E.; Flanders, H.E.; Estochen, E.G.; Baldwin, G.R.; Rieck, P.J.; Amin, J.A.

    1994-09-20

    This report summarized the results of structural evaluations conducted for the three high-level waste storage tanks, filtration building, and four above ground transfer lines associated with the ITP facility. The evaluations are performed to assure that demands resulting from normal operating and natural phenomena hazard loads do not exceed the structural capacities when evaluated to current criteria and the revised usage classifications.

  7. Underground storage tank (UST) monitoring systems for leak detection

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, A.D.

    1995-12-31

    Owners and operators of fuel underground storage tanks (USTs) have had to comply with federal regulations for leak detection since 1988. These regulations were based on data obtained from all areas of the country. Many of these tank systems were steel in corrosive environments. Corrosion was the predominant failure mode. Initially, the attention of UST operators, leak detection systems manufacturers and service providers focused exclusively on compliance. Systems were developed that were expensive and complex, causing many operators to delay compliance until the last possible moment. While most approved leak detection methods continue to perform only this compliance function, there is clearly one exception--automatic tank gauges (ATGs). ATGs have evolved from a single-function, compliance-only system into a multi-tasking, multi-functional management tool that goes far beyond regulatory compliance. The continuing advancement in technology of these multi-functional systems promises to bring cathodic protection, among other functions, under their umbrella in a fully-integrated regulatory compliance and tank management system. The hub of a total site-control system, that ultimately brings together all devices and daily business management functions, will be the on-site computer.

  8. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  9. Environmental Protection: Improved Inspections and Enforcement Would Ensure Safer Underground Storage Tanks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-08

    and Enforcement Would Ensure Safer Underground Storage Tanks Statement of John Stephenson, Director, Natural Resources and Environment GAO-02-712T...Inspections and Enforcement Would Ensure Safer Underground Storage Tanks Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number...02-712T Underground Storage Tanks Madam Chairwoman and Members of the Subcommittee: I am pleased to have this opportunity to come before you today to

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 134: Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-06-30

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 134 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as “Aboveground Storage Tanks” and consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 15, and 29 of the Nevada Test Site: · CAS 03-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank · CAS 03-01-04, Tank · CAS 15-01-05, Aboveground Storage Tank · CAS 29-01-01, Hydrocarbon Stain

  11. 41 CFR 102-80.40 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of underground storage tanks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... underground storage tanks, including heating oil and fuel oil tanks, in accordance with GSA, EPA, and... agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of underground storage tanks? 102-80.40 Section 102-80... Environmental Management Underground Storage Tanks § 102-80.40 What are Federal agencies'...

  12. 41 CFR 102-80.40 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of underground storage tanks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... underground storage tanks, including heating oil and fuel oil tanks, in accordance with GSA, EPA, and... agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of underground storage tanks? 102-80.40 Section 102-80... Environmental Management Underground Storage Tanks § 102-80.40 What are Federal agencies'...

  13. 41 CFR 102-80.40 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of underground storage tanks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... underground storage tanks, including heating oil and fuel oil tanks, in accordance with GSA, EPA, and... agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of underground storage tanks? 102-80.40 Section 102-80... Environmental Management Underground Storage Tanks § 102-80.40 What are Federal agencies'...

  14. Residual waste volume measurement for Hanford underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, E.J.

    1996-08-21

    The Acquire Commercial Technology for Retrieval program seeks commercial solutions to measure any waste residual (i.e., heel)left after waste retrieval operations of underground radioactive storage tanks. The technology identified should operate in a range of waste depth thickness of 0 - 6 inches. This report provides a description of the need, requirements, and constraints for the residual waste volume measurement system; describes a logical approach to measuring waste volume; provides a brief review and assessment of available technologies; and outlines a set of integrated tests that will evaluate the performance of candidate technologies.

  15. Corrosion fundamentals and corrosion effects on aboveground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, J.H. III

    1995-12-31

    Corrosion is an electrochemical process that involves ion migration and electron flow. The electrochemical process is explained and the four elements of the basic cell are described--anode, cathode, electrolyte and return circuit. The corrosion mechanisms affecting underground structures can be divided into two main categories--naturally occurring corrosion and stray current corrosion. Several examples of each are shown. These mechanisms of corrosion are applicable to aboveground storage tanks. Various types of exterior and interior corrosion of ASTs are explained in the light of electrochemical theory.

  16. 77 FR 8757 - Revising Underground Storage Tank Regulations-Revisions to Existing Requirements and New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ..., Hazardous materials, Petroleum, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Underground storage ] tanks, Water pollution control, Water supply. 40 CFR Part 281 Environmental protection, Administrative practice...

  17. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guangwen; Shen, Yu; Hao, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zongming; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications. PMID:26393596

  18. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guangwen; Shen, Yu; Hao, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zongming; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-09-18

    Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications.

  19. Using virtual objects to aid underground storage tank teleoperation

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.J.; Davies, B.

    1994-03-01

    In this paper we describe an algorithm by which obstructions and surface features in an underground storage tank can be modeled and used to generate virtual barrier function for a real-time telerobotic system, which provides an aid to the operator for both real-time obstacle avoidance and for surface tracking. The algorithm requires that the slave`s tool and every object in the waste storage tank be decomposed into convex polyhedral primitives, with the waste surface modeled by triangular prisms. Intrusion distance and extraction vectors are then derived at every time step by applying Gilbert`s polyhedra distance algorithm, which has been adapted for the task. This information is then used to determine the compression and location of nonlinear virtual spring-dampers whose total force is summed and applied to the manipulator/teleoperator system. Experimental results using a PUMA 560 and a simulated waste surface validate the approach, showing that it is possible to compute the algorithm and generate smooth, realistic pseudo forces for the teleoperator system using standard VME bus hardware.

  20. Two-tank working gas storage system for heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Hindes, Clyde J.

    1987-01-01

    A two-tank working gas supply and pump-down system is coupled to a hot gas engine, such as a Stirling engine. The system has a power control valve for admitting the working gas to the engine when increased power is needed, and for releasing the working gas from the engine when engine power is to be decreased. A compressor pumps the working gas that is released from the engine. Two storage vessels or tanks are provided, one for storing the working gas at a modest pressure (i.e., half maximum pressure), and another for storing the working gas at a higher pressure (i.e., about full engine pressure). Solenoid valves are associated with the gas line to each of the storage vessels, and are selectively actuated to couple the vessels one at a time to the compressor during pumpdown to fill the high-pressure vessel with working gas at high pressure and then to fill the low-pressure vessel with the gas at low pressure. When more power is needed, the solenoid valves first supply the low-pressure gas from the low-pressure vessel to the engine and then supply the high-pressure gas from the high-pressure vessel. The solenoid valves each act as a check-valve when unactuated, and as an open valve when actuated.

  1. 18 CFR 1304.405 - Fuel storage tanks and handling facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER... handling facilities are generally either underground (UST) or aboveground (AST) storage tank systems. An UST is any one or combination of tanks or tank systems defined in applicable Federal or...

  2. Polymeric hydrogen diffusion barrier, high-pressure storage tank so equipped, method of fabricating a storage tank and method of preventing hydrogen diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lessing, Paul A.

    2004-09-07

    An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.

  3. Polymeric hydrogen diffusion barrier, high-pressure storage tank so equipped, method of fabricating a storage tank and method of preventing hydrogen diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lessing, Paul A.

    2008-07-22

    An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.

  4. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits for Storage Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... devices (excluding a flare); or c. Reduce total organic HAP emissions from the storage tank by venting... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission Limits for Storage Tanks 2... Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. HHHHH, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63—Emission Limits for...

  5. 40 CFR 63.8010 - What requirements apply to my storage tanks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... performance test or design evaluation for a control device used to control emissions only from storage tanks... Table 2 to this subpart for control devices used to control emissions from storage tanks do not apply... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What requirements apply to my...

  6. Permanent Closure of MFC Biodiesel Underground Storage Tank 99ANL00013

    SciTech Connect

    Kerry L. Nisson

    2012-10-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the Materials and Fuels Complex biodiesel underground storage tank 99ANL00013 in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, “Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.”

  7. 27 CFR 24.228 - Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. 24.228 Section 24.228 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. Where it is desired to transfer spirits by pipeline...

  8. 27 CFR 24.228 - Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. 24.228 Section 24.228 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. Where it is desired to transfer spirits by pipeline...

  9. 27 CFR 24.228 - Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. 24.228 Section 24.228 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. Where it is desired to transfer spirits by pipeline...

  10. 27 CFR 24.228 - Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. 24.228 Section 24.228 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. Where it is desired to transfer spirits by pipeline...

  11. 27 CFR 24.228 - Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transfer of spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. 24.228 Section 24.228 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... spirits by pipeline to a spirits storage tank. Where it is desired to transfer spirits by pipeline...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 280 - Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form) I Appendix I to Part 280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Pt. 280, App. I Appendix I to Part 280—Notification...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 280 - Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form) I Appendix I to Part 280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Pt. 280, App. I Appendix I to Part 280—Notification...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 280 - Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form) I Appendix I to Part 280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Pt. 280, App. I Appendix I to Part 280—Notification...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 280 - Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification for Underground Storage Tanks (Form) I Appendix I to Part 280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Pt. 280, App. I Appendix I to Part 280—Notification...

  16. 76 FR 21299 - Oregon: Tentative Approval of State Underground Storage Tank Program: Public Hearing Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 281 Oregon: Tentative Approval of State Underground Storage Tank Program: Public... relating to the State of Oregon's application for final approval of its Underground Storage Tank...

  17. MIXING IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE TANKS: ITS EFFECT ON WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nearly all distribution systems in the US include storage tanks and reservoirs. They are the most visible components of a wate distribution system but are generally the least understood in terms of their impact on water quality. Long residence times in storage tanks can have nega...

  18. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

  19. Feasibility report on criticality issues associated with storage of K Basin sludge in tanks farms

    SciTech Connect

    Vail, T.S.

    1997-05-29

    This feasibility study provides the technical justification for conclusions about K Basin sludge storage options. The conclusions, solely based on criticality safety considerations, depend on the treatment of the sludge. The two primary conclusions are, (1) untreated sludge must be stored in a critically safe storage tank, and (2) treated sludge (dissolution, precipitation and added neutron absorbers) can be stored in a standard Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) or 241-AW-105 without future restrictions on tank operations from a criticality safety perspective.

  20. Cathodic protection of underground storage tanks using continuous polymeric cable anode systems

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, D.P.; Mussall, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated several compliance deadlines for owners of underground storage tanks. These regulations include installation of vapor recovery systems, inventory control systems, tank tightness testing, overfill and overspill protection, and installation of cathodic protection systems, et al. This paper will focus on the installation of cathodic protection systems, the installation of which the EPA has mandated be complete prior to the end of 1998 for underground storage tanks.

  1. Effect of entry of subcooled cryogen on thermal stratification in a cryogenic storage tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pao-lien

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict if subcooled cryogenic liquid entering the bottom of a storage tank will destroy the thermal stratification of the tank. After an extensive literature search, a formula for maximum critical Reynolds Number which used to predict the destratification of a cryogenic tank was found. Example of calculations and graphics to determine the mixing of fluid in the tank were presented.

  2. Large DHW solar systems with distributed storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Prapas, D.E.; Veliannis, I.; Evangelopoulos, A.; Sotiropoulos, B.A.

    1995-12-31

    The thermal behaviour of a central DHW solar system, the design of which is based on a new Central Collection-Separate Storing (CCSS) approach, has been investigated theoretically. The common practice for large DHW solar systems, of employing a central storage and delivery facility, has been shown in the past to exhibit a rather poor performance and considerable heat losses. This is due to the extensive lengths of pipework required for both the transfer of solar energy and the delivery of hot water. The CCSS solar system presented can overcome the above problems by employing separate storage tanks for each family, thus being best suited for multistory buildings. The simulation analysis has revealed a number of interesting features for the system performance: (i) the collected energy is distributed to all users in a fair manner, irrespective of their distance from the collector field and the daily hot water consumption profiles; (ii) an energy saving behaviour is most likely to evolve by most users, since the auxiliary energy consumptions are charged individually (unlike in large DHW solar systems with central water storage and delivery); and (iii) high values of solar fractions, comparable with those attained by thermosiphon systems, have been derived. 14 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF THE APPLICABILITY OF CHEMICAL OXIDATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CONTAMINANTS AT LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK (LUST) SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The total number of confirmed releases from underground storage tanks is increasing rapidly. In addition, the treatment of contaminants in soil and groundwater at leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites presents complex technical challenges. Most of the remedial technologie...

  4. Passive vapor monitoring of underground storage tanks for leak detection.

    PubMed

    Weber, D; Schwille, F

    1991-02-01

    Passive vapor monitoring of underground storage tanks (USTs) containing volatile hydrocarbons at locations external to the tank (an external system) is touted as a fast and effective method of leak detection. However, major gaps remain in our knowledge of the physical processes that relate a measured vapor concentration to the leak rate, thus making network design according to a quantitative design criterion nearly impossible, and differentiation between surface spills and a leaking UST requires certain levels of sophistication in the leak detection system and in the analysis that are not usually available. Heavier-than-air vapors from the constituents of stored hydrocarbons could result in a density-driven convective propagation component that complicates the design of leak detection systems, and finally, detection times are highly sensitive to concentration detection threshold levels set by the system. The use of inadequate systems and analyses can lead to either wasted efforts or excessive subsurface contamination. This paper discusses the physical processes involved, explores the above aspects of external passive vapor leak detection design, and suggests some alternatives as they pertain to gasoline service stations.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Gas Leaking Diffusion from Storage Tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongjun; Jing, Jiaqiang

    Over 80 percents of storage tank accidents are caused by gas leaking. Since traditional empirical calculation has great errors, present work aims to study the gas leaking diffusion under different wind conditions by numerical simulation method based on computational fluid dynamics theory. Then gas concentration distribution was obtained to determine the scope of the security zone. The results showed that gas diffused freely along the axis of leaking point without wind, giving rise to large range of hazardous area. However, wind plays the role of migrating and diluting the leaking gas. The larger is the wind speed, the smaller is the damage and the bigger is the security zone. Calculation method and results can provide some reference to establish and implement rescue program for accidents.

  6. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum liquid capacity for an impoundment serving a single tank; (b) 100 percent of all tanks or 110 percent of the largest tank's maximum liquid capacity, whichever is greater, for the impoundment serving more than...

  7. Light duty utility remote manipulator for underground storage tank inspection and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, P.W.; Carteret, B.

    1995-12-31

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) is a remote manipulator system which is being designed and fabricated to perform surveillance and characterization activities in support of the remediation of underground storage tanks at the Hanford site as well as other DOE sites. The LDUA is a mechanical manipulator which utilizes an advanced control system to safely and reliably deploy a series of sensors to characterize underground storage tanks. The electrical components of the in tank system are radiation hardened and the mechanical components are designed to operate in the corrosive environment which exists in the tanks. The use of this system will allow the US Department of Energy to sample and characterize the waste material in the tanks prior to the initiation of waste retrieval operations. In addition to its use for inspecting and characterizing underground storage tanks, the system has the potential to be used in other environments where accessibility is limited and where high radiation levels exist.

  8. Numerical simulation of sloshing in rectangular storage tank using coupled FEM-BEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghi, Hassan; Ketabdari, Mohammad Javad

    2012-12-01

    Sloshing of liquid can increase the dynamic pressure on the storage sidewalls and bottom in tanker ships and LNG careers. Different geometric shapes were suggested for storage tank to minimize the sloshing pressure on tank perimeter. In this research, a numerical code was developed to model liquid sloshing in a rectangular partially filled tank. Assuming the fluid to be inviscid, Laplace equation and nonlinear free surface boundary conditions are solved using coupled FEM-BEM. The code performance for sloshing modeling is validated against available data. To minimize the sloshing pressure on tank perimeter, rectangular tanks with specific volumes and different aspect ratios were investigated and the best aspect ratios were suggested. The results showed that the rectangular tank with suggested aspect ratios, not only has a maximum surrounded tank volume to the constant available volume, but also reduces the sloshing pressure efficiently.

  9. Polymers for subterranean containment barriers for underground storage tanks (USTs). Letter report on FY 1992 activities

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser, J.H.; Colombo, P.; Clinton, J.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) set up the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration Program (USTID) to demonstrate technologies for the retrieval and treatment of tank waste, and closure of underground storage tanks (USTs). There are more than 250 underground storage tanks throughout the DOE complex. These tanks contain a wide variety of wastes including high level, low level, transuranic, mixed and hazardous wastes. Many of the tanks have performed beyond the designed lifetime resulting in leakage and contamination of the local geologic media and groundwater. To mitigate this problem it has been proposed that an interim subterranean containment barrier be placed around the tanks. This would minimize or prevent future contamination of soil and groundwater in the event that further tank leakages occur before or during remediation. Use of interim subterranean barriers can also provide sufficient time to evaluate and select appropriate remediation alternatives. The DOE Hanford site was chosen as the demonstration site for containment barrier technologies. A panel of experts for the USTID was convened in February, 1992, to identify technologies for placement of subterranean barriers. The selection was based on the ability of candidate grouts to withstand high radiation doses, high temperatures and aggressive tank waste leachates. The group identified and ranked nine grouting technologies that have potential to place vertical barriers and five for horizontal barriers around the tank. The panel also endorsed placement technologies that require minimal excavation of soil surrounding the tanks.

  10. Condensation in the annulus of a double-walled cryogenic storage tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarakad, R. R.; Durr, C. A.; Crawford, D. B.

    Mechanisms of condensation in the annular space of a double-walled cryogenic storage tank, some situations that can lead to such condensation, criteria for condensation, and methods to prevent condensation are discussed. The discussion emphasizes LNG tanks, but the results can be extended to LPG and NGL tanks. Factors that tend to reduce the rate of condensation or eliminate it include inflow of vapor into the annulus, warming of the tank contents, and decrease in tank pressure. Methods of preventing condensation include continuous purge in LNG tanks and control of the dew point temperature via controlling the vapor composition or by changing pressure in the tank. Condensation in a stratified tank is separately discussed.

  11. Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This document represents the Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank (UST) 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Tank 2310-U was a 200-gal gasoline UST which serviced the emergency generator at the Repeater Station. The tank was situated in a shallow tank bay adjacent to the Repeater Station along the crest of Pine Ridge. The tank failed a tightness test in October 1989 and was removed in November 1989. The purpose of this report is to document completion of soil corrective action, present supporting analytical data, and request closure for this site.

  12. Particle behaviour consideration to maximize the settling capacity of rainwater storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Han, M Y; Mun, J S

    2007-01-01

    Design of a rainwater storage tank is mostly based on the mass balance of rainwater with respect to the tank, considering aspects such as rainfall runoff, water usage and overflow. So far, however, little information is available on the quality aspects of the stored rainwater, such as the behavior of particles, the effect of retention time of the water in the tank and possible influences of system configuration on water quality in the storage tank. In this study, we showed that the performance of rainwater storage tanks could be maximized by recognizing the importance of water quality improvement by sedimentation and the importance of the system configuration within the tank, as well as the efficient collection of runoff. The efficiency of removal of the particles was increased by there being a considerable distance between the inlet and the outlet in the rainwater storage tank. Furthermore, it is recommended that the effective water depth in a rainwater tank be designed to be more than 3 m and that the rainwater be drawn from as close to the water surface as possible by using a floating suction device. An operation method that increases the retention time by stopping rainwater supply when the turbidity of rainwater runoff is high will ensure low turbidity in the rainwater collected from the tank.

  13. Environmental Assessment: Construct Fuel Bowser Storage Area Install Underground Storage Tank, Security Fencing, Lighting Construct Bowser Open Storage Pavement at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    Air Force Base has pro- posed the construction of an underground fuel-water recovery storage tank with SeGU- D We rity fencing and light- Is, Sec...your ad. Second or Third year Plumbing Apprentice. We are looking for a second or. third year plumbing apprentice to join our work force. Need...storage tank with secu- rity fencing and light- Ing and a paved open storage area for fuel bowsers on Grand Forks AFB. 2 - RESERVED We Fest lawn

  14. Technical Assessment of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Thanh; Ahluwalia, Rajesh; Peng, J. -K; Kromer, Matt; Lasher, Stephen; McKenney, Kurtis; Law, Karen; Sinha, Jayanti

    2010-09-01

    This technical report describes DOE's assessment of the performance and cost of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications. The on-board performance (by Argonne National Lab) and high-volume manufacturing cost (by TIAX LLC) were estimated for compressed hydrogen storage tanks. The results were compared to DOE's 2010, 2015, and ultimate full fleet hydrogen storage targets. The Well-to-Tank (WTT) efficiency as well as the off-board performance and cost of delivering compressed hydrogen were also documented in the report.

  15. A STUDY OF CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    BOOMER, K.D.

    2007-08-21

    The Hanford reservation Tank Farms in Washington State has 177 underground storage tanks that contain approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war plutonium production. These tanks will continue to store waste until it is treated and disposed. These nuclear wastes were converted to highly alkaline pH wastes to protect the carbon steel storage tanks from corrosion. However, the carbon steel is still susceptible to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The waste chemistry varies from tank to tank, and contains various combinations of hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, chloride, carbonate, aluminate and other species. The effect of each of these species and any synergistic effects on localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel have been investigated with electrochemical polarization, slow strain rate, and crack growth rate testing. The effect of solution chemistry, pH, temperature and applied potential are all considered and their role in the corrosion behavior will be discussed.

  16. 30 CFR 77.807-1 - High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-1 High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground. High-voltage powerlines located above driveways, haulageways, and railroad...

  17. 30 CFR 77.807-1 - High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-1 High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground. High-voltage powerlines located above driveways, haulageways, and railroad...

  18. 30 CFR 77.807-1 - High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-1 High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground. High-voltage powerlines located above driveways, haulageways, and railroad...

  19. 30 CFR 77.807-1 - High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-1 High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground. High-voltage powerlines located above driveways, haulageways, and railroad...

  20. SORPTION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND NEPTUNIUM ONTO SOLIDS PRESENT IN HIGH CAUSTIC NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L; Bill Wilmarth, B; David Hobbs, D

    2008-05-30

    Solids such as granular activated carbon, hematite and sodium phosphates, if present as sludge components in nuclear waste storage tanks, have been found to be capable of precipitating/sorbing actinides like plutonium, neptunium and uranium from nuclear waste storage tank supernatant liqueur. Thus, the potential may exists for the accumulation of fissile materials in such nuclear waste storage tanks during lengthy nuclear waste storage and processing. To evaluate the nuclear criticality safety in a typical nuclear waste storage tank, a study was initiated to measure the affinity of granular activated carbon, hematite and anhydrous sodium phosphate to sorb plutonium, neptunium and uranium from alkaline salt solutions. Tests with simulated and actual nuclear waste solutions established the affinity of the solids for plutonium, neptunium and uranium upon contact of the solutions with each of the solids. The removal of plutonium and neptunium from the synthetic salt solution by nuclear waste storage tank solids may be due largely to the presence of the granular activated carbon and transition metal oxides in these storage tank solids or sludge. Granular activated carbon and hematite also showed measurable affinity for both plutonium and neptunium. Sodium phosphate, used here as a reference sorbent for uranium, as expected, exhibited high affinity for uranium and neptunium, but did not show any measurable affinity for plutonium.

  1. A storage gas tank is moved to a pallet in the O&C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Workers in the Operations and Checkout Building stand by while one of four gas tanks is moved toward the Spacelab Logistics Double Pallet. Part of the STS-104 payload, the storage tanks two gaseous oxygen and two gaseous nitrogen -- comprise the high pressure gas assembly that will be attached to the Joint Airlock Module during two spacewalks. The tanks will support future spacewalk operations from the Station and augment the Service Module gas resupply system.

  2. A storage gas tank is moved to a pallet in the O&C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- An overhead crane in the Operations and Checkout Building lowers one of four gas tanks onto the Spacelab Logistics Double Pallet while workers help guide it. Part of the STS-104 payload, the storage tanks two gaseous oxygen and two gaseous nitrogen -- comprise the high pressure gas assembly that will be attached to the Joint Airlock Module during two spacewalks. The tanks will support future spacewalk operations from the Station and augment the Service Module gas resupply system.

  3. A storage gas tank is moved to a pallet in the O&C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- In the Operations and Checkout Building, workers check out the placement of one of four gas tanks on the Spacelab Logistics Double Pallet. Part of the STS- 104 payload, the storage tanks two gaseous oxygen and two gaseous nitrogen -- comprise the high pressure gas assembly that will be attached to the Joint Airlock Module during two spacewalks. The tanks will support future spacewalk operations from the Station and augment the Service Module gas resupply system.

  4. Seismic Fragility Analysis of a Degraded Condensate Storage Tank

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Choun, Y-S.; Kim, M.K.; Choi, I-K.

    2011-05-16

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Brookhaven National Laboratory are conducting a collaborative research project to develop seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components in nuclear power plants (NPPs). One of the goals of this collaboration endeavor is to develop seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of structures, systems, and components (SSCs). The essential part of this collaboration is aimed at achieving a better understanding of the effects of aging on the performance of SSCs and ultimately on the safety of NPPs. A recent search of the degradation occurrences of structures and passive components (SPCs) showed that the rate of aging related degradation in NPPs was not significantly large but increasing, as the plants get older. The slow but increasing rate of degradation of SPCs can potentially affect the safety of the older plants and become an important factor in decision making in the current trend of extending the operating license period of the plants (e.g., in the U.S. from 40 years to 60 years, and even potentially to 80 years). The condition and performance of major aged NPP structures such as the containment contributes to the life span of a plant. A frequent misconception of such low degradation rate of SPCs is that such degradation may not pose significant risk to plant safety. However, under low probability high consequence initiating events, such as large earthquakes, SPCs that have slowly degraded over many years could potentially affect plant safety and these effects need to be better understood. As part of the KAERI-BNL collaboration, a condensate storage tank (CST) was analyzed to estimate its seismic fragility capacities under various postulated degradation scenarios. CSTs were shown to have a significant impact on the seismic core damage frequency of a nuclear power plant. The seismic fragility capacity of the CST was developed

  5. Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dieckmann, John T.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Teagan, W. Peter; Zogg, Robert

    1999-09-07

    A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

  6. Cryogenic storage tank with a retrofitted in-tank cryogenic pump

    SciTech Connect

    Zwick, E.B.; Brigham, W.D.

    1989-08-29

    This patent describes a low boiloff submersible pump assembly for use in a conventional cryogenic tank having an open access port. It comprises: a pump; a removable pump mounting tube extending through the access port of the cryogenic tank. The pump mounting tube having an inner surface thermally insulated from an outer surface of the tube and thermally insulated from the access port of the cryogenic tank. The tube having an open lower end, the upper end of the tube including means adapted to make a gas-tight seal with the pump mounted thereto. The tube extending through the tank and into the cryogen stored in the tank; and block means for thermally insulating the removable pump mounting tube from the cryogenic tank at the access port of the cryogenic tank. The mounting tube connecting the tank only at the access port through the block means.

  7. 125. ARAI Contaminated waste storage tank (ARA729). Shows location of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. ARA-I Contaminated waste storage tank (ARA-729). Shows location of tank on the ARA-I site, section views, connecting pipeline, and other details. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/SF-301-3. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0301-00-613-102711. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Some improvements in design of atmospheric ammonia storage tanks of the double integrity type

    SciTech Connect

    Herbertsson, G. )

    1992-04-01

    This paper describes a new atmospheric ammonia storage tank in Iceland. Some modifications have been made to the former common open cup design of double integrity tanks. Another modification is described, dry air is bled under the cladding of the sidewall insulation to protect the insulation from moisture penetration under the vapor barrier which results in frost damages.

  9. Technical Guide for Addressing Petroleum Vapor Intrusion at Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Review technical information for personnel EPA and implementing agencies for investigating and assessing petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) at sites where petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) have been released from underground storage tanks (USTs).

  10. Technical Guide For Addressing Petroleum Vapor Intrusion At Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is intended for use at any site subject to petroleum contamination from underground storage tanks where vapor intrusion may be of potential concern. It is applicable to both residential and non-residential settings.

  11. 76 FR 46798 - Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: This document contains...

  12. 6. 5TH FLOOR, VIEW NORTH OF KETTLE SOAP STORAGE TANKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. 5TH FLOOR, VIEW NORTH OF KETTLE SOAP STORAGE TANKS (RIGHT) AND WEIGH HOPPERS OVER SITES OF REMOVED AMALGAMATORS (LEFT) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  13. Federal Facilities Reports About Underground Storage Tank Compliance - 2005 Energy Policy Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find links to reports from 24 federal agencies regarding the compliance status of underground storage tanks owned or operated by the federal agencies or located on land managed by the federal agencies.

  14. EPA Strengthens Underground Storage Tank Requirements to Improve Prevention and Detection of Leaks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection (EPA) is strengthening the federal underground storage tank (UST) requirements to improve prevention and detection of petroleum releases from USTs which are one of the leading sources of groundwater con

  15. Secondary Containment for Underground Storage Tank Systems - 2005 Energy Policy Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These grant guidelines implement the secondary containment provision in Section 9003(i)(1) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, enacted by the Underground Storage Tank Compliance Act, part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  16. Small-Scale Metal Tanks for High Pressure Storage of Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, Adam (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Small scale metal tanks for high-pressure storage of fluids having tank factors of more than 5000 meters and volumes of ten cubic inches or less featuring arrays of interconnected internal chambers having at least inner walls thinner than gage limitations allow. The chambers may be arranged as multiple internal independent vessels. Walls of chambers that are also portions of external tank walls may be arcuate on the internal and/or external surfaces, including domed. The tanks may be shaped adaptively and/or conformally to an application, including, for example, having one or more flat outer walls and/or having an annular shape. The tanks may have dual-purpose inlet/outlet conduits of may have separate inlet and outlet conduits. The tanks are made by fusion bonding etched metal foil layers patterned from slices of a CAD model of the tank. The fusion bonded foil stack may be further machined.

  17. Stratification calculations in a heated cryogenic oxygen storage tank at zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuttles, J. T.; Smith, G. L.

    1971-01-01

    A cylindrical one-dimensional model of the Apollo cyrogenic oxygen storage tank has been developed to study the effect of stratification in the tank. Zero gravity was assumed, and only the thermally induced motions were considered. The governing equations were derived from conservation laws and solved on a digital computer. Realistic thermodynamic and transport properties were used. Calculations were made for a wide range of conditions. The results show the fluid behavior to be dependent on the quantity in the tank or equivalently the bulk fluid temperature. For high quantities (low temperatures) the tank pressure rose rapidly with heat addition, the heater temperature remained low, and significant pressure drop potentials accrued. For low quantities the tank pressure rose more slowly with heat addition and the heater temperature became high. A high degree of stratification resulted for all conditions; however, the stratified region extended appreciably into the tank only for the lowest tank quantity.

  18. Numerical and experimental studies of liquid storage tank thermal stratification for a solar energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S T; Han, S M

    1980-11-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental studies of thermal stratification in liquid energy storage tanks for the performance of solar energy systems are presented. The investigation was divided into three areas: (1) Justification of the Importance of Thermal Stratification Inside the Energy Storage Tanks, (II) Development of a Simple Mathematical Model which is Compatible with Existing Solar Energy System Simulation Code, and (III) Validation of Mathematical Models by Experimental Data Obtained from Realistic Solar Energy System Operations.

  19. 40 CFR Table 21 to Subpart G of... - Average Storage Temperature (Ts) as a Function of Tank Paint Color

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Average Storage Temperature (Ts) as a Function of Tank Paint Color 21 Table 21 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (Ts) as a Function of Tank Paint Color Tank Color Average Storage Temperature (Ts) White TA a =...

  20. 40 CFR Table 21 to Subpart G of... - Average Storage Temperature (Ts) as a Function of Tank Paint Color

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Average Storage Temperature (Ts) as a Function of Tank Paint Color 21 Table 21 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (Ts) as a Function of Tank Paint Color Tank Color Average Storage Temperature (Ts) White TA a =...

  1. 40 CFR Table 21 to Subpart G of... - Average Storage Temperature (Ts) as a Function of Tank Paint Color

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Average Storage Temperature (Ts) as a Function of Tank Paint Color 21 Table 21 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (Ts) as a Function of Tank Paint Color Tank Color Average Storage Temperature (Ts) White TA a =...

  2. 40 CFR Table 21 to Subpart G of... - Average Storage Temperature (Ts) as a Function of Tank Paint Color

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Average Storage Temperature (Ts) as a Function of Tank Paint Color 21 Table 21 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (Ts) as a Function of Tank Paint Color Tank Color Average Storage Temperature (Ts) White TA a =...

  3. 40 CFR Table 21 to Subpart G of... - Average Storage Temperature (Ts) as a Function of Tank Paint Color

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Average Storage Temperature (Ts) as a Function of Tank Paint Color 21 Table 21 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (Ts) as a Function of Tank Paint Color Tank Color Average Storage Temperature (Ts) White TA a =...

  4. Opportunistic pathogens relative to physicochemical factors in water storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Al-Bahry, S N; Elshafie, A E; Victor, R; Mahmoud, I Y; Al-Hinai, J A

    2011-06-01

    Household water in Oman, as well as in other countries in the region, is stored in tanks placed on house roofs that can be subjected to physicochemical factors which can promote microbial growth, including pathogens and opportunistic pathogens which pose health risks. Water samples were collected from 30 houses in a heavily populated suburb of Muscat. The tanks used were either glass reinforced plastic (GRP), polyethylene or galvanised iron (GI). Heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms, faecal coliforms and iron sulphur bacteria varied significantly in the three tanks. Yeast and mould count showed significant variations. Isolation of Aeromonas spp., fluorogenic and pathogenic Pseudomonas, Pasteurella, Salmonella, Serratia and Tatumella, and Yersinia and Legionella in biofilms varied in the three tanks. The fungi isolates in the three tanks were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Aspergillus. Nephelometric turbidity unit, threshold odour number and free chlorine varied significantly in the three tanks. True colour unit values did not show a significant difference; however, GRP tanks had algae, autotrophic and pigmented microorganisms. In addition, GI tanks had sediments and corrosion. The results of this investigation are important to evaluate the status of the present household water tanks in countries with high annual temperatures, which may affect public health.

  5. Soil analysis and underground storage tank assessment (evaluation of soil contamination)

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchen, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper gives the theoretical foundation, applicable background information, and practical guidance to the detection of exterior and interior corrosion of underground steel fuel storage tanks. The corrosion of underground fuel tanks is affected by many variables such as: conductivity, chemical compositions, compaction and pH of the soil; yearly precipitation; deterioration of the coating by physical, lightning, and biological activity; stray currents; galvanic coupling with other buried metallic structures. Corrosion may lead to leakage of the fluids contained in the underground fuel storage tank and/or its associated piping.

  6. Modelling and Experimental Verification of Pressure Wave Following Gaseous Helium Storage Tank Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowski, M.; Grabowski, M.; Jędrusyna, A.; Wach, J.

    Helium inventory in high energy accelerators, tokamaks and free electron lasers may exceed tens of tons. The gaseous helium is stored in steel tanks under a pressure of about 20 bar and at environment temperature. Accidental rupture of any of the tanks filled with the gaseous helium will create a rapid energy release in form of physical blast. An estimation of pressure wave distribution following the tank rupture and potential consequences to the adjacent research infrastructure and buildings is a very important task, critical in the safety aspect of the whole cryogenic system. According to the present regulations the TNT equivalent approach is to be applied to evaluate the pressure wave following a potential gas storage tank rupture. A special test stand was designed and built in order to verify experimentally the blast effects in controlled conditions. In order to obtain such a shock wave a pressurized plastic tank was used. The tank was ruptured and the resulting pressure wave was recorded using a spatially-distributed array of pressure sensors connected to a high-speed data acquisition device. The results of the experiments and the comparison with theoretical values obtained from thermodynamic model of the blast are presented. A good agreement between the simulated and measured data was obtained. Recommendations regarding the applicability of thermodynamic model of physical blast versus TNT approach, to estimate consequences of gas storage tank rupture are formulated. The laboratory scale experimental results have been scaled to ITER pressurized helium storage tanks.

  7. The electrostatic properties of Fiber-Reinforced-Plastics double wall underground storage gasoline tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yipeng; Liu, Quanzhen; Meng, He; Sun, Lifu; Zhang, Yunpeng

    2013-03-01

    At present Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) double wall underground storage gasoline tanks are wildly used. An FRP product with a resistance of more than 1011 Ω is a static non-conductor, so it is difficult for the static electricity in the FRP product to decay into the earth. In this paper an experimental system was built to simulate an automobile gasoline filling station. Some electrostatic parameters of the gasoline, including volume charge density, were tested when gasoline was unloaded into a FRP double wall underground storage tank. Measurements were taken to make sure the volume charge density in the oil-outlet was similar to the volume charge density in the tank. In most cases the volume charge density of the gasoline was more than 22.7 μC m-3, which is likely to cause electrostatic discharge in FRP double wall underground storage gasoline tanks. On the other hand, it would be hard to ignite the vapor by electrostatic discharge since the vapor pressure in the tanks is over the explosion limit. But when the tank is repaired or re-used, the operators must pay attention to the static electricity and some measurements should be taken to avoid electrostatic accident. Besides the relaxation time of charge in the FRP double wall gasoline storage tanks should be longer.

  8. South Tank Farm underground storage tank inspection using the topographical mapping system for radiological and hazardous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Hoesen, S.D. van

    1997-07-01

    During the winter of 1997 the Topographical Mapping System (TMS) for hazardous and radiological environments and the Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote-Viewing System (ICERVS) were used to perform wall inspections on underground storage tanks (USTs) W5 and W6 of the South Tank Farm (STF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The TMS was designed for deployment in the USTs at the Hanford Site. Because of its modular design, the TMS was also deployable in the USTs at ORNL. The USTs at ORNL were built in the 1940s and have been used to store radioactive waste during the past 50 years. The tanks are constructed with an inner layer of Gunite{trademark} that has been spalling, leaving sections of the inner wall exposed. Attempts to quantify the depths of the spalling with video inspection have proven unsuccessful. The TMS surface-mapping campaign in the STF was initiated to determine the depths of cracks, crevices, and/or holes in the tank walls and to identify possible structural instabilities in the tanks. The development of the TMS and the ICERVS was initiated by DOE for the purpose of characterization and remediation of USTs at DOE sites across the country. DOE required a three-dimensional, topographical mapping system suitable for use in hazardous and radiological environments. The intended application is mapping the interiors of USTs as part of DOE`s waste characterization and remediation efforts, to obtain both baseline data on the content of the storage tank interiors and changes in the tank contents and levels brought about by waste remediation steps. Initially targeted for deployment at the Hanford Site, the TMS has been designed to be a self-contained, compact, and reconfigurable system that is capable of providing rapid variable-resolution mapping information in poorly characterized workspaces with a minimum of operator intervention.

  9. Regional scale analysis for the design of storage tanks for domestic rainwater harvesting systems.

    PubMed

    Campisano, A; Modica, C

    2012-01-01

    A regional scale analysis for the design of storage tanks for domestic rain water harvesting systems is presented. The analysis is based on the daily water balance simulation of the storage tank by the yield-after-spillage algorithm as tank release rule. Water balances are applied to 17 rainfall gauging stations in Sicily (Italy). Compared with literature existing methods, a novel dimensionless parameter is proposed to better describe the intra-annual character of the rainfall patterns. As a result, easy-to-use regional regressive models to evaluate the water saving performance and the overflow discharges from the tank are provided along with a stepwise procedure for practical application. The regional models demonstrate good fits between model predictions and simulated values of both water savings and overflows from the tank.

  10. Closure of underground storage tanks at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site - looking beyond the obvious

    SciTech Connect

    Madel, R.E.; Gappa, R.M.; Anderson, M.A.; Warbington, C.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RIFETS) is in the process of replacing and closing 22 Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) currently in use for fuel storage. The tank closures are in response to Federal and State Regulations requiring tank upgrades or replacement by December 22, 1998 to meet new requirements for leak detection and spill prevention. This paper presents the basis for determining the most cost effective program for closing the USTs. Presented herein is general information relevant to closure alternatives as well as evaluation criteria that can be used to assess the various alternatives. A decision tree for choosing among tank closure alternatives using the evaluation criteria is then discussed. Finally, a summary of the results of the decision process for each of the 22 tank sites is presented. The closure alternatives, the evaluation criteria, and the decision trees are non-site specific which enables the decision process that is presented in this paper to be used at other similar sites.

  11. Decontamination Study for Mixed Waste Storage Tanks RCRA Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Leaphart, D.M.; Reed, S.R.; Rankin, W.N.

    1995-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) plans to close six underground tanks storing mixed waste under RCRA regulations. In support of this closure effort, a study was performed to determine the optimal method of decontaminating these tanks to meet the closure requirements. Items consaidered in the evaluation of the decontamination methods included effectiveness, compatibility with existing waste residues, possible cleaning solution disposal methods, and cost.

  12. Tools for Inspecting and Sampling Waste in Underground Radioactive Storage Tanks with Small Access Riser Openings

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, T.A.

    1998-12-17

    Underground storage tanks with 2 inches to 3 inches diameter access ports at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site have been used to store radioactive solvents and sludge. In order to close these tanks, the contents of the tanks need to first be quantified in terms of volume and chemical and radioactive characteristics. To provide information on the volume of waste contained within the tanks, a small remote inspection system was needed. This inspection system was designed to provide lighting and provide pan and tilt capabilities in an inexpensive package with zoom abilities and color video. This system also needed to be utilized inside of a plastic tent built over the access port to contain any contamination exiting from the port. This system had to be build to travel into the small port opening, through the riser pipe, into the tank evacuated space, and out of the riser pipe and access port with no possibility of being caught and blocking the access riser. Long thin plates were found in many access riser pipes that blocked the inspection system from penetrating into the tank interiors. Retrieval tools to clear the plates from the tanks using developed sampling devices while providing safe containment for the samples. This paper will discuss the inspection systems, tools for clearing access pipes, and solvent sampling tools developed to evaluate the tank contents of the underground solvent storage tanks.

  13. Double-walled cryogenic storage tanks - effect of perlite/fiberglass insulation on dynamic loads in case of inner tank failure

    SciTech Connect

    Adorjan, A.S.; Crawford, D.B.; Handman, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    In double-wall LNG storage tanks, the dynamic load on the wall of the outer tank upon sudden failure of the inner tank can be considerably higher than hydrostatic pressure. However, a simplified analytical model has shown that insulation and gas containment in the annular space between the two tanks will dampen this load. Factors influencing this dampening effect are the dimensions of the insulation space, perlite stiffness, and fiberglass elasticity.

  14. STATE-OF-THE-ART PROCEDURES AND EQUIPMENT FOR INTERNAL INSPECTION AND UPGRADING OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report supplements the previous State-of-the-Art Procedures and Equipment for Internal Inspection of Underground Storage Tanks published in 1991 by the EPA. The present report updates and provides descriptions of additional tank inspection technologies, specifically, noninva...

  15. Final Harvest of Above-Ground Biomass and Allometric Analysis of the Aspen FACE Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mark E. Kubiske

    2013-04-15

    The Aspen FACE experiment, located at the US Forest Service Harshaw Research Facility in Oneida County, Wisconsin, exposes the intact canopies of model trembling aspen forests to increased concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O3. The first full year of treatments was 1998 and final year of elevated CO2 and O3 treatments is scheduled for 2009. This proposal is to conduct an intensive, analytical harvest of the above-ground parts of 24 trees from each of the 12, 30 m diameter treatment plots (total of 288 trees) during June, July & August 2009. This above-ground harvest will be carefully coordinated with the below-ground harvest proposed by D.F. Karnosky et al. (2008 proposal to DOE). We propose to dissect harvested trees according to annual height growth increment and organ (main stem, branch orders, and leaves) for calculation of above-ground biomass production and allometric comparisons among aspen clones, species, and treatments. Additionally, we will collect fine root samples for DNA fingerprinting to quantify biomass production of individual aspen clones. This work will produce a thorough characterization of above-ground tree and stand growth and allocation above ground, and, in conjunction with the below ground harvest, total tree and stand biomass production, allocation, and allometry.

  16. Status report for inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks at Hanford Site 200 Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.B.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this status report is to summarize updated data and information from the FY 1994 strategy plan that is associated with inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUSTs). Assumptions and processes to assess potential risks and operational concerns are documented in this report. Safety issue priorities are ranked based on a number of considerations. Sixty-three IMUSTs have been Identified and placed on the official IMUST list. All the tanks are associated with past Hanford Site operations. Of the 63 tanks., 19 are catch tanks, 20 are vault tanks, 3 are neutralization tanks, 8 are settling tanks, 2 are solvent makeup tanks used to store hexone, 2 are flush tanks, 3 are decontamination tanks, 1 is a diverter station, 1 is a receiver tank, 1 is an experimental tank, and 3 are waste handling tanks. It is important to proactively deal with the risks Imposed by these 63 tanks, and at the same time not jeopardize the existing commitments and schedules for mitigating and resolving identified safety issues related to the 177 SSTs and DSTS. Access controls and signs have been placed on all but the three official IMUSTs added most recently. An accelerated effort to identify authorization documents and perform unreviewed safety question (USQ) screening has been completed. According to a set of criteria consistent with the safety screening data quality objective (DQO) process, 6 IMUSTs are ranked high related to the hydrogen generation potential safety Issue, 1 is ranked high related to the ferrocyanide potential safety issue, 6 are ranked high related to the flammability potential safety issue, and 25 are ranked high related to the vapor emissions potential safety issue.

  17. Experimental Investigation of Jet-Induced Mixing of a Large Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. S.; Hasan, M. M.; Vandresar, N. T.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of fluid mixing on the depressurization of a large liquid hydrogen storage tank. The test tank is approximately ellipsoidal, having a volume of 4.89 m(exp 3) and an average wall heat flux of 4.2 W/m(exp 2) due to external heat input. A mixer unit was installed near the bottom of the tank to generate an upward directed axial jet flow normal to the liquid-vapor interface. Mixing tests were initiated after achieving thermally stratified conditions in the tank either by the introduction of hydrogen gas into the tank or by self-pressurization due to ambient heat leak through the tank wall. The subcooled liquid jet directed towards the liquid-vapor interface by the mixer induced vapor condensation and caused a reduction in tank pressure. Tests were conducted at two jet submergence depths for jet Reynolds numbers from 80,000 to 495,000 and Richardson numbers from 0.014 to 0.52. Results show that the rate of tank pressure change is controlled by the competing effects of subcooled jet flow and the free convection boundary layer flow due to external tank wall heating. It is shown that existing correlations for mixing time and vapor condensation rate based on small scale tanks may not be applicable to large scale liquid hydrogen systems.

  18. Studies of a thermal energy storage tank with ice on spiral tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, S.; Miura, N.

    1998-07-01

    The demand for electric power in Japan becomes highest around 15:00 p.m. in a hot day in summer. The peak demand increases every years. One of the effective methods to depress the increase of the peak demand is to use electric power at night to make ice, which is used in the daytime in the next day for air conditioning. Introduction of ice storage systems in buildings is being promoted for effective use of power plants. In this study, a small sized ice storage tank which contained a heat exchanger made of 19 spiral tubes and 230 L of water in the inside was made. It was intended that more than one storage tanks arranged in parallel could be used in a heat storage system depending on the necessary capacity of the storage system. Then, the performance of the storage unit in charging and discharging processes were studied experimentally to know whether this type of storage unit could be adapted effectively in actual systems. In order to be able to predict the performance of a storage system with storage tanks together with a refrigerator, it is necessary to be able to predict the performance of a storage unit in the charging process for various conditions. In this paper, an analysis was also made on the performance of a storage tank in discharging processes. The height and the inside and the outside diameters of the storage tank, which was transparent cylinder made from polyvinyl chloride were 1200 mm, 564 mm and 580 mm respectively. The end of 19 spiral tubes made of copper was connected to the upper and lower headers. The inside and the outside diameters and the extended length of the spiral tube were 9.52 mm, 10.52 mm and 3.71 m respectively. As the results, the temperature of the extracted water from the tank was between 2--4 C until close to the end of the discharging process. Cooling power of 9 kW was obtained for about 2 hours when the temperature and the flow rate of the water which returned to the tank were 11 C and 6 /min respectively. The temperature at the

  19. [Fractal relationship between above ground biomass and plant length or sheath height of Carex lasiocarpa population].

    PubMed

    He, Chiquan; Zhao, Kuiyi

    2003-04-01

    By using the principles and methods of fractal geometry theory, the relationship between above ground biomass and plant length or sheath height of Carex lasiocarpa population was studied. The results showed that there was a good static fractal relationship between them, and the resulted fractal dimension was an efficient description of the accumulation of above ground biomass in each organ. The dynamic fractal relationship showed that during the whole growing season, the increase of above ground biomass had a self-similarity, being a fractal growth process, and the pattern of its increase was the fractal dimension D. Based on these results, a fractal growth model of Carex lasiocarpa population was established, which regarded the bigger grass as the result of the amplification of seedling growth.

  20. Underground storage tank 253-D1U1 Closure Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mancieri, S.; Giuntoli, N.

    1993-09-01

    This report is a closure plan for a diesel fuel tank at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Included are maps of the site, work plans, and personnel information regarding training and qualification.

  1. Modeling and analysis of ORNL horizontal storage tank mobilization and mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, L.A.; Terrones, G.; Eyler, L.L.

    1994-06-01

    The retrieval and treatment of radioactive sludges that are stored in tanks constitute a prevalent problem at several US Department of Energy sites. The tanks typically contain a settled sludge layer with non-Newtonian rheological characteristics covered by a layer of supernatant. The first step in retrieval is the mobilization and mixing of the supernatant and sludge in the storage tanks. Submerged jets have been proposed to achieve sludge mobilization in tanks, including the 189 m{sup 3} (50,000 gallon) Melton Valley Storage tanks (MVST) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the planned 378 m{sup 3} (100,000 gallon) tanks being designed as part of the MVST Capacity Increase Project (MVST-CIP). This report focuses on the modeling of mixing and mobilization in horizontal cylindrical tanks like those of the MVST design using submerged, recirculating liquid jets. The computer modeling of the mobilization and mixing processes uses the TEMPEST computational fluid dynamics program (Trend and Eyler 1992). The goals of the simulations are to determine under what conditions sludge mobilization using submerged liquid jets is feasible in tanks of this configuration, and to estimate mixing times required to approach homogeneity of the contents.

  2. Safe interim storage of Hanford tank wastes, draft environmental impact statement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This Draft EIS is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA). DOE and Ecology have identified the need to resolve near-term tank safety issues associated with Watchlist tanks as identified pursuant to Public Law (P.L.) 101-510, Section 3137, ``Safety Measures for Waste Tanks at Hanford Nuclear Reservation,`` of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991, while continuing to provide safe storage for other Hanford wastes. This would be an interim action pending other actions that could be taken to convert waste to a more stable form based on decisions resulting from the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) EIS. The purpose for this action is to resolve safety issues concerning the generation of unacceptable levels of hydrogen in two Watchlist tanks, 101-SY and 103-SY. Retrieving waste in dilute form from Tanks 101-SY and 103-SY, hydrogen-generating Watchlist double shell tanks (DSTs) in the 200 West Area, and storage in new tanks is the preferred alternative for resolution of the hydrogen safety issues.

  3. Rainwater Harvesting in South India: Understanding Water Storage and Release Dynamics at Tank and Catchment Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, N. B.; Van Meter, K. J.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Steiff, M.

    2015-12-01

    Rainwater harvesting, the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional rainwater harvesting systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. With elevated declines in groundwater resources, there is increased effort at the state and national levels to revive older systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient water-provisioning systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these rainwater harvesting "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water level variations to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration, and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28.2 km2. Our results indicate a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflow events (as opposed to outflow) increasing down the cascade of tanks. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with catchment-scale runoff:rainfall ratios decreasing from 0.29 without tanks to 0.04 - 0.09 with tanks. Recharge:rainfall ratios increase in the presence of tanks, from ~0.17 in catchments without tanks to ~ 0.26 in catchments with tanks. Finally, our results demonstrate how more efficient management of sluice outflows can lead to the tanks meeting a higher fraction of crop water requirements.

  4. Development of simulated tank wastes for the US Department of Energy`s Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, M.R.; Colton, N.G.; Jones, E.O.

    1992-08-01

    The purpose of the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (USTID) is to identify and evaluate technologies that may be used to characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of hazardous and radioactive wastes contained in tanks on US Department of Energy sites. Simulated wastes are an essential component of the evaluation process because they provide controlled samples for technology assessment, and minimize costs and risks involved when working with radioactive wastes. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed a recipe to simulate Hanford single-shell tank, (SST) waste. The recipe is derived from existing process recipes, and elemental concentrations are based on characterization data from 18 SSTs. In this procedure, salt cake and metal oxide/hydroxide sludge are prepared individually, and mixed together at varying ratios depending on the specific tank, waste to be simulated or the test being conducted. Elemental and physical properties of the stimulant are comparable with analyzed tank samples, and chemical speciation in the simulant is being improved as speciation data for actual wastes become available. The nonradioactive chemical waste simulant described here is useful for testing technologies on a small scale.

  5. Polymer/Silicate Nanocomposites Used to Manufacture Gas Storage Tanks With Reduced Permeability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Sandi G.; Johnston, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been considerable research in the area of polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites. This research has shown that the dispersion of small amounts of an organically modified layered silicate improves the polymer strength, modulus, thermal stability, and barrier properties. There have been several reports on the dispersion of layered silicates in an epoxy matrix. Potential enhancements to the barrier properties of epoxy/silicate nanocomposites make this material attractive for low permeability tankage. Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) have several advantages for cryogenic storage tanks. They are lightweight, strong, and stiff; therefore, a smaller fraction of a vehicle's potential payload capacity is used for propellant storage. Unfortunately, the resins typically used to make PMC tanks have higher gas permeability than metals. This can lead to hydrogen loss through the body of the tank instead of just at welds and fittings. One approach to eliminate this problem is to build composite tanks with thin metal liners. However, although these tanks provide good permeability performance, they suffer from a substantial mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion, which can lead to failure of the bond between the liner and the body of the tank. Both problems could be addressed with polymersilicate nanocomposites, which exhibit reduced hydrogen permeability, making them potential candidates for linerless PMC tanks. Through collaboration with Northrop Grumman and Michigan State University, nanocomposite test tanks were manufactured for the NASA Glenn Research Center, and the helium permeability was measured. An organically modified silicate was prepared at Michigan State University and dispersed in an epoxy matrix (EPON 826/JeffamineD230). The epoxy/silicate nanocomposites contained either 0 or 5 wt% of the organically modified silicate. The tanks were made by filament winding carbon fibers with the nanocomposite resin. Helium permeability

  6. Case study to remove radioactive hazardous sludge from long horizontal storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Hylton, T.D.; Youngblood, E.L.; Cummins, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    The removal of radioactive hazardous sludge from waste tanks is a significant problem at several US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The use of submerged jets produced by mixing pumps lowered into the supernatant/sludge interface to produce a homogeneous slurry is being studied at several DOE facilities. The homogeneous slurry can be pumped from the tanks to a treatment facility or alternative storage location. Most of the previous and current studies with this method are for flat-bottom tanks with vertical walls. Because of the difference in geometry, the results of these studies are not directly applicable to long horizontal tanks such as those used at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Mobilization and mixing studies were conducted with a surrogate sludge (e.g., kaolin clay) using submerged jets in two sizes of horizontal tanks. The nominal capacities of these tanks were 0.87 m{sup 3} (230 gal) and 95 m{sup 3} (25,000 gal). Mobilization efficiencies and mixing times were determined for single and bidirectional jets in both tanks with the discharge nozzles positioned at two locations in the tanks. Approximately 80% of the surrogate sludge was mobilized in the 95-m{sup 3} tank using a fixed bidirectional jet (inside diameter = 0.035 m) and a jet velocity of 6.4 m/s (21 ft/s).

  7. 30 CFR 77.807-1 - High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage powerlines; clearances above... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-1 High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground. High-voltage powerlines located above driveways, haulageways, and railroad...

  8. Characteristics of train noise in above-ground and underground stations with side and island platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimokura, Ryota; Soeta, Yoshiharu

    2011-04-01

    Railway stations can be principally classified by their locations, i.e., above-ground or underground stations, and by their platform styles, i.e., side or island platforms. However, the effect of the architectural elements on the train noise in stations is not well understood. The aim of the present study is to determine the different acoustical characteristics of the train noise for each station style. The train noise was evaluated by (1) the A-weighted equivalent continuous sound pressure level ( LAeq), (2) the amplitude of the maximum peak of the interaural cross-correlation function (IACC), (3) the delay time ( τ1) and amplitude ( ϕ1) of the first maximum peak of the autocorrelation function. The IACC, τ1 and ϕ1 are related to the subjective diffuseness, pitch and pitch strength, respectively. Regarding the locations, the LAeq in the underground stations was 6.4 dB higher than that in the above-ground stations, and the pitch in the underground stations was higher and stronger. Regarding the platform styles, the LAeq on the side platforms was 3.3 dB higher than on the island platforms of the above-ground stations. For the underground stations, the LAeq on the island platforms was 3.3 dB higher than that on the side platforms when a train entered the station. The IACC on the island platforms of the above-ground stations was higher than that in the other stations.

  9. Comparison of buried soil sensors, surface chambers and above ground measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) flux is an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Accurate measurements of soil CO2 flux aids determinations of carbon budgets. In this study, we investigated soil CO2 fluxes with time and depth and above ground CO2 fluxes in a bare field. CO2 concentrations w...

  10. Decision and systems analysis for underground storage tank waste retrieval systems and tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect

    Bitz, D.A.; Berry, D.L.; Jardine, L.J.

    1994-03-01

    Hanford`s underground tanks (USTs) pose one of the most challenging hazardous and radioactive waste problems for the Department of Energy (DOE). Numerous schemes have been proposed for removing the waste from the USTs, but the technology options for doing this are largely unproven. To help assess the options, an Independent Review Group (IRG) was established to conduct a broad review of retrieval systems and the tank waste remediation system. The IRG consisted of the authors of this report.

  11. 124. ARAI Reservoir (ARA727), later named water storage tank. Shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. ARA-I Reservoir (ARA-727), later named water storage tank. Shows plan of 100,000-gallon tank, elevation, image of "danger radiation hazard" sign, and other details. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/SF-727-S-1. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0727-60-613-102779. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Pressure Build-Up in LNG and LH2 Vehicular Cryogenic Storage Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, J. A.; Rowe, A. M.; Barclay, M. A.

    2004-06-01

    The use of LNG and LH2 as fuels in heavy duty vehicles is increasing steadily because cryogenic liquids provides superior volumetric and gravimetric energy densities compared to other means of on-board storage. Although several sizes and types of tanks exist, a typical vehicular storage tank has a volume of ˜400 liters (˜100 gallons). The pressure in the ullage space of a tank freshly filled is usually ˜0.25 MPa but may vary during use from ˜0.25 MPa (˜20 psig) to ˜0.92 MPa (˜120 psig). Cryogenic vehicular tanks are typically dual-walled, stainless steel vessels with vacuum and superinsulation isolation between the inner and outer vessel walls. The heat leaks into such tanks are measured as a percentage boil-off per day. For a storage tank of vehicular size range, the boil-off may be ˜ 1 % day, depending upon the cryogen and the quality of the tank. The corresponding heat leak into the cryogenic liquid vaporizes a certain amount of liquid that in turn increases the pressure in the tank which in turn significantly influences the properties of the cryogens. We have used a novel approach to calculate the increase in pressure of LNG and LH2 in a closed cryogenic vessel with a fixed heat leak as a function of time using real equations of state for the properties of the cryogens. The method and results for the time it takes for a freshly filled tank to increase in pressure from the filling pressure of ˜0.25 MPa to a venting pressure of ˜1.73 MPa are presented.

  13. Thermal Performance Comparison of Glass Microsphere and Perlite Insulation Systems for Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sass, J. P.; Fesmire, J. E.; Nagy, Z. F.; Sojourner, S. J.; Morris, D. L.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2008-03-01

    A technology demonstration test project was conducted by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to provide comparative thermal performance data for glass microspheres, referred to as bubbles, and perlite insulation for liquid hydrogen tank applications. Two identical 1/15th scale versions of the 3,200,000 liter spherical liquid hydrogen tanks at Launch Complex 39 at KSC were custom designed and built to serve as test articles for this test project. Evaporative (boil-off) calorimeter test protocols, including liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen, were established to provide tank test conditions characteristic of the large storage tanks that support the Space Shuttle launch operations. This paper provides comparative thermal performance test results for bubbles and perlite for a wide range of conditions. Thermal performance as a function of cryogenic commodity (nitrogen and hydrogen), vacuum pressure, insulation fill level, tank liquid level, and thermal cycles will be presented.

  14. Review of sensors for the in situ chemical characterization of the Hanford underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, K.R.; Mayes, E.L.

    1994-07-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the Technical Task Plan (TTP) SF-2112-03 subtask 2, is responsible for the conceptual design of a Raman probe for inclusion in the in-tank cone penetrometer. As part of this task, LLNL is assigned the further responsibility of generating a report describing a review of sensor technologies other than Raman that can be incorporated in the in-tank cone penetrometer for the chemical analysis of the tank environment. These sensors would complement the capabilities of the Raman probe, and would give information on gaseous, liquid, and solid state species that are insensitive to Raman interrogation. This work is part of a joint effort involving several DOE laboratories for the design and development of in-tank cone penetrometer deployable systems for direct UST waste characterization at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID).

  15. Volumetric leak detection in large underground storage tanks. Volume 2. Appendices a through e

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.W.; Wise, R.F.; Maresca, J.W.

    1991-08-01

    The program of experiments conducted at Griffiss Air Force Base was devised to expand the understanding of large underground storage tank behavior as it impacts the performance of volumetric leak detection testing. The report addresses three important questions about testing the larger underground storage tanks for leaks. First, can the EPA regulatory standards be met when volumetric methods are used to test tanks up to 190,000 L (50,000 gal) in capacity. Second, what is the precision required of the temperature and level sensors and what is the minimum duration of the data collection period in order for a volumetric system to accurately test larger tanks, particularly those that are partially filled. Third, what are the important features of a volumetric system that meets or exceeds the regulatory performance standards. The document presents the results of experiments conducted on 190,000-L (50,000-gal) underground storage tanks (USTs) to determine how to test large tanks for leaks with volumetric leak detection systems. The work reported in the document has applications to the UST release detection technical standards in CFR 280 Subpart D.

  16. Demonstration of fluidic pulse jet mixing for a horizontal waste storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, T.E.; Taylor, S.A.; Moore, J.W.; Stellern, J.L.; Billingsley, K.M.

    1998-01-01

    A fluidic pulse jet mixing system, designed and fabricated by AEA Technology of the United Kingdom, was successfully demonstrated for mobilization and retrieval of remote handled transuranic (RH-TRU) sludge from a 50,000-gal horizontal waste storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The pulse jet system, consisting of seven modular equipment skids, was installed and commissioned in about 7 weeks and operated remotely for 52 days to remove about 88% of the sludge in the tank. The system used specially designed fluidic jet pumps and pulse vessels, along with existing submerged nozzles for mixing the settled sludges with existing supernate in the tank. The operation also used existing piping and progressive cavity pumps for retrieval and transfer of the mixture. A total of 64,000 gal of liquid was required to transfer 6300 gal of sludge to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) designated for consolidation of all ORNL RH-TRU sludges. Of the liquid used for the retrieval, 88% was existing or recycled tank supernate and only 7770 gal of additional process water was added to the system. Minimizing the addition of process water is extremely important at ORNL, where tank system storage capacity is limited. A simple manual sluicer was used periodically to wash down and aid the removal of localized sludge heels.

  17. The past and future of cathodic protection for underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, J.A. )

    1994-05-01

    Corrosion protection for underground storage tanks (USTs) has become a vital national consideration since the establishment of new US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules. Compliance with these rules is required by the end of 1998. Approximately 700,000 buried steel tanks in the United States are likely candidates for cathodic protection (CP) to meet regulatory compliance. This review of CP and other corrosion control measures used on USTs will help tank owners and corrosion control professionals make plans to meet the EPA deadline before the last-minute rush begins.

  18. Insulating LNG (liquified natural gas) storage tank containment dikes with a lightweight polymer concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.J.

    1987-08-01

    The natural gas industry has always been concerned ith accidental spills of liquified natural gas (LNG) from storage tanks into surrounding containment dikes. The LNG that is leaked to the dike area boils off and the vapors mix with the atmosphere forming a hazardous explsoive mixture within the dike walls. These hazardous mixtures can travel long distances into industrial or residential areas surroungind LNG storage facilities. Studies by the natural gas industry indicate that the hazards associated with accidental spills of LNG from storage tanks can be makedly reduced by insulating the diked areas surrounding these tanks. In this manner, the heat transfer from the dike surface to the LNG is reduced. The insulating composite is used to construct a thermal barrier between the walls and floor of the dike an the spilled LNG. The thermal conductivity, porosity, and compression strength of a concrete, polymer composite insulating material is discussed. 6 refs., 8 figs., 5 tbs.

  19. Cadmium uptake in above-ground parts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiwang; Pang, Yan; Ji, Puhui; Gao, Pengcheng; Nguyen, Thanh Hung; Tong, Yan'an

    2016-03-01

    Because of its high Cd uptake and translocation, lettuce is often used in Cd contamination studies. However, there is a lack of information on Cd accumulation in the above-ground parts of lettuce during the entire growing season. In this study, a field experiment was carried out in a Cd-contaminated area. Above-ground lettuce parts were sampled, and the Cd content was measured using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that the Cd concentration in the above-ground parts of lettuce increased from 2.70 to 3.62mgkg(-1) during the seedling stage, but decreased from 3.62 to 2.40mgkg(-1) during organogenesis and from 2.40 to 1.64mgkg(-1) during bolting. The mean Cd concentration during the seedling stage was significantly higher than that during organogenesis (a=0.05) and bolting (a=0.01). The Cd accumulation in the above-ground parts of an individual lettuce plant could be described by a sigmoidal curve. Cadmium uptake during organogenesis was highest (80% of the total), whereas that during bolting was only 4.34%. This research further reveals that for Rome lettuce: (1) the highest Cd content of above-ground parts occurred at the end of the seedling phase; (2) the best harvest time with respect to Cd phytoaccumulation is at the end of the organogenesis stage; and (3) the organogenesis stage is the most suitable time to enhance phytoaccumulation efficiency by adjusting the root:shoot ratio.

  20. Closure report for underground storage tank 141-R3U1 and its associated underground piping

    SciTech Connect

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-03-01

    Underground storage tank UST 141-R3U1 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. This tank system consisted of a concrete tank, lined with polyvinyl chloride, and approximately 100 feet of PVC underground piping. UST 141-R3U1 had a capacity of 450 gallons. The underground piping connected three floor drains and one sink inside Building 141 to UST 141-R3U1. The wastewater collected in UST 141-R3U1 contained organic solvents, metals, and inorganic acids. On November 30, 1987, the 141-R3U1 tank system failed a precision tank test. The 141-R3U1 tank system was subsequently emptied and removed from service pending further precision tests to determine the location of the leak within the tank system. A precision tank test on February 5, 1988, was performed to confirm the November 30, 1987 test. Four additional precision tests were performed on this tank system between February 25, 1988, and March 6, 1988. The leak was located where the inlet piping from Building 141 penetrates the concrete side of UST 141-R3U1. The volume of wastewater that entered the backfill and soil around and/or beneath UST 141-R3U1 is unknown. On December 13, 1989, the LLNL Environmental Restoration Division submitted a plan to close UST 141-R3U1 and its associated piping to the Alameda County Department of Environmental Health. UST 141-R3U1 was closed as an UST, and shall be used instead as additional secondary containment for two aboveground storage tanks.

  1. The Development of NDE Techniques for Large Cryogenic Storage Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stan; Parker, Don

    2008-01-01

    Objectives of this project are: (1) Develop and demonstrate NDE techniques to evaluate the condition of large cryogenic Dewars (typically 50,000 to 900,000 gaL). (2) These tanks are used across NASA for launch pads, engine test stands, cryogenic wind tunnels and other facilities: they represent a major investment. (3) Issues addressed: (1) Insulation integrity of existing Dewars (powdered insulation under vacuum or sometimes ambient pressure (LO2), (2) Post fabrication insulation verification without full chill-down to avoid thermal cycling the tank (fatigue limitation of piping and compaction of Perlite).

  2. Emission characteristics of VOCs from three fixed-roof p-xylene liquid storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chungsying; Huang, Hsiaoyun; Chang, Shenteng; Hsu, Shihchieh

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluates emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) caused by standing loss (L S) and working loss (L W) of three vertical fixed-roof p-xylene (p-X) liquid tanks during 1-year storage and filling operation. The annual net throughput of the tanks reached 70,446 t, resulting in 9,425 kg of p-X vapor emission including 5,046 kg of L S (53.54 %) and 4,379 kg of L W (46.46 %). The estimated L W of AP-42 displayed better agreement with the measured values of a VOC detector than the estimated L S of AP-42. The L S was best correlated with the liquid height of the tanks, while the L W was best correlated with the net throughput of the tanks. As a result, decreasing vapor space volume of the tanks and avoiding high net throughput of the tanks in a high ambient temperature period were considered as effective means to lessen VOC emission from the fixed-roof organic liquid storage tank.

  3. Reconstructing Above Ground Forest Biomass Increment and Uncertainty Using Tree-ring Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, A.; Paciorek, C. J.; Moore, D. J.; Pedersen, N.; Barker Plotkin, A.; Hessl, A. E.; Dye, A.; Bishop, D. A.; Alexander, M. R.; McLachlan, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    In a changing terrestrial climate, it is becoming increasingly important to be able to quantify Earth systems cycles, including thecarbon cycle. Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide continue toincrease as a result of anthropogenic activity, but less is understood about how forest systems will affect the carbon cycle. In practice, it is difficult to measure carbon flux in a forest system. Flux towers, satellite and remote sensing methods, and dynamic vegetation models have been used to quantify current and future forest net primary productivity. Tree rings provide us with information about forest carbon storage in the past, and have been used to reconstruct above ground biomass increment (aBI). However, uncertainty from measurement error, assumptions about tree architecture including circular stems and diameter-volume relationships, and the fading record - the challenge of quantifying the growth of previously live trees - are often not accounted for. As a first step towards reconstructing aBI and its uncertainty, we develop a tree ring sampling protocol and a Bayesian hierarchical model toestimate aBI while accounting for measurement and architecture uncertainty. Tree-ring and repeated census plot data have been collected from several sites using a protocol that allows us toquantify growth dependence across trees in a local area. We also use multiple cores per tree to investigate the number of cores needed to reduce uncertainty from the assumption of stem circularity. For short-time-scale reconstructions, we avoid the fading record issue by coring dead trees and co-locating tree-ring data with censuses, thus avoiding having to make assumptions about stand density andmortality. We also statistically investigate the importance of including census data and of coring dead trees to quantify how uncertainty and bias are affected as we go back further in time. Preliminary results show that the model is able to estimate yearly variation in aBI well for many decades

  4. Development of A 5,000 BBL, Rubberized Fabric Fuel Storage Tank, Collapsible,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    Rubbers ablate at very high heating rates which will protect the cloth for short periods of exposure at large heating rates so the tanks should have...AD-SlOG 005 GOOYEAR AEROSPACE CORP AKRON ON ENGINEERED FABRICS DIV F/S 13/4 DEVELOPMENT OF A 5,000 BOL. RUBBERIZED FABRIC FUEL STORAGE TAN- ETC(Ul...mEEmmhEEmhmhmhE OReport Number v L 4!! FINAL REPORT DEVELOPMENT OF A 5000 BBL RUBBERIZED FABRIC FUEL STORAGE TANK,COLLAPSIBLE I Ronald L Sosnowski

  5. Optimization of armored spherical tanks for storage on the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.; Knight, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    A redundancy strategy for reducing micrometeroid armoring mass is investigated, with application to cryogenic reactant storage for a regenerative fuel cell (RFC) on the lunar surface. In that micrometeoroid environment, the cryogenic fuel must be protected from loss due to tank puncture. The tankage must have a sufficiently high probability of survival over the length of the mission so that the probability of system failure due to tank puncture is low compared to the other mission risk factors. Assuming that a single meteoroid penetration can cause a storage tank to lose its contents, two means are available to raise the probability of surviving micrometeoroid attack to the desired level. One can armor the tanks to a thickness sufficient to reduce probability of penetration of any tank to the desired level or add extra capacity in the form of spare tanks that results in survival of a given number out of the ensemble at the desired level. A combination of these strategies (armoring and redundancy) is investigated. The objective is to find the optimum combination which yields the lowest shielding mass per cubic meter of surviving fuel out of the original ensemble. The investigation found that, for the volumes of fuel associated with multikilowatt class cryo storage RFC's, and the armoring methodology and meteoroid models used, storage should be fragmented into small individual tanks. Larger installations (more fuel) pay less of a shielding penalty than small installations. For the same survival probability over the same time period, larger volumes will require less armoring mass per unit volume protected.

  6. Upgrading a 1950s tank farm to meet the environmental standards of the 1990S

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, C.F.; Peterson, S.W.

    1995-12-31

    The Texaco Inc. Research and Development (Texaco) facility in Beacon, New York includes an above ground storage tank (AST) farm, known as Tank Farm No. 1, which consists of eighteen tanks with capacities ranging from 10,000 to 21,000 gallons. A second tank farm, at the Texaco, Beacon facility, designated as the Boiler House Tank Farm, includes three additional tanks with capacities from 10,000 to 44,900 gallons. The Tank Farm No. 1 AST systems are all vertical, carbon steel tanks which were initially installed in several phases in the 1950s. The Boiler House Tank Farm ASTs are also vertical, carbon steel tanks, including one riveted construction tank that was installed in 1931. Each of the Texaco ASTs are used to store a variety of petroleum products, including diesel fuel, stoddard solvent, used oil, and various grades of gasoline and gasoline components. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) has established regulations for petroleum bulk storage in 6 NYCRR Parts 612 through 614. These regulations include requirements for monitoring and inspecting AST systems, including a rigorous ``out of service`` inspection, to be completed at least once every ten years. Although several revisions had been completed at Tank Farm No. 1 in recent years, including installation of a reinforced concrete secondary containment dike system and new above ground piping, the tank shells and most appurtenances (e.g. water drawoff valves), were unmodified since they were initially installed. On this basis, Texaco decided to upgrade the AST systems in conjunction with the NYSDEC ten-year inspections, by installing reinforced fiberglass liners in the tank floors, and by removing and/or replacing tank appurtenances to meet current industry standards and fire code requirements. This paper presents a summary of the program implemented to upgrade the Texaco, Beacon tank farm AST systems.

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Bbbbbb... - Applicability Criteria, Emission Limits, and Management Practices for Storage Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .../vacuum vent with a positive cracking pressure of no less than 0.50 inches of water. Maintain all openings... Limits, and Management Practices for Storage Tanks 1 Table 1 to Subpart BBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of... Criteria, Emission Limits, and Management Practices for Storage Tanks If you own or operate . . . Then...

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Bbbbbb... - Applicability Criteria, Emission Limits, and Management Practices for Storage Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .../vacuum vent with a positive cracking pressure of no less than 0.50 inches of water. Maintain all openings... Limits, and Management Practices for Storage Tanks 1 Table 1 to Subpart BBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of... Criteria, Emission Limits, and Management Practices for Storage Tanks If you own or operate . . . Then...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Bbbbbb... - Applicability Criteria, Emission Limits, and Management Practices for Storage Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-percent with a closed vent system and control device as specified in § 60.112b(a)(3) of this chapter; or (b) Equip each internal floating roof gasoline storage tank according to the requirements in § 60... floating roof gasoline storage tank according to the requirements in § 60.112b(a)(2) of this...

  10. Implementation plan for Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Parts 280 and 281; Final rules for underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stupka, R.C.

    1989-04-01

    This report presents the schedules and methods required to comply with the newly promulgated Underground Storage Tank (UST) Regulations Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 280 and 281. These rules were promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on September 23, 1988, and became effective December 22, 1988. These regulations are required by Subtitle I of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. Their purpose is to protect the groundwater supplies of the United States in the following ways: Closing old tanks; detecting and remediating tank leaks and spills; establishing stringent standards for new tanks; and upgrade of existing tanks to new-tank standards. 3 refs., 5 tabs.

  11. Storage tank for liquefied gas such as methane

    SciTech Connect

    Guilhem, M.

    1983-06-21

    To improve the leaktightness of a triple-wall LNG cargo tank, a system was designed for filling the external insulation space between the walls with pressurized carbon dioxide, which sublimates and condenses from the gaseous to the solid state when cooled by the flow of LNG caused by accidental failure into the space. Using CO/sub 2/ ensures that the fluid forms a solid barrier without any intermediate liquid state upon contact with the LNG.

  12. Optimization of armored spherical tanks for storage on the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.; Knight, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    A redundancy strategy for reducing micrometeroid armoring mass is investigated, with application to cryogenic reactant storage for a regenerative fuel cell (RFC) on the lunar surface. In that micrometeoroid environment, the cryogenic fuel must be protected from loss due to tank puncture. The tankage must have a sufficiently high probability of survival over the length of the mission so that the probability of system failure due to tank puncture is low compared to the other mission risk factors. Assuming that a single meteoroid penetration can cause a storage tank to lose its contents, two means are available to raise the probability of surviving micrometeoroid attack to the desired level. One can armor the tanks to a thickness sufficient to reduce probability of penetration of any tank to the desired level or add extra capacity in the form of space tanks that results in survival of a given number out of the ensemble at the desired level. A combination of these strategies (armor and redundancy) is investigated.

  13. A visual assessment of the concrete vaults which surround underground waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.J.; Shurrab, M.S.

    1993-12-01

    Radioactive waste produced at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is stored in underground tanks. There are four different waste tank designs. For each waste tank design the outermost containment shield between the waste and the soil is a concrete vault surrounding the carbon steel liner(s). Should the primary and/or secondary liner be breached, the concrete vault would slow transport of the waste so that contamination of the soil is minimized. The type 3 waste tanks have a stated design life of 40--60 years. With the uncertainty of the schedule for transfer of the waste to the Defense Waste Processing Facility, it is conceivable that the tanks will be required to function past their design life. The Department of Energy formed a Waste Tank Structural Integrity Panel to investigate the potential for aging and degradation of underground radioactive waste storage tanks employed in the weapons complex. The panel is focusing on how each site in the complex: (1) inspects the waste tanks for degradation, (2) understands the potential degradation mechanisms which may occur at their sites, and (3) mitigates the known potential degradation mechanisms. In addition to the carbon steel liners, the degradation of the concrete vault has also been addressed by the panel. High Level Waste Engineering (HLWE) at SRS has formed a task team to identify key issues that determine and/or effect the condition of the concrete. In June 1993, slides were reviewed which showed the inside of the concrete vault in Type 1, 2, and 4 tanks. The authors subsequently visited the tank farm and assessed the visible portions of the outer concrete vault. Later a team of engineers knowledgeable in concrete degradation performed a walk-down. Photographs showing the concrete condition were taken at this time. This report summarizes the findings of these walk-downs and reinforces previous recommendations.

  14. Abandoned underground storage tank location using fluxgate magnetic surveying: A case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Biersel, T. P.; Bristoll, B.C.; Taylor, R.W.; Rose, J.

    2002-01-01

    In 1993, during the removal of a diesel and a gasoline underground storage tank at the municipal garage of the Village of Kohler, Sheboygan County, Wisconsin, soil testing revealed environmental contamination at the site. A site investigation revealed the possibility of a second on-site source of petroleum contamination. Limited historical data and the present usage of structures within the suspected source area precluded the use of most invasive sampling methods and most geophysical techniques. A fluxgate magnetometer survey, followed by confirmatory excavation, was conducted at the site. The fluxgate magnetometer survey identified nine possible magnetic anomalies within the 18 ?? 25 m area. The subsequent excavation near the anomalies revealed the presence of five paired and two individual 2000 L underground storage tanks. The fluxgate magnetometer survey, although affected by the proximity of buildings, was able to detect the buried tanks within 3 m of the brick structures, using a 1.5 ?? 1.5 m sampling array.

  15. Acoustic imaging of underground storage tank wastes: A feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turpening, R.; Zhu, Z.; Caravana, C.; Matarese, J.; Turpening, W.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives for this underground storage tank (UST) imaging investigation are: (1) to assess the feasibility of using acoustic methods in UST wastes, if shown to be feasible, develop and assess imaging strategies; (2) to assess the validity of using chemical simulants for the development of acoustic methods and equipment. This investigation examined the velocity of surrogates, both salt cake and sludge surrogates. In addition collected seismic cross well data in a real tank (114-TX) on the Hanford Reservation. Lastly, drawing on the knowledge of the simulants and the estimates of the velocities of the waste in tank 114-TX the authors generated a hypothetical model of waste in a tank and showed that non-linear travel time tomographic imaging would faithfully image that stratigraphy.

  16. SCALE-MODEL STUDIES OF MIXING IN DRINKING WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Storage tanks and reservoirs are commonly used in drinking water distribution systems to equalize pumping requirements and operating pressures, and to provide emergency water for fire-fighting and pumping outages. Poor mixing in these structures can create pockets of older water...

  17. Town Stems Major Water Losses With New Lines and Storage Tank

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    With the help of EPA funding, the Town of Chapmanville in Logan County, WV, has a new drinking water storage tank and distribution lines to replace a system built in the late 1940s that was “leaking like a sieve” and posed a risk to public health.

  18. Lenders get break in EPA final rule on underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Seppa, N.

    1996-03-01

    EPA has issued a final rule that limits the liability of financial institutions and others that lead money based on properties with underground storage tanks (USTs). This article describes the reasoning behind the rule and the highpoints of the actual rule itself.

  19. Borehole Miner - Extendible Nozzle Development for Radioactive Waste Dislodging and Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    CW Enderlin; DG Alberts; JA Bamberger; M White

    1998-09-25

    This report summarizes development of borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting technology for dislodging and retrieving salt cake, sludge} and supernate to remediate underground storage tanks full of radioactive waste. The extendible-nozzle development was based on commercial borehole-miner technology.

  20. 76 FR 71707 - Revising Underground Storage Tank Regulations-Revisions to Existing Requirements and New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ...EPA is proposing to make certain revisions to the 1988 underground storage tank (UST) technical, financial responsibility, and state program approval regulations. These changes establish federal requirements that are similar to key portions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005; they also update certain 1988 UST regulations. Proposed changes include: Adding secondary containment requirements for......

  1. Underground Storage Tanks on Indian Lands. Education Moderates an Environmental Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillger, Robert W.; Small, Matthew C.

    1992-01-01

    Describes problems related to old underground storage tanks (USTs) that may leak toxic contents, focusing on relevance for American Indian reservations. Discusses design, installation, and upgrading of UST systems; federal definitions and regulations; leak detection; legal responsibility; and education for public awareness. Includes Environmental…

  2. RCRA corrective action for underground storage tanks -- Subtitle C for Subtitle I

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide guidance to DOE and DOE contractor personnel responsible for planning and implementation of corrective measures addressing cleanup of releases of hazardous materials or regulated substances from underground storage tanks regulated under RCRA Subtitle C or Subtitle I.

  3. Peptoniphilus stercorisuis sp. nov. from a swine manure storage tank and description of Peptoniphilaceae fam. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A species of a previously unknown Gram-positive, anaerobic, coccus-shaped bacterium recovered from swine faeces storage tanks was characterized using phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and molecular taxonomic methods. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies and biochemical characteristics demonstrated...

  4. 25. EXTERIOR WEST VIEW OF STORAGE TANK (1991). WrightPatterson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. EXTERIOR WEST VIEW OF STORAGE TANK (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Buildings 25 & 24,10-foot & 20-foot Wind Tunnel Complex, Northeast side of block bounded by K, G, Third, & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  5. 40 CFR 63.11497 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for storage tanks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the standards and compliance requirements for storage tanks? 63.11497 Section 63.11497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for...

  6. Modification of a liquid hydrogen tank for integrated refrigeration and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanger, A. M.; Jumper, K. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Notardonato, W. U.

    2015-12-01

    The modification and outfitting of a 125,000-liter liquid hydrogen tank was performed to provide integrated refrigeration and storage capability. These functions include zero boil-off, liquefaction, and densification and therefore require provisions for sub-atmospheric tank pressures within the vacuum-jacketed, multilayer insulated tank. The primary structural modification was to add stiffening rings inside the inner vessel. The internal stiffening rings were designed, built, and installed per the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, to prevent collapse in the case of vacuum jacket failure in combination with sub-atmospheric pressure within the tank. For the integrated refrigeration loop, a modular, skeleton-type heat exchanger, with refrigerant temperature instrumentation, was constructed using the stiffening rings as supports. To support the system thermal performance testing, three custom temperature rakes were designed and installed along the 21-meter length of the tank, once again using rings as supports. The temperature rakes included a total of 20 silicon diode temperature sensors mounted both vertically and radially to map the bulk liquid temperature within the tank. The tank modifications were successful and the system is now operational for the research and development of integrated refrigeration technology.

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 130: Storage Tanks Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2009-03-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 130: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 130 are located within Areas 1, 7, 10, 20, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site. Corrective Action Unit 130 is comprised of the following CASs: • 01-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 07-02-01, Underground Storage Tanks • 10-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 20-02-03, Underground Storage Tank • 20-99-05, Tar Residue • 22-02-02, Buried UST Piping • 23-02-07, Underground Storage Tank This CR provides documentation supporting the completed corrective action investigations and provides data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 130 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Reviewed the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implemented any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly disposed of corrective action and investigation-derived wastes. From August 4 through September 30, 2008, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 130, Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent, implement appropriate corrective actions, confirm that no residual contamination is present, and properly dispose of wastes. Constituents detected during the closure activities were evaluated against final action levels to identify

  8. Model analysis of grazing effect on above-ground biomass and above-ground net primary production of a Mongolian grassland ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuxiang; Lee, Gilzae; Lee, Pilzae; Oikawa, Takehisa

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we have analyzed the productivity of a grassland ecosystem in Kherlenbayan-Ulaan (KBU), Mongolia under non-grazing and grazing conditions using a new simulation model, Sim-CYCLE grazing. The model was obtained by integrating the Sim-CYCLE [Ito, A., Oikawa, T., 2002. A simulation model of carbon cycle in land ecosystems (Sim-CYCLE): a description based on dry-matter production theory and plot-scale validation. Ecological Modeling, 151, pp. 143-176] and a defoliation formulation [Seligman, N.G., Cavagnaro, J.B., Horno, M.E., 1992. Simulation of defoliation effects on primary production of warm-season, semiarid perennial- species grassland. Ecological Modelling, 60, pp. 45-61]. The results from the model have been validated against a set of field data obtained at KBU showing that both above-ground biomass (AB) and above-ground net primary production ( Np,a) decrease with increasing grazing intensity. The simulated maximum AB for a year maintains a nearly constant value of 1.15 Mg DM ha -1 under non-grazing conditions. The AB decreases and then reaches equilibrium under a stocking rate ( Sr) of 0.4 sheep ha -1 and 0.7 sheep ha -1. The AB decreases all the time if Sr is greater than 0.7 sheep ha -1. These results suggest that the maximum sustainable Sr is 0.7 sheep ha -1. A similar trend is also observed for the simulated Np,a. The annual Np,a is about 1.25 Mg DM ha -1 year -1 and this value is also constant under non-grazing conditions. The annual Np,a decreases and then reaches equilibrium under an Sr of 0.4 sheep ha -1 and 0.7 sheep ha -1, but the Np,a decreases all the time when Sr is greater than 0.7 sheep ha -1. It also indicates that the maximum sustainable Sr is 0.7 sheep ha -1. Transpiration ( ET) and evaporation ( EE) rates were determined by the Penman-Monteith method. Simulated results show that ET decreases with increasing Sr, while EE increases with increasing Sr. At equilibrium, the annual mean evapotranspiration ( E) is 189.11 mm year -1

  9. Exploring multi-scale forest above ground biomass estimation with optical remote sensing imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koju, U.; Zhang, J.; Gilani, H.

    2017-02-01

    Forest shares 80% of total exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the terrestrial ecosystem. Due to this monitoring of forest above ground biomass (as carbon can be calculated as 0.47 part of total biomass) has become very important. Forest above ground biomass as being the major portion of total forest biomass should be given a very careful consideration in its estimation. It is hoped to be useful in addressing the ongoing problems of deforestation and degradation and to gain carbon mitigation benefits through mechanisms like Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+). Many methods of above ground biomass estimation are in used ranging from use of optical remote sensing imageries of very high to very low resolution to SAR data and LIDAR. This paper describes a multi-scale approach for assessing forest above ground biomass, and ultimately carbon stocks, using very high imageries, open source medium resolution and medium resolution satellite datasets with a very limited number of field plots. We found this method is one of the most promising method for forest above ground biomass estimation with higher accuracy and low cost budget. Pilot study was conducted in Chitwan district of Nepal on the estimation of biomass using this technique. The GeoEye-1 (0.5m), Landsat (30m) and Google Earth (GE) images were used remote sensing imageries. Object-based image analysis (OBIA) classification technique was done on Geo-eye imagery for the tree crown delineation at the watershed level. After then, crown projection area (CPA) vs. biomass model was developed and validated at the watershed level. Open source GE imageries were used to calculate the CPA and biomass from virtual plots at district level. Using data mining technique, different parameters from Landsat imageries along with the virtual sample biomass were used for upscaling biomass estimation at district level. We found, this approach can considerably reduce field data requirements for

  10. Experimental study on the storage performance of high-vacuum-multilayer-insulation tank after sudden, catastrophic loss of insulating vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, G. F.; Li, X. D.; Wang, R. S.

    2012-05-01

    High-vacuum-multilayer-insulation (HVMLI) cryogenic tank is one kind of dangerous pressure vessels. One of the worst accidents that may occur in a high-vacuum-multilayer-insulation (HVMLI) cryogenic tank is a sudden, catastrophic loss of insulating vacuum (SCLIV). The influence of SCLIV on storage performance for a HVMLI cryogenic tank is experimentally studied in this paper. A test rig was built up and experiments were conducted using LN2 as the test medium. The cryogenic tank was tested in the conditions of various combinations with different initial liquid level and number of insulation layers. Some important conclusions for storage performance with a vacuum-lost HVMLI cryogenic tank have been obtained. The experimental results show that the numbers of insulation layers and the initial liquid level have obvious effect on the storage performance after SCLIV for cryogenic tanks.

  11. White paper: cleanout of tank 241-AP-108 for storage of phase 1 pretreated low-activity waste

    SciTech Connect

    PLACE, D.E.

    1999-06-24

    This white paper evaluates the feasibility of cleaning tank 241-AP-108 for storage of pretreated low-activity waste. The maximum allowable heel inventories for {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 137}Cs, and TRu are established. Cesium-137 was found to be the limiting radionuclide for tank 241-AP-108 cleanout. Equipment requirements for cleanout are identified and risks associated with extended storage of pretreated low-activity waste are discussed. This evaluation assumes that tank 241-AP-108 will be used for storage of pretreated low-activity waste from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 in accordance with the 1996 Tank Waste Remediation System Privatization Contract with BNFL Inc. Alternatives are currently under development that would not require this storage function. This document is being issued to capture the work performed to date.

  12. Acute collective gas poisoning at work in a manure storage tank.

    PubMed

    Żaba, Czesław; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Tężyk, Artur; Tobolski, Jarosław; Zaba, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    Cases of deaths in manure or septic tanks are rare in legal-medical practice, more frequently as unfortunate occupational accidents. Poisoning with toxic gases, especially with hydrogen sulfide, is reported as the cause of death, while the exhaustion of oxygen in the air is omitted with the simultaneous excess of carbon dioxide. In such cases, determination of the direct cause of death constitutes a big problem because post-mortem examination does not reveal the specific changes. A case of acute collective poisoning by gases in a manure storage tank is presented of 5 agricultural workers, 2 of whom died. While explaining the cause of poisoning and deaths, toxicological blood tests were performed in the victims of the accident, as well as gases inside the manure storage tank. The post-mortem examinations and toxicological blood tests performed did not allow determination of the direct cause of death. Toxicological tests of gases from inside the manure tank showed a very low concentration of oxygen, with a simultaneous very high concentration of carbon dioxide, and a considerable level of hydrogen sulfide. The cause of fainting of three and deaths of two workers was not the poisoning with hydrogen sulfide, but oxygen deficiency in the air of the tank.

  13. Modeling and testing of cryo-adsorbent hydrogen storage tanks with improved thermal isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, Alexander William; Reiter, Joseph

    2012-06-01

    One storage concept for hydrogen-fueled vehicles is physical adsorption of hydrogen at cryogenic temperatures (nominally 80 K). During long idle periods, parasitic heat transfer from the environment induces desorption to the tank void volume. This desorption increases tank pressure such that it must be vented. To reduce the amount of fuel lost to venting, parasitic heating is minimized using multi-layer vacuum insulation and thermally isolating structures. A model is developed to predict the amount of conduction through structural supports and hydrogen lines, radiation through multi-layer insulation, and rarified gas conduction in the vacuum jacket of a tank sized for adsorption storage. The model reveals that conduction through structural supports is significant for cases of interest. Thus, two structural support architectures are compared: one utilizing G-10 CR composite and another involving KevlarTM cable. The structural members are sized to support comparable inertial loadings; the overall parasitic heat transfer is found to be as much as 38 percent less for the KevlarTM design. A lumped-parameter tank simulation is used to relate parasitic heat transfer to dormancy time and venting rate. The results of thermal testing of a sub-scale tank simulator are compared with model predictions.

  14. Seismic analysis of a LNG storage tank isolated by a multiple friction pendulum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruifu; Weng, Dagen; Ren, Xiaosong

    2011-06-01

    The seismic response of an isolated vertical, cylindrical, extra-large liquefied natural gas (LNG) tank by a multiple friction pendulum system (MFPS) is analyzed. Most of the extra-large LNG tanks have a fundamental frequency which involves a range of resonance of most earthquake ground motions. It is an effective way to decrease the response of an isolation system used for extra-large LNG storage tanks under a strong earthquake. However, it is difficult to implement in practice with common isolation bearings due to issues such as low temperature, soft site and other severe environment factors. The extra-large LNG tank isolated by a MFPS is presented in this study to address these problems. A MFPS is appropriate for large displacements induced by earthquakes with long predominant periods. A simplified finite element model by Malhotra and Dunkerley is used to determine the usefulness of the isolation system. Data reported and statistically sorted include pile shear, wave height, impulsive acceleration, convective acceleration and outer tank acceleration. The results show that the isolation system has excellent adaptability for different liquid levels and is very effective in controlling the seismic response of extra-large LNG tanks.

  15. Temperature stratification from thermal diodes in solar hot water storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, Jinny; Campbell, Andrew; Mariadass, Adele; Morhous, Branden

    2010-03-15

    In this brief note, we have experimentally measured the temperature stratification in a solar hot water storage tank resulting from a simulated solar heating load. Various modifications using a double chimney device that acts as a thermal diode were examined with the intent of maximizing temperature stratification. The greatest stratification was seen with a unique thermal diode arrangement named the express-elevator design, so-called for the direct hot water path from the bottom third of the tank to the top third. (author)

  16. Membrane technology for the control and recovery of vapor emissions from storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschlich, D.; Simmons, V.; Jacobs, M.

    1995-12-31

    Organic vapor emissions from storage tanks are increasingly subject to control and regulation from both national and local laws. Title 1 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require local authorities to control emissions of VOCs. Additional regulations have been imposed at the national level on hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Membrane separation, commercialized within the last decade for hydrogen recovery and nitrogen generation applications, is now emerging as an attractive method for control of VOC emissions from a variety of sources, including storage tank emissions. MTR`s vapor recovery process combines both membrane separation and condensation, making it suitable for a broad range of applications. Membranes work like filters -- except here the larger vapor molecule goes through the membrane, while the smaller air molecules are retained. The membrane process has many advantages over other control techniques: the vapor is recovered as a liquid rather than destroyed; it is a continuous process not requiring regeneration; high removal efficiencies can be achieved (90--99.99%); variations in feed conditions (air flow, VOC concentration or species) are easily accommodated; and no secondary wastes are produced. The presentation includes a more detailed description of the membrane separation process, and describes several applications of MTR`s VaporSep technology for controlling vapor emissions. The first application is the control of gasoline vapors at service stations. Another application is recovery of various VOCs from storage tank emissions at a solvent recovery facility. The final application if a membrane system to control cyclohexane emissions from a storage tank. This system can operate in two separate modes: a low-flow mode to control emissions due to tank breathing, and a high-flow mode to control emissions from cleaning operations.

  17. Vehicular hydrogen storage using lightweight tanks (regenerative fuel cell systems)

    SciTech Connect

    Mitlitsky, F; Myers, B; Weisberg, A H

    1999-06-01

    Energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) have been designed that use lightweight tankage to contain the gases generated by reversible (unitized) regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will leverage work for aerospace applications supported by other sponsors (including BMDO, NASA, and USAF) to develop URFC systems for transportation and utility applications. Lightweight tankage is important for primary fuel cell powered vehicles that use on-board storage of hydrogen. Lightweight pressure vessels with state-of-the-art performance factors were designed, and prototypes are being fabricated to meet the DOE 2000 goals (4000 Wh/kg, 12% hydrogen by weight, 700 Wh/liter, and $20/kWh in high volume production). These pressure vessels use technologies that are easily adopted by industrial partners. Advanced liners provide permeation barriers for gas storage and are mandrels for composite overwrap. URFCs are important to the efficient use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and enabler of renewable energy. H{sub 2}/halogen URFCs may be advantageous for stationary applications whereas H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}/air URFCs are advantageous for vehicular applications. URFC research and development is required to improve performance (efficiency), reduce catalyst loading, understand engineering operation, and integrate systems. LLNL has the experimental equipment and advanced URFC membrane electrode assemblies (some with reduced catalyst loading) for evaluating commercial hardware (not funded by DOE in FY1999).

  18. Calculations of lightning return stroke electric and magnetic fields above ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Master, M. J.; Uman, M. A.; Ling, Y. T.; Standler, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    Lin et al., (1980) presented a lightning return stroke model with which return stroke electric and magnetic fields measured at ground level could be reproduced. This model and a modified version of it, in which the initial current peak decays with height above ground, are used to compute waveforms for altitudes from 0-10 km and at ranges of 20 m to 10 km. Both the original and modified models gave accurate predictions of measured ground-based fields. The use of the calculated fields in calibrating airborne field measurements from simultaneous ground and airborne data is discussed.

  19. Does Fall Removal of the Dairy Manure Sludge in a Storage Tank Reduce Subsequent Methane Emissions?

    PubMed

    Baldé, Hambaliou; VanderZaag, Andrew C; Burtt, Stephen D; Gordon, Robert J; Desjardins, Raymond L

    2016-11-01

    When liquid manure is removed from storages for land application, "sludge" generally remains at the bottom of the tank. This may serve as an inoculum when fresh manure is subsequently added, thereby increasing methane (CH) emissions. Previous pilot-scale studies have shown that completely emptying storages can decrease CH emissions; however, no farm-scale studies have been conducted to quantify the effect of sludge removal. In this study, a commercial dairy farm removed as much manure and sludge from their concrete storage as possible in the fall (∼2% by volume remained). Emissions of CH were measured during the following winter, spring, and summer, and compared with emissions measured the preceding 2 yr when most of the sludge had not been removed (∼14% of tank volume remained). Emissions were measured using a micrometeorological technique, utilizing open-path CH lasers. Contrary to what was hypothesized, removing the majority of sludge in fall did not delay the onset of CH emissions and did not decrease emissions the following summer. In fact, annual CH emissions were ∼16% higher. It is possible that fall removal provided sufficient time for microbial dynamics to be restored before the following summer when emissions were high. Future farm-scale research should examine the effect of spring (rather than fall) emptying for on-farm CH mitigation in both concrete tanks and earthen storages.

  20. Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks.

  1. Atmospheric Pressure Effects on Cryogenic Storage Tank Boil-Off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sass, J. P.; Frontier, C. R.

    2007-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory (CTL) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) routinely utilizes cryostat test hardware to evaluate comparative and absolute thermal conductivities of a wide array of insulation systems. The test method is based on measurement of the flow rate of gas evolved due to evaporative boil-off of a cryogenic liquid. The gas flow rate typically stabilizes after a period of a couple of hours to a couple of days, depending upon the test setup. The stable flow rate value is then used to calculate the thermal conductivity for the insulation system being tested. The latest set of identical cryostats, 1,000-L spherical tanks, exhibited different behavior. On a macro level, the flow rate did stabilize after a couple of days; however the stable flow rate was oscillatory with peak to peak amplitude of up to 25 percent of the nominal value. The period of the oscillation was consistently 12 hours. The source of the oscillation has been traced to variations in atmospheric pressure due to atmospheric tides similar to oceanic tides. This paper will present analysis of this phenomenon, including a calculation that explains why other cryostats are not affected by it.

  2. Guidelines for development of structural integrity programs for DOE high-level waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Bush, S.; Kassir, M.; Mather, B.; Shewmon, P.; Streicher, M.; Thompson, B.; Rooyen, D. van; Weeks, J.

    1997-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for developing programs to promote the structural integrity of high-level waste storage tanks and transfer lines at the facilities of the Department of Energy. Elements of the program plan include a leak-detection system, definition of appropriate loads, collection of data for possible material and geometric changes, assessment of the tank structure, and non-destructive examination. Possible aging degradation mechanisms are explored for both steel and concrete components of the tanks, and evaluated to screen out nonsignificant aging mechanisms and to indicate methods of controlling the significant aging mechanisms. Specific guidelines for assessing structural adequacy will be provided in companion documents. Site-specific structural integrity programs can be developed drawing on the relevant portions of the material in this document.

  3. Lightweight concrete materials and structural systems for water tanks for thermal storage. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.; Elia, G.G.; Ichikawa, Y.

    1980-12-01

    Thermally efficient hot water storage tanks were designed, fabricated and evaluated. The tanks were made using cellular concrete at a nominal density of 100 lb/ft/sup 3/ for the structural elements and at a 30 lb/ft/sup 3/ density for the insulating elements. Thermal performance testing of the tanks was done using a static decay test since the test procedure specified in ASHRAE 94-77 was not experimentally practical. A series of composition modifications to the cellular concrete mix were investigated and the addition of alkaline resistant glass fibers was found to enhance the mechanical properties at no sacrifice in thermal behavior. Economic analysis indicated that cellular concrete provides a cost-effective insulating material. The total portability of the plant for producing cellular concrete makes cellular concrete amenable to on-site fabrication and uniquely adaptable to retrofit applications.

  4. Power Reactant Storage Assembly (PRSA) (Space Shuttle). PRSA hydrogen and oxygen DVT tank refurbishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-07-01

    The Power Reactant Storage Assembly (PRSA) liquid hydrogen Development Verification Test (H2 DVT) tank assembly (Beech Aircraft Corporation P/N 15548-0116-1, S/N 07399000SHT0001) and liquid oxygen (O2) DVT tank assembly (Beech Aircraft Corporation P/N 15548-0115-1, S/N 07399000SXT0001) were refurbished by Ball Electro-Optics and Cryogenics Division to provide NASA JSC, Propulsion and Power Division, the capability of performing engineering tests. The refurbishments incorporated the latest flight configuration hardware and avionics changes necessary to make the tanks function like flight articles. This final report summarizes these refurbishment activities. Also included are up-to-date records of the pressure time and cycle histories.

  5. Assessment of concentration mechanisms for organic wastes in underground storage tanks at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.A.; Burger, L.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Ryan, J.L.; Zollars, R.L.

    1992-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted an initial conservative evaluation of physical and chemical processes that could lead to significant localized concentrations of organic waste constituents in the Hanford underground storage tanks (USTs). This evaluation was part of ongoing studies at Hanford to assess potential safety risks associated with USTs containing organics. Organics in the tanks could pose a potential problem if localized concentrations are high enough to propagate combustion and are in sufficient quantity to produce a large heat and/or gas release if in contact with a suitable oxidant. The major sources of oxidants are oxygen in the overhead gas space of the tanks and sodium nitrate and nitrite either as salt cake solids or dissolved in the supernatant and interstitial liquids.

  6. Optimal Operation of a Thermal Energy Storage Tank Using Linear Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civit Sabate, Carles

    In this thesis, an optimization procedure for minimizing the operating costs of a Thermal Energy Storage (TES) tank is presented. The facility in which the optimization is based is the combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) plant at the University of California, Irvine. TES tanks provide the ability of decoupling the demand of chilled water from its generation, over the course of a day, from the refrigeration and air-conditioning plants. They can be used to perform demand-side management, and optimization techniques can help to approach their optimal use. The proposed optimization approach provides a fast and reliable methodology of finding the optimal use of the TES tank to reduce energy costs and provides a tool for future implementation of optimal control laws on the system. Advantages of the proposed methodology are studied using simulation with historical data.

  7. Measurement of high-energy neutron flux above ground utilizing a spallation based multiplicity technique

    DOE PAGES

    Roecker, Caleb; Bernstein, Adam; Marleau, Peter; ...

    2016-11-14

    Cosmogenic high-energy neutrons are a ubiquitous, difficult to shield, poorly measured background. Above ground the high-energy neutron energy-dependent flux has been measured, with significantly varying results. Below ground, high-energy neutron fluxes are largely unmeasured. Here we present a reconstruction algorithm to unfold the incident neutron energy-dependent flux measured using the Multiplicity and Recoil Spectrometer (MARS), simulated test cases to verify the algorithm, and provide a new measurement of the above ground high-energy neutron energy-dependent flux with a detailed systematic uncertainty analysis. Uncertainty estimates are provided based upon the measurement statistics, the incident angular distribution, the surrounding environment of the Montemore » Carlo model, and the MARS triggering efficiency. Quantified systematic uncertainty is dominated by the assumed incident neutron angular distribution and surrounding environment of the Monte Carlo model. The energy-dependent neutron flux between 90 MeV and 400 MeV is reported. Between 90 MeV and 250 MeV the MARS results are comparable to previous Bonner sphere measurements. Over the total energy regime measured, the MARS result are located within the span of previous measurements. Lastly, these results demonstrate the feasibility of future below ground measurements with MARS.« less

  8. Measurement of high-energy neutron flux above ground utilizing a spallation based multiplicity technique

    SciTech Connect

    Roecker, Caleb; Bernstein, Adam; Marleau, Peter; Vetter, Kai

    2016-11-14

    Cosmogenic high-energy neutrons are a ubiquitous, difficult to shield, poorly measured background. Above ground the high-energy neutron energy-dependent flux has been measured, with significantly varying results. Below ground, high-energy neutron fluxes are largely unmeasured. Here we present a reconstruction algorithm to unfold the incident neutron energy-dependent flux measured using the Multiplicity and Recoil Spectrometer (MARS), simulated test cases to verify the algorithm, and provide a new measurement of the above ground high-energy neutron energy-dependent flux with a detailed systematic uncertainty analysis. Uncertainty estimates are provided based upon the measurement statistics, the incident angular distribution, the surrounding environment of the Monte Carlo model, and the MARS triggering efficiency. Quantified systematic uncertainty is dominated by the assumed incident neutron angular distribution and surrounding environment of the Monte Carlo model. The energy-dependent neutron flux between 90 MeV and 400 MeV is reported. Between 90 MeV and 250 MeV the MARS results are comparable to previous Bonner sphere measurements. Over the total energy regime measured, the MARS result are located within the span of previous measurements. Lastly, these results demonstrate the feasibility of future below ground measurements with MARS.

  9. Phosphorus Concentrations in Above Ground Plant Biomass under Changing Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvin, C.; Paytan, A.; Roberts, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment explores the effects of climate change on annual grasslands with different combinations of elevated or ambient levels of carbon dioxide, heat, precipitation, and nitrate deposition. The nested split-plot design allows for analysis of each variable, combinations of variables, and secondary effects. In this study, plant nutrient levels in homogenized above ground biomass are analyzed to assess the utility of this parameter as a tool to describe the response of an ecosystem to environmental changes. Total phosphorus concentrations showed considerable variability within treatment (n=8) and therefore no significant differences between treatments (n=16) is found. Carbon and nitrogen concentrations in bulk above ground biomass are being analyzed to determine nitrogen and carbon ratios and further elucidate the environmental response of phosphorus levels in plants to the modified parameters. P concentrations and elemental ratios will also be related to other parameters such as soil humidity, microbial biomass, enzyme activity, and plant diversity to determine the parameters influencing P content in the biomass.

  10. Critical Zone Ecohydrology as a Link Between Below- and Above-Ground Processes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Critical Zone is the near-surface layer that is created by life processes from microbial scale to ecosystems, which in turn supports nearly all the terrestrial living systems. It extends from the top of the canopy to the bedrock. The biotic-abiotic links between the below- and above-ground processes determine the functional role of the critical zone. To predict and assess the impact of climate and other anthropogenic changes on the Critical Zone processes, a model that considers this zone as a continuum and captures the interactions between roots, soil moisture, nutrient uptake, and photosynthesis is developed. We attempt to address a variety of questions: How does elevated CO2 affect photosynthesis and plant water uptake? What role does hydraulic redistribution play in the below- and above-ground interactions? How do these scale when we consider interaction between multiple vegetation species, for example, between tall and understory vegetation? Results from a number of study sites will be presented and their implications will be discussed.

  11. Estimates of air emissions from asphalt storage tanks and truck loading

    SciTech Connect

    Trumbore, D.C.

    1999-12-31

    Title V of the 1990 Clean Air Act requires the accurate estimation of emissions from all US manufacturing processes, and places the burden of proof for that estimate on the process owner. This paper is published as a tool to assist in the estimation of air emission from hot asphalt storage tanks and asphalt truck loading operations. Data are presented on asphalt vapor pressure, vapor molecular weight, and the emission split between volatile organic compounds and particulate emissions that can be used with AP-42 calculation techniques to estimate air emissions from asphalt storage tanks and truck loading operations. Since current AP-42 techniques are not valid in asphalt tanks with active fume removal, a different technique for estimation of air emissions in those tanks, based on direct measurement of vapor space combustible gas content, is proposed. Likewise, since AP-42 does not address carbon monoxide or hydrogen sulfide emissions that are known to be present in asphalt operations, this paper proposes techniques for estimation of those emissions. Finally, data are presented on the effectiveness of fiber bed filters in reducing air emissions in asphalt operations.

  12. Methanoculleus spp. as a biomarker of methanogenic activity in swine manure storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Barret, Maialen; Gagnon, Nathalie; Morissette, Bruno; Topp, Edward; Kalmokoff, Martin; Brooks, Stephen P J; Matias, Fernando; Massé, Daniel I; Masse, Lucie; Talbot, Guylaine

    2012-05-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions represent a major problem associated with manure management in the livestock industry. A prerequisite to mitigate methane emissions occurring during manure storage is a clearer understanding of how the microbial consortia involved in methanogenesis function. Here, we have examined manure stored in outdoor tanks from two different farms, at different locations and depths. Physico-chemical and microbiological characterization of these samples indicated differences between each tank, as well as differences within each tank dependent on the depth of sampling. The dynamics of both the bacterial and archaeal communities within these samples were monitored over a 150-day period of anaerobic incubation to identify and track emerging microorganisms, which may be temporally important in the methanogenesis process. Analyses based on DNA fingerprinting of microbial communities identified trends common among all samples as well as trends specific to certain samples. All archaeal communities became enriched with Methanoculleus spp. over time, indicating that the hydrogenotrophic pathway of methanogenesis predominated. Although the emerging species differed in samples obtained from shallow depths compared to deep samples, the temporal enrichment of Methanoculleus suggests that this genus may represent a relevant indicator of methanogenic activity in swine manure storage tanks.

  13. Radiological assessment of worker doses during sludge mobilization and removal at the Melton Valley storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.; Coleman, R.L.; Kocher, D.C.; Wynn, C.C.

    1996-12-17

    This report presents an assessment of potential radiation doses to workers during mobilization and removal of contaminated sludges from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The assessment is based on (1) measurements of radionuclide concentrations in sludge and supernatant liquid samples from the waste storage tanks, (2) measurements of gamma radiation levels in various areas that will be accessed by workers during normal activities, (3) calculations of gamma radiation levels for particular exposure situations, especially when the available measurements are not applicable, and (4) assumed scenarios for worker activities in radiation areas. Only doses from external exposure are estimated in this assessment. Doses from internal exposure are assumed to be controlled by containment of radioactive materials or respiratory protection of workers and are not estimated.

  14. Residual biogas potential from the storage tanks of non-separated digestate and digested liquid fraction.

    PubMed

    Gioelli, F; Dinuccio, E; Balsari, P

    2011-11-01

    Biogas plants daily produce enormous volumes of digestate that can be handled in its raw form or after mechanical separation. In Italy, effluents are usually stored within aboveground, uncovered tanks, which make them potential emitters of biogas into the atmosphere. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of biogas emitted to the atmosphere during the storage phase of non-separated digestate and digested liquid fraction. The trials were performed at two northwest Italy 1 MWel. biogas plants. A floating system for the residual biogas recovery, and a set of three wind tunnels for NH3 emission measurement were used. The experiment demonstrated significant loss to the atmosphere for each of the gases; specifically, on average, 19.5 and 7.90 N m3 biogas MWhel.(-1) were emitted daily from the storage tanks of non-separated digestate and digested liquid fraction, respectively.

  15. Mechanical Characteristics of 9% Ni Steel Welded Joint for Lng Storage Tank at Cryogenic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yong-Keun; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Shim, Kyu-Taek; Kim, Young-Kyun

    To confirm the safety performance of LNG storage tank, the change in fatigue crack growth rate and fracture toughness within X-grooved weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) of newly developed 9% Ni steel, which was SMAW welded, was investigated. These materials were produced by QT (quenching, tempering) heat treatment. The weld metal specimens were prepared by taking the same weld procedure applied in actual inner shell of LNG storage tank. All tests were performed in the temperature ranging from R.T. and -162°C. The fatigue crack growth behavior was carried out using CT specimen. Investigation has been carried out to study the influence of temperature and weld effect on fatigue crack growth behavior. Also, Fracture surfaces after tests were observe by scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  16. Sampling and analysis plan for site assessment during the closure or replacement of nonradioactive underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Gitt, M.J.

    1990-08-01

    The Tank Management Program is responsible for closure or replacement of nonradioactive underground storage tanks throughout the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been developed that complies with EPA regulations and with INEL Tank Removal Procedures for sampling activities associated with site assessment during these closure or replacement activities. The SAP will ensure that all data are valid, and it also will function as a Quality Assurance Project Plan. 18 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. C-tank transfers: Transuranic sludge removal from the C-1, C-2, and W-23 waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, T.L.; Lay, A.C.; Taylor, S.A.; Moore, J.W.

    1999-05-01

    Two fluidic pulse jet mixing systems were used to successfully mobilize remote-handled transuranic sludge for retrieval from three 50,000-gal horizontal waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results of this operation indicate that the pulse jet system should be considered for mixing and bulk retrieval of sludges in other vertical and horizontal waste tanks at ORNL and at other U.S. Department of Energy sites.

  18. Control of a long reach manipulator with suspension cables for waste storage tank remediation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.L.

    1994-12-30

    A long reach manipulator will be used for waste remediation in large underground storage tanks. The manipulator`s slenderness makes it flexible and difficult to control. A low-cost and effective method to enhance the manipulator`s stiffness is proposed in this research by using suspension cables. These cables can also be used to accurately measure the position of the manipulator`s wrist.

  19. Environmental and Economic Impact of Underground Storage Tanks in the United States and Territories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    0 AD-A262 042 ABSTRACT ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACT OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS IN THE UNITED STATES AND TERRITORIES By DTIC ELECTE Clet:.Heiey...age, material, product, corrosion, location and quantity. All of these parameters have a direct inf-luence on the environmental and economic impact of...leaking USTs; product, location and quantity are major factors associated with the impacts of those leaks. This paper discusses the number of existing

  20. Gasoline and vapor exposures in service station and leaking underground storage tank scenarios.

    PubMed

    Guldberg, P H

    1992-01-01

    Exposure to gasoline and gasoline vapors from service station operations and leaking underground storage tanks is a major health concern. Six scenarios for human exposure were examined, based primarily on measured air and water concentrations of total hydrocarbons, benzene, xylenes, and toluene. Calculated mean and upper limit lifetime exposures provide a tool for assisting public health officials in assessing and managing gasoline-related health risks.

  1. Underground storage tank (UST) assessment by remote video (internal visual inspection technique)

    SciTech Connect

    Jamrok, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    Federal Regulations 40 CFR 280.21, and most state regulations require that 10 year and older Underground Storage tanks (USTs) be internally inspected, or assessed for corrosion holes prior to the addition of cathodic protection. These regulations have prompted industry to develop alternate techniques for assessing USTs. One of these assessment techniques utilizes specifically designed video and lighting assemblies which can be inserted into the USTs via the fill pipe riser, thus eliminating the need for any excavation or other construction activities.

  2. Self-pressurization of a spherical liquid hydrogen storage tank in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. S.; Hasan, M. M.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal stratification and self-pressurization of partially filled liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage tanks under microgravity condition is studied theoretically. A spherical tank is subjected to a uniform and constant wall heat flux. It is assumed that a vapor bubble is located in the tank center such that the liquid-vapor interface and tank wall form two concentric spheres. This vapor bubble represents an idealized configuration of a wetting fluid in microgravity conditions. Dimensionless mass and energy conservation equations for both vapor and liquid regions are numerically solved. Coordinate transformation is used to capture the interface location which changes due to liquid thermal expansion, vapor compression, and mass transfer at liquid-vapor interface. The effects of tank size, liquid fill level, and wall heat flux on the pressure rise and thermal stratification are studied. Liquid thermal expansion tends to cause vapor condensation and wall heat flux tends to cause liquid evaporation at the interface. The combined effects determine the direction of mass transfer at the interface. Liquid superheat increases with increasing wall heat flux and liquid fill level and approaches an asymptotic value.

  3. Thermal stratification of chilled-water slot flows into storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.E. Jr.; Cai, L.; Sohn, C.W.

    1994-12-31

    A numerical model was used to simulate the two dimensional flow of chilled water into a storage tank initially filled with warm water. The inlet flow is from a small slot in one vertical wall at the bottom of the tank. The numerical model employs a transient stream function-vorticity formulation to predict the streamline and temperature distributions in the tank as a function of time. Turbulence was modeled using the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent length scale equations. The model results for a side-slot inlet to the tank reveal that the Archimedes number should be greater than 5 and the Reynolds number should be smaller than 1,000 to ensure thermal stratification of the hot and cold water. When stratification is achieved, the temperature distribution varies only in the vertical direction of the tank, where the water temperature is approximately uniform in the horizontal direction. The numerical results are in reasonably good agreement with some experimental data available in the literature.

  4. Aging mechanisms for steel components of high-level waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, J.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Bush, S.; Kassir, M.; Mather, B.; Shewmon, P.; Streicher, M.; Thompson, B.; van Rooyen, D.

    1995-05-01

    High level storage tanks in service at the present time were fabricated from either carbon steel or low-carbon stainless steel, in each case surrounded by a concrete vault. A variety of potential degradation mechanisms may affect these steel tanks, including corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, fatigue, radiation, erosion, and hydrogen embrittlement. Historically, some of the non-stress-relieved carbon steel tanks have leaked; in the only failure analysis performed to date, stress corrosion cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the weld was identified as the cause. Potentially significant aging mechanisms include general corrosion, pitting and/or crevice corrosion stress-corrosion cracking, microbiologically-induced corrosion, concentration cell attack, and corrosion of external tank surfaces by in-leakage of ground water. Aging mechanisms which are deemed non-significant include thermal and radiation embrittlement, creep and stress relaxation, fatigue, erosion and erosion/corrosion wear, and hydrogen embrittlement. Justification for the potential significance or non-significance for each mechanism is provided, based on the current understanding of these processes and the environments to which the tanks are exposed.

  5. Evaluation of decommissioned LNG storage tanks at Chula Vista, California. Final report, April 1990-June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.P.

    1992-06-01

    An inspection and evaluation was made of the design, structural condition, and performance of two San Diego Gas and Electric LNG storage tanks, which were dismantled 25 years and 19 years respectively after construction. Inspection emphasis was placed on identification of factors which could limit the safe operating life of LNG facilities. Inspection showed no design, structural, or operational inherently life limiting factors. Metallurgical and structural evaluation of the LNG tanks indicated a more or less indefinite life, given adequate external maintenance. Protection of the external tank surfaces and stability of the foundation are the more apparent life limiting factors. No in-service corrosion was found on inner tank surfaces, only slight corrosion was found on external tank surfaces. Deterioration of the load bearing insulation under the bearing pad was found due to lack of use of a load transfer material between the concrete bearing pad and the load bearing insulation. Recommendations are made for research in improved understanding of techniques for installation of load bearing insulation and fitness-for-service guidelines.

  6. Numerical Investigation of LO2 and LCH4 Storage Tanks on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moder, Jeff; Barsi, Stephen; Kassemi, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Currently NASA is developing technologies to enable human exploration of the lunar surface for duration of up to 210 days. While trade studies are still underway, a cryogenic ascent stage using liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4) is being considered for the Altair lunar lander. For a representative Altair cryogenic ascent stage, we present a detailed storage analysis of the LO2 and LCH4 propellant tanks on the lunar surface for durations of up to 210 days. Both the LO2 and LCH4 propellant tanks are assumed to be pressurized with gaseous helium at launch. A two-phase lumped-vapor computational fluid dynamics model has been developed to account for the presence of a noncondensable gas in the ullage. The CFD model is used to simulate the initial pressure response of the propellant tanks while they are subjected to representative heat leak rates on the lunar surface. Once a near stationary state is achieved within the liquid phase, multizone model is used to extrapolate the solution farther in time. For fixed propellant mass and tank size, the long-term pressure response for different helium mass fractions in both the LO2 and LCH4 tanks is examined.

  7. Soil structure interaction analysis for the Hanford Site 241-SY-101 double-shell waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Giller, R.A.; Weiner, E.O.

    1991-09-01

    The 241-SY-101 tank is a double-shell waste storage tank buried in the 241-SY tank farm in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This analysis addresses the effects of seismic soil-structure interaction on the tank structure and includes a parametric soil-structure interaction study addressing three configurations: two-dimensional soil structure, a two-dimensional structure-soil-structure, and a three-dimensional soil-structure interaction. This study was designed to determine an optimal method for addressing seismic-soil effects on underground storage tanks. The computer programs calculate seismic-soil pressures on the double-shell tank walls and and seismic acceleration response spectra in the tank. The results of this soil-structure interaction parametric study as produced by the computer programs are given in terms of seismic soil pressures and response spectra. The conclusions of this soil-structure interaction evaluation are that dynamically calculated soil pressures in the 241-SY-101 tank are significantly reduce from those using standard hand calculation methods and that seismic evaluation of underground double-shell waste storage tanks must consider soil-structure interaction effects in order to predict conservative structural response. Appendixes supporting this study are available in Volume 2 of this report.

  8. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    TU, T.A.

    2007-01-04

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771, Flammable Gas Safety Isme Resolution. Appendices A through I provide supporting information. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste and characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 6 is the annual update of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  9. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    BARKER, S.A.

    2006-07-27

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 5 is the annual update of the methodology and calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  10. Equipment design guidance document for flammable gas waste storage tank new equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Smet, D.B.

    1996-04-11

    This document is intended to be used as guidance for design engineers who are involved in design of new equipment slated for use in Flammable Gas Waste Storage Tanks. The purpose of this document is to provide design guidance for all new equipment intended for application into those Hanford storage tanks in which flammable gas controls are required to be addressed as part of the equipment design. These design criteria are to be used as guidance. The design of each specific piece of new equipment shall be required, as a minimum to be reviewed by qualified Unreviewed Safety Question evaluators as an integral part of the final design approval. Further Safety Assessment may be also needed. This guidance is intended to be used in conjunction with the Operating Specifications Documents (OSDs) established for defining work controls in the waste storage tanks. The criteria set forth should be reviewed for applicability if the equipment will be required to operate in locations containing unacceptable concentrations of flammable gas.

  11. Technical assessment of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, T. Q.; Ahluwalia, R. K.; Peng, J. K.; Kromer, M.; Lasher, S.; McKenney, K.; Law, K.; Sinha, J.

    2011-02-09

    The performance and cost of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems has been assessed and compared to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2010, 2015, and ultimate targets for automotive applications. The on-board performance and high-volume manufacturing cost were determined for compressed hydrogen tanks with design pressures of 350 bar ({approx}5000 psi) and 700 bar ({approx}10,000 psi) capable of storing 5.6 kg of usable hydrogen. The off-board performance and cost of delivering compressed hydrogen was determined for hydrogen produced by central steam methane reforming (SMR). The main conclusions of the assessment are that the 350-bar compressed storage system has the potential to meet the 2010 and 2015 targets for system gravimetric capacity but will not likely meet any of the system targets for volumetric capacity or cost, given our base case assumptions. The 700-bar compressed storage system has the potential to meet only the 2010 target for system gravimetric capacity and is not likely to meet any of the system targets for volumetric capacity or cost, despite the fact that its volumetric capacity is much higher than that of the 350-bar system. Both the 350-bar and 700-bar systems come close to meeting the Well-to-Tank (WTT) efficiency target, but fall short by about 5%. These results are summarized.

  12. Refinement of Modeling Techniques for the Structural Evaluation of Hanford Single-Shell Nuclear Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Karri, Naveen K.; Rinker, Michael W.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Bapanapalli, Satish K.

    2012-11-10

    ABSTRACT Several tanks at the Hanford Site (in Washington State, USA) belong to the first generation of underground nuclear waste storage tanks known as single shell tanks (SSTs). These tanks were constructed between 1943 and 1964 and are well beyond their design life. This article discusses the structural analysis approach and modeling challenges encountered during the ongoing analysis of record (AOR) for evaluating the structural integrity of the SSTs. There are several geometrical and material nonlinearities and uncertainties to be dealt with while performing the modern finite element analysis of these tanks. The analysis takes into account the temperature history of the tanks and allowable mechanical operating loads of these tanks for proper estimation of creep strains and thermal degradation of material properties. The loads prescribed in the AOR models also include anticipated loads that these tanks may see during waste retrieval and closure. Due to uncertainty in a number of inputs to the models, sensitivity studies were conducted to address questions related to the boundary conditions to realistically or conservatively represent the influence of surrounding tanks in a tank farm, the influence of backfill excavation slope, the extent of backfill and the total extent of undisturbed soil surrounding the backfill. Because of the limited availability of data on the thermal and operating history for many of the individual tanks, some of the data was assumed or interpolated. However, the models developed for the analysis of record represent the bounding scenarios and include the loading conditions that the tanks were subjected to or anticipated. The modeling refinement techniques followed in the AOR resulted in conservative estimates for force and moment demands at various sections in the concrete tanks. This article discusses the modeling aspects related to Type-II and Type-III SSTs. The modeling techniques, methodology and evaluation criteria developed for

  13. Pantropical trends in mangrove above-ground biomass and annual litterfall.

    PubMed

    Saenger, Peter; Snedaker, Samuel C

    1993-12-01

    A major paradigm in biosphere ecology is that organic production, carbon turnover and, perhaps, species diversity are highest at tropical latitudes, and decrease toward higher latitudes. To examine these trends in the pantropical mangrove forest vegetation type, we collated and analysed data on above-ground biomass and annual litterfall for these communities. Regressions of biomass and litterfall data show significant relationships with height of the vegetation and latitude. It is suggested that height and latitude are causally related to biomass, while the relationship with litterfall reflects the specific growing conditions at the respective study sites. Comparison of mangrove and upland forest litterfall data shows similar trends with latitude but indicates that mangrove litterfall is higher than upland forest litterfall. The regression equations allow the litterfall/biomass ratio to be simulated, and this suggests that the patterns of organic matter partitioning differ according to latitude.

  14. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Successful Integration & Deployment of Technologies Results in Remediated Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Billingsley, K.; Bolling, D.

    2002-02-27

    This paper presents an overview of the underground technologies deployed during the cleanup of nine large underground storage tanks (USTs) that contained residual radioactive sludge, liquid low-level waste (LLLW), and other debris. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was successfully completed in 2001, ending with the stabilization of the USTs and the cleanup of the South Tank Farm. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project was the first of its kind completed in the United States of America. The Project integrated robotic and remotely operated technologies into an effective tank waste retrieval system that safely retrieved more than 348 m3 (92,000 gal) of radioactive sludge and 3.15E+15 Bq (85,000 Ci) of radioactive contamination from the tanks. The Project successfully transferred over 2,385 m3 (630,000 gal) of waste slurry to ORNL's active tank waste management system. The project team avoided over $120 Million in costs and shortened the original baseline schedule by over 10 years. Completing the Gunite Tanks Remediation Project eliminated the risks posed by the aging USTs and the waste they contained, and avoid the $400,000 annual costs associated with maintaining and monitoring the tanks.

  15. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    WEBER RA

    2009-01-16

    The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up material and release gas and are assigned to waste group B. These tanks are considered to represent a potential induced flammable gas release hazard, but no spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and have an energy ratio {ge} 3.0, but that pass the third criterion (buoyancy ratio < 1.0, see below) are also assigned to waste group B. Even though the designation as a waste

  16. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    FOWLER KD

    2007-12-27

    This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 7 is the annual update of the calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs. The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up

  17. Review of Analytes of Concern and Sample Methods for Closure of DOE High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, T.R.

    2002-05-06

    Sampling residual waste after tank cleaning and analysis for analytes of concern to support closure and cleaning targets of large underground tanks used for storage of legacy high level radioactive waste (HLW) at Department of Energy (DOE) sites has been underway since about 1995. The DOE Tanks Focus Area (TFA) has been working with DOE tank sites to develop new sampling plans, and sampling methods for assessment of residual waste inventories. This paper discusses regulatory analytes of concern, sampling plans, and sampling methods that support closure and cleaning target activities for large storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP).

  18. Review of Analytes of Concern and Sample Methods for Closure of DOE High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Thomas Russell

    2002-08-01

    Sampling residual waste after tank cleaning and analysis for analytes of concern to support closure and cleaning targets of large underground tanks used for storage of legacy high level radioactive waste (HLW) at Department of Energy (DOE) sites has been underway since about 1995. The DOE Tanks Focus Area (TFA) has been working with DOE tank sites to develop new sampling plans, and sampling methods for assessment of residual waste inventories. This paper discusses regulatory analytes of concern, sampling plans, and sampling methods that support closure and cleaning target activities for large storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP).

  19. Experimental validation of a numerical model for an internal melt ice-on-coil thermal storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, J.H.M.; Krarti, M.

    1997-12-31

    An internal melt ice-on-coil thermal storage tank was instrumented and tested over various inlet conditions of secondary fluid temperature and flow rate in a full-scale heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) laboratory. Five charging/discharging cycle tests were performed. The measured data for one typical charging/discharging cycle were used to validate a numerical model developed for analyzing internal melt ice-on-coil ice storage tanks. The validation analysis was based on the secondary fluid temperature leaving the tank, the secondary fluid heat transfer rates, the inventory of ice, the temperature of the secondary fluid at four representative locations along the coil, the temperature of the water and the ice at three representative locations inside the tank, and secondary fluid pressure drop through the tank. In general, good agreement was found between the predicted and the measured data.

  20. Viability in methyl soyate of microbial contaminants from farm fuel storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, D.; Katta, S.K.; Bullerman, L.B.; Hanna, M.A.; Gennadios, A.

    1996-11-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable, environmentally sound alternative fuel derived from vegetable oils and animal fats, Microbial contamination is a known problem with diesel fuel. The susceptibility of methyl soyate or its blends with diesel fuel to microbial growth has not been investigated. Bacillus species including two B. cereus strains were identified as problem-causing microorganisms in diesel fuel samples collected from agricultural diesel fuel storage tanks. Growth of these microorganisms was inhibited by methyl soyate. Inoculated bacteria were not viable in methyl soyate or in 20/80, 50/50, and 80/20% methyl soyate/diesel fuel blend samples after 8 weeks of storage. In contrast, bacterial counts increased significantly (P < 0.05) in both distilled water control and diesel fuel samples after 8 weeks of storage. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Thermal analysis of the position of the freezing front around an LNG in-ground storage tank with a heat barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, O.; Tanaka, M.

    A technique of controlling the extent of the freezing zone created by in ground liquefied natural gas storage tanks by installing a heat barrier is described. The freezing conditions around three representative tanks after operating the system were compared.

  2. Cryograb: A Novel Approach to the Retrieval of Waste from Underground Storage Tanks - 13501

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Luke; Baker, Stephen; Bowen, Bob; Mallick, Pramod; Smith, Gary; King, Bill; Judd, Laurie

    2013-07-01

    The UK's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) is investigating the use of cryogenic technology for the recovery of nuclear waste. Cryograb, freezing the waste on a 'cryo-head' and then retrieves it as a single mass which can then be treated or stabilized as necessary. The technology has a number of benefits over other retrieval approaches in that it minimizes sludge disturbance thereby reducing effluent arising and it can be used to de-water, and thereby reduce the volume of waste. The technology has been successfully deployed for a variety of nuclear and non-nuclear waste recovery operations. The application of Cryograb for the recovery of waste from US underground storage tanks is being explored through a US DOE International Technology Transfer and Demonstration programme. A sample deployment being considered involves the recovery of residual mounds of sludge material from waste storage tanks at Savannah River. Operational constraints and success criteria were agreed prior to the completion of a process down selection exercise which specified the preferred configuration of the cryo-head and supporting plant. Subsequent process modeling identified retrieval rates and temperature gradients through the waste and tank infrastructure. The work, which has been delivered in partnership with US DOE, SRNL, NuVision Engineering and Frigeo AB has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the approach (to TRL 2) and has resulted in the allocation of additional funding from DOE to take the programme to bench and cold pilot-scale trials. (authors)

  3. A large experimental apparatus for measuring thermal conductance of LH2 storage tank insulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, S.; Onishi, K.; Kawagoe, E.; Nishigaki, K.

    2000-01-01

    In the Japanese hydrogen project, WE-NET (World Energy Net Work), the conceptual design of the large mass liquid hydrogen storage systems for ground tanks and transportation, whose scales would reach to that of commercialized LNG (liquid national gas), has been studied. This study has concluded that the thermal insulation for a mass storage tank, providing the excellent thermal performance with the optimized strength, should be developed. In order to evaluate thermal conductance of various devised insulations, we have manufactured a large-scale experimental apparatus. This apparatus, which adopts a double guarded flat plate boil-off calorimeter method, can provide the thermal data needed for designing a full-scale tank. It would be possible to test various kinds of specimens with allowable dimensions: diameter 120 cm, thickness up to 30 cm. In the case of a rigid specimen contacting bottom surfaces of liquid hydrogen vessels, the good flatness of their bottom plates is desirable to reduce the thermal resistance between vessels and a specimen surface. This paper describes the abstract of the developed apparatus, its structural design and also the experimental results for verifying its structural design.

  4. Treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives for the gunite and associated tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    DePew, R.E.; Rickett, K.; Redus, K.S.; DuMont, S.P.; Lewis, B.E.; DePaoli, S.M.; Van Hoesen, S.D. Jr.

    1996-05-01

    The gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) are inactive, liquid low-level waste tanks located in and around the North and South Tank Farms at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These underground tanks are the subject of an ongoing treatability study that will determine the best remediation alternatives for the tanks. As part of the treatability study, an assessment of viable treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) alternatives has been conducted. The report summarizes relevant waste characterization data and statistics obtained to date. The report describes screening and evaluation criteria for evaluating TSD options. Individual options that pass the screening criteria are described in some detail. Order-or-magnitude cost estimates are presented for each of the TSD system alternatives. All alternatives are compared to the baseline approach of pumping all of the GAAT sludge and supernate to the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility for eventual TSD along with the existing MOST waste. Four TSD systems are identified as alternatives to the baseline approach. The baseline is the most expensive of the five identified alternatives. The least expensive alternative is in-situ grouting of all GAAT sludge followed by in-situ disposal. The other alternatives are: (1) ex-situ grouting with on-site storage and disposal at Nevada Test Site (NTS); (2) ex-situ grouting with on-site storage and disposal at NTS and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); and (3) ex-situ vitrification with on-site storage and disposal at NTS and WIPP.

  5. Housekeeping Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 119: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-26

    The Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order was entered into by the State of Nevada, US Department of Energy, and US Department of Defense to identify sites of potential historical contamination and implement corrective actions based on public health and environmental considerations. The facilities subject to this agreement include the Nevada Test Site (NTS), parts of the Tonopah Test Range, parts to the Nellis Air Force Range, the Central Nevada Test Area, and the Project Shoal Area. Corrective Action Sites (CASs) are areas potentially requiring corrective actions and may include solid waste management units, individual disposal, or release sites. Based on geography, technical similarity, agency responsibility, or other appropriate reasons, CASs are grouped together into Corrective Action Units (CAUs) for the purpose of determining appropriate corrective actions. This report contains the Closure Verification Forms for cleanup activities that were performed at 19 CASs with in CAU 119 on the NTS. The form for each CAS provides the location, directions to the site, general description, and photographs of the site before and after cleanup activities. Activities included verification of the prior removal of both aboveground and underground gas/oil storage tanks, gas sampling tanks, pressure fuel tanks, tank stands, trailers, debris, and other material. Based on these former activities, no further action is required at these CASs.

  6. Closure report for underground storage tank 161-R1U1 and its associated underground piping

    SciTech Connect

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-05-01

    Underground storage tank (UST) 161-31 R at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. UST 161-31R was subsequently renamed UST 161-R1U1 (Fig. A-1, Appendix A). UST 161-R1U1 was installed in 1976, and had a capacity of 383 gallons. This tank system consisted of a fiberglass reinforced plastic tank, approximately 320 feet of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) underground piping from Building 161, and approximately 40 feet of PVC underground piping from Building 160. The underground piping connected laboratory drains and sinks inside Buildings 160 and 161 to UST 161-R1U1. The wastewater collected in UST 161-R1U1, contained organic solvents, metals, inorganic acids, and radionuclides, most of which was produced within Building 161. On June 28, 1989, the UST 161-R1U1 piping system.around the perimeter of Building 161 failed a precision test performed by Gary Peters Enterprises (Appendix B). The 161-R1U1 tank system was removed from service after the precision test. In July 1989, additional hydrostatic tests and helium leak detection tests were performed (Appendix B) to determine the locations of the piping failures in the Building 161 piping system. The locations of the piping system failures are shown in Figure A-2 (Appendix A). On July 11, 1989, LLNL submitted an Unauthorized Release Report to Alameda County Department of Environmental Health (ACDEH), Appendix C.

  7. Assessing General Relationships Between Above-Ground Biomass and Vegetation Structure Parameters for Improved Carbon Estimate from Lidar Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni-Meister, W.; Lee, S.; Strahler, A. H.; Woodcock, C. E.; Schaaf, C.; Yao, T.; Ranson, J.; Sun, G.; Blair, J. B.

    2009-12-01

    Lidar remote sensing uses vegetation height to estimate large-scale above-ground biomass. However, lidar height and biomass relationships are empirical and thus often lead to large uncertainties in above-ground biomass estimates. This study uses vegetation structure measurements from field: an airborne lidar (Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor, LVIS)) and a full wave form ground-based lidar (Echidna® validation instrument, EVI) collected in the New England region in 2003 and 2007, to investigate using additional vegetation structure parameters besides height for improved above-ground biomass estimation from lidar. Our field data analysis shows that using woody volume (approximated by the product of basal area and top 10% tree height) and vegetation type (conifer/softwood or deciduous/hardwood forests, providing wood density) has the potential to improve above-ground biomass estimates at large scale. This result is comparable to previous work by Chave et al. (2005), which focused on individual trees. However this study uses a slightly different approach, and our woody volume is estimated differently from Chave et al. (2005). Previous studies found that RH50 is a good predictor of above-ground biomass (Drake et al., 2002; 2003). Our LVIS data analysis shows that structure parameters that combine height and gap fraction, such as RH100*cover and RH50*cover, perform similarly or even better than RH50. We also found that the close relationship of RH100*cover and RH50*cover with woody volume explains why they are good predictors of above-ground biomass. RH50 is highly related to RH100*cover, and this explains why RH50 is a better predictor of biomass than RH100. This study shows that using structure parameters combining height and gap fraction improve above-ground biomass estimate compared to height alone, and fusion of lidar and optical remote sensing (to provide vegetation type) will provide better above-ground biomass estimates than lidar alone. Ground lidar analysis

  8. Above-ground woody carbon sequestration measured from tree rings is coherent with net ecosystem productivity at five eddy-covariance sites.

    PubMed

    Babst, Flurin; Bouriaud, Olivier; Papale, Dario; Gielen, Bert; Janssens, Ivan A; Nikinmaa, Eero; Ibrom, Andreas; Wu, Jian; Bernhofer, Christian; Köstner, Barbara; Grünwald, Thomas; Seufert, Günther; Ciais, Philippe; Frank, David

    2014-03-01

    • Attempts to combine biometric and eddy-covariance (EC) quantifications of carbon allocation to different storage pools in forests have been inconsistent and variably successful in the past. • We assessed above-ground biomass changes at five long-term EC forest stations based on tree-ring width and wood density measurements, together with multiple allometric models. Measurements were validated with site-specific biomass estimates and compared with the sum of monthly CO₂ fluxes between 1997 and 2009. • Biometric measurements and seasonal net ecosystem productivity (NEP) proved largely compatible and suggested that carbon sequestered between January and July is mainly used for volume increase, whereas that taken up between August and September supports a combination of cell wall thickening and storage. The inter-annual variability in above-ground woody carbon uptake was significantly linked with wood production at the sites, ranging between 110 and 370 g C m(-2) yr(-1) , thereby accounting for 10-25% of gross primary productivity (GPP), 15-32% of terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) and 25-80% of NEP. • The observed seasonal partitioning of carbon used to support different wood formation processes refines our knowledge on the dynamics and magnitude of carbon allocation in forests across the major European climatic zones. It may thus contribute, for example, to improved vegetation model parameterization and provides an enhanced framework to link tree-ring parameters with EC measurements.

  9. Sampling and Analysis Plan for Flammable Gases in Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2000-02-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the field measurements for a screening of flammable gases in the vapor space of the inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUSTs) currently assigned to the River Protection Project (RPP). If a measurement exceeds 25% of the lower flammability limit (LFL), vapor grab samples will be collected for laboratory analysis. This SAP also specifies the sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), and reporting objectives for grab sampling. Technical bases for the sampling objectives are provided in the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objectives (Dukelow et al 1995). The screening data will be used to determine if additional data are needed to support closure of a flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities.

  10. A Profile and Management of the US Army's underground storage tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmavaram, Seshasayi; Piskin, Kemal; Hoctor, Theresa J.; Donahue, Bernard A.

    1989-05-01

    The US Army owns more than 10,000 underground storage tanks (USTs), many of which are old and may be leaking. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 required tank owners to collect and report data on them by May 1986. In order to manage the large amounts of information on its USTs, the Army developed a microcomputer-based data base system. The data base system is user friendly and allows the user to store, organize, and manipulate the UST data. A leak potential index (LPI) was also developed and calculated for each of the Army's USTs. The LPI is used to prioritize USTs so that those with higher LPIs can be monitored closely. A characteristic profile of Army USTs according to construction material, capacity, age, content, and LPI is presented in this paper.

  11. The Safe Removal of Frozen Air from the Annulus of an LH2 Storage Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenn, A.; Starr, S.; Youngquist, R.; Nurge, M.; Sass, J.; Fesmire, J.; Cariker, C.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2015-01-01

    Large Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) storage tanks are vital infrastructure for NASA. Eventually, air may leak into the evacuated and perlite filled annular region of these tanks. Although the vacuum level is monitored in this region, the extremely cold temperature causes all but the helium and neon constituents of air to freeze. A small, often unnoticeable pressure rise is the result. As the leak persists, the quantity of frozen air increases, as does the thermal conductivity of the insulation system. Consequently, a notable increase in commodity boil-off is often the first indicator of an air leak. Severe damage can result from normal draining of the tank. The warming air will sublimate which will cause a pressure rise in the annulus. When the pressure increases above the triple point, the frozen air will begin to melt and migrate downward. Collection of liquid air on the carbon steel outer shell may chill it below its ductility range, resulting in fracture. In order to avoid a structural failure, as described above, a method for the safe removal of frozen air is needed. A thermal model of the storage tank has been created using SINDA/FLUINT modeling software. Experimental work is progressing in an attempt to characterize the thermal conductivity of a perlite/frozen nitrogen mixture. A statistical mechanics model is being developed in parallel for comparison to experimental work. The thermal model will be updated using the experimental/statistical mechanical data, and used to simulate potential removal scenarios. This paper will address methodologies and analysis techniques for evaluation of two proposed air removal methods.

  12. The safe removal of frozen air from the annulus of an LH2 storage tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenn, A.; Starr, S.; Youngquist, R.; Nurge, M.; Sass, J.; Fesmire, J.; Cariker, C.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2015-12-01

    Large Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) storage tanks are vital infrastructure for NASA. Eventually, air may leak into the evacuated and perlite filled annular region of these tanks. Although the vacuum level is monitored in this region, the extremely cold temperature causes all but the helium and neon constituents of air to freeze. A small, often unnoticeable pressure rise is the result. As the leak persists, the quantity of frozen air increases, as does the thermal conductivity of the insulation system. Consequently, a notable increase in commodity boil-off is often the first indicator of an air leak. Severe damage can result from normal draining of the tank. The warming air will sublimate which will cause a pressure rise in the annulus. When the pressure increases above the triple point, the frozen air will begin to melt and migrate downward. Collection of liquid air on the carbon steel outer shell may chill it below its ductility range, resulting in fracture. In order to avoid a structural failure, as described above, a method for the safe removal of frozen air is needed. A thermal model of the storage tank has been created using SINDA/FLUINT modelling software. Experimental work is progressing in an attempt to characterize the thermal conductivity of a perlite/frozen nitrogen mixture. A statistical mechanics model is being developed in parallel for comparison to experimental work. The thermal model will be updated using the experimental/statistical mechanical data, and used to simulate potential removal scenarios. This paper will address methodologies and analysis techniques for evaluation of two proposed air removal methods.

  13. Visualization of a cryogenic jet simulating leak from a liquid hydrogen storage tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Tim; Agrawal, Ajay

    2009-11-01

    Hydrogen is considered an alternative fuel in propulsion and power generation due to fuel economy standards and environmental pollution. However, if an accidental leak were to occur in a hydrogen storage tank, the discharged fuel could find an ignition source and produce an explosion. A barrier wall can be used to contain the leak from the storage tank, therefore protecting equipment and people from the explosion. Past studies have investigated the jet/barrier wall interaction, in a laboratory setting, with fuel stored as a gas. Hydrogen fuel stored as a liquid offers higher energy density. In this work, we have studied the leak at cryogenic conditions due to liquid storage parameters. Jet fluid structure is visualized in a laboratory setting using helium as the supersonic jet fluid. High-speed rainbow schlieren deflectometry (RSD) images are used to show instantaneous flow structure of jet (leakage point) and barrier wall interactions. Results show the jet inlet temperature leads to significant differences in the spread angle and the extent of fuel-air mixture region adjacent to the barrier wall.

  14. Application of Quantitative NDE Techniques to High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R. B.; Rehbein, D. K.; Bastiaans, G.; Terry, M.; Alers, R.

    2002-02-25

    As various issues make the continued usage of high-level waste storage tanks attractive, there is an increasing need to sharpen the assessment of their structural integrity. One aspect of a structural integrity program, nondestructive evaluation, is the focus of this paper. In September 2000, a program to support the sites was initiated jointly by Tanks Focus Area and Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technologies Crosscutting Program of the Office of Environmental Management, Department of Energy (DOE). The vehicle was the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, one of the National Science Foundation's Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers that is operated in close collaboration with the Ames Laboratory, USDOE. The support activities that have been provided by the center will be reviewed. Included are the organization of a series of annual workshops to allow the sites to share experiences and develop coordinated approaches to common problems, the development of an electronic source of relevant information, and assistance of the sites on particular technical problems. Directions and early results on some of these technical assistance projects are emphasized. Included are the discussion of theoretical analysis of ultrasonic wave propagation in curved plates to support the interpretation of tandem synthetic aperture focusing data to detect flaws in the knuckle region of double shell tanks; the evaluation of guided ultrasonic waves, excited by couplant free, electromagnetic acoustic transducers, to rapidly screen for inner wall corrosion in tanks; the use of spread spectrum techniques to gain information about the structural integrity of concrete domes; and the use of magnetic techniques to identify the alloys used in the construction of tanks.

  15. Comparison of machine-learning methods for above-ground biomass estimation based on Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chaofan; Shen, Huanhuan; Shen, Aihua; Deng, Jinsong; Gan, Muye; Zhu, Jinxia; Xu, Hongwei; Wang, Ke

    2016-07-01

    Biomass is one significant biophysical parameter of a forest ecosystem, and accurate biomass estimation on the regional scale provides important information for carbon-cycle investigation and sustainable forest management. In this study, Landsat satellite imagery data combined with field-based measurements were integrated through comparisons of five regression approaches [stepwise linear regression, K-nearest neighbor, support vector regression, random forest (RF), and stochastic gradient boosting] with two different candidate variable strategies to implement the optimal spatial above-ground biomass (AGB) estimation. The results suggested that RF algorithm exhibited the best performance by 10-fold cross-validation with respect to R2 (0.63) and root-mean-square error (26.44 ton/ha). Consequently, the map of estimated AGB was generated with a mean value of 89.34 ton/ha in northwestern Zhejiang Province, China, with a similar pattern to the distribution mode of local forest species. This research indicates that machine-learning approaches associated with Landsat imagery provide an economical way for biomass estimation. Moreover, ensemble methods using all candidate variables, especially for Landsat images, provide an alternative for regional biomass simulation.

  16. Above-ground biomass and structure of 260 African tropical forests

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Simon L.; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sunderland, Terry; Begne, Serge K.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje M. F.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Baker, Timothy R.; Banin, Lindsay; Bastin, Jean-François; Beeckman, Hans; Boeckx, Pascal; Bogaert, Jan; De Cannière, Charles; Chezeaux, Eric; Clark, Connie J.; Collins, Murray; Djagbletey, Gloria; Djuikouo, Marie Noël K.; Droissart, Vincent; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Ewango, Cornielle E. N.; Fauset, Sophie; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Foli, Ernest G.; Gillet, Jean-François; Hamilton, Alan C.; Harris, David J.; Hart, Terese B.; de Haulleville, Thales; Hladik, Annette; Hufkens, Koen; Huygens, Dries; Jeanmart, Philippe; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Leal, Miguel E.; Lloyd, Jon; Lovett, Jon C.; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marshall, Andrew R.; Ojo, Lucas; Peh, Kelvin S.-H.; Pickavance, Georgia; Poulsen, John R.; Reitsma, Jan M.; Sheil, Douglas; Simo, Murielle; Steppe, Kathy; Taedoumg, Hermann E.; Talbot, Joey; Taplin, James R. D.; Taylor, David; Thomas, Sean C.; Toirambe, Benjamin; Verbeeck, Hans; Vleminckx, Jason; White, Lee J. T.; Willcock, Simon; Woell, Hannsjorg; Zemagho, Lise

    2013-01-01

    We report above-ground biomass (AGB), basal area, stem density and wood mass density estimates from 260 sample plots (mean size: 1.2 ha) in intact closed-canopy tropical forests across 12 African countries. Mean AGB is 395.7 Mg dry mass ha−1 (95% CI: 14.3), substantially higher than Amazonian values, with the Congo Basin and contiguous forest region attaining AGB values (429 Mg ha−1) similar to those of Bornean forests, and significantly greater than East or West African forests. AGB therefore appears generally higher in palaeo- compared with neotropical forests. However, mean stem density is low (426 ± 11 stems ha−1 greater than or equal to 100 mm diameter) compared with both Amazonian and Bornean forests (cf. approx. 600) and is the signature structural feature of African tropical forests. While spatial autocorrelation complicates analyses, AGB shows a positive relationship with rainfall in the driest nine months of the year, and an opposite association with the wettest three months of the year; a negative relationship with temperature; positive relationship with clay-rich soils; and negative relationships with C : N ratio (suggesting a positive soil phosphorus–AGB relationship), and soil fertility computed as the sum of base cations. The results indicate that AGB is mediated by both climate and soils, and suggest that the AGB of African closed-canopy tropical forests may be particularly sensitive to future precipitation and temperature changes. PMID:23878327

  17. Above-ground biomass and structure of 260 African tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Simon L; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sunderland, Terry; Begne, Serge K; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje M F; Phillips, Oliver L; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Baker, Timothy R; Banin, Lindsay; Bastin, Jean-François; Beeckman, Hans; Boeckx, Pascal; Bogaert, Jan; De Cannière, Charles; Chezeaux, Eric; Clark, Connie J; Collins, Murray; Djagbletey, Gloria; Djuikouo, Marie Noël K; Droissart, Vincent; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Ewango, Cornielle E N; Fauset, Sophie; Feldpausch, Ted R; Foli, Ernest G; Gillet, Jean-François; Hamilton, Alan C; Harris, David J; Hart, Terese B; de Haulleville, Thales; Hladik, Annette; Hufkens, Koen; Huygens, Dries; Jeanmart, Philippe; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Leal, Miguel E; Lloyd, Jon; Lovett, Jon C; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marshall, Andrew R; Ojo, Lucas; Peh, Kelvin S-H; Pickavance, Georgia; Poulsen, John R; Reitsma, Jan M; Sheil, Douglas; Simo, Murielle; Steppe, Kathy; Taedoumg, Hermann E; Talbot, Joey; Taplin, James R D; Taylor, David; Thomas, Sean C; Toirambe, Benjamin; Verbeeck, Hans; Vleminckx, Jason; White, Lee J T; Willcock, Simon; Woell, Hannsjorg; Zemagho, Lise

    2013-01-01

    We report above-ground biomass (AGB), basal area, stem density and wood mass density estimates from 260 sample plots (mean size: 1.2 ha) in intact closed-canopy tropical forests across 12 African countries. Mean AGB is 395.7 Mg dry mass ha⁻¹ (95% CI: 14.3), substantially higher than Amazonian values, with the Congo Basin and contiguous forest region attaining AGB values (429 Mg ha⁻¹) similar to those of Bornean forests, and significantly greater than East or West African forests. AGB therefore appears generally higher in palaeo- compared with neotropical forests. However, mean stem density is low (426 ± 11 stems ha⁻¹ greater than or equal to 100 mm diameter) compared with both Amazonian and Bornean forests (cf. approx. 600) and is the signature structural feature of African tropical forests. While spatial autocorrelation complicates analyses, AGB shows a positive relationship with rainfall in the driest nine months of the year, and an opposite association with the wettest three months of the year; a negative relationship with temperature; positive relationship with clay-rich soils; and negative relationships with C : N ratio (suggesting a positive soil phosphorus-AGB relationship), and soil fertility computed as the sum of base cations. The results indicate that AGB is mediated by both climate and soils, and suggest that the AGB of African closed-canopy tropical forests may be particularly sensitive to future precipitation and temperature changes.

  18. Fluid dynamic studies for a simulated Melton Valley Storage Tank slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Hylton, T.D.; Youngblood, E.L.; Cummins, R.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), are used for the collection and storage of remote-handled radioactive liquid wastes. These wastes, which were typically acidic when generated, were neutralized with the addition of sodium hydroxide to protect the storage tanks from corrosion, but this caused the transuranic and heavy metals to precipitate. These wastes will eventually need to be removed from the tanks for ultimate disposal. The objective of the research activities discussed in this report is to support the design of a pipeline transport system between the MVSTs and a treatment facility. Since the wastes in the MVSTs are highly radioactive, a surrogate slurry was developed for this study. Rheological properties of the simulated slurry were determined in a test loop in which the slurry was circulated through three pipeline viscometers of different diameters. Pressure drop data at varying flow rates were used to obtain shear stress and shear rate data. The data were analyzed, and the slurry rheological properties were analyzed by the Power Law model and the Bingham plastic model. The plastic viscosity and yield stress data obtained from the rheological tests were used as inputs for a piping design software package, and the pressure drops predicted by the software compared well with the pressure drop data obtained from the test loop. The minimum transport velocity was determine for the slurry by adding known nominal sizes of glass spheres to the slurry. However, it was shown that the surrogate slurry exhibited hindered settling, which may substantially decrease the minimum transport velocity. Therefore, it may be desired to perform additional tests with a surrogate with a lower concentration of suspended solids to determine the minimum transport velocity.

  19. Storage Tanks and Dispensers for E85 and Bio-Diesel

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Michael; Frederick, Justin

    2014-02-10

    Project objective is to improve the District's alternative fueling infrastructure by installing storage tanks and dispensers for E-85 and Bio-Diesel at the existing Blackwell Forest Preserve Alternative Fuel Station. The addition of E-85 and Bio-Diesel at this station will continue to reduce our dependency on foreign oil, while promoting the use of clean burning, domestically produced, renewable alternative fuels. In addition, this station will promote strong intergovernmental cooperation as other governmental agencies have expressed interest in utilizing this station.

  20. Indian Country Leaking Underground Storage Tanks Map Service, Region 9, 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This map service displays Leaking Underground Storage Tanks in US EPA Region 9 Indian Country. The service is composed of three layers; one for each unique LUST Status. There are a total of 289 features having a LUST status of open, closed with no residual contamination, or closed with residual contamination. Additional attributes in this dataset contain facility name and locational information, status of LUST case, operating status of facility, inspection dates, and links to No Further Action letters for closed LUST cases. This map service is used in the LUST web map application at https://geopub.epa.gov/R9_Tribal_Leaking_UST

  1. Permeability of Flexible Materials Used in Fuel Storage Tanks. Part 1. General Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    of this Report is unlimited KEYWORDS J POL STORAGE " FABRICS FUEL TANKS PERMEABILITY PERVAPORATION COSATI gOOUPSY. 1109 2104 ABSTRAMrj A review of the...impermeability [I] and consequently a clearer understanding of the factors affecting permeability of these fabrics would be useful.I’- Pervaporation ... pervaporation , in the steady state, it can be written Q Do Se & t/l uPAt/l i.e. P -0S ’the formal similarity of this ujxpression to that derived for

  2. Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank, Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank, Caustic Wash Tank And Caustic Storage Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 6 Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.

    2013-10-01

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Caustic Storage Tank (CST) samples from several of the ''microbatches'' of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (''Macrobatch'') 6 have been analyzed for {sup 238}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from comparable samples in Macrobatch 5. From a bulk chemical point of view, the ICPES results do not vary considerably between this and the previous macrobatch. The titanium results in the DSSHT samples continue to indicate the presence of Ti, when the feed material does not have detectable levels. This most likely indicates that leaching of Ti from MST in ARP continues to occur. Both the CST and CWT samples indicate that the target Free OH value of 0.03 has been surpassed. While at this time there is no indication that this has caused an operational problem, the CST should be adjusted into specification. The {sup 137}Cs results from the SRNL as well as F/H lab data indicate a potential decline in cesium decontamination factor. Further samples will be carefully monitored to investigate this.

  3. Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank, Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank, Caustic Wash Tank And Caustic Storage Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 6 Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.

    2014-01-02

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Caustic Storage Tank (CST) samples from the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 6 have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The Pu, Sr, and Cs results from the current Macrobatch 6 samples are similar to those from comparable samples in previous Macrobatch 5. In addition the SEHT and DSSHT heel samples (i.e. ‘preliminary’) have been analyzed and reported to meet NGS Demonstration Plan requirements. From a bulk chemical point of view, the ICPES results do not vary considerably between this and the previous samples. The titanium results in the DSSHT samples continue to indicate the presence of Ti, when the feed material does not have detectable levels. This most likely indicates that leaching of Ti from MST has increased in ARP at the higher free hydroxide concentrations in the current feed.

  4. The secret life of ground squirrels: accelerometry reveals sex-dependent plasticity in above-ground activity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cory T; Wilsterman, Kathryn; Zhang, Victor; Moore, Jeanette; Barnes, Brian M; Buck, C Loren

    2016-09-01

    The sexes differ in how and when they allocate energy towards reproduction, but how this influences phenotypic plasticity in daily activity patterns is unclear. Here, we use collar-mounted light loggers and triaxial accelerometers to examine factors that affect time spent above ground and overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), an index of activity-specific energy expenditure, across the active season of free-living, semi-fossorial arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). We found high day-to-day variability in time spent above ground and ODBA with most of the variance explained by environmental conditions known to affect thermal exchange. In both years, females spent more time below ground compared with males during parturition and early lactation; however, this difference was fourfold larger in the second year, possibly, because females were in better body condition. Daily ODBA positively correlated with time spent above ground in both sexes, but females were more active per unit time above ground. Consequently, daily ODBA did not differ between the sexes when females were early in lactation, even though females were above ground three to six fewer hours each day. Further, on top of having the additional burden of milk production, ODBA data indicate females also had fragmented rest patterns and were more active during late lactation. Our results indicate that sex differences in reproductive requirements can have a substantial influence on activity patterns, but the size of this effect may be dependent on capital resources accrued during gestation.

  5. The secret life of ground squirrels: accelerometry reveals sex-dependent plasticity in above-ground activity

    PubMed Central

    Wilsterman, Kathryn; Zhang, Victor; Moore, Jeanette; Barnes, Brian M.; Buck, C. Loren

    2016-01-01

    The sexes differ in how and when they allocate energy towards reproduction, but how this influences phenotypic plasticity in daily activity patterns is unclear. Here, we use collar-mounted light loggers and triaxial accelerometers to examine factors that affect time spent above ground and overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), an index of activity-specific energy expenditure, across the active season of free-living, semi-fossorial arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). We found high day-to-day variability in time spent above ground and ODBA with most of the variance explained by environmental conditions known to affect thermal exchange. In both years, females spent more time below ground compared with males during parturition and early lactation; however, this difference was fourfold larger in the second year, possibly, because females were in better body condition. Daily ODBA positively correlated with time spent above ground in both sexes, but females were more active per unit time above ground. Consequently, daily ODBA did not differ between the sexes when females were early in lactation, even though females were above ground three to six fewer hours each day. Further, on top of having the additional burden of milk production, ODBA data indicate females also had fragmented rest patterns and were more active during late lactation. Our results indicate that sex differences in reproductive requirements can have a substantial influence on activity patterns, but the size of this effect may be dependent on capital resources accrued during gestation. PMID:27703706

  6. Seasonal thermal storage: Swedish practice, developments and cost projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margen, P.

    1981-06-01

    The types of heat store being developed in Sweden for seasonal storage of heat are discussed. This type of storage allows summer excess heat from industrial waste heat plants, garbage burning plants and future central solar heat stations to be stored for winter use on district heating networks. Whereas above ground steel or concrete tanks are usually too expensive insulated earth pits, uninsulated rock caverns and deep ground schemes using rock or clay promise to achieve sufficiently low costs to justify storage when supplied with free or cheap summer treat. For all these concepts demonstration plants were or are being built in Sweden.

  7. Seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy high-level waste storage tanks and appurtenances

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Cornell, A.; Costantino, C.; Kennedy, R.; Miller, C.; Veletsos, A.

    1993-01-01

    This document provides guidelines for the design and evaluation of underground high-level waste storage tanks due to seismic loads. Attempts were made to reflect the knowledge acquired in the last two decades in the areas of defining the ground motion and calculating hydrodynamic loads and dynamic soil pressures for underground tank structures. The application of the analysis approach is illustrated with an example. The guidelines are developed for specific design of underground storage tanks, namely double-shell structures. However, the methodology discussed is applicable for other types of tank structures as well. The application of these and of suitably adjusted versions of these concepts to other structural types will be addressed in a future version of this document.

  8. Underground storage tanks 200W-FS-34 and 200W-FS-35 excavated soil field sample plan

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, J.G.

    1994-09-07

    This plan outlines the process that will be used to collect samples from soil excavated during removal of underground storage tanks 200W-FS-34 and 200W-FS-35. The samples will be analyzed to determine if gasoline and diesel fuel are present in the soil at levels above action levels specified by the Washington State Department of Ecology. On April 15, 1992, the underground storage tanks were removed and soil samples were collected at each former tank location and from around the associated piping. Soil was excavated from the site until field instrumentation indicated that the former tank sites were clean in the judgment of the field team leader. Field monitoring consisted of using an organic vapor monitor to survey soil shaken in a plastic bag. Monitoring indicated that petroleum contamination ranged from 40 to 800 ppm.

  9. Deterministic model for an internal melt ice-on-coil thermal storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, J.H.M.; Krarti, M.

    1997-12-31

    A deterministic numerical model, based on a quasi-steady-state approach, is developed for an internal melt ice-on-coil thermal storage tank with a built-in spiral coil tubing heat exchanger having a counterflow configuration and quiescent water around the coils. This model is able to simulate both charging and discharging modes, taking into account the overlapping phenomenon that occurs due to the superposition of the ice layers during freezing as well as the superposition of the water layers during melting. The developed model accounts for the cooldown of the water earlier during the charging period and the warm-up of the water later during the discharging period. The input parameters include the geometric dimensions of the tank, the secondary fluid temperature and its flow rate entering the tank, the number of segments along the coil, and the time step. The model determines the heat transfer rates, the inventory of the ice, and other output parameters such as temperatures and ice/water radius. This model can be used by manufacturers and engineers for design and simulation purposes.

  10. Root growth dynamics linked to above-ground growth in walnut (Juglans regia)

    PubMed Central

    Contador, Maria Loreto; Comas, Louise H.; Metcalf, Samuel G.; Stewart, William L.; Porris Gomez, Ignacio; Negron, Claudia; Lampinen, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Examination of plant growth below ground is relatively scant compared with that above ground, and is needed to understand whole-plant responses to the environment. This study examines whether the seasonal timing of fine root growth and the spatial distribution of this growth through the soil profile varies in response to canopy manipulation and soil temperature. Methods Plasticity in the seasonal timing and vertical distribution of root production in response to canopy and soil water manipulation was analysed in field-grown walnut (Juglans regia ‘Chandler’) using minirhizotron techniques. Key Results Root production in walnuts followed a unimodal curve, with one marked flush of root growth starting in mid-May, with a peak in mid-June. Root production declined later in the season, corresponding to increased soil temperature, as well as to the period of major carbohydrate allocation to reproduction. Canopy and soil moisture manipulation did not influence the timing of root production, but did influence the vertical distribution of roots through the soil profile. Water deficit appeared to promote root production in deeper soil layers for mining soil water. Canopy removal appeared to promote shallow root production. Conclusions The findings of this study add to growing evidence that root growth in many ecosystems follows a unimodal curve with one marked flush of root growth in coordination with the initial leaf flush of the season. Root vertical distribution appeared to have greater plasticity than timing of root production in this system, with temperature and/or carbohydrate competition constraining the timing of root growth. Effects on root distribution can have serious impacts on trees, with shallow rooting having negative impacts in years with limited soil water or positive impacts in years with wet springs, and deep rooting having positive impacts on soil water mining from deeper soil layers but negative impacts in years with wet springs

  11. Optimal Atmospheric Correction for Above-Ground Forest Biomass Estimation with the ETM+ Remote Sensor.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hieu Cong; Jung, Jaehoon; Lee, Jungbin; Choi, Sung-Uk; Hong, Suk-Young; Heo, Joon

    2015-07-31

    The reflectance of the Earth's surface is significantly influenced by atmospheric conditions such as water vapor content and aerosols. Particularly, the absorption and scattering effects become stronger when the target features are non-bright objects, such as in aqueous or vegetated areas. For any remote-sensing approach, atmospheric correction is thus required to minimize those effects and to convert digital number (DN) values to surface reflectance. The main aim of this study was to test the three most popular atmospheric correction models, namely (1) Dark Object Subtraction (DOS); (2) Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH) and (3) the Second Simulation of Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) and compare them with Top of Atmospheric (TOA) reflectance. By using the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) algorithm, a series of experiments were conducted for above-ground forest biomass (AGB) estimations of the Gongju and Sejong region of South Korea, in order to check the effectiveness of atmospheric correction methods for Landsat ETM+. Overall, in the forest biomass estimation, the 6S model showed the bestRMSE's, followed by FLAASH, DOS and TOA. In addition, a significant improvement of RMSE by 6S was found with images when the study site had higher total water vapor and temperature levels. Moreover, we also tested the sensitivity of the atmospheric correction methods to each of the Landsat ETM+ bands. The results confirmed that 6S dominates the other methods, especially in the infrared wavelengths covering the pivotal bands for forest applications. Finally, we suggest that the 6S model, integrating water vapor and aerosol optical depth derived from MODIS products, is better suited for AGB estimation based on optical remote-sensing data, especially when using satellite images acquired in the summer during full canopy development.

  12. Optimal Atmospheric Correction for Above-Ground Forest Biomass Estimation with the ETM+ Remote Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hieu Cong; Jung, Jaehoon; Lee, Jungbin; Choi, Sung-Uk; Hong, Suk-Young; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The reflectance of the Earth’s surface is significantly influenced by atmospheric conditions such as water vapor content and aerosols. Particularly, the absorption and scattering effects become stronger when the target features are non-bright objects, such as in aqueous or vegetated areas. For any remote-sensing approach, atmospheric correction is thus required to minimize those effects and to convert digital number (DN) values to surface reflectance. The main aim of this study was to test the three most popular atmospheric correction models, namely (1) Dark Object Subtraction (DOS); (2) Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH) and (3) the Second Simulation of Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) and compare them with Top of Atmospheric (TOA) reflectance. By using the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) algorithm, a series of experiments were conducted for above-ground forest biomass (AGB) estimations of the Gongju and Sejong region of South Korea, in order to check the effectiveness of atmospheric correction methods for Landsat ETM+. Overall, in the forest biomass estimation, the 6S model showed the bestRMSE’s, followed by FLAASH, DOS and TOA. In addition, a significant improvement of RMSE by 6S was found with images when the study site had higher total water vapor and temperature levels. Moreover, we also tested the sensitivity of the atmospheric correction methods to each of the Landsat ETM+ bands. The results confirmed that 6S dominates the other methods, especially in the infrared wavelengths covering the pivotal bands for forest applications. Finally, we suggest that the 6S model, integrating water vapor and aerosol optical depth derived from MODIS products, is better suited for AGB estimation based on optical remote-sensing data, especially when using satellite images acquired in the summer during full canopy development. PMID:26263996

  13. Estimating above-ground biomass on mountain meadows and pastures through remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrachina, M.; Cristóbal, J.; Tulla, A. F.

    2015-06-01

    Extensive stock-breeding systems developed in mountain areas like the Pyrenees are crucial for local farming economies and depend largely on above-ground biomass (AGB) in the form of grass produced on meadows and pastureland. In this study, a multiple linear regression analysis technique based on in-situ biomass collection and vegetation and wetness indices derived from Landsat-5 TM data is successfully applied in a mountainous Pyrenees area to model AGB. Temporal thoroughness of the data is ensured by using a large series of images. Results of on-site AGB collection show the importance for AGB models to capture the high interannual and intraseasonal variability that results from both meteorological conditions and farming practices. AGB models yield best results at midsummer and end of summer before mowing operations by farmers, with a mean R2, RMSE and PE for 2008 and 2009 midsummer of 0.76, 95 g m-2 and 27%, respectively; and with a mean R2, RMSE and PE for 2008 and 2009 end of summer of 0.74, 128 g m-2 and 36%, respectively. Although vegetation indices are a priori more related with biomass production, wetness indices play an important role in modeling AGB, being statistically selected more frequently (more than 50%) than other traditional vegetation indexes (around 27%) such as NDVI. This suggests that middle infrared bands are crucial descriptors of AGB. The methodology applied in this work compares favorably with other works in the literature, yielding better results than those works in mountain areas, owing to the ability of the proposed methodology to capture natural and anthropogenic variations in AGB which are the key to increasing AGB modeling accuracy.

  14. Estimating Above Ground Biomass using LiDAR in the Northcoast Redwood Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M.; Stewart, E.

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, LiDAR (Light Intensity Detection Amplification and Ranging) is increasingly being used in estimating biophysical parameters related to forested environments. The main goal of the project is to estimate long-term biomass accumulation and carbon sequestration potential of the redwoods ecosystem. The project objectives are aimed at providing an assessment of carbon pools within the redwood ecosystem. Specifically, we intend to develop a relational model based on LiDAR-based canopy estimates and extensive ground-based measurements available for the old-growth redwood forest located within the Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park, CA. Our preliminary analysis involved developing a geospatial database, including LiDAR data collected in 2007 for the study site, and analyzing the data using USFS Fusion software. The study area comprised of a 12-acres section of coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) in the Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park, located in Orick, CA. A series of analytical steps were executed using the USFS FUSION software to produce some intermediate data such as bare earth model, canopy height model, canopy coverage model, and canopy maxima treelist. Canopy maxima tree tops were compared to ground layer to determine height of tree tops. A total of over 1000 trees were estimated, and then with thinning (to eliminate errors due to low vegetation > 3 meters tall), a total of 950 trees were delineated. Ground measurements were imported as a point based shapefile and then compared to the treetop heights created from LiDAR data to the actual ground referenced data. The results were promising as most estimated treetops were within 1-3 meters of the ground measurements and generally within 3-5m of the actual tree height. Finally, we are in the process of applying some allometric equations to estimate above ground biomass using some of the LiDAR-derived canopy metrics.

  15. The Performance of Underground Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks at the Savannah River Site: A 60-Year Historical Perspective

    DOE PAGES

    Wiersma, Bruce J.

    2014-02-08

    The Savannah River Site produced weapons-grade materials for nearly 35 years between 1953 and 1988. The legacy of this production is nearly 37 million gallons of radioactive waste. Since the 1950s, the liquid waste has been stored in large, underground carbon steel waste tanks. During the past 20 years, the site has begun to process the waste so that it may be stored in vitrified and grout forms, which are more suitable for long-term storage. Over the history of the site, some tanks have experienced leakage of the waste to the secondary containment. This article is a review of themore » instances of leakage and corrosion degradation that the tanks and associated equipment have experienced since the first tanks were built. Furthermore, the activities that the site has taken to mitigate the degradation and manage the service life of the tank for its anticipated lifetime are reviewed.« less

  16. The Performance of Underground Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks at the Savannah River Site: A 60-Year Historical Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, Bruce J.

    2014-02-08

    The Savannah River Site produced weapons-grade materials for nearly 35 years between 1953 and 1988. The legacy of this production is nearly 37 million gallons of radioactive waste. Since the 1950s, the liquid waste has been stored in large, underground carbon steel waste tanks. During the past 20 years, the site has begun to process the waste so that it may be stored in vitrified and grout forms, which are more suitable for long-term storage. Over the history of the site, some tanks have experienced leakage of the waste to the secondary containment. This article is a review of the instances of leakage and corrosion degradation that the tanks and associated equipment have experienced since the first tanks were built. Furthermore, the activities that the site has taken to mitigate the degradation and manage the service life of the tank for its anticipated lifetime are reviewed.

  17. Development of a computer code to predict a ventilation requirement for an underground radioactive waste storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.J.; Dalpiaz, E.L.

    1997-08-01

    Computer code, WTVFE (Waste Tank Ventilation Flow Evaluation), has been developed to evaluate the ventilation requirement for an underground storage tank for radioactive waste. Heat generated by the radioactive waste and mixing pumps in the tank is removed mainly through the ventilation system. The heat removal process by the ventilation system includes the evaporation of water from the waste and the heat transfer by natural convection from the waste surface. Also, a portion of the heat will be removed through the soil and the air circulating through the gap between the primary and secondary tanks. The heat loss caused by evaporation is modeled based on recent evaporation test results by the Westinghouse Hanford Company using a simulated small scale waste tank. Other heat transfer phenomena are evaluated based on well established conduction and convection heat transfer relationships. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 121: Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 121 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended February 2008) as Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites. CAU 121 consists of the following three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 12-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; (2) CAS 12-01-02, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (3) CAS 12-22-26, Drums; 2 AST's. CAU 121 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO and the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 121 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007). Field work took place from February through September 2008. Samples were collected to determine the path forward to close each site. Closure activities were completed as defined in the plan based on sample analytical results and site conditions. No contaminants of concern (COCs) were present at CAS 12-01-01; therefore, no further action was chosen as the corrective action alternative. As a best management practice (BMP), the empty aboveground storage tank (AST) was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. At CAS 12-01-02, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were present above the preliminary action level (PAL) in the soil beneath the AST that could possibly have originated from the AST contents. Therefore, PCBs were considered COCs, and the site was clean closed by excavating and disposing of soil containing PCBs. Approximately 5 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) of soil were excavated and disposed as petroleum hydrocarbon PCB remediation waste, and approximately 13 yd3 of soil were excavated and disposed as PCB remediation waste. Cleanup samples were collected to confirm that the remaining soil did not contain PCBs above the PAL. Other compounds detected in the soil above PALs (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons [TPH] and semi-volatile organic compounds [SVOCs]) were

  19. Can environmental insurance succeed where other strategies fail? The case of underground storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Yin, Haitao; Pfaff, Alex; Kunreuther, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Private risk reduction will be socially efficient only when firms are liable for all the damage that they cause. We find that environmental insurance can achieve social efficiency even when two traditional policy instruments--ex post fines and risk management mandates with ex ante fines--do not. Inefficiency occurs with ex post fines, when small firms declare bankruptcy and escape their liabilities, limiting the incentives from this policy tool. Firms ignore mandates to implement efficient risk management because regulatory agencies do not have sufficient resources to monitor every firm. The evolution of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's and states' underground storage tank programs suggests that mandating environmental insurance can address inefficiency due to small firms declaring bankruptcy. Comparing insurance mandates to risk management mandates, the burden on a regulator is lower if all it has to do is to confirm that the firm has insurance rather than that the firm has actually, and effectively, implemented required management practices. For underground storage tanks, we show that insurance lowered toxic releases.

  20. Technical assessment of cryo-compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R.; Hua, T.; Peng, J.-K.; Lasher, S.; McKenney, K.; Sinha, J.; Gardiner, M.; Nuclear Engineering Division; TIAX LLC; U.S. DOE

    2010-05-01

    On-board and off-board performance and cost of cryo-compressed hydrogen storage are assessed and compared to the targets for automotive applications. The on-board performance of the system and high-volume manufacturing cost were determined for liquid hydrogen refueling with a single-flow nozzle and a pump that delivers liquid H{sub 2} to the insulated cryogenic tank capable of being pressurized to 272 atm. The off-board performance and cost of delivering liquid hydrogen were determined for two scenarios in which hydrogen is produced by central steam methane reforming (SMR) or by central electrolysis. The main conclusions are that the cryo-compressed storage system has the potential of meeting the ultimate target for system gravimetric capacity, mid-term target for system volumetric capacity, and the target for hydrogen loss during dormancy under certain conditions of minimum daily driving. However, the high-volume manufacturing cost and the fuel cost for the SMR hydrogen production scenario are, respectively, 2-4 and 1.6-2.4 times the current targets, and the well-to-tank efficiency is well short of the 60% target specified for off-board regenerable materials.

  1. DOE underground storage tank waste remediation chemical processing hazards. Part I: Technology dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuth, S.F.

    1996-10-01

    This document has been prepared to aid in the development of Regulating guidelines for the Privatization of Hanford underground storage tank waste remediation. The document has been prepared it two parts to facilitate their preparation. Part II is the primary focus of this effort in that it describes the technical basis for established and potential chemical processing hazards associated with Underground Storage Tank (UST) nuclear waste remediation across the DOE complex. The established hazards involve those at Sites for which Safety Analysis Reviews (SARs) have already been prepared. Potential hazards are those involving technologies currently being developed for future applications. Part I of this document outlines the scope of Part II by briefly describing the established and potential technologies. In addition to providing the scope, Part I can be used as a technical introduction and bibliography for Regulatory personnel new to the UST waste remediation, and in particular Privatization effort. Part II of this document is not intended to provide examples of a SAR Hazards Analysis, but rather provide an intelligence gathering source for Regulatory personnel who must eventually evaluate the Privatization SAR Hazards Analysis.

  2. Determination of Constraint-Modified J-R Curves for Carbon Steel Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.S.

    2002-03-13

    The fracture toughness testing of A285 carbon steel storage tank material was carried out. A series of single edge-notched bend (SENB) specimens with various constraint levels were used. The variation of crack tip constraint was achieved by changing the ratio of the initial notch length to the specimen depth. The test data show that the J-R curves are specimen-dependent, which is known as the constraint effect. A two-parameter fracture methodology is adopted to construct a constraint-modified J-R curve, which is a function of the constraint parameter, A2, while J remains the loading parameter. This additional fracture parameter is derived from a closed form solution and can be extracted from the finite element analysis for a specific crack configuration. Using this set of SENB test data, a mathematical expression for the J-R curve of the A285 carbon steel can be developed. It is shown that the predicted J-R curves match well with the SENB data over an extensive amount of crack growth. In addition, this expression of the constraint modified J-R curve is used to predict the test data of a compact tension specimen (CT), and good agreement can be achieved. To demonstrate its application in the structural integrity assessment, a generic A285 storage tank with a postulated axial flaw is used. For a flaw length of 10 percent of the tank height, the predicted J-R curve is found to be similar to that for a SENB specimen with a short notch, which is in a state of low constraint. This implies that the use of traditional J-R curve, which is typically obtained by high constraint specimens, may be overly conservative.

  3. Underground storage tank subsurface site investigation report: Former UST, building 1608 site. Investigation report, October-November 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This Subsurface Site Investigation (S SI) Report presents the results of investigation activities conducted at the 151st Air Refueling Wing (ARW), Utah Air National Guard (ANG) Base, Salt Lake City, Utah, On 3 September 1993, a 30-year old, 2,000-gallon underground storage tank (UST) (state leaking UST identifier - Facility ID Number 4001640, Release Site EIMB) was removed, along with the associated piping. The tank was used for jet fuel (JP-4) storage at the Aerospace Ground Equipment Facility. The results of the investigation indicated petroleum contamination existed in site soils at levels exceeding the Utah Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) site Level II Recommended Cleanup Levels (RCLs) for soil and state MCLs for groundwater contamination.

  4. ADMINISTRATIVE AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS FOR THE OPERATION OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR UNDERGROUND RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.; Hansen, A.

    2013-11-13

    Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The majority of the waste is confined in double shell tanks, which have a primary shell, where the waste is stored, and a secondary shell, which creates an annular region between the two shells, that provides secondary containment and leak detection capabilities should leakage from the primary shell occur. Each of the DST is equipped with a purge ventilation system for the interior of the primary shell and annulus ventilation system for the secondary containment. Administrative flammability controls require continuous ventilation to remove hydrogen gas and other vapors from the waste tanks while preventing the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Should a leak from the primary to the annulus occur, the annulus ventilation would also serve this purpose. The functionality of the annulus ventilation is necessary to preserve the structural integrity of the primary shell and the secondary. An administrative corrosion control program is in place to ensure integrity of the tank. Given the critical functions of the purge and annulus ventilation systems, engineering controls are also necessary to ensure that the systems remain robust. The system consists of components that are constructed of metal (e.g., steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, etc.) and/or polymeric (polypropylene, polyethylene, silicone, polyurethane, etc.) materials. The performance of these materials in anticipated service environments (e.g., normal waste storage, waste removal, etc.) was evaluated. The most aggressive vapor space environment occurs during chemical cleaning of the residual heels by utilizing oxalic acid. The presence of NO{sub x} and mercury in the vapors generated from the process could potentially accelerate the degradation of aluminum, carbon steel, and copper. Once identified, the most susceptible materials were either replaced and/or plans for discontinuing operations

  5. Elastic-Plastic Thermal Stress Analysis of a High-Pressure Cryogenic Storage Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. Mark; Field, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The thermal stresses on a cryogenic storage tank contribute strongly to the state of stress of the tank material and its ability to withstand operational stresses. These thermal stresses also affect the growth of any surface damage that might occur in the tank walls. These stresses are particularly of concern during the initial cooldown period for a new tank placed into service, and during any subsequent thermal cycles. A previous preliminary elastic analysis showed that the thermal stress on the inner wall would reach approximately 1,000MPa (145,000 psi). This stress far exceeds the ASTM specified room temperature values for both yield (170MPa) and ultimate (485 MPa) strength for 304L stainless steel. The present analysis determines the thermal stresses using an elastic-plastic model. The commercial software application ANSYS was used to determine the transient spatial temperature profile and the associated spatial thermal stress profiles in a segment of a thick-walled vessel during a typical cooldown process. A strictly elastic analysis using standard material properties for 304L stainless steel showed that the maximum thermal stress on the inner and outer walls was approximately 960 MPa (tensile) and - 270 MPa (compressive) respectively. These values occurred early in the cooldown process, but at different times, An elastic-plastic analysis showed significantly reducing stress, as expected due to the plastic deformation of the material. The maximum stress for the inner wall was approximately 225 MPa (tensile), while the maximum stress for the outer wall was approximately - 130 MPa (compressive).

  6. Melton Valley liquid low-level radioactive waste storage tanks evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Melton Valley Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks (MVSTs) store the evaporator concentrates from the Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLLW) System at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The eight stainless steel tanks contain approximately 375,000 gallons of liquid and sludge waste. These are some of the newer, better-designed tanks in the LLLW System. They have been evaluated and found by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation to comply with all Federal Facility Agreement requirements for double containment. The operations and maintenance aspects of the tanks were also reviewed by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) in September 1994. This document also contains an assessment of the risk to the public and ORNL workers from a leak in one of the MVSTs. Two primary scenarios were investigated: (1) exposure of the public to radiation from drinking Clinch River water contaminated by leaked LLLW, and (2) exposure of on-site workers to radiation by inhaling air contaminated by leaked LLLW. The estimated frequency of a leak from one of the MVSTs is about 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} events per year, or about once in 1200 years (with a 95% confidence level). If a leak were to occur, the dose to a worker from inhalation would be about 2.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}1} mrem (with a 95% confidence level). The dose to a member of the public through the drinking water pathway is estimated to be about 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}1} mrem (with a 95% confidence level). By comparison with EPA Safe Drinking Water regulations, the allowable lifetime radiation dose is about 300 mrem. Thus, a postulated LLLW leak from the MVSTs would not add appreciably to an individual`s lifetime radiation dose.

  7. Bacterial communities in an ultrapure water containing storage tank of a power plant.

    PubMed

    Bohus, Veronika; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Baranyi, Krisztián; Patek, Gábor; Schunk, János; Tóth, Erika M

    2011-12-01

    Ultrapure waters (UPWs) containing low levels of organic and inorganic compounds provide extreme environment. On contrary to that microbes occur in such waters and form biofilms on surfaces, thus may induce corrosion processes in many industrial applications. In our study, refined saltless water (UPW) produced for the boiler of a Hungarian power plant was examined before and after storage (sampling the inlet [TKE] and outlet [TKU] waters of a storage tank) with cultivation and culture independent methods. Our results showed increased CFU and direct cell counts after the storage. Cultivation results showed the dominance of aerobic, chemoorganotrophic α-Proteobacteria in both samples. In case of TKU sample, a more complex bacterial community structure could be detected. The applied molecular method (T-RFLP) indicated the presence of a complex microbial community structure with changes in the taxon composition: while in the inlet water sample (TKE) α-Proteobacteria (Sphingomonas sp., Novosphingobium hassiacum) dominated, in the outlet water sample (TKU) the bacterial community shifted towards the dominance of α-Proteobacteria (Rhodoferax sp., Polynucleobacter sp., Sterolibacter sp.), CFB (Bacteroidetes, formerly Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group) and Firmicutes. This shift to the direction of fermentative communities suggests that storage could help the development of communities with an increased tendency toward corrosion.

  8. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, Michael M.; Lau, Louis K.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

  9. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, M.M.; Lau, L.K.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-12-14

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps. 1 figures.

  10. Investigating Appropriate Sampling Design for Estimating Above-Ground Biomass in Bruneian Lowland Mixed Dipterocarp Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Lee, D.; Abu Salim, K.; Yun, H. M.; Han, S.; Lee, W. K.; Davies, S. J.; Son, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Mixed tropical forest structure is highly heterogeneous unlike plantation or mixed temperate forest structure, and therefore, different sampling approaches are required. However, the appropriate sampling design for estimating the above-ground biomass (AGB) in Bruneian lowland mixed dipterocarp forest (MDF) has not yet been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to provide supportive information in sampling design for Bruneian forest carbon inventory. The study site was located at Kuala Belalong lowland MDF, which is part of the Ulu Tembulong National Park, Brunei Darussalam. Six 60 m × 60 m quadrats were established, separated by a distance of approximately 100 m and each was subdivided into quadrats of 10 m × 10 m, at an elevation between 200 and 300 m above sea level. At each plot all free-standing trees with diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 1 cm were measured. The AGB for all trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm was estimated by allometric models. In order to analyze changes in the diameter-dependent parameters used for estimating the AGB, different quadrat areas, ranging from 10 m × 10 m to 60 m × 60 m, were used across the study area, starting at the South-West end and moving towards the North-East end. The derived result was as follows: (a) Big trees (dbh ≥ 70 cm) with sparse distribution have remarkable contribution to the total AGB in Bruneian lowland MDF, and therefore, special consideration is required when estimating the AGB of big trees. Stem number of trees with dbh ≥ 70 cm comprised only 2.7% of all trees with dbh ≥ 10 cm, but 38.5% of the total AGB. (b) For estimating the AGB of big trees at the given acceptable limit of precision (p), it is more efficient to use large quadrats than to use small quadrats, because the total sampling area decreases with the former. Our result showed that 239 20 m × 20 m quadrats (9.6 ha in total) were required, while 15 60 m × 60 m quadrats (5.4 ha in total) were required when estimating the AGB of the trees

  11. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, J.W.; Nenni, J.A.; Yoder, T.S.

    2003-04-22

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  12. Technical assessment of cryo-compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Hua, T. Q.; Peng, J.-K.; Lasher, S.; McKenney, K.; Sinha, J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; TIAX LLC

    2010-03-03

    On-board and off-board performance and cost of cryo-compressed hydrogen storage has been assessed and compared to the DOE 2010, 2015 and ultimate targets for automotive applications. The Gen-3 prototype system of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was modeled to project the performance of a scaled-down 5.6-kg usable hydrogen storage system. The on-board performance of the system and high-volume manufacturing cost were determined for liquid hydrogen refueling with a single-flow nozzle and a pump that delivers 1.5 kg/min of liquid H{sub 2} to the insulated cryogenic tank capable of being pressurized to 272 atm (4000 psi). The off-board performance and cost of delivering liquid hydrogen were determined for two scenarios in which hydrogen is produced by central steam methane reforming (SMR) and by central electrolysis using electricity from renewable sources. The main conclusions from the assessment are that the cryo-compressed storage system has the potential of meeting the ultimate target for system gravimetric capacity and the 2015 target for system volumetric capacity (see Table I). The system compares favorably with targets for durability and operability although additional work is needed to understand failure modes for combined pressure and temperature cycling. The system may meet the targets for hydrogen loss during dormancy under certain conditions of minimum daily driving. The high-volume manufacturing cost is projected to be 2-4 times the current 2010 target of $4/kWh. For the reference conditions considered most applicable, the fuel cost for the SMR hydrogen production and liquid H{sub 2} delivery scenario is 60%-140% higher than the current target of $2-$3/gge while the well-to-tank efficiency is well short of the 60% target specified for off-board regenerable materials.

  13. Do-It-Yourself device for recovery of cryopreserved samples accidentally dropped into cryogenic storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rohini; Baranova, Ancha; Birerdinc, Aybike

    2012-05-11

    Liquid nitrogen is colorless, odorless, extremely cold (-196 °C) liquid kept under pressure. It is commonly used as a cryogenic fluid for long term storage of biological materials such as blood, cells and tissues (1,2). The cryogenic nature of liquid nitrogen, while ideal for sample preservation, can cause rapid freezing of live tissues on contact - known as 'cryogenic burn' (2), which may lead to severe frostbite in persons closely involved in storage and retrieval of samples from Dewars. Additionally, as liquid nitrogen evaporates it reduces the oxygen concentration in the air and might cause asphyxia, especially in confined spaces (2). In laboratories, biological samples are often stored in cryovials or cryoboxes stacked in stainless steel racks within the Dewar tanks (1). These storage racks are provided with a long shaft to prevent boxes from slipping out from the racks and into the bottom of Dewars during routine handling. All too often, however, boxes or vials with precious samples slip out and sink to the bottom of liquid nitrogen filled tank. In such cases, samples could be tediously retrieved after transferring the liquid nitrogen into a spare container or discarding it. The boxes and vials can then be relatively safely recovered from emptied Dewar. However, the cryogenic nature of liquid nitrogen and its expansion rate makes sunken sample retrieval hazardous. It is commonly recommended by Safety Offices that sample retrieval be never carried out by a single person. Another alternative is to use commercially available cool grabbers or tongs to pull out the vials (3). However, limited visibility within the dark liquid filled Dewars poses a major limitation in their use. In this article, we describe the construction of a Cryotolerant DIY retrieval device, which makes sample retrieval from Dewar containing cryogenic fluids both safe and easy.

  14. The hidden season: growing season is 50% longer below than above ground along an arctic elevation gradient.

    PubMed

    Blume-Werry, Gesche; Wilson, Scott D; Kreyling, Juergen; Milbau, Ann

    2016-02-01

    There is compelling evidence from experiments and observations that climate warming prolongs the growing season in arctic regions. Until now, the start, peak, and end of the growing season, which are used to model influences of vegetation on biogeochemical cycles, were commonly quantified using above-ground phenological data. Yet, over 80% of the plant biomass in arctic regions can be below ground, and the timing of root growth affects biogeochemical processes by influencing plant water and nutrient uptake, soil carbon input and microbial activity. We measured timing of above- and below-ground production in three plant communities along an arctic elevation gradient over two growing seasons. Below-ground production peaked later in the season and was more temporally uniform than above-ground production. Most importantly, the growing season continued c. 50% longer below than above ground. Our results strongly suggest that traditional above-ground estimates of phenology in arctic regions, including remotely sensed information, are not as complete a representation of whole-plant production intensity or duration, as studies that include root phenology. We therefore argue for explicit consideration of root phenology in studies of carbon and nutrient cycling, in terrestrial biosphere models, and scenarios of how arctic ecosystems will respond to climate warming.

  15. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

    2011-01-12

    This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be

  16. 40 CFR 63.11087 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or pipeline... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline... § 63.11087 What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk...

  17. 40 CFR 63.11087 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or pipeline... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline... § 63.11087 What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk...

  18. 40 CFR 63.11087 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or pipeline... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline... § 63.11087 What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk...

  19. 40 CFR 63.11087 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or pipeline... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline... § 63.11087 What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk...

  20. 40 CFR 63.11087 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or pipeline... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline... § 63.11087 What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk...

  1. Examining the potential of Sentinel-2 MSI spectral resolution in quantifying above ground biomass across different fertilizer treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibanda, Mbulisi; Mutanga, Onisimo; Rouget, Mathieu

    2015-12-01

    The major constraint in understanding grass above ground biomass variations using remotely sensed data are the expenses associated with the data, as well as the limited number of techniques that can be applied to different management practices with minimal errors. New generation multispectral sensors such as Sentinel 2 Multispectral Imager (MSI) are promising for effective rangeland management due to their unique spectral bands and higher signal to noise ratio. This study resampled hyperspectral data to spectral resolutions of the newly launched Sentinel 2 MSI and the recently launched Landsat 8 OLI for comparison purposes. Using Sparse partial least squares regression, the resampled data was applied in estimating above ground biomass of grasses treated with different fertilizer combinations of ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, phosphorus and lime as well as unfertilized experimental plots. Sentinel 2 MSI derived models satisfactorily performed (R2 = 0.81, RMSEP = 1.07 kg/m2, RMSEP_rel = 14.97) in estimating grass above ground biomass across different fertilizer treatments relative to Landsat 8 OLI (Landsat 8 OLI: R2 = 0.76, RMSEP = 1.15 kg/m2, RMSEP_rel = 16.04). In comparison, hyperspectral data derived models exhibited better grass above ground biomass estimation across complex fertilizer combinations (R2 = 0.92, RMSEP = 0.69 kg/m2, RMSEP_rel = 9.61). Although Sentinel 2 MSI bands and indices better predicted above ground biomass compared with Landsat 8 OLI bands and indices, there were no significant differences (α = 0.05) in the errors of prediction between the two new generational sensors across all fertilizer treatments. The findings of this study portrays Sentinel 2 MSI and Landsat 8 OLI as promising remotely sensed datasets for regional scale biomass estimation, particularly in resource scarce areas.

  2. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  3. Implementation of seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy high-level waste storage tanks and appurtenances

    SciTech Connect

    Conrads, T.J.

    1993-06-01

    In the fall of 1992, a draft of the Seismic Design and Evaluation Guidelines for the Department of Energy (DOE) High-level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances was issued. The guidelines were prepared by the Tanks Seismic Experts Panel (TSEP) and this task was sponsored by DOE, Environmental Management. The TSEP is comprised of a number of consultants known for their knowledge of seismic ground motion and expertise in the analysis of structures, systems and components subjected to seismic loads. The development of these guidelines was managed by staff from Brookhaven National Laboratory, Engineering Research and Applications Division, Department of Nuclear Energy. This paper describes the process used to incorporate the Seismic Design and Evaluation Guidelines for the DOE High-Level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances into the design criteria for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Project at the Hanford Site. This project will design and construct six new high-level waste tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. This paper also discusses the vehicles used to ensure compliance to these guidelines throughout Title 1 and Title 2 design phases of the project as well as the strategy used to ensure consistent and cost-effective application of the guidelines by the structural analysts. The paper includes lessons learned and provides recommendations for other tank design projects which might employ the TSEP guidelines.

  4. Refinement of Modeling Techniques for the Structural Evaluation of Hanford Single-Shell Nuclear Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Karri, Naveen K.; Rinker, Michael W.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Bapanapalli, Satish K.

    2012-03-01

    Abstract: A total of 149 tanks out of 177 at the Hanford Site (in Washington State, USA) belong to the first generation of underground nuclear waste storage tanks known as single shell tanks (SSTs). These tanks were constructed between 1943 and 1964 and are well beyond their design life. All the SSTs had been removed from active service by November 1980 and have been later interim stabilized by removing the pumpable liquids. The remaining waste in the tanks is in the form of salt cake and sludge awaiting r permanent disposal.. The evaluation of the structural integrity of these tanks is of utmost importance not only for the continued safe storage of the waste until waste retrieval and closure, but also to assure safe retrieval and closure operations. This article discusses the structural analysis approach, modeling challenges and issues encountered during the ongoing analysis of record (AOR) for evaluating the structural integrity of the SSTs. There are several geometrical and material nonlinearities and uncertainties to be dealt with while performing the modern finite element analysis of these tanks. Several studies were conducted to refine the models in order to minimize modeling artifacts introduced by soil arching, boundary effects, concrete cracking, and concrete-soil interface behavior. The analysis takes into account the temperature history of the tanks and allowable mechanical operating loads of these tanks for proper estimation of creep strains and thermal degradation of material properties. The loads imposed in the AOR models also include anticipated loads that these tanks may see during waste retrieval and closure. Due to uncertainty in a number of inputs to the models, sensitivity studies were conducted to address questions related to the boundary conditions to realistically or conservatively represent the influence of surrounding tanks in a tank farm, the influence of backfill excavation slope, the extent of backfill and the total extent of undisturbed

  5. Combined long reach and dexterous manipulation for waste storage tank applications

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, B.L.; Armstrong, G.A.; Butler, P.L. ); Boissiere, P. )

    1991-01-01

    One of the highest priority environmental restoration tasks within the Department of Energy (DOE) is the remediation of single-shell waste storage tanks (WSTs), especially those suspected of, or documented as, leakers. Most currently proposed approaches for remediation of large underground WSTs require application of remotely operated long-reach (greater than 10 m), high-lift capacity (greater than 200 kg) manipulator systems. Because of the complexity of in-tank hardware, waste forms, remediation tasks, and variety of end-effector tools, these manipulator systems must also be capable of performing a diverse set of dexterous manipulations. This presentation will describe the integration of a Spar RMS 2500 manipulator system, a Schilling Titan-7F manipulator, and control systems developed at ORNL and SNL to provide a combined long reach and dexterous manipulation system. The purpose of integrating these two manipulator systems was to study and demonstrate their combined performance, evaluate design requirements for a deployed system, and provide a testbed for control and end-effector technologies that might be applicable to remediation of WSTs. 5 refs.

  6. Developing waste disposal options in the underground storage tank - integrated demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Cruse, J.M.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1993-06-01

    The principal objective of the Underground Storage Tank - Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID Program is the demonstration and continued development of technologies suitable for the remediation of USTs. The most promising new technologies from industry, universities, national laboratories, and other government agencies are selected for demonstration, testing, and evaluation. The objective is the eventual transfer of new technologies as part of a system to full-scale remediation at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites and alternately into the private sector. Technologies under development in the UST-ID Program are targeted toward use in remediation actions at the following five DOE participant sites: Hanford, Fernald, Idaho, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. Combined, these participant sites have more than 300 USTs containing more than 381,800 m{sup 3} (100 Mgal) of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste. This paper focuses on the Low-Level Waste Disposal area of the UST-ID, summarizing the two currently funded technology development projects: the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) Process and Polyethylene Encapsulation. Both technologies are considered options to the-current baseline disposal approaches being developed at the participant sites. For the Hanford Site, this baseline is a grout waste form that is nearing implementation for disposal of low-level liquid tank wastes.

  7. Steam reforming as a method to treat Hanford underground storage tank (UST) wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.; Kuehne, P.B.

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes a Sandia program that included partnerships with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Synthetica Technologies, Inc. to design and test a steam reforming system for treating Hanford underground storage tank (UST) wastes. The benefits of steam reforming the wastes include the resolution of tank safety issues and improved radionuclide separations. Steam reforming destroys organic materials by first gasifying, then reacting them with high temperature steam. Tests indicate that up to 99% of the organics could be removed from the UST wastes by steam exposure. In addition, it was shown that nitrates in the wastes could be destroyed by steam exposure if they were first distributed as a thin layer on a surface. High purity alumina and nickel alloys were shown to be good candidates for materials to be used in the severe environment associated with steam reforming the highly alkaline, high nitrate content wastes. Work was performed on designing, building, and demonstrating components of a 0.5 gallon per minute (gpm) system suitable for radioactive waste treatment. Scale-up of the unit to 20 gpm was also considered and is feasible. Finally, process demonstrations conducted on non-radioactive waste surrogates were carried out, including a successful demonstration of the technology at the 0.1 gpm scale.

  8. Methodology for assessment of contamination of the unsaturated zone by leaking underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    DiGiano, F.A.; Miller, C.T.; Roche, A.C.; Wallingford, E.D.

    1988-01-01

    Three methods of measuring contamination of the partially saturated zone by leaking underground fuel tanks were investigated. Two of the methods relied upon obtaining a soil core from the field. These differed in the method of extraction: (1) by nitrogen purge of the entire core, followed by adsorption-solvent extraction and gas chromatographic (GC) analysis, and (2) by sonication of a small sub-sample from the core, followed by solvent extraction and GC analysis. The third method focused on saturation zone. This required use of a driveable ground probe (DGP) and activated carbon trap, followed by solvent extraction and GC analysis. The soil core procedures required construction of a sampling tube that proved successful in the system upon return to the laboratory. Recoveries approaching 100% were achieved in the nitrogen purge procedure by: heating the soil core to 100 C; trapping water exiting the soil core prior to the adsorption step; and using activated carbon instead of Tenax as the adsorbent. Vapor phase measurements provided a convenient way to map the extent of contamination from a leaking underground gasoline storage tank at the Camp Lejeune site. Concentrations of target compounds ranged from 10,000 micrograms/L (ug/L) to < 10 ug/L of vapor phase. The highest concentrations were found above the non-aqueous-phase liquid (NAPL). However, the method was able to show that contamination exists well beyond the NAPL, although the concentrations drop off precipitously. 36 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Self-pressurization of a flightweight liquid hydrogen storage tank subjected to low heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, M. M.; Lin, C. S.; Vandresar, N. T.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental investigation of self-pressurization and thermal stratification of a 4.89 cu m liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage tank subjected to low heat flux (0.35, 2.0, and 3.5 W/sq m) under normal gravity conditions. Tests were performed at fill levels of 83 to 84 percent (by volume). The LH2 tank was representative of future spacecraft tankage, having a low mass-to-volume ratio and high performance multilayer thermal insulation. Results show that the pressure rise rate and thermal stratification increase with increasing heat flux. At the lowest heat flux, the pressure rise rate is comparable to the homogenous rate, while at the highest heat flux, the rate is more than three times the homogeneous rate. It was found that initial conditions have a significant impact on the initial pressure rise rate. The quasi-steady pressure rise rates are nearly independent of the initial condition after an initial transient period has passed.

  10. Detection of diesel fuel leakage from underground storage tank using time domain reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Daniel A.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established regulations concerning the construction and maintenance of an underground storage tank (UST) system. These regulations also define the means and methods required to detect potential leaks. Leak detection methods defined as "other methods" can be used if specific requirements are achieved. We find in our study time domain reflectometry (TDR) can be used to detect leaks from an UST. The magnitudes of reflections measured by the TDR technique are used to calculate electrical properties of the soil. We find the introduction of diesel fuel, a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL), into the soil alters the physical and chemical properties of the soil and subsequently the electrical properties. We demonstrate the measured variance of electrical properties can be correlated to the changes of diesel fuel concentration. We find diesel fuel can be detected and changes of concentration can be measured using TDR.

  11. Leaking underground storage tanks: Remediation with emphasis on in situ biorestoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. M.; Lee, M. D.; Bedient, P. B.; Borden, R. C.; Canter, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    The current literature indicates that in situ biorestoration has great potential for remediation of aquifers contaminated by leaking underground storage tanks. In situ aquifer restoration involves the enhancement of the indigenous microflora to degrade subsurface pollutants. The presence of indigenous microorganisms that can degrade subsurface contaminants has been demonstrated. Enriching for microorganisms with special metabolic capabilities has been demonstrated in the laboratory and may be promising for in situ biorestoration schemes. Mathematical models of biorestoration have been developed to stimulate progress of the cleanup and provide information on the kinetics of the process. This report emphasizes the state-of-the-art knowledge of in situ biorestoration techniques available for remediation of contaminated ground water.

  12. Leak prevention in underground storage tanks: A state-of-the-art survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangadharan, A. C.; Narayanan, T. V.; Raghavan, R.; Amoruso, G.

    1987-05-01

    The overall objectives were to examine the structural design and operational practices associated with underground storage tank (UST) systems in the context of preventing leaks from such systems and identify areas for further research and development to advance the technology. Recommendations derived include: establishing a nations data base to provide information on failure rates and mechanisms and their correlation to design, engineering, installation, and operation practices and corrective actions; assessing the effectiveness of cathodic protection methods, their interaction with the environment, and the performance of retrofitting existing USTs; developing compatibility protocols for the selection of appropriate materials of construction and long-term protection; and developing methods to assess the life expectancy of both new and existing systems and to extend their useful life.

  13. Application of passive dosimetry for detection of leaking underground storage tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degiano, Francis A.; Leith, David; Elliott, Daniel W.; Pate, Bruce; Napfel, Claudia M.; Anthony, T. Renee

    1992-06-01

    Several modifications to conventional uses of passive dosimetry in industrial hygiene were explored to make the method attractive for both long-term monitoring of underground storage tanks and short-term site assessments of ground water contamination. Methods for both vapor and aqueous phase measurements were of interest. In addition, a colorimetric method was tried to eliminate the need for return of the dosimeter to the laboratory for chemical analysis. The results suggest that passive dosimetry can be a useful qualitative tool for the mapping of the sub-surface of a contaminated area. It is recommended that the dosimeter be used for short-term site-assessments, rather than long-term compliance monitoring applications. A more extensive comparison with other methods of leak detection than was possible in the research may be needed before convincing the private sector to develop a product based on commercial use of these prototype dosimetry devices.

  14. Concentration of Melton Valley Storage Tank surrogates with a wiped film evaporator

    SciTech Connect

    Boring, M.D.; Farr, L.L.; Fowler, V.L.; Hewitt, J.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes experiments to determine whether a wiped film evaporator (WFE) might be used to concentrate low-level liquid radioactive waste (LLLW). Solutions used in these studies were surrogates that contain no radionuclides. The compositions of the surrogates were based on one of Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs). It was found that a WFE could be used to concentrate LLLW to varying degrees by manipulating various parameters. The parameters studied were rotor speed, process fluid feed temperature and feed rate, and evaporator temperature. Product consistency varied from an unsaturated liquid to a dry powder. Volume reductions up to 68% were achieved. System decontamination factors were consistently in the range of 10{sup 4}.

  15. Aging mechanisms for concrete components of High-Level Waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Kassir, M.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Bush, S.; Mather, B.; Shewmon, P.; Streicher, M.; Thompson, B.; van Rooyen, D.; Weeks, J.

    1995-05-01

    The age-related degradation mechanisms which affect the concrete and the reinforcing steel in the high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks art evaluated with respect to their potential significance to the continued performance of the concrete, and am classified into non-significant and potentially significant. The identified potentially significant degradation mechanisms include the effects of elevated temperature, freezing and thawing, leaching of calcium hydroxide, aggressive chemical attack, and corrosion of the reinforcing steel. To the extent that available knowledge permits, these mechanisms are generically evaluated and quantified so that site-specific plans may be developed to verify whether significant degradation has occurred in the concrete, and, if so, to formulate mitigating measures to avoid further deterioration and possibly repair the degradation or pursue other management options.

  16. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 2) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Quality Assurance, Training and Qualification, Emergency Planning and Preparedness, and Construction.

  17. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 4) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Radiation Protection and Operations.

  18. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 3) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Safeguards and Security, Engineering Design, and Maintenance.

  19. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 5) outlines the standards and requirements for the Fire Protection and Packaging and Transportation sections.

  20. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 6) outlines the standards and requirements for the sections on: Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Research and Development and Experimental Activities, and Nuclear Safety.

  1. Analysis of crack propagation and arrest in welded LNG (liquefied natural gas) storage tanks. Final report, March 1984-October 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Kanninen, M.F.; Dexter, R.J.; Polch, E.Z.; Popelar, C.H.

    1986-12-31

    The extensive safe-operating experience that has been accumulated in LNG storage tanks is strongly indicative of a high degree of structural integrity. Nevertheless, concern has arisen with regard to the presence of weld-induced fabrication flaws in these tanks. When such flaws exist, it may not be possible to preclude the initiation of unstable crack growth during operation. However, if it can be shown that the material has the ability to arrest a running crack, an adequate margin of safety can still be demonstrated. A comprehensive program of experimentation was undertaken in companion programs to develop the crack-arrest properties that are needed for such a demonstration. But, because the 9% nickel steel used for LNG tank materials is very ductile and tough, its fracture properties are not well characterized by the quasi-static linear elastic-fracture-mechanics techniques available to these researchers. The research was therefore aimed at assisting the experimental work by providing more-realistic dynamic and nonlinear fracture-mechanics analyses. These analyses were intended to enhance the experimental program and to help insure that the results of the research are appropriate for the assessment of LNG storage-tank integrity. Specifically, the application of these advanced analysis techniques has demonstrated the mildly anticonservative nature of conventional fracture-mechanics treatments for the materials and structural geometry of interest. Nevertheless, provided a defected region in a storage tank is not overly large, the tank materials examined in this research possess high-enough-crack arrest toughness values to preclude complete tank rupture.

  2. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Radiation protection of personnel and the public is accomplished by establishing a well defined Radiation Protection Organization to ensure that appropriate controls on radioactive materials and radiation sources are implemented and documented. This Requirements Identification Document (RID) applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in executing the mission of the Tank Farms. The physical boundaries within which the requirements of this RID apply are the Single Shell Tank Farms, Double Shell Tank Farms, 242-A Evaporator-Crystallizer, 242-S, T Evaporators, Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF), Purgewater Storage Facility (PWSF), and all interconnecting piping, valves, instrumentation, and controls. Also included is all piping, valves, instrumentation, and controls up to and including the most remote valve under Tank Farms control at any other Hanford Facility having an interconnection with Tank Farms. The boundary of the structures, systems, components, and programs to which this RID applies, is defined by those that are dedicated to and/or under the control of the Tank Farms Operations Department and are specifically implemented at the Tank Farms.

  3. Improving of Mixing by Submerged Rotary Jet (SRJ) System in a Large Industrial Storage Tank by CFD Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barekatain, H.; Hashemabadi, S. H.

    2011-09-01

    This paper reports the result of a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) study on the Submerged Rotary Jet (SRJ) mixing system in a large industrial crude oil storage tank (one million barrels). This system has been installed on the tank just for reduction of sludge, but improper installation causes more accumulation of sludge on one side of tank. The main question is: How can we improve the mixing operation in this tank? For the purpose, a three dimensional modeling is carried out using an in-house CFD code and RNG k-ɛ model for turbulence prediction. The results show that pump suction location and crude oil velocity in tank are most effective factors on the sludge amount. Then, different ways such as increasing of jet flow rate, increasing and decreasing of tank height and reducing of nozzle diameter have been investigated. Finally, in this case, the results show the sedimentation of sludge in whole tank can be removed by 20% increasing of jet flow rate.

  4. Identification of Methanoculleus spp. as Active Methanogens during Anoxic Incubations of Swine Manure Storage Tank Samples

    PubMed Central

    Barret, Maialen; Gagnon, Nathalie; Kalmokoff, Martin L.; Topp, Edward; Verastegui, Yris; Brooks, Stephen P. J.; Matias, Fernando; Neufeld, Josh D.

    2013-01-01

    Methane emissions represent a major environmental concern associated with manure management in the livestock industry. A more thorough understanding of how microbial communities function in manure storage tanks is a prerequisite for mitigating methane emissions. Identifying the microorganisms that are metabolically active is an important first step. Methanogenic archaea are major contributors to methanogenesis in stored swine manure, and we investigated active methanogenic populations by DNA stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP). Following a preincubation of manure samples under anoxic conditions to induce substrate starvation, [U-13C]acetate was added as a labeled substrate. Fingerprint analysis of density-fractionated DNA, using length-heterogeneity analysis of PCR-amplified mcrA genes (encoding the alpha subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase), showed that the incorporation of 13C into DNA was detectable at in situ acetate concentrations (∼7 g/liter). Fingerprints of DNA retrieved from heavy fractions of the 13C treatment were primarily enriched in a 483-bp amplicon and, to a lesser extent, in a 481-bp amplicon. Analyses based on clone libraries of the mcrA and 16S rRNA genes revealed that both of these heavy DNA amplicons corresponded to Methanoculleus spp. Our results demonstrate that uncultivated methanogenic archaea related to Methanoculleus spp. were major contributors to acetate-C assimilation during the anoxic incubation of swine manure storage tank samples. Carbon assimilation and dissimilation rate estimations suggested that Methanoculleus spp. were also major contributors to methane emissions and that the hydrogenotrophic pathway predominated during methanogenesis. PMID:23104405

  5. The socio-ecohydrology of rainwater harvesting in India: understanding water storage and release dynamics at tank and catchment scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.; McLaughlin, D. L.; Steiff, M.

    2015-11-01

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH), the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional RWH systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. This dependence has contributed to an accelerated decline in groundwater resources, which has in turn led to increased efforts at the state and national levels to revive older RWH systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these RWH "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water-level variation to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration (ET), and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28 km2. At the tank scale, our results indicate that groundwater recharge and irrigation outflows comprise the largest fractions of the tank water budget, with ET accounting for only 13-22 % of the outflows. At the scale of the cascade, we observe a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflows increasing down the cascade of tanks. The significant magnitude of return flows along the tank cascade leads to the most downgradient tank in the cascade having an outflow-to capacity ratio greater than 2. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with runoff decreasing by nearly 75 %, and

  6. Above ground biomass estimation from lidar and hyperspectral airbone data in West African moist forests.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaglio Laurin, Gaia; Chen, Qi; Lindsell, Jeremy; Coomes, David; Cazzolla-Gatti, Roberto; Grieco, Elisa; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    The development of sound methods for the estimation of forest parameters such as Above Ground Biomass (AGB) and the need of data for different world regions and ecosystems, are widely recognized issues due to their relevance for both carbon cycle modeling and conservation and policy initiatives, such as the UN REDD+ program (Gibbs et al., 2007). The moist forests of the Upper Guinean Belt are poorly studied ecosystems (Vaglio Laurin et al. 2013) but their role is important due to the drier condition expected along the West African coasts according to future climate change scenarios (Gonzales, 2001). Remote sensing has proven to be an effective tool for AGB retrieval when coupled with field data. Lidar, with its ability to penetrate the canopy provides 3D information and best results. Nevertheless very limited research has been conducted in Africa tropical forests with lidar and none to our knowledge in West Africa. Hyperspectral sensors also offer promising data, being able to evidence very fine radiometric differences in vegetation reflectance. Their usefulness in estimating forest parameters is still under evaluation with contrasting findings (Andersen et al. 2008, Latifi et al. 2012), and additional studies are especially relevant in view of forthcoming satellite hyperspectral missions. In the framework of the EU ERC Africa GHG grant #247349, an airborne campaign collecting lidar and hyperspectral data has been conducted in March 2012 over forests reserves in Sierra Leone and Ghana, characterized by different logging histories and rainfall patterns, and including Gola Rainforest National Park, Ankasa National Park, Bia and Boin Forest Reserves. An Optech Gemini sensor collected the lidar dataset, while an AISA Eagle sensor collected hyperspectral data over 244 VIS-NIR bands. The lidar dataset, with a point density >10 ppm was processed using the TIFFS software (Toolbox for LiDAR Data Filtering and Forest Studies)(Chen 2007). The hyperspectral dataset, geo

  7. Comparison of biofilm formation and water quality when water from different sources was stored in large commercial water storage tanks.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Venessa; Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise

    2013-03-01

    Rain-, ground- and municipal potable water were stored in low density polyethylene storage tanks for a period of 90 days to determine the effects of long-term storage on the deterioration in the microbial quality of the water. Total viable bacteria present in the stored water and the resultant biofilms were enumerated using heterotrophic plate counts. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Colilert-18(®) tests were performed to determine if the faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli was present in the water and in the biofilm samples collected throughout the study. The municipal potable water at the start of the study was the only water source that conformed to the South African Water Quality Guidelines for Domestic Use. After 15 days of storage, this water source had deteriorated microbiologically to levels considered unfit for human consumption. E. coli was detected in the ground- and potable water and ground- and potable biofilms periodically, whereas it was detected in the rainwater and associated biofilms at every sampling point. Imperfections in the UV resistant inner lining of the tanks were shown to be ecological niches for microbial colonisation and biofilm development. The results from the current study confirmed that long-term storage can influence water quality and increase the number of microbial cells associated with biofilms on the interior surfaces of water storage tanks.

  8. Environmental projects. Volume 13: Underground storage tanks, removal and replacement. Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengelsdorf, Irv

    1991-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the Mojave Desert about 40 miles north of Barstow, California, and about 160 miles northeast of Pasadena, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. As a large-scale facility located in a remote, isolated desert region, the GDSCC operations require numerous on-site storage facilities for gasoline, diesel oil, hydraulic oil, and waste oil. These fluids are stored in underground storage tanks (USTs). This present volume describes what happened to the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC. Twenty-four of these USTs were constructed of carbon steel without any coating for corrosion protection, and without secondary containment or leak detection. Two remaining USTs were constructed of fiberglass-coated carbon steel but without secondary containment or leak protection. Of the 26 USTs that remained at the GDSCC, 23 were cleaned, removed from the ground, cut up, and hauled away from the GDSCC for environmentally acceptable disposal. Three USTs were permanently closed (abandoned in place).

  9. Sampling and analysis of radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley and evaporator facility storage tanks at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, M.B.; Botts, J.L.; Ceo, R.N.; Ferrada, J.J.; Griest, W.H.; Keller, J.M.; Schenley, R.L.

    1990-09-01

    The sampling and analysis of the radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), as well as two of the evaporator service facility storage tanks at ORNL, are described. Aqueous samples of the supernatant liquid and composite samples of the sludges were analyzed for major constituents, radionuclides, total organic carbon, and metals listed as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Liquid samples from five tanks and sludge samples from three tanks were analyzed for organic compounds on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Target Compound List. Estimates were made of the inventory of liquid and sludge phases in the tanks. Descriptions of the sampling and analytical activities and tabulations of the results are included. The report provides data in support of the design of the proposed Waste Handling and Packaging Plant, the Liquid Low-Level Waste Solidification Project, and research and development activities (R D) activities in developing waste management alternatives. 7 refs., 8 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. Refinement of Modeling Techniques for the Structural Evaluation of Hanford Single-Shell Nuclear Waste Storage Tanks - 12288

    SciTech Connect

    Karri, Naveen K.; Rinker, Michael W.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Bapanapalli, Satish K.

    2012-07-01

    applicable to other similar tanks or underground concrete storage structures. This article presented the details of the finite element models and analysis approach followed during the ongoing effort to establish structural integrity of single shell tanks at the Hanford site. The details of the material constitutive models applicable to the underground Hanford concrete tanks that capture the thermal and creep induce degradation are also presented. The thermal profiles were developed based on the available tank temperature data for the Type II and Type III single-shell tanks, and they were chosen to yield conservative demands under the thermal and operating loads analysis of these tanks. Sensitivity studies were conducted to address two issues regarding the soils modeled around the single-shell tanks. The results indicate that excluding the boundary separating the backfill soil from the undisturbed soil will result in conservative demands (plots 14b and 14c green lines for circumferential Demand/Capacity ratios). The radial extent study indicated that the soil model extending to 240 ft gave more conservative results than the model with 62 ft of soil (plots 17a and 17c magenta lines for hoop Demand/Capacity ratios). Based on these results, a 240 ft far-field soil boundary with backfill throughout the lateral extent was recommended and used for the finite element models used in the Type-II and Type-III analyses of record. The modeling effort and sensitivity studies discussed in this article helped in developing bounding models for the structural integrity evaluation of single shell tanks at the Hanford site. (authors)

  11. Prediction of thermal hydraulic characteristics inside the storage tank of a horizontal condensation heat exchanger using MARS-KS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Byung Soo; Seul, Kwang Won; Do, Kyu Sik; Reactor system evaluation Team

    2012-11-01

    The performance of a horizontal condensation heat exchanger is determined by the condensation heat transfer inside the heat exchanger tubes, convective or boiling heat transfer outside the tubes and flow characteristics in the storage tank. The flow characteristics in the tank are important factors to determine the heat transfer rate outside the tubes. The objective of this work is to develop the method to predict the heat transfer rate outside the tubes properly using MARS-KS code. Two different results from MARS-KS were compared with simplified experimental results in other works to estimate the capacity of MARS-KS. One was by a typical 1D nodalization but another was by a 3D nodalization considering natural circulation in the storage tank. Then, to eliminate the effect of condensation heat transfer inside the tubes, the experimental results on temperature profiles were applied to the inside wall of tubes as boundary conditions. As the result, the 3-D nodalization model had good predictions with experimental results in regard of wall temperature, heat flux and heat transfer coefficients. It was also confirmed that the natural circulation flow was developed inside the storage tank.

  12. Fate and transport of petroleum released from leaking underground-storage tanks in areas of karst topography. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, E.

    1988-01-01

    This study determines the transport and ultimate fate of petroleum products within a region of karst geomorphology. The paper entails a complete literature review, including references that pertain to contaminant transport within karst aquifers and the remediation of hydrocarbon spills. Rapid dispersal of contaminants within cavernous karstic terrain demands prevention as the only solution, in addition to the recommended technological advances for optimal cleanup of leaking underground storage tanks. Because numerous and widespread service stations have hydrocarbon storage tanks, the contamination problem is considered a nonpoint source of pollution. Stricter standards must be imposed for regulating underground storage tanks that overly karst. Preventative measures to improve inventory control, leak detection, and upgraded tank specifications (rather than corrective actions) are necessary to protect the quality of drinking water provided by carbonate aquifers. Arkansas, louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas (the five states forming U.S. EPA Region VI) constitute the designated study area. With the exception of Louisiana, each state within the region has considerably large, karst aquifers.

  13. Request for closure, underground storage tank 2130-U: Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Facility ID {number_sign}0-010117

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This document presents a summary of the activities and analytical data related to the removal of underground storage tank (UST) 2130-U, previously located at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Removal of this tank was conducted in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulation 1200-1-15 (1992). A completed copy of the State of Tennessee, Division of Underground Storage Tanks, Permanent Closure Report Form is included as Appendix A of this document Based on the information and data presented herein, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant requests permanent closure for the tank 2130-U site.

  14. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, W. T.; Wallace, S. L.; Gazda, D. B.; Lewis, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. One major aspect of that is ensuring that microbial growth is minimized. Historically, this challenge has been addressed through the use of biocides. When using biocides, the choice of materials for the storage containers is important, because surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system (ionic silver) will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting of the system. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose additional challenges when used in water storage tanks with ionic silver biocide.

  15. Environmental Assessment: Installation of Thermally Stable Jet Fuel (JPTS) Above Ground Storage System Westover Air Reserve Base, Chicopee, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-30

    project design and construction in accordance with the American Petroleum Institute and the National Fire Protection Association Standards...operations in accordance with the American Petroleum Institute , National Fire Protection Agency, Air Force Fuels handling standards and compliance with

  16. Development of a 40,000 Gallon High Profile, Collapsible, Rubberized Fabric, Fuel Storage Tank.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    standard 20,000 gallon tank and meet the performance requirements of MIL-T-82123. The tank wa developed based upon a military adaptation of a comercial...of the approach to the developemen of the 40,000 gallon tank is shown in Figura 1. Fabric stresses in standard 20,000 gallon tanks were compared with...design factor of 15, the same as a standard 20,000 gallon tank. This data is shown in Figure 2 . which also shows the height of the tanks at various

  17. Hydrodynamically induced loads on components submerged in high-level waste-storage tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, E. O.; Julyk, J. L.; Rezvani, M. A.

    1994-06-01

    This paper addresses the effects of added mass on components submerged in fluids. In particular, as new equipment is designed for installation in the double-shell waste-storage tanks at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, the equipment and the tank must be evaluated for the anticipated loads. Seismically induced loads combined with loadings from other sources must be considered during this evaluation. A literature review shows that, for components in fluids confined to a narrow annulus or without a free surface, drastic reductions in response to seismic excitation are predicted by two-dimensional analysis. This phenomenon has been supported by testing. The reductions are explained in terms of mass coupling and buoyancy effects. For equipment submerged in fluids having a free surface and large annulus, practice suggest that it is appropriate to lump the added-mass terms with the component to address the hydrodynamic effects adequately. As in the case of a narrow annulus, this practice will reduce the natural frequency of the submerged component, but generally will increase the loads. This paper presents the structural evaluations of submerged components using computer models that employ mock fluid elements that determine the appropriateness of considering fluid added-mass and buoyancy effects. The results indicate that if a free surface exists and the submerged component has a wide fluid annulus about it, then the added mass should be lumped with the model, and buoyancy effects are not significant. The component then may be considered to be in an air environment, and the stresses are calculated from the application of standard response spectrum procedures.

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-12-23

    This corrective action decision document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-02-01, Underground Storage Tanks, referred to as the Engine, Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault; 25-02-03, Underground Electrical Vault, referred to as the Deluge Valve Pit at the Test Cell A Facility; and 25-02-10, Underground Storage Tank, referred to as the former location of an aboveground storage tank for demineralized water at the Test Cell A Facility. Two of these CASs (25-02-03 and 25-02-10) were originally considered as underground storage tanks, but were found to be misidentified. Further, radio logical surveys conducted by Bechtel Nevada in January 1999 found no radiological contamination detected above background levels for these two sites; therefore, the closure report for CAU 135 will recommend no further action at these two sites. A corrective action investigation for the one remaining CAS (25-02-01) was conducted in June 1999, and analytes detected during this investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels. It was determined that contaminants of potential concern included polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. Two corrective action objectives were identified for this CAS (i.e., prevention and mitigation of human exposure to sediments and surrounding areas), and subsequently two CAAs developed for consideration based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the NTS. These CAAs were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, and

  19. Effect of interfacial turbulence and accommodation coefficient on CFD predictions of pressurization and pressure control in cryogenic storage tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Kartuzova, Olga

    2016-03-01

    Pressurization and pressure control in cryogenic storage tanks are to a large extent affected by heat and mass transport across the liquid-vapor interface. These mechanisms are, in turn, controlled by the kinetics of the phase change process and the dynamics of the turbulent recirculating flows in the liquid and vapor phases. In this paper, the effects of accommodation coefficient and interfacial turbulence on tank pressurization and pressure control simulations are examined. Comparison between numerical predictions and ground-based measurements in two large liquid hydrogen tank experiments, performed in the K-site facility at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Multi-purpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) facility at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), are used to show the impact of accommodation coefficient and interfacial and vapor phase turbulence on evolution of pressure and temperatures in the cryogenic storage tanks. In particular, the self-pressurization comparisons indicate that: (1) numerical predictions are essentially independent of the magnitude of the accommodation coefficient; and (2) surprisingly, laminar models sometimes provide results that are in better agreement with experimental self-pressurization rates, even in parametric ranges where the bulk flow is deemed fully turbulent. In this light, shortcomings of the present CFD models, especially, numerical treatments of interfacial mass transfer and turbulence, as coupled to the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) interface capturing scheme, are underscored and discussed.

  20. Seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy High-Level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Cornell, A.; Costantino, C.; Kennedy, R.; Miller, C.; Veletsos, A.

    1995-10-01

    This document provides seismic design and evaluation guidelines for underground high-level waste storage tanks. The guidelines reflect the knowledge acquired in the last two decades in defining seismic ground motion and calculating hydrodynamic loads, dynamic soil pressures and other loads for underground tank structures, piping and equipment. The application of the guidelines is illustrated with examples. The guidelines are developed for a specific design of underground storage tanks, namely double-shell structures. However, the methodology discussed is applicable for other types of tank structures as well. The application of these and of suitably adjusted versions of these concepts to other structural types will be addressed in a future version of this document. The original version of this document was published in January 1993. Since then, additional studies have been performed in several areas and the results are included in this revision. Comments received from the users are also addressed. Fundamental concepts supporting the basic seismic criteria contained in the original version have since then been incorporated and published in DOE-STD-1020-94 and its technical basis documents. This information has been deleted in the current revision.