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Sample records for above-threshold ionization energy-resolved

  1. Probing electron delays in above-threshold ionization

    DOE PAGES

    Zipp, Lucas J.; Natan, Adi; Bucksbaum, Philip H.

    2014-11-21

    Recent experiments have revealed attosecond delays in the emission of electrons from atoms ionized by extreme UV light, offering a glimpse into the ultrafast nature of light-induced electron dynamics. In this work, we extend these measurements to the strong-field above-threshold ionization (ATI) regime, by measuring delays in the photoemission of electrons from argon in the presence of an intense laser field. We probe the ATI process with a weak coherent reference, at half the laser frequency. The interfering ionization signal reveals the relative spectral phase of adjacent ATI channels, with an equivalent resolution of a few attoseconds. These relative delaysmore » depend on the strong field, and approach zero at higher intensity. Our phase measurements of ATI electrons show how strong fields alter ionization dynamics in atoms.« less

  2. Rings in above-threshold ionization: A quasiclassical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lewenstein, M.; Kulander, K.C.; Schafer, K.J.

    1995-02-01

    A generalized strong-field approximation is formulated to describe atoms interacting with intense laser fields. We apply it to determine angular distributions of electrons in above-threshold ionization (ATI). The theory treats the effects of an electron rescattering from its parent ion core in a systematic perturbation series. Probability amplitudes for ionization are interpreted in terms of quasiclassical electron trajectories. We demonstrate that contributions from the direct tunneling processes in the absence of rescattering are not sufficient to describe the observed ATI spectra. We show that the high-energy portion of the spectrum, including recently discovered rings (i.e., complex features in the angularmore » distributions of outgoing electrons) are due to rescattering processes. We compare our quasiclassical results with exact numerical solutions.« less

  3. Above-Threshold Ionization by an Elliptically Polarized Field: Quantum Tunneling Interferences and Classical Dodging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulus, G. G.; Zacher, F.; Walther, H.; Lohr, A.; Becker, W.; Kleber, M.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of above-threshold ionization electron spectra in an elliptically polarized field as a function of the ellipticity are presented. In the rescattering regime, electron yields quickly drop with increasing ellipticity. The yields of lower-energy electrons rise again when circular polarization is approached. A classical explanation for these effects is provided. Additional local maxima in the yields of lower-energy electrons can be interpreted as being due to interferences of electron trajectories that tunnel out at different times within one cycle of the field.

  4. Polarization effects in above-threshold ionization with a mid-infrared strong laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hui-Peng; Xu, Song-Po; Wang, Yan-Lan; Yu, Shao-Gang; Zhao, Xiao-Yun; Hao, Xiao-Lei; Lai, Xuan-Yang; Pfeifer, Thomas; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Jing; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhi-Zhan

    2018-05-01

    Using a semiclassical approach, we theoretically study the above-threshold ionization of magnesium by intense, mid-infrared laser pulses. The formation of low-energy structures in the photoelectron spectrum is found to be enhanced by comparing with a calculation based on the single-active electron approximation. By performing electron trajectory and recollision-time distribution analysis, we demonstrate that this phenomenon is due to the laser-induced ionic core polarization effects on the recolliding electrons. We also show that the polarization effects should be experimentally detectable. Our finding provides new insight into ultrafast control of strong-field photoionization and imaging of polar molecules.

  5. Suppression in high-order above-threshold ionization: destructive interference from quantum orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Xuan Yang; Quan, Wei; Yu, Shao Gang; Huang, Yi Yi; Liu, Xiao Jun

    2018-05-01

    We experimentally study the above-threshold ionization (ATI) spectra of noble gas argon in an intense laser field and focus on a novel suppression structure in the high-order ATI (HATI) spectra. It is found that, when a well-documented resonancelike enhancement feature appears in the HATI spectra, a significant suppression structure is followed in a higher energy region of the spectra. The observation is well reproduced by a numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. In terms of quantum-orbit theory, the observed suppression structure can be ascribed to the destructive interference from longer quantum orbits. Furthermore, an intrinsic relation between the ionization suppression and the ionization enhancement in the HATI spectra is well established.

  6. Molecular orbital imaging via above-threshold ionization with circularly polarized pulses.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Qingbin; Hong, Weiyi; Lu, Peixiang; Xu, Zhizhan

    2011-07-18

    Above-threshold ionization (ATI) for aligned or orientated linear molecules by circularly polarized laser pulsed is investigated. It is found that the all-round structural information of the molecular orbital is extracted with only one shot by the circularly polarized probe pulse rather than with multi-shot detections in a linearly polarized case. The obtained photoelectron momentum spectrum directly depicts the symmetry and electron distribution of the occupied molecular orbital, which results from the strong sensitivity of the ionization probability to these structural features. Our investigation indicates that the circularly polarized probe scheme would present a simple method to study the angle-dependent ionization and image the occupied electronic orbital.

  7. Two-color above-threshold and two-photon sequential double ionization beyond the dipole approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grum-Grzhimailo, A. N.; Gryzlova, E. V.; Kuzmina, E. I.; Chetverkina, A. S.; Strakhova, S. I.

    2015-04-01

    Two nonlinear atomic photoprocesses are theoretically considered with the emphasis on the photoelectron angular distributions and their modifications due to violation of the dipole approximation: sequential two-photon double ionization and two-color above threshold ionization. These reactions are now accessible with X-ray free electron lasers. Both processes are exemplified by the ionization of krypton: from the 4p shell in the sequential two-photon double ionization and from the 2s shell in the two-color above-threshold ionization, which are compared to the Ar(3p) and Ne(1s) ionization, respectively. Noticeable nondipole effects are predicted.

  8. Interference substructure of above-threshold ionization peaks in the stabilization regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, Koudai; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.; Morishita, Toru; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2008-09-01

    The photoelectron spectra produced in the photodetachment of H- (treated in the single-active-electron approximation) by strong high-frequency laser pulses with adequately chosen laser parameters in the stabilization regime are theoretically studied for elliptic polarization over an extended parameter range. An oscillating substructure in the above-threshold ionization peaks is observed, which confirms similar findings in the one-dimensional (1D) [K. Toyota , Phys. Rev. A 76, 043418 (2007)] and 3D calculations for linear polarization [O. I. Tolstikhin, Phys. Rev. A 77, 032712 (2008)]. The mechanism is an interference between the photoelectron wave packets created in the rising and falling parts of the pulse which is specific to the stabilization regime. We thus conclude that this interference substructure is robust for any polarization and over a wide range of the laser parameters, and hence should be observable experimentally.

  9. Phase- and intensity-resolved measurements of above threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kübel, M.; Arbeiter, M.; Burger, C.; Kling, Nora G.; Pischke, T.; Moshammer, R.; Fennel, T.; Kling, M. F.; Bergues, B.

    2018-07-01

    We investigate the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) and intensity dependence of the longitudinal momentum distribution of photoelectrons resulting from above threshold ionization of argon by few-cycle laser pulses. The intensity of the pulses with a center wavelength of 750 nm is varied in a range between 0.7 × 1014 and 5.5× {10}14 {{W}} {cm}}-2. Our measurements reveal a prominent maximum in the CEP-dependent asymmetry at photoelectron energies of 2 U P (U P being the ponderomotive potential), that is persistent over the entire intensity range. Further local maxima are observed around 0.3 and 0.8 U P. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical results obtained by solving the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation. We show that for few-cycle pulses, the amplitude of the CEP-dependent asymmetry provides a reliable measure for the peak intensity on target. Moreover, the measured asymmetry amplitude exhibits an intensity-dependent interference structure at low photoelectron energy, which could be used to benchmark model potentials for complex atoms.

  10. Above-threshold ionization in multicenter molecules: The role of the initial state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Noslen; Chacón, Alexis; Pisanty, Emilio; Ortmann, Lisa; Landsman, Alexandra S.; Picón, Antonio; Biegert, Jens; Lewenstein, Maciej; Ciappina, Marcelo F.

    2018-03-01

    A possible route to extract electronic and nuclear dynamics from molecular targets with attosecond temporal and nanometer spatial resolution is to employ recolliding electrons as "probes." The recollision process in molecules is, however, very challenging to treat using ab initio approaches. Even for the simplest diatomic systems, such as H2, today's computational capabilities are not enough to give a complete description of the electron and nuclear dynamics initiated by a strong laser field. As a consequence, approximate qualitative descriptions are called to play an important role. In this paper we extend the work presented in Suárez et al. [N. Suárez, A. Chacón, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, J. Biegert, M. Lewenstein, and M. F. Ciappina, High-order-harmonic generation in atomic and molecular systems, Phys. Rev. A 95, 033415 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.033415] to three-center molecular targets. Additionally, we incorporate a more accurate description of the molecular ground state, employing information extracted from quantum chemistry software packages. This step forward allows us to include, in a detailed way, both the molecular symmetries and nodes present in the high-occupied molecular orbital. We are able, on the one hand, to keep our formulation as analytical as in the case of diatomics and, on the other hand, to still give a complete description of the underlying physics behind the above-threshold ionization process. The application of our approach to complex multicenter—with more than three centers—targets appears to be straightforward.

  11. High-order above-threshold ionization beyond the electric dipole approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennecke, Simon; Lein, Manfred

    2018-05-01

    Photoelectron momentum distributions from strong-field ionization are calculated by numerical solution of the one-electron time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a model atom including effects beyond the electric dipole approximation. We focus on the high-energy electrons from rescattering and analyze their momentum component along the field propagation direction. We show that the boundary of the calculated momentum distribution is deformed in accordance with the classical three-step model including the beyond-dipole Lorentz force. In addition, the momentum distribution exhibits an asymmetry in the signal strengths of electrons emitted in the forward/backward directions. Taken together, the two non-dipole effects give rise to a considerable average forward momentum component of the order of 0.1 a.u. for realistic laser parameters.

  12. Correlated electron-nuclear dynamics in above-threshold multiphoton ionization of asymmetric molecule.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Li, Min; Zhou, Yueming; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang

    2017-02-20

    The partition of the photon energy into the subsystems of molecules determines many photon-induced chemical and physical dynamics in laser-molecule interactions. The electron-nuclear energy sharing from multiphoton ionization of molecules has been used to uncover the correlated dynamics of the electron and fragments. However, most previous studies focus on symmetric molecules. Here we study the electron-nuclear energy sharing in strong-field photoionization of HeH 2+ by solving the one-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). Compared with symmetric molecules, the joint electron-nuclear energy spectrum (JES) of HeH 2+ reveals an anomalous energy shift at certain nuclear energies, while it disappears at higher and lower nuclear energies. Through tracing the time evolution of the wavepacket of bound states, we identify that this energy shift originates from the joint effect of the Stark shift, associated with the permanent dipole, and the Autler-Townes effect due to the coupling of the 2pσ and 2sσ states in strong fields. The energy shift in the JES appears at certain nuclear distances only when both Stark effect and Autler-Townes effect play important roles. We further demonstrate that the electron-nuclei energy sharing can be controlled by varying laser intensity for asymmetric molecules, providing alternative approaches to manipulate photochemical reactions for more complex molecules.

  13. Scaling of the low-energy structure in above-threshold ionization in the tunneling regime: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Guo, L; Han, S S; Liu, X; Cheng, Y; Xu, Z Z; Fan, J; Chen, J; Chen, S G; Becker, W; Blaga, C I; DiChiara, A D; Sistrunk, E; Agostini, P; DiMauro, L F

    2013-01-04

    A calculation of the second-order (rescattering) term in the S-matrix expansion of above-threshold ionization is presented for the case when the binding potential is the unscreened Coulomb potential. Technical problems related to the divergence of the Coulomb scattering amplitude are avoided in the theory by considering the depletion of the atomic ground state due to the applied laser field, which is well defined and does not require the introduction of a screening constant. We focus on the low-energy structure, which was observed in recent experiments with a midinfrared wavelength laser field. Both the spectra and, in particular, the observed scaling versus the Keldysh parameter and the ponderomotive energy are reproduced. The theory provides evidence that the origin of the structure lies in the long-range Coulomb interaction.

  14. Above-threshold ionization of noble gases in elliptically polarized fields: Effects of atomic polarization on photoelectron angular distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, YanLan; Yu, ShaoGang; Lai, XuanYang; Liu, XiaoJun; Chen, Jing

    2017-06-01

    We theoretically investigate the atomic polarization effect on photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) in above-threshold ionization of noble gases with elliptically polarized laser fields at wavelength of 800 nm, ellipticity of 0.25, and intensity of 1.5 ×1014W/cm2 . Simulations based on a semiclassical model that includes both the ionic Coulomb potential and the atomic polarization effect show surprisingly little difference between PADs for Ar, Kr, and Xe, which is in good agreement with recent experimental observations. Our calculations reveal that the atomic polarization effect increases the distance of the tunnel exit point of the photoelectron to the parent ion and weakens the strength of the interaction between the parent ion and the photoelectron on its subsequent classical propagation. As a result, the forward-scattering electrons which contribute to the main lobes in PADs are substantially suppressed. Our results indicate that the insensitivity of PADs for Ar, Kr, and Xe may be closely related to the influence of the atomic polarization effect on the photoelectron dynamics in the strong laser field.

  15. Angle-resolved high-order above-threshold ionization of a molecule: sensitive tool for molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Busuladzić, M; Gazibegović-Busuladzić, A; Milosević, D B; Becker, W

    2008-05-23

    The strong-field approximation for ionization of diatomic molecules by an intense laser field is generalized to include rescattering of the ionized electron off the various centers of its molecular parent ion. The resulting spectrum and its interference structure strongly depend on the symmetry of the ground state molecular orbital. For N2, if the laser polarization is perpendicular to the molecular axis, we observe a distinct minimum in the emission spectrum, which survives focal averaging and allows determination of, e.g., the internuclear separation. In contrast, for O2, rescattering is absent in the same situation.

  16. Application of the dressed-bound-state molecular strong-field approximation to above-threshold ionization of heteronuclear molecules: NO vs. CO.

    PubMed

    Busuladžić, M; Hasović, E; Becker, W; Milošević, D B

    2012-10-07

    We theoretically investigate high-order above-threshold ionization (HATI) of heteronuclear diatomic molecules applying the molecular strong-field approximation which includes dressing of the molecular bound state. We consider HATI of nitrogen monoxide molecules, which are characterized by the π symmetry of their highest occupied molecular orbital. We show that the HATI spectra of NO exhibit characteristic interference structures. We analyze the differences and similarities of the HATI spectra of NO molecules and the spectra of CO (σ symmetry) and O(2) (π(g) symmetry) molecules. The symmetry properties of the molecular HATI spectra governed by linearly and elliptically polarized fields are considered in detail. The yields of high-energy electrons, contributing to the plateau region of the photoelectron spectra, strongly depend on the employed ellipticity.

  17. Long-range Coulomb effect in above-threshold ionization of Ne subject to few-cycle and multicycle laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, SongPo; Quan, Wei; Chen, YongJu; Xiao, ZhiLei; Wang, YanLan; Kang, HuiPeng; Hua, LinQiang; Gong, Cheng; Lai, XuanYang; Liu, XiaoJun; Hao, XiaoLei; Hu, ShiLin; Chen, Jing

    2017-06-01

    The long-range Coulomb effect (LRCE) is demonstrated experimentally and theoretically by investigating the pulse duration dependence of low-energy structure (LES) in above-threshold ionization of Ne. It is found experimentally that at 800 nm the LES shows itself as a double-hump structure (DHS) in momentum distribution of singly charged ion for Ne, and moreover, this structure is more prominent for multicycle laser fields than for few-cycle cases. This result can be reproduced and explained qualitatively with a semiclassical model and attributed to the paramount role of LRCE. That is to say, after the laser field vanishes, the electrons decelerate while flying away from the core by the long-range tail of Coulomb potential, which eventually makes DHS less notable.

  18. High-order above-threshold dissociation of molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Peifen; Wang, Junping; Li, Hui; Lin, Kang; Gong, Xiaochun; Song, Qiying; Ji, Qinying; Zhang, Wenbin; Ma, Junyang; Li, Hanxiao; Zeng, Heping; He, Feng; Wu, Jian

    2018-03-01

    Electrons bound to atoms or molecules can simultaneously absorb multiple photons via the above-threshold ionization featured with discrete peaks in the photoelectron spectrum on account of the quantized nature of the light energy. Analogously, the above-threshold dissociation of molecules has been proposed to address the multiple-photon energy deposition in the nuclei of molecules. In this case, nuclear energy spectra consisting of photon-energy spaced peaks exceeding the binding energy of the molecular bond are predicted. Although the observation of such phenomena is difficult, this scenario is nevertheless logical and is based on the fundamental laws. Here, we report conclusive experimental observation of high-order above-threshold dissociation of H2 in strong laser fields where the tunneling-ionized electron transfers the absorbed multiphoton energy, which is above the ionization threshold to the nuclei via the field-driven inelastic rescattering. Our results provide an unambiguous evidence that the electron and nuclei of a molecule as a whole absorb multiple photons, and thus above-threshold ionization and above-threshold dissociation must appear simultaneously, which is the cornerstone of the nowadays strong-field molecular physics.

  19. High-order above-threshold dissociation of molecules.

    PubMed

    Lu, Peifen; Wang, Junping; Li, Hui; Lin, Kang; Gong, Xiaochun; Song, Qiying; Ji, Qinying; Zhang, Wenbin; Ma, Junyang; Li, Hanxiao; Zeng, Heping; He, Feng; Wu, Jian

    2018-02-27

    Electrons bound to atoms or molecules can simultaneously absorb multiple photons via the above-threshold ionization featured with discrete peaks in the photoelectron spectrum on account of the quantized nature of the light energy. Analogously, the above-threshold dissociation of molecules has been proposed to address the multiple-photon energy deposition in the nuclei of molecules. In this case, nuclear energy spectra consisting of photon-energy spaced peaks exceeding the binding energy of the molecular bond are predicted. Although the observation of such phenomena is difficult, this scenario is nevertheless logical and is based on the fundamental laws. Here, we report conclusive experimental observation of high-order above-threshold dissociation of H 2 in strong laser fields where the tunneling-ionized electron transfers the absorbed multiphoton energy, which is above the ionization threshold to the nuclei via the field-driven inelastic rescattering. Our results provide an unambiguous evidence that the electron and nuclei of a molecule as a whole absorb multiple photons, and thus above-threshold ionization and above-threshold dissociation must appear simultaneously, which is the cornerstone of the nowadays strong-field molecular physics. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  20. Bond-rearrangement and ionization mechanisms in the photo-double-ionization of simple hydrocarbons (C 2H 4, C 2H 3F, and 1,1-C 2H 2F 2) near and above threshold

    DOE PAGES

    Gaire, B.; Gatton, A. S.; Wiegandt, F.; ...

    2016-09-14

    We have investigated bond-rearrangement driven by photo-double-ionization (PDI) near and above the double ionization threshold in a sequence of carbon-carbon double bonded hydrocarbon molecules: ethylene, fluoroethylene, and 1,1-difluoroethylene. We employ the kinematically complete cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) method to resolve all photo-double-ionization events leading to two-ionic fragments. We observe changes in the branching ratios of different dissociative ionization channels depending on the presence of none, one, or two fluorine atoms. The role of the fluorine atom in the bond-rearrangement channels is intriguing as evident by the re-ordering of the threshold energies of the PDI in the fluorinatedmore » molecules. These effects offer a compelling argument that the electronegativity of the fluorine (or the polarity of the molecule) strongly influences the potential energy surfaces of the molcules and drives bond-rearrangement during the dissociation process. The energy sharing and the relative angle between the 3D-momentum vectors of the two electrons provide clear evidence of direct and indirect PDI processes.« less

  1. Electron rescattering in above-threshold photodetachment of negative ions.

    PubMed

    Gazibegović-Busuladzić, A; Milosević, D B; Becker, W; Bergues, B; Hultgren, H; Kiyan, I Yu

    2010-03-12

    We present experimental and theoretical results on photodetachment of Br(-) and F(-) in a strong infrared laser field. The observed photoelectron spectra of Br(-) exhibit a high-energy plateau along the laser polarization direction, which is identified as being due to the rescattering effect. The shape and the extension of the plateau is found to be influenced by the depletion of negative ions during the interaction with the laser pulse. Our findings represent the first observation of electron rescattering in above-threshold photodetachment of an atomic system with a short-range potential.

  2. High-order above-threshold photoemission from nanotips controlled with two-color laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiffert, Lennart; Paschen, Timo; Hommelhoff, Peter; Fennel, Thomas

    2018-07-01

    We investigate the process of phase-controlled high-order above-threshold photoemission from metallic nanotips under bichromatic laser fields. Experimental photoelectron spectra resulting from two-color excitation with a moderately intense near-infrared fundamental field (1560 nm) and its weak second harmonic show a strong sensitivity on the relative phase and clear indications for a plateau-like structure that is attributed to elastic backscattering. To explore the relevant control mechanisms, characteristic features, and particular signatures from the near-field inhomogeneity, we performed systematic quantum simulations employing a one-dimensional nanotip model. Besides rich phase-dependent structures in the simulated above-threshold ionization photoelectron spectra we find ponderomotive shifts as well as substantial modifications of the rescattering cutoff as function of the decay length of the near-field. To explore the quantum or classical nature of the observed features and to discriminate the two-color effects stemming from electron propagation and from the ionization rate we compare the quantum results to classical trajectory simulations. We show that signatures from direct electrons as well as the modulations in the plateau region mainly stem from control of the ionization probability, while the modulation in the cutoff region can only be explained by the impact of the two-color field on the electron trajectory. Despite the complexity of the phase-dependent features that render two-color strong-field photoemission from nanotips intriguing for sub-cycle strong-field control, our findings support that the recollision features in the cutoff region provide a robust and reliable method to calibrate the relative two-color phase.

  3. Collision energy-resolved study of the emission cross-section and the Penning ionization cross-section in the reaction of BrCN with He*(2 3S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Kazuhiro; Yamakita, Yoshihiro; Ohno, Koichi

    2001-12-01

    The dissociative excitation of BrCN producing CN(B 2Σ +) fragment by the collision of He *(2 3S) was investigated by the collision energy-resolved electron and emission spectroscopy using time-of-flight method with a high-intensity He * beam. The Penning electrons ejected from BrCN and the subsequent CN ( B2Σ +- X2Σ +) emission were measured as a function of collision energy in the range of 90-180 meV. The formation of CN ( B2Σ +) is concluded to proceed dominantly via the promotion of an electron from Π-character orbital, by comparison between the collision energy dependence of the partial Penning ionization cross-sections and the CN ( B2Σ +- X2Σ +) emission cross-section.

  4. Valence ionized states of iron pentacarbonyl and eta5-cyclopentadienyl cobalt dicarbonyl studied by symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction calculation and collision-energy resolved Penning ionization electron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Ryoichi; Ehara, Masahiro; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Naoki; Ohno, Koichi

    2010-02-28

    Valence ionized states of iron pentacarbonyl Fe(CO)(5) and eta(5)-cyclopentadienyl cobalt dicarbonyl Co(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))(CO)(2) have been studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, two-dimensional Penning ionization electron spectroscopy (2D-PIES), and symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction calculations. Theory provided reliable assignments for the complex ionization spectra of these molecules, which have metal-carbonyl bonds. Theoretical ionization energies agreed well with experimental observations and the calculated wave functions could explain the relative intensities of PIES spectra. The collision-energy dependence of partial ionization cross sections (CEDPICS) was obtained by 2D-PIES. To interpret these CEDPICS, the interaction potentials between the molecules and a Li atom were examined in several coordinates by calculations. The relation between the slope of the CEDPICS and the electronic structure of the ionized states, such as molecular symmetry and the spatial distribution of ionizing orbitals, was analyzed. In Fe(CO)(5), an attractive interaction was obtained for the equatorial CO, while the interaction for the axial CO direction was repulsive. For Co(eta(5)-C(5)H(5))(CO)(2), the interaction potential in the direction of both Co-C-O and Co-Cp ring was attractive. These anisotropic interactions and ionizing orbital distributions consistently explain the relative slopes of the CEDPICS.

  5. A highly sensitive electron spectrometer for crossed-beam collisional ionization: A retarding-type magnetic bottle analyzer and its application to collision-energy resolved Penning ionization electron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakita, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Hideyasu; Maruyama, Ryo; Yamakado, Hideo; Misaizu, Fuminori; Ohno, Koichi

    2000-08-01

    A highly sensitive electron energy analyzer which utilizes a "magnetic bottle" combined with a retarding electrostatic field has been developed for Penning ionization electron spectroscopy. A beam of metastable rare-gas atoms is crossed with a continuous supersonic sample beam in the source region of the analyzer. The emitted electrons are collected by an inhomogeneous magnetic field (the magnetic bottle effect) with a high efficiency of nearly 4π solid angle, which is more than 103 times higher than that of a conventional hemispherical analyzer. The kinetic energy of electrons is analyzed by scanning the retarding field in a flight tube of the analyzer in the presence of a weak magnetic field. The velocity of the metastable atoms can also be resolved by a time-of-flight method in the present instrument. Examples of Penning ionization electron energy spectra as a function of collision energy are presented for Ar and N2 with metastable He*(2 3S) atoms. This instrument has opened the possibility for extensive studies of Penning ionization electron spectroscopy for low-density species, such as clusters, ions, electronically excited species, unstable or transient species, and large molecules with low volatility.

  6. Above-threshold scattering about a Feshbach resonance for ultracold atoms in an optical collider.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Milena S J; Thomas, Ryan; Tiesinga, Eite; Deb, Amita B; Kjærgaard, Niels

    2017-09-06

    Ultracold atomic gases have realized numerous paradigms of condensed matter physics, where control over interactions has crucially been afforded by tunable Feshbach resonances. So far, the characterization of these Feshbach resonances has almost exclusively relied on experiments in the threshold regime near zero energy. Here, we use a laser-based collider to probe a narrow magnetic Feshbach resonance of rubidium above threshold. By measuring the overall atomic loss from colliding clouds as a function of magnetic field, we track the energy-dependent resonance position. At higher energy, our collider scheme broadens the loss feature, making the identification of the narrow resonance challenging. However, we observe that the collisions give rise to shifts in the center-of-mass positions of outgoing clouds. The shifts cross zero at the resonance and this allows us to accurately determine its location well above threshold. Our inferred resonance positions are in excellent agreement with theory.Studies on energy-dependent scattering of ultracold atoms were previously carried out near zero collision energies. Here, the authors observe a magnetic Feshbach resonance in ultracold Rb collisions for above-threshold energies and their method can also be used to detect higher partial wave resonances.

  7. Two-Color Coherent Control of Femtosecond Above-Threshold Photoemission from a Tungsten Nanotip.

    PubMed

    Förster, Michael; Paschen, Timo; Krüger, Michael; Lemell, Christoph; Wachter, Georg; Libisch, Florian; Madlener, Thomas; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2016-11-18

    We demonstrate coherent control of multiphoton and above-threshold photoemission from a single solid-state nanoemitter driven by a fundamental and a weak second harmonic laser pulse. Depending on the relative phase of the two pulses, electron emission is modulated with a contrast of the oscillating current signal of up to 94%. Electron spectra reveal that all observed photon orders are affected simultaneously and similarly. We confirm that photoemission takes place within 10 fs. Accompanying simulations indicate that the current modulation with its large contrast results from two interfering quantum pathways leading to electron emission.

  8. Above threshold spectral dependence of linewidth enhancement factor, optical duration and linear chirp of quantum dot lasers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jimyung; Delfyett, Peter J

    2009-12-07

    The spectral dependence of the linewidth enhancement factor above threshold is experimentally observed from a quantum dot Fabry-Pérot semiconductor laser. The linewidth enhancement factor is found to be reduced when the quantum dot laser operates approximately 10 nm offset to either side of the gain peak. It becomes significantly reduced on the anti-Stokes side as compared to the Stokes side. It is also found that the temporal duration of the optical pulses generated from quantum dot mode-locked lasers is shorter when the laser operates away from the gain peak. In addition, less linear chirp is impressed on the pulse train generated from the anti-Stokes side whereas the pulses generated from the gain peak and Stokes side possess a large linear chirp. These experimental results imply that enhanced performance characteristics of quantum dot lasers can be achieved by operating on the anti-Stokes side, approximately 10 nm away from the gain peak.

  9. Exploiting Sub-threshold and above-threshold characteristics in a silver-enhanced gold nanoparticle based biochip.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Alocilja, Evangelyn; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2009-01-01

    Silver-enhanced labeling is a technique used in immunochromatographic assays for improving the sensitivity of pathogen detection. In this paper, we employ the silver enhancement approach for constructing a biomolecular transistor that uses a high-density interdigitated electrode to detect rabbit IgG. We show that the response of the biomolecular transistor comprises of: (a) a sub-threshold region where the conductance change is an exponential function of the enhancement time and; (b) an above-threshold region where the conductance change is a linear function with respect to the enhancement time. By exploiting both these regions of operation, it is shown that the silver enhancing time is a reliable indicator of the IgG concentration. The method provides a relatively straightforward alternative to biomolecular signal amplification techniques. The measured results using a biochip prototype fabricated in silicon show that 240 pg/mL rabbit IgG can be detected at the silver enhancing time of 42 min. Also, the biomolecular transistor is compatible with silicon based processing making it ideal for designing integrated CMOS biosensors.

  10. Distributions of extreme bursts above thresholds in a fractional Lévy toy model of natural complexity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Nicholas; Chapman, Sandra; Rosenberg, Sam; Credgington, Dan; Sanchez, Raul

    2010-05-01

    In 2 far-sighted contributions in the 1960s Mandelbrot showed the ubiquity of both non-Gaussian fluctuations and long-ranged temporal memory (the "Noah" and "Joseph" effects, respectively) in the natural and man-made worlds. Much subsequent work in complexity science has contributed to the physical underpinning of these effects, particularly in cases where complex interactions in a system cause a driven or random perturbation to be nonlinearly amplified in amplitude and/or spread out over a wide range of frequencies. In addition the modelling of catastrophes has begun to incorporate the insights which these approaches have offered into the likelihood of extreme and long-lived fluctuations. I will briefly survey how the application of the above ideas in the earth system has been a key focus and motivation of research into natural complexity at BAS [e.g. Watkins & Freeman, Science, 2008; Edwards et al, Nature, 2007]. I will then discuss in detail a standard toy model (linear fractional stable motion, LFSM) which combines the Noah and Joseph effects in a controllable way and explain how it differs from the widely used continuous time random walk. I will describe how LFSM is being used to explore the interplay of the above two effects in the distribution of bursts above thresholds. I will describe ongoing work to improve the accuracy of maximum likelihood-based estimation of burst size and waiting time distributions for LFSM first reported in [Watkins et al, PRE, 2009]; and will also touch on similar work for multifractal models [Watkins et al, PRL comment, 2009].

  11. Concept of proton radiography using energy resolved dose measurement.

    PubMed

    Bentefour, El H; Schnuerer, Roland; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2016-08-21

    Energy resolved dosimetry offers a potential path to single detector based proton imaging using scanned proton beams. This is because energy resolved dose functions encrypt the radiological depth at which the measurements are made. When a set of predetermined proton beams 'proton imaging field' are used to deliver a well determined dose distribution in a specific volume, then, at any given depth x of this volume, the behavior of the dose against the energies of the proton imaging field is unique and characterizes the depth x. This concept applies directly to proton therapy scanning delivery methods (pencil beam scanning and uniform scanning) and it can be extended to the proton therapy passive delivery methods (single and double scattering) if the delivery of the irradiation is time-controlled with a known time-energy relationship. To derive the water equivalent path length (WEPL) from the energy resolved dose measurement, one may proceed in two different ways. A first method is by matching the measured energy resolved dose function to a pre-established calibration database of the behavior of the energy resolved dose in water, measured over the entire range of radiological depths with at least 1 mm spatial resolution. This calibration database can also be made specific to the patient if computed using the patient x-CT data. A second method to determine the WEPL is by using the empirical relationships between the WEPL and the integral dose or the depth at 80% of the proximal fall off of the energy resolved dose functions in water. In this note, we establish the evidence of the fundamental relationship between the energy resolved dose and the WEPL at the depth of the measurement. Then, we illustrate this relationship with experimental data and discuss its imaging dynamic range for 230 MeV protons.

  12. Experimental study of the p+{sup 6}Li{yields}{eta}+{sup 7}Be reaction 11.3 MeV above threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Budzanowski, A.; Kliczewski, S.; Siudak, R.

    2010-10-15

    The cross section for the reaction p+{sup 6}Li{yields}{eta}+{sup 7}Be was measured at an excess energy of 11.28 MeV above threshold by detecting the recoiling {sup 7}Be nuclei. A dedicated set of focal plane detectors was built for the magnetic spectrograph Big Karl and was used for identification and four-momentum measurement of {sup 7}Be. A differential cross section of nb/(d{sigma}/d{Omega})=[0.69{+-}0.20(stat.){+-}0.20(syst.)] sr for the ground state plus 1/2{sup -} was measured. The result is compared to model calculations.

  13. The Higgs portal above threshold

    DOE PAGES

    Craig, Nathaniel; Lou, Hou Keong; McCullough, Matthew; ...

    2016-02-18

    The discovery of the Higgs boson opens the door to new physics interacting via the Higgs Portal, including motivated scenarios relating to baryogenesis, dark matter, and electroweak naturalness. In this study, we systematically explore the collider signatures of singlet scalars produced via the Higgs Portal at the 14TeV LHC and a prospective 100TeV hadron collider. We focus on the challenging regime where the scalars are too heavy to be produced in the decays of an on-shell Higgs boson, and instead are produced primarily via an o ff-shell Higgs. Assuming these scalars escape the detector, promising channels include missing energy inmore » association with vector boson fusion, monojets, and top pairs. In addition, we forecast the sensitivity of searches in these channels at √s = 14 & 100 TeV and compare collider reach to the motivated parameter space of singlet-assisted electroweak baryogenesis, Higgs Portal dark matter, and neutral naturalness.« less

  14. Quantum dynamics of Kerr optical frequency combs below and above threshold: Spontaneous four-wave mixing, entanglement, and squeezed states of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chembo, Yanne K.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamical behavior of Kerr optical frequency combs is very well understood today from the perspective of the semiclassical approximation. These combs are obtained by pumping an ultrahigh-Q whispering-gallery mode resonator with a continuous-wave laser. The long-lifetime photons are trapped within the toruslike eigenmodes of the resonator, where they interact nonlinearly via the Kerr effect. In this article, we use quantum Langevin equations to provide a theoretical understanding of the nonclassical behavior of these combs when pumped below and above threshold. In the configuration where the system is under threshold, the pump field is the unique oscillating mode inside the resonator, and it triggers the phenomenon of spontaneous four-wave mixing, where two photons from the pump are symmetrically up- and down-converted in the Fourier domain. This phenomenon, also referred to as parametric fluorescence, can only be understood and analyzed from a fully quantum perspective as a consequence of the coupling between the field of the central (pumped) mode and the vacuum fluctuations of the various side modes. We analytically calculate the power spectra of the spontaneous emission noise, and we show that these spectra can be either single- or double-peaked depending on the value of the laser frequency, chromatic dispersion, pump power, and spectral distance between the central mode and the side mode of interest. We also calculate as well the overall spontaneous noise power per side mode and propose simplified analytical expressions for some particular cases. In the configuration where the system is pumped above threshold, we investigate the phenomena of quantum correlations and multimode squeezed states of light that can occur in the Kerr frequency combs originating from stimulated four-wave mixing. We show that for all stationary spatiotemporal patterns, the side modes that are symmetrical relative to the pumped mode in the frequency domain display quantum correlations

  15. Energy-resolved neutron imaging for inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, M. J.; Haan, S. W.; Hatchett, S. P.; Izumi, N.; Koch, J. A.; Lerche, R. A.; Phillips, T. W.

    2003-03-01

    The success of the National Ignition Facility program will depend on diagnostic measurements which study the performance of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. Neutron yield, fusion-burn time history, and images are examples of important diagnostics. Neutron and x-ray images will record the geometries of compressed targets during the fusion-burn process. Such images provide a critical test of the accuracy of numerical modeling of ICF experiments. They also can provide valuable information in cases where experiments produce unexpected results. Although x-ray and neutron images provide similar data, they do have significant differences. X-ray images represent the distribution of high-temperature regions where fusion occurs, while neutron images directly reveal the spatial distribution of fusion-neutron emission. X-ray imaging has the advantage of a relatively straightforward path to the imaging system design. Neutron imaging, by using energy-resolved detection, offers the intriguing advantage of being able to provide independent images of burning and nonburning regions of the nuclear fuel. The usefulness of energy-resolved neutron imaging depends on both the information content of the data and on the quality of the data that can be recorded. The information content will relate to the characteristic neutron spectra that are associated with emission from different regions of the source. Numerical modeling of ICF fusion burn will be required to interpret the corresponding energy-dependent images. The exercise will be useful only if the images can be recorded with sufficient definition to reveal the spatial and energy-dependent features of interest. Several options are being evaluated with respect to the feasibility of providing the desired simultaneous spatial and energy resolution.

  16. Collision-energy-resolved angular distribution of Penning electrons for N 2-He ∗(2 3S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanzawa, Yoshinori; Kishimoto, Naoki; Yamazaki, Masakazu; Ohno, Koichi

    2006-07-01

    The collision-energy-resolved angular distributions of Penning electrons for individual ionic state of N 2-He ∗(2 3S) were measured. The angular distributions showed increasing intensity in the backward (rebounding) directions with respect to initial He ∗(2 3S) beam vector because Penning ionization occurs with a collision against repulsive interaction wall followed by the electron emission from 2s orbital of He ∗. We also analyzed internal angular distribution by means of fitting parameters using classical trajectory calculations for N 2-He ∗(2 3S) on the modified interaction potential. These internal angular distributions suggested the electron emission from 2s orbital of He ∗ and they depended on collision energy and electron kinetic energy.

  17. Material separation in x-ray CT with energy resolved photon-counting detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiaolan; Meier, Dirk; Taguchi, Katsuyuki

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to demonstrate that, in x-ray computed tomography (CT), more than two types of materials can be effectively separated with the use of an energy resolved photon-counting detector and classification methodology. Specifically, this applies to the case when contrast agents that contain K-absorption edges in the energy range of interest are present in the object. This separation is enabled via the use of recently developed energy resolved photon-counting detectors with multiple thresholds, which allow simultaneous measurements of the x-ray attenuation at multiple energies. Methods: To demonstrate this capability, we performed simulations and physical experimentsmore » using a six-threshold energy resolved photon-counting detector. We imaged mouse-sized cylindrical phantoms filled with several soft-tissue-like and bone-like materials and with iodine-based and gadolinium-based contrast agents. The linear attenuation coefficients were reconstructed for each material in each energy window and were visualized as scatter plots between pairs of energy windows. For comparison, a dual-kVp CT was also simulated using the same phantom materials. In this case, the linear attenuation coefficients at the lower kVp were plotted against those at the higher kVp. Results: In both the simulations and the physical experiments, the contrast agents were easily separable from other soft-tissue-like and bone-like materials, thanks to the availability of the attenuation coefficient measurements at more than two energies provided by the energy resolved photon-counting detector. In the simulations, the amount of separation was observed to be proportional to the concentration of the contrast agents; however, this was not observed in the physical experiments due to limitations of the real detector system. We used the angle between pairs of attenuation coefficient vectors in either the 5-D space (for non-contrast-agent materials using energy resolved photon

  18. Energy-resolved coherent diffraction from laser-driven electronic motion in atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Hua-Chieh; Starace, Anthony F.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate theoretically the use of energy-resolved ultrafast electron diffraction to image laser-driven electronic motion in atoms. A chirped laser pulse is used to transfer the valence electron of the lithium atom from the ground state to the first excited state. During this process, the electronic motion is imaged by 100-fs and 1-fs electron pulses in energy-resolved diffraction measurements. Simulations show that the angle-resolved spectra reveal the time evolution of the energy content and symmetry of the electronic state. The time-dependent diffraction patterns are further interpreted in terms of the momentum transfer. For the case of incident 1-fs electron pulses, the rapid 2 s -2 p quantum beat motion of the target electron is imaged as a time-dependent asymmetric oscillation of the diffraction pattern.

  19. Event Centroiding Applied to Energy-Resolved Neutron Imaging at LANSCE

    DOE PAGES

    Borges, Nicholas; Losko, Adrian; Vogel, Sven

    2018-02-13

    The energy-dependence of the neutron cross section provides vastly different contrast mechanisms than polychromatic neutron radiography if neutron energies can be selected for imaging applications. In recent years, energy-resolved neutron imaging (ERNI) with epi-thermal neutrons, utilizing neutron absorption resonances for contrast as well as for quantitative density measurements, was pioneered at the Flight Path 5 beam line at LANSCE and continues to be refined. In this work, we present event centroiding, i.e., the determination of the center-of-gravity of a detection event on an imaging detector to allow sub-pixel spatial resolution and apply it to the many frames collected for energy-resolvedmore » neutron imaging at a pulsed neutron source. While event centroiding was demonstrated at thermal neutron sources, it has not been applied to energy-resolved neutron imaging, where the energy resolution requires to be preserved, and we present a quantification of the possible resolution as a function of neutron energy. For the 55 μm pixel size of the detector used for this study, we found a resolution improvement from ~80 μm to ~22 μm using pixel centroiding while fully preserving the energy resolution.« less

  20. Event Centroiding Applied to Energy-Resolved Neutron Imaging at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, Nicholas; Losko, Adrian; Vogel, Sven

    The energy-dependence of the neutron cross section provides vastly different contrast mechanisms than polychromatic neutron radiography if neutron energies can be selected for imaging applications. In recent years, energy-resolved neutron imaging (ERNI) with epi-thermal neutrons, utilizing neutron absorption resonances for contrast as well as for quantitative density measurements, was pioneered at the Flight Path 5 beam line at LANSCE and continues to be refined. In this work, we present event centroiding, i.e., the determination of the center-of-gravity of a detection event on an imaging detector to allow sub-pixel spatial resolution and apply it to the many frames collected for energy-resolvedmore » neutron imaging at a pulsed neutron source. While event centroiding was demonstrated at thermal neutron sources, it has not been applied to energy-resolved neutron imaging, where the energy resolution requires to be preserved, and we present a quantification of the possible resolution as a function of neutron energy. For the 55 μm pixel size of the detector used for this study, we found a resolution improvement from ~80 μm to ~22 μm using pixel centroiding while fully preserving the energy resolution.« less

  1. The Dosepix detector—an energy-resolving photon-counting pixel detector for spectrometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, A.; Anton, G.; Ballabriga, R.; Bisello, F.; Campbell, M.; Celi, J. C.; Fauler, A.; Fiederle, M.; Jensch, M.; Kochanski, N.; Llopart, X.; Michel, N.; Mollenhauer, U.; Ritter, I.; Tennert, F.; Wölfel, S.; Wong, W.; Michel, T.

    2015-04-01

    The Dosepix detector is a hybrid photon-counting pixel detector based on ideas of the Medipix and Timepix detector family. 1 mm thick cadmium telluride and 300 μm thick silicon were used as sensor material. The pixel matrix of the Dosepix consists of 16 x 16 square pixels with 12 rows of (200 μm)2 and 4 rows of (55 μm)2 sensitive area for the silicon sensor layer and 16 rows of pixels with 220 μm pixel pitch for CdTe. Besides digital energy integration and photon-counting mode, a novel concept of energy binning is included in the pixel electronics, allowing energy-resolved measurements in 16 energy bins within one acquisition. The possibilities of this detector concept range from applications in personal dosimetry and energy-resolved imaging to quality assurance of medical X-ray sources by analysis of the emitted photon spectrum. In this contribution the Dosepix detector, its response to X-rays as well as spectrum measurements with Si and CdTe sensor layer are presented. Furthermore, a first evaluation was carried out to use the Dosepix detector as a kVp-meter, that means to determine the applied acceleration voltage from measured X-ray tubes spectra.

  2. Energy-resolved attosecond interferometric photoemission from Ag(111) and Au(111) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosio, M. J.; Thumm, U.

    2018-04-01

    Photoelectron emission from solid surfaces induced by attosecond pulse trains into the electric field of delayed phase-coherent infrared (IR) pulses allows the surface-specific observation of energy-resolved electronic phase accumulations and photoemission delays. We quantum-mechanically modeled interferometric photoemission spectra from the (111) surfaces of Au and Ag, including background contributions from secondary electrons and direct emission by the IR pulse, and adjusted parameters of our model to energy-resolved photoelectron spectra recently measured at a synchrotron light source by Roth et al. [J. Electron Spectrosc. 224, 84 (2018), 10.1016/j.elspec.2017.05.008]. Our calculated spectra and photoelectron phase shifts are in fair agreement with the experimental data of Locher et al. [Optica 2, 405 (2015), 10.1364/OPTICA.2.000405]. Our model's not reproducing the measured energy-dependent oscillations of the Ag(111) photoemission phases may be interpreted as evidence for subtle band-structure effects on the final-state photoelectron-surface interaction not accounted for in our simulation.

  3. An online, energy-resolving beam profile detector for laser-driven proton beams.

    PubMed

    Metzkes, J; Zeil, K; Kraft, S D; Karsch, L; Sobiella, M; Rehwald, M; Obst, L; Schlenvoigt, H-P; Schramm, U

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a scintillator-based online beam profile detector for the characterization of laser-driven proton beams is presented. Using a pixelated matrix with varying absorber thicknesses, the proton beam is spatially resolved in two dimensions and simultaneously energy-resolved. A thin plastic scintillator placed behind the absorber and read out by a CCD camera is used as the active detector material. The spatial detector resolution reaches down to ∼4 mm and the detector can resolve proton beam profiles for up to 9 proton threshold energies. With these detector design parameters, the spatial characteristics of the proton distribution and its cut-off energy can be analyzed online and on-shot under vacuum conditions. The paper discusses the detector design, its characterization and calibration at a conventional proton source, as well as the first detector application at a laser-driven proton source.

  4. An online, energy-resolving beam profile detector for laser-driven proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Metzkes, J.; Rehwald, M.; Obst, L.

    In this paper, a scintillator-based online beam profile detector for the characterization of laser-driven proton beams is presented. Using a pixelated matrix with varying absorber thicknesses, the proton beam is spatially resolved in two dimensions and simultaneously energy-resolved. A thin plastic scintillator placed behind the absorber and read out by a CCD camera is used as the active detector material. The spatial detector resolution reaches down to ∼4 mm and the detector can resolve proton beam profiles for up to 9 proton threshold energies. With these detector design parameters, the spatial characteristics of the proton distribution and its cut-off energymore » can be analyzed online and on-shot under vacuum conditions. The paper discusses the detector design, its characterization and calibration at a conventional proton source, as well as the first detector application at a laser-driven proton source.« less

  5. Real-time Crystal Growth Visualization and Quantification by Energy-Resolved Neutron Imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Perrodin, Didier; Losko, Adrian S.; ...

    2017-04-20

    Energy-resolved neutron imaging is investigated as a real-time diagnostic tool for visualization and in-situ measurements of "blind" processes. This technique is demonstrated for the Bridgman-type crystal growth enabling remote and direct measurements of growth parameters crucial for process optimization. The location and shape of the interface between liquid and solid phases are monitored in real-time, concurrently with the measurement of elemental distribution within the growth volume and with the identification of structural features with a ~100 μm spatial resolution. Such diagnostics can substantially reduce the development time between exploratory small scale growth of new materials and their subsequent commercial production.more » This technique is widely applicable and is not limited to crystal growth processes.« less

  6. Real-time Crystal Growth Visualization and Quantification by Energy-Resolved Neutron Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Perrodin, Didier; Losko, Adrian S.

    Energy-resolved neutron imaging is investigated as a real-time diagnostic tool for visualization and in-situ measurements of "blind" processes. This technique is demonstrated for the Bridgman-type crystal growth enabling remote and direct measurements of growth parameters crucial for process optimization. The location and shape of the interface between liquid and solid phases are monitored in real-time, concurrently with the measurement of elemental distribution within the growth volume and with the identification of structural features with a ~100 μm spatial resolution. Such diagnostics can substantially reduce the development time between exploratory small scale growth of new materials and their subsequent commercial production.more » This technique is widely applicable and is not limited to crystal growth processes.« less

  7. Real-time Crystal Growth Visualization and Quantification by Energy-Resolved Neutron Imaging.

    PubMed

    Tremsin, Anton S; Perrodin, Didier; Losko, Adrian S; Vogel, Sven C; Bourke, Mark A M; Bizarri, Gregory A; Bourret, Edith D

    2017-04-20

    Energy-resolved neutron imaging is investigated as a real-time diagnostic tool for visualization and in-situ measurements of "blind" processes. This technique is demonstrated for the Bridgman-type crystal growth enabling remote and direct measurements of growth parameters crucial for process optimization. The location and shape of the interface between liquid and solid phases are monitored in real-time, concurrently with the measurement of elemental distribution within the growth volume and with the identification of structural features with a ~100 μm spatial resolution. Such diagnostics can substantially reduce the development time between exploratory small scale growth of new materials and their subsequent commercial production. This technique is widely applicable and is not limited to crystal growth processes.

  8. Real-time Crystal Growth Visualization and Quantification by Energy-Resolved Neutron Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Perrodin, Didier; Losko, Adrian S.; Vogel, Sven C.; Bourke, Mark A. M.; Bizarri, Gregory A.; Bourret, Edith D.

    2017-04-01

    Energy-resolved neutron imaging is investigated as a real-time diagnostic tool for visualization and in-situ measurements of “blind” processes. This technique is demonstrated for the Bridgman-type crystal growth enabling remote and direct measurements of growth parameters crucial for process optimization. The location and shape of the interface between liquid and solid phases are monitored in real-time, concurrently with the measurement of elemental distribution within the growth volume and with the identification of structural features with a ~100 μm spatial resolution. Such diagnostics can substantially reduce the development time between exploratory small scale growth of new materials and their subsequent commercial production. This technique is widely applicable and is not limited to crystal growth processes.

  9. Characterization of Lipid A Variants by Energy-Resolved Mass Spectrometry: Impact of Acyl Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crittenden, Christopher M.; Akin, Lucas D.; Morrison, Lindsay J.; Trent, M. Stephen; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2017-06-01

    Lipid A molecules consist of a diglucosamine sugar core with a number of appended acyl chains that vary in their length and connectivity. Because of the challenging nature of characterizing these molecules and differentiating between isomeric species, an energy-resolved MS/MS strategy was undertaken to track the fragmentation trends and map genealogies of product ions originating from consecutive cleavages of acyl chains. Generalizations were developed based on the number and locations of the primary and secondary acyl chains as well as variations in preferential cleavages arising from the location of the phosphate groups. Secondary acyl chain cleavage occurs most readily for lipid A species at the 3' position, followed by primary acyl chain fragmentation at both the 3' and 3 positions. In the instances of bisphosphorylated lipid A variants, phosphate loss occurs readily in conjunction with the most favorable primary and secondary acyl chain cleavages. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Real-time Crystal Growth Visualization and Quantification by Energy-Resolved Neutron Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Perrodin, Didier; Losko, Adrian S.; Vogel, Sven C.; Bourke, Mark A.M.; Bizarri, Gregory A.; Bourret, Edith D.

    2017-01-01

    Energy-resolved neutron imaging is investigated as a real-time diagnostic tool for visualization and in-situ measurements of “blind” processes. This technique is demonstrated for the Bridgman-type crystal growth enabling remote and direct measurements of growth parameters crucial for process optimization. The location and shape of the interface between liquid and solid phases are monitored in real-time, concurrently with the measurement of elemental distribution within the growth volume and with the identification of structural features with a ~100 μm spatial resolution. Such diagnostics can substantially reduce the development time between exploratory small scale growth of new materials and their subsequent commercial production. This technique is widely applicable and is not limited to crystal growth processes. PMID:28425461

  11. Investigation of dissimilar metal welds by energy-resolved neutron imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Ganguly, Supriyo; Meco, Sonia M.; ...

    2016-06-09

    A nondestructive study of the internal structure and compositional gradient of dissimilar metal-alloy welds through energy-resolved neutron imaging is described in this paper. The ability of neutrons to penetrate thick metal objects (up to several cm) provides a unique possibility to examine samples which are opaque to other conventional techniques. The presence of Bragg edges in the measured neutron transmission spectra can be used to characterize the internal residual strain within the samples and some microstructural features, e.g. texture within the grains, while neutron resonance absorption provides the possibility to map the degree of uniformity in mixing of the participatingmore » alloys and intermetallic formation within the welds. In addition, voids and other defects can be revealed by the variation of neutron attenuation across the samples. This paper demonstrates the potential of neutron energy-resolved imaging to measure all these characteristics simultaneously in a single experiment with sub-mm spatial resolution. Two dissimilar alloy welds are used in this study: Al autogenously laser welded to steel, and Ti gas metal arc welded (GMAW) to stainless steel using Cu as a filler alloy. The cold metal transfer variant of the GMAW process was used in joining the Ti to the stainless steel in order to minimize the heat input. The distributions of the lattice parameter and texture variation in these welds as well as the presence of voids and defects in the melt region are mapped across the welds. The depth of the thermal front in the Al–steel weld is clearly resolved and could be used to optimize the welding process. As a result, a highly textured structure is revealed in the Ti to stainless steel joint where copper was used as a filler wire. The limited diffusion of Ti into the weld region is also verified by the resonance absorption.« less

  12. Investigation of dissimilar metal welds by energy-resolved neutron imaging.

    PubMed

    Tremsin, Anton S; Ganguly, Supriyo; Meco, Sonia M; Pardal, Goncalo R; Shinohara, Takenao; Feller, W Bruce

    2016-08-01

    A nondestructive study of the internal structure and compositional gradient of dissimilar metal-alloy welds through energy-resolved neutron imaging is described in this paper. The ability of neutrons to penetrate thick metal objects (up to several cm) provides a unique possibility to examine samples which are opaque to other conventional techniques. The presence of Bragg edges in the measured neutron transmission spectra can be used to characterize the internal residual strain within the samples and some microstructural features, e.g. texture within the grains, while neutron resonance absorption provides the possibility to map the degree of uniformity in mixing of the participating alloys and intermetallic formation within the welds. In addition, voids and other defects can be revealed by the variation of neutron attenuation across the samples. This paper demonstrates the potential of neutron energy-resolved imaging to measure all these characteristics simultaneously in a single experiment with sub-mm spatial resolution. Two dissimilar alloy welds are used in this study: Al autogenously laser welded to steel, and Ti gas metal arc welded (GMAW) to stainless steel using Cu as a filler alloy. The cold metal transfer variant of the GMAW process was used in joining the Ti to the stainless steel in order to minimize the heat input. The distributions of the lattice parameter and texture variation in these welds as well as the presence of voids and defects in the melt region are mapped across the welds. The depth of the thermal front in the Al-steel weld is clearly resolved and could be used to optimize the welding process. A highly textured structure is revealed in the Ti to stainless steel joint where copper was used as a filler wire. The limited diffusion of Ti into the weld region is also verified by the resonance absorption.

  13. Investigation of dissimilar metal welds by energy-resolved neutron imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Ganguly, Supriyo; Meco, Sonia M.

    A nondestructive study of the internal structure and compositional gradient of dissimilar metal-alloy welds through energy-resolved neutron imaging is described in this paper. The ability of neutrons to penetrate thick metal objects (up to several cm) provides a unique possibility to examine samples which are opaque to other conventional techniques. The presence of Bragg edges in the measured neutron transmission spectra can be used to characterize the internal residual strain within the samples and some microstructural features, e.g. texture within the grains, while neutron resonance absorption provides the possibility to map the degree of uniformity in mixing of the participatingmore » alloys and intermetallic formation within the welds. In addition, voids and other defects can be revealed by the variation of neutron attenuation across the samples. This paper demonstrates the potential of neutron energy-resolved imaging to measure all these characteristics simultaneously in a single experiment with sub-mm spatial resolution. Two dissimilar alloy welds are used in this study: Al autogenously laser welded to steel, and Ti gas metal arc welded (GMAW) to stainless steel using Cu as a filler alloy. The cold metal transfer variant of the GMAW process was used in joining the Ti to the stainless steel in order to minimize the heat input. The distributions of the lattice parameter and texture variation in these welds as well as the presence of voids and defects in the melt region are mapped across the welds. The depth of the thermal front in the Al–steel weld is clearly resolved and could be used to optimize the welding process. As a result, a highly textured structure is revealed in the Ti to stainless steel joint where copper was used as a filler wire. The limited diffusion of Ti into the weld region is also verified by the resonance absorption.« less

  14. Investigation of dissimilar metal welds by energy-resolved neutron imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Ganguly, Supriyo; Meco, Sonia M.; Pardal, Goncalo R.; Shinohara, Takenao; Feller, W. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    A nondestructive study of the internal structure and compositional gradient of dissimilar metal-alloy welds through energy-resolved neutron imaging is described in this paper. The ability of neutrons to penetrate thick metal objects (up to several cm) provides a unique possibility to examine samples which are opaque to other conventional techniques. The presence of Bragg edges in the measured neutron transmission spectra can be used to characterize the internal residual strain within the samples and some microstructural features, e.g. texture within the grains, while neutron resonance absorption provides the possibility to map the degree of uniformity in mixing of the participating alloys and intermetallic formation within the welds. In addition, voids and other defects can be revealed by the variation of neutron attenuation across the samples. This paper demonstrates the potential of neutron energy-resolved imaging to measure all these characteristics simultaneously in a single experiment with sub-mm spatial resolution. Two dissimilar alloy welds are used in this study: Al autogenously laser welded to steel, and Ti gas metal arc welded (GMAW) to stainless steel using Cu as a filler alloy. The cold metal transfer variant of the GMAW process was used in joining the Ti to the stainless steel in order to minimize the heat input. The distributions of the lattice parameter and texture variation in these welds as well as the presence of voids and defects in the melt region are mapped across the welds. The depth of the thermal front in the Al–steel weld is clearly resolved and could be used to optimize the welding process. A highly textured structure is revealed in the Ti to stainless steel joint where copper was used as a filler wire. The limited diffusion of Ti into the weld region is also verified by the resonance absorption. PMID:27504075

  15. MicroCT with energy-resolved photon-counting detectors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X; Meier, D; Mikkelsen, S; Maehlum, G E; Wagenaar, D J; Tsui, BMW; Patt, B E; Frey, E C

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to investigate the benefits that could be realistically achieved on a microCT imaging system with an energy-resolved photon-counting x-ray detector. To this end, we built and evaluated a prototype microCT system based on such a detector. The detector is based on cadmium telluride (CdTe) radiation sensors and application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) readouts. Each detector pixel can simultaneously count x-ray photons above six energy thresholds, providing the capability for energy-selective x-ray imaging. We tested the spectroscopic performance of the system using polychromatic x-ray radiation and various filtering materials with Kabsorption edges. Tomographic images were then acquired of a cylindrical PMMA phantom containing holes filled with various materials. Results were also compared with those acquired using an intensity-integrating x-ray detector and single-energy (i.e. non-energy-selective) CT. This paper describes the functionality and performance of the system, and presents preliminary spectroscopic and tomographic results. The spectroscopic experiments showed that the energy-resolved photon-counting detector was capable of measuring energy spectra from polychromatic sources like a standard x-ray tube, and resolving absorption edges present in the energy range used for imaging. However, the spectral quality was degraded by spectral distortions resulting from degrading factors, including finite energy resolution and charge sharing. We developed a simple charge-sharing model to reproduce these distortions. The tomographic experiments showed that the availability of multiple energy thresholds in the photon-counting detector allowed us to simultaneously measure target-to-background contrasts in different energy ranges. Compared with single-energy CT with an integrating detector, this feature was especially useful to improve differentiation of materials with different attenuation coefficient energy dependences. PMID:21464527

  16. MicroCT with energy-resolved photon-counting detectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Meier, D; Mikkelsen, S; Maehlum, G E; Wagenaar, D J; Tsui, B M W; Patt, B E; Frey, E C

    2011-05-07

    The goal of this paper was to investigate the benefits that could be realistically achieved on a microCT imaging system with an energy-resolved photon-counting x-ray detector. To this end, we built and evaluated a prototype microCT system based on such a detector. The detector is based on cadmium telluride (CdTe) radiation sensors and application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) readouts. Each detector pixel can simultaneously count x-ray photons above six energy thresholds, providing the capability for energy-selective x-ray imaging. We tested the spectroscopic performance of the system using polychromatic x-ray radiation and various filtering materials with K-absorption edges. Tomographic images were then acquired of a cylindrical PMMA phantom containing holes filled with various materials. Results were also compared with those acquired using an intensity-integrating x-ray detector and single-energy (i.e. non-energy-selective) CT. This paper describes the functionality and performance of the system, and presents preliminary spectroscopic and tomographic results. The spectroscopic experiments showed that the energy-resolved photon-counting detector was capable of measuring energy spectra from polychromatic sources like a standard x-ray tube, and resolving absorption edges present in the energy range used for imaging. However, the spectral quality was degraded by spectral distortions resulting from degrading factors, including finite energy resolution and charge sharing. We developed a simple charge-sharing model to reproduce these distortions. The tomographic experiments showed that the availability of multiple energy thresholds in the photon-counting detector allowed us to simultaneously measure target-to-background contrasts in different energy ranges. Compared with single-energy CT with an integrating detector, this feature was especially useful to improve differentiation of materials with different attenuation coefficient energy dependences.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of a novel energy-resolved photon-counting gamma ray detector.

    PubMed

    Meng, L-J; Tan, J W; Spartiotis, K; Schulman, T

    2009-06-11

    In this paper, we present the design and preliminary performance evaluation of a novel energy-resolved photon-counting (ERPC) detector for gamma ray imaging applications. The prototype ERPC detector has an active area of 4.4 cm × 4.4 cm, which is pixelated into 128 × 128 square pixels with a pitch size of 350 µm × 350µm. The current detector consists of multiple detector hybrids, each with a CdTe crystal of 1.1 cm × 2.2 cm × 1 mm, bump-bonded onto a custom-designed application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The ERPC ASIC has 2048 readout channels arranged in a 32 × 64 array. Each channel is equipped with pre- and shaping-amplifiers, a discriminator, peak/hold circuitry and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for digitizing the signal amplitude. In order to compensate for the pixel-to-pixel variation, two 8-bit digital-to-analog converters (DACs) are implemented into each channel for tuning the gain and offset. The ERPC detector is designed to offer a high spatial resolution, a wide dynamic range of 12-200 keV and a good energy resolution of 3-4 keV. The hybrid detector configuration provides a flexible detection area that can be easily tailored for different imaging applications. The intrinsic performance of a prototype ERPC detector was evaluated with various gamma ray sources, and the results are presented.

  18. Energy-resolved CT imaging with a photon-counting silicon-strip detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Mats; Huber, Ben; Karlsson, Staffan; Liu, Xuejin; Chen, Han; Xu, Cheng; Yveborg, Moa; Bornefalk, Hans; Danielsson, Mats

    2014-03-01

    Photon-counting detectors are promising candidates for use in the next generation of x-ray CT scanners. Among the foreseen benefits are higher spatial resolution, better trade-off between noise and dose, and energy discriminating capabilities. Silicon is an attractive detector material because of its low cost, mature manufacturing process and high hole mobility. However, it is sometimes claimed to be unsuitable for use in computed tomography because of its low absorption efficiency and high fraction of Compton scatter. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that high-quality energy-resolved CT images can nonetheless be acquired with clinically realistic exposure parameters using a photon-counting silicon-strip detector with eight energy thresholds developed in our group. We use a single detector module, consisting of a linear array of 50 0.5 × 0.4 mm detector elements, to image a phantom in a table-top lab setup. The phantom consists of a plastic cylinder with circular inserts containing water, fat and aqueous solutions of calcium, iodine and gadolinium, in different concentrations. We use basis material decomposition to obtain water, calcium, iodine and gadolinium basis images and demonstrate that these basis images can be used to separate the different materials in the inserts. We also show results showing that the detector has potential for quantitative measurements of substance concentrations.

  19. Novel energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera on Alcator C-Mod.

    PubMed

    Pablant, N A; Delgado-Aparicio, L; Bitter, M; Brandstetter, S; Eikenberry, E; Ellis, R; Hill, K W; Hofer, P; Schneebeli, M

    2012-10-01

    A new energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera has been recently installed on Alcator C-Mod. This diagnostic is capable of 1D or 2D imaging with a spatial resolution of ≈1 cm, an energy resolution of ≈1 keV in the range of 3.5-15 keV and a maximum time resolution of 5 ms. A novel use of a Pilatus 2 hybrid-pixel x-ray detector [P. Kraft et al., J. Synchrotron Rad. 16, 368 (2009)] is employed in which the lower energy threshold of individual pixels is adjusted, allowing regions of a single detector to be sensitive to different x-ray energy ranges. Development of this new detector calibration technique was done as a collaboration between PPPL and Dectris Ltd. The calibration procedure is described, and the energy resolution of the detector is characterized. Initial data from this installation on Alcator C-Mod is presented. This diagnostic provides line-integrated measurements of impurity emission which can be used to determine impurity concentrations as well as the electron energy distribution.

  20. Characterization of a hybrid energy-resolving photon-counting detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, A.; Pelzer, G.; Anton, G.; Ballabriga Sune, R.; Bisello, F.; Campbell, M.; Fauler, A.; Fiederle, M.; Llopart Cudie, X.; Ritter, I.; Tennert, F.; Wölfel, S.; Wong, W. S.; Michel, T.

    2014-03-01

    Photon-counting detectors in medical x-ray imaging provide a higher dose efficiency than integrating detectors. Even further possibilities for imaging applications arise, if the energy of each photon counted is measured, as for example K-edge-imaging or optimizing image quality by applying energy weighting factors. In this contribution, we show results of the characterization of the Dosepix detector. This hybrid photon- counting pixel detector allows energy resolved measurements with a novel concept of energy binning included in the pixel electronics. Based on ideas of the Medipix detector family, it provides three different modes of operation: An integration mode, a photon-counting mode, and an energy-binning mode. In energy-binning mode, it is possible to set 16 energy thresholds in each pixel individually to derive a binned energy spectrum in every pixel in one acquisition. The hybrid setup allows using different sensor materials. For the measurements 300 μm Si and 1 mm CdTe were used. The detector matrix consists of 16 x 16 square pixels for CdTe (16 x 12 for Si) with a pixel pitch of 220 μm. The Dosepix was originally intended for applications in the field of radiation measurement. Therefore it is not optimized towards medical imaging. The detector concept itself still promises potential as an imaging detector. We present spectra measured in one single pixel as well as in the whole pixel matrix in energy-binning mode with a conventional x-ray tube. In addition, results concerning the count rate linearity for the different sensor materials are shown as well as measurements regarding energy resolution.

  1. Detector response function of an energy-resolved CdTe single photon counting detector.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Lee, Hyoung Koo

    2014-01-01

    While spectral CT using single photon counting detector has shown a number of advantages in diagnostic imaging, knowledge of the detector response function of an energy-resolved detector is needed to correct the signal bias and reconstruct the image more accurately. The objective of this paper is to study the photo counting detector response function using laboratory sources, and investigate the signal bias correction method. Our approach is to model the detector response function over the entire diagnostic energy range (20 keV

  2. WE-FG-207B-04: Noise Suppression for Energy-Resolved CT Via Variance Weighted Non-Local Filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, J; Zhu, L

    Purpose: The photon starvation problem is exacerbated in energy-resolved CT, since the detected photons are shared by multiple energy channels. Using pixel similarity-based non-local filtration, we aim to produce accurate and high-resolution energy-resolved CT images with significantly reduced noise. Methods: Averaging CT images reconstructed from different energy channels reduces noise at the price of losing spectral information, while conventional denoising techniques inevitably degrade image resolution. Inspired by the fact that CT images of the same object at different energies share the same structures, we aim to reduce noise of energy-resolved CT by averaging only pixels of similar materials - amore » non-local filtration technique. For each CT image, an empirical exponential model is used to calculate the material similarity between two pixels based on their CT values and the similarity values are organized in a matrix form. A final similarity matrix is generated by averaging these similarity matrices, with weights inversely proportional to the estimated total noise variance in the sinogram of different energy channels. Noise suppression is achieved for each energy channel via multiplying the image vector by the similarity matrix. Results: Multiple scans on a tabletop CT system are used to simulate 6-channel energy-resolved CT, with energies ranging from 75 to 125 kVp. On a low-dose acquisition at 15 mA of the Catphan©600 phantom, our method achieves the same image spatial resolution as a high-dose scan at 80 mA with a noise standard deviation (STD) lower by a factor of >2. Compared with another non-local noise suppression algorithm (ndiNLM), the proposed algorithms obtains images with substantially improved resolution at the same level of noise reduction. Conclusion: We propose a noise-suppression method for energy-resolved CT. Our method takes full advantage of the additional structural information provided by energy-resolved CT and preserves image

  3. Photoelectron circular dichroism in the multiphoton ionization by short laser pulses. II. Three- and four-photon ionization of fenchone and camphor.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anne D; Artemyev, Anton N; Demekhin, Philipp V

    2018-06-07

    Angle-resolved multiphoton ionization of fenchone and camphor by short intense laser pulses is computed by the time-dependent single center method. Thereby, the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) in the three-photon resonance enhanced ionization and four-photon above-threshold ionization of these molecules is investigated in detail. The computational results are in satisfactory agreement with the available experimental data, measured for randomly oriented fenchone and camphor molecules at different wavelengths of the exciting pulses. We predict a significant enhancement of the multiphoton PECD for uniaxially oriented fenchone and camphor.

  4. Photoelectron circular dichroism in the multiphoton ionization by short laser pulses. II. Three- and four-photon ionization of fenchone and camphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Anne D.; Artemyev, Anton N.; Demekhin, Philipp V.

    2018-06-01

    Angle-resolved multiphoton ionization of fenchone and camphor by short intense laser pulses is computed by the time-dependent single center method. Thereby, the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) in the three-photon resonance enhanced ionization and four-photon above-threshold ionization of these molecules is investigated in detail. The computational results are in satisfactory agreement with the available experimental data, measured for randomly oriented fenchone and camphor molecules at different wavelengths of the exciting pulses. We predict a significant enhancement of the multiphoton PECD for uniaxially oriented fenchone and camphor.

  5. Advanced energy-resolving imaging detectors for applications at pulsed neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Feller, Bruce; White, Brian

    NOVA Scientific herein reports results from the DOE SBIR Phase IIB project. We continue to move forward to enhance the effectiveness of very high spatial and timing resolution MCP position-sensitive detectors into the epithermal or “above-thermal” neutron energy range – where NOVA’s neutron-sensitive NeuViewTM MCPs are already widely acknowledged as highly effective for cold and thermal neutron energies. As a result of these developments, these increasingly accepted neutron detection devices will be better able to perform energy-resolved neutron detection and imaging at the growing number of highly advanced pulsed neutron sources internationally, detecting individual neutrons with a spatial resolution ofmore » down to ~25 µm, and able to uniquely provide simultaneous ultrafast timing resolution of ~100 ns, for cold, thermal, and now into the epithermal range. The pulsed structure of the new and more powerful neutron beams, enables measurement of neutron energies through the time-of-flight (TOF) method. Moreover, these recent new pulsed sources have increasingly made available intense fluxes of epithermal neutrons - something previously unavailable with reactor-based neutron sources. The unique capability of MCP detectors to measure the energy of each detected neutron provides a capability to conduct experiments across a very broad neutron energy range simultaneously – encompassing cold up into the epithermal range of energies. Simultaneous detection of multiple Bragg edges, for example, can enable highly useful measurements in crystallographic structure, strain, phase, texture, and compositional distribution. Enhancement of the MCP epithermal neutron response resulting from this program, combined with an earlier and separate DOE-funded SBIR/STTR program to commercialize larger area (>100 cm 2) format cold and thermal neutron-sensitive MCP imaging detectors, has potential utility in being employed as large array detectors, replacing what is currently

  6. Final design of the Energy-Resolved Neutron Imaging System “RADEN” at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, T.; Kai, T.; Oikawa, K.; Segawa, M.; Harada, M.; Nakatani, T.; Ooi, M.; Aizawa, K.; Sato, H.; Kamiyama, T.; Yokota, H.; Sera, T.; Mochiki, K.; Kiyanagi, Y.

    2016-09-01

    A new pulsed-neutron instrument, named the Energy-Resolved Neutron Imaging System “RADEN”, has been constructed at the beam line of BL22 in the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) of J-PARC. The primary purpose of this instrument is to perform energy-resolved neutron imaging experiments through the effective utilization of the pulsed nature of the neutron beam, making this the world's first instrument dedicated to pulsed neutron imaging experiments. RADEN was designed to cover a broad energy range: from cold neutrons with energy down to 1.05 meV (or wavelength up to 8.8 Å) with a good wavelength resolution of 0.20% to high-energy neutrons with energy of several tens keV (or wavelength of 10-3 Å). In addition, this instrument is intended to perform state-of-the-art neutron radiography and tomography experiments in Japan. Hence, a maximum beam size of 300 mm square and a high L/D value of up to 7500 are provided.

  7. Laboratory implementation of edge illumination X-ray phase-contrast imaging with energy-resolved detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diemoz, P. C.; Endrizzi, M.; Vittoria, F. A.; Hagen, C. K.; Kallon, G.; Basta, D.; Marenzana, M.; Delogu, P.; Vincenzi, A.; De Ruvo, L.; Spandre, G.; Brez, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Olivo, A.

    2015-03-01

    Edge illumination (EI) X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) has potential for applications in different fields of research, including materials science, non-destructive industrial testing, small-animal imaging, and medical imaging. One of its main advantages is the compatibility with laboratory equipment, in particular with conventional non-microfocal sources, which makes its exploitation in normal research laboratories possible. In this work, we demonstrate that the signal in laboratory implementations of EI can be correctly described with the use of the simplified geometrical optics. Besides enabling the derivation of simple expressions for the sensitivity and spatial resolution of a given EI setup, this model also highlights the EI's achromaticity. With the aim of improving image quality, as well as to take advantage of the fact that all energies in the spectrum contribute to the image contrast, we carried out EI acquisitions using a photon-counting energy-resolved detector. The obtained results demonstrate that this approach has great potential for future laboratory implementations of EI.

  8. Cold Multiphoton Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Peter; Cooke, William; Tracy, Eugene

    2008-05-01

    We present evidence of a cold multiphoton MALDI process occurring at a Room Temperature Ionic Liquid (RTIL)/metal interface. Our RTIL, 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, remains a stable liquid at room temperatures, even at pressures lower than 10-9 torr. We focus the 2^nd harmonic of a pulsed (2ns pulse length) Nd:YAG laser onto a gold grid coated with RTIL to generate a cold (narrow velocity spread) ion source with temporal resolution comparable to current MALDI ion sources. Unlike conventional MALDI, we believe multiphoton MALDI does not rely on collisional ionization within the ejection plume, and thus produces large signals at laser intensities just above threshold. Removing the collisional ionization process allow us to eject material from smaller regions of a sample, enhancing the suitability of multiphoton MALDI as an ion imaging technique.

  9. Non-contact measurement of partial gas pressure and distribution of elemental composition using energy-resolved neutron imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tremsin, A. S.; Losko, A. S.; Vogel, S. C.

    Neutron resonance absorption imaging is a non-destructive technique that can characterize the elemental composition of a sample by measuring nuclear resonances in the spectrum of a transmitted beam. Recent developments in pixelated time-of-flight imaging detectors coupled with pulsed neutron sources pose new opportunities for energy-resolved imaging. In this paper we demonstrate non-contact measurements of the partial pressure of xenon and krypton gases encapsulated in a steel pipe while simultaneously passing the neutron beam through high-Z materials. The configuration was chosen as a proof of principle demonstration of the potential to make non-destructive measurement of gas composition in nuclear fuel rods.more » The pressure measured from neutron transmission spectra (~739 ± 98 kPa and ~751 ± 154 kPa for two Xe resonances) is in relatively good agreement with the pressure value of ~758 ± 21 kPa measured by a pressure gauge. This type of imaging has been performed previously for solids with a spatial resolution of ~ 100 μm. In the present study it is demonstrated that the high penetration capability of epithermal neutrons enables quantitative mapping of gases encapsulate within high-Z materials such as steel, tungsten, urania and others. This technique may be beneficial for the non-destructive testing of bulk composition of objects (such as spent nuclear fuel assemblies and others) containing various elements opaque to other more conventional imaging techniques. As a result, the ability to image the gaseous substances concealed within solid materials also allows non-destructive leak testing of various containers and ultimately measurement of gas partial pressures with sub-mm spatial resolution.« less

  10. Non-contact measurement of partial gas pressure and distribution of elemental composition using energy-resolved neutron imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Tremsin, A. S.; Losko, A. S.; Vogel, S. C.; ...

    2017-01-31

    Neutron resonance absorption imaging is a non-destructive technique that can characterize the elemental composition of a sample by measuring nuclear resonances in the spectrum of a transmitted beam. Recent developments in pixelated time-of-flight imaging detectors coupled with pulsed neutron sources pose new opportunities for energy-resolved imaging. In this paper we demonstrate non-contact measurements of the partial pressure of xenon and krypton gases encapsulated in a steel pipe while simultaneously passing the neutron beam through high-Z materials. The configuration was chosen as a proof of principle demonstration of the potential to make non-destructive measurement of gas composition in nuclear fuel rods.more » The pressure measured from neutron transmission spectra (~739 ± 98 kPa and ~751 ± 154 kPa for two Xe resonances) is in relatively good agreement with the pressure value of ~758 ± 21 kPa measured by a pressure gauge. This type of imaging has been performed previously for solids with a spatial resolution of ~ 100 μm. In the present study it is demonstrated that the high penetration capability of epithermal neutrons enables quantitative mapping of gases encapsulate within high-Z materials such as steel, tungsten, urania and others. This technique may be beneficial for the non-destructive testing of bulk composition of objects (such as spent nuclear fuel assemblies and others) containing various elements opaque to other more conventional imaging techniques. As a result, the ability to image the gaseous substances concealed within solid materials also allows non-destructive leak testing of various containers and ultimately measurement of gas partial pressures with sub-mm spatial resolution.« less

  11. Non-contact measurement of partial gas pressure and distribution of elemental composition using energy-resolved neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremsin, A. S.; Losko, A. S.; Vogel, S. C.; Byler, D. D.; McClellan, K. J.; Bourke, M. A. M.; Vallerga, J. V.

    2017-01-01

    Neutron resonance absorption imaging is a non-destructive technique that can characterize the elemental composition of a sample by measuring nuclear resonances in the spectrum of a transmitted beam. Recent developments in pixelated time-of-flight imaging detectors coupled with pulsed neutron sources pose new opportunities for energy-resolved imaging. In this paper we demonstrate non-contact measurements of the partial pressure of xenon and krypton gases encapsulated in a steel pipe while simultaneously passing the neutron beam through high-Z materials. The configuration was chosen as a proof of principle demonstration of the potential to make non-destructive measurement of gas composition in nuclear fuel rods. The pressure measured from neutron transmission spectra (˜739 ± 98 kPa and ˜751 ± 154 kPa for two Xe resonances) is in relatively good agreement with the pressure value of ˜758 ± 21 kPa measured by a pressure gauge. This type of imaging has been performed previously for solids with a spatial resolution of ˜ 100 μm. In the present study it is demonstrated that the high penetration capability of epithermal neutrons enables quantitative mapping of gases encapsulate within high-Z materials such as steel, tungsten, urania and others. This technique may be beneficial for the non-destructive testing of bulk composition of objects (such as spent nuclear fuel assemblies and others) containing various elements opaque to other more conventional imaging techniques. The ability to image the gaseous substances concealed within solid materials also allows non-destructive leak testing of various containers and ultimately measurement of gas partial pressures with sub-mm spatial resolution.

  12. Sequential and direct ionic excitation in the strong-field ionization of 1-butene molecules.

    PubMed

    Schell, Felix; Boguslavskiy, Andrey E; Schulz, Claus Peter; Patchkovskii, Serguei; Vrakking, Marc J J; Stolow, Albert; Mikosch, Jochen

    2018-05-18

    We study the Strong-Field Ionization (SFI) of the hydrocarbon 1-butene as a function of wavelength using photoion-photoelectron covariance and coincidence spectroscopy. We observe a striking transition in the fragment-associated photoelectron spectra: from a single Above Threshold Ionization (ATI) progression for photon energies less than the cation D0-D1 gap to two ATI progressions for a photon energy greater than this gap. For the first case, electronically excited cations are created by SFI populating the ground cationic state D0, followed by sequential post-ionization excitation. For the second case, direct sub-cycle SFI to the D1 excited cation state contributes significantly. Our experiments access ionization dynamics in a regime where strong-field and resonance-enhanced processes can interplay.

  13. Formation of a1 Ions Directly from Oxazolone b2 Ions: an Energy-Resolved and Computational Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bythell, Benjamin J.; Harrison, Alex G.

    2015-05-01

    It is well-known that oxazolone b2 ions fragment extensively by elimination of CO to form a2 ions, which often fragment further to form a1 ions. Less well-known is that some oxazolone b2 ions may fragment directly to form a1 ions. The present study uses energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation experiments to explore the occurrence of the direct b2→a1 fragmentation reaction. The experimental results show that the direct b2→a1 reaction is generally observed when Gly is the C-terminal residue of the oxazolone. When the C-terminal residue is more complex, it is able to provide increased stability of the a2 product in the b2→a2 fragmentation pathway. Our computational studies of the relative critical reaction energies for the b2→a2 reaction compared with those for the b2→a1 reaction provide support that the critical reaction energies are similar for the two pathways when the C-terminal residue of the oxazolone is Gly. By contrast, when the nitrogen of the oxazolone ring in the b2 ion does not bear a hydrogen, as in the Ala-Sar and Tyr-Sar (Sar = N-methylglycine) oxazolone b2 ions, a1 ions are not formed but rather neutral imine elimination from the N-terminus of the b2 ion becomes a dominant fragmentation reaction. The M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p) density functional theory calculations are in general agreement with the experimental data for both types of reaction. In contrast, the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) model systematically underestimates the barriers of these SN2-like b2→a1 reaction. The difference between the two methods of barrier calculation are highly significant ( P < 0.001) for the b2→a1 reaction, but only marginally significant ( P = 0.05) for the b2→a2 reaction. The computations provide further evidence of the limitations of the B3LYP functional when describing SN2-like reactions.

  14. Calcium - ionized

    MedlinePlus

    ... diuretics Thrombocytosis (high platelet count) Tumors Vitamin A excess Vitamin D excess Lower-than-normal levels may be due to: Hypoparathyroidism Malabsorption Osteomalacia Pancreatitis Renal failure Rickets Vitamin D deficiency Alternative Names Free calcium; Ionized calcium ...

  15. IONIZATION CHAMBER

    DOEpatents

    Redman, W.C.; Shonka, F.R.

    1958-02-18

    This patent describes a novel ionization chamber which is well suited to measuring the radioactivity of the various portions of a wire as the wire is moved at a uniform speed, in order to produce the neutron flux traverse pattern of a reactor in which the wire was previously exposed to neutron radiation. The ionization chamber of the present invention is characterized by the construction wherein the wire is passed through a tubular, straight electrode and radiation shielding material is disposed along the wire except at an intermediate, narrow area where the second electrode of the chamber is located.

  16. Apparatus for time-resolved and energy-resolved measurement of internal conversion electron emission induced by nuclear resonant excitation with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kawauchi, Taizo; Matsumoto, Masuaki; Fukutani, Katsuyuki

    2007-01-15

    A high-energy and large-object-spot type cylindrical mirror analyzer (CMA) was constructed with the aid of electron trajectory simulations. By adopting a particular shape for the outer cylinder, an energy resolution of 7% was achieved without guide rings as used in conventional CMAs. Combined with an avalanche photodiode as an electron detector, the K-shell internal conversion electrons were successfully measured under irradiation of synchrotron radiation at 14.4 keV in an energy-resolved and time-resolved manner.

  17. Ionizing radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, C. A.; Grigoryev, Y. G.

    1975-01-01

    The biological effects of ionizing radiation encountered in space are considered. Biological experiments conducted in space and some experiences of astronauts during space flight are described. The effects of various levels of radiation exposure and the determination of permissible dosages are discussed.

  18. Non-Destructive Study of Bulk Crystallinity and Elemental Composition of Natural Gold Single Crystal Samples by Energy-Resolved Neutron Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Rakovan, John; Shinohara, Takenao; Kockelmann, Winfried; Losko, Adrian S.; Vogel, Sven C.

    2017-01-01

    Energy-resolved neutron imaging enables non-destructive analyses of bulk structure and elemental composition, which can be resolved with high spatial resolution at bright pulsed spallation neutron sources due to recent developments and improvements of neutron counting detectors. This technique, suitable for many applications, is demonstrated here with a specific study of ~5–10 mm thick natural gold samples. Through the analysis of neutron absorption resonances the spatial distribution of palladium (with average elemental concentration of ~0.4 atom% and ~5 atom%) is mapped within the gold samples. At the same time, the analysis of coherent neutron scattering in the thermal and cold energy regimes reveals which samples have a single-crystalline bulk structure through the entire sample volume. A spatially resolved analysis is possible because neutron transmission spectra are measured simultaneously on each detector pixel in the epithermal, thermal and cold energy ranges. With a pixel size of 55 μm and a detector-area of 512 by 512 pixels, a total of 262,144 neutron transmission spectra are measured concurrently. The results of our experiments indicate that high resolution energy-resolved neutron imaging is a very attractive analytical technique in cases where other conventional non-destructive methods are ineffective due to sample opacity. PMID:28102285

  19. Quantum interference in laser-induced nonsequential double ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Wei; Hao, XiaoLei; Wang, YanLan; Chen, YongJu; Yu, ShaoGang; Xu, SongPo; Xiao, ZhiLei; Sun, RenPing; Lai, XuanYang; Hu, ShiLin; Liu, MingQing; Shu, Zheng; Wang, XiaoDong; Li, WeiDong; Becker, Wilhelm; Liu, XiaoJun; Chen, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Quantum interference plays an important role in various intense-laser-driven atomic phenomena, e.g., above-threshold ionization and high-order-harmonic generation, and provides a useful tool in ultrafast imaging of atomic and molecular structure and dynamics. However, it has eluded observation in nonsequential double ionization (NSDI), which serves as an ideal prototype to study electron-electron correlation. Thus far, NSDI usually could be well understood from a semiclassical perspective, where all quantum aspects have been ignored after the first electron has tunneled. Here we perform coincidence measurements for NSDI of xenon subject to laser pulses at 2400 nm. It is found that the intensity dependence of the asymmetry parameter between the yields in the second and fourth quadrants and those in the first and third quadrants of the electron-momentum-correlation distributions exhibits a peculiar fast oscillatory structure, which is beyond the scope of the semiclassical picture. Our theoretical analysis indicates that this oscillation can be attributed to interference between the contributions of different excited states in the recollision-excitation-with-subsequent-ionization channel. Our work demonstrates the significant role of quantum interference in NSDI and may create an additional pathway towards manipulation and imaging of the ultrafast atomic and molecular dynamics in intense laser fields.

  20. Ratios of double to single ionization of He and Ne by strong 400-nm laser pulses using the quantitative rescattering theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhangjin; Li, Xiaojin; Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus; Lin, C. D.

    2018-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of the ratio between double and single ionization of He and Ne by intense laser pulses at wavelengths of 390 and 400 nm, respectively. The yields of doubly charged ions due to nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) are obtained by employing the quantitative rescattering (QRS) model. In this model, the NSDI ionization probability is expressed as a product of the returning electron wave packet (RWP) and the total scattering cross sections for laser-free electron impact excitation and electron impact ionization of the parent ion. According to the QRS theory, the same RWP is also responsible for the emission of high-energy above-threshold ionization photoelectrons. To obtain absolute double-ionization yields, the RWP is generated by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) within a one-electron model. The same TDSE results can also be taken to obtain single-ionization yields. By using the TDSE results to calibrate single ionization and the RWP obtained from the strong-field approximation, we further simplify the calculation such that the nonuniform laser intensity distribution in the focused laser beam can be accounted for. In addition, laser-free electron impact excitation and ionization cross sections are calculated using the state-of-the-art many-electron R -matrix theory. The simulation results for double-to-single-ionization ratios are found to compare well with experimental data and support the validity of the nonsequential double-ionization mechanism for the covered intensity region.

  1. Optimization of the K-edge imaging for vulnerable plaques using gold nanoparticles and energy-resolved photon counting detectors: a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Alivov, Yahya; Baturin, Pavlo; Le, Huy Q.; Ducote, Justin; Molloi, Sabee

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of different imaging parameters such as dose, beam energy, energy resolution, and number of energy bins on image quality of K-edge spectral computed tomography (CT) of gold nanoparticles (GNP) accumulated in an atherosclerotic plaque. Maximum likelihood technique was employed to estimate the concentration of GNP, which served as a targeted intravenous contrast material intended to detect the degree of plaque's inflammation. The simulations studies used a single slice parallel beam CT geometry with an X-ray beam energy ranging between 50 and 140 kVp. The synthetic phantoms included small (3 cm in diameter) cylinder and chest (33x24 cm2) phantom, where both phantoms contained tissue, calcium, and gold. In the simulation studies GNP quantification and background (calcium and tissue) suppression task were pursued. The X-ray detection sensor was represented by an energy resolved photon counting detector (e.g., CdZnTe) with adjustable energy bins. Both ideal and more realistic (12% FWHM energy resolution) implementations of photon counting detector were simulated. The simulations were performed for the CdZnTe detector with pixel pitch of 0.5-1 mm, which corresponds to the performance without significant charge sharing and cross-talk effects. The Rose model was employed to estimate the minimum detectable concentration of GNPs. A figure of merit (FOM) was used to optimize the X-ray beam energy (kVp) to achieve the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with respect to patient dose. As a result, the successful identification of gold and background suppression was demonstrated. The highest FOM was observed at 125 kVp X-ray beam energy. The minimum detectable GNP concentration was determined to be approximately 1.06 μmol/mL (0.21 mg/mL) for an ideal detector and about 2.5 μmol/mL (0.49 mg/mL) for more realistic (12% FWHM) detector. The studies show the optimal imaging parameters at lowest patient dose using an energy resolved photon counting detector

  2. Optimization of K-edge imaging for vulnerable plaques using gold nanoparticles and energy resolved photon counting detectors: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Alivov, Yahya; Baturin, Pavlo; Le, Huy Q; Ducote, Justin; Molloi, Sabee

    2014-01-06

    We investigated the effect of different imaging parameters, such as dose, beam energy, energy resolution and the number of energy bins, on the image quality of K-edge spectral computed tomography (CT) of gold nanoparticles (GNP) accumulated in an atherosclerotic plaque. A maximum likelihood technique was employed to estimate the concentration of GNP, which served as a targeted intravenous contrast material intended to detect the degree of the plaque's inflammation. The simulation studies used a single-slice parallel beam CT geometry with an x-ray beam energy ranging between 50 and 140 kVp. The synthetic phantoms included small (3 cm in diameter) cylinder and chest (33 × 24 cm(2)) phantoms, where both phantoms contained tissue, calcium and gold. In the simulation studies, GNP quantification and background (calcium and tissue) suppression tasks were pursued. The x-ray detection sensor was represented by an energy resolved photon counting detector (e.g., CdZnTe) with adjustable energy bins. Both ideal and more realistic (12% full width at half maximum (FWHM) energy resolution) implementations of the photon counting detector were simulated. The simulations were performed for the CdZnTe detector with a pixel pitch of 0.5-1 mm, which corresponds to a performance without significant charge sharing and cross-talk effects. The Rose model was employed to estimate the minimum detectable concentration of GNPs. A figure of merit (FOM) was used to optimize the x-ray beam energy (kVp) to achieve the highest signal-to-noise ratio with respect to the patient dose. As a result, the successful identification of gold and background suppression was demonstrated. The highest FOM was observed at the 125 kVp x-ray beam energy. The minimum detectable GNP concentration was determined to be approximately 1.06 µmol mL(-1) (0.21 mg mL(-1)) for an ideal detector and about 2.5 µmol mL(-1) (0.49 mg mL(-1)) for a more realistic (12% FWHM) detector. The studies show the optimal

  3. Weakly ionized cosmic gas: Ionization and characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, M.; Mendis, D. A.; Chow, V. W.

    1994-01-01

    Since collective plasma behavior may determine important transport processes (e.g., plasma diffusion across a magnetic field) in certain cosmic environments, it is important to delineate the parameter space in which weakly ionized cosmic gases may be characterized as plasmas. In this short note, we do so. First, we use values for the ionization fraction given in the literature, wherein the ionization is generally assumed to be due primarily to ionization by cosmic rays. We also discuss an additional mechanism for ionization in such environments, namely, the photoelectric emission of electrons from cosmic dust grains in an interstellar Far Ultra Violet (FUV) radiation field. Simple estimates suggest that under certain conditions this mechanism may dominate cosmic ray ionization, and possibly also the photoionization of metal atoms by the interstellar FUV field, and thereby lead to an enhanced ionization level.

  4. MOCCA: A 4k-Pixel Molecule Camera for the Position- and Energy-Resolving Detection of Neutral Molecule Fragments at CSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamer, L.; Schulz, D.; Enss, C.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L.; Kempf, S.; Krantz, C.; Novotný, O.; Schwalm, D.; Wolf, A.

    2016-08-01

    We present the design of MOCCA, a large-area particle detector that is developed for the position- and energy-resolving detection of neutral molecule fragments produced in electron-ion interactions at the Cryogenic Storage Ring at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg. The detector is based on metallic magnetic calorimeters and consists of 4096 particle absorbers covering a total detection area of 44.8 mathrm {mm} × 44.8 mathrm {mm}. Groups of four absorbers are thermally coupled to a common paramagnetic temperature sensor where the strength of the thermal link is different for each absorber. This allows attributing a detector event within this group to the corresponding absorber by discriminating the signal rise times. A novel readout scheme further allows reading out all 1024 temperature sensors that are arranged in a 32 × 32 square array using only 16+16 current-sensing superconducting quantum interference devices. Numerical calculations taking into account a simplified detector model predict an energy resolution of Δ E_mathrm {FWHM} le 80 mathrm {eV} for all pixels of this detector.

  5. Ultrasound ionization of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-I; Wang, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Nelson G; Wu, Chung-Yi; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2010-09-15

    To date, mass spectrometric analysis of biomolecules has been primarily performed with either matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) or electrospray ionization (ESI). In this work, ultrasound produced by a simple piezoelectric device is shown as an alternative method for soft ionization of biomolecules. Precursor ions of proteins, saccharides and fatty acids showed little fragmentation. Cavitation is considered as a primary mechanism for the ionization of biomolecules. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. ChromAIX2: A large area, high count-rate energy-resolving photon counting ASIC for a Spectral CT Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steadman, Roger; Herrmann, Christoph; Livne, Amir

    2017-08-01

    Spectral CT based on energy-resolving photon counting detectors is expected to deliver additional diagnostic value at a lower dose than current state-of-the-art CT [1]. The capability of simultaneously providing a number of spectrally distinct measurements not only allows distinguishing between photo-electric and Compton interactions but also discriminating contrast agents that exhibit a K-edge discontinuity in the absorption spectrum, referred to as K-edge Imaging [2]. Such detectors are based on direct converting sensors (e.g. CdTe or CdZnTe) and high-rate photon counting electronics. To support the development of Spectral CT and show the feasibility of obtaining rates exceeding 10 Mcps/pixel (Poissonian observed count-rate), the ChromAIX ASIC has been previously reported showing 13.5 Mcps/pixel (150 Mcps/mm2 incident) [3]. The ChromAIX has been improved to offer the possibility of a large area coverage detector, and increased overall performance. The new ASIC is called ChromAIX2, and delivers count-rates exceeding 15 Mcps/pixel with an rms-noise performance of approximately 260 e-. It has an isotropic pixel pitch of 500 μm in an array of 22×32 pixels and is tile-able on three of its sides. The pixel topology consists of a two stage amplifier (CSA and Shaper) and a number of test features allowing to thoroughly characterize the ASIC without a sensor. A total of 5 independent thresholds are also available within each pixel, allowing to acquire 5 spectrally distinct measurements simultaneously. The ASIC also incorporates a baseline restorer to eliminate excess currents induced by the sensor (e.g. dark current and low frequency drifts) which would otherwise cause an energy estimation error. In this paper we report on the inherent electrical performance of the ChromAXI2 as well as measurements obtained with CZT (CdZnTe)/CdTe sensors and X-rays and radioactive sources.

  7. Ionization Energies of Lanthanides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Peter F.; Smith, Barry C.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how data are used to analyze the pattern of ionization energies of the lanthanide elements. Different observed pathways of ionization between different ground states are discussed, and the effects of pairing, exchange, and orbital interactions on ionization energies of the lanthanides are evaluated. When all the above…

  8. Analytical instruments, ionization sources, and ionization methods

    DOEpatents

    Atkinson, David A.; Mottishaw, Paul

    2006-04-11

    Methods and apparatus for simultaneous vaporization and ionization of a sample in a spectrometer prior to introducing the sample into the drift tube of the analyzer are disclosed. The apparatus includes a vaporization/ionization source having an electrically conductive conduit configured to receive sample particulate which is conveyed to a discharge end of the conduit. Positioned proximate to the discharge end of the conduit is an electrically conductive reference device. The conduit and the reference device act as electrodes and have an electrical potential maintained between them sufficient to cause a corona effect, which will cause at least partial simultaneous ionization and vaporization of the sample particulate. The electrical potential can be maintained to establish a continuous corona, or can be held slightly below the breakdown potential such that arrival of particulate at the point of proximity of the electrodes disrupts the potential, causing arcing and the corona effect. The electrical potential can also be varied to cause periodic arcing between the electrodes such that particulate passing through the arc is simultaneously vaporized and ionized. The invention further includes a spectrometer containing the source. The invention is particularly useful for ion mobility spectrometers and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometers.

  9. Ultrafast above-threshold dynamics of the radical anion of a prototypical quinone electron-acceptor.

    PubMed

    Horke, Daniel A; Li, Quansong; Blancafort, Lluís; Verlet, Jan R R

    2013-08-01

    Quinones feature prominently as electron acceptors in nature. Their electron-transfer reactions are often highly exergonic, for which Marcus theory predicts reduced electron-transfer rates because of a free-energy barrier that occurs in the inverted region. However, the electron-transfer kinetics that involve quinones can appear barrierless. Here, we consider the intrinsic properties of the para-benzoquinone radical anion, which serves as the prototypical electron-transfer reaction product involving a quinone-based acceptor. Using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations, we show that excitation at 400 and 480 nm yields excited states that are unbound with respect to electron loss. These excited states are shown to decay on a sub-40 fs timescale through a series of conical intersections with lower-lying excited states, ultimately to form the ground anionic state and avoid autodetachment. From an isolated electron-acceptor perspective, this ultrafast stabilization mechanism accounts for the ability of para-benzoquinone to capture and retain electrons.

  10. Investigation of ionized metal flux in enhanced high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Stranak, Vitezslav, E-mail: stranak@prf.jcu.cz; Hubicka, Zdenek; Cada, Martin

    2014-04-21

    The metal ionized flux fraction and production of double charged metal ions Me{sup 2+} of different materials (Al, Cu, Fe, Ti) by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) operated with and without a pre-ionization assistance is compared in the paper. The Electron Cyclotron Wave Resonance (ECWR) discharge was employed as the pre-ionization agent providing a seed of charge in the idle time of HiPIMS pulses. A modified grid-free biased quartz crystal microbalance was used to estimate the metal ionized flux fraction ξ. The energy-resolved mass spectrometry served as a complementary method to distinguish particular ion contributions to the total ionizedmore » flux onto the substrate. The ratio between densities of doubly Me{sup 2+} and singly Me{sup +} charged metal ions was determined. It is shown that ECWR assistance enhances Me{sup 2+} production with respect of absorbed rf-power. The ECWR discharge also increases the metal ionized flux fraction of about 30% especially in the region of lower pressures. Further, the suppression of the gas rarefaction effect due to enhanced secondary electron emission of Me{sup 2+} was observed.« less

  11. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  12. Alkali metal ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Bauerle, James E.; Reed, William H.; Berkey, Edgar

    1978-01-01

    Variations in the conventional filament and collector electrodes of an alkali metal ionization detector, including the substitution of helical electrode configurations for either the conventional wire filament or flat plate collector; or, the substitution of a plurality of discrete filament electrodes providing an in situ capability for transferring from an operationally defective filament electrode to a previously unused filament electrode without removing the alkali metal ionization detector from the monitored environment. In particular, the helical collector arrangement which is coaxially disposed about the filament electrode, i.e. the thermal ionizer, provides an improved collection of positive ions developed by the filament electrode. The helical filament design, on the other hand, provides the advantage of an increased surface area for ionization of alkali metal-bearing species in a monitored gas environment as well as providing a relatively strong electric field for collecting the ions at the collector electrode about which the helical filament electrode is coaxially positioned. Alternatively, both the filament and collector electrodes can be helical. Furthermore, the operation of the conventional alkali metal ionization detector as a leak detector can be simplified as to cost and complexity, by operating the detector at a reduced collector potential while maintaining the sensitivity of the alkali metal ionization detector adequate for the relatively low concentration of alkali vapor and aerosol typically encountered in leak detection applications.

  13. Directed Field Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregoric, Vincent C.; Kang, Xinyue; Liu, Zhimin Cheryl; Rowley, Zoe A.; Carroll, Thomas J.; Noel, Michael W.

    2017-04-01

    Selective field ionization is an important experimental technique used to study the state distribution of Rydberg atoms. This is achieved by applying a steadily increasing electric field, which successively ionizes more tightly bound states. An atom prepared in an energy eigenstate encounters many avoided Stark level crossings on the way to ionization. As it traverses these avoided crossings, its amplitude is split among multiple different states, spreading out the time resolved electron ionization signal. By perturbing the electric field ramp, we can change how the atoms traverse the avoided crossings, and thus alter the shape of the ionization signal. We have used a genetic algorithm to evolve these perturbations in real time in order to arrive at a target ionization signal shape. This process is robust to large fluctuations in experimental conditions. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. 1607335 and No. 1607377 and used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation Grant Number OCI-1053575.

  14. "Magic" Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimpin, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The systematic study of the temperature and pressure dependence of matrix-assisted ionization (MAI) led us to the discovery of the seemingly impossible, initially explained by some reviewers as either sleight of hand or the misinterpretation by an overzealous young scientist of results reported many years before and having little utility. The "magic" that we were attempting to report was that with matrix assistance, molecules, at least as large as bovine serum albumin (66 kDa), are lifted into the gas phase as multiply charged ions simply by exposure of the matrix:analyte sample to the vacuum of a mass spectrometer. Applied heat, a laser, or voltages are not necessary to achieve charge states and ion abundances only previously observed with electrospray ionization (ESI). The fundamentals of how solid phase volatile or nonvolatile compounds are converted to gas-phase ions without added energy currently involves speculation providing a great opportunity to rethink mechanistic understanding of ionization processes used in mass spectrometry. Improved understanding of the mechanism(s) of these processes and their connection to ESI and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization may provide opportunities to further develop new ionization strategies for traditional and yet unforeseen applications of mass spectrometry. This Critical Insights article covers developments leading to the discovery of a seemingly magic ionization process that is simple to use, fast, sensitive, robust, and can be directly applied to surface characterization using portable or high performance mass spectrometers.

  15. Ionization and dissociation of molecular ion beams by intense ultrafast laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Itzhak, Itzik

    2007-06-01

    Laser-induced dissociation and ionization of a diatomic molecular-ion beam were simultaneously measured using coincidence 3D momentum imaging, with direct separation of the two processes even where the fragment kinetic energy is the same for both processes. We mainly focus on the fundamental H2^+ molecule in 7-135 fs laser pulses having 10^13-10^15 W/cm^2 peak intensity. At high intensities the kinetic energy release (KER) distribution following ionization of H2^+ was measured to be broad and structureless. Its centroid shifts toward higher energies as the laser intensity is increased indicating that ionization shifts to smaller internuclear distances. In contrast, a surprising structure is observed near the ionization threshold, which we call above threshold Coulomb explosion (ATCE) [1]. The angular distributions of the two H^+ fragments are strongly peaked along the laser polarization, and the angular distribution is described well by [cos^2θ]^n, where n is the number of photons predicted by our ATCE model [1]. Our data indicates that n varies with the laser wavelength as predicted by the model. The KER and angular distributions of H2^+ dissociation change dramatically with decreasing pulse width over the 7-135 fs range in contrast to the reported trend for longer pulses. Others contributing to this work: A.M. Sayler, P.Q. Wang, J. McKenna, B. Gaire, Nora G. Johnson, E. Parke, K.D. Carnes, and B.D. Esry. Thank are due to Professor Zenghu Chang for providing the intense laser beams and Dr. Charles Fehrenbach for his help with the ion beams. [1] B.D. Esry, A.M. Sayler, P.Q. Wang, K.D. Carnes, and I. Ben-Itzhak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013003 (2006).

  16. Ionization Waves of Arbitrary Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, D.; Franke, P.; Katz, J.; Palastro, J. P.; Begishev, I. A.; Boni, R.; Bromage, J.; Milder, A. L.; Shaw, J. L.; Froula, D. H.

    2018-06-01

    Flying focus is a technique that uses a chirped laser beam focused by a highly chromatic lens to produce an extended focal region within which the peak laser intensity can propagate at any velocity. When that intensity is high enough to ionize a background gas, an ionization wave will track the intensity isosurface corresponding to the ionization threshold. We report on the demonstration of such ionization waves of arbitrary velocity. Subluminal and superluminal ionization fronts were produced that propagated both forward and backward relative to the ionizing laser. All backward and all superluminal cases mitigated the issue of ionization-induced refraction that typically inhibits the formation of long, contiguous plasma channels.

  17. Fuel cell with ionization membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A fuel cell is disclosed comprising an ionization membrane having at least one area through which gas is passed, and which ionizes the gas passing therethrough, and a cathode for receiving the ions generated by the ionization membrane. The ionization membrane may include one or more openings in the membrane with electrodes that are located closer than a mean free path of molecules within the gas to be ionized. Methods of manufacture are also provided.

  18. Atmospheric Ionization Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, Thomas; Mayes, Riley

    2015-04-01

    The measurement of atmospheric ionization is a largely unexplored science that potentially holds the key to better understanding many different geophysical phenomena through this new and valuable source of data. Through the LaACES program, which is funded by NASA through the Louisiana Space Consortium, students at Loyola University New Orleans have pursued the goal of measuring high altitude ionization for nearly three years, and were the first to successfully collect ionization data at altitudes over 30,000 feet using a scientific weather balloon flown from the NASA Columbia Scientific Ballooning Facility in Palestine, TX. In order to measure atmospheric ionization, the science team uses a lightweight and highly customized sensor known as a Gerdien condenser. Among other branches of science the data is already being used for, such as the study of aerosol pollution levels in the atmosphere, the data may also be useful in meteorology and seismology. Ionization data might provide another variable with which to predict weather or seismic activity more accurately and further in advance. Thomas Slack and Riley Mayes have served as project managers for the experiment, and have extensive knowledge of the experiment from the ground up. LaSPACE Louisiana Space Consortium.

  19. Ion Energy Distribution Studies of Ions and Radicals in an Ar/H2 Radio Frequency Magnetron Discharge During a-Si:H Deposition Using Energy-Resolved Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensah, Samuel; Abu-Safe, Husam; Naseem, Hameed; Gordon, Matt

    2012-02-01

    Ion energy distributions of sputtered Si particles have been measured by an energy-resolved mass spectrometer, and we correlate the results with measured thin film properties. The plasmas have been generated in a conventional magnetron chamber powered at 150W, 13.56MHz at hydrogen flow rates ranging from 0-25sccm. Various Hn^+, SiHn^+, SiHn fragments (with n = 1, 2, 3) together with Ar^+ and ArH^+ species were detected in the discharge. The most important species for the film deposition is SiHn with n = 0,1,2, and H fragments affect the hydrogen content in the material. The flux of Ar^+ decreases and that of ArH^+ increases when the hydrogen flow rate was increased. However both fluxes saturate at hydrogen flow rates above 15sccm. Plasma parameters, such as plasma potential Vp, electron density ne and electron energy Te, are measured with the Langmuir probe. The ion energy distribution (IED) of all prominent species in the plasma is measured with an energy resolved mass analyzer. The plasma parameters decreased with increasing hydrogen flow rate; Vp, ne and Te decreased from 36.5V, 7.2x10^15 m-3, 5.6eV to 32.8, 2.2x10^15m-3 and 3.8eV respectively. The ion energy of the heavy species, Ar, Ar^+, ArH, ArH^+, SiHn and SiHn^+ radicals have ion energies comparable to the plasma potential. Analysis of the IEDs shows an inter-dependence of the species and their contribution to the thin film growth and properties.

  20. Relativistic runaway ionization fronts.

    PubMed

    Luque, A

    2014-01-31

    We investigate the first example of self-consistent impact ionization fronts propagating at relativistic speeds and involving interacting, high-energy electrons. These fronts, which we name relativistic runaway ionization fronts, show remarkable features such as a bulk speed within less than one percent of the speed of light and the stochastic selection of high-energy electrons for further acceleration, which leads to a power-law distribution of particle energies. A simplified model explains this selection in terms of the overrun of Coulomb-scattered electrons. Appearing as the electromagnetic interaction between electrons saturates the exponential growth of a relativistic runaway electron avalanche, relativistic runaway ionization fronts may occur in conjunction with terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and thus explain recent observations of long, power-law tails in the terrestrial gamma-ray flash energy spectrum.

  1. Impact ionization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E. C., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The impact ionization phenomenon which was observed on certain spacecraft was studied. The phenomenon occurs when a neutral atom, molecule, or ion strikes a surface with sufficient kinetic energy that either the incident neutral or atoms on the surface are ionized, with subsequent escape of ions and/or electrons. The released ions and electrons can interfere with measurements on the spacecraft by confusing interpretation of the data. On the other hand, there is the possibility that the effect could be developed into a diagnostic tool for investigating neutral atmospheric species or for studying physical processes on spacecraft surfaces.

  2. Ionizing radiation and life.

    PubMed

    Dartnell, Lewis R

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a ubiquitous feature of the Cosmos, from exogenous cosmic rays (CR) to the intrinsic mineral radioactivity of a habitable world, and its influences on the emergence and persistence of life are wide-ranging and profound. Much attention has already been focused on the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation on organisms and the complex molecules of life, but ionizing radiation also performs many crucial functions in the generation of habitable planetary environments and the origins of life. This review surveys the role of CR and mineral radioactivity in star formation, generation of biogenic elements, and the synthesis of organic molecules and driving of prebiotic chemistry. Another major theme is the multiple layers of shielding of planetary surfaces from the flux of cosmic radiation and the various effects on a biosphere of violent but rare astrophysical events such as supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. The influences of CR can also be duplicitous, such as limiting the survival of surface life on Mars while potentially supporting a subsurface biosphere in the ocean of Europa. This review highlights the common thread that ionizing radiation forms between the disparate component disciplines of astrobiology. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  3. Alkali ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Hrizo, John; Bauerle, James E.; Witkowski, Robert E.

    1982-01-01

    A calibration filament containing a sodium-bearing compound is included in combination with the sensing filament and ion collector plate of a sodium ionization detector to permit periodic generation of sodium atoms for the in-situ calibration of the detector.

  4. Ionization of Interstellar Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whang, Y. C.

    1996-09-01

    Interstellar hydrogen can penetrate through the heliopause, enter the heliosphere, and may become ionized by photoionization and by charge exchange with solar wind protons. A fluid model is introduced to study the flow of interstellar hydrogen in the heliosphere. The flow is governed by moment equations obtained from integration of the Boltzmann equation over the velocity space. Under the assumption that the flow is steady axisymmetric and the pressure is isotropic, we develop a method of solution for this fluid model. This model and the method of solution can be used to study the flow of neutral hydrogen with various forms of ionization rate β and boundary conditions for the flow on the upwind side. We study the solution of a special case in which the ionization rate β is inversely proportional to R2 and the interstellar hydrogen flow is uniform at infinity on the upwind side. We solve the moment equations directly for the normalized density NH/NN∞, bulk velocity VH/VN∞, and temperature TH/TN∞ of interstellar hydrogen as functions of r/λ and z/λ, where λ is the ionization scale length. The solution is compared with the kinetic theory solution of Lallement et al. The fluid solution is much less time-consuming than the kinetic theory solutions. Since the ionization rate for production of pickup protons is directly proportional to the local density of neutral hydrogen, the high-resolution solution of interstellar neutral hydrogen obtained here will be used to study the global distribution of pickup protons.

  5. Comments on ionization cooling channels

    DOE PAGES

    Neuffer, David

    2017-09-25

    Ionization cooling channels with a wide variety of characteristics and cooling properties are being developed. These channels can produce cooling performances that are largely consistent with the linear ionization cooling theory developed previously. In this study, we review ionization cooling theory, discuss its application to presently developing cooling channels, and discuss criteria for optimizing cooling.

  6. Comments on ionization cooling channels

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, David

    Ionization cooling channels with a wide variety of characteristics and cooling properties are being developed. These channels can produce cooling performances that are largely consistent with the linear ionization cooling theory developed previously. In this study, we review ionization cooling theory, discuss its application to presently developing cooling channels, and discuss criteria for optimizing cooling.

  7. Multi-photon ionization of atoms in intense short-wavelength radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Michael

    2015-05-01

    The unprecedented characteristics of XUV and X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FELs) have stimulated numerous investigations focusing on the detailed understanding of fundamental photon-matter interactions in atoms and molecules. In particular, the high intensities (up to 106 W/cm2) giving rise to non-linear phenomena in the short wavelength regime. The basic phenomenology involves the production of highly charged ions via electron emission to which both sequential and direct multi-photon absorption processes contribute. The detailed investigation of the role and relative weight of these processes under different conditions (wavelength, pulse duration, intensity) is the key element for a comprehensive understanding of the ionization dynamics. Here the results of recent investigations are presented, performed at the FELs in Hamburg (FLASH) and Trieste (FERMI) on atomic systems with electronic structures of increasing complexity (Ar, Ne and Xe). Mainly, electron spectroscopy is used to obtain quantitative information about the relevance of various multi-photon ionization processes. For the case of Ar, a variety of processes including above threshold ionization (ATI) from 3p and 3s valence shells, direct 2p two-photon ionization and resonant 2p-4p two-photon excitations were observed and their role was quantitatively determined comparing the experimental ionization yields to ab-initio calculations of the cross sections for the multi-photon processes. Using Ar as a benchmark to prove the reliability of the combined experimental and theoretical approach, the more complex and intriguing case of Xe was studied. Especially, the analysis of the two-photon ATI from the Xe 4d shell reveals new insight into the character of the 4d giant resonance, which was unresolved in the linear one-photon regime. Finally, the influence of intense XUV radiation to the relaxation dynamics of the Ne 2s-3p resonance was investigated by angle-resolved electron spectroscopy, especially be observing

  8. On ionizing shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniel, A.; Igra, O.; Ben-Dor, G.; Mond, M.

    The flow field in the ionizing relaxation zone developed behind a normal shock wave in an electrically neutral, homogeneous, two temperature mixture of thermally ideal gases (molecules, atoms, ions, electrons) was numerically solved. The heat transfer between the electron gas and the other components was taken into account while all the other transport phenomena (molecular, turbulent and radiative) were neglected in the relaxation zone, since it is dominated by inelastic collisions. The threshold cross sections measured by Specht (1981), for excitation of argon by electron collisions, were used. The calculated results show good agreement with the results of the shock tube experiments presented by Glass and Liu (1978), especially in the electron avalanche region. A critical examination was made of the common assumptions regarding the average energy with which electrons are produced by atom-atom collisions and the relative effectiveness of atom-atom collisions (versus electron-atom collisions) in ionizing excited argon.

  9. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Marginean, Ioan; Tang, Keqi

    2014-06-13

    Electrospray Ionization (ESI) is a process whereby gas phase ions are created from molecules in solution. As a solution exits a narrow tube in the presence of a strong electric field, an aerosol of charged droplets are is formed that produces gas phase ions as they it desolvates. ESI-MS comprises the creation of ions by ESI and the determination of their mass to charge ratio (m/z) by MS.

  10. Ionization Waves of Arbitrary Velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Turnbull, D.; Franke, P.; Katz, J.

    The flying focus is a technique in which a chirped laser beam is focused by a chromatic lens to produce an extended focal spot within which laser intensity can propagate at any velocity. If the intensity is above the ionization threshold of a background gas, an ionization wave will track the ionization threshold intensity isosurface as it propagates. We report on the demonstration of such ionization waves of arbitrary velocity. Subluminal and superluminal ionization fronts were produced, both forward- and backward-propagating relative to the ionizing laser. In conclusion, all backward and all superluminal cases mitigated the issue of ionization-induced refractionmore » that typically challenges the formation of long, contiguous plasma channels.« less

  11. Ionization Waves of Arbitrary Velocity

    DOE PAGES

    Turnbull, D.; Franke, P.; Katz, J.; ...

    2018-05-31

    The flying focus is a technique in which a chirped laser beam is focused by a chromatic lens to produce an extended focal spot within which laser intensity can propagate at any velocity. If the intensity is above the ionization threshold of a background gas, an ionization wave will track the ionization threshold intensity isosurface as it propagates. We report on the demonstration of such ionization waves of arbitrary velocity. Subluminal and superluminal ionization fronts were produced, both forward- and backward-propagating relative to the ionizing laser. In conclusion, all backward and all superluminal cases mitigated the issue of ionization-induced refractionmore » that typically challenges the formation of long, contiguous plasma channels.« less

  12. Single Hit Energy-resolved Laue Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Shamim; Suggit, Matthew J.; Stubley, Paul G.

    2015-05-15

    In situ white light Laue diffraction has been successfully used to interrogate the structure of single crystal materials undergoing rapid (nanosecond) dynamic compression up to megabar pressures. However, information on strain state accessible via this technique is limited, reducing its applicability for a range of applications. We present an extension to the existing Laue diffraction platform in which we record the photon energy of a subset of diffraction peaks. This allows for a measurement of the longitudinal and transverse strains in situ during compression. Consequently, we demonstrate measurement of volumetric compression of the unit cell, in addition to the limitedmore » aspect ratio information accessible in conventional white light Laue. We present preliminary results for silicon, where only an elastic strain is observed. VISAR measurements show the presence of a two wave structure and measurements show that material downstream of the second wave does not contribute to the observed diffraction peaks, supporting the idea that this material may be highly disordered, or has undergone large scale rotation.« less

  13. Energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation studies of 1,10-phenanthroline complexes of the late first-row divalent transition metal cations: determination of the third sequential binding energies.

    PubMed

    Nose, Holliness; Chen, Yu; Rodgers, M T

    2013-05-23

    The third sequential binding energies of the late first-row divalent transition metal cations to 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) are determined by energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation (CID) techniques using a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. Five late first-row transition metal cations in their +2 oxidation states are examined including: Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+). The kinetic energy dependent CID cross sections for loss of an intact Phen ligand from the M(2+)(Phen)3 complexes are modeled to obtain 0 and 298 K bond dissociation energies (BDEs) after accounting for the effects of the internal energy of the complexes, multiple ion-neutral collisions, and unimolecular decay rates. Electronic structure theory calculations at the B3LYP, BHandHLYP, and M06 levels of theory are employed to determine the structures and theoretical estimates for the first, second, and third sequential BDEs of the M(2+)(Phen)x complexes. B3LYP was found to deliver results that are most consistent with the measured values. Periodic trends in the binding of these complexes are examined and compared to the analogous complexes to the late first-row monovalent transition metal cations, Co(+), Ni(+), Cu(+), and Zn(+), previously investigated.

  14. Strong-field ionization of linear molecules by a bicircular laser field: Symmetry considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazibegović-Busuladžić, A.; Busuladžić, M.; Hasović, E.; Becker, W.; Milošević, D. B.

    2018-04-01

    Using the improved molecular strong-field approximation, we investigate (high-order) above-threshold ionization [(H)ATI] of various linear polyatomic molecules by a two-color laser field of frequencies r ω and s ω (with integer numbers r and s ) having coplanar counter-rotating circularly polarized components (a so-called bicircular field). Reflection and rotational symmetries for molecules aligned in the laser-field polarization plane, analyzed for diatomic homonuclear molecules in Phys. Rev. A 95, 033411 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.033411, are now considered for diatomic heteronuclear molecules and symmetric and asymmetric linear triatomic molecules. There are additional rotational symmetries for (H)ATI spectra of symmetric linear molecules compared to (H)ATI spectra of the asymmetric ones. It is shown that these symmetries manifest themselves differently for r +s odd and r +s even. For example, HATI spectra for symmetric molecules with r +s even obey inversion symmetry. For ATI spectra of linear molecules, reflection symmetry appears only for certain molecular orientation angles ±90∘-j r 180∘/(r +s ) (j integer). For symmetric linear molecules, reflection symmetry appears also for the angles -j r 180∘/(r +s ) . For perpendicular orientation of molecules with respect to the laser-field polarization plane, the HATI spectra are very similar to those of the atomic targets, i.e., both spectra are characterized by the same type of the (r +s )-fold symmetry.

  15. Differentiation of regioisomeric aromatic ketocarboxylic acids by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization CAD tandem mass spectrometry in a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Amundson, Lucas M.; Owen, Ben C.; Gallardo, Vanessa A.

    2011-01-01

    Positive-mode atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS n ) was tested for the differentiation of regioisomeric aromatic ketocarboxylic acids. Each analyte forms exclusively an abundant protonated molecule upon ionization via positive-mode APCI in a commercial linear quadrupole ion trap (LQIT) mass spectrometer. Energy-resolved collision-activated dissociation (CAD) experiments carried out on the protonated analytes revealed fragmentation patterns that varied based on the location of the functional groups. Unambiguous differentiation between the regioisomers was achieved in each case by observing different fragmentation patterns, different relative abundances of ion-molecule reaction products, or different relative abundances of fragment ions formed at differentmore » collision energies. The mechanisms of some of the reactions were examined by H/D exchange reactions and molecular orbital calculations.« less

  16. Heating the warm ionized medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, R. J.; Cox, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    If photoelectric heating by grains within the diffuse ionized component of the interstellar medium is 10 exp -25 ergs/s per H atom, the average value within diffuse H I regions, then grain heating equals or exceeds photoionization heating of the ionized gas. This supplemental heat source would obviate the need for energetic ionizing photons to balance the observed forbidden-line cooling and could be responsible in part for enhanced intensities of some of the forbidden lines.

  17. Partially Ionized Plasmas in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, José Luis; Alexeev, Igor; Collados, Manuel; Downes, Turlough; Pfaff, Robert F.; Gilbert, Holly; Khodachenko, Maxim; Khomenko, Elena; Shaikhislamov, Ildar F.; Soler, Roberto; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz

    2018-03-01

    Partially ionized plasmas are found across the Universe in many different astrophysical environments. They constitute an essential ingredient of the solar atmosphere, molecular clouds, planetary ionospheres and protoplanetary disks, among other environments, and display a richness of physical effects which are not present in fully ionized plasmas. This review provides an overview of the physics of partially ionized plasmas, including recent advances in different astrophysical areas in which partial ionization plays a fundamental role. We outline outstanding observational and theoretical questions and discuss possible directions for future progress.

  18. Investigating the role of hydrogen in silicon deposition using an energy-resolved mass spectrometer and a Langmuir probe in an Ar/H{sub 2} radio frequency magnetron discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Mensah, S. L.; Naseem, Hameed H.; Abu-Safe, Husam

    2012-07-15

    The plasma parameters and ion energy distributions (IED) of the dominant species in an Ar-H{sub 2} discharge are investigated with an energy resolved mass spectrometer and a Langmuir probe. The plasmas are generated in a conventional magnetron chamber powered at 150 W, 13.56 MHz at hydrogen flow rates ranging from 0 to 25 sccm with a fixed argon gas flow rate of 15 sccm. Various H{sub n}{sup +}, SiH{sub n}{sup +}, SiH{sub n} fragments (with n = 1, 2, 3) together with Ar{sup +} and ArH{sup +} species are detected in the discharge. The most important species for the filmmore » deposition is SiH{sub n} (with n = 0, 1, 2). H fragments affect the hydrogen content in the material. The flux of Ar{sup +} decreases and the flux of ArH{sup +} increases when the hydrogen flow rate is increased; however, both fluxes saturate at hydrogen flow rates above 15 sccm. Electron density, n{sub e}, electron energy, T{sub e}, and ion density, n{sub i}, are estimated from the Langmuir probe data. T{sub e} is below 1.2 eV at hydrogen flow rates below 8 sccm, and about 2 eV at flow rates above 8 sccm. n{sub e} and n{sub i} decrease with increased hydrogen flow but the ratio of n{sub i} to n{sub e} increases. The formation of H{sup +} ions with energies above 36 eV and electrons with energies greater than 2 eV contributes to the decrease in hydrogen content at hydrogen flow rates above 8 sccm. Analysis of the IEDs indicates an inter-dependence of the species and their contribution to the thin film growth and properties.« less

  19. Investigating the role of hydrogen in silicon deposition using an energy-resolved mass spectrometer and a Langmuir probe in an Ar/H2 radio frequency magnetron discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensah, S. L.; Naseem, Hameed H.; Abu-Safe, Husam; Gordon, M. H.

    2012-07-01

    The plasma parameters and ion energy distributions (IED) of the dominant species in an Ar-H2 discharge are investigated with an energy resolved mass spectrometer and a Langmuir probe. The plasmas are generated in a conventional magnetron chamber powered at 150 W, 13.56 MHz at hydrogen flow rates ranging from 0 to 25 sccm with a fixed argon gas flow rate of 15 sccm. Various Hn+, SiHn+, SiHn fragments (with n = 1, 2, 3) together with Ar+ and ArH+ species are detected in the discharge. The most important species for the film deposition is SiHn (with n = 0, 1, 2). H fragments affect the hydrogen content in the material. The flux of Ar+ decreases and the flux of ArH+ increases when the hydrogen flow rate is increased; however, both fluxes saturate at hydrogen flow rates above 15 sccm. Electron density, ne, electron energy, Te, and ion density, ni, are estimated from the Langmuir probe data. Te is below 1.2 eV at hydrogen flow rates below 8 sccm, and about 2 eV at flow rates above 8 sccm. ne and ni decrease with increased hydrogen flow but the ratio of ni to ne increases. The formation of H+ ions with energies above 36 eV and electrons with energies greater than 2 eV contributes to the decrease in hydrogen content at hydrogen flow rates above 8 sccm. Analysis of the IEDs indicates an inter-dependence of the species and their contribution to the thin film growth and properties.

  20. [Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation (comparative risk estimations)].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu G

    2012-01-01

    The population has widely used mobile communication for already more than 15 years. It is important to note that the use of mobile communication has sharply changed the conditions of daily exposure of the population to EME We expose our brain daily for the first time in the entire civilization. The mobile phone is an open and uncontrollable source of electromagnetic radiation. The comparative risk estimation for the population of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation was carried out taking into account the real conditions of influence. Comparison of risks for the population of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation leads us to a conclusion that EMF RF exposure in conditions of wide use of mobile communication is potentially more harmful than ionizing radiation influence.

  1. Ionized cluster beam deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    Ionized Cluster Beam (ICB) deposition, a new technique originated by Takagi of Kyoto University in Japan, offers a number of unique capabilities for thin film metallization as well as for deposition of active semiconductor materials. ICB allows average energy per deposited atom to be controlled and involves impact kinetics which result in high diffusion energies of atoms on the growth surface. To a greater degree than in other techniques, ICB involves quantitative process parameters which can be utilized to strongly control the characteristics of films being deposited. In the ICB deposition process, material to be deposited is vaporized into a vacuum chamber from a confinement crucible at high temperature. Crucible nozzle configuration and operating temperature are such that emerging vapor undergoes supercondensation following adiabatic expansion through the nozzle.

  2. Ionizing radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1990-01-01

    An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

  3. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, Robert A.; Mendez, Victor P.; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation.

  4. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, R.A.; Mendez, V.P.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1988-11-15

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. 15 figs.

  5. Ionization detection system for aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Martin E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system utilizes a measuring ionization chamber which is modified to minimize false alarms and reductions in sensitivity resulting from changes in ambient temperature. In the preferred form of the modification, an annular radiation shield is mounted about the usual radiation source provided to effect ionization in the measuring chamber. The shield is supported by a bimetallic strip which flexes in response to changes in ambient temperature, moving the shield relative to the source so as to vary the radiative area of the source in a manner offsetting temperature-induced variations in the sensitivity of the chamber.

  6. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Markey, J.K.

    1989-11-14

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0 to 30 C. 2 figs.

  7. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Markey, John K.

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

  8. How big, and how long-lasting, will an extreme burst above threshold be ? Lessons from self-organised criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, N. W.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.

    2011-12-01

    The idea that there might not be a typical scale for energy release in some space physics systems is a relatively new one [see e.g. mini-review of early work in Freeman and Watkins, Science, 2002; & Aschwanden, Self Organized Criticality (SOC) in Astrophysics, Springer, 2011]. In part it resulted from the widespread approximate fractality seen elsewhere in nature. SOC was introduced by Bak et al [PRL, 1987] as a physical explanation of such widespread space-time fractality. SOC inspired the introduction into magnetospheric physics of "burst" diagnostics by Takalo [1993] & Consolini [1996]. These quantified events in a time series by "size" (integrated area above a fixed threshold) and "duration", and revealed a long tailed population of events across a broad range of sizes, subsequently also seen in solar wind drivers like Akasofu's epsilon function [Freeman et al, PRE & GRL, 2000]. Spatiotemporal bursts have an interest beyond SOC, however. Estimating the probability of a burst of a given size and duration bears directly on the problem of correlated extreme events, or "bunched black swans" [e.g. Watkins et al, EGU, 2011 presentation at the URL below]. With a view both to space physics and this wider context we here consider an interesting development of the burst idea made by Uritsky et al [GRL, 2001]. These authors adapted the spatiotemporal spreading exponent [e.g. Marro & Dickman, Nonequilibrium phase transitions in lattice models, 1999], calculating a superposed epoch average of surviving activity in bursts after their first excursion above a threshold. In a 1D time series, the 1-minute AL auroral index (averaged over 5 minutes), they found scaling behaviour up to ~ 2 hours. We investigate the relationships between exponents found by this method and other, more widely known exponents governing a fractal (or multifractal) time series such as the self-similarity exponent H and long-range dependence exponent d. We conclude by discussing the applications of these techniques to problems such as the forecasting the probability of a single short-lived large burst versus that of a long correlated sequence of more moderate exceedences above a threshold.

  9. Evolution of TUNEL-labeling in the rat lens after in vivo exposure to just above threshold dose UVB.

    PubMed

    Kronschläger, Martin; Yu, Zhaohua; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Meyer, Linda M; Hallböök, Finn; Söderberg, Per G

    2013-08-01

    To quantitatively analyse the evolution of TUNEL-labeling, after in vivo exposure to UVB. Altogether, 16 Sprague Dawley rats were unilaterally exposed in vivo for 15 min to close to threshold dose, 5 kJ/m(2), of ultraviolet radiation in the 300 nm wavelength region. Animals were sacrificed in groups of 4 at 1, 5, 24 and 120 h after exposure. For each animal, both eye globes were removed and frozen. The frozen eye was cryo-sectioned in 10 µm thick midsagittal sections. From each globe, three midsagittal sections with at least five sections interval in between were mounted on a microscope slide. Sections were TUNEL-labeled and counter stained with DAPI. For quantification of apoptosis, a fluorescence microscope was used. In sections with a continuous epithelial cell surface, the number of lens epithelial cell nuclei and the number of TUNEL-positive epithelial cell nuclei was counted. The total number of TUNEL-positive epithelial cell nuclei for all three sections of one lens in relation to the total number of epithelial cell nuclei for all three sections of the same lens was compared between exposed and contralateral not exposed lens for each animal. The relative difference of the fraction of TUNEL-positive nuclei between exposed and contralateral not exposed lens increased gradually, peaked in the time interval 5-120 h after exposure, and then declined. Close to threshold dose of UVB induces TUNEL-labeling that peaks in the time window 5-120 h after exposure to UVB.

  10. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, R.S.; Todd, R.A.

    1985-04-09

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  11. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, Roswitha S.; Todd, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  12. Optical ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, C.R.; Lowry, M.E.

    1994-03-29

    An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium. 3 figures.

  13. Optical ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, Craig R.; Lowry, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium.

  14. Microwave reflectometer ionization sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seals, Joseph; Fordham, Jeffrey A.; Pauley, Robert G.; Simonutti, Mario D.

    1993-01-01

    The development of the Microwave Reflectometer Ionization Sensor (MRIS) Instrument for use on the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) spacecraft is described. The instrument contract was terminated, due to cancellation of the AFE program, subsequent to testing of an engineering development model. The MRIS, a four-frequency reflectometer, was designed for the detection and location of critical electron density levels in spacecraft reentry plasmas. The instrument would sample the relative magnitude and phase of reflected signals at discrete frequency steps across 4 GHz bandwidths centered at four frequencies: 20, 44, 95, and 140 GHz. The sampled data would be stored for later processing to calculate the distance from the spacecraft surface to the critical electron densities versus time. Four stepped PM CW transmitter receivers were located behind the thermal protection system of the spacecraft with horn antennas radiating and receiving through an insulating tile. Techniques were developed to deal with interference, including multiple reflections and resonance effects, resulting from the antenna configuration and operating environment.

  15. Calculation of multiphoton ionization processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, T. N.; Poe, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    We propose an accurate and efficient procedure in the calculation of multiphoton ionization processes. In addition to the calculational advantage, this procedure also enables us to study the relative contributions of the resonant and nonresonant intermediate states.

  16. Resonance ionization for analytical spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Hurst, George S.; Payne, Marvin G.; Wagner, Edward B.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for the sensitive and selective analysis of an atomic or molecular component of a gas. According to this method, the desired neutral component is ionized by one or more resonance photon absorptions, and the resultant ions are measured in a sensitive counter. Numerous energy pathways are described for accomplishing the ionization including the use of one or two tunable pulsed dye lasers.

  17. Polarizabilities of highly ionized atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kastner, S. O.; Wolf, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    An extrapolation method based on a screening approximation, applied to available initial values of polarizability for low stages of ionization, is used to obtain dipole and quadrupole polarizabilities for more highly ionized members of many isoelectronic sequences. It is suggested that the derived screening constants x sub L and limiting ratios F sub L may have significant physical meaning, especially the latter which may have an interpretation in terms of hydrogenic polarizabilities.

  18. Ionization oscillations in Hall accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barral, S.; Peradzyński, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of low-frequency oscillations in Hall accelerators is investigated theoretically. It is shown that relaxation oscillations arise from a competition between avalanche ionization and the advective transport of the working gas. The model derived recovers the slow progression and fast recession of the ionization front. Analytical approximations of the shape of current pulses and of the oscillation frequency are provided for the case of large amplitude oscillations.

  19. Moiré patterns in doubly differential electron-momentum distributions in atomic ionization by mid-infrared lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dran, Martín; Arbó, Diego G.

    2018-05-01

    We analyze the doubly differential electron momentum distribution in above-threshold ionization of atomic hydrogen by a linearly polarized mid-infrared laser pulse. We reproduce side rings in the momentum distribution with forward-backward symmetry previously observed by Lemell et al. [Phys. Rev. A 87, 013421 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.013421], whose origin, as far as we know, has not been explained so far. By developing a Fourier theory of moiré patterns, we demonstrate that such structures stem from the interplay between intra- and intercycle interference patterns which work as two separate grids in the two-dimensional momentum domain. We use a three-dimensional (3D) description based on the saddle-point approximation (SPA) to unravel the nature of these structures. When the periods of the two grids (intra- and intercycle) are similar, principal moiré patterns arise symmetrically as concentric rings in the forward and backward directions at high electron kinetic energy. Higher order moiré patterns are observed and characterized when the period of one grid is multiple of the other. We find a scale law for the position (in momentum space) of the center of the moiré rings in the tunneling regime. We verify the SPA predictions by comparison with time-dependent distorted-wave strong-field approximation calculations and the solutions of the full 3D time-dependent Schrödinger equation.

  20. A practical theoretical formalism for atomic multielectron processes: direct multiple ionization by a single auger decay or by impact of a single electron or photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pengfei; Zeng, Jiaolong; Yuan, Jianmin

    2018-04-01

    Multiple electron processes occur widely in atoms, molecules, clusters, and condensed matters when they are interacting with energetic particles or intense laser fields. Direct multielectron processes (DMEP) are the most complicated among the general multiple electron processes and are the most difficult to describe theoretically. In this work, a unified and accurate theoretical formalism is proposed on the DMEP of atoms including the multiple auger decay and multiple ionization by an impact of a single electron or a single photon based on the atomic collision theory described by a correlated many-body Green's function. Such a practical treatment is made possible by taking consideration of the different coherence features of the atoms (matter waves) in the initial and final states. We first explain how the coherence characteristics of the ejected continuum electrons is largely destructed, by taking the electron impact direct double ionization process as an example. The direct double ionization process is completely different from the single ionization where the complete interference can be maintained. The detailed expressions are obtained for the energy correlations among the continuum electrons and energy resolved differential and integral cross sections according to the separation of knock-out (KO) and shake-off (SO) mechanisms for the electron impact direct double ionization, direct double and triple auger decay, and double and triple photoionization (TPI) processes. Extension to higher order DMEP than triple ionization is straight forward by adding contributions of the following KO and SO processes. The approach is applied to investigate the electron impact double ionization processes of C+, N+, and O+, the direct double and triple auger decay of the K-shell excited states of C+ 1s2{s}22{p}2{}2D and {}2P, and the double and TPI of lithium. Comparisons with the experimental and other theoretical investigations wherever available in the literature show that our

  1. Down syndrome and ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Verger, P

    1997-12-01

    This review examines the epidemiologic and experimental studies into the possible role ionizing radiation might play in Down Syndrome (trisomy 21). It is prompted by a report of a temporal cluster of cases of this chromosomal disorder observed in West Berlin exactly 9 mo after the radioactive cloud from Chernobyl passed. In approximately 90% of cases, Down Syndrome is due to the nondisjunction of chromosome 21, most often in the oocyte, which may be exposed to ionizing radiation during two separate periods: before the completion of the first meiosis or around the time of ovulation. Most epidemiologic studies into trisomies and exposure to ionizing radiation examine only the first period; the Chernobyl cluster is related to the second. Analysis of these epidemiologic results indicates that the possibility that ionizing radiation might be a risk factor in Down Syndrome cannot be excluded. The experimental results, although sometimes contradictory, demonstrate that irradiation may induce nondisjunction in oogenesis and spermatogenesis; they cannot, however, be easily extrapolated to humans. The weaknesses of epidemiologic studies into the risk factors for Down Syndrome at birth (especially the failure to take into account the trisomy cases leading to spontaneous abortion) are discussed. We envisage the utility and feasibility of new studies, in particular among women exposed to prolonged or repeated artificially-produced ionizing radiation.

  2. The SPES surface ionization source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzolaro, M.; D'Agostini, F.; Monetti, A.; Andrighetto, A.

    2017-09-01

    Ion sources and target systems play a crucial role in isotope separation on line facilities, determining the main characteristics of the radioactive ion beams available for experiments. In the context of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility, a 40 MeV, 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 1013 fissions per second. The radioactive isotopes produced by the 238U fissions are delivered to the 1+ ion source by means of a tubular transfer line. Here they can be ionized and subsequently accelerated toward the experimental areas. In this work, the characterization of the surface ionization source currently adopted for the SPES facility is presented, taking as a reference ionization efficiency and transversal emittance measurements. The effects of long term operation at high temperature are also illustrated and discussed.

  3. Electroencephalographic responses to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    GARCIA, J; BUCHWALD, N A; BACH-Y-RITA, G; FEDER, B H; KOELLING, R A

    1963-04-19

    Electroencephalographic recordings made from chronically implanted cortical electrodes indicate that ionizing radiation has an immediate effect upon brain wave patterns. X-rays delivered at the rate of 0.2 roentgen per second produce an arousal effect resembling that which occurs as a result of stimulation through peripheral receptor systems.

  4. Ionization Potentials for Isoelectronic Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agmon, Noam

    1988-01-01

    Presents a quantitative treatment of ionization potentials of isoelectronic atoms. By looking at the single-electron view of calculating the total energy of an atom, trends in the screening and effective quantum number parameters are examined. Approaches the question of determining electron affinities. (CW)

  5. The Protonation Site of para-Dimethylaminobenzoic Acid Using Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Yunfeng; Weng, Guofeng; Shen, Shanshan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2015-04-01

    The protonation site of para-dimethylaminobenzoic acid ( p-DMABA) was investigated using atmospheric pressure ionization methods (ESI and APCI) coupled with collision-induced dissociation (CID), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and computational chemistry. Theoretical calculations and NMR experiments indicate that the dimethyl amino group is the preferred site of protonation both in the gas phase and aqueous solution. Protonation of p-DMABA occurs at the nitrogen atom by ESI independent of the solvents and other operation conditions under typical thermodynamic control. However, APCI produces a mixture of the nitrogen- and carbonyl oxygen-protonated p-DMABA when aprotic organic solvents (acetonitrile, acetone, and tetrahydrofuran) are used, exhibiting evident kinetic characteristics of protonation. But using protic organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol) in APCI still leads to the formation of thermodynamically stable N-protonated p-DMABA. These structural assignments were based on the different CID behavior of the N- and O-protonated p-DMABA. The losses of methyl radical and water are the diagnostic fragmentations of the N- and O-protonated p-DMABA, respectively. In addition, the N-protonated p-DMABA is more stable than the O-protonated p-DMABA in CID revealed by energy resolved experiments and theoretical calculations.

  6. Double-frequency microwave ionization of Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, G. A.; Dietrick, K. M.; Gallagher, T. F.

    1990-11-01

    We report the ionization of Na atoms by the simultaneous application of microwave fields of two different frequencies. We conclude that the salient features of double-frequency ionization can be readily understood. Both the hydrogenlike ||m||=2 states and the nonhydrogenic ||m||=0 and 1 states ionize when the sum of the field amplitudes, the peak field, reaches the field required for ionization by a single microwave frequency, E=1/9n4 and E=1/3n5, respectively.

  7. Clinical Application of Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li-Hua; Hsieh, Hua-Yi; Hsu, Cheng-Chih

    2017-01-01

    Ambient ionization allows mass spectrometry analysis directly on the sample surface under atmospheric pressure with almost zero sample pretreatment. Since the development of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) in 2004, many other ambient ionization techniques were developed. Due to their simplicity and low operation cost, rapid and on-site clinical mass spectrometry analysis becomes real. In this review, we will highlight some of the most widely used ambient ionization mass spectrometry approaches and their applications in clinical study. PMID:28337399

  8. Formation, stability and dissociation dynamics of {{\\rm{N}}}_{2}{}^{{\\rm{n}}+} cations (n = 1 - 2) in 3.5 keV e - -N2 collisions studied using the energy resolved electron-ion coincidence technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Prajapati, S.; Singh, B.; Singh, B. K.; Shanker, R.

    2018-04-01

    Coincidences between energy selected electrons and ions produced in the decay of a core hole ionized (excited) state in a free nitrogen molecule have been measured at three specified energies of emitted electrons to reveal the individual pathways produced in 3.5 keV electron-induced fragmentation processes. From these measurements, it has been possible to show, for the first time, that in addition to the normal Auger decay, the resonant Auger excitation channels also share their appreciable contributions in producing singly charged parent ions in an electron-induced collision system. The correlations between ion fragmentation products and electronic structures with a hole configuration in singly-, doubly- and possibly in triply charged molecular electronic states populated in the electronic decay of the initial core hole have been studied and discussed. KER values obtained from our experiments are found to be consistent with the previous results of photo absorption experiments for fragmentation channel {{{{N}}}2}2+ → N+ + N+ however, N2+ fragment ions are found to arise mainly from the fragmentation channel {{{{N}}}2}2+ → N2+ + N and to possess relatively low kinetic energies in the considered region of binding energies.

  9. 29 CFR 1926.53 - Ionizing radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ionizing radiation. 1926.53 Section 1926.53 Labor... § 1926.53 Ionizing radiation. (a) In construction and related activities involving the use of sources of ionizing radiation, the pertinent provisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Standards for...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.53 - Ionizing radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ionizing radiation. 1926.53 Section 1926.53 Labor... § 1926.53 Ionizing radiation. (a) In construction and related activities involving the use of sources of ionizing radiation, the pertinent provisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Standards for...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.53 - Ionizing radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ionizing radiation. 1926.53 Section 1926.53 Labor... § 1926.53 Ionizing radiation. (a) In construction and related activities involving the use of sources of ionizing radiation, the pertinent provisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Standards for...

  12. Roles of Tunneling, Multiphoton Ionization, and Cascade Ionization for Femtosecond Optical Breakdown in Aqueous Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    observed in the wavelength dependence of femtosecond breakdown would indicate a significant role of multiphoton ionization compared to tunneling ...relevant for femtosecond breakdown, and tunnel ionization featuring no Ith() dependence becomes ever more with decreasing pulse duration. However, it...c) Figure 4.22 Wavelength dependence of ionization probabilities by a) avalanche, b) multiphoton, and c) tunneling ionization. 1

  13. Electron-Impact Ionization and Dissociative Ionization of Biomolecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Chaban, Galina M.; Dateo, Christopher E.

    2006-01-01

    It is well recognized that secondary electrons play an important role in radiation damage to humans. Particularly important is the damage of DNA by electrons, potentially leading to mutagenesis. Molecular-level study of electron interaction with DNA provides information on the damage pathways and dominant mechanisms. Our study of electron-impact ionization of DNA fragments uses the improved binary-encounter dipole model and covers DNA bases, sugar phosphate backbone, and nucleotides. An additivity principle is observed. For example, the sum of the ionization cross sections of the separate deoxyribose and phosphate fragments is in close agreement with the C3(sup prime)- and C5 (sup prime)-deoxyribose-phospate cross sections, differing by less than 5%. Investigation of tandem double lesion initiated by electron-impact dissociative ionization of guanine, followed by proton reaction with the cytosine in the Watson-Crick pair, is currently being studied to see if tandem double lesion can be initiated by electron impact. Up to now only OH-induced tandem double lesion has been studied.

  14. Fe(+) chemical ionization of peptides.

    PubMed

    Speir, J P; Gorman, G S; Amster, I J

    1993-02-01

    Laser-desorbed peptide neutral molecules were allowed to react with Fe(+) in a Fourier transform mass spectrometer, using the technique of laser desorption/chemical ionization. The Fe(+) ions are formed by laser ablation of a steel target, as well as by dissociative charge-exchange ionization of ferrocene with Ne(+). Prior to reaction with laser-desorbed peptide molecules, Fe(+) ions undergo 20-100 thermalizin collisions with xenon to reduce the population of excited-state metal ion species. The Fe(+) ions that have not experienced thermalizing collisions undergo charge exchange with peptide molecules. Iron ions that undergo thermalizing collisions before they are allowed to react with peptides are found to undergo charge exchange and to form adduct species [M + Fe(+)] and fragment ions that result from the loss of small, stable molecules, such as H2O, CO, and CO2, from the metal ion-peptide complex.

  15. Theory of dissociative tunneling ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensmark, Jens; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2016-05-01

    We present a theoretical study of the dissociative tunneling ionization process. Analytic expressions for the nuclear kinetic energy distribution of the ionization rates are derived. A particularly simple expression for the spectrum is found by using the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation in conjunction with the reflection principle. These spectra are compared to exact non-BO ab initio spectra obtained through model calculations with a quantum mechanical treatment of both the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom. In the regime where the BO approximation is applicable, imaging of the BO nuclear wave function is demonstrated to be possible through reverse use of the reflection principle, when accounting appropriately for the electronic ionization rate. A qualitative difference between the exact and BO wave functions in the asymptotic region of large electronic distances is shown. Additionally, the behavior of the wave function across the turning line is seen to be reminiscent of light refraction. For weak fields, where the BO approximation does not apply, the weak-field asymptotic theory describes the spectrum accurately.

  16. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkensberg, F.; Rouzée, A.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G.; Johnsson, P.; Lucchini, M.; Lucchese, R. R.; Vrakking, M. J. J.

    2011-11-01

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO2 molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  17. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G.

    2011-11-15

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO{sub 2} molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  18. Space Flight Ionizing Radiation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The space-flight ionizing radiation (IR) environment is dominated by very high-kinetic energy-charged particles with relatively smaller contributions from X-rays and gamma rays. The Earth's surface IR environment is not dominated by the natural radioisotope decay processes. Dr. Steven Koontz's lecture will provide a solid foundation in the basic engineering physics of space radiation environments, beginning with the space radiation environment on the International Space Station and moving outward through the Van Allen belts to cislunar space. The benefits and limitations of radiation shielding materials will also be summarized.

  19. Heralded ions via ionization coincidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, A. J.; Speirs, R. W.; Wissenberg, S. H.; Tielen, R. P. M.; Sparkes, B. M.; Scholten, R. E.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate a method for the deterministic production of single ions by exploiting the correlation between an electron and associated ion following ionization. Coincident detection and feedback in combination with Coulomb-driven particle selection allows for high-fidelity heralding of ions at a high repetition rate. Extension of the scheme beyond time-correlated feedback to position- and momentum-correlated feedback will provide a general and powerful means to optimize the ion beam brightness for the development of next-generation focused ion beam technologies.

  20. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOEpatents

    McLuckey, Scott A.; Glish, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above.

  1. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOEpatents

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  2. NMR Metabolomics in Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian Z.; Xiao, Xiongjie; Hu, Mary Y.

    Ionizing radiation is an invisible threat that cannot be seen, touched or smelled and exist either as particles or waves. Particle radiation can take the form of alpha, beta or neutrons, as well as high energy space particle radiation such as high energy iron, carbon and proton radiation, etc. (1) Non-particle radiation includes gamma- and x-rays. Publically, there is a growing concern about the adverse health effects due to ionizing radiation mainly because of the following facts. (a) The X-ray diagnostic images are taken routinely on patients. Even though the overall dosage from a single X-ray image such as amore » chest X-ray scan or a CT scan, also called X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT), is low, repeated usage can cause serious health consequences, in particular with the possibility of developing cancer (2, 3). (b) Human space exploration has gone beyond moon and is planning to send human to the orbit of Mars by the mid-2030s. And a landing on Mars will follow.« less

  3. ELECTRON IONIZATION FREQUENCY IN HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect

    Cottingham, W.B.; Buchsbaum, S.J.

    1963-05-01

    The frequency of ionization by electrons in hydrogen was measured during pulsed microwave breakdown in a waveguide. Optical radiation emanating from the plasma was used to determine the temporal rate of growth of electron density. Values of the ionization frequency are presented as a function of E/sub e//p/sub o/ for 36 < E/sub e//p/sub o/ < 200 v/cm-mm Hg. The measurements constitute an extension of the work of Madan, Gordon, Buchsbaum, and Brown who measured this coefficient up to an E/sub e//p/sub o/ of 40 v/cm-mm Hg by microwave cavity techniques. Comparison is made with previous d-c measurements of Rosemore » and with the theory of Allis and Brown. Good agreement is obtained with the measurements of Rose but not with the theory of Allis and Brown extended to high E/sub e//p/ sub o/, nor with the previous microwave measurements of Madan et al. (auth)« less

  4. Influence of renormalization shielding on the electron-impact ionization process in dense partially ionized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr

    2015-04-15

    The renormalization shielding effects on the electron-impact ionization of hydrogen atom are investigated in dense partially ionized plasmas. The effective projectile-target interaction Hamiltonian and the semiclassical trajectory method are employed to obtain the transition amplitude as well as the ionization probability as functions of the impact parameter, the collision energy, and the renormalization parameter. It is found that the renormalization shielding effect suppresses the transition amplitude for the electron-impact ionization process in dense partially ionized plasmas. It is also found that the renormalization effect suppresses the differential ionization cross section in the peak impact parameter region. In addition, it ismore » found that the influence of renormalization shielding on the ionization cross section decreases with an increase of the relative collision energy. The variations of the renormalization shielding effects on the electron-impact ionization cross section are also discussed.« less

  5. Ionization tube simmer current circuit

    DOEpatents

    Steinkraus, R.F. Jr.

    1994-12-13

    A highly efficient flash lamp simmer current circuit utilizes a fifty percent duty cycle square wave pulse generator to pass a current over a current limiting inductor to a full wave rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier is then passed over a voltage smoothing capacitor through a reverse current blocking diode to a flash lamp tube to sustain ionization in the tube between discharges via a small simmer current. An alternate embodiment of the circuit combines the pulse generator and inductor in the form of an FET off line square wave generator with an impedance limited step up output transformer which is then applied to the full wave rectifier as before to yield a similar simmer current. 6 figures.

  6. Irreversible Processes in Ionized Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Balescu, R.

    1960-01-01

    The general theory of irreversible processes, developed by Prigogine and Balescu, is applied to the case of long range interactions in ionized gases. A similar diagram technique permits the systematic selection of all the contributions to the evolution of the distribution function, a an order of approximation equivalent to Debye's equilibrium theory. The infinite series which appear in this way can be summed exactly. The resulting evolution equations have a clear physical significance: they describe interactions of "quasi particles," which are electrons or ions "dressed" by their polarization clouds. These clouds are not a permanent feature, as in equilibrium theory,more » but have a nonequilibrium, changing shape, distorted by the motions of the particles. From the mathematical point of view, these equations exhibit a new type of nonlinearity, which is very directly related to the collective nature of the interactions.« less

  7. Ionization tube simmer current circuit

    DOEpatents

    Steinkraus, Jr., Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    A highly efficient flash lamp simmer current circuit utilizes a fifty percent duty cycle square wave pulse generator to pass a current over a current limiting inductor to a full wave rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier is then passed over a voltage smoothing capacitor through a reverse current blocking diode to a flash lamp tube to sustain ionization in the tube between discharges via a small simmer current. An alternate embodiment of the circuit combines the pulse generator and inductor in the form of an FET off line square wave generator with an impedance limited step up output transformer which is then applied to the full wave rectifier as before to yield a similar simmer current.

  8. Miniature Oxidizer Ionizer for a Fuel Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank

    2006-01-01

    A proposed miniature device for ionizing the oxygen (or other oxidizing gas) in a fuel cell would consist mostly of a membrane ionizer using the same principles as those of the device described in the earlier article, Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster (NPO-21057). The oxidizing gas would be completely ionized upon passage through the holes in the membrane ionizer. The resulting positively charged atoms or molecules of oxidizing gas could then, under the influence of the fringe fields of the ionizer, move toward the fuel-cell cathode that would be part of a membrane/electrode assembly comprising the cathode, a solid-electrolyte membrane, and an anode. The electro-oxidized state of the oxidizer atoms and molecules would enhance transfer of them through the cathode, thereby reducing the partial pressure of the oxidizer gas between the ionizer and the fuel-cell cathode, thereby, in turn, causing further inflow of oxidizer gas through the holes in the membrane ionizer. Optionally the ionizer could be maintained at a positive electric potential with respect to the cathode, in which case the resulting electric field would accelerate the ions toward the cathode.

  9. Forensic applications of ambient ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ifa, Demian R; Jackson, Ayanna U; Paglia, Giuseppe; Cooks, R Graham

    2009-08-01

    This review highlights and critically assesses forensic applications in the developing field of ambient ionization mass spectrometry. Ambient ionization methods permit the ionization of samples outside the mass spectrometer in the ordinary atmosphere, with minimal sample preparation. Several ambient ionization methods have been created since 2004 and they utilize different mechanisms to create ions for mass-spectrometric analysis. Forensic applications of these techniques--to the analysis of toxic industrial compounds, chemical warfare agents, illicit drugs and formulations, explosives, foodstuff, inks, fingerprints, and skin--are reviewed. The minimal sample pretreatment needed is illustrated with examples of analysis from complex matrices (e.g., food) on various substrates (e.g., paper). The low limits of detection achieved by most of the ambient ionization methods for compounds of forensic interest readily offer qualitative confirmation of chemical identity; in some cases quantitative data are also available. The forensic applications of ambient ionization methods are a growing research field and there are still many types of applications which remain to be explored, particularly those involving on-site analysis. Aspects of ambient ionization currently undergoing rapid development include molecular imaging and increased detection specificity through simultaneous chemical reaction and ionization by addition of appropriate chemical reagents.

  10. A Versatile Integrated Ambient Ionization Source Platform.

    PubMed

    Ai, Wanpeng; Nie, Honggang; Song, Shiyao; Liu, Xiaoyun; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2018-04-30

    The pursuit of high-throughput sample analysis from complex matrix demands development of multiple ionization techniques with complementary specialties. A versatile integrated ambient ionization source (iAmIS) platform is proposed in this work, based on the idea of integrating multiple functions, enhancing the efficiency of current ionization techniques, extending the applications, and decreasing the cost of the instrument. The design of the iAmIS platform combines flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) source/direct analysis in real time (DART), dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI)/low-temperature plasma (LTP), desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), and laser desorption (LD) technique. All individual and combined ionization modes can be easily attained by modulating parameters. In particular, the FAPA/DART&DESI mode can realize the detection of polar and nonpolar compounds at the same time with two different ionization mechanisms: proton transfer and charge transfer. The introduction of LD contributes to the mass spectrometry imaging and the surface-assisted laser desorption (SALDI) under ambient condition. Compared with other individual or multi-mode ion source, the iAmIS platform provides the flexibility of choosing different ionization modes, broadens the scope of the analyte detection, and facilitates the analysis of complex samples. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  11. Ultrafast Electron Plasma Index: An Ionization Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-29

    picture in mind, the derivation of the index was a combination of the principle of least action and Fermat’s principle. In the current textbook ...multiphoton ionization. Phys Rev Lett 71: 1994-1997. 27. Ivanov MY, Spanner M, Smirnova O (2005) Anatomy of strong field ionization. J. Mod.Phys 52

  12. Impact Ionization: Beyond the Golden Rule

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    3]. Hence, the use electronic kinetic energy, H. is the phonon bath Hamil- of Monte Carlo methods combined with density matrix tonian, HA, is the...0 o5 () Wace i.a (bN w...,,,ae (W ( Ib) k- Figure 2. (a) Ionization rate in the 1 11 > direction. Figure 3. (a) Equal ionization rate curves in the k

  13. A Versatile Integrated Ambient Ionization Source Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Wanpeng; Nie, Honggang; Song, Shiyao; Liu, Xiaoyun; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2018-04-01

    The pursuit of high-throughput sample analysis from complex matrix demands development of multiple ionization techniques with complementary specialties. A versatile integrated ambient ionization source (iAmIS) platform is proposed in this work, based on the idea of integrating multiple functions, enhancing the efficiency of current ionization techniques, extending the applications, and decreasing the cost of the instrument. The design of the iAmIS platform combines flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) source/direct analysis in real time (DART), dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI)/low-temperature plasma (LTP), desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), and laser desorption (LD) technique. All individual and combined ionization modes can be easily attained by modulating parameters. In particular, the FAPA/DART&DESI mode can realize the detection of polar and nonpolar compounds at the same time with two different ionization mechanisms: proton transfer and charge transfer. The introduction of LD contributes to the mass spectrometry imaging and the surface-assisted laser desorption (SALDI) under ambient condition. Compared with other individual or multi-mode ion source, the iAmIS platform provides the flexibility of choosing different ionization modes, broadens the scope of the analyte detection, and facilitates the analysis of complex samples. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Bystander Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Little, John B.

    The objectives of this grant renewal are to provide administrative support and travel funds to allow the continued participation of the principal investigator (Dr. John B. Little) as an advisor to research initiated by several research fellows from his laboratory. The actual research will be carried out under the direction of Dr. Hatsumi Nagasawa with the collaboration of Dr. Joel Bedford at the Colorado State University, and by Drs. Edouard Azzam and Sonia de Toledo at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. Dr. Little will advise on the planning of experiments and development of experimental protocols, themore » analysis of data, and the preparation of manuscripts for publication. The Specific Aims for several of the planned experiments include: 1) to extend studies of the role of recombinational repair in the bystander effect by examining other genes in this pathway and cell lines deficient in excision repair; 2) to continue studies to determine the nature of the damage signal transmitted to bystander cells including the expression of several connexins in the bystander response, and the extent to which the enhanced oxidative metabolism observed in bystander cells may relate to the nature of the transmitted bystander signal; 3) to utilize a genome-wide approach to examine the genetic basis for the hypersensitivity to ionization we have observed in unaffected parents of patients with hereditary retinoblastoma, as well as from a group of apparently normal individuals that show similar radiosensitivity; 4) to complete studies concerning the induction of high frequencies of cells with massive chromosome damage in clonal derivatives of p53 and p21 knockout mouse cell lines; in particular to examine the role of telomere changes in this phenomenon. Overall, the results of these studies should enhance our understanding of the risk of low-dose exposures to ionizing radiation, including human populations to residential radon as well as occupational

  15. Experimental optimization of directed field ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhimin Cheryl; Gregoric, Vincent C.; Carroll, Thomas J.; Noel, Michael W.

    2017-04-01

    The state distribution of an ensemble of Rydberg atoms is commonly measured using selective field ionization. The resulting time resolved ionization signal from a single energy eigenstate tends to spread out due to the multiple avoided Stark level crossings atoms must traverse on the way to ionization. The shape of the ionization signal can be modified by adding a perturbation field to the main field ramp. Here, we present experimental results of the manipulation of the ionization signal using a genetic algorithm. We address how both the genetic algorithm and the experimental parameters were adjusted to achieve an optimized result. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. 1607335 and No. 1607377.

  16. Laser resonance ionization spectroscopy of antimony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Lassen, J.; Ruczkowski, J.; Teigelhöfer, A.; Bricault, P.

    2017-02-01

    The resonant ionization laser ion source is an element selective, efficient and versatile ion source to generate radioactive ion beams at on-line mass separator facilities. For some elements with complex atomic structures and incomplete spectroscopic data, laser spectroscopic investigations are required for ionization scheme development. Laser resonance ionization spectroscopy using Ti:Sa lasers has been performed on antimony (Sb) at TRIUMF's off-line laser ion source test stand. Laser light of 230.217 nm (vacuum wavelength) as the first excitation step and light from a frequency-doubled Nd:YVO4 laser (532 nm) as the nonresonant ionization step allowed to search for suitable second excitation steps by continuous wavelength scans from 720 nm to 920 nm across the wavelength tuning range of a grating-tuned Ti:Sa laser. Upon the identification of efficient SES, the third excitation steps for resonance ionization were investigated by laser scans across Rydberg states, the ionization potential and autoionizing states. One Rydberg state and six AI states were found to be well suitable for efficient resonance ionization.

  17. Re-ionization and decaying dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodelson, Scott; Jubas, Jay M.

    1991-01-01

    Gunn-Peterson tests suggest that the Universe was reionized after the standard recombination epoch. A systematic treatment is presented of the ionization process by deriving the Boltzmann equations appropriate to this regime. A compact solution for the photon spectrum is found in terms of the ionization ratio. These equations are then solved numerically for the Decaying Dark Matter scenario, wherein neutrinos with mass of order 30 eV radiatively decay producing photons which ionize the intergalactic medium. It was found that the neutrino mass and lifetime are severely constrained by Gunn-Peterson tests, observations of the diffuse photon spectrum in the ultraviolet regime, and the Hubble parameter.

  18. Ionizing Radiation and the Ear

    SciTech Connect

    Borsanyi, Steven J.

    The effects of ionizing radiation on the ears of 100 patients were studied in the course of treatment of malignant head and neck tumors by teleradiation using Co 60. Early changes consisted of radiation otitis media and a transient vasculitis of the vessels of the inner ear, resulting in hearing loss, tinnitus, and temporary recruitment. While no permanent changes were detected microscopically shortly after the completion of radiation in the cochlea or labyrinth, late changes sometimes occurred in the temporal bone as a result of an obliterating endarteritis. The late changes were separate entities caused primarily by obliterating endarteritis andmore » alterations in the collagen. Radiation affected the hearing of individuals selectively. When hearing threshold shift did occur, the shift was not great. The 4000 cps frequency showed a greater deficit in hearing capacity during the tests, while the area least affected appeared to be in the region of 2000 cps. The shift in speech reception was not significant and it was correlated with the over-all change in response to pure tones. Discrimination did not appear to be affected. Proper shielding of the ear with lead during radiation, when possible, eliminated most complications. (H.R.D.)« less

  19. Ionized Carbon Atoms in Orion

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-12

    The dusty side of the Sword of Orion is illuminated in this striking infrared image from the European Space Agency's Hershel Space Observatory. This immense nebula is the closest large region of star formation, situated about 1,500 light years away in the constellation of Orion. The parts that are easily observed in visible light, known alternatively as the Orion Nebula or Messier 42, correspond to the light blue regions. This is the glow from the warmest dust, illuminated by clusters of hot stars that have only recently been born in this chaotic region. The red spine of material running from corner to corner reveals colder, denser filaments of dust and gas that are scattered throughout the Orion nebula. In visible light this would be a dark, opaque feature, hiding the reservoir of material from which stars have recently formed and will continue to form in the future. Herschel data from the PACS instrument observations, at wavelengths of 100 and 160 microns, is displayed in blue and green, respectively, while SPIRE 250-micron data is shown in red. Within the inset image, the emission from ionized carbon atoms (C+), overlaid in yellow, was isolated and mapped out from spectrographic data obtained by the HIFI instrument. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21073

  20. Matrix Assisted Ionization Vacuum (MAIV), a New Ionization Method for Biological Materials Analysis Using Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Inutan, Ellen D.; Trimpin, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) for the mass spectrometric analysis of peptides and proteins had a dramatic impact on biological science. We now report that a wide variety of compounds, including peptides, proteins, and protein complexes, are transported directly from a solid-state small molecule matrix to gas-phase ions when placed into the vacuum of a mass spectrometer without the use of high voltage, a laser, or added heat. This ionization process produces ions having charge states similar to ESI, making the method applicable for high performance mass spectrometers designed for atmospheric pressure ionization. We demonstrate highly sensitive ionization using intermediate pressure MALDI and modified ESI sources. This matrix and vacuum assisted soft ionization method is suitable for the direct surface analysis of biological materials, including tissue, via mass spectrometry. PMID:23242551

  1. Ionization of NO at high temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C. Frederick

    1991-01-01

    Space vehicles flying through the atmosphere at high speed are known to excite a complex set of chemical reactions in the atmospheric gases, ranging from simple vibrational excitation to dissociation, atom exchange, electronic excitation, ionization, and charge exchange. Simple arguments are developed for the temperature dependence of the reactions leading to ionization of NO, including the effect of vibrational electronic thermal nonequilibrium. NO ionization is the most important source of electrons at intermediate temperatures and at higher temperatures provides the trigger electrons that ionize atoms. Based on these arguments, recommendations are made for formulae which fit observed experimental results, and which include a dependence on both a heavy particle temperature and different vibration electron temperatures. In addition, these expressions will presumably provide the most reliable extrapolation of experimental results to much higher temperatures.

  2. Acceptor Ionization Energies in GaN*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Ban Chen, An

    2001-03-01

    The k.p Hamiltonian and a model potential are used to deduce the acceptor ionization energies in GaN from a systematic study of the chemical trend in GaAs, GaP, and InP. The acceptors studied include Be, Mg, Ca, Zn, and Cd on the cation sites and C, Si, and Ge on the anion sites. Our calculated acceptor ionization energies are estimated to be accurate to better than ten percent across the board. The ionization energies of C and Be (152 and 187 meV respectively) in wurtzite GaN are found to be lower than that of Mg (224 meV). The C was found to behave like the hydrogenic acceptor in all systems and it has the smallest ionization energy among all the acceptors studied.

  3. Delayed Ionization in Transition Metal Carbon Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, S. E.; Castleman, A. W., Jr.

    1997-03-01

    Mass spectrometric studies of several single and binary transition metal carbon cluster systems, produced in a laser vaporization source, reveal several species that undergo delayed ionization. Pulsed extraction and blocking electric fields, in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, allow the study of delayed ionization over a time window after excitation with a pulsed laser. In systems where metallocarbohedrenes (Met-Cars) are produced, the Met-Cars are the dominate delayed species. Delayed ionization of binary metal Met-Cars Ti_xM_yC_12 (M=Zr,Nb,Y; x+y=8) is dependent on the ratio of the two metals. Delayed behavior is investigated over a range of photoionization wavelengths and fluences. In order to determine the degree to which the delayed ionization is thermionic in character, the experimental data have been compared to Klots's model for thermionic emission from small particles.

  4. On ionization and luminescence in flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanger, E; Goercke, P; BREDT I

    1951-01-01

    An explanation based upon reaction kinetics is presented to account for the deviation of measured ionization levels obtained from reflection experiments from the values computed assuming chemical equilibrium. The heat transfer to the unburned fuel is also considered.

  5. Ionization in MHD-Gas interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A.; Diver, D. A.

    2013-09-01

    The study of partially ionized plasmas is important in a number of astrophysical situations and is vital for the study of laboratory plasmas. The interactions between a neutral gas and a plasma define a hybrid medium that has aspects of each, but does not only sustain the pure modes of the individual species. Previously we have shown that momentum coupling between the gas and the magnetized plasma alters the behaviour of both; as an extension of that simulation, we present results for the extension to the coupling in which the relative motion between the species provides enough kinetic energy in the flow to allow a measure of species exchange Alfvén ionization (AI) (also known as critical velocity ionization), allowing the ionization fraction to evolve as the dynamics evolve.

  6. Modeling of Plutonium Ionization Probabilities for Use in Nuclear Forensic Analysis by Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    masses collide, they form a supercritical mass . Criticality refers to the neutron population within the system. A critical system is one that can...Spectrometry, no. 242, pp. 161–168, 2005. [9] S. Raeder, “Trace analysis of actinides in the environment by means of resonance ionization mass ...first ionization potential of actinide elements by resonance ionization mass spectrometry.” Spectrochimica Acta part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. vol. 52

  7. Energy-resolved fast neutron resonance radiography at CSNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhixin; Tang, Jingyu; Jing, Hantao; Fan, Ruirui; Li, Qiang; Ning, Changjun; Bao, Jie; Ruan, Xichao; Luan, Guangyuan; Feng, Changqin; Zhang, Xianpeng

    2018-05-01

    The white neutron beamline at the China Spallation Neutron Source will be used mainly for nuclear data measurements. It will be characterized by high flux and broad energy spectra. To exploit the beamline as a neutron imaging source, we propose a liquid scintillator fiber array for fast neutron resonance radiography. The fiber detector unit has a small exposed area, which will limit the event counts and separate the events in time, thus satisfying the requirements for single-event time-of-flight (SEToF) measurement. The current study addresses the physical design criteria for ToF measurement, including flux estimation and detector response. Future development and potential application of the technology are also discussed.

  8. Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Huston, Gregg C.

    1992-01-01

    A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatrography which possesses increased sensitivity and a very fast response time. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by UV photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the UV photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector.

  9. Multiphoton Ionization Mass and Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    tracted information about ion vibrational energy levels. Molecules studted include benzene, toluene, aniline, paradifluorobenzene, nitric oxide ...molecules or subgroups and not to others. Ion specific electrodes play an analogous role in electro - chemistry. The prospect of selectively ionizing a... acetaldehyde and butyraldehyde have been studied at the KrF and ArF laser wavelengths. Their ionization potentials are 10.2 and 9.8 eV, respectively

  10. Field ionizing elements and applications thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A field ionizing element formed of a membrane that houses electrodes therein that are located closer to one another than the mean free path of the gas being ionized. The membrane includes a supporting portion, and a non supporting portion where the ions are formed. The membrane may be used as the front end for a number of different applications including a mass spectrometer, a thruster, an ion mobility element, or an electrochemical device such as a fuel cell.

  11. Electron ionization of SiCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Simon J.; Price, Stephen D.

    2011-02-01

    Relative partial ionization cross sections (PICS) for the formation of fragment ions following electron ionization of SiCl4, in the electron energy range 30-200 eV, have been determined using time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with an ion coincidence technique. By this method, the contributions to the yield of each fragment ion from dissociative single, double, and triple ionization, are distinguished. These yields are quantified in the form of relative precursor-specific PICS, which are reported here for the first time for SiCl4. For the formation of singly charged ionic fragments, the low-energy maxima appearing in the PICS curves are due to contributions from single ionization involving predominantly indirect ionization processes, while contributions to the yields of these ions at higher electron energies are often dominated by dissociative double ionization. Our data, in the reduced form of relative PICS, are shown to be in good agreement with a previous determination of the PICS of SiCl4. Only for the formation of doubly charged fragment ions are the current relative PICS values lower than those measured in a previous study, although both datasets agree within combined error limits. The relative PICS data presented here include the first quantitative measurements of the formation of Cl2+ fragment ions and of the formation of ion pairs via dissociative double ionization. The peaks appearing in the 2D ion coincidence data are analyzed to provide further information concerning the mechanism and energetics of the charge-separating dissociations of SiCl42+. The lowest energy dicationic precursor state, leading to SiCl3+ + Cl+ formation, lies 27.4 ± 0.3 eV above the ground state of SiCl4 and is in close agreement with a calculated value of the adiabatic double ionization energy (27.3 eV).

  12. Electron ionization of SiCl4.

    PubMed

    King, Simon J; Price, Stephen D

    2011-02-21

    Relative partial ionization cross sections (PICS) for the formation of fragment ions following electron ionization of SiCl(4), in the electron energy range 30-200 eV, have been determined using time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with an ion coincidence technique. By this method, the contributions to the yield of each fragment ion from dissociative single, double, and triple ionization, are distinguished. These yields are quantified in the form of relative precursor-specific PICS, which are reported here for the first time for SiCl(4). For the formation of singly charged ionic fragments, the low-energy maxima appearing in the PICS curves are due to contributions from single ionization involving predominantly indirect ionization processes, while contributions to the yields of these ions at higher electron energies are often dominated by dissociative double ionization. Our data, in the reduced form of relative PICS, are shown to be in good agreement with a previous determination of the PICS of SiCl(4). Only for the formation of doubly charged fragment ions are the current relative PICS values lower than those measured in a previous study, although both datasets agree within combined error limits. The relative PICS data presented here include the first quantitative measurements of the formation of Cl(2) (+) fragment ions and of the formation of ion pairs via dissociative double ionization. The peaks appearing in the 2D ion coincidence data are analyzed to provide further information concerning the mechanism and energetics of the charge-separating dissociations of SiCl(4) (2+). The lowest energy dicationic precursor state, leading to SiCl(3) (+) + Cl(+) formation, lies 27.4 ± 0.3 eV above the ground state of SiCl(4) and is in close agreement with a calculated value of the adiabatic double ionization energy (27.3 eV).

  13. Impact of Coulomb potential on peak structures arising in momentum and low-energy photoelectron spectra produced in strong-field ionization of laser-irradiated atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyak, P. E.; Usachenko, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    The phenomenon of pronounced peak structure(s) of longitudinal momentum distributions as well as a spike-like structure of low-energy spectra of photoelectrons emitted from laser-irradiated Ar and Ne atoms in a single ionization process is theoretically studied in the tunneling and multiphoton regimes of ionization. The problem is addressed assuming only the direct above-threshold ionization (ATI) as a physical mechanism underlying the phenomenon under consideration (viz. solely contributing to observed photoelectron momentum distributions (PMD)) and using the Coulomb-Volkov (CV) ansatz within the frame of conventional strong-field approximation (SFA) applied in the length-gauge formulation. The developed CV-SFA approach also incorporates the density functional theory essentially exploited for numerical composition of initial (laser-free) atomic state(s) constructed from atomic orbitals of Gaussian type. Our presented CV-SFA based (and laser focal-volume averaged) calculation results proved to be well reproducing both the pronounced double-peak and/or ATI-like multi-peak structure(s) experimentally observed in longitudinal PMD under conditions of tunneling and/or multiphoton regime, respectively. In addition, our CV-SFA results presented for tunneling regime also suggest and remarkably reproduce a pronounced structure observed in relevant experiments as a ‘spike-like’ enhanced maximum arising in low-energy region (around the value of about 1 eV) of photoelectron spectra. The latter consistency allows to identify and interpret these results as the so-called low-energy structure (LES) since the phenomenon proved to appear as the most prominent if the influence of Coulomb potential on photoelectron continuum states is maximally taken into account under calculations (viz. if the parameter Z in CV’s functions is put equal to 1). Moreover, the calculated LES proved to correspond (viz., established as closely related) to the mentioned double-peak structure arising

  14. Low-sample flow secondary electrospray ionization: improving vapor ionization efficiency.

    PubMed

    Vidal-de-Miguel, G; Macía, M; Pinacho, P; Blanco, J

    2012-10-16

    In secondary electrospray ionization (SESI) systems, gaseous analytes exposed to an elecrospray plume become ionized after charge is transferred from the charging electrosprayed particles to the sample species. Current SESI systems have shown a certain potential. However, their ionization efficiency is limited by space charge repulsion and by the high sample flows required to prevent vapor dilution. As a result, they have a poor conversion ratio of vapor into ions. We have developed and tested a new SESI configuration, termed low-flow SESI, that permits the reduction of the required sample flows. Although the ion to vapor concentration ratio is limited, the ionic flow to sample vapor flow ratio theoretically is not. The new ionizer is coupled to a planar differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and requires only 0.2 lpm of vapor sample flow to produce 3.5 lpm of ionic flow. The achieved ionization efficiency is 1/700 (one ion for every 700 molecules) for TNT and, thus, compared with previous SESI ionizers coupled with atmospheric pressure ionization-mass spectrometry (API-MS) (Mesonero, E.; Sillero, J. A.; Hernández, M.; Fernandez de la Mora, J. Philadelphia PA, 2009) has been improved by a large factor of at least 50-100 (our measurements indicate 70). The new ionizer coupled with the planar DMA and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (ABSciex API5000) requires only 20 fg (50 million molecules) to produce a discernible signal after mobility and MS(2) analysis.

  15. Simultaneous resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization and electron avalanche ionization in gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Shneider, Mikhail N.; Zhang Zhili; Miles, Richard B.

    2008-07-15

    Resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and electron avalanche ionization (EAI) are measured simultaneously in Ar:Xe mixtures at different partial pressures of mixture components. A simple theory for combined REMPI+EAI in gas mixture is developed. It is shown that the REMPI electrons seed the avalanche process, and thus the avalanche process amplifies the REMPI signal. Possible applications are discussed.

  16. Resonant ionization spectroscopy of autoionizing Rydberg states in cobalt and redetermination of its ionization potential

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuan; Gottwald, T.; Mattolat, C.

    We obtained multi-step resonance ionization spectroscopy of cobalt using a hot-cavity laser ion source and three Ti:Sapphire lasers. Furthermore, the photoionization spectra revealed members of five new autoionizing Rydberg series that originate from three different lower levels of 3d 74s5s h 4F 9/2, 3d 74s4d f 4G 11/2, and 3d 74s4d f 4H 13/2 and converge to the first four excited states of singly ionized Co. Our analyses of the Rydberg series yield 63564.689 0.036 cm -1 as the first ionization potential of Co, which is an order of magnitude more accurate than the previous estimation. Using a three-step resonancemore » ionization scheme that employs an autoinizing Rydberg state in the last transition, we obtained an overall ionization efficiency of about 18% for Co.« less

  17. Resonant ionization spectroscopy of autoionizing Rydberg states in cobalt and redetermination of its ionization potential

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yuan; Gottwald, T.; Mattolat, C.; ...

    2017-03-20

    We obtained multi-step resonance ionization spectroscopy of cobalt using a hot-cavity laser ion source and three Ti:Sapphire lasers. Furthermore, the photoionization spectra revealed members of five new autoionizing Rydberg series that originate from three different lower levels of 3d 74s5s h 4F 9/2, 3d 74s4d f 4G 11/2, and 3d 74s4d f 4H 13/2 and converge to the first four excited states of singly ionized Co. Our analyses of the Rydberg series yield 63564.689 0.036 cm -1 as the first ionization potential of Co, which is an order of magnitude more accurate than the previous estimation. Using a three-step resonancemore » ionization scheme that employs an autoinizing Rydberg state in the last transition, we obtained an overall ionization efficiency of about 18% for Co.« less

  18. Low latitude middle atmosphere ionization studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassi, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Low latitude middle atmosphere ionization was studied with data obtained from three blunt conductivity probes and one Gerdien condenser. An investigation was conducted into the effects of various ionization sources in the 40 to 65 Km altitude range. An observed enhancement of positive ion conductivity taking place during the night can be explained by an atmsopheric effect, with cosmic rays being the only source of ionization only if the ion-ion recombination coefficient (alpha sub i) is small(10 to the -7 power cu cm/s) and varies greatly with altitude. More generally accepted values of alpha sub i ( approximately equal to 3x10 to the -7 power cu cm/s) require an additional source of ionization peaking at about 65 Km, and corresponding approximately to the integrated effect of an X-ray flux measured on a rocket flown in conjunction with the ionization measurements. The reasonable assumption of an alpha sub i which does not vary with altitude in the 50-70 Km range implies an even greater value alpha sub i and a more intense and harder X-ray spectrum.

  19. Deep-down ionization of protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Lizano, S.; Galli, D.

    2017-12-01

    The possible occurrence of dead zones in protoplanetary discs subject to the magneto-rotational instability highlights the importance of disc ionization. We present a closed-form theory for the deep-down ionization by X-rays at depths below the disc surface dominated by far-ultraviolet radiation. Simple analytic solutions are given for the major ion classes, electrons, atomic ions, molecular ions and negatively charged grains. In addition to the formation of molecular ions by X-ray ionization of H2 and their destruction by dissociative recombination, several key processes that operate in this region are included, e.g. charge exchange of molecular ions and neutral atoms and destruction of ions by grains. Over much of the inner disc, the vertical decrease in ionization with depth into the disc is described by simple power laws, which can easily be included in more detailed modelling of magnetized discs. The new ionization theory is used to illustrate the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects of Ohmic, Hall and Ambipolar diffusion for a magnetic model of a T Tauri star disc using the appropriate Elsasser numbers.

  20. Tunable Ionization Modes of a Flowing Atmospheric-Pressure Afterglow (FAPA) Ambient Ionization Source.

    PubMed

    Badal, Sunil P; Michalak, Shawn D; Chan, George C-Y; You, Yi; Shelley, Jacob T

    2016-04-05

    Plasma-based ambient desorption/ionization sources are versatile in that they enable direct ionization of gaseous samples as well as desorption/ionization of analytes from liquid and solid samples. However, ionization matrix effects, caused by competitive ionization processes, can worsen sensitivity or even inhibit detection all together. The present study is focused on expanding the analytical capabilities of the flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) source by exploring additional types of ionization chemistry. Specifically, it was found that the abundance and type of reagent ions produced by the FAPA source and, thus, the corresponding ionization pathways of analytes, can be altered by changing the source working conditions. High abundance of proton-transfer reagent ions was observed with relatively high gas flow rates and low discharge currents. Conversely, charge-transfer reagent species were most abundant at low gas flows and high discharge currents. A rather nonpolar model analyte, biphenyl, was found to significantly change ionization pathway based on source operating parameters. Different analyte ions (e.g., MH(+) via proton-transfer and M(+.) via charge-transfer) were formed under unique operating parameters demonstrating two different operating regimes. These tunable ionization modes of the FAPA were used to enable or enhance detection of analytes which traditionally exhibit low-sensitivity in plasma-based ADI-MS analyses. In one example, 2,2'-dichloroquaterphenyl was detected under charge-transfer FAPA conditions, which were difficult or impossible to detect with proton-transfer FAPA or direct analysis in real-time (DART). Overall, this unique mode of operation increases the number and range of detectable analytes and has the potential to lessen ionization matrix effects in ADI-MS analyses.

  1. Capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry interface

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Severs, Joanne C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an interface between a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary end and an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end, for transporting an anolyte sample from a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary to a electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary. The interface of the present invention has: (a) a charge transfer fitting enclosing both of the capillary electrophoresis capillary end and the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end; (b) a reservoir containing an electrolyte surrounding the charge transfer fitting; and (c) an electrode immersed into the electrolyte, the electrode closing a capillary electrophoresis circuit and providing charge transfer across the charge transfer fitting while avoiding substantial bulk fluid transfer across the charge transfer fitting. Advantages of the present invention have been demonstrated as effective in providing high sensitivity and efficient analyses.

  2. Photoelectron circular dichroism in different ionization regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollenhaupt, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    Photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) describes an asymmetry in the photoelectron angular distribution (PAD) from photoionization of randomly oriented enantiomers with circularly polarized light. Beaulieu et al present a comprehensive set of measured PADs from multiphoton ionization of limonene and fenchone in different ionization regimes (multiphoton and tunneling) and analyze the resulting PECD (Beaulieu et al 2016 New J. Phys. 18 102002). From their observations the authors conclude that the PECD is universal in the sense that the molecular chirality is encoded in the PAD independent of the ionization regime. The analysis is supplemented by a classical model based on electron scattering in a chiral potential. The paper presents beautiful data and is an important step towards a more complete physical picture of PECD. The results and their interpretation stimulate the ongoing vivid debate on the role of resonances in multiphoton PECD.

  3. Nuclear Fission Investigation with Twin Ionization Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Zeynalova, O.; Zeynalov, Sh.; Nazarenko, M.

    2011-11-29

    The purpose of the present paper was to report the recent results, obtained in development of digital pulse processing mathematics for prompt fission neutron (PFN) investigation using twin ionization chamber (TIC) along with fast neutron time-of-flight detector (ND). Due to well known ambiguities in literature (see refs. [4, 6, 9 and 11]), concerning a pulse induction on TIC electrodes by FF ionization, we first presented detailed mathematical analysis of fission fragment (FF) signal formation on TIC anode. The analysis was done using Ramo-Shockley theorem, which gives relation between charged particle motion between TIC electrodes and so called weighting potential. Weightingmore » potential was calculated by direct numerical solution of Laplace equation (neglecting space charge) for the TIC geometry and ionization, caused by FF. Formulae for grid inefficiency (GI) correction and digital pulse processing algorithms for PFN time-of-flight measurements and pulse shape analysis are presented and discussed.« less

  4. Ionization-chamber smoke detector system

    DOEpatents

    Roe, Robert F.

    1976-10-19

    This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system is designed to reduce false alarms caused by fluctuations in ambient temperature. Means are provided for periodically firing the gas discharge triode and each time recording the triggering voltage required. A computer compares each triggering voltage with its predecessor. The computer is programmed to energize an alarm if the difference between the two compared voltages is a relatively large value indicative of particulates in the measuring chamber and to disregard smaller differences typically resulting from changes in ambient temperature.

  5. The reflection of an ionized shock wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakura, Fumioki; Corli, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    In a previous paper, we studied the thermodynamic and kinetic theory for an ionized gas, in one space dimension; in this paper, we provide an application of those results to the reflection of a shock wave in an electromagnetic shock tube. Under some reasonable limitations, which fully agree with experimental data, we prove that both the incident and the reflected shock waves satisfy the Lax entropy conditions; this result holds even outside genuinely nonlinear regions, which are present in the model. We show that the temperature increases in a significant way behind the incident shock front but the degree of ionization does not undergo a similar growth. On the contrary, the degree of ionization increases substantially behind the reflected shock front. We explain these phenomena by means of the concavity of the Hugoniot loci. Therefore, our results not only fit perfectly but explain what was remarked in experiments.

  6. Relativistic Ionization with Intense Linearly Polarized Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Douglas Plummer

    The Strong Field Approximation (SFA) method is used to derive relativistic ionization rate expressions for ground state hydrogen-like atoms in the presence of an intense electromagnetic field. The emitted particle, which is initially bound to a hydrogen nucleus, is either an electron described by the Dirac equation, with spin effects fully included, or a spinless "electron" described by the Klein-Gordon equation. The derivations and subsequent calculations for both particles are made assuming a linearly polarized electromagnetic field which is monochromatic and which exhibits neither diffraction nor temporal dependence. From each of the relativistic ionization rate expressions, the corresponding expression in the nonrelativistic limit is derived. The resultant expressions are found to be equivalent to those derived using the SFA with the nonrelativistic formalism. This comparison provides the first check of the validity for the core results of this dissertation. Intensity-dependent ionization rates are then calculated for two ultraviolet frequencies using a numerical implementation of the derived expressions. Calculations of ionization rates and related phenomena demonstrate that there are negligible differences between relativistic and nonrelativistic predictions for low intensities. In addition, the differences in behavior between linearly and circularly polarized ionizing fields and between particles with and without spin are explored. The spin comparisons provide additional confidence in the derivations by showing negligible differences between ionization rates for Dirac and Klein -Gordon particles in strong linearly-polarized fields. Also of interest are the differential transition rates which exhibit dynamic profiles as the intensity is increased. This behavior is interpreted as an indication of more atomic influence for linearly polarized electromagnetic (em) fields than for circularly polarized em fields.

  7. The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment User Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, A.; Rajaram, D.; MICE Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a proof-of-principle experiment designed to demonstrate muon ionization cooling for the first time. MICE is currently on Step IV of its data taking programme, where transverse emittance reduction will be demonstrated. The MICE Analysis User Software (MAUS) is the reconstruction, simulation and analysis framework for the MICE experiment. MAUS is used for both offline data analysis and fast online data reconstruction and visualization to serve MICE data taking. This paper provides an introduction to MAUS, describing the central Python and C++ based framework, the data structure and and the code management and testing procedures.

  8. Determination of ionization constants by paper electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Tate, M E

    1981-01-01

    Dimensionless apparent ionization constants of charged low-molecular-weight species may be obtained from paper-electrophoretic data at 20-25 degrees C with buffers (I0.1-0.5) of measured pH (1.5-12.5) containing oxalate ions. Relative mobilities rather than absolute mobilities were measured by using glycerol and m-nitrobenzenesulphonate respectively as standards of zero and unit mobility. Application of the procedure to ionizations of adenine, adenosine, 2'-deoxyadenosine, 3'-deoxyadenosine, 3':5'-cyclic AMP, ADP, ADP-glucose-agrocin 84 and ATP is described. PMID:6976169

  9. Hazards to space workers from ionizing radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    A compilation of background information and a preliminary assessment of the potential risks to workers from the ionizing radiation encountered in space is provided. The report: (1) summarizes the current knowledge of the space radiation environment to which space workers will be exposed; (2) reviews the biological effects of ionizing radiation considered of major importance to a SPS project; and (3) discusses the health implications of exposure of populations of space workers to the radiations likely to penetrate through the shielding provided by the SPS work stations and habitat shelters of the SPS Reference System.

  10. Ionizing radiation environment for the TOMS mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauriente, M.; Maloy, J. O.; Vampola, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) will fly on several different spacecraft, each having an orbit which is approximately polar and 800-980 km in altitude. A description is given of the computer-based tools used for characterizing the spacecraft interactions with the ionizing radiation environment in orbit and the susceptibility requirements for ionizing radiation compatibility. The peak flux from the model was used to derive the expected radiation-induced noise in the South Atlantic Anomaly for the new TOMS instruments intended to fly on Advanced Earth Observatory System and Earth Probe.

  11. Dissociative Ionization of Pyridine by Electron Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dateo, Christopher; Huo, Winifred; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In order to understand the damage of biomolecules by electrons, a process important in radiation damage, we undertake a study of the dissociative ionization (DI) of pyridine (C5H5N) from the low-lying ionization channels. The methodology used is the same as in the benzene study. While no experimental DI data are available, we compare the dissociation products from our calculations with the dissociative photoionization measurements of Tixier et al. using dipole (e, e(+) ion) coincidence spectroscopy. Comparisons with the DI of benzene is also made so as to understand the difference in DI between a heterocyclic and an aromatic molecule.

  12. Critical ionization velocity experiments in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Shu T.; Murad, Edmond

    1989-07-01

    Space experiments to test the critical ionization velocity (CIV) theory have, on the whole, yielded negative results, with two notable exceptions. The results of all the experiments are analyzed with a view towards either optimizing or drawing conclusions about the conditions which lead to the propagation of CIV. In particular, four aspects of the conditions are considered: (1) beam injection angle with the ambient magnetic field in the ionosphere; (2) length of a CIV discharge region in a conical beam; (3) collisional ionization of the neutrals; and (4) chemiionization processes. The analysis leads to the conclusion that using the exhaust of the Shuttle engines may be the best way for testing CIV.

  13. Effect of surface ionization on wetting layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    A surface ionization model due to Langmuir is generalized to liquid mixtures of polar and nonpolar components in contact with ionizable substrates. When a predominantly nonpolar mixture is near a miscibility gap, thick wetting layers of the conjugate polar phase form on the substrate. Such charged layers can be much thicker than similar wetting layers stabilized by dispersion forces. This model may explain the 0.4- to 0.6-micron-thick wetting layers formed in stirred mixtures of nitromethane and carbon disulfide in contact with glass.

  14. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  15. Direct Simulation of Reentry Flows with Ionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Ann B.; Hassan, H. A.

    1989-01-01

    The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is applied in this paper to the study of rarefied, hypersonic, reentry flows. The assumptions and simplifications involved with the treatment of ionization, free electrons and the electric field are investigated. A new method is presented for the calculation of the electric field and handling of charged particles with DSMC. In addition, a two-step model for electron impact ionization is implemented. The flow field representing a 10 km/sec shock at an altitude of 65 km is calculated. The effects of the new modeling techniques on the calculation results are presented and discussed.

  16. Dynamics of tunneling ionization using Bohmian mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douguet, Nicolas; Bartschat, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    Recent attoclock experiments and theoretical studies regarding the strong-field ionization of atoms by few-cycle infrared pulses revealed features that have attracted much attention. Here we investigate tunneling ionization and the dynamics of the electron probability using Bohmian mechanics. We consider a one-dimensional problem to illustrate the underlying mechanisms of the ionization process. It is revealed that in the major part of the below-the-barrier ionization regime, in an intense and short infrared pulse, the electron does not tunnel through the entire barrier, but rather starts already from the classically forbidden region. Moreover, we highlight the correspondence between the probability of locating the electron at a particular initial position and its asymptotic momentum. Bohmian mechanics also provides a natural definition of mean tunneling time and exit position, taking account of the time dependence of the barrier. Finally, we find that the electron can exit the barrier with significant kinetic energy, thereby corroborating the results of a recent study [N. Camus et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 023201 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.023201].

  17. Collisional Ionization Equilibrium for Optically Thin Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryans, P.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Savin, D. W.; Badnell, N. R.; Gorczyca, T. W.; Laming, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Reliably interpreting spectra from electron-ionized cosmic plasmas requires accurate ionization balance calculations for the plasma in question. However, much of the atomic data needed for these calculations have not been generated using modern theoretical methods and their reliability are often highly suspect. We have utilized state-of-the-art calculations of dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients for the hydrogenic through Na-like ions of all elements from He to Zn. We have also utilized state-of-the-art radiative recombination (RR) rate coefficient calculations for the bare through Na-like ions of all elements from H to Zn. Using our data and the recommended electron impact ionization data of Mazzotta et al. (1998), we have calculated improved collisional ionization equilibrium calculations. We compare our calculated fractional ionic abundances using these data with those presented by Mazzotta et al. (1998) for all elements from H to Ni, and with the fractional abundances derived from the modern DR and RR calculations of Gu (2003a,b, 2004) for Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe, and Ni.

  18. Conduction in fully ionized liquid metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D. J.; Ashcroft, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    Electron transport is considered in high density fully ionized liquid metals. Ionic structure is described in terms of hard-sphere correlation functions and the scattering is determined from self-consistently screened point ions. Applications to the physical properties of the deep interior of Jupiter are briefly considered.

  19. Composite scintillators for detection of ionizing radiation

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Stephan, Andrew Curtis [Knoxville, TN; Brown, Suree S [Knoxville, TN; Wallace, Steven A [Knoxville, TN; Rondinone, Adam J [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-28

    Applicant's present invention is a composite scintillator having enhanced transparency for detecting ionizing radiation comprising a material having optical transparency wherein said material comprises nano-sized objects having a size in at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of light emitted by the composite scintillator wherein the composite scintillator is designed to have selected properties suitable for a particular application.

  20. Ionization Energy: Implications of Preservice Teachers' Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Taber, Keith S.

    2009-01-01

    The results from a study to explore pre-service teachers' understanding of ionization energy, a topic that features in A-level (grade 11 and 12) chemistry courses. in Singapore , is described. A previous study using a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic test has shown that Singapore A-level students have considerable difficulty understanding the…

  1. Fast Atom Ionization in Strong Electromagnetic Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, M.

    2018-05-01

    The Goeppert-Mayer and Kramers-Henneberger transformations are examined for bound charges placed in electromagnetic radiation in the non-relativistic approximation. The consistent inclusion of the interaction with the radiation field provides the time evolution of the wavefunction with both structural interaction (which ensures the bound state) and electromagnetic interaction. It is shown that in a short time after switching on the high-intensity radiation the bound charges are set free. In these conditions, a statistical criterion is used to estimate the rate of atom ionization. The results correspond to a sudden application of the electromagnetic interaction, in contrast with the well-known ionization probability obtained by quasi-classical tunneling through classically unavailable non-stationary states, or other equivalent methods, where the interaction is introduced adiabatically. For low-intensity radiation the charges oscillate and emit higher-order harmonics, the charge configuration is re-arranged and the process is resumed. Tunneling ionization may appear in these circumstances. Extension of the approach to other applications involving radiation-induced charge emission from bound states is discussed, like ionization of molecules, atomic clusters or proton emission from atomic nuclei. Also, results for a static electric field are included.

  2. Limits to Sensitivity in Laser Enhanced Ionization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Laser enhanced ionization (LEI) occurs when a tunable dye laser is used to excite a specific atomic population in a flame. Explores the origin of LEI's high sensitivity and identifies possible avenues to higher sensitivity by describing instrument used and experimental procedures and discussing ion formation/detection. (Author/JN)

  3. Dissociative Ionization of Benzene by Electron Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred; Dateo, Christopher; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We report a theoretical study of the dissociative ionization (DI) of benzene from the low-lying ionization channels. Our approach makes use of the fact that electron motion is much faster than nuclear motion and DI is treated as a two-step process. The first step is electron-impact ionization resulting in an ion with the same nuclear geometry as the neutral molecule. In the second step the nuclei relax from the initial geometry and undergo unimolecular dissociation. For the ionization process we use the improved binary-encounter dipole (iBED) model. For the unimolecular dissociation step, we study the steepest descent reaction path to the minimum of the ion potential energy surface. The path is used to analyze the probability of unimolecular dissociation and to determine the product distributions. Our analysis of the dissociation products and the thresholds of the productions are compared with the result dissociative photoionization measurements of Feng et al. The partial oscillator strengths from Feng et al. are then used in the iBED cross section calculations.

  4. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.; Adamson, L.F.

    1984-08-01

    The scientific literature on radiation-protective drugs is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms involved in determining the sensitivity of biological material to ionizing radiation and mechanisms of chemical radioprotection. In Section I, the types of radiation are described and the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems are reviewed. The effects of ionizing radiation are briefly contrasted with the effects of non-ionizing radiation. Section II reviews the contributions of various natural factors which influence the inherent radiosensitivity of biological systems. Inlcuded in the list of these factors are water, oxygen, thiols, vitamins and antioxidants. Brief attention is given tomore » the model describing competition between oxygen and natural radioprotective substances (principally, thiols) in determining the net cellular radiosensitivity. Several theories of the mechanism(s) of action of radioprotective drugs are described in Section III. These mechanisms include the production of hypoxia, detoxication of radiochemical reactive species, stabilization of the radiobiological target and the enhancement of damage repair processes. Section IV describes the current strategies for the treatment of radiation injury. Likely areas in which fruitful research might be performed are described in Section V. 495 references.« less

  5. How does ionizing radiation escape from galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlitova, Ivana

    2016-10-01

    Search for sources that reionized the Universe from z 15 to z 6 is one of the main drivers of present-day astronomy. Low-mass star-forming galaxies are the most favoured sources of ionizing photons, but the searches of escaping Lyman continuum (LyC) have not been extremely successful. Our team has recently detected prominent LyC escape from five Green Pea galaxies at redshift 0.3, using the HST/COS spectrograph, which represents a significant breakthrough. We propose here to study the LyC escape of the strongest among these leakers, J1152, with spatial resolution. From the comparison of the ionizing and non-ionizing radiation maps, and surface brightness profiles, we will infer the major mode in which LyC is escaping: from the strongest starburst, from the galaxy edge, through a hole along our line-of-sight, through clumpy medium, or directly from all the production sites due to highly ionized medium in the entire galaxy. In parallel, we will test the predictive power of two highly debated indirect indicators of LyC leakage: the [OIII]5007/[OII]3727 ratio, and Lyman-alpha. We predict that their spatial distribution should closely follow that of the ionizing continuum if column densities of the neutral gas are low. This combined study, which relies on the HST unique capabilities, will bring crucial information on the structure of the leaking galaxies, provide constraints for hydrodynamic simulations, and will lead to efficient future searches for LyC leakers across a large range of redshifts.

  6. Electron Impact Excitation-Ionization of Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Esam Abobakr A.

    In the last few decades, the study of atomic collisions by electron-impact has made significant advances. The most difficult case to study is electron impact ionization of molecules for which many approximations have to be made and the validity of these approximations can only be checked by comparing with experiment. In this thesis, I have examined the Molecular three-body distorted wave (M3DW) or Molecular four-body distorted wave (M4DW) approximations for electron-impact ionization. These models use a fully quantum mechanical approach where all particles are treated quantum mechanically and the post collision interaction (PCI) is treated to all orders of perturbation. These electron impact ionization collisions play central roles in the physics and chemistry of upper atmosphere, biofuel, the operation of discharges and lasers, radiation induced damage in biological material like damage to DNA by secondary electrons, and plasma etching processes. For the M3DW model, I will present results for electron impact single ionization of small molecules such as Water, Ethane, and Carbon Dioxide and the much larger molecules Tetrahydrofuran, phenol, furfural, 1-4 Benzoquinone. I will also present results for the four-body problem in which there are two target electrons involved in the collision. M4DW results will be presented for dissociative excitation-ionization of orientated D2. I will show that M4DW calculations using a variational wave function for the ground state that included s- and p- orbital states give better agreement to the experimental measurements than a ground state approximated as a product of two 1s-type Dyson orbitals.

  7. The GBT Diffuse Ionized Gas Survey (GDIGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luisi, Matteo; Anderson, Loren Dean; Liu, Bin; Bania, Thomas; Balser, Dana; Wenger, Trey; Haffner, Lawrence Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Diffuse ionized gas in the Galactic mid-plane known as the "Warm Ionized Medium" (WIM) makes up ~20% of the gas mass of the Milky Way and >90% of its ionized gas. It is the last major component of the interstellar medium (ISM) that has not yet been studied at high spatial and spectral resolution, and therefore many of its fundamental properties remain unclear. The Green Bank Telescope (GBT) Diffuse Ionized Gas Survey (GDIGS) is a new large survey of the Milky Way disk at C-band (4-8 GHz). The main goals of GDIGS are to investigate the properties of the WIM and to determine the connection between the WIM and high-mass star formation over the Galactic longitude and latitude range of 32 deg > l > -5 deg, |b| < 0.5 deg. We use the new VEGAS spectrometer to simultaneously observe 22 Hn-alpha radio recombination lines, 25 Hn-beta lines, 8 Hn-gamma lines, and 9 molecular lines (namely CH3OH and H2CO), and also continuum at ~60 frequencies. We average the Hn-alpha lines to produce Nyquist-sampled maps on a spatial grid of 1 arcmin, a velocity resolution of 0.5 km/s and rms sensitivities of ~3 mJy per beam. GDIGS observations are currently underway and are expected to be completed by late 2018. These data will allow us to: 1) Study for the first time the inner-Galaxy WIM unaffected by confusion from discrete HII regions, 2) determine the distribution of the inner Galaxy WIM, 3) investigate the ionization state of the WIM, 4) explore the connection between the WIM and HII regions, and 5) analyze the effect of leaked photons from HII regions on ISM dust temperatures.

  8. Measurement of the first ionization potential of astatine by laser ionization spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rothe, S.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Borschevsky, A.; Capponi, L.; Cocolios, T. E.; De Witte, H.; Eliav, E.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Fink, D. A.; Fritzsche, S.; Ghys, L.; Huyse, M.; Imai, N.; Kaldor, U.; Kudryavtsev, Yuri; Köster, U.; Lane, J. F. W.; Lassen, J.; Liberati, V.; Lynch, K. M.; Marsh, B. A.; Nishio, K.; Pauwels, D.; Pershina, V.; Popescu, L.; Procter, T. J.; Radulov, D.; Raeder, S.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rapisarda, E.; Rossel, R. E.; Sandhu, K.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Sjödin, A. M.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2013-01-01

    The radioactive element astatine exists only in trace amounts in nature. Its properties can therefore only be explored by study of the minute quantities of artificially produced isotopes or by performing theoretical calculations. One of the most important properties influencing the chemical behaviour is the energy required to remove one electron from the valence shell, referred to as the ionization potential. Here we use laser spectroscopy to probe the optical spectrum of astatine near the ionization threshold. The observed series of Rydberg states enabled the first determination of the ionization potential of the astatine atom, 9.31751(8) eV. New ab initio calculations are performed to support the experimental result. The measured value serves as a benchmark for quantum chemistry calculations of the properties of astatine as well as for the theoretical prediction of the ionization potential of superheavy element 117, the heaviest homologue of astatine. PMID:23673620

  9. Ionizing radiation in earth's atmosphere and in space near earth.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-05-01

    The Civil Aerospace Medical Institute of the FAA is charged with identifying health hazards in air travel and in : commercial human space travel. This report addresses one of these hazards ionizing radiation. : Ionizing radiation is a subatomic p...

  10. Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 111 Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms (Web, free access)   Data for ground state electron configurations and ionization energies for the neutral atoms (Z = 1-104) including references.

  11. Electron Impact Ionization and Dissociative Ionization of C2H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S. K.

    1995-01-01

    By utilizing a crossed electron beam collision geometry, a combination of time-of-flight (TOF) and quadrupole mass spectrometers, and the relative flow technique1 normalized values of cross sections and appearance energies (AP) were obtained for the formation of singly and multiply ionized species resulting from the ionization and dissociation of C2H2. Details ont he apparatus and technique have been published previously.2,3.

  12. Onset of space charge effects in liquid argon ionization chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toggerson, B.; Newcomer, A.; Rutherfoord, J.; Walker, R. B.

    2009-09-01

    Using a thin-gap liquid argon ionization chamber and Strontium-90 beta sources we have measured ionization currents over a wide range of gap potentials. These precision "HV plateau curves" advance the understanding of liquid argon sampling calorimeter signals, particularly at high ionization rates. The order of magnitude differences in the activities of the beta sources allow us to estimate where the ionization chamber is driven into the space-charge dominated regime.

  13. Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Using a High Voltage Target Compared to Electrospray Ionization.

    PubMed

    Lubin, Arnaud; Bajic, Steve; Cabooter, Deirdre; Augustijns, Patrick; Cuyckens, Filip

    2017-02-01

    A new atmospheric pressure ionization (API) source, viz. UniSpray, was evaluated for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of pharmaceutical compounds by head-to-head comparison with electrospray ionization (ESI) on the same high-resolution MS system. The atmospheric pressure ionization source is composed of a grounded nebulizer spraying onto a high voltage, cylindrical stainless steel target. Molecules are ionized in a similar fashion to electrospray ionization, predominantly producing protonated or deprotonated species. Adduct formation (e.g., proton and sodium adducts) and in-source fragmentation is shown to be almost identical between the two sources. The performance of the new API source was compared with electrospray by infusion of a mix of 22 pharmaceutical compounds with a wide variety of functional groups and physico-chemical properties (molecular weight, logP, and pKa) in more than 100 different conditions (mobile phase strength, solvents, pH, and flow rate). The new API source shows an intensity gain of a factor 2.2 compared with ESI considering all conditions on all compounds tested. Finally, some hypotheses on the ionization mechanism, similarities, and differences with ESI, are discussed. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Using a High Voltage Target Compared to Electrospray Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Arnaud; Bajic, Steve; Cabooter, Deirdre; Augustijns, Patrick; Cuyckens, Filip

    2017-02-01

    A new atmospheric pressure ionization (API) source, viz. UniSpray, was evaluated for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of pharmaceutical compounds by head-to-head comparison with electrospray ionization (ESI) on the same high-resolution MS system. The atmospheric pressure ionization source is composed of a grounded nebulizer spraying onto a high voltage, cylindrical stainless steel target. Molecules are ionized in a similar fashion to electrospray ionization, predominantly producing protonated or deprotonated species. Adduct formation (e.g., proton and sodium adducts) and in-source fragmentation is shown to be almost identical between the two sources. The performance of the new API source was compared with electrospray by infusion of a mix of 22 pharmaceutical compounds with a wide variety of functional groups and physico-chemical properties (molecular weight, logP, and pKa) in more than 100 different conditions (mobile phase strength, solvents, pH, and flow rate). The new API source shows an intensity gain of a factor 2.2 compared with ESI considering all conditions on all compounds tested. Finally, some hypotheses on the ionization mechanism, similarities, and differences with ESI, are discussed.

  15. Method and apparatus to monitor a beam of ionizing radiation

    DOEpatents

    Blackburn, Brandon W.; Chichester, David L.; Watson, Scott M.; Johnson, James T.; Kinlaw, Mathew T.

    2015-06-02

    Methods and apparatus to capture images of fluorescence generated by ionizing radiation and determine a position of a beam of ionizing radiation generating the fluorescence from the captured images. In one embodiment, the fluorescence is the result of ionization and recombination of nitrogen in air.

  16. Communication: Electron ionization of DNA bases

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, M. A.; Krishnakumar, E., E-mail: ekkumar@tifr.res.in

    2016-04-28

    No reliable experimental data exist for the partial and total electron ionization cross sections for DNA bases, which are very crucial for modeling radiation damage in genetic material of living cell. We have measured a complete set of absolute partial electron ionization cross sections up to 500 eV for DNA bases for the first time by using the relative flow technique. These partial cross sections are summed to obtain total ion cross sections for all the four bases and are compared with the existing theoretical calculations and the only set of measured absolute cross sections. Our measurements clearly resolve themore » existing discrepancy between the theoretical and experimental results, thereby providing for the first time reliable numbers for partial and total ion cross sections for these molecules. The results on fragmentation analysis of adenine supports the theory of its formation in space.« less

  17. Investigation of cables for ionization chambers.

    PubMed

    Spokas, J J; Meeker, R D

    1980-01-01

    Seven coaxial cables which are in use for carrying currents generated in ionization chambers have been critically studied with reference to their suitability to this application. Included in this study are four low-noise triaxial cables and three low-noise two-conductor cables. For each cable the following characteristics were considered: inherent noise currents, currents produced by cable movements, polarization currents, the degree of electrostatic shielding of the central signal-carrying conductor, and radiation-induced cable currents. The study indicated that of the seven cables, two low-noise triaxial cables, both employing solid Teflon dielectric surrounding the central conductor, appear to offer the best overall performance for use with ionization chambers.

  18. Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.

  19. Upper Hybrid Effects in Artificial Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Eliasson, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    A most fascinating result of recent ionospheric experiments has been the discovery of artificial ionization by Pedersen et al. (GRL, 37, L02106, 2010). The Artificial Ionospheric Layers (AIL) were the result of F-region O-mode HF irradiation using the HAARP ionospheric heater operating at 3.6 MW power. As demonstrated by Eliasson et al. (JGR, 117, A10321, 2012) the physics controlling the observed phenomenon and its threshold can be summarized as: " Collisional ionization due to high energy (~ 20 eV) electron tails generated by the interaction of strong Langmuir turbulence with plasma heated at the upper hybrid resonance and transported at the reflection height". The objective of the current presentation is to explore the role of the upper hybrid heating in the formation of AIL and its implications to future experiments involving HF heaters operating in middle and equatorial latitudes.

  20. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Goldhagen, Paul; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes. especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands, and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  1. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  2. Communication: Electron ionization of DNA bases.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M A; Krishnakumar, E

    2016-04-28

    No reliable experimental data exist for the partial and total electron ionization cross sections for DNA bases, which are very crucial for modeling radiation damage in genetic material of living cell. We have measured a complete set of absolute partial electron ionization cross sections up to 500 eV for DNA bases for the first time by using the relative flow technique. These partial cross sections are summed to obtain total ion cross sections for all the four bases and are compared with the existing theoretical calculations and the only set of measured absolute cross sections. Our measurements clearly resolve the existing discrepancy between the theoretical and experimental results, thereby providing for the first time reliable numbers for partial and total ion cross sections for these molecules. The results on fragmentation analysis of adenine supports the theory of its formation in space.

  3. Orbital-resolved nonadiabatic tunneling ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingbin; Basnayake, Gihan; Winney, Alexander; Lin, Yun Fei; Debrah, Duke; Lee, Suk Kyoung; Li, Wen

    2017-08-01

    In this theoretical work, we show that both the orbital helicity (p+ vs p-) and the adiabaticity of tunneling have a significant effect on the initial conditions of tunneling ionization. We developed a hybrid quantum (numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation) and classical (back propagation of trajectories) approach to extract orbital-specific initial conditions of electrons at the tunneling exit. Clear physical insight connecting these initial conditions with the final momentum and deflection angles of electrons are presented. Moreover, the adiabaticity of tunneling ionization is characterized by comparing the initial conditions with those with a static field. Significant nonadiabatic tunneling is found to persist beyond a Keldysh parameter of less than 0.5.

  4. Evidence for impact ionization in vanadium dioxide

    DOE PAGES

    Holleman, Joshua; Bishop, Michael M.; Garcia, Carlos; ...

    2016-10-17

    Pump-probe optical spectroscopy was used to investigate charge carrier multiplication via impact ionization in the M 1 insulating phase of VO 2. By comparing the transient reflectivities of the film when pumped at less than and then more than twice the band-gap energy, we observed an enhancement of the ultrafast response with the higher energy pump color while the film was still transiently in the insulating phase. We additionally identified multiple timescales within the charge dynamics and analyzed how these changed when the pump and probe wavelengths were varied. This experiment provided evidence that impact ionization acts efficiently as amore » carrier multiplication process in this prototypical strongly-correlated insulator.« less

  5. Closed-loop pulsed helium ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, Roswitha S.; Todd, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detector for gas chromatography is operated in a constant current, pulse-modulated mode by configuring the detector, electrometer and a high voltage pulser in a closed-loop control system. The detector current is maintained at a fixed level by varying the frequency of fixed-width, high-voltage bias pulses applied to the detector. An output signal proportional to the pulse frequency is produced which is indicative of the charge collected for a detected species.

  6. Secondary ionization in a flat universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atrio-Barandela, F.; Doroshkevich, A. G.

    1994-01-01

    We analyze the effect of a secondary ionization on the evolution of temperature fluctuations in cosmic background radiation. The main results presented in this paper are appropriate analytic expressions of the transfer function relating temperature fluctuations to matter density perturbations at recombination for all possible recombination histories. Furthermore, we particularize our calculation to the standard cold dark matter model, where we study the erasure of primordial temperature fluctuations and calculate the magnitude and angular scale of the damping induced by a late recombination.

  7. The lowest ionization potentials of Al2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Barnes, Leslie A.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    Potential curves for the lowest two electronic states (X 2 sigma g + and A 2 pi u) of Al2(+) were computed using complete active space SCF/multireference CI wave functions and large Gaussian basis sets. The lowest observable vertical ionization potential (to Al2(+) X 2 sigma g +) of the Al2 X 3 pi u ground state is calculated to occur around 6.1 eV, in excellent agreement with the experimental range of 6.0 to 6.42 eV obtained in recent cluster ionization studies by Cox and co-workers. The second vertical ionization potential (to Al2(+) A 2 pi u) occurs near 6.4 eV, also within the experimental range. The adiabatic IP of 5.90 eV is in good agreement with the value of 5.8 to 6.1 eV deduced by Hanley and co-workers from the difference in thresholds between collision induced dissociation processes of Al3(+). The computed IP values are somewhat larger than those deduced from branching ratios in cluster fragmentation experiments by Jarrold and co-workers. The observation of an ionization threshold below 6.42 eV is shown to be incompatible with an Al2 ground electronic state assignment of 3 sigma g -, but the separation between the two lowest states of Al2 is so small that it is likely that both are populated in the experiments, so that this does not provide unambiguous support for the recent theoretical assignment of the ground state as 3 pi u.

  8. Making MUSIC: A multiple sampling ionization chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumard, B.; Henderson, D. J.; Rehm, K. E.; Tang, X. D.

    2007-08-01

    A multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) was developed for use in conjunction with the Atlas scattering chamber (ATSCAT). This chamber was developed to study the (α, p) reaction in stable and radioactive beams. The gas filled ionization chamber is used as a target and detector for both particles in the outgoing channel (p + beam particles for elastic scattering or p + residual nucleus for (α, p) reactions). The MUSIC detector is followed by a Si array to provide a trigger for anode events. The anode events are gated by a gating grid so that only (α, p) reactions where the proton reaches the Si detector result in an anode event. The MUSIC detector is a segmented ionization chamber. The active length of the chamber is 11.95 in. and is divided into 16 equal anode segments (3.5 in. × 0.70 in. with 0.3 in. spacing between pads). The dead area of the chamber was reduced by the addition of a Delrin snout that extends 0.875 in. into the chamber from the front face, to which a mylar window is affixed. 0.5 in. above the anode is a Frisch grid that is held at ground potential. 0.5 in. above the Frisch grid is a gating grid. The gating grid functions as a drift electron barrier, effectively halting the gathering of signals. Setting two sets of alternating wires at differing potentials creates a lateral electric field which traps the drift electrons, stopping the collection of anode signals. The chamber also has a reinforced mylar exit window separating the Si array from the target gas. This allows protons from the (α, p) reaction to be detected. The detection of these protons opens the gating grid to allow the drift electrons released from the ionizing gas during the (α, p) reaction to reach the anode segment below the reaction.

  9. Alloy nanoparticle synthesis using ionizing radiation

    DOEpatents

    Nenoff, Tina M [Sandia Park, NM; Powers, Dana A [Albuquerque, NM; Zhang, Zhenyuan [Durham, NC

    2011-08-16

    A method of forming stable nanoparticles comprising substantially uniform alloys of metals. A high dose of ionizing radiation is used to generate high concentrations of solvated electrons and optionally radical reducing species that rapidly reduce a mixture of metal ion source species to form alloy nanoparticles. The method can make uniform alloy nanoparticles from normally immiscible metals by overcoming the thermodynamic limitations that would preferentially produce core-shell nanoparticles.

  10. Improvements in Ionized Cluster-Beam Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, D. J.; Compton, L. E.; Pawlik, E. V.

    1986-01-01

    Lower temperatures result in higher purity and fewer equipment problems. In cluster-beam deposition, clusters of atoms formed by adiabatic expansion nozzle and with proper nozzle design, expanding vapor cools sufficiently to become supersaturated and form clusters of material deposited. Clusters are ionized and accelerated in electric field and then impacted on substrate where films form. Improved cluster-beam technique useful for deposition of refractory metals.

  11. Ionizing laser propagation and spectral phase determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelberger, D. E.; Nakamura, K.; Lehe, R.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Benedetti, C.; Mao, H.-S.; Daniels, J.; Dale, N.; Swanson, K. K.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2017-03-01

    Ionization-induced blueshifting is investigated through INF&RNO simulations and experimental studies at the Berkeley Laboratory Laser Accelerator (BELLA) Center. The effects of spectral phase and optical compression are explored. An in-situ method for verifying the spectral phase of an intense laser pulse at focus is presented, based on the effects of optical compression on the morphology of the blueshifted laser spectra.

  12. Air density correction in ionization dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Christ, G; Dohm, O S; Schüle, E; Gaupp, S; Martin, M

    2004-05-21

    Air density must be taken into account when ionization dosimetry is performed with unsealed ionization chambers. The German dosimetry protocol DIN 6800-2 states an air density correction factor for which current barometric pressure and temperature and their reference values must be known. It also states that differences between air density and the attendant reference value, as well as changes in ionization chamber sensitivity, can be determined using a radioactive check source. Both methods have advantages and drawbacks which the paper discusses in detail. Barometric pressure at a given height above sea level can be determined by using a suitable barometer, or data downloaded from airport or weather service internet sites. The main focus of the paper is to show how barometric data from measurement or from the internet are correctly processed. Therefore the paper also provides all the requisite equations and terminological explanations. Computed and measured barometric pressure readings are compared, and long-term experience with air density correction factors obtained using both methods is described.

  13. The Ionization History of The Intergalactic Medium:

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madau, Piero

    2003-01-01

    The funded project seeked a unified description of the ionization, physical structure, and evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and quasar intervening absorption systems. We proposed to conduct theoretical studies of the IGM and QSO absorbers in the context of current theories of galaxy formation, developing and using numerical and analytical techniques aimed at a detailed modeling of cosmological radiative transfer, gas dynamics, and thermal and ionization evolution. The ionization history of the IGM has important implications for the metagalactic UV background, intergalactic helium absorption 21-cm tomography, metal absorption systems, fluctuations in the microwave background, and the cosmic rate of structure and star formation. All the original objectives of our program have been achieved, and the results widely used and quoted by the community. Indeed, they remain relevant as the level and complexity of research in this area has increased substantially since our proposal was submitted, due to new discoveries on galaxy formation and evolution, a flood of high-quality data on the distant universe, new theoretical ideas and direct numerical simulations of structure formation in hierarchical clustering theories.

  14. The Phobos neutral and ionized torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, A. R.; Curry, S. M.; Fatemi, S.

    2016-05-01

    Charged particle sputtering, micrometeoroid impact vaporization, and photon-stimulated desorption are fundamental processes operating at airless surfaces throughout the solar system. At larger bodies, such as Earth's Moon and several of the outer planet moons, these processes generate tenuous surface-bound exospheres that have been observed by a variety of methods. Phobos and Deimos, in contrast, are too gravitationally weak to keep ejected neutrals bound and, thus, are suspected to generate neutral tori in orbit around Mars. While these tori have not yet been detected, the distribution and density of both the neutral and ionized components are of fundamental interest. We combine a neutral Monte Carlo model and a hybrid plasma model to investigate both the neutral and ionized components of the Phobos torus. We show that the spatial distribution of the neutral torus is highly dependent on each individual species (due to ionization rates that span nearly 4 orders of magnitude) and on the location of Phobos with respect to Mars. Additionally, we present the flux distribution of torus pickup ions throughout the Martian system and estimate typical pickup ion fluxes. We find that the predicted pickup ion fluxes are too low to perturb the ambient plasma, consistent with previous null detections by spacecraft around Mars.

  15. Stokes-attenuated tunneling ionization of molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornev, Aleksei S.; Zon, Boris A.

    2018-03-01

    We set forth the quantum theory of ionic vibrational-level population by means of tunneling ionization of a molecule. Specific calculations are carried out for the H2 molecule. The results are in qualitative agreement with the experimental data [X. Urbain et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 163004 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.163004]. Our account for the excited vibrational levels reveals an interplay of two tendencies which contribute to the ionization rate: (i) It decreases due to additional energy absorption needed to populate these states and (ii) it increases together with the Franck-Condon factors which are large for these states. We show that these two tendencies practically compensate each other. The average quantitative disagreement between the theory and experiment amounts to ˜30 %. The same disagreement takes place when using the frozen approximation for the description of the nuclei motion. We demonstrated that the light-dressing effect for H2 leads to the dependence of the ionization rate on the angle between the molecule axis and the polarization vector of the radiation.

  16. Laser-Induced Ionization Efficiency Enhancement On A Filament For Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Siegfried, M.

    2015-10-14

    The evaluation of trace Uranium and Plutonium isotope ratios for nanogram to femtogram material quantities is a vital tool for nuclear counter-proliferation and safeguard activities. Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) is generally accepted as the state of the art technology for highly accurate and ultra-trace measurements of these actinide ratios. However, the very low TIMS ionization yield (typically less than 1%) leaves much room for improvement. Enhanced ionization of Nd and Sm from a TIMS filament was demonstrated using wavelength resonance with a nanosecond (pulse width) laser operating at 10 Hz when light was directed toward the filament.1 For thismore » study, femtosecond and picosecond laser capabilities were to be employed to study the dissociation and ionization mechanisms of actinides/lanthanides and measure the enhanced ionization of the metal of interest. Since the underlying chemistry of the actinide/lanthanide carbides produced and dissociated on a TIMS filament is not well understood, the experimental parameters affecting the photodissociation and photoionization with one and two laser beams were to be investigated.« less

  17. Selectivity of Electronic Coherence and Attosecond Ionization Delays in Strong-Field Double Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Reduzzi, Maurizio; Chang, Kristina F.; Timmers, Henry; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2018-06-01

    Experiments are presented on real-time probing of coherent electron dynamics in xenon initiated by strong-field double ionization. Attosecond transient absorption measurements allow for characterization of electronic coherences as well as relative ionization timings in multiple electronic states of Xe+ and Xe2 + . A high degree of coherence g =0.4 is observed between P3 2 0-P3 0 0 of Xe2 + , whereas for other possible pairs of states the coherences are below the detection limits of the experiments. A comparison of the experimental results with numerical simulations based on an uncorrelated electron-emission model shows that the coherences produced by strong-field double ionization are more selective than predicted. Surprisingly short ionization time delays, 0.85 fs, 0.64 fs, and 0.75 fs relative to Xe+ formation, are also measured for the P2 3 , P0 3 , and P1 3 states of Xe2 + , respectively. Both the unpredicted selectivity in the formation of coherence and the subfemtosecond time delays of specific states provide new insight into correlated electron dynamics in strong-field double ionization.

  18. Iron oxide nanomatrix facilitating metal ionization in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Obena, Rofeamor P; Lin, Po-Chiao; Lu, Ying-Wei; Li, I-Che; del Mundo, Florian; Arco, Susan dR; Nuesca, Guillermo M; Lin, Chung-Chen; Chen, Yu-Ju

    2011-12-15

    The significance and epidemiological effects of metals to life necessitate the development of direct, efficient, and rapid method of analysis. Taking advantage of its simple, fast, and high-throughput features, we present a novel approach to metal ion detection by matrix-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle (matrix@MNP)-assisted MALDI-MS. Utilizing 21 biologically and environmentally relevant metal ion solutions, the performance of core and matrix@MNP against conventional matrixes in MALDI-MS and laser desorption ionization (LDI) MS were systemically tested to evaluate the versatility of matrix@MNP as ionization element. The matrix@MNPs provided 20- to >100-fold enhancement on detection sensitivity of metal ions and unambiguous identification through characteristic isotope patterns and accurate mass (<5 ppm), which may be attributed to its multifunctional role as metal chelator, preconcentrator, absorber, and reservoir of energy. Together with the comparison on the ionization behaviors of various metals having different ionization potentials (IP), we formulated a metal ionization mechanism model, alluding to the role of exciton pooling in matrix@MNP-assisted MALDI-MS. Moreover, the detection of Cu in spiked tap water demonstrated the practicability of this new approach as an efficient and direct alternative tool for fast, sensitive, and accurate determination of trace metal ions in real samples.

  19. Prompt ionization in the CRIT II barium releases. [Critical Ionization Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, R. B.; Kletzing, C. A.; Liou, K.; Rau, D.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of electron and ion distributions inside a fast neutral barium jet in the ionosphere show significant fluxes within 4 km of release, presumably related to beam plasma instability processes involved in the Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) effect. Electron fluxes exceeding 5 x 10 exp 12/sq cm-str-sec-keV were responsible for ionizing both the streaming barium and ambient oxygen. Resulting ion fluxes seem to be consistent with 1-2 percent ionization of the fast barium, as reported by optical observations, although the extended spatial distribution of the optically observed ions is difficult to reconcile with the in situ observations. When the perpendicular velocity of the neutrals falls below critical values, these processes shut off. Although these observations resemble the earlier Porcupine experimental results (Haerendel, 1982), theoretical understanding of the differences between these data and that of earlier negative experiments is still lacking.

  20. A Miniaturized Linear Wire Ion Trap with Electron Ionization and Single Photon Ionization Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qinghao; Tian, Yuan; Li, Ailin; Andrews, Derek; Hawkins, Aaron R.; Austin, Daniel E.

    2017-05-01

    A linear wire ion trap (LWIT) with both electron ionization (EI) and single photon ionization (SPI) sources was built. The SPI was provided by a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lamp with the ability to softly ionize organic compounds. The VUV lamp was driven by a pulse amplifier, which was controlled by a pulse generator, to avoid the detection of photons during ion detection. Sample gas was introduced through a leak valve, and the pressure in the system is shown to affect the signal-to-noise ratio and resolving power. Under optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) for benzene was 80 ppbv using SPI, better than the LOD using EI (137 ppbv). System performance was demonstrated by distinguishing compounds in different classes from gasoline.

  1. Simulation study of the ionizing front in the critical ionization velocity phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machida, S.; Goertz, C. K.; Lu, G.

    1988-01-01

    The simulation of the critical ionization velocity for a neutral gas cloud moving across the static magnetic field is presented. A low-beta plasma is studied, using a two and a half-dimensional electrostatic code linked with the Plasma and Neutral Interaction Code (Goertz and Machida, 1987). The physics of the ionizing front and the instabilities which occur there are discussed. Results are presented from four numerical runs designed so that the effects of the charge separation field can be distinguished from the wave heating.

  2. Oxygen ionization rates at Mars and Venus - Relative contributions of impact ionization and charge exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M. H. G.; Luhmann, J. G.; Nagy, A. F.; Spreiter, J. R.; Stahara, S. S.

    1993-02-01

    Oxygen ion production rates above the ionopauses of Venus and Mars are calculated for photoionization, charge exchange, and solar wind electron impact ionization processes. The latter two require the use of the Spreiter and Stahara (1980) gas dynamic model to estimate magnetosheath velocities, densities, and temperatures. The results indicate that impact ionization is the dominant mechanism for the production of O(+) ions at both Venus and Mars. This finding might explain both the high ion escape rates measured by Phobos 2 and the greater mass loading rate inferred for Venus from the bow shock positions.

  3. Enhancement of ionization efficiency of mass spectrometric analysis from non-electrospray ionization friendly solvents with conventional and novel ionization techniques.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Lucy, Charles A

    2015-10-15

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has significantly impacted the analysis of complex biological and petroleum samples. However ESI-MS has limited ionization efficiency for samples in low dielectric and low polarity solvents. Addition of a make-up solvent through a T union or electrospray solvent through continuous flow extractive desorption electrospray ionization (CF-EDESI) enable ionization of analytes in non-ESI friendly solvents. A conventional make-up solvent addition setup was used and a CF-EDESI source was built for ionization of nitrogen-containing standards in hexane or hexane/isopropanol. Factors affecting the performance of both sources have been investigated and optimized. Both the make-up solvent addition and CF-EDESI improve the ionization efficiency for heteroatom compounds in non-ESI friendly solvents. Make-up solvent addition provides higher ionization efficiency than CF-EDESI. Neither the make-up solvent addition nor the CF-EDESI eliminates ionization suppression of nitrogen-containing compounds caused by compounds of the same chemical class. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. IONIZATION EQUILIBRIUM TIMESCALES IN COLLISIONAL PLASMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Randall K.; Hughes, John P., E-mail: rsmith@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: jph@physics.rutgers.ed

    2010-07-20

    Astrophysical shocks or bursts from a photoionizing source can disturb the typical collisional plasma found in galactic interstellar media or the intergalactic medium. The spectrum emitted by this plasma contains diagnostics that have been used to determine the time since the disturbing event, although this determination becomes uncertain as the elements in the plasma return to ionization equilibrium. A general solution for the equilibrium timescale for each element arises from the elegant eigenvector method of solution to the problem of a non-equilibrium plasma described by Masai and Hughes and Helfand. In general, the ionization evolution of an element Z inmore » a constant electron temperature plasma is given by a coupled set of Z + 1 first-order differential equations. However, they can be recast as Z uncoupled first-order differential equations using an eigenvector basis for the system. The solution is then Z separate exponential functions, with the time constants given by the eigenvalues of the rate matrix. The smallest of these eigenvalues gives the scale of the slowest return to equilibrium independent of the initial conditions, while conversely the largest eigenvalue is the scale of the fastest change in the ion population. These results hold for an ionizing plasma, a recombining plasma, or even a plasma with random initial conditions, and will allow users of these diagnostics to determine directly if their best-fit result significantly limits the timescale since a disturbance or is so close to equilibrium as to include an arbitrarily long time.« less

  5. Ionized calcium concentrations in squid axons

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    Values for ionized [Ca] in squid axons were obtained by measuring the light emission from a 0.1-mul drop of aequorin confined to a plastic dialysis tube of 140-mum diameter located axially. Ionized Ca had a mean value of 20 x 10(-9) M as judged by the subsequent introduction of CaEGTA/EGTA buffer (ratio ca. 0.1) into the axoplasm, and light measurement on a second aequorin drop. Ionized Ca in axoplasma was also measured by introducing arsenazo dye into an axon by injection and measuring the Ca complex of such a dye by multichannel spectrophotometry. Values so obtained were ca. 50 x 10(-9) M as calibrated against CaEGTA/EGTA buffer mixtures. Wth a freshly isolated axon in 10 mM Ca seawater, the aequorin glow invariably increased with time; a seawater [Ca] of 2-3 mM allowed a steady state with respect to [Ca]. Replacement of Na+ in seawater with choline led to a large increase in light emission from aequorin. Li seawater partially reversed this change and the reintroduction of Na+ brought light levels back to their initial value. Stimulation at 60/s for 2-5 min produced an increase in aequorin glow about 0.1% of that represented by the known Ca influx, suggesting operationally the presence of substantial Ca buffering. Treatment of an axon with CN produced a very large increase in aequorin glow and in Ca arsenazo formation only if the external seawater contained Ca. PMID:818340

  6. Ionization pattern obtained in electrospray ionization or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interfaces for authorized antidepressants in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecu, Iulia; Ionicǎ, Mihai; Vlǎdescu, Marian; Truţǎ, Elena; Sultan, Carmen; Viscol, Oana; Horhotǎ, Luminiţa; Radu, Simona

    2016-12-01

    Antidepressants were found in 1950. In the 1990s there was a new generation of antidepressants. They act on the level of certain neurotransmitters extrasinpatic by its growth. After their mode of action antidepressants may be: SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors); (Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors); SARIs (Serotonin Antagonist Reuptake Inhibitors); NRIs (Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors); NDRIs (Norepinephrine-Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitors) NDRAs (Norepinephrine-Dopamine Releasing Agents); TCAs (Tricyclic Antidepressants); TeCAs (Tetracyclic Antidepressants); MAOIs (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors); agonist receptor 5-HT1A (5- hydroxytryptamine); antagonist receptor 5-HT2; SSREs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Enhancers) and Sigma agonist receptor. To determine the presence of antidepressants in biological products, it has been used a system HPLC-MS (High Performance Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry) Varian 12001. The system is equipped with APCI (Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization) or ESI (ElectroSpray Ionization) interface. To find antidepressants in unknown samples is necessary to recognize them after mass spectrum. Because the mass spectrum it is dependent on obtaining private parameters work of HPLC-MS system, and control interfaces, the mass spectra library was filled with the mass spectra of all approved antidepressants in Romania. The paper shows the mass spectra obtained in the HPLCMS system.

  7. Radiation of partially ionized atomic hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soon, W. H.; Kunc, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    A nonlinear collisional-radiative model for determination of production of electrons, positive and negative ions, excited atoms, and spectral and continuum line intensities in stationary partially ionized atomic hydrogen is presented. Transport of radiation is included by coupling the rate equations for production of the electrons, ions, and excited atoms with the radiation escape factors, which are not constant but depend on plasma conditions. It is found that the contribution of the negative ion emission to the total continuum emission can be important. Comparison of the calculated total continuum emission coefficient, including the negative ion emission, is in good agreement with experimental results.

  8. Position-sensitive, fast ionization chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, J.; Afanasieva, L.; Blackmon, J. C.; Deibel, C. M.; Gardiner, H. E.; Lauer, A.; Linhardt, L. E.; Macon, K. T.; Rasco, B. C.; Williams, C.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Kuvin, S. A.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Baby, L. T.; Baker, J.; Belarge, J.; Wiedenhöver, I.; Need, E.; Avila, M. L.; Back, B. B.; DiGiovine, B.; Hoffman, C. R.

    2018-05-01

    A high-count-rate ionization chamber design with position-sensitivity has been developed and deployed at several accelerator facilities. Counting rates of ≥ 500 kHz with good Z-separation (up to 5% energy resolution) for particle identification have been demonstrated in a series of commissioning experiments. A position-sensitive capability, with a resolution of 3 mm, has been implemented for the first time to record position information and suppress pileup. The design and performance of the detectors are described.

  9. The Ionizing Radiation Environment on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Bhattacharya, M.; Lin, Zi-Wei; Pendleton, G.

    2006-01-01

    The ionizing radiation environment on the moon that contributes to the radiation hazard for astronauts consists of galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles and albedo particles from the lunar surface. We will present calculations of the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent to various organs in this environment during quiet times and during large solar particle events. We will evaluate the contribution of solar particles other than protons and the contributions of the various forms of albedo. We will use the results to determine which particle fluxes must be known in order to estimate the radiation hazard.

  10. Rocket measurements of mesospheric ionization irregularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, R. B.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    The Langmuir probe technique for measurement of electron concentration in the mesosphere is capable of excellent altitude resolution, of order 1 m. Measurements from nine daytime rocket flights carrying an electron density fine structure experiment frequently show small scale ionization structures in the altitude region 70 to 90 km. The irregularities are believed to be the result of turbulent advection of ions and electrons. The fine structure experiment flown by the University of Illinois is described and methods of analyzing the collected data is presented. Theories of homogeneous, isotropic turbulence are reviewed. Power spectra of the measured irregularities are calculated and compared to spectra predicted by turbulence theories.

  11. Role of Ionizing Radiation in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neel K.; Sharma, Rupali; Mathur, Deepali; Sharad, Shashwat; Minhas, Gillipsie; Bhatia, Kulsajan; Anand, Akshay; Ghosh, Sanchita P.

    2018-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) from terrestrial sources is continually an unprotected peril to human beings. However, the medical radiation and global radiation background are main contributors to human exposure and causes of radiation sickness. At high-dose exposures acute radiation sickness occurs, whereas chronic effects may persist for a number of years. Radiation can increase many circulatory, age related and neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases occur a long time after exposure to radiation, as demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors, and are still controversial. This review discuss the role of IR in neurodegenerative diseases and proposes an association between neurodegenerative diseases and exposure to IR. PMID:29867445

  12. Dissociative Ionization of Aromatic and Heterocyclic Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.

    2003-01-01

    Space radiation poses a major health hazard to humans in space flight. The high-energy charged particles in space radiation ranging from protons to high atomic number, high-energy (HZE) particles, and the secondary species they produce, attack DNA, cells, and tissues. Of the potential hazards, long-term health effects such as carcinogenesis are likely linked to the DNA lesions caused by secondary electrons in the 1 - 30 eV range. Dissociative ionization (DI) is one of the electron collision processes that can damage the DNA, either directly by causing a DNA lesion, or indirectly by producing radicals and cations that attack the DNA. To understand this process, we have developed a theoretical model for DI. Our model makes use of the fact that electron motion is much faster than nuclear motion and assumes DI proceeds through a two-step process. The first step is electron-impact ionization resulting in a particular state of the molecular ion in the geometry of the neutral molecule. In the second step the ion undergoes unimolecular dissociation. Thus the DI cross section sigma(sup DI)(sub a) for channel a is given by sigma(sup DI)(sub a) = sigma(sup I)(sub a) P(sub D) with sigma(sup I)(sub a) the ionization cross section of channel a and P(sub D) the dissociation probability. This model has been applied to study the DI of H2O, NH3, and CH4, with results in good agreement with experiment. The ionization cross section sigma(sup I)(sub a) was calculated using the improved binary encounter-dipole model and the unimolecular dissociation probability P(sub D) obtained by following the minimum energy path determined by the gradients and Hessians of the electronic energy with respect to the nuclear coordinates of the ion. This model is used to study the DI from the low-lying channels of benzene and pyridine to understand the different product formation in aromatic and heterocyclic molecules. DI study of the DNA base thymine is underway. Solvent effects will also be discussed.

  13. Manufacture of ionizers intended for electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hivert, A.; Labbe, J.

    1978-01-01

    An electric propulsion system which relies on the formation of cesium ions in contact with a porous wall made of a metal with a high work function when the wall is heated to 1500 K was described. The manufacture of porous walls on the mountings was considered. Erosion of the electrodes by slow ions was examined, and the life times of the ionizers was estimated by means of experimental studies. The purpose of the electric propulsion system was to bring about minor corrections in the orbits of geostationary satellites; the main advantage of this system was that it weighs less than currently used hydrazine systems.

  14. Ionization of EPA Contaminants in Direct and Dopant-Assisted Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization and Atmospheric Pressure Laser Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppila, Tiina J.; Kersten, Hendrik; Benter, Thorsten

    2015-06-01

    Seventy-seven EPA priority environmental pollutants were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) equipped with an optimized atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and an atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI) interface with and without dopants. The analyzed compounds included e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro compounds, halogenated compounds, aromatic compounds with phenolic, acidic, alcohol, and amino groups, phthalate and adipatic esters, and aliphatic ethers. Toluene, anisole, chlorobenzene, and acetone were tested as dopants. The widest range of analytes was ionized using direct APPI (66/77 compounds). The introduction of dopants decreased the amount of compounds ionized in APPI (e.g., 54/77 with toluene), but in many cases the ionization efficiency increased. While in direct APPI the formation of molecular ions via photoionization was the main ionization reaction, dopant-assisted (DA) APPI promoted ionization reactions, such as charge exchange and proton transfer. Direct APLI ionized a much smaller amount of compounds than APPI (41/77 compounds), showing selectivity towards compounds with low ionization energies (IEs) and long-lived resonantly excited intermediate states. DA-APLI, however, was able to ionize a higher amount of compounds (e.g. 51/77 with toluene), as the ionization took place entirely through dopant-assisted ion/molecule reactions similar to those in DA-APPI. Best ionization efficiency in APPI and APLI (both direct and DA) was obtained for PAHs and aromatics with O- and N-functionalities, whereas nitro compounds and aliphatic ethers were the most difficult to ionize. Halogenated aromatics and esters were (mainly) ionized in APPI, but not in APLI.

  15. Ionization of Interstellar Hydrogen Beyond the Termination Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruntman, Mike

    2016-11-01

    Models of solar wind interaction with the surrounding interstellar medium usually disregard ionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms beyond the solar wind termination shock. If and when included, the effects of ionization in the heliospheric interface region are often obscured by complexities of the interaction. This work assesses the importance of interstellar hydrogen ionization in the heliosheath. Photoionization could be accounted for in a straightforward way. In contrast, electron impact ionization is largely unknown because of poorly understood energy transfer to electrons at the termination shock and beyond. We first estimate the effect of photoionization and then use it as a yardstick to assess the role of electron impact ionization. The physical estimates show that ionization of interstellar hydrogen may lead to significant mass loading in the inner heliosheath which would slow down plasma flowing toward the heliotail and deplete populations of nonthermal protons, with the corresponding effect on heliospheric fluxes of energetic neutral atoms.

  16. Electron impact ionization in the vicinity of comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cravens, T. E.; Kozyra, J. U.; Nagy, A. F.; Gombosi, T. I.; Kurtz, M.

    1987-07-01

    The solar wind interacts very strongly with the extensive cometary coma, and the various interaction processes are initiated by the ionization of cometary neutrals. The main ionization mechanism far outside the cometary bow shock is photoionization by solar extreme ultraviolet radiation.Electron distributions measured in the vicinity of comets Halley and Giacobini-Zinner by instruments on the VEGA and ICE spacecraft, respectively, are used to calculate electron impact ionization frequencies. Ionization by electrons is of comparable importance to photoionization in the magnetosheaths of Comets Halley and Giacobini-Zinner. The ionization frequency in the inner part of the cometary plasma region of comet Halley is several times greater than the photoionization value. Tables of ionization frequencies as functions of electron temperature are presented for H2O, CO2, CO, O, N2, and H.

  17. Resonant two-photon ionization and mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy of p-vinylaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzeng, Sheng Yuan; Dong, Changwu; Tzeng, Wen Bih

    2012-10-01

    We report the vibronic and cation spectra of p-vinylaniline, which are recorded by using the resonant two-photon ionization and the mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopic techniques. The band origin of the S1 ← S0 electronic transition appears at 31,490 ± 2 cm-1 and the adiabatic ionization energy is determined to be 59,203 ± 5 cm-1. Due to the nature of the substituent, the amino and vinyl groups lead to lower electronic excitation and ionization energies by a few thousand wave numbers. Most of the observed active modes result from the in-plane ring deformation and substituent-sensitive vibrations of this molecule in the electronically excited S1 and cationic ground D0 states. By comparing the frequencies of the observed active vibrations, one may conclude that the molecular geometry and the vibrational coordinates of these modes of the p-vinylaniline cation in the D0 state resemble those of the neutral species in the S1 state.

  18. Development of a Portable Single Photon Ionization-Photoelectron Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yunguang; Li, Jinxu; Tang, Bin; Zhu, Liping; Hou, Keyong; Li, Haiyang

    2015-01-01

    A vacuum ultraviolet lamp based single photon ionization- (SPI-) photoelectron ionization (PEI) portable reflecting time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) was designed for online monitoring gas samples. It has a dual mode ionization source: SPI for analyte with ionization energy (IE) below 10.6 eV and PEI for IE higher than 10.6 eV. Two kinds of sampling inlets, a capillary inlet and a membrane inlet, are utilized for high concentration and trace volatile organic compounds, respectively. A mass resolution of 1100 at m/z 64 has been obtained with a total size of 40 × 31 × 29 cm, the weight is 27 kg, and the power consumption is only 70 W. A mixture of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX), SO2, and discharging products of SF6 were used to test its performance, and the result showed that the limit of quantitation for BTX is as low as 5 ppbv (S/N = 10 : 1) with linear dynamic ranges greater than four orders of magnitude. The portable TOFMS was also evaluated by analyzing volatile organic compounds from wine and decomposition products of SF6 inside of a gas-insulated switchgear. PMID:26587023

  19. Lattice design and expected performance of the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment demonstration of ionization cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomilov, M.; Tsenov, R.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Song, Y.; Tang, J.; Li, Z.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Chignoli, F.; Mazza, R.; Palladino, V.; de Bari, A.; Cecchet, G.; Orestano, D.; Tortora, L.; Kuno, Y.; Ishimoto, S.; Filthaut, F.; Jokovic, D.; Maletic, D.; Savic, M.; Hansen, O. M.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Blondel, A.; Drielsma, F.; Karadzhov, Y.; Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Dumbell, K.; Gallagher, A.; Grant, A.; Griffiths, S.; Hartnett, T.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Oates, A.; Owens, P.; Stokes, G.; Warburton, P.; White, C.; Adams, D.; Anderson, R. J.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Boehm, J.; Bradshaw, T. W.; Courthold, M.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Lintern, A.; Macwaters, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Stanley, T.; Tarrant, J.; Tucker, M.; Wilson, A.; Watson, S.; Bayes, R.; Nugent, J. C.; Soler, F. J. P.; Gamet, R.; Barber, G.; Blackmore, V. J.; Colling, D.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Hunt, C.; Kurup, A.; Lagrange, J.-B.; Long, K.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Pasternak, J.; Uchida, M. A.; Cobb, J. H.; Lau, W.; Booth, C. N.; Hodgson, P.; Langlands, J.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P. J.; Wilbur, S.; Dick, A. J.; Ronald, K.; Whyte, C. G.; Young, A. R.; Boyd, S.; Franchini, P.; Greis, J. R.; Pidcott, C.; Taylor, I.; Gardener, R. B. S.; Kyberd, P.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Palmer, M.; Witte, H.; Bross, A. D.; Bowring, D.; Liu, A.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Rubinov, P.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Li, D.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.; Freemire, B.; Hanlet, P.; Kaplan, D. M.; Mohayai, T. A.; Rajaram, D.; Snopok, P.; Suezaki, V.; Torun, Y.; Onel, Y.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Hanson, G. G.; Heidt, C.; MICE Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    Muon beams of low emittance provide the basis for the intense, well-characterized neutrino beams necessary to elucidate the physics of flavor at a neutrino factory and to provide lepton-antilepton collisions at energies of up to several TeV at a muon collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) aims to demonstrate ionization cooling, the technique by which it is proposed to reduce the phase-space volume occupied by the muon beam at such facilities. In an ionization-cooling channel, the muon beam passes through a material in which it loses energy. The energy lost is then replaced using rf cavities. The combined effect of energy loss and reacceleration is to reduce the transverse emittance of the beam (transverse cooling). A major revision of the scope of the project was carried out over the summer of 2014. The revised experiment can deliver a demonstration of ionization cooling. The design of the cooling demonstration experiment will be described together with its predicted cooling performance.

  20. Exploration of the Dissociative Recombination following DNA ionization to DNA+ due to ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, Richard A.; Zimmerly, Andrew T.; Andrianarijaona, Vola M.

    2014-05-01

    It is known that ionizing radiation generates low-energy secondary electrons, which may interact with the surrounding area, including biomolecules, such as triggering DNA single strand and double strand breaks as demonstrated by Sanche and coworkers (Radiat. Res. 157, 227(2002)). The bio-effects of low-energy electrons are currently a topic of high interest. Most of the studies are dedicated to dissociative electron attachments; however, the area is still mostly unexplored and still not well understood. We are computationally investigating the effect of ionizing radiation on DNA, such as its ionization to DNA+. More specifically, we are exploring the possibility of the dissociative recombination of the temporary DNA+ with one of the low-energy secondary electrons, produced by the ionizing radiation, to be another process of DNA strand breaks. Our preliminary results, which are performed with the binaries of ORCA, will be presented. Authors wish to give special thanks to Pacific Union College Student Senate in Angwin, California, for their financial support.

  1. Laser Pulse Width Dependence and Ionization Mechanism of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Sheng-Ping; Lu, I.-Chung; Tsai, Shang-Ting; Chen, Jien-Lian; Lee, Yuan Tseh; Ni, Chi-Kung

    2017-10-01

    Ultraviolet laser pulses at 355 nm with variable pulse widths in the region from 170 ps to 1.5 ns were used to investigate the ionization mechanism of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) for matrices 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), and sinapinic acid (SA). The mass spectra of desorbed ions and the intensity and velocity distribution of desorbed neutrals were measured simultaneously for each laser shot. These quantities were found to be independent of the laser pulse width. A comparison of the experimental measurements and numerical simulations according to the multiphoton ionization, coupled photophysical and chemical dynamics (CPCD), and thermally induced proton transfer models showed that the predictions of thermally induced proton transfer model were in agreement with the experimental data, but those of the multiphoton ionization model were not. Moreover, the predictions of the CPCD model based on singlet-singlet energy pooling were inconsistent with the experimental data of CHCA and SA, but were consistent with the experimental data of DHB only when some parameters used in the model were adjusted to extreme values. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Lattice design and expected performance of the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment demonstration of ionization cooling

    DOE PAGES

    Bogomilov, M.; Tsenov, R.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; ...

    2017-06-19

    Muon beams of low emittance provide the basis for the intense, well-characterized neutrino beams necessary to elucidate the physics of flavor at a neutrino factory and to provide lepton-antilepton collisions at energies of up to several TeV at a muon collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) aims to demonstrate ionization cooling, the technique by which it is proposed to reduce the phase-space volume occupied by the muon beam at such facilities. In an ionization-cooling channel, the muon beam passes through a material in which it loses energy. The energy lost is then replaced using rf cavities. The combinedmore » effect of energy loss and reacceleration is to reduce the transverse emittance of the beam (transverse cooling). A major revision of the scope of the project was carried out over the summer of 2014. The revised experiment can deliver a demonstration of ionization cooling. The design of the cooling demonstration experiment will be described together with its predicted cooling performance.« less

  3. Radar detection of radiation-induced ionization in air

    DOEpatents

    Gopalsami, Nachappa; Heifetz, Alexander; Chien, Hual-Te; Liao, Shaolin; Koehl, Eugene R.; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    2015-07-21

    A millimeter wave measurement system has been developed for remote detection of airborne nuclear radiation, based on electromagnetic scattering from radiation-induced ionization in air. Specifically, methods of monitoring radiation-induced ionization of air have been investigated, and the ionized air has been identified as a source of millimeter wave radar reflection, which can be utilized to determine the size and strength of a radiation source.

  4. High-Sensitivity Ionization Trace-Species Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernius, Mark T.; Chutjian, Ara

    1990-01-01

    Features include high ion-extraction efficiency, compactness, and light weight. Improved version of previous ionization detector features in-line geometry that enables extraction of almost every ion from region of formation. Focusing electrodes arranged and shaped into compact system of space-charge-limited reversal electron optics and ion-extraction optics. Provides controllability of ionizing electron energies, greater efficiency of ionization, and nearly 100 percent ion-collection efficiency.

  5. Molecular clumps photoevaporation in ionized regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decataldo, D.; Ferrara, A.; Pallottini, A.; Gallerani, S.; Vallini, L.

    2017-11-01

    We study the photoevaporation of molecular clumps exposed to a UV radiation field including hydrogen-ionizing photons (hν > 13.6 eV) produced by massive stars or quasars. We follow the propagation and collision of shock waves inside clumps and take into account self-shielding effects, determining the evolution of clump size and density with time. The structure of the ionization-photodissociation region is obtained for different initial clump masses (M = 0.01-104 M⊙) and impinging fluxes (G0 = 102-105 in units of the Habing flux). The cases of molecular clumps engulfed in the H II region of an OB star and clumps carried within quasar outflows are treated separately. We find that the clump undergoes in both cases an initial shock-contraction phase and a following expansion phase, which lets the radiation penetrate in until the clump is completely evaporated. Typical evaporation time-scales are ≃0.01 Myr in the stellar case and 0.1 Myr in the quasar case, where the clump mass is 0.1 M⊙ and 103 M⊙, respectively. We find that clump lifetimes in quasar outflows are compatible with their observed extension, suggesting that photoevaporation is the main mechanism regulating the size of molecular outflows.

  6. Kinetics of a plasma streamer ionization front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taccogna, Francesco; Pellegrini, Fabrizio

    2018-02-01

    A streamer is a non-linear and non-local gas breakdown mode. Its large-scale coherent structures, such as the ionization front, are the final results of a hierarchical cascade starting from the single particle dynamics. Therefore, this phenomenon covers, by definition, different space and time scales. In this study, we have reproduced the ionization front formation and development by means of a particle-based numerical methodology. The physical system investigated concerns of a high-voltage ns-pulsed surface dielectric barrier discharge. Different reduced electric field regimes ranging from 50 to 500 Td have been considered for two gases: pure atomic Ar and molecular N2. Results have shown the detailed structure of the negative streamer: the leading edge, the head, the interior and the tail. Its dynamical evolution and the front propagation velocity have been calculated for the different cases. Finally, the deviation of the electron energy distribution function from equilibrium behavior has been pointed out as a result of a fast and very localized phenomenon.

  7. Highly ionized atoms in cooling gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgar, R. J.; Chevalier, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The ionization of low density gas cooling from a high temperature was calculated. The evolution during the cooling is assumed to be isochoric, isobaric, or a combination of these cases. The calculations are used to predict the column densities and ultraviolet line luminosities of highly ionized atoms in cooling gas. In a model for cooling of a hot galactic corona, it is shown that the observed value of N(N V) can be produced in the cooling gas, while the predicted value of N(Si IV) falls short of the observed value by a factor of about 5. The same model predicts fluxes of ultraviolet emission lines that are a factor of 10 lower than the claimed detections of Feldman, Brune, and Henry. Predictions are made for ultraviolet lines in cooling flows in early-type galaxies and clusters of galaxies. It is shown that the column densities of interest vary over a fairly narrow range, while the emission line luminosities are simply proportional to the mass inflow rate.

  8. Measuring ionizing radiation with a mobile device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsburg, Matthias; Fehrenbach, Thomas; Puente León, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    In cases of nuclear disasters it is desirable to know one's personal exposure to radioactivity and the related health risk. Usually, Geiger-Mueller tubes are used to assess the situation. Equipping everyone with such a device in a short period of time is very expensive. We propose a method to detect ionizing radiation using the integrated camera of a mobile consumer device, e.g., a cell phone. In emergency cases, millions of existing mobile devices could then be used to monitor the exposure of its owners. In combination with internet access and GPS, measured data can be collected by a central server to get an overview of the situation. During a measurement, the CMOS sensor of a mobile device is shielded from surrounding light by an attachment in front of the lens or an internal shutter. The high-energy radiation produces free electrons on the sensor chip resulting in an image signal. By image analysis by means of the mobile device, signal components due to incident ionizing radiation are separated from the sensor noise. With radioactive sources present significant increases in detected pixels can be seen. Furthermore, the cell phone application can make a preliminary estimate on the collected dose of an individual and the associated health risks.

  9. Microliter-sized ionization device and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simac, Robert M. (Inventor); Wernlund, Roger F. (Inventor); Cohen, Martin J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A microliter-sized metastable ionization device with a cavity, a sample gas inlet, a corona gas inlet and a gas outlet. A first electrode has a hollow and disposed in the cavity and is in fluid communication with the sample gas inlet. A second electrode is in fluid communication with the corona gas inlet and is disposed around the first electrode adjacent the hollow end thereof. A gap forming means forms a corona gap between the first and second electrodes. A first power supply is connected to the first electrode and the second power supply is connected to the second electrode for generating a corona discharge across the corona gap. A collector has a hollow end portion disposed in the cavity which is in fluid communications with the gas outlet for the outgassing and detection of ionized gases. The first electrode can be a tubular member aligned concentrically with a cylindrical second electrode. The gap forming means can be in annular disc projecting radially inwardly from the cylindrical second electrode. The collector can have a tubular opening aligned coaxially with the first electrode and has an end face spaced a short distance from an end face of the first electrode forming a small active volume therebetween for the generation and detection of small quantities of trace analytes.

  10. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Boerma, Marjan; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Nelson, Gregory A.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Koturbash, Igor; Singh, Sharda P.; Tackett, Alan J.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of studies addressing effects of ionizing radiation on the heart. Clinical studies have identified early and late manifestations of radiation-induced heart disease, a side effect of radiation therapy to tumors in the chest when all or part of the heart is situated in the radiation field. Studies in preclinical animal models have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms by which radiation may injure the heart. More recent observations in human subjects suggest that ionizing radiation may have cardiovascular effects at lower doses than was previously thought. This has led to examinations of low-dose photons and low-dose charged particle irradiation in animal models. Lastly, studies have started to identify noninvasive methods for detection of cardiac radiation injury and interventions that may prevent or mitigate these adverse effects. Altogether, this ongoing research should increase our knowledge of biological mechanisms of cardiovascular radiation injury, identify non-invasive biomarkers for early detection, and potential interventions that may prevent or mitigate these adverse effects. PMID:27919338

  11. Hydrodynamic optical-field-ionized plasma channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalloo, R. J.; Arran, C.; Corner, L.; Holloway, J.; Jonnerby, J.; Walczak, R.; Milchberg, H. M.; Hooker, S. M.

    2018-05-01

    We present experiments and numerical simulations which demonstrate that fully ionized, low-density plasma channels could be formed by hydrodynamic expansion of plasma columns produced by optical field ionization. Simulations of the hydrodynamic expansion of plasma columns formed in hydrogen by an axicon lens show the generation of 200 mm long plasma channels with axial densities of order ne(0 ) =1 ×1017cm-3 and lowest-order modes of spot size WM≈40 μ m . These simulations show that the laser energy required to generate the channels is modest: of order 1 mJ per centimeter of channel. The simulations are confirmed by experiments with a spherical lens which show the formation of short plasma channels with 1.5 ×1017cm-3≲ne(0 ) ≲1 ×1018cm-3 and 61 μ m ≳WM≳33 μ m . Low-density plasma channels of this type would appear to be well suited as multi-GeV laser-plasma accelerator stages capable of long-term operation at high pulse repetition rates.

  12. Electron Impact Ionization of Atoms and Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, B. C.; Basak, A. K.

    2006-10-01

    Electron impact ionization cross sections are at the heart of many active fields ranging from astro- to medical- physics. These applications require cross sections for a wide range of species as a function of projectile energies. This demand, however, is very hard to fulfill neither by experiments nor ab initio calculations. Various analytical and semi-classical models are commonly used to generate such a vast ionization cross sections. We recently applied a modified version [1] of the Bell et. al. equations [2] including both the ionic and relativistic corrections. We will show in this presentation how to generalize the much-needed MBELL parameters for treating the orbital quantum numbers nl dependency; comparing our results with experimental findings tests the accuracy of this procedure; very good agreements are obtained even in relativistic energies. Details will be presented at the meeting. [1] A. K. F. Haque, M. A. Uddin, A. K. Basak, K. R. Karim and B. C. Saha, Phys. Rev. A73, 052703 (2006). [2] K. L. Bell, H. B. Gilbody, J. G. Hughes, A. E. Kingston, and F. J. Smith, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 12, 891 (1983).

  13. Soft ionization device with characterization systems and methods of manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Various configurations of characterization systems such as ion mobility spectrometers and mass spectrometers are disclosed that are coupled to an ionization device. The ionization device is formed of a membrane that houses electrodes therein that are located closer to one another than the mean free path of the gas being ionized. Small voltages across the electrodes generate large electric fields which act to ionize substantially all molecules passing therethrough without fracture. Methods to manufacture the mass spectrometer and ion mobility spectrometer systems are also described.

  14. Extreme ionization of Xe clusters driven by ultraintense laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Heidenreich, Andreas; Last, Isidore; Jortner, Joshua

    We applied theoretical models and molecular dynamics simulations to explore extreme multielectron ionization in Xe{sub n} clusters (n=2-2171, initial cluster radius R{sub 0}=2.16-31.0 A ring ) driven by ultraintense infrared Gaussian laser fields (peak intensity I{sub M}=10{sup 15}-10{sup 20} W cm{sup -2}, temporal pulse length {tau}=10-100 fs, and frequency {nu}=0.35 fs{sup -1}). Cluster compound ionization was described by three processes of inner ionization, nanoplasma formation, and outer ionization. Inner ionization gives rise to high ionization levels (with the formation of (Xe{sup q+}){sub n} with q=2-36), which are amenable to experimental observation. The cluster size and laser intensity dependence of themore » inner ionization levels are induced by a superposition of barrier suppression ionization (BSI) and electron impact ionization (EII). The BSI was induced by a composite field involving the laser field and an inner field of the ions and electrons, which manifests ignition enhancement and screening retardation effects. EII was treated using experimental cross sections, with a proper account of sequential impact ionization. At the highest intensities (I{sub M}=10{sup 18}-10{sup 20} W cm{sup -2}) inner ionization is dominated by BSI. At lower intensities (I{sub M}=10{sup 15}-10{sup 16} W cm{sup -2}), where the nanoplasma is persistent, the EII contribution to the inner ionization yield is substantial. It increases with increasing the cluster size, exerts a marked effect on the increase of the (Xe{sup q+}){sub n} ionization level, is most pronounced in the cluster center, and manifests a marked increase with increasing the pulse length (i.e., becoming the dominant ionization channel (56%) for Xe{sub 2171} at {tau}=100 fs). The EII yield and the ionization level enhancement decrease with increasing the laser intensity. The pulse length dependence of the EII yield at I{sub M}=10{sup 15}-10{sup 16} W cm{sup -2} establishes an ultraintense laser pulse

  15. Electron impact ionization of the gas-phase sorbitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshova, Irina; Markush, Pavlo; Zavilopulo, Anatoly; Shpenik, Otto

    2015-03-01

    Ionization and dissociative ionization of the sorbitol molecule by electron impact have been studied using two different experimental methods. In the mass range of m/ z = 10-190, the mass spectra of sorbitol were recorded at the ionizing electron energies of 70 and 30 eV. The ion yield curves for the fragment ions have been analyzed and the appearance energies of these ions have been determined. The relative total ionization cross section of the sorbitol molecule was measured using monoenergetic electron beam. Possible fragmentation pathways for the sorbitol molecule were proposed.

  16. Partially Ionized Plasmas, Including the Third Symposium on Uranium Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, M.

    1976-01-01

    Fundamentals of both electrically and fission generated plasmas are discussed. Research in gaseous fuel reactors using uranium hexafluoride is described and other partially ionized plasma applications are discussed.

  17. Dielectric barrier discharge ionization for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hayen, Heiko; Michels, Antje; Franzke, Joachim

    2009-12-15

    An atmospheric pressure microplasma ionization source based on a dielectric barrier discharge with a helium plasma cone outside the electrode region has been developed for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). For this purpose, the plasma was realized in a commercial atmospheric pressure ionization source. Dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI) was compared to conventional electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) in the positive ionization mode. Therefore, a heterogeneous compound library was investigated that covered polar compounds such as amino acids, water-soluble vitamins, and nonpolar compounds like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and functionalized hydrocarbons. It turned out that DBDI can be regarded as a soft ionization technique characterized by only minor fragmentation similar to APCI. Mainly protonated molecules were detected. Additionally, molecular ions were observed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives thereof. During DBDI, adduct formation with acetonitrile occurred. For aromatic compounds, addition of one to four oxygen atoms and to a smaller extend one nitrogen and oxygen was observed which delivered insight into the complexity of the ionization processes. In general, compounds covering a wider range of polarities can be ionized by DBDI than by ESI. Furthermore, limits of detection compared to APCI are in most cases equal or even better.

  18. Intense laser pulse propagation in ionizing gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Zhigang

    2003-10-01

    There have been considerable technological advances in the development of high intensity, short pulse lasers. However, high intensity laser pulses are subject to various laser-plasma instabilities. In this thesis, a theory is developed to study the scattering instability that occurs when a laser pulse propagates through and ionizes a gas. The instability is due to the intensity dependence of the ionization rate, which leads to a transversely structured free electron density. The instability is convective in the frame of laser pulse, but can have a relatively short growth length scaling as Lg˜k0/k2p where k0 is the laser wave number, k2p=w2p/c 2 and op is the plasma frequency. The most unstable perturbations correspond to a scattering angle for which the transverse wave number is around the plasma wave number, k p. The scattered light is frequency upshifted. The comparison between simple analytic theory and numerical simulation shows good agreement. Instabilities can drastically change the shape of the laser pulse and reduce the propagation distance of the laser pulse. Therefore, we change the propagation conditions and reduce the laser-plasma interaction possibilities in applications which require an interaction length well in excess of the Rayleigh length of the laser beam. One of the methods is to use a capillary to propagate the laser pulse. We studied the propagation of short pulses in a glass capillary. The propagation is simulated using the code WAKE, which has been modified to treat the case in which the simulation boundary is the wall of a capillary. Parameters that were examined include transmission efficiency of the waveguides as a function of gas pressure, laser intensity, and waveguide length, which is up to 40 Rayleigh lengths. The transmission efficiency decreases with waveguide length due to energy loss through the side-walls of the capillary. The loss increases with gas pressure due to ionization of the gas and scattering of the radiation. The

  19. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, H. S.; Ganel, O.; Kim, K. C.; Seo, E. S.; Sina, R.; Wang, J. Z.; Wu, J.; Case, G.; Ellison, S. B.; Gould, R.; hide

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) experiment is designed to measure the composition and energy spectra of Z = 1 to 28 cosmic rays over the energy range of approximately 10 GeV - 100 TeV. ATIC is comprised of an eight-layer, 18 radiation length deep Bismuth Germanate (BGO) calorimeter, downstream of a 0.75 nuclear interaction length graphite target and an approximately 1 sq m finely segmented silicon charge detector. Interleaved with the graphite layers are three scintillator strip hodoscopes for pre-triggering and tracking. ATIC flew for the first time on a Long Duration Balloon (LDB) launched from McMurdo, Antarctica in January 2001. During its 16-day flight ATIC collected more than 30 million science events, along with housekeeping, calibration, and rate data. This presentation will describe the ATIC data processing, including calibration and efficiency corrections, and show results from analysis of this dataset. The next launch is planned for December 2002.

  20. Ionizing Radiation as an Industrial Health Problem

    PubMed Central

    Trewin, R. B.

    1964-01-01

    Ionizing radiation, first as x-rays, later in natural form, was discovered in Europe in the late 1890's. Immediate practical uses were found for these discoveries, particularly in medicine. Unfortunately, because of the crude early equipment and ignorance of the harmful effects of radiation, many people were injured, some fatally. Because of these experiences, committees and regulatory bodies were set up to study the problem. These have built up an impressive fund of knowledge useful in radiation protection. With the recent development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy, sources of radioactivity have appeared cheaply and in abundance. A rapidly growing number are finding industrial application. Because of their potential risk to humans, the industrial physician must acquire new knowledge and skills so that he may give proper guidance in this new realm of preventive medicine. The Radiation Protection Program of one such industry, the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, is summarized. PMID:14105012

  1. Thermal ionization of Cs Rydberg states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhov, I. L.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.

    2009-01-01

    Rates Pnl of photoionization from Rydberg ns-, np-, nd-states of a valence electron in Cs, induced by black-body radiation, were calculated on the basis of the modified Fues model potential method. The numerical data were approximated with a three-term expression which reproduces in a simple analytical form the dependence of Pnl on the ambient temperature T and on the principal quantum number n. The comparison between approximate and exactly calculated values of the thermal ionization rate demonstrates the applicability of the proposed approximation for highly excited states with n from 20 to 100 in a wide temperature range of T from 100 to 10,000 K. We present coefficients of this approximation for the s-, p- and d-series of Rydberg states.

  2. IONIZING RADIATION AS AN INDUSTRIAL HEALTH PROBLEM.

    PubMed

    TREWIN, R B

    1964-01-04

    Ionizing radiation, first as x-rays, later in natural form, was discovered in Europe in the late 1890's. Immediate practical uses were found for these discoveries, particularly in medicine. Unfortunately, because of the crude early equipment and ignorance of the harmful effects of radiation, many people were injured, some fatally. Because of these experiences, committees and regulatory bodies were set up to study the problem. These have built up an impressive fund of knowledge useful in radiation protection.With the recent development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy, sources of radioactivity have appeared cheaply and in abundance. A rapidly growing number are finding industrial application. Because of their potential risk to humans, the industrial physician must acquire new knowledge and skills so that he may give proper guidance in this new realm of preventive medicine.The Radiation Protection Program of one such industry, the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, is summarized.

  3. The investigation of time dependent flame structure by ionization probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ventura, J. M. P.; Suzuki, T.; Yule, A. J.; Ralph, S.; Chigier, N. A.

    1980-01-01

    Ionization probes were used to measure mean ionization current and frequency spectra, auto-correlations and cross-correlations in jet flames with variation in the initial Reynolds numbers and equivalence ratios. Special attention was paid to the transitional region between the burner exit plane and the plane of onset of turbulence.

  4. Circular dichroism in photo-single-ionization of unoriented atoms.

    PubMed

    Feagin, James M

    2002-01-28

    We predict circular dichroism in photo-single-ionization angular distributions from spherically symmetric atomic states if the ionized electron is detected using two-slit interferometry. We demonstrate that the resulting electron interference pattern captures phase information on quadrupole corrections to the photoionization amplitude lost in conventional angular distributions.

  5. Fundamentals of Biomolecule Analysis by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinecke, Andrea; Ryzhov, Victor

    2005-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) is a soft ionization technique that allows transfer of fragile biomolecules directly from solution into the gas phase. An instrumental analysis laboratory experiment is designed that would introduce the students to the ESI technique, major parameters of the ion trap mass spectrometers and some caveats in…

  6. Is ionizing radiation regulated more stringently than chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.; Pack, S.R.; Hattemer-Frey, H.A.

    1989-04-01

    It is widely believed that United States government agencies regulate exposure to ionizing radiation more stringently than exposure to chemical carcinogens. It is difficult to verify this perception, however, because chemical carcinogens and ionizing radiation are regulated using vastly different strategies. Chemical carcinogens are generally regulated individually. Regulators consider the risk of exposure to one chemical rather than the cumulative radiation exposure from all sources. Moreover, standards for chemical carcinogens are generally set in terms of quantities released or resultant environmental concentrations, while standards for ionizing radiation are set in terms of dose to the human body. Since chemicals andmore » ionizing radiation cannot be compared on the basis of equal dose to the exposed individual, standards regulating chemicals and ionizing radiation cannot be compared directly. It is feasible, however, to compare the two sets of standards on the basis of equal risk to the exposed individual, assuming that standards for chemicals and ionizing radiation are equivalent if estimated risk levels are equitable. This paper compares risk levels associated with current standards for ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens. The authors do not attempt to determine whether either type of risk is regulated too stringently or not stringently enough but endeavor only to ascertain if ionizing radiation is actually regulated more strictly than chemical carcinogens.« less

  7. Spontaneous-Desorption Ionizer for a TOF-MS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, J. Albert

    2006-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) like the one mentioned in the immediately preceding article has been retrofitted with an ionizer based on a surface spontaneous-desorption process. This ionizer includes an electron multiplier in the form of a microchannel plate (MCP). Relative to an ionizer based on a hot-filament electron source, this ionizer offers advantages of less power consumption and greater mechanical ruggedness. The current density and stability characteristics of the electron emission of this ionizer are similar to those of a filament-based ionizer. In tests of various versions of this ionizer in the TOF-MS, electron currents up to 100 nA were registered. Currents of microamperes or more - great enough to satisfy requirements in most TOFMS applications - could be obtained by use of MCPs different from those used in the tests, albeit at the cost of greater bulk. One drawback of this ionizer is that the gain of the MCP decreases as a function of the charge extracted thus far; the total charge that can be extracted over the operational lifetime is about 1 coulomb. An MCP in the ion-detector portion of the TOF-MS is subject to the same limitation.

  8. Ionization Efficiency in the Dayside Martian Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J.; Wu, X.-S.; Xu, S.-S.; Wang, X.-D.; Wellbrock, A.; Nordheim, T. A.; Cao, Y.-T.; Wang, W.-R.; Sun, W.-Q.; Wu, S.-Q.; Wei, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Combining the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution measurements of neutral atmospheric density, solar EUV/X-ray flux, and differential photoelectron intensity made during 240 nominal orbits, we calculate the ionization efficiency, defined as the ratio of the secondary (photoelectron impact) ionization rate to the primary (photon impact) ionization rate, in the dayside Martian upper atmosphere under a range of solar illumination conditions. Both the CO2 and O ionization efficiencies tend to be constant from 160 km up to 250 km, with respective median values of 0.19 ± 0.03 and 0.27 ± 0.04. These values are useful for fast calculation of the ionization rate in the dayside Martian upper atmosphere, without the need to construct photoelectron transport models. No substantial diurnal and solar cycle variations can be identified, except for a marginal trend of reduced ionization efficiency approaching the terminator. These observations are favorably interpreted by a simple scenario with ionization efficiencies, as a first approximation, determined by a comparison between relevant cross sections. Our analysis further reveals a connection between regions with strong crustal magnetic fields and regions with high ionization efficiencies, which are likely indicative of more efficient vertical transport of photoelectrons near magnetic anomalies.

  9. LTC1877 High Efficiency Regulator Total Ionizing Dose Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldham, Timothy; Pellish, Jonathan; Boutte, Alvin

    2012-01-01

    This report presents total ionizing dose evaluation data for the Linear Technology Corporation LTC1877 high efficiency monolithic synchronous step-down regulator. Data sheet parameters were tracked as a function of ionizing dose up to a total of 20 krad(SiO2). Control devices were also used.

  10. Tunneling ionization and Wigner transform diagnostics in OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, S.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.; Deng, S.; Katsouleas, T.; Tsung, F.; Mori, W. B.

    2004-11-01

    We describe the ionization module implemented in the PIC code OSIRIS [1]. Benchmarks with previously published tunnel ionization results were made. Our ionization module works in 1D, 2D and 3D simulations with barrier suppression ionization or the ADK ionization model, and allows for moving ions. Several illustrative 3D numerical simulations were performed, namely of the propagation of a SLAC beam in a Li gas cell, for the parameters of [2]. We compare the performance of OSIRIS with/without the ionization module, concluding that much less simulation time is usually required when using the ionization module. A novel diagnostic over the electric field is implemented, the Wigner transform, that provides information on the local spectral content of the field. This diagnostic is applied to the analysis of the chirp induced in an ionizing laser pulse. [1] R. A. Fonseca et al., LNCS 2331, 342-351, (Springer, Heidelberg, 2002). [2] S. Deng et al., Phys. Rev. E 68, 047401 (2003).

  11. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.; Goldhagen, P.; Tai, H.; Shinn, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    The SuperSonic Transport (SST) development program within the US was based at the Langley Research Center as was the Apollo radiation testing facility (Space Radiation Effects Laboratory) with associated radiation research groups. It was natural for the issues of the SST to be first recognized by this unique combination of research programs. With a re-examination of the technologies for commercial supersonic flight and the possible development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), the remaining issues of the SST required resolution. It was the progress of SST radiation exposure research program founded by T. Foelsche at the Langley Research Center and the identified remaining issues after that project over twenty-five years ago which became the launch point of the current atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) research project. Added emphasis to the need for reassessment of atmospheric radiation resulted from the major lowering of the recommended occupational exposure limits, the inclusion of aircrew as radiation workers, and the recognition of civil aircrew as a major source of occupational exposures. Furthermore, the work of Ferenc Hajnal of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory brought greater focus to the uncertainties in the neutron flux at high altitudes. A re-examination of the issues involved was committed at the Langley Research Center and by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). As a result of the NCRP review, a new flight package was assembled and flown during solar minimum at which time the galactic cosmic radiation is at a maximum (June 1997). The present workshop is the initial analysis of the new data from that flight. The present paper is an overview of the status of knowledge of atmospheric ionizing radiations. We will re-examine the exposures of the world population and examine the context of aircrew exposures with implications for the results of the present research. A condensed version of this report was given at the 1998

  12. HF Accelerated Electron Fluxes, Spectra, and Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Herbert C.; Jensen, Joseph B.

    2015-10-01

    Wave particle interactions, an essential aspect of laboratory, terrestrial, and astrophysical plasmas, have been studied for decades by transmitting high power HF radio waves into Earth's weakly ionized space plasma, to use it as a laboratory without walls. Application to HF electron acceleration remains an active area of research (Gurevich in Usp Fizicheskikh Nauk 177(11):1145-1177, 2007) today. HF electron acceleration studies began when plasma line observations proved (Carlson et al. in J Atmos Terr Phys 44:1089-1100, 1982) that high power HF radio wave-excited processes accelerated electrons not to ~eV, but instead to -100 times thermal energy (10 s of eV), as a consequence of inelastic collision effects on electron transport. Gurevich et al (J Atmos Terr Phys 47:1057-1070, 1985) quantified the theory of this transport effect. Merging experiment with theory in plasma physics and aeronomy, enabled prediction (Carlson in Adv Space Res 13:1015-1024, 1993) of creating artificial ionospheres once ~GW HF effective radiated power could be achieved. Eventual confirmation of this prediction (Pedersen et al. in Geophys Res Lett 36:L18107, 2009; Pedersen et al. in Geophys Res Lett 37:L02106, 2010; Blagoveshchenskaya et al. in Ann Geophys 27:131-145, 2009) sparked renewed interest in optical inversion to estimate electron spectra in terrestrial (Hysell et al. in J Geophys Res Space Phys 119:2038-2045, 2014) and planetary (Simon et al. in Ann Geophys 29:187-195, 2011) atmospheres. Here we present our unpublished optical data, which combined with our modeling, lead to conclusions that should meaningfully improve future estimates of the spectrum of HF accelerated electron fluxes. Photometric imaging data can significantly improve detection of emissions near ionization threshold, and confirm depth of penetration of accelerated electrons many km below the excitation altitude. Comparing observed to modeled emission altitude shows future experiments need electron density profiles

  13. Density functional study of double ionization energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, D. P.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, double ionization energies (DIEs) of gas-phase atoms and molecules are calculated by energy difference method with density functional theory. To determine the best functional for double ionization energies, we first study 24 main group atoms in the second, third, and fourth periods. An approximation is used in which the electron density is first obtained from a density functional computation with the exchange-correlation potential Vxc known as statistical average of orbital potentials, after which the energy is computed from that density with 59 different exchange-correlation energy functionals Exc. For the 24 atoms, the two best Exc functional providing DIEs with average absolute deviation (AAD) of only 0.25eV are the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional modified by Hammer et al. [Phys. Rev. B 59, 6413 (1999)] and one known as the Krieger-Chen-Iafrate-Savin functional modified by Krieger et al. (unpublished). Surprisingly, none of the 20 available hybrid functionals is among the top 15 functionals for the DIEs of the 24 atoms. A similar procedure is then applied to molecules, with opposite results: Only hybrid functionals are among the top 15 functionals for a selection of 29molecules. The best Exc functional for the 29molecules is found to be the Becke 1997 functional modified by Wilson et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 115, 9233 (2001)]. With that functional, the AAD from experiment for DIEs of 29molecules is just under 0.5eV. If the two suspected values for C2H2 and Fe(CO)5 are excluded, the AAD improves to 0.32eV. Many other hybrid functionals perform almost as well.

  14. Ionization and Corona Discharges from Stressed Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnick, M. J.; Kulahci, I.; Cyr, G.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Freund, F. T.

    2008-12-01

    Pre-earthquake signals have long been observed and documented, though they have not been adequately explained scientifically. These signals include air ionization, occasional flashes of light from the ground, radio frequency emissions, and effects on the ionosphere that occur hours or even days before large earthquakes. The theory that rocks function as p-type semiconductors when deviatoric stresses are applied offers a mechanism for this group of earthquake precursors. When an igneous or high-grade metamorphic rock is subjected to deviatoric stresses, peroxy bonds that exist in the rock's minerals as point defects dissociate, releasing positive hole charge carriers. The positive holes travel by phonon-assisted electron hopping from the stressed into and through the unstressed rock volume and build up a positive surface charge. At sufficiently large electric fields, especially along edges and sharp points of the rock, air molecules become field-ionized, loosing an electron to the rock surface and turning into airborne positive ions. This in turn can lead to corona discharges, which manifest themselves by flashes of light and radio frequency emissions. We applied concentrated stresses to one end of a block of gabbro, 30 x 15 x 10 cm3, inside a shielded Faraday cage and observed positive ion currents through an air gap about 25 cm from the place where the stresses were applied, punctuated by short bursts, accompanied by flashes of light and radio frequency emissions characteristic of a corona discharge. These observations may serve to explain a range of pre-earthquake signals, in particular changes in air conductivity, luminous phenomena, radio frequency noise, and ionospheric perturbations.

  15. Bacterial and archaeal resistance to ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Confalonieri, F.; Sommer, S.

    2011-01-01

    Organisms living in extreme environments must cope with large fluctuations of temperature, high levels of radiation and/or desiccation, conditions that can induce DNA damage ranging from base modifications to DNA double-strand breaks. The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is known for its resistance to extremely high doses of ionizing radiation and for its ability to reconstruct a functional genome from hundreds of radiation-induced chromosomal fragments. Recently, extreme ionizing radiation resistance was also generated by directed evolution of an apparently radiation-sensitive bacterial species, Escherichia coli. Radioresistant organisms are not only found among the Eubacteria but also among the Archaea that represent the third kingdom of life. They present a set of particular features that differentiate them from the Eubacteria and eukaryotes. Moreover, Archaea are often isolated from extreme environments where they live under severe conditions of temperature, pressure, pH, salts or toxic compounds that are lethal for the large majority of living organisms. Thus, Archaea offer the opportunity to understand how cells are able to cope with such harsh conditions. Among them, the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp and several Pyrococcus or Thermococcus species, such as Thermococcus gammatolerans, were also shown to display high level of radiation resistance. The dispersion, in the phylogenetic tree, of radioresistant prokaryotes suggests that they have independently acquired radioresistance. Different strategies were selected during evolution including several mechanisms of radiation byproduct detoxification and subtle cellular metabolism modifications to help cells recover from radiation-induced injuries, protection of proteins against oxidation, an efficient DNA repair tool box, an original pathway of DNA double-strand break repair, a condensed nucleoid that may prevent the dispersion of the DNA fragments and specific radiation-induced proteins involved in

  16. Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Modulates Immune Function

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Gregory A.

    In order to examine the effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the immune system we chose to examine an amplified adaptive cellular immunity response. This response is Type IV delayed-type hypersensitivity also called contact hypersensitivity. The agent fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) is a low molecular weight, lipophilic, reactive, fluorescent molecule that can be applied to the skin where it (hapten) reacts with proteins (carriers) to become a complete antigen. Exposure to FITC leads to sensitization which is easily measured as a hypersensitivity inflammatory reaction following a subsequent exposure to the ear. Ear swelling, eosinophil infiltration, immunoglobulin E production and cytokinemore » secretion patterns characteristic of a “Th2 polarized” immune response are the components of the reaction. The reaction requires successful implementation of antigen processing and presentation by antigen presenting Langerhans cells, communication with naïve T lymphocytes in draining lymph nodes, expansion of activated T cell clones, migration of activated T cells to the circulation, and recruitment of memory T cells, macrophages and eosinophils to the site of the secondary challenge. Using this model our approach was to quantify system function rather than relying only on indirect biomarkers of cell. We measured the FITC-induced hypersensitivity reaction over a range of doses from 2 cGy to 2 Gy. Irradiations were performed during key events or prior to key events to deplete critical cell populations. In addition to quantifying the final inflammatory response, we assessed cell populations in peripheral blood and spleen, cytokine signatures, IgE levels and expression of genes associated with key processes in sensitization and elicitation/recall. We hypothesized that ionizing radiation would produce a biphasic effect on immune system function resulting in an enhancement at low doses and a depression at higher doses and suggested that this transition would occur

  17. Optical Imaging of Ionizing Radiation from Clinical Sources

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Travis M.; Drain, Charles Michael

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear medicine uses ionizing radiation for both in vivo diagnosis and therapy. Ionizing radiation comes from a variety of sources, including x-rays, beam therapy, brachytherapy, and various injected radionuclides. Although PET and SPECT remain clinical mainstays, optical readouts of ionizing radiation offer numerous benefits and complement these standard techniques. Furthermore, for ionizing radiation sources that cannot be imaged using these standard techniques, optical imaging offers a unique imaging alternative. This article reviews optical imaging of both radionuclide- and beam-based ionizing radiation from high-energy photons and charged particles through mechanisms including radioluminescence, Cerenkov luminescence, and scintillation. Therapeutically, these visible photons have been combined with photodynamic therapeutic agents preclinically for increasing therapeutic response at depths difficult to reach with external light sources. Last, new microscopy methods that allow single-cell optical imaging of radionuclides are reviewed. PMID:27688469

  18. Optical Imaging of Ionizing Radiation from Clinical Sources.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Travis M; Drain, Charles Michael; Grimm, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Nuclear medicine uses ionizing radiation for both in vivo diagnosis and therapy. Ionizing radiation comes from a variety of sources, including x-rays, beam therapy, brachytherapy, and various injected radionuclides. Although PET and SPECT remain clinical mainstays, optical readouts of ionizing radiation offer numerous benefits and complement these standard techniques. Furthermore, for ionizing radiation sources that cannot be imaged using these standard techniques, optical imaging offers a unique imaging alternative. This article reviews optical imaging of both radionuclide- and beam-based ionizing radiation from high-energy photons and charged particles through mechanisms including radioluminescence, Cerenkov luminescence, and scintillation. Therapeutically, these visible photons have been combined with photodynamic therapeutic agents preclinically for increasing therapeutic response at depths difficult to reach with external light sources. Last, new microscopy methods that allow single-cell optical imaging of radionuclides are reviewed. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  19. Ionizing Energy Depositions After Fast Neutron Interactions in Silicon

    DOE PAGES

    Bergmann, Benedikt; Pospisil, Stanislav; Caicedo, Ivan; ...

    2016-06-01

    In our study we present the ionizing energy depositions in a 300 μm thick silicon layer after fast neutron impact. With the Time-of-Flight (ToF) technique, the ionizing energy deposition spectra of recoil silicons and secondary charged particles were assigned to (quasi-)monoenergetic neutron energies in the range from 180 keV to hundreds of MeV. We also show and interpret representative measured energy spectra. By separating the ionizing energy losses of the recoil silicon from energy depositions by products of nuclear reactions, the competition of ionizing (IEL) and non-ionizing energy losses (NIEL) of a recoil silicon within the silicon lattice was investigated.more » Furthermore, the data give supplementary information to the results of a previous measurement and are compared with different theoretical predictions.« less

  20. Ionizing Energy Depositions After Fast Neutron Interactions in Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, Benedikt; Pospisil, Stanislav; Caicedo, Ivan

    In our study we present the ionizing energy depositions in a 300 μm thick silicon layer after fast neutron impact. With the Time-of-Flight (ToF) technique, the ionizing energy deposition spectra of recoil silicons and secondary charged particles were assigned to (quasi-)monoenergetic neutron energies in the range from 180 keV to hundreds of MeV. We also show and interpret representative measured energy spectra. By separating the ionizing energy losses of the recoil silicon from energy depositions by products of nuclear reactions, the competition of ionizing (IEL) and non-ionizing energy losses (NIEL) of a recoil silicon within the silicon lattice was investigated.more » Furthermore, the data give supplementary information to the results of a previous measurement and are compared with different theoretical predictions.« less

  1. Visualizing and Steering Dissociative Frustrated Double Ionization of Hydrogen Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenbin; Yu, Zuqing; Gong, Xiaochun; Wang, Junping; Lu, Peifen; Li, Hui; Song, Qiying; Ji, Qinying; Lin, Kang; Ma, Junyang; Li, Hanxiao; Sun, Fenghao; Qiang, Junjie; Zeng, Heping; He, Feng; Wu, Jian

    2017-12-01

    We experimentally visualize the dissociative frustrated double ionization of hydrogen molecules by using few-cycle laser pulses in a pump-probe scheme, in which process the tunneling ionized electron is recaptured by one of the outgoing nuclei of the breaking molecule. Three internuclear distances are recognized to enhance the dissociative frustrated double ionization of molecules at different instants after the first ionization step. The recapture of the electron can be further steered to one of the outgoing nuclei as desired by using phase-controlled two-color laser pulses. Both the experimental measurements and numerical simulations suggest that the Rydberg atom is favored to emit to the direction of the maximum of the asymmetric optical field. Our results on the one hand intuitively visualize the dissociative frustrated double ionization of molecules, and on the other hand open the possibility to selectively excite the heavy fragment ejected from a molecule.

  2. A Multistep Algorithm for the Radiation Hydrodynamical Transport of Cosmological Ionization Fronts and Ionized Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, Daniel; Norman, Michael L.

    2006-02-01

    Radiation hydrodynamical transport of ionization fronts (I-fronts) in the next generation of cosmological reionization simulations holds the promise of predicting UV escape fractions from first principles as well as investigating the role of photoionization in feedback processes and structure formation. We present a multistep integration scheme for radiative transfer and hydrodynamics for accurate propagation of I-fronts and ionized flows from a point source in cosmological simulations. The algorithm is a photon-conserving method that correctly tracks the position of I-fronts at much lower resolutions than nonconservative techniques. The method applies direct hierarchical updates to the ionic species, bypassing the need for the costly matrix solutions required by implicit methods while retaining sufficient accuracy to capture the true evolution of the fronts. We review the physics of ionization fronts in power-law density gradients, whose analytical solutions provide excellent validation tests for radiation coupling schemes. The advantages and potential drawbacks of direct and implicit schemes are also considered, with particular focus on problem time-stepping, which if not properly implemented can lead to morphologically plausible I-front behavior that nonetheless departs from theory. We also examine the effect of radiation pressure from very luminous central sources on the evolution of I-fronts and flows.

  3. Flash ionization signature in coherent cyclotron emission from brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorgul, I.; Helling, Ch.

    2016-05-01

    Brown dwarfs (BDs) form mineral clouds in their atmospheres, where charged particles can produce large-scale discharges in the form of lightning resulting in substantial sudden increase of local ionization. BDs are observed to emit cyclotron radio emission. We show that signatures of strong transient atmospheric ionization events (flash ionization) can be imprinted on a pre-existing radiation. Detection of such flash ionization events will open investigations into the ionization state and atmospheric dynamics. Such events can also result from explosion shock waves, material outbursts or (volcanic) eruptions. We present an analytical model that describes the modulation of a pre-existing electromagnetic radiation by a time-dependent (flash) conductivity that is characteristic for flash ionization events like lightning. Our conductivity model reproduces the conductivity function derived from observations of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, and is applicable to astrophysical objects with strong temporal variations in the local ionization, as in planetary atmospheres and protoplanetary discs. We show that the field responds with a characteristic flash-shaped pulse to a conductivity flash of intermediate intensity. More powerful ionization events result in smaller variations of the initial radiation, or in its damping. We show that the characteristic damping of the response field for high-power initial radiation carries information about the ionization flash magnitude and duration. The duration of the pulse amplification or the damping is consistently shorter for larger conductivity variations and can be used to evaluate the intensity of the flash ionization. Our work suggests that cyclotron emission could be probe signals for electrification processes inside BD atmosphere.

  4. Effect of the corrected ionization potential and spatial distribution on the angular and energy distribution in tunnel ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Petrović, V. M.; Miladinović, T. B., E-mail: tanja.miladinovic@gmail.com

    2016-05-15

    Within the framework of the Ammosov–Delone–Krainov theory, we consider the angular and energy distribution of outgoing electrons due to ionization by a circularly polarized electromagnetic field. A correction of the ground ionization potential by the ponderomotive and Stark shift is incorporated in both distributions. Spatial dependence is analyzed.

  5. 76 FR 29010 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Ionizing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Ionizing Radiation Standard ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department... information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Ionizing Radiation Standard,'' to the Office of Management and... provisions of the Ionizing Radiation Standard specify paperwork requirements, including: Monitoring of worker...

  6. Multifluid magnetohydrodynamics of weakly ionized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Raymond

    The process of star formation is an integral part of the new field of astrobiology, which studies the origins of life. Since the gas that collapses to form stars and their resulting protoplanetary disks is known to be weakly ionized and contain magnetic fields, star formation is governed by multifluid magnetohydrodynamics. In this thesis we consider two important problems involved in the process of star formation that may have strongly affected the origins of life, with the goal of determining the thermal effects of these flows and modeling the physical conditions of these environments. We first considered the outstanding problem of how primitive bodies, specifically asteroids, were heated in protoplanetary disks early in their lifetime. Reexamining asteroid heating due to the classic unipolar induction heating mechanism described by Sonett et al. (1970), we find that this mechanism contains a subtle conceptual error. As original conceived, heating due to this mechanism is driven by a uniform, supersonic, fully-ionized, magnetized, T Tauri solar wind, which sweeps past an asteroid and causes the asteroid to experience a motional electric field in its rest frame. We point out that this mechanism ignores the interaction between the body surface and the flow, and thus only correctly describes the electric field far away from the asteroid where the plasma streams freely. In a realistic protoplanetary disk environment, we show that the interaction due to friction between the asteroid surface and the flow causes a shear layer to form close to the body, wherein the motional electric field predicted by Sonett et al. decreases and tends to zero at the asteroid surface. We correct this error by using the equations of multifluid magnetohydrodynamics to explicitly treat the shear layer. We calculate the velocity field in the plasma, and the magnetic and electric fields everywhere for two flows over an idealized infinite asteroid with varying magnetic field orientations. We

  7. Fast Breakdown as Coronal/Ionization Waves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, P. R.; Petersen, D.; da Silva, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of high-power narrow bipolar events (NBEs) have shown they are produced by a newly-recognized breakdown process called fast positive breakdown (FPB, Rison et al., 2016, doi:10.1038/ncomms10721). The breakdown was inferred to be produced by a system of positive streamers that propagate at high speed ( ˜3-6 x 107 m/s) due to occurring in a localized region of strong electric field. The polarity of the breakdown was determined from broadband interferometer (INTF) observations of the propagation direction of its VHF radiation, which was downward into the main negative charge region of a normally-electrified storm. Subsequent INTF observations being conducted in at Kennedy Space Center in Florida have shown a much greater incidence of NBEs than in New Mexico. Among the larger dataset have been clear-cut instances of some NBEs being produced by upward breakdown that would be of negative polarity. The speed and behavior of the negative breakdown is the same as that of the fast positive, leading to it being termed fast negative breakdown (FNB). The similarity (not too mention its occurrence) is surprising, given the fact that negative streamers and breakdown develops much differently than that of positive breakdown. The question is how this happens. In this study, we compare fast breakdown characteristics to well-known streamer properties as inferred from laboratory experiments and theoretical analysis. Additionally, we begin to explore the possibility that both polarities of fast breakdown are produced by what may be called coronal or ionization waves, in which the enhanced electric field produced by streamer or coronal breakdown of either polarity propagates away from the advancing front at the speed of light into a medium that is in a metastable condition of being at the threshold of hydrometeor-mediated corona onset or other ionization processes. The wave would develop at a faster speed than the streamer breakdown that gives rise to it, and thus would be

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF IONIZING RADIATION ON IMMUNITY

    SciTech Connect

    Troitskii, V.L.

    1958-01-01

    The effects of radiation on the natural resistance of an organism to certain infectious diseases, largely as observed in laboratory experiments on animals, are discussed. Although the mechanism of this process is only partially understood, many particulars, such as a decrease in the number of leucocytes in the blood, or depression of the fagocyte activity in the reticulo-endothelial system, under the influencc of radiation, are known. Other effects of radiation reflected in changes in tissue perviousness, and disturbance of the barrier characteristics are discussed. The influence of total irradiation on the perviousness of the gastric-intestinal tract to toxins of dysenterymore » bacteria was studied. Such irradiation increases the perviousness of the intestine wall to dysentery toxins. The influence of radiation in lowering the bactericide characteristics of the skin, and in suppressing development of the Schwarzmann phenomenon are cited as factors which may have signiflcance in lowering the natural resistance of the organism. Radiation effects on the bactericide characteristics of rabbit serum are also discussed. Appearance of bacteria in the blood of irradiated animals, believed to originate in the digestive tract, is also discussed. Autointection is a very significant factor in radiation sickness, and it is concluded that even small doses of ionizing radiation can turn latent infection into clinically pronounced infection. The influence of ionizing radiation on the production of antibodies is also treated. Experiments showed that the introduction of antigens to rabbits following irradiation produces only minute quantities of agglutinins, while the ability to produce antibodies is re-established after 3-4 weeks. Reproduction of antitoxic immunity is also dealt with briefly. Experiments also showed that the first phase of antibody formation is radiation-sensitive, while the later phase is radiation- resistant, i.e., radiation applied shortly after immunization

  9. Electrospray ionization of uranyl-citrate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, Árpád; Pasilis, Sofie P.; Pemberton, Jeanne E.

    2007-09-01

    Results presented here demonstrate the usefulness of electrospray ionization and gas-phase ion-molecule reactions to predict structural and electronic differences in complex inorganic ions. Electrospray ionization of uranyl citrate solutions generates positively and negatively charged ions that participate in further ion-molecule reactions in 3D ion trap and FT-ICR mass analyzers. Most ions observed are derived from the major solution uranyl-citrate complexes and involve species of {(UO2)2Cit2}2-, (UO2)3Cit2, and {(UO2)3Cit3}3-, where Cit indicates the citrate trianion, C6H5O73-. In a 3D ion trap operated at relatively high pressure, complex adducts containing solvent molecules, alkali and ammonium cations, and nitrate or chloride anions are dominant, and proton/alkali cation (Na+, K+) exchange is observed for up to six exchangeable protons in an excess of alkali cations. Adduct formation in a FT-ICR cell that is operated at lower pressures is less dominant, and direct detection of positive and negative ions of the major solution complexes is possible. Multiply charged ions are also detected, suggesting the presence of uranium in different oxidation states. Changes in uranium oxidation state are detected by He-CID and SORI-CID fragmentation, and certain fragments undergo association reactions in trapping analyzers, forming "exotic" species such as [(UO2)4O3]-, [(UO2)4O4]-, and [(UO2)4O5]-. Ion-molecule reactions with D2O in the FT-ICR cell indicate substantial differences in H/D exchange rate and D2O accommodation for different ion structures and charge states. Most notably, the positively charged ions [H2(UO2)2Cit2(H)]+ and [(UO2)2(Cit)]+ accommodate two and three D2O molecules, respectively, which reflects well the structural differences, i.e., tighter uranyl-citrate coordination in the former ion than in the latter. The corresponding negatively charged ions accommodate zero or two D2O molecules, which can be rationalized using suggested solution phase structures

  10. The Effects of Ionizing Radiation on the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    de Barros da Cunha, Sandra Ribeiro; Ramos, Pedro Augusto Mendes; Nesrallah, Ana Cristina Aló; Parahyba, Cláudia Joffily; Fregnani, Eduardo Rodrigues; Aranha, Ana Cecília Corrêa

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to present a literature review on the effects of the ionizing radiation from radiotherapy treatment on dental tissues. Among the effects of increasing global life expectancy and longevity of the teeth in the oral cavity, increasing rates of neoplastic diseases have been observed. One of the important treatment modalities for head and neck neoplastic diseases is radiotherapy, which uses ionizing radiation as the main mechanism of action. Therefore, it is essential for dentists to be aware of the changes in oral and dental tissues caused by ionizing radiation, and to develop treatment and prevention strategies. In general, there is still controversy about the effects of ionizing radiation on dental structures. However, qualitative and quantitative changes in saliva and oral microbiota, presence of oral mucositis and radiation-related caries are expected, as they represent the well-known side effects of treatment with ionizing radiation. Points that still remain unclear are the effects of radiotherapy on enamel and dentin, and on their mechanisms of bonding to contemporary adhesive materials. Ionizing radiation has shown important interaction with organic tissues, since more deleterious effects have been shown on the oral mucosa, salivary glands and dentin, than on enamel. With the increasing number of patients with cancer seeking dental treatment before and after head and neck radiotherapy, it is important for dentists to be aware of the effects of ionizing radiation on the oral cavity.

  11. Ionization nebulae surrounding supersoft X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, S.; Chiang, E.; Kallman, T.; Malina, R.

    1994-01-01

    In this work we carry out a theoretical investigation of a new type of astrophysical gaseous nebula, viz., ionized regions surrounding supersoft X-ray sources. Supersoft X-ray sources, many of which have characteristic luminosities of approximately 10(exp 37)-(10(exp 38) ergs/s and effective temperatures of approximately 4 x 10(exp 5) K, were first discovered with the Einstein Observatory. These sources have now been shown to constitute a distinct class of X-ray source and are being found in substantial numbers with ROSAT. We predict that these sources should be surrounded by regions of ionized hydrogen and helium with properties that are distinct from other astrophysical gaseous nebulae. We present caluations of the ionization and temperature structure of these ionization nebulae, as well as the expected optical line fluxes. The ionization profiles for both hydrogen and helium exhibit substantially more gradual transitions from the ionized to the unionized state than is the case for conventional H II regions. The calculated optical line intensitites are presented as absolute fluxes from sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud and as fractions of the central source luminosity. We find, in particular, that (O III) lambda 5008 and He II lambda 4686 are especially prominent in these ionization nebulae as compared to other astrophysical nebulae. We propose that searches for supersoft X-rays via their characteristic optical lines may reveal sources in regions where the soft X-rays are nearly completely absorbed by the interstellar medium.

  12. Theoretical Calculations for Electron Impact Ionization of Atoms and Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amami, Sadek Mohamed Fituri

    In the last twenty years, significant progress has been made for the theoretical treatment of electron impact ionization (e,2e) of atoms and molecules and, for some cases, very nice agreement between experiment and theory has been achieved. In particular, excellent agreement between theory and experiment and theory has been achieved for ionization of hydrogen and helium. However, agreement between experiment and theory is not nearly as good for ionization of larger atoms and molecules. In the first part of this dissertation, different theoretical approaches will be employed to study the triply differential cross section (TDCS) for low and intermediate energy electron-impact ionization of Neon and Argon for different orbital states. There is a very recent interest in studying ionization of Laser aligned atoms in order to get a better understanding about electron impact ionization of molecules. In the next part of this dissertation, results will be presented for electron-impact ionization of three laser aligned atoms, Mg, Ca, and Na. The comparison between the theory and experiment showed that our three body distorted wave (3DW) model gave excellent agreement with experiment in the scattering plane but very poor agreement perpendicular to the scattering plane. An explanation for this poor agreement out of the scattering plane has been provided by comparing our theoretical results with those of the time depended close coupling (TDCC) model and this explanation is also provided in this dissertation. Recently, significant attention has been directed towards obtaining a better under-standing of electron-impact ionization of molecules which are significantly more challenging than atoms. In the last part of this dissertation, results will be presented for electron-impact ionization of three different molecules (N2 , H2O, and CH4) which have been studied comprehensively using different theoretical approximations for different types of geometries. The published papers in

  13. Ionization Processes in the Atmosphere of Titan (Research Note). III. Ionization by High-Z Nuclei Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gronoff, G.; Mertens, C.; Lilensten, J.; Desorgher, L.; Fluckiger, E.; Velinov, P.

    2011-01-01

    Context. The Cassini-Huygens mission has revealed the importance of particle precipitation in the atmosphere of Titan thanks to in-situ measurements. These ionizing particles (electrons, protons, and cosmic rays) have a strong impact on the chemistry, hence must be modeled. Aims. We revisit our computation of ionization in the atmosphere of Titan by cosmic rays. The high-energy high-mass ions are taken into account to improve the precision of the calculation of the ion production profile. Methods. The Badhwahr and O Neill model for cosmic ray spectrum was adapted for the Titan model. We used the TransTitan model coupled with the Planetocosmics model to compute the ion production by cosmic rays. We compared the results with the NAIRAS/HZETRN ionization model used for the first time for a body that differs from the Earth. Results. The cosmic ray ionization is computed for five groups of cosmic rays, depending on their charge and mass: protons, alpha, Z = 8 (oxygen), Z = 14 (silicon), and Z = 26 (iron) nucleus. Protons and alpha particles ionize mainly at 65 km altitude, while the higher mass nucleons ionize at higher altitudes. Nevertheless, the ionization at higher altitude is insufficient to obscure the impact of Saturn s magnetosphere protons at a 500 km altitude. The ionization rate at the peak (altitude: 65 km, for all the different conditions) lies between 30 and 40/cu cm/s. Conclusions. These new computations show for the first time the importance of high Z cosmic rays on the ionization of the Titan atmosphere. The updated full ionization profile shape does not differ significantly from that found in our previous calculations (Paper I: Gronoff et al. 2009, 506, 955) but undergoes a strong increase in intensity below an altitude of 400 km, especially between 200 and 400 km altitude where alpha and heavier particles (in the cosmic ray spectrum) are responsible for 40% of the ionization. The comparison of several models of ionization and cosmic ray spectra (in

  14. Collision-Induced Dissociation Study of Strong Hydrogen-Bonded Cluster Ions Y−(HF)n (Y=F, O2) Using Atmospheric Pressure Corona Discharge Ionization Mass Spectrometry Combined with a HF Generator

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Kenya; Sekimoto, Kanako; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen fluoride (HF) was produced by a homemade HF generator in order to investigate the properties of strong hydrogen-bonded clusters such as (HF)n. The HF molecules were ionized in the form of complex ions associated with the negative core ions Y− produced by atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization (APCDI). The use of APCDI in combination with the homemade HF generator led to the formation of negative-ion HF clusters Y−(HF)n (Y=F, O2), where larger clusters with n≥4 were not detected. The mechanisms for the formation of the HF, F−(HF)n, and O2−(HF)n species were discussed from the standpoints of the HF generator and APCDI MS. By performing energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments on the cluster ions F−(HF)n (n=1–3), the energies for the loss of HF from F−(HF)3, F−(HF)2, and F−(HF) were evaluated to be 1 eV or lower, 1 eV or higher, and 2 eV, respectively, on the basis of their center-of-mass energy (ECM). These ECM values were consistent with the values of 0.995, 1.308, and 2.048 eV, respectively, obtained by ab initio calculations. The stability of [O2(HF)n]− (n=1–4) was discussed on the basis of the bond lengths of O2H–F−(HF)n and O2−H–F(HF)n obtained by ab initio calculations. The calculations indicated that [O2(HF)4]− separated into O2H and F−(HF)3. PMID:28966900

  15. Collision-Induced Dissociation Study of Strong Hydrogen-Bonded Cluster Ions Y-(HF) n (Y=F, O2) Using Atmospheric Pressure Corona Discharge Ionization Mass Spectrometry Combined with a HF Generator.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kenya; Sekimoto, Kanako; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen fluoride (HF) was produced by a homemade HF generator in order to investigate the properties of strong hydrogen-bonded clusters such as (HF) n . The HF molecules were ionized in the form of complex ions associated with the negative core ions Y - produced by atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization (APCDI). The use of APCDI in combination with the homemade HF generator led to the formation of negative-ion HF clusters Y - (HF) n (Y=F, O 2 ), where larger clusters with n ≥4 were not detected. The mechanisms for the formation of the HF, F - (HF) n , and O 2 - (HF) n species were discussed from the standpoints of the HF generator and APCDI MS. By performing energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments on the cluster ions F - (HF) n ( n =1-3), the energies for the loss of HF from F - (HF) 3 , F - (HF) 2 , and F - (HF) were evaluated to be 1 eV or lower, 1 eV or higher, and 2 eV, respectively, on the basis of their center-of-mass energy ( E CM ). These E CM values were consistent with the values of 0.995, 1.308, and 2.048 eV, respectively, obtained by ab initio calculations. The stability of [O 2 (HF) n ] - ( n =1-4) was discussed on the basis of the bond lengths of O 2 H-F - (HF) n and O 2 - H-F(HF) n obtained by ab initio calculations. The calculations indicated that [O 2 (HF) 4 ] - separated into O 2 H and F - (HF) 3 .

  16. Laser stripping of hydrogen atoms by direct ionization

    DOE PAGES

    Brunetti, E.; Becker, W.; Bryant, H. C.; ...

    2015-05-08

    Direct ionization of hydrogen atoms by laser irradiation is investigated as a potential new scheme to generate proton beams without stripping foils. The time-dependent Schrödinger equation describing the atom-radiation interaction is numerically solved obtaining accurate ionization cross-sections for a broad range of laser wavelengths, durations and energies. Parameters are identified where the Doppler frequency up-shift of radiation colliding with relativistic particles can lead to efficient ionization over large volumes and broad bandwidths using currently available lasers.

  17. Laser stripping of hydrogen atoms by direct ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Brunetti, E.; Becker, W.; Bryant, H. C.

    Direct ionization of hydrogen atoms by laser irradiation is investigated as a potential new scheme to generate proton beams without stripping foils. The time-dependent Schrödinger equation describing the atom-radiation interaction is numerically solved obtaining accurate ionization cross-sections for a broad range of laser wavelengths, durations and energies. Parameters are identified where the Doppler frequency up-shift of radiation colliding with relativistic particles can lead to efficient ionization over large volumes and broad bandwidths using currently available lasers.

  18. Near-Threshold Ionization of Argon by Positron Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babij, T. J.; Machacek, J. R.; Murtagh, D. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Sullivan, J. P.

    2018-03-01

    The direct single-ionization cross section for Ar by positron impact has been measured in the region above the first ionization threshold. These measurements are compared to semiclassical calculations which give rise to a power law variation of the cross section in the threshold region. The experimental results appear to be in disagreement with extensions to the Wannier theory applied to positron impact ionization, with a smaller exponent than that calculated by most previous works. In fact, in this work, we see no difference in threshold behavior between the positron and electron cases. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  19. Laser-induced volatilization and ionization of microparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    A method for the laser vaporization and ionization of individual micron-size particles is presented whereby a particle is ionized by a laser pulse while in flight in the beam. Ionization in the beam offers a real-time analytical capability and eliminates any possible substrate-sample interferences during an analysis. An experimental arrangement using a high-energy Nd-YAG laser is described, and results are presented for ions generated from potassium biphthalate particles (1.96 micron in diameter). The method proposed here is useful for the chemical analysis of aerosol particles by mass spectrometry and for other spectroscopic and chemical kinetic studies.

  20. Ionization studies in laser-excited alkaline-earth vapors.

    PubMed

    Hermann, J P; Wynne, J J

    1980-06-01

    We report on the time behavior of ionization signals produced by laser excitation of Ca and Ba atomic vapor to high-Rydberg states. A space-charge-limited thermionic diode detector shows a long-lived (>I-msec) ionization signal. However, optical detection of atomic ions (Ca+, Ba+) shows that these species live for much shorter times (<100 microsec). These results, in conjunction with published results on mass-spectrometric studies of high-density atomic beams, suggest that our ionization signal is primarily due to molecular species (Ca2+, Ba2+). We also observed optically pumped amplified spontaneous emission and stimulated electronic Raman scattering in Ca+ and Ba+.

  1. Analysis of chirality by femtosecond laser ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Horsch, Philipp; Urbasch, Gunter; Weitzel, Karl-Michael

    2012-09-01

    Recent progress in the field of chirality analysis employing laser ionization mass spectrometry is reviewed. Emphasis is given to femtosecond (fs) laser ionization work from the author's group. We begin by reviewing fundamental aspects of determining circular dichroism (CD) in fs-laser ionization mass spectrometry (fs-LIMS) discussing an example from the literature (resonant fs-LIMS of 3-methylcyclopentanone). Second, we present new data indicating CD in non-resonant fs-LIMS of propylene oxide. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  2. Coupled-cluster treatment of molecular strong-field ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagau, Thomas-C.

    2018-05-01

    Ionization rates and Stark shifts of H2, CO, O2, H2O, and CH4 in static electric fields have been computed with coupled-cluster methods in a basis set of atom-centered Gaussian functions with a complex-scaled exponent. Consideration of electron correlation is found to be of great importance even for a qualitatively correct description of the dependence of ionization rates and Stark shifts on the strength and orientation of the external field. The analysis of the second moments of the molecular charge distribution suggests a simple criterion for distinguishing tunnel and barrier suppression ionization in polyatomic molecules.

  3. Lattice Boltzmann method for weakly ionized isothermal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Li Huayu; Ki, Hyungson

    2007-12-15

    In this paper, a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for weakly ionized isothermal plasmas is presented by introducing a rescaling scheme for the Boltzmann transport equation. Without using this rescaling, we found that the nondimensional relaxation time used in the LBM is too large and the LBM does not produce physically realistic results. The developed model was applied to the electrostatic wave problem and the diffusion process of singly ionized helium plasmas with a 1-3% degree of ionization under an electric field. The obtained results agree well with theoretical values.

  4. Thermal emittance from ionization-induced trapping in plasma accelerators

    DOE PAGES

    Schroeder, C.  B.; Vay, J. -L.; Esarey, E.; ...

    2014-10-03

    The minimum obtainable transverse emittance (thermal emittance) of electron beams generated and trapped in plasma-based accelerators using laser ionization injection is examined. The initial transverse phase space distribution following ionization and passage through the laser is derived, and expressions for the normalized transverse beam emittance, both along and orthogonal to the laser polarization, are presented. Results are compared to particle-in-cell simulations. Ultralow emittance beams can be generated using laser ionization injection into plasma accelerators, and examples are presented showing normalized emittances on the order of tens of nm.

  5. Concerns with low-level ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Yalow, R S

    1994-05-01

    To clarify the effects of ionizing radiation and to dispel fear associated with the use of radioactivity in medical diagnosis and therapy. Studies of populations in geographic areas of increased cosmic radiation and high natural background radiation, radiation-exposed workers, patients with medical exposure to radioactivity, and accidental exposure are reviewed. No reproducible evidence shows harmful effects associated with increases in background radiation of 3 to 10 times the usual levels. American military personnel who participated in nuclear testing had no increase in leukemia or other cancers. Among 22,000 patients with hyperthyroidism treated with 131I (mean dose, 10 rem), no increased incidence of leukemia was found in comparison with 14,000 similar patients who received other treatment. A 20-year follow-up of 35,000 patients who underwent 131I uptake tests for evaluation of thyroid function revealed that those studied for other than a suspected tumor had only 60% of the thyroid cancers expected in a control group. Although early studies showed that high exposures to miners to radon and its daughters resulted in a substantial increase in lung cancer, no evidence exists for an increase in lung cancer among nonsmokers exposed to increased radon levels in the home. Perhaps the association of radiation with the atomic bomb has created a climate of fear about the possible dangers of radiation at any level; however, no evidence indicates that current radiation exposures associated with medical usage are harmful.

  6. Dissociative Ionization and Thermal Decomposition of Cyclopentanone

    PubMed Central

    Pastoors, Johan I. M.; Bodi, Andras; Hemberger, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Despite the growing use of renewable and sustainable biofuels in transportation, their combustion chemistry is poorly understood, limiting our efforts to reduce harmful emissions. Here we report on the (dissociative) ionization and the thermal decomposition mechanism of cyclopentanone, studied using imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy. The fragmentation of the ions is dominated by loss of CO, C2H4, and C2H5, leading to daughter ions at m/z 56 and 55. Exploring the C5H8O. + potential energy surface reveals hydrogen tunneling to play an important role in low‐energy decarbonylation and probably also in the ethene‐loss processes, yielding 1‐butene and methylketene cations, respectively. At higher energies, pathways without a reverse barrier open up to oxopropenyl and cyclopropanone cations by ethyl‐radical loss and a second ethene‐loss channel, respectively. A statistical Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus model is employed to test the viability of this mechanism. The pyrolysis of cyclopentanone is studied at temperatures ranging from about 800 to 1100 K. Closed‐shell pyrolysis products, namely 1,3‐butadiene, ketene, propyne, allene, and ethene, are identified based on their photoion mass‐selected threshold photoelectron spectrum. Furthermore, reactive radical species such as allyl, propargyl, and methyl are found. A reaction mechanism is derived incorporating both stable and reactive species, which were not predicted in prior computational studies. PMID:28692134

  7. Shakeoff Ionization near the Coulomb Barrier Energy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prashant; Nandi, T

    2017-11-17

    We measure the projectile K x-ray spectra as a function of the beam energies around the Coulomb barrier in different collision systems. The energy is scanned in small steps around the barrier aiming to explore the nuclear effects on the elastically scattered projectile ions. The variation of the projectile x-ray energy with the ion-beam energies exhibits an unusual increase in between the interaction barrier and fusion barrier energies. This additional contribution to the projectile ionization can be attributed to the shakeoff of outer-shell electrons of the projectile ions due to the sudden nuclear recoil (∼10^{-21}  sec) caused by the attractive nuclear potential, which gets switched on near the interaction barrier energy. In the sudden approximation limit, the theoretical shakeoff probability calculation due to the nuclear recoil explains the observed data well. In addition to its fundamental interest, such processes can play a significant role in dark matter detection through the possible mechanism of x-ray emissions, where the weakly interacting massive particle-nucleus elastic scattering can lead to the nuclear-recoil-induced inner-shell vacancy creations. Furthermore, the present work may provide new prospects for atomic physics research at barrier energies as well as provide a novel technique to perform barrier distribution studies for two-body systems.

  8. Electron impact ionization-excitation of Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancarani, Lorenzo Ugo; Gomez, A. I.; Gasaneo, G.; Mitnik, D. M.; Ambrosio, M. J.

    2016-09-01

    We calculate triple differential cross sections (TDCS) for the process of ionization-excitation of Helium by fast electron impact in which the residual ion is left in the n =2 excited state. We chose the strongly asymmetric kinematics used in the experiment performed by Dupré et al.. In a perturbative scheme, for high projectile energies the four-body problem reduces to a three-body one and, within that framework, we solve the time- independent Schrödinger equation with a Sturmian approach. The method, based on Generalized Sturmian Functions (GSF), is employed to obtain the initial ground state of Helium, the single-continuum state and the scattering wave function; for each of them, the GSF basis is constructed with the corresponding adequate asymptotic conditions. Besides, the method presents the following advantage: the scattering amplitudes can be extracted directly in the asymptotic region of the scattering solution, and thus the TDCS can be obtained without requiring a matrix element evaluation.

  9. An experimental investigation of mesospheric ionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Mesospheric ionization and its variability are examined. Data were obtained primarily by the parachute-borne blunt probe technique conducted in coordinated rocket experiments at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico and Wallops Island, Virginia. Electrical conductivity measurements and deduced charge density values from ten rocket launches are presented and discussed. Positive ion conductivity and electron density were found to be relatively invariant with height between 45 and 60 km. Variations in positive conductivity of a factor of two and enhancements in negative conductivity by as much as a factor of four were measured by the blunt probe. A simple lumped parameter ion chemistry model is shown to satisfactorily explain the charge density values for the undisturbed lower D-region. Implications of the data in terms of this model are considered. The principal loss mechanism for positive ions in the 45 to 60 km. region is concluded to be dissociative recombination. Electron densities deduced from the conductivity data are explained by detachment involving a minor neutral constituent which is mixed between 65 and 45 km. and then cuts off sharply below 45 km. A correlation study involving blunt probe measurements shows relatively good agreement between variations in positive conductivity and temperature.

  10. Could ionizing radiation forestall cauliflower ear?

    PubMed

    Hwang, K; Kim, C W; Lee, S I; Park, I S; Kim, W C; Loh, J J

    2001-02-01

    Repeated trauma to the ear very often results in "cauliflower ear." Many methods have been suggested to prevent an injured ear from demonstrating a cauliflowerlike deformity. The principles of treatment are evacuation of the hematoma, control of the reaccumulation of fluid, and maintenance of the cartilage contour. The authors studied the effect of ionizing radiation on deformed rabbit ears induced by repeated trauma. Twenty ears (10 rabbits) were used in the experiment. The animals were divided into four groups (control, preradiation, low dose, and high dose). Hematoma was produced by pounding the lateral side of the auricle 10 times with a 50-g weight at a height of 15 cm. The thickness of the injured and uninjured sites was measured, and histological analysis was performed for each group. The thickness of the ears of the irradiated groups was significantly less than the control group. The authors think that radiation treatment of repeatedly injured ears could prevent ear deformity, and could possibly be an adjunctive form of management of cauliflower ear in addition to hematoma evacuation and compression therapy.

  11. Quantum entanglement in strong-field ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorosi, Szilárd; Benedict, Mihály G.; Czirják, Attila

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the time evolution of quantum entanglement between an electron, liberated by a strong few-cycle laser pulse, and its parent ion core. Since the standard procedure is numerically prohibitive in this case, we propose a method to quantify the quantum correlation in such a system: we use the reduced density matrices of the directional subspaces along the polarization of the laser pulse and along the transverse directions as building blocks for an approximate entanglement entropy. We present our results, based on accurate numerical simulations, in terms of several of these entropies, for selected values of the peak electric-field strength and the carrier-envelope phase difference of the laser pulse. The time evolution of the mutual entropy of the electron and the ion-core motion along the direction of the laser polarization is similar to our earlier results based on a simple one-dimensional model. However, taking into account also the dynamics perpendicular to the laser polarization reveals a surprisingly different entanglement dynamics above the laser intensity range corresponding to pure tunneling: the quantum entanglement decreases with time in the over-the-barrier ionization regime.

  12. Revised energy levels of singly ionized lanthanum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güzelçimen, Feyza; Tonka, Mehdi; Uddin, Zaheer; Bhatti, Naveed Anjum; Windholz, Laurentius; Kröger, Sophie; Başar, Gönül

    2018-05-01

    Based on the experimental wavenumbers of 344 spectral lines from calibrated Fourier transform (FT) spectra as well as wavenumbers of 81 lines from the wavelength tables from literature, the energy of 115 fine structure levels of singly ionized lanthanum has been revised by weighted global fits. The classifications of the lines are provided by numerous previous investigations of lanthanum by different spectroscopic methods and authors. For the high accurate determination of the center of gravity wavenumbers from the experimental spectrum, the hyperfine constants of the involved levels have been taken into account, if possible. For the 94 levels with known hyperfine constants the accuracy of energy values is better than 0.01 cm-1. For 34 levels the magnetic dipole hyperfine constants A have been determined from FT spectra as part of this work. For four of these 34 levels even electric quadrupole hyperfine constants B could be estimated. For levels, which have experimentally unknown hyperfine constants and which are connected only by lines not found in the FT spectra but taken from literature, the uncertainties of energy values are about a factor of 10 higher. A list of all revised level energies together with a compilation of hyperfine structure data is given as well as a list of all lines used.

  13. Charge segregation in weakly ionized microgels

    DOE PAGES

    Hyatt, John S.; Douglas, Alison M.; Stanley, Chris; ...

    2017-01-19

    Here we investigate microgels synthesized from N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) copolymerized with a large mol% of acrylic acid, finding that when the acid groups are partially ionized at high temperatures, competition between ion-induced swelling and hydrophobic deswelling of poly(NIPAM) chains results in microphase separation. In cross-linked microgels, this manifests as a dramatic decrease in the ratio between the radius of gyration and the hydrodynamic radius to ~0.2, indicating that almost all the mass of the microgel is concentrated near the particle center. We also observe a concurrent decrease of the polymer network length scale via small-angle neutron scattering, confirming the presence ofmore » a dense, deswollen core surrounded by a diffuse, charged periphery. We compare these results to those obtained for a system of charged ultralow-cross-linked microgels; the form factor shows a distinct peak at high q when the temperature exceeds a threshold value. Lastly, we successfully fit the form factor to theory developed to describe scattering from weakly charged gels in poor solvents, and we tie this behavior to charge segregation in the case of the cross-linked microgels.« less

  14. Laser Ionization Studies of Hydrocarbon Flames.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Jeffrey Scott

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) are applied as laser based flame diagnostics for studies of hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. rm CH_4/O_2, C _2H_4/O_2, and rm C_2H_6/O_2 low pressure ( ~20 Torr), stoichiometric burner stabilized flat flames are studied. Density profiles of intermediate flame species, existing at ppm concentrations, are mapped out as a function of distance from the burner head. Profiles resulting from REMPI and LIF detection are obtained for HCO, CH_3, H, O, OH, CH, and CO flame radicals. The above flame systems are computer modeled against currently accepted combustion mechanisms using the Chemkin and Premix flame codes developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The modeled profile densities show good agreement with the experimental results of the CH_4/O_2 flame system, thus confirming the current C1 kinetic flame mechanism. Discrepancies between experimental and modeled results are found with the C2 flames. These discrepancies are partially amended by modifying the rate constant of the rm C_2H_3+rm O_2 to H_2CO + HCO reaction. The modeled results computed with the modified rate constant strongly suggest that the kinetics of several or possibly many reactions in the C2 mechanism need refinement.

  15. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Project Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, R. C., Jr.; Wilson, J. W.; Whitehead, A. H.; Goldhagen, P. E.

    1999-01-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP) and the National Academy of Science (NAS) established that the uncertainty in the data and models associated with the high-altitude radiation environment could and should be reduced. In response, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) created the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Project under the auspices of the High Speed Research (HSR) Program Office at the Langley Research Center. NASA's HSR Program was developed to address the potential of a second-generation supersonic transport. A critical element focussed on the environmental issues, including the threat to crew and passengers posed by atmospheric radiation. Various international investigators were solicited to contribute instruments to fly on an ER-2 aircraft at altitudes similar to those proposed for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). A list of participating investigators, their institutions, and instruments with quantities measured is presented. The flight series took place at solar minimum (radiation maximum) with northern, southern, and east/west flights. The investigators analyzed their data and presented preliminary results at the AIR Workshop in March, 1998. A review of these results are included.

  16. Microwave Triggered Laser Ionization of Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadiee, Ehsan; Prasad, Sarita; Jerald Buchenauer, C.; Schamiloglu, Edl

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this work is to study the evolution and dynamics of plasma expansion when a high power microwave (HPM) pulse is overlapped in time and space on a very small, localized region of plasma formed by a high energy laser pulse. The pulsed Nd:YAG laser (8 ns, 600mJ, repetition rate 10 Hz) is focused to generate plasma filaments in air with electron density of 10^17/cm^3. When irradiated with a high power microwave pulse these electrons would gain enough kinetic energy and further escalate avalanche ionization of air due to elastic electron-neutral collisions thereby causing an increased volumetric discharge region. An X-band relativistic backward wave oscillator(RBWO) at the Pulsed Power,Beams and Microwaves laboratory at UNM is constructed as the microwave source. The RBWO produces a microwave pulse of maximum power 400 MW, frequency of 10.1 GHz, and energy of 6.8 Joules. Special care is being given to synchronize the RBWO and the pulsed laser system in order to achieve a high degree of spatial and temporal overlap. A photodiode and a microwave waveguide detector will be used to ensure the overlap. Also, a new shadowgraph technique with a nanosecond time resolution will be used to detect changes in the shock wave fronts when the HPM signal overlaps the laser pulse in time and space.

  17. Electron Impact Ionization of Heavier Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, B. C.

    2006-10-01

    The electron impact ionization (EII) is a dominant ion creation process in various kinds of plasmas. Hydrogenic atoms occurs not only in plasmas but may also be formed due to radiation effects in many organic and inorganic materials. Apart from its fundamental importance in collisional physics the knowledge of the EII cross sections finds its wide applications in modeling astrophysical and fusion plasmas. So the demand of the EIICS is enormous. It is hard to fulfill such a demand either by experimental or ab initio calculations. Thus various analytical and semi-classical models are employed to generate accurate EII cross sections. We report here a modified version [1] of the Bell et. al. equations [2] including both the ionic and relativistic corrections (MBELL). We generalize the MBELL parameters for treating the dependency of the orbital quantum numbers nl; evaluating cross sections for various species at different energies tests the accuracy of the procedure. Detail will be presented at the meeting. [1] A. K. F. Haque, M. A. Uddin, A. K. Basak, K. R. Karim and B. C. Saha, Phys. Rev. A73, 052703 (2006). [2] K. L. Bell, H. B. Gilbody, J. G. Hughes, A. E. Kingston, and F. J. Smith, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 12, 891 (1983).

  18. Shakeoff Ionization near the Coulomb Barrier Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prashant; Nandi, T.

    2017-11-01

    We measure the projectile K x-ray spectra as a function of the beam energies around the Coulomb barrier in different collision systems. The energy is scanned in small steps around the barrier aiming to explore the nuclear effects on the elastically scattered projectile ions. The variation of the projectile x-ray energy with the ion-beam energies exhibits an unusual increase in between the interaction barrier and fusion barrier energies. This additional contribution to the projectile ionization can be attributed to the shakeoff of outer-shell electrons of the projectile ions due to the sudden nuclear recoil (˜10-21 sec ) caused by the attractive nuclear potential, which gets switched on near the interaction barrier energy. In the sudden approximation limit, the theoretical shakeoff probability calculation due to the nuclear recoil explains the observed data well. In addition to its fundamental interest, such processes can play a significant role in dark matter detection through the possible mechanism of x-ray emissions, where the weakly interacting massive particle-nucleus elastic scattering can lead to the nuclear-recoil-induced inner-shell vacancy creations. Furthermore, the present work may provide new prospects for atomic physics research at barrier energies as well as provide a novel technique to perform barrier distribution studies for two-body systems.

  19. Ionizing Radiation: The issue of radiation quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prise, Kevin; Schettino, Giuseppe

    Types of Ionising radiations are differentiated from each other by fundamental characteristics of their energy deposition patterns when they interact with biological materials. At the level of the DNA these non-random patterns drive differences in the yields and distributions of DNA damage patterns and specifically the production of clustered damage or complex lesions. The complex radiation fields found in space bring significant challenges for developing a mechanistic understanding of radiation effects from the perspective of radiation quality as these consist of a diverse range of particle and energy types unique to the space environment. Linear energy transfer, energy deposited per unit track length in units of keV per micron, has long been used as a comparator for different types of radiation but has limitations in that it is an average value. Difference in primary core ionizations relative to secondary delta ray ranges vary significantly with particle mass and energy leading to complex interrelationships with damage production at the cellular level. At the cellular level a greater mechanistic understanding is necessary, linking energy deposition patterns to DNA damage patterns and cellular response, to build appropriate biophysical models that are predictive for different radiation qualities and mixed field exposures. Defined studies using monoenergetic beams delivered under controlled conditions are building quantitative data sets of both initial and long term changes in cells as a basis for a great mechanistic understanding of radiation quality effects of relevance to not only space exposures but clinical application of ion-beams.

  20. Ionization balance in Titan's nightside ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigren, E.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Wellbrock, A.; Coates, A. J.; Snowden, D.; Cui, J.; Lavvas, P.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Shebanits, O.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Vuitton, V.; Mandt, K.

    2015-03-01

    Based on a multi-instrumental Cassini dataset we make model versus observation comparisons of plasma number densities, nP = (nenI)1/2 (ne and nI being the electron number density and total positive ion number density, respectively) and short-lived ion number densities (N+, CH2+, CH3+, CH4+) in the southern hemisphere of Titan's nightside ionosphere over altitudes ranging from 1100 and 1200 km and from 1100 to 1350 km, respectively. The nP model assumes photochemical equilibrium, ion-electron pair production driven by magnetospheric electron precipitation and dissociative recombination as the principal plasma neutralization process. The model to derive short-lived-ion number densities assumes photochemical equilibrium for the short-lived ions, primary ion production by electron-impact ionization of N2 and CH4 and removal of the short-lived ions through reactions with CH4. It is shown that the models reasonably reproduce the observations, both with regards to nP and the number densities of the short-lived ions. This is contrasted by the difficulties in accurately reproducing ion and electron number densities in Titan's sunlit ionosphere.

  1. The study of the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations on birth weight of newborns to exposed mothers.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, S M J; Shirazi, K R; Mortazavi, G

    2013-01-01

    Life evolved in an environment filled with a wide variety of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. It was previously reported that medical exposures to pregnant women increases the risk of low birth weight. This study intends to investigate the relationship between exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation and the risk of low birth weight. One thousand two hundred mothers with their first-term labor (vaginal or cesarean) whose newborns' history had been registered in neonates' screening program in Shiraz were interviewed and surveyed. Data collection was performed by the assessment of mother's history of radiography before and during pregnancy, physical examination of the mother for height and weight and weighing and examining the newborn for any diagnosis of disease and anomalies. There were no statistical significant differences between the mean weight of newborns whose mothers had been exposed to some common sources of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations such as dental or non dental radiographies, mobile phone, cordless phone and cathode ray tube (CRT) and those of non-exposed mothers. The findings of this study cast doubt on previous reports, which indicated that exposure to ionizing radiation during pregnancy increased the risk of low birth weight.

  2. The study of the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations on birth weight of newborns to exposed mothers

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Shirazi, K. R.; Mortazavi, G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Life evolved in an environment filled with a wide variety of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. It was previously reported that medical exposures to pregnant women increases the risk of low birth weight. This study intends to investigate the relationship between exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation and the risk of low birth weight. Materials and Methods: One thousand two hundred mothers with their first-term labor (vaginal or cesarean) whose newborns’ history had been registered in neonates’ screening program in Shiraz were interviewed and surveyed. Data collection was performed by the assessment of mother's history of radiography before and during pregnancy, physical examination of the mother for height and weight and weighing and examining the newborn for any diagnosis of disease and anomalies. Results: There were no statistical significant differences between the mean weight of newborns whose mothers had been exposed to some common sources of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations such as dental or non dental radiographies, mobile phone, cordless phone and cathode ray tube (CRT) and those of non-exposed mothers. Conclusions: The findings of this study cast doubt on previous reports, which indicated that exposure to ionizing radiation during pregnancy increased the risk of low birth weight. PMID:23633865

  3. Systems and methods for cylindrical hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages

    DOEpatents

    Diamant, Kevin David; Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel Joseph

    2014-05-13

    Systems and methods may be provided for cylindrical Hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages. The systems and methods may include a cylindrical channel having a center axial direction, a gas inlet for directing ionizable gas to an ionization section of the cylindrical channel, an ionization device that ionizes at least a portion of the ionizable gas within the ionization section to generate ionized gas, and an acceleration device distinct from the ionization device. The acceleration device may provide an axial electric field for an acceleration section of the cylindrical channel to accelerate the ionized gas through the acceleration section, where the axial electric field has an axial direction in relation to the center axial direction. The ionization section and the acceleration section of the cylindrical channel may be substantially non-overlapping.

  4. Characterization of nonpolar lipids and selected steroids by using laser-induced acoustic desorption/chemical ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Zhicheng; Daiya, Shivani; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2011-03-01

    Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) combined with ClMn(H2O)+ chemical ionization (CI) was tested for the analysis of nonpolar lipids and selected steroids in a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR). The nonpolar lipids studied, cholesterol, 5α-cholestane, cholesta-3,5-diene, squalene, and β-carotene, were found to solely form the desired water replacement product (adduct-H2O) upon reaction with the ClMn(H2O)+ ions. The steroids, androsterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), estrone, estradiol, and estriol, also form abundant adduct-H2O ions, but less abundant adduct-2H2O ions were also observed. Neither (+)APCI nor (+)ESI can ionize the saturated hydrocarbon lipid, cholestane. APCI successfully ionizes the unsaturated hydrocarbon lipids to form exclusivelymore » the intact protonated analytes. However, it causes extensive fragmentation for cholesterol and the steroids. The worst case is cholesterol that does not produce any stable protonated molecules. On the other hand, ESI cannot ionize any of the hydrocarbon analytes, saturated or unsaturated. However, ESI can be used to protonate the oxygen-containing analytes with substantially less fragmentation than for APCI in all cases except for cholesterol and estrone. In conclusion, LIAD/ClMn(H2O)+ chemical ionization is superior over APCI and ESI for the mass spectrometric characterization of underivatized nonpolar lipids and steroids.« less

  5. Fundamental Studies of Molecular Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Ionization Probability Measured With Femtosecond, Infrared Laser Post-Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popczun, Nicholas James

    The work presented in this dissertation is focused on increasing the fundamental understanding of molecular secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) ionization probability by measuring neutral molecule behavior with femtosecond, mid-infrared laser post-ionization (LPI). To accomplish this, a model system was designed with a homogeneous organic film comprised of coronene, a polycyclic hydrocarbon which provides substantial LPI signal. Careful consideration was given to signal lost to photofragmentation and undersampling of the sputtered plume that is contained within the extraction volume of the mass spectrometer. This study provided the first ionization probability for an organic compound measured directly by the relative secondary ions and sputtered neutral molecules using a strong-field ionization (SFI) ionization method. The measured value of ˜10-3 is near the upper limit of previous estimations of ionization probability for organic molecules. The measurement method was refined, and then applied to a homogeneous guanine film, which produces protonated secondary ions. This measurement found the probability of protonation to occur to be on the order of 10-3, although with less uncertainty than that of the coronene. Finally, molecular depth profiles were obtained for SIMS and LPI signals as a function of primary ion fluence to determine the effect of ionization probability on the depth resolution of chemical interfaces. The interfaces chosen were organic/inorganic interfaces to limit chemical mixing. It is shown that approaching the inorganic chemical interface can enhance or suppress the ionization probability for the organic molecule, which can lead to artificially sharpened or broadened depths, respectively. Overall, the research described in this dissertation provides new methods for measuring ionization efficiency in SIMS in both absolute and relative terms, and will inform both innovation in the technique, as well as increase understanding of depth

  6. Neutron-Impact Ionization of H and He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T.-G.; Ciappina, M. F.; Robicheaux, F.; Pindzola, M. S.

    2014-05-01

    Perturbative distorted-wave and non-perturbative close-coupling methods are used to study neutron-impact ionization of H and He. For single ionization of H, we find excellent agreement between the distorted-wave and close-coupling results at all incident energies. For double ionization of He, we find poor agreement between the distorted-wave and close-coupling results, except at the highest incident energies. We present the ratio of double to single ionization for He as a guide to experimental checks of theory at low energies and experimental confirmation of the rapid rise of the ratio at high energies. This work was supported in part by grants from NSF and US DoE. Computational work was carried out at NERSC in Oakland, California, NICS in Knoxville, Tennessee, and OLCF in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  7. Acetonitrile Ion Suppression in Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colizza, Kevin; Mahoney, Keira E.; Yevdokimov, Alexander V.; Smith, James L.; Oxley, Jimmie C.

    2016-11-01

    Efforts to analyze trace levels of cyclic peroxides by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry gave evidence that acetonitrile suppressed ion formation. Further investigations extended this discovery to ketones, linear peroxides, esters, and possibly many other types of compounds, including triazole and menadione. Direct ionization suppression caused by acetonitrile was observed for multiple adduct types in both electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. The addition of only 2% acetonitrile significantly decreased the sensitivity of analyte response. Efforts to identify the mechanism were made using various nitriles. The ion suppression was reduced by substitution of an acetonitrile hydrogen with an electron-withdrawing group, but was exacerbated by electron-donating or steric groups adjacent to the nitrile. Although current theory does not explain this phenomenon, we propose that polar interactions between the various functionalities and the nitrile may be forming neutral aggregates that manifest as ionization suppression.

  8. CIFOG: Cosmological Ionization Fields frOm Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutter, Anne

    2018-03-01

    CIFOG is a versatile MPI-parallelised semi-numerical tool to perform simulations of the Epoch of Reionization. From a set of evolving cosmological gas density and ionizing emissivity fields, it computes the time and spatially dependent ionization of neutral hydrogen (HI), neutral (HeI) and singly ionized helium (HeII) in the intergalactic medium (IGM). The code accounts for HII, HeII, HeIII recombinations, and provides different descriptions for the photoionization rate that are used to calculate the residual HI fraction in ionized regions. This tool has been designed to be coupled to semi-analytic galaxy formation models or hydrodynamical simulations. The modular fashion of the code allows the user to easily introduce new descriptions for recombinations and the photoionization rate.

  9. Density, Velocity and Ionization Structure in Accretion-Disc Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Long, Knox

    2004-01-01

    This was a project to exploit the unique capabilities of FUSE to monitor variations in the wind- formed spectral lines of the luminous, low-inclination, cataclysmic variables(CV) -- RW Sex. (The original proposal contained two additional objects but these were not approved.) These observations were intended to allow us to determine the relative roles of density and ionization state changes in the outflow and to search for spectroscopic signatures of stochastic small-scale structure and shocked gas. By monitoring the temporal behavior of blue-ward extended absorption lines with a wide range of ionization potentials and excitation energies, we proposed to track the changing physical conditions in the outflow. We planned to use a new Monte Carlo code to calculate the ionization structure of and radiative transfer through the CV wind. The analysis therefore was intended to establish the wind geometry, kinematics and ionization state, both in a time-averaged sense and as a function of time.

  10. Calculations of acceptor ionization energies in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Chen, A.-B.

    2001-03-01

    The k.p Hamiltonian and a model potential are used to deduce the acceptor ionization energies in GaN from a systematic study of the chemical trend in GaAs, GaP, and InP. The acceptors studied include Be, Mg, Ca, Zn, and Cd on the cation sites and C, Si, and Ge on the anion sites. Our calculated acceptor ionization energies are estimated to be accurate to better than 10% across the board. The ionization energies of C and Be (152 and 187 meV, respectively) in wurtzite GaN are found to be lower than that of Mg (224 meV). The C was found to behave like the hydrogenic acceptor in all systems and it has the smallest ionization energy among all the acceptors studied.

  11. Hydrodynamic flow of ions and atoms in partially ionized plasmas.

    PubMed

    Nemirovsky, R A; Fredkin, D R; Ron, A

    2002-12-01

    We have derived the hydrodynamic equations of motion for a partially ionized plasma, when the ionized component and the neutral components have different flow velocities and kinetic temperatures. Starting from the kinetic equations for a gas of ions and a gas of atoms we have considered various processes of encounters between the two species: self-collisions, interspecies collisions, ionization, recombination, and charge exchange. Our results were obtained by developing a general approach for the hydrodynamics of a gas in a binary mixture, in particular when the components drift with respect to each other. This was applied to a partially ionized plasma, when the neutral-species gas and the charged-species gas have separate velocities. We have further suggested a generalized version of the relaxation time approximation and obtained the contributions of the interspecies encounters to the transport equations.

  12. Implementation of ionizing radiation environment requirements for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boeder, Paul A.; Watts, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Proper functioning of Space Station hardware requires that the effects of high-energy ionizing particles from the natural environment and (possibly) from man-made sources be considered during design. At the Space Station orbit of 28.5-deg inclination and 330-440 km altitude, geomagnetically trapped protons and electrons contribute almost all of the dose, while galactic cosmic rays and anomalous cosmic rays may produce Single Event Upsets (SEUs), latchups, and burnouts of microelectronic devices. Implementing ionizing radiation environment requirements for Space Station has been a two part process, including the development of a description of the environment for imposing requirements on the design and the development of a control process for assessing how well the design addresses the effects of the ionizing radiation environment. We will review both the design requirements and the control process for addressing ionizing radiation effects on Space Station.

  13. THE EFFECT OF IONIZING RADIATIONS ON ONTOGENESIS IN BIRDS

    SciTech Connect

    Dinu, M.

    1963-01-01

    The effect of strong doses of ionizing radiations on the ontogenetic development of birds and formation of mutations was studied. The data obtained show that ionizing radiations have a different effect on the biological substratum, depending on their nature and relationship to physiological limits. Gamma radiations have a negative action on the biochemical process altering ths substratum and upsetting the entity of heredity. It was found that x rays produce a temporary stimulating effect on metabolic processes influencing the vitality, ontogenetic development, resistance, the appearance of sexual instinct, and the fertility. Ionizing radiations affect functioning of endocrinic glands and consequentlymore » the ratio of sexes in the offspring. From the results obtained it cand be stated that strong doses of ionizing radiations may be used to obtain variation of mutations, and that in general they are a factor in the evolution of the living organism. (OTS)« less

  14. Appearance of ionization instability in a low-voltage arc

    SciTech Connect

    Kobelevskii, A.V.; Nastoyashchii, A.F.

    1986-09-01

    The conditions for the appearance of the ionization instability in a low-voltage arc are examined. On the basis of the model of a Knudsen arc a criterion is obtained for the appearance of the instability and the possible types of dispersion relations are analyzed. The possibility of ionization instability in a short arc in cesium vapor is discussed. The results of a numerical investigation of the appearance of ionization instability, including the nonlinear stage, in a two-dimensional formulation of the problem are presented. When the fluctuations in the elec tron temperature are in antiphase with the density fluctuations, stable (long-lived)more » two-dimensional structures, which are characterized by a high degree of modulation of the degree of ionization of the gas, can form.« less

  15. Ionization waves of arbitrary velocity driven by a flying focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palastro, J. P.; Turnbull, D.; Bahk, S.-W.; Follett, R. K.; Shaw, J. L.; Haberberger, D.; Bromage, J.; Froula, D. H.

    2018-03-01

    A chirped laser pulse focused by a chromatic lens exhibits a dynamic, or flying, focus in which the trajectory of the peak intensity decouples from the group velocity. In a medium, the flying focus can trigger an ionization front that follows this trajectory. By adjusting the chirp, the ionization front can be made to travel at an arbitrary velocity along the optical axis. We present analytical calculations and simulations describing the propagation of the flying focus pulse, the self-similar form of its intensity profile, and ionization wave formation. The ability to control the speed of the ionization wave and, in conjunction, mitigate plasma refraction has the potential to advance several laser-based applications, including Raman amplification, photon acceleration, high-order-harmonic generation, and THz generation.

  16. Ionizing radiation, ion transports, and radioresistance of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Stephan M.; Butz, Lena; Stegen, Benjamin; Klumpp, Dominik; Braun, Norbert; Ruth, Peter; Eckert, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    The standard treatment of many tumor entities comprises fractionated radiation therapy which applies ionizing radiation to the tumor-bearing target volume. Ionizing radiation causes double-strand breaks in the DNA backbone that result in cell death if the number of DNA double-strand breaks exceeds the DNA repair capacity of the tumor cell. Ionizing radiation reportedly does not only act on the DNA in the nucleus but also on the plasma membrane. In particular, ionizing radiation-induced modifications of ion channels and transporters have been reported. Importantly, these altered transports seem to contribute to the survival of the irradiated tumor cells. The present review article summarizes our current knowledge on the underlying mechanisms and introduces strategies to radiosensitize tumor cells by targeting plasma membrane ion transports. PMID:23966948

  17. Charge Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Jorabchi, Kaveh; Westphall, Michael S.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    2008-01-01

    We propose and evaluate a new mechanism to account for analyte ion signal enhancement in ultraviolet-laser desorption mass spectrometry of droplets in the presence of corona ions. Our new insights are based on timing control of corona ion production, laser desorption, and peptide ion extraction achieved by a novel pulsed corona apparatus. We demonstrate that droplet charging rather than gas-phase ion-neutral reactions is the major contributor to analyte ion generation from an electrically isolated droplet. Implications of the new mechanism, termed charge assisted laser desorption/ionization (CALDI), are discussed and contrasted to those of the laser desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization method (LD-APCI). It is also demonstrated that analyte ion generation in CALDI occurs with external electric fields about one order of magnitude lower than those needed for atmospheric pressure matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization or electrospray ionization of droplets. PMID:18387311

  18. Neutral Atom Diffusion in a Partially Ionized Prominence Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly

    2010-01-01

    The support of solar prominences is normally described in terms of a magnetic force on the prominence plasma that balances the solar gravitational force. Because the prominence plasma is only partially ionized. it is necessary to consider in addition the support of the neutral component of the prominence plasma. This support is accomplished through a frictional interaction between the neutral and ionized components of the plasma, and its efficacy depends strongly on the degree of ionization of the plasma. More specifically, the frictional force is proportional to the relative flow of neutral and ion species, and for a sufficiently weakly ionized plasma, this flow must be relatively large to produce a frictional force that balances gravity. A large relative flow, of course, implies significant draining of neutral particles from the prominence. We evaluate the importance of this draining effect for a hydrogen-helium plasma, and consider the observational evidence for cross-field diffusion of neutral prominence material,

  19. Heating of the solar chromosphere by ionization pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    A new theory is proposed to explain the heating of the solar chromosphere, and possibly the corona, by the dissipation of hydrodynamic compression waves. The basis of the dissipative mechanism, here referred to as ionization pumping, is hysteresis caused by irreversible relaxation of the chromospheric medium to ionization equilibrium following pressure perturbations. In the middle chromosphere, where hydrogen is partially ionized, it is shown that ionization pumping will cause strong dissipation of waves whose periods are 200s or less. This could cause heating of the chromosphere sufficient to compensate for the radiative losses. The mechanism retains a high efficiency for waves of arbitrarily small amplitude and, thus, can be more efficient than shock dissipation for small perturbations in pressure. The formation of shocks therefore is not required for the dissipation of waves whose periods are several minutes or less.

  20. A new ring-shaped graphite monitor ionization chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizumi, M. T.; Caldas, L. V. E.

    2010-07-01

    A ring-shaped monitor ionization chamber was developed at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares. This ionization chamber presents an entrance window of aluminized polyester foil. The guard ring and collecting electrode are made of graphite coated Lucite plates. The main difference between this new ionization chamber and commercial monitor chambers is its ring-shaped design. The new monitor chamber has a central hole, allowing the passage of the direct radiation beam without attenuation; only the penumbra radiation is measured by the sensitive volume. This kind of ionization chamber design has already been tested, but using aluminium electrodes. By changing the electrode material from aluminium to a graphite coating, an improvement in the chamber response stability was expected. The pre-operational tests, as saturation curve, recombination loss and polarity effect showed satisfactory results. The repeatability and the long-term stability tests were also evaluated, showing good agreement with international recommendations.

  1. Electron impact ionization of cycloalkanes, aldehydes, and ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com

    The theoretical calculations of electron impact total ionization cross section for cycloalkane, aldehyde, and ketone group molecules are undertaken from ionization threshold to 2 keV. The present calculations are based on the spherical complex optical potential formalism and complex scattering potential ionization contribution method. The results of most of the targets studied compare fairly well with the recent measurements, wherever available and the cross sections for many targets are predicted for the first time. The correlation between the peak of ionization cross sections with number of target electrons and target parameters is also reported. It was found that the crossmore » sections at their maximum depend linearly with the number of target electrons and with other target parameters, confirming the consistency of the values reported here.« less

  2. Threshold law for electron-atom impact ionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temkin, A.

    1982-01-01

    A derivation of the explicit form of the threshold law for electron impact ionization of atoms is presented, based on the Coulomb-dipole theory. The important generalization is made of using a dipole function whose moment is the dipole moment formed by an inner electron and the nucleus. The result is a modulated quasi-linear law for the yield of positive ions which applies to positron-atom impact ionization.

  3. Ionizing potential waves and high-voltage breakdown streamers.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, N. W.; Tidman, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The structure of ionizing potential waves driven by a strong electric field in a dense gas is discussed. Negative breakdown waves are found to propagate with a velocity proportional to the electric field normal to the wavefront. This causes a curved ionizing potential wavefront to focus down into a filamentary structure, and may provide the reason why breakdown in dense gases propagates in the form of a narrow leader streamer instead of a broad wavefront.

  4. Graphene-based filament material for thermal ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Hewitt, J.; Shick, C.; Siegfried, M.

    The use of graphene oxide materials for thermal ionization mass spectrometry analysis of plutonium and uranium has been investigated. Filament made from graphene oxide slurries have been 3-D printed. A method for attaching these filaments to commercial thermal ionization post assemblies has been devised. Resistive heating of the graphene based filaments under high vacuum showed stable operation in excess of 4 hours. Plutonium ion production has been observed in an initial set of filaments spiked with the Pu 128 Certified Reference Material.

  5. Compact cosmic ray detector for unattended atmospheric ionization monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, K. L.; Harrison, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    Two vertical cosmic ray telescopes for atmospheric cosmic ray ionization event detection are compared. Counter A, designed for low power remote use, was deployed in the Welsh mountains; its event rate increased with altitude as expected from atmospheric cosmic ray absorption. Independently, Counter B's event rate was found to vary with incoming particle acceptance angle. Simultaneous co-located comparison of both telescopes exposed to atmospheric ionization showed a linear relationship between their event rates.

  6. Bound-Electron Nonlinearity Beyond the Ionization Threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlstrand, J. K.; Zahedpour, S.; Bahl, A.; Kolesik, M.; Milchberg, H. M.

    2018-05-01

    We present absolute space- and time-resolved measurements of the ultrafast laser-driven nonlinear polarizability in argon, krypton, xenon, nitrogen, and oxygen up to ionization fractions of a few percent. These measurements enable determination of the strongly nonperturbative bound-electron nonlinear polarizability well beyond the ionization threshold, where it is found to remain approximately quadratic in the laser field, a result normally expected at much lower intensities where perturbation theory applies.

  7. A simple way to model nebulae with distributed ionizing stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamet, L.; Morisset, C.

    2008-04-01

    Aims: This work is a follow-up of a recent article by Ercolano et al. that shows that, in some cases, the spatial dispersion of the ionizing stars in a given nebula may significantly affect its emission spectrum. The authors found that the dispersion of the ionizing stars is accompanied by a decrease in the ionization parameter, which at least partly explains the variations in the nebular spectrum. However, they did not research how other effects associated to the dispersion of the stars may contribute to those variations. Furthermore, they made use of a unique and simplified set of stellar populations. The scope of the present article is to assess whether the variation in the ionization parameter is the dominant effect in the dependence of the nebular spectrum on the distribution of its ionizing stars. We examined this possibility for various regimes of metallicity and age. We also investigated a way to model the distribution of the ionizing sources so as to bypass expensive calculations. Methods: We wrote a code able to generate random stellar populations and to compute the emission spectra of their associated nebulae through the widespread photoionization code cloudy. This code can process two kinds of spatial distributions of the stars: one where all the stars are concentrated at one point, and one where their separation is such that their Strömgren spheres do not overlap. Results: We found that, in most regimes of stellar population ages and gas metallicities, the dependence of the ionization parameter on the distribution of the stars is the dominant factor in the variation of the main nebular diagnostics with this distribution. We derived a method to mimic those effects with a single calculation that makes use of the common assumptions of a central source and a spherical nebula, in the case of constant density objects. This represents a computation time saving by a factor of at least several dozen in the case of H ii regions ionized by massive clusters.

  8. Study of a Novel Ionizer Configuration for the Ion Thruster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited STUDY OF A NOVEL...IONIZER CONFIGURATION FOR THE ION THRUSTER by Jason Theodore Cooper December 2006 Thesis Advisor: Oscar Biblarz Co-Advisor: Jose...December 2006 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Study of a Novel Ionizer Configuration for the Ion Thruster

  9. Bound-Electron Nonlinearity Beyond the Ionization Threshold.

    PubMed

    Wahlstrand, J K; Zahedpour, S; Bahl, A; Kolesik, M; Milchberg, H M

    2018-05-04

    We present absolute space- and time-resolved measurements of the ultrafast laser-driven nonlinear polarizability in argon, krypton, xenon, nitrogen, and oxygen up to ionization fractions of a few percent. These measurements enable determination of the strongly nonperturbative bound-electron nonlinear polarizability well beyond the ionization threshold, where it is found to remain approximately quadratic in the laser field, a result normally expected at much lower intensities where perturbation theory applies.

  10. Extreme Ionizing-Radiation-Resistant Bacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Schwendner, Petra

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing concern that desiccation and extreme radiation-resistant, non-spore-forming microorganisms associated with spacecraft surfaces can withstand space environmental conditions and subsequent proliferation on another solar body. Such forward contamination would jeopardize future life detection or sample return technologies. The prime focus of NASA s planetary protection efforts is the development of strategies for inactivating resistance-bearing microorganisms. Eradification techniques can be designed to target resistance-conferring microbial populations by first identifying and understanding their physiologic and biochemical capabilities that confers its elevated tolerance (as is being studied in Deinococcus phoenicis, as a result of this description). Furthermore, hospitals, food, and government agencies frequently use biological indicators to ensure the efficacy of a wide range of radiation- based sterilization processes. Due to their resistance to a variety of perturbations, the non-spore forming D. phoenicis may be a more appropriate biological indicator than those currently in use. The high flux of cosmic rays during space travel and onto the unshielded surface of Mars poses a significant hazard to the survival of microbial life. Thus, radiation-resistant microorganisms are of particular concern that can survive extreme radiation, desiccation, and low temperatures experienced during space travel. Spore-forming bacteria, a common inhabitant of spacecraft assembly facilities, are known to tolerate these extreme conditions. Since the Viking era, spores have been utilized to assess the degree and level of microbiological contamination on spacecraft and their associated spacecraft assembly facilities. Members of the non-spore-forming bacterial community such as Deinococcus radiodurans can survive acute exposures to ionizing radiation (5 kGy), ultraviolet light (1 kJ/sq m), and desiccation (years). These resistive phenotypes of Deinococcus enhance the

  11. Extreme Ionizing-Radiation-Resistant Bacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Schwendner, Petra

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing concern that desiccation and extreme radiation-resistant, non-spore-forming microorganisms associated with spacecraft surfaces can withstand space environmental conditions and subsequent proliferation on another solar body. Such forward contamination would jeopardize future life detection or sample return technologies. The prime focus of NASA s planetary protection efforts is the development of strategies for inactivating resistance-bearing micro-organisms. Eradi cation techniques can be designed to target resistance-conferring microbial populations by first identifying and understanding their physiologic and biochemical capabilities that confers its elevated tolerance (as is being studied in Deinococcus phoenicis, as a result of this description). Furthermore, hospitals, food, and government agencies frequently use biological indicators to ensure the efficacy of a wide range of radiation-based sterilization processes. Due to their resistance to a variety of perturbations, the nonspore forming D. phoenicis may be a more appropriate biological indicator than those currently in use. The high flux of cosmic rays during space travel and onto the unshielded surface of Mars poses a significant hazard to the survival of microbial life. Thus, radiation-resistant microorganisms are of particular concern that can survive extreme radiation, desiccation, and low temperatures experienced during space travel. Spore-forming bacteria, a common inhabitant of spacecraft assembly facilities, are known to tolerate these extreme conditions. Since the Viking era, spores have been utilized to assess the degree and level of microbiological contamination on spacecraft and their associated spacecraft assembly facilities. Members of the non-sporeforming bacterial community such as Deinococcus radiodurans can survive acute exposures to ionizing radiation (5 kGy), ultraviolet light (1 kJ/m2), and desiccation (years). These resistive phenotypes of Deinococcus enhance the

  12. Electrospray Ionization-Induced Protein Unfolding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hong; Kitova, Elena N.; Johnson, Margaret A.; Eugenio, Luiz; Ng, Kenneth K. S.; Klassen, John S.

    2012-12-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) measurements were performed under a variety of solution conditions on a highly acidic sub-fragment (B3C) of the C-terminal carbohydrate-binding repeat region of Clostridium difficile toxin B, and two mutants (B4A and B4B) containing fewer acidic residues. ESI-MS measurements performed in negative ion mode on aqueous ammonium acetate solutions of B3C at low ionic strength ( I < 80 mM) revealed evidence, based on the measured charge state distribution, of protein unfolding. In contrast, no evidence of unfolding was detected from ESI-MS measurements made in positive ion mode at low I or in either mode at higher I. The results of proton nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism spectroscopy measurements and gel filtration chromatography performed on solutions of B3C under low and high I conditions suggest that the protein exists predominantly in a folded state in neutral aqueous solutions with I > 10 mM. The results of ESI-MS measurements performed on B3C in a series of solutions with high I at pH 5 to 9 rule out the possibility that the structural changes are related to ESI-induced changes in pH. It is proposed that unfolding of B3C, observed in negative mode for solutions with low I, occurs during the ESI process and arises due to Coulombic repulsion between the negatively charged residues and liquid/droplet surface charge. ESI-MS measurements performed in negative ion mode on B4A and B4B also reveal a shift to higher charge states at low I but the magnitude of the changes are smaller than observed for B3C.

  13. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, John P.; Guzik, T. Gregory

    2001-01-01

    During grant NAG5-5064, Louisiana State University (LSU) led the ATIC team in the development, construction, testing, accelerator validation, pre-deployment integration and flight operations of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment. This involved interfacing among the ATIC collaborators (UMD, NRL/MSFC, SU, MSU, WI, SNU) to develop a new balloon payload based upon a fully active calorimeter, a carbon target, a scintillator strip hodoscope and a pixilated silicon solid state detector for a detailed investigation of the very high energy cosmic rays to energies beyond 10(exp 14) eV/nucleus. It is in this very high energy region that theory predicts changes in composition and energy spectra related to the Supernova Remnant Acceleration model for cosmic rays below the "knee" in the all-particle spectrum. This report provides a documentation list, details the anticipated ATIC science return, describes the particle detection principles on which the experiment is based, summarizes the simulation results for the system, describes the validation work at the CERN SPS accelerator and details the balloon flight configuration. The ATIC experiment had a very successful LDB flight from McMurdo, Antarctica in 12/00 - 1/01. The instrument performed well for the entire 15 days. Preliminary data analysis shows acceptable charge resolution and an all-particle power law energy deposition distribution not inconsistent with previous measurements. Detailed analysis is underway and will result in new data on the cosmic ray charge and energy spectra in the GeV - TeV energy range. ATIC is currently being refurbished in anticipation of another LDB flight in the 2002-03 period.

  14. Ionized absorbers, ionized emitters, and the X-ray spectrum of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Netzer, Hagai

    1993-01-01

    Broad absorption features are common in the X-ray spectrum of low-luminosity AGNs. The features have been modeled by leaky neutral absorbers or by highly ionized gas that completely occult the continuum source. Such models are incomplete since they do not take into account all the physical processes in the gas. In particular, no previous model included the X-ray emission by the ionized absorbing gas and the reflection of the continuum source radiation. The present work discusses the emission, absorption, and reflection properties of photoionized gases with emphasis on conditions thought to prevail in AGNs. It shows that such gas is likely to produce intense X-ray line and continuum radiation and to reflect a sizable fraction of the nonstellar continuum at all energies. If such gas is indeed responsible for the observed X-ray absorption, then absorption edges are much weaker than commonly assumed, and some residual X-ray continuum is likely to be observed even if the line of sight is completely blocked. Moreover, X-ray emission features may show up in sources not showing X-ray absorption. This has immense consequences for medium-resolution X-ray missions, such as BBXRT and Astro-D, and for the planned high-resolution experiments on board XMM and AXAF.

  15. Flame Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Coupled with Negative Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Ion Molecule Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Bhat, Suhail Muzaffar; Shiea, Jentaie

    2017-07-01

    Flame atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (FAPCI) combined with negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry was developed to detect the ion/molecule reactions (IMRs) products between nitric acid (HNO3) and negatively charged amino acid, angiotensin I (AI) and angiotensin II (AII), and insulin ions. Nitrate and HNO3-nitrate ions were detected in the oxyacetylene flame, suggesting that a large quantity of nitric acid (HNO3) was produced in the flame. The HNO3 and negatively charged analyte ions produced by a negative ESI source were delivered into each arm of a Y-shaped stainless steel tube where they merged and reacted. The products were subsequently characterized with an ion trap mass analyzer attached to the exit of the Y-tube. HNO3 showed the strongest affinity to histidine and formed (Mhistidine-H+HNO3)- complex ions, whereas some amino acids did not react with HNO3 at all. Reactions between HNO3 and histidine residues in AI and AII resulted in the formation of dominant [MAI-H+(HNO3)]- and [MAII-H+(HNO3)]- ions. Results from analyses of AAs and insulin indicated that HNO3 could not only react with basic amino acid residues, but also with disulfide bonds to form [M-3H+(HNO3)n]3- complex ions. This approach is useful for obtaining information about the number of basic amino acid residues and disulfide bonds in peptides and proteins.

  16. Flame Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Coupled with Negative Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Ion Molecule Reactions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Bhat, Suhail Muzaffar; Shiea, Jentaie

    2017-07-01

    Flame atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (FAPCI) combined with negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry was developed to detect the ion/molecule reactions (IMRs) products between nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and negatively charged amino acid, angiotensin I (AI) and angiotensin II (AII), and insulin ions. Nitrate and HNO 3 -nitrate ions were detected in the oxyacetylene flame, suggesting that a large quantity of nitric acid (HNO 3 ) was produced in the flame. The HNO 3 and negatively charged analyte ions produced by a negative ESI source were delivered into each arm of a Y-shaped stainless steel tube where they merged and reacted. The products were subsequently characterized with an ion trap mass analyzer attached to the exit of the Y-tube. HNO 3 showed the strongest affinity to histidine and formed (M histidine -H+HNO 3 ) - complex ions, whereas some amino acids did not react with HNO 3 at all. Reactions between HNO 3 and histidine residues in AI and AII resulted in the formation of dominant [M AI -H+(HNO 3 )] - and [M AII -H+(HNO 3 )] - ions. Results from analyses of AAs and insulin indicated that HNO 3 could not only react with basic amino acid residues, but also with disulfide bonds to form [M-3H+(HNO 3 ) n ] 3- complex ions. This approach is useful for obtaining information about the number of basic amino acid residues and disulfide bonds in peptides and proteins. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  17. Immobilized aptamer paper spray ionization source for ion mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zargar, Tahereh; Khayamian, Taghi; Jafari, Mohammad T

    2017-01-05

    A selective thin-film microextraction based on aptamer immobilized on cellulose paper was used as a paper spray ionization source for ion mobility spectrometry (PSI-IMS), for the first time. In this method, the paper is not only used as an ionization source but also it is utilized for the selective extraction of analyte, based on immobilized aptamer. This combination integrates both sample preparation and analyte ionization in a Whatman paper. To that end, an appropriate sample introduction system with a novel design was constructed for the paper spray ionization source. Using this system, a continuous solvent flow works as an elution and spray solvent simultaneously. In this method, analyte is adsorbed on a triangular paper with immobilized aptamer and then it is desorbed and ionized by elution solvent and applied high voltage on paper, respectively. The effects of different experimental parameters such as applied voltage, angle of paper tip, distance between paper tip and counter electrode, elution solvent type, and solvent flow rate were optimized. The proposed method was exhaustively validated in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility by analyzing the standard solutions of codeine and acetamiprid. The analytical results obtained are promising enough to ensure the use of immobilized aptamer paper-spray as both the extraction and ionization techniques in IMS for direct analysis of biomedicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Electron-Atom Ionization Calculations using Propagating Exterior Complex Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Philip

    2007-10-01

    The exterior complex scaling method (Science 286 (1999) 2474), pioneered by Rescigno, McCurdy and coworkers, provided highly accurate ab initio solutions for electron-hydrogen collisions by directly solving the time-independent Schr"odinger equation in coordinate space. An extension of this method, propagating exterior complex scaling (PECS), was developed by Bartlett and Stelbovics (J. Phys. B 37 (2004) L69, J. Phys. B 39 (2006) R379) and has been demonstrated to provide computationally efficient and accurate calculations of ionization and scattering cross sections over a large range of energies below, above and near the ionization threshold. An overview of the PECS method for three-body collisions and the computational advantages of its propagation and iterative coupling techniques will be presented along with results of: (1) near-threshold ionization of electron-hydrogen collisions and the Wannier threshold laws, (2) scattering cross section resonances below the ionization threshold, and (3) total and differential cross sections for electron collisions with excited targets and hydrogenic ions from low through to high energies. Recently, the PECS method has been extended to solve four-body collisions using time-independent methods in coordinate space and has initially been applied to the s-wave model for electron-helium collisions. A description of the extensions made to the PECS method to facilitate these significantly more computationally demanding calculations will be given, and results will be presented for elastic, single-excitation, double-excitation, single-ionization and double-ionization collisions.

  19. On the SIMS Ionization Probability of Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Popczun, Nicholas J; Breuer, Lars; Wucher, Andreas; Winograd, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    The prospect of improved secondary ion yields for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) experiments drives innovation of new primary ion sources, instrumentation, and post-ionization techniques. The largest factor affecting secondary ion efficiency is believed to be the poor ionization probability (α + ) of sputtered material, a value rarely measured directly, but estimated to be in some cases as low as 10 -5 . Our lab has developed a method for the direct determination of α + in a SIMS experiment using laser post-ionization (LPI) to detect neutral molecular species in the sputtered plume for an organic compound. Here, we apply this method to coronene (C 24 H 12 ), a polyaromatic hydrocarbon that exhibits strong molecular signal during gas-phase photoionization. A two-dimensional spatial distribution of sputtered neutral molecules is measured and presented. It is shown that the ionization probability of molecular coronene desorbed from a clean film under bombardment with 40 keV C 60 cluster projectiles is of the order of 10 -3 , with some remaining uncertainty arising from laser-induced fragmentation and possible differences in the emission velocity distributions of neutral and ionized molecules. In general, this work establishes a method to estimate the ionization efficiency of molecular species sputtered during a single bombardment event. Graphical Abstract .

  20. Electrospray Post-Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Electrosurgical Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, Sabine; Schäfer, Karl-Christian; Balog, Júlia; Dénes, Júlia; Majoros, Tamás; Albrecht, Katalin; Tóth, Miklós; Spengler, Bernhard; Takáts, Zoltán

    2011-11-01

    The feasibility of electrospray (ES) ionization of aerosols generated by electrosurgical disintegration methods was investigated. Although electrosurgery itself was demonstrated to produce gaseous ions, post-ionization methods were implemented to enhance the ion yield, especially in those cases when the ion current produced by the applied electrosurgical method is not sufficient for MS analysis. Post-ionization was implemented by mounting an ES emitter onto a Venturi pump, which is used for ion transfer. The effect of various parameters including geometry, high voltage setting, flow parameters, and solvent composition was investigated in detail. Experimental setups were optimized accordingly. ES post-ionization was found to yield spectra similar to those obtained by the REIMS technique, featuring predominantly lipid-type species. Signal enhancement was 20- to 50-fold compared with electrosurgical disintegration in positive mode, while no improvement was observed in negative mode. ES post-ionization was also demonstrated to allow the detection of non-lipid type species in the electrosurgical aerosol, including drug molecules. Since the tissue specificity of the MS data was preserved in the ES post-ionization setup, feasibility of tissue identification was demonstrated using different electrosurgical methods.

  1. A Corona Discharge Initiated Electrochemical Electrospray Ionization Technique

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, John R.; Hess, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    We report here the development of a corona discharge (CD) initiated electrochemical (EC) electrospray ionization (ESI) technique using a standard electrospray ion source. This is a new ionization technique distinct from ESI, electrochemistry inherent to ESI, APCI, and techniques using hydroxyl radicals produced under atmospheric pressure conditions. By maximizing the observable CD at the tip of a stainless steel ESI capillary, efficient electrochemical oxidation of electrochemically active compounds is observed. For electrochemical oxidation to be observed, the ionization potential of the analyte must be lower than Fe. Ferrocene labeled compounds were chosen as the electrochemically active moiety. The electrochemical cell in the ESI source was robust and generated ions with selectivity according to the ionization potential of the analytes and up to zeptomolar sensitivity. Our results indicate that CD initiated electrochemical ionization has the potential to become a powerful technique to increase the dynamic range, sensitivity and selectivity of ESI experiments. Synopsis Using a standard ESI source a corona discharge initiated electrochemical ionization technique was established resulting from the electrochemistry occurring at the CD electrode surface. PMID:19747843

  2. Electron induced inelastic and ionization cross section for plasma modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Pankaj; Mahato, Dibyendu; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2016-09-01

    The present paper reports electron impact total inelastic and ionization cross section for silicon, germanium, and tin tetrahalides at energies varying from ionization threshold of the target to 5000 eV. These cross section data over a wide energy domain are very essential to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in various environments such as plasma modeling, semiconductor etching, atmospheric sciences, biological sciences, and radiation physics. However, the cross section data on the above mentioned molecules are scarce. In the present article, we report the computation of total inelastic cross section using spherical complex optical potential formalism and the estimation of ionization cross section through a semi-empirical method. The present ionization cross section result obtained for SiCl4 shows excellent agreement with previous measurements, while other molecules have not yet been investigated experimentally. Present results show more consistent behaviour than previous theoretical estimates. Besides cross sections, we have also studied the correlation of maximum ionization cross section with the square root of the ratio of polarizability to ionization potential for the molecules with known polarizabilities. A linear relation is observed between these quantities. This correlation is used to obtain approximate polarizability volumes for SiBr4, SiI4, GeCl4, GeBr4, and GeI4 molecules.

  3. Electron ionization and dissociation of aliphatic amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, P.; Shchukin, P.; Kočíšek, J.; Matejčík, Š.

    2012-09-01

    We present experimental and theoretical study of electron ionization and dissociative ionization to the gas phase amino acids valine, leucine, and isoleucine. A crossed electron/molecular beams technique equipped with quadrupole mass analyzer has been applied to measure mass spectra and ion efficiency curves for formation of particular ions. From experimental data the ionization energies of the molecules and the appearance energies of the fragment ions were determined. Ab initio calculations (Density Functional Theory and G3MP2 methods) were performed in order to calculate the fragmentation paths and interpret the experimental data. The experimental ionization energies of parent molecules [P]+ 8.91 ± 0.05, 8.85 ± 0.05, and 8.79 ± 0.05 eV and G3MP2 ionization energies (adiabatic) of 8.89, 8.88, and 8.81 eV were determined for valine, leucine, and isoleucine, respectively, as well as the experimental and theoretical threshold energies for dissociative ionization channels. The comparison of experimental data with calculations resulted in identification of the ions as well as the neutral fragments formed in the dissociative reactions. Around 15 mass/charge ratio fragments were identified from the mass spectra by comparison of experimental appearance energies with calculated reaction enthalpies for particular dissociative reactions.

  4. Electron-impact-ionization dynamics of S F6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, James N.; Lee, Jason W. L.; Vallance, Claire

    2017-10-01

    A detailed understanding of the dissociative electron ionization dynamics of S F6 is important in the modeling and tuning of dry-etching plasmas used in the semiconductor manufacture industry. This paper reports a crossed-beam electron ionization velocity-map imaging study on the dissociative ionization of cold S F6 molecules, providing complete, unbiased kinetic energy distributions for all significant product ions. Analysis of these distributions suggests that fragmentation following single ionization proceeds via formation of S F5 + or S F3 + ions that then dissociate in a statistical manner through loss of F atoms or F2, until most internal energy has been liberated. Similarly, formation of stable dications is consistent with initial formation of S F4 2 + ions, which then dissociate on a longer time scale. These data allow a comparison between electron ionization and photoionization dynamics, revealing similar dynamical behavior. In parallel with the ion kinetic energy distributions, the velocity-map imaging approach provides a set of partial ionization cross sections for all detected ionic fragments over an electron energy range of 50-100 eV, providing partial cross sections for S2 +, and enables the cross sections for S F4 2 + from S F+ to be resolved.

  5. Effect of internal and external conditions on ionization processes in the FAPA ambient desorption/ionization source.

    PubMed

    Orejas, Jaime; Pfeuffer, Kevin P; Ray, Steven J; Pisonero, Jorge; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo; Hieftje, Gary M

    2014-11-01

    Ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) sources coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) offer outstanding analytical features: direct analysis of real samples without sample pretreatment, combined with the selectivity and sensitivity of MS. Since ADI sources typically work in the open atmosphere, ambient conditions can affect the desorption and ionization processes. Here, the effects of internal source parameters and ambient humidity on the ionization processes of the flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) source are investigated. The interaction of reagent ions with a range of analytes is studied in terms of sensitivity and based upon the processes that occur in the ionization reactions. The results show that internal parameters which lead to higher gas temperatures afforded higher sensitivities, although fragmentation is also affected. In the case of humidity, only extremely dry conditions led to higher sensitivities, while fragmentation remained unaffected.

  6. Experimental investigation of the ionization mechanisms of uranium in thermal ionization mass spectrometry in the presence of carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraiem, M.; Mayer, K.; Gouder, T.; Seibert, A.; Wiss, T.; Thiele, H.; Hiernaut, J.-P.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) is a well established instrumental technique for providing accurate and precise isotope ratio measurements of elements with reasonably low first ionization potential. In nuclear safeguards and in environmental research, it is often required to measure the isotope ratios in small samples of uranium. Empirical studies had shown that the ionization yield of uranium and plutonium in a TIMS ion source can be significantly increased in the presence of a carbon source. But, even though carbon appeared crucial in providing high ionization yields, processes taking place on the ionization surface were still not well understood. This paper describes the experimental results obtained from an extended study on the evaporation and ionization mechanisms of uranium occurring on a rhenium mass spectrometry filament in the presence of carbon. Solid state reactions were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additionally, vaporization measurements were performed with a modified-Knudsen cell mass spectrometer for providing information on the neutral uranium species in the vapor phase. Upon heating, under vacuum, the uranyl nitrate sample was found to turn into a uranium carbide compound, independent of the type of carbon used as ionization enhancer. With further heating, uranium carbide leads to formation of single charged uranium metal ions and a small amount of uranium carbide ions. The results are relevant for a thorough understanding of the ion source chemistry of a uranyl nitrate sample under reducing conditions. The significant increase in ionization yield described by many authors on the basis of empirical results can be now fully explained and understood.

  7. Capillary atmospheric pressure electron capture ionization (cAPECI): a highly efficient ionization method for nitroaromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Derpmann, Valerie; Mueller, David; Bejan, Iustinian; Sonderfeld, Hannah; Wilberscheid, Sonja; Koppmann, Ralf; Brockmann, Klaus J; Benter, Thorsten

    2014-03-01

    We report on a novel method for atmospheric pressure ionization of compounds with elevated electron affinity (e.g., nitroaromatic compounds) or gas phase acidity (e.g., phenols), respectively. The method is based on the generation of thermal electrons by the photo-electric effect, followed by electron capture of oxygen when air is the gas matrix yielding O2(-) or of the analyte directly with nitrogen as matrix. Charge transfer or proton abstraction by O2(-) leads to the ionization of the analytes. The interaction of UV-light with metals is a clean method for the generation of thermal electrons at atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, only negative ions are generated and neutral radical formation is minimized, in contrast to discharge- or dopant assisted methods. Ionization takes place inside the transfer capillary of the mass spectrometer leading to comparably short transfer times of ions to the high vacuum region of the mass spectrometer. This strongly reduces ion transformation processes, resulting in mass spectra that more closely relate to the neutral analyte distribution. cAPECI is thus a soft and selective ionization method with detection limits in the pptV range. In comparison to standard ionization methods (e.g., PTR), cAPECI is superior with respect to both selectivity and achievable detection limits. cAPECI demonstrates to be a promising ionization method for applications in relevant fields as, for example, explosives detection and atmospheric chemistry.

  8. Effects of ionizing radiation on extracellular matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, F.; Bradley, D. A.; Winlove, C. P.

    2007-09-01

    The extracellular matrix is a ubiquitous and important component of tissues. We investigated the effects of ionizing radiation on the physical properties of its principal macromolecular components, pericardial collagen, ligament elastin and hyaluronan, a representative glycosaminoglycan. Samples were exposed to X-rays from an electron linear accelerator in the range of 10-100 Gy to cover the range of irradiation exposure during radiotherapy. A uniaxial mechanical testing protocol was used to characterize the fibrous proteins. For pericardial tissue the major change was an increase in the elastic modulus in the toe region of the curve (⩽20% strain), from 23±18 kPa for controls to 57±22 kPa at a dose of 10 Gy ( p=0.01, α=0.05). At larger strain (⩾20% strain), the elastic modulus in the linear region decreased from 1.92±0.70 MPa for control pericardium tissue to 1.31±0.56 MPa ( p=0.01, α=0.05) for 10 Gy X-irradiated sample. Similar observations have been made previously on tendon collagen at larger strains. For elastin, the stress-strain relationship was linear up to 30% strain, but the elastic modulus decreased significantly with irradiation (controls 626±65 kPa, irradiated 474±121 kPa ( p=0.02, α=0.05), at 10 Gy X-irradiation). The results suggest that for collagen the primary effect of irradiation is generation of additional cross-links, while for elastin chain scissions are important. The viscosity of HA (at 1.25% w/v and 0.125% w/v) was measured by both cone and plate and capillary viscometry, the former providing measurement at uniform shear rate and the latter providing a more sensitive indication of changes at low viscosity. Both techniques revealed a dose-dependent reduction in viscosity (from 3400±194 cP for controls to 1500±88 cP at a shear rate of 2 s -1 and dose of 75 Gy), again suggesting depolymerization.

  9. Hydraulic effects in a radiative atmosphere with ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, P.; Brandenburg, A.

    2016-03-01

    Context. In his 1978 paper, Eugene Parker postulated the need for hydraulic downward motion to explain magnetic flux concentrations at the solar surface. A similar process has also recently been seen in simplified (e.g., isothermal) models of flux concentrations from the negative effective magnetic pressure instability (NEMPI). Aims: We study the effects of partial ionization near the radiative surface on the formation of these magnetic flux concentrations. Methods: We first obtain one-dimensional (1D) equilibrium solutions using either a Kramers-like opacity or the H- opacity. The resulting atmospheres are then used as initial conditions in two-dimensional (2D) models where flows are driven by an imposed gradient force that resembles a localized negative pressure in the form of a blob. To isolate the effects of partial ionization and radiation, we ignore turbulence and convection. Results: Because of partial ionization, an unstable stratification always forms near the surface. We show that the extrema in the specific entropy profiles correspond to the extrema in the degree of ionization. In the 2D models without partial ionization, strong flux concentrations form just above the height where the blob is placed. Interestingly, in models with partial ionization, such flux concentrations always form at the surface well above the blob. This is due to the corresponding negative gradient in specific entropy. Owing to the absence of turbulence, the downflows reach transonic speeds. Conclusions: We demonstrate that, together with density stratification, the imposed source of negative pressure drives the formation of flux concentrations. We find that the inclusion of partial ionization affects the entropy profile dramatically, causing strong flux concentrations to form closer to the surface. We speculate that turbulence effects are needed to limit the strength of flux concentrations and homogenize the specific entropy to a stratification that is close to marginal.

  10. Ionization in the local interstellar and intergalactic media

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, K.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed photoionization calculations for the local interstellar medium (LISM) and the intergalactic medium (IGM) are presented. Constraints in the LISM are imposed by H I column density derived from IUE and Copernicus data toward nearby B stars and hot white dwarfs. The EUV radiation field is modeled including contributions from discrete stellar sources and from a thermal bremsstrahlung-radiative recombination spectrum emitted from the surrounding 10(exp 6) K coronal substrate. Lower limits to the fractional ionization of hydrogen and helium of 0.17 and 0.30 respectively are established. The derived limits have important implications for the interpretation of the H I andmore » He I backscattering results. The high He ionization fraction results primarily from very strong line emission below 500 A originating in the surrounding coronal substrate while the H ionization is dominated by the EUV radiation from the discrete stellar sources. The dual effects of thermal conduction and the EUV spectrum of the 10(exp 6) K plasma on ionization in the cloud skin are explored. The EUV radiation field and Auger ionization have insignificant effects on the resulting ionic column densities of Si IV, C IV, N V and O VI through the cloud skin. Calculations show that the abundances of these species are dominated by collisional ionization in the thermal conduction front. Because of a low charge exchange rate with hydrogen, the ionic column density ratios of N(C III)/N(C II) and N(N II)/N(N I) are dominated by the EUV radiation field in the local interstellar medium. These ratios should be important diagnostics for the EUV radiation field and serve as surrogate indicators of the interstellar He and H ionization fraction respectively. The same photoionization model is applied to the intergalactic medium.« less

  11. Hot interstellar gas and ionization of embedded clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, K.-P.; Bruhweiler, F.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers present detailed photoionization calculations for the instellar cloud in which the Sun is embedded. They consider the EUV radiation field with contribution from discrete stellar sources and from a thermal bremsstrahlung-radiative recombination spectrum emitted from the surrounding 10 to the 6th power k coronal substrate. They establish lower limits to the fractional ionization of hydrogen and helium of 0.17 and 0.29 respectively. The high He ionization fraction results primarily from very strong line emission below 500 A originating in the surrounding coronal substrate while the H ionization is dominated by the EUV radiation from the discrete stellar sources. The dual effects of thermal conduction and the EUV spectrum of the 10 to the 6th k plasma on ionization in the cloud skin are explored. The EUV radiation field and Auger ionization have insignificant effects on the resulting ionic column densities of Si IV, C IV, N V and O VI through the cloud skin. Calculations show that the abundances of these species are dominated by collisional ionization in the thermal conduction front. Because of a low charge exchange rate with hydrogen, the ionic column density ratios of N (CIII)/N (CII) and N (NII)/N (NI) are dominated by the EUV radiation field in the local interstellar medium. These ratios should be important diagnostics for the EUV radiation field and serve as surrogate indicators of the interstellar He and H ionization fraction respectively. Spacecraft such as Lyman which is designed to obtain high resolution spectral data down to the Lyman limit at 912 A could sample interstellar lines of these ions.

  12. Oxidative Ionization Under Certain Negative-Ion Mass Spectrometric Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Isra; Pavlov, Julius; Errabelli, Ramu; Attygalle, Athula B.

    2017-02-01

    1,4-Hydroquinone and several other phenolic compounds generate (M - 2) -• radical-anions, rather than deprotonated molecules, under certain negative-ion mass spectrometric conditions. In fact, spectra generated under helium-plasma ionization (HePI) conditions from 1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone (by electron capture) were practically indistinguishable. Because this process involves a net loss of H• and H+, it can be termed oxidative ionization. The superoxide radical-anion (O2 -•), known to be present in many atmospheric-pressure plasma ion sources operated in the negative mode, plays a critical role in the oxidative ionization process. The presence of a small peak at m/z 142 in the spectrum of 1,4-hydroquinone, but not in that of 1,4-benzoquinone, indicated that the initial step in the oxidative ionization process is the formation of an O2 -• adduct. On the other hand, under bona fide electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions, 1,4-hydroquinone generates predominantly an (M - 1) - ion. It is known that at sufficiently high capillary voltages, corona discharges begin to occur even in an ESI source. At lower ESI capillary voltages, deprotonation predominates; as the capillary voltage is raised, the abundance of O2 -• present in the plasma increases, and the source in turn increasingly behaves as a composite ESI/APCI source. While maintaining post-ionization ion activation to a minimum (to prevent fragmentation), and monitoring the relative intensities of the m/z 109 (due to deprotonation) and 108 (oxidative ionization) peaks recorded from 1,4-hydroquinone, a semiquantitative estimation of the APCI contribution to the overall ion-generation process can be obtained.

  13. Anomalous photo-ionization of 4d shell in medium-Z ionized atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapisch, M.; Busquet, M.

    2013-09-01

    Photoionization (PI) cross sections (PICS) are necessary for the simulation of astrophysical and ICF plasmas. In order to be used in plasma modeling, the PICS are usually fit to simple analytical formulas. We observed an unusual spectral shape of the PICS of the 4d shell of ionized Xe and other elements, computed with different codes: a local minimum occurs around twice the threshold energy. We explain this phenomenon as interference between the bound 4d wavefunction and the free electron wavefunction, which is similar to the Cooper minima for neutral atoms. Consequently, the usual fitting formulas, which consist of a combination of inverse powers of the frequency beyond threshold, may yield rates for PI and radiative recombination (RR) that are incorrect by orders of magnitude. A new fitting algorithm is proposed and is included in the latest version of HULLAC.v9.5.

  14. Differentiation of isomeric 2-aryldimethyltetrahydro-5-quinolinones by electron ionization and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ch Dinesh; Chary, V Naresh; Dinesh, A; Reddy, P S; Srinivas, K; Gayatri, G; Sastry, G N; Prabhakar, S

    2011-10-15

    A series of isomeric 2-aryl-6,6-dimethyltetrahydro-5-quinolinones (set I) and 2-aryl-7,7-dimethyltetrahydro-5-quinolinones (set II) were studied under positive ion electron ionization (EI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) techniques. Under EI conditions, the molecular ions were found to be less stable in set I isomers, and they resulted in abundant fragment ions, i.e., [M-CH(3)](+), [M-CO](+.), [M-HCO](+), [M-(CH(3),CO)](+), and [M-(CH(3),CH(2)O)](+), when compared with set II isomers. In addition, the set I isomers showed specific fragment ions corresponding to [M-OH](+) and [M-OCH(3)](+). The retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) product ion was always higher in set II isomers. The ESI mass spectra produced [M + H](+) ions, and their decomposition showed favorable loss of CH(3) radical, CH(4) and C(2)H(6) molecules in set I isomers. The set II isomers, however, showed predominant RDA product ions, and specific loss of H(2)O. The selectivity in EI and ESI was attributed to the instability of set I isomers by the presence of a gem-dimethyl group at the α-position, and it was supported by the data from model compounds without a gem-dimethyl group. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations successfully corroborated the fragmentation pathways for diagnostic ions. This study revealed the effect of a gem-dimethyl group located at the α-position to the carbonyl having aromatic/unsaturated carbon on the other side of the carbonyl group. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Herschel Galactic plane survey of ionized gas traced by [NII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Umut; Goldsmith, Paul; Pineda, Jorge; Langer, William

    2015-01-01

    Far infrared and sub-/millimeter atomic & ionic fine structure and molecular rotational lines are powerful tracers of star formation on both Galactic and extragalactic scales. Although CO lines trace cool to moderately warm molecular gas, ionized carbon [CII] produces the strongest lines, which arise from almost all reasonably warm (T>50 K) parts of the ISM. However, [CII] alone cannot distinguish highly ionized gas from weakly ionized gas. [NII] plays a significant role in star formation as it is produced only in ionized regions; in [HII] regions as well as diffuse ionized gas. The ionization potential of nitrogen (14.5 eV) is greater than that of hydrogen (13.6 eV), therefore the ionized nitrogen [NII] lines reflect the effects of massive stars, with possible enhancement from X-ray and shock heating from the surroundings. Two far-infrared 122 um and 205 um [NII] fine structure spectral lines are targeted via Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) onboard Herschel Space Observatory. The sample consists of 149 line-of-sight (LOS) positions in the Galactic plane. These positions overlap with the [CII] 158 um observations obtained with the GOT C+ survey. With a reasonable assumption that the emission from both 122 um and 205 um lines originate in the same gas; [NII] 122/205 um line ratio indicates the a good measure of the electron density of each of the LOS positions. [NII] detections are mainly toward the Galactic center direction and the [NII] electron densities are found between 7-50 cm^-3, which is enhanced WIM (Warm Ionized Medium). WIM densities are expected to be much lower (~1 cm-3), therefore non-detections toward the opposite side of the Galactic Center shows abundant of this gas. The pixel to pixel variation of the emission within a single Herschel pointing is relatively small, which is interpreted as the [NII] emission comes from an extended gas. It is important to quantify what fraction of [CII] emission arises in the ionized gas. Thus, with

  16. LABORATORY PHOTO-CHEMISTRY OF PAHs: IONIZATION VERSUS FRAGMENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen, Junfeng; Castellanos, Pablo; Ligterink, Niels

    2015-05-01

    Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are expected to be strongly processed by vacuum ultraviolet photons. Here, we report experimental studies on the ionization and fragmentation of coronene (C{sub 24}H{sub 12}), ovalene (C{sub 32}H{sub 14}) and hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC; C{sub 42}H{sub 18}) cations by exposure to synchrotron radiation in the range of 8–40 eV. The results show that for small PAH cations such as coronene, fragmentation (H-loss) is more important than ionization. However, as the size increases, ionization becomes more and more important and for the HBC cation, ionization dominates. These results are discussed and it is concluded that, for large PAHs,more » fragmentation only becomes important when the photon energy has reached the highest ionization potential accessible. This implies that PAHs are even more photo-stable than previously thought. The implications of this experimental study for the photo-chemical evolution of PAHs in the interstellar medium are briefly discussed.« less

  17. Lithium atoms on helium nanodroplets: Rydberg series and ionization dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, Florian; Krois, Günter; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2017-11-01

    The electronic excitation spectrum of lithium atoms residing on the surface of helium nanodroplets is presented and analyzed employing a Rydberg-Ritz approach. Utilizing resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy, two different Rydberg series have been identified: one assigned to the nS(Σ) series and the other with predominantly nP(Π) character. For high Rydberg states, which have been resolved up to n = 13, the surrounding helium effectively screens the valence electron from the Li ion core, as indicated by the apparent red-shift of Li transitions and lowered quantum defects on the droplet with respect to their free atom counterparts. For low n states, the screening effect is weakened and the prevailing repulsive interaction gives rise to strongly broadened and blue-shifted transitions. The red-shifts originate from the polarization of nearby He atoms by the positive Li ion core. As a consequence of this effect, the ionization threshold is lowered by 116 ± 10 cm-1 for Li on helium droplets with a radius of about 40 Å. Upon single-photon ionization, heavy complexes corresponding to Li ions attached to intact helium droplets are detected. We conclude that ionization close to the on-droplet ionization threshold triggers a dynamic process in which the Li ion core undergoes a transition from a surface site into the droplet.

  18. Soft Argon-Propane Dielectric Barrier Discharge Ionization.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Alexander; Lara-Ortega, Felipe J; Klute, Felix David; Brandt, Sebastian; Schilling, Michael; Michels, Antje; Veza, Damir; Horvatic, Vlasta; García-Reyes, Juan F; Franzke, Joachim

    2018-03-06

    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) have been used as soft ionization sources (DBDI) for organic mass spectrometry (DBDI-MS) for approximately ten years. Helium-based DBDI is often used because of its good ionization efficiency, low ignition voltage, and homogeneous plasma conditions. Argon needs much higher ignition voltages than helium when the same discharge geometry is used. A filamentary plasma, which is not suitable for soft ionization, may be produced instead of a homogeneous plasma. This difference results in N 2 , present in helium and argon as an impurity, being Penning-ionized by helium but not by metastable argon atoms. In this study, a mixture of argon and propane (C 3 H 8 ) was used as an ignition aid to decrease the ignition and working voltages, because propane can be Penning-ionized by argon metastables. This approach leads to homogeneous argon-based DBDI. Furthermore, operating DBDI in an open environment assumes that many uncharged analyte molecules do not interact with the reactant ions. To overcome this disadvantage, we present a novel approach, where the analyte is introduced in an enclosed system through the discharge capillary itself. This nonambient DBDI-MS arrangement is presented and characterized and could advance the novel connection of DBDI with analytical separation techniques such as gas chromatography (GC) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the near future.

  19. Ultraviolet absorption by highly ionized atoms in the Orion Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, J.; Savage, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer was used to obtain high-resolution, far-UV spectra of theta 1 A, theta 1 C, theta 1 D, and theta 2 A Orionis. The interstellar absorption lines in these spectra are discussed with an emphasis on the high-ionization lines of C IV and Si IV. Theta 2 A Ori has interstellar C IV and Si IV absorption of moderate strength at the velocity found for normal H II region ions. Theta 1 C Ori has very strong interstellar C IV and Si IV absorption at velocities blueshifted by about 25 km/s from that found for the normal H II region ions. The possible origin of the high-ionization lines by three processes is considered: X-ray ionization, collisional ionization, and UV photoionization. It is concluded that the C IV and Si IV ions toward theta 2 A and theta 1 C Ori are likely produced by UV photoionization of surrounding nebular gas. In the case of theta 1 C Ori, the velocity shift of the high-ionization lines may be produced through the acceleration of high-density globules in the core of the nebula by the stellar wind of theta 1 C Ori.

  20. LABORATORY PHOTO-CHEMISTRY OF PAHS: IONIZATION VERSUS FRAGMENTATION

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Junfeng; Castellanos, Pablo; Paardekooper, Daniel M.; Ligterink, Niels; Linnartz, Harold; Nahon, Laurent; Joblin, Christine; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) are expected to be strongly processed by Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV) photons. Here, we report experimental studies on the ionization and fragmentation of coronene (C24H12), ovalene (C32H14) and hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC; C42H18) cations by exposure to synchrotron radiation in the range of 8–40 eV. The results show that for small PAH cations such as coronene, fragmentation (H-loss) is more important than ionization. However, as the size increases, ionization becomes more and more important and for the HBC cation, ionization dominates. These results are discussed and it is concluded that, for large PAHs, fragmentation only becomes important when the photon energy has reached the highest ionization potential accessible. This implies that PAHs are even more photo-stable than previously thought. The implications of this experimental study for the photo-chemical evolution of PAHs in the interstellar medium (ISM) are briefly discussed. PMID:26688710

  1. Rapid ionization of the environment of SN 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raga, A. C.

    1987-01-01

    It has been suggested by some authors that IUE observations of the supernova SN 1987A show the presence of a strong component of the interstellar C IV 1550 and Si IV 1393 absorption lines at a velocity that approximately corresponds to the velocity of the LMC. It is possible that this component might come from originally neutral (or at least not very highly ionized) gas which has been photoionized by the initially very strong ionizing radiation field of the supernova. Theoretical considerations of this scenario lead to the study of fast (with velocities of about c) ionization fronts. It is shown that for reasonable model parameters it is possible to obtain considerably large C IV column densities, in agreement with the IUE observations. On the other hand, the models do not so easily predict the large Si IV column densities that are also obtained from the IUE observations. It is found that only models in which the interstellar medium surrounding SN 1987A is initially composed of already ionized hydrogen and helium predict substantial Si IV column densities. This result provides an interesting prediction of the ionization state of the environment of the presupernova star.

  2. Two-color ionization injection using a plasma beatwave accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.

    Two-color laser ionization injection is a method to generate ultra-low emittance (sub-100 nm transverse normalized emittance) beams in a laser-driven plasma accelerator. A plasma beatwave accelerator is proposed to drive the plasma wave for ionization injection, where the beating of the lasers effectively produces a train of long-wavelength pulses. The plasma beatwave accelerator excites a large amplitude plasma wave with low peak laser electric fields, leaving atomically-bound electrons with low ionization potential. A short-wavelength, low-amplitude ionization injection laser pulse (with a small ponderomotive force and large peak electric field) is used to ionize the remaining bound electrons at a wakemore » phase suitable for trapping, generating an ultra-low emittance electron beam that is accelerated in the plasma wave. Using a plasma beatwave accelerator for wakefield excitation, compared to short-pulse wakefield excitation, allows for a lower amplitude injection laser pulse and, hence, a lower emittance beam may be generated.« less

  3. Synergistic effect of ozonation and ionizing radiation for PVA decomposition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weihua; Chen, Lujun; Zhang, Yongming; Wang, Jianlong

    2015-08-01

    Ozonation and ionizing radiation are both advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) without chemical addition and secondary pollution. Also, the two processes' efficiency is determined by different pH conditions, which creates more possibilities for their combination. Importantly, the combined process of ozonation and ionizing radiation could be suitable for treating wastewaters with extreme pH values, i.e., textile wastewater. To find synergistic effects, the combined process of ozonation and ionizing radiation mineralization was investigated for degradation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at different pH levels. A synergistic effect was found at initial pH in the range 3.0-9.4. When the initial pH was 3.0, the combined process of ozonation and ionizing radiation gave a PVA mineralization degree of 17%. This was 2.7 times the sum achieved by the two individual processes, and factors of 2.1 and 1.7 were achieved at initial pH of 7.0 and 9.4, respectively. The combined process of ozonation and ionizing radiation was demonstrated to be a feasible strategy for treatment of PVA-containing wastewater. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Two-color ionization injection using a plasma beatwave accelerator

    DOE PAGES

    Schroeder, C. B.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; ...

    2018-01-10

    Two-color laser ionization injection is a method to generate ultra-low emittance (sub-100 nm transverse normalized emittance) beams in a laser-driven plasma accelerator. A plasma beatwave accelerator is proposed to drive the plasma wave for ionization injection, where the beating of the lasers effectively produces a train of long-wavelength pulses. The plasma beatwave accelerator excites a large amplitude plasma wave with low peak laser electric fields, leaving atomically-bound electrons with low ionization potential. A short-wavelength, low-amplitude ionization injection laser pulse (with a small ponderomotive force and large peak electric field) is used to ionize the remaining bound electrons at a wakemore » phase suitable for trapping, generating an ultra-low emittance electron beam that is accelerated in the plasma wave. Using a plasma beatwave accelerator for wakefield excitation, compared to short-pulse wakefield excitation, allows for a lower amplitude injection laser pulse and, hence, a lower emittance beam may be generated.« less

  5. Umbilical cord vitamin D, ionized calcium and myocardial oxygen demand.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Inez; Liang, Willie; Asadi, M Sadegh; Millis, Richard M

    2014-07-01

    Systemic blood vitamin D and total calcium are correlates of birthweight and cardiovascular disease but whether umbilical cord blood vitamin D and ionized calcium are correlates of birthweight and cardiovascular function is not known. This cross-sectional study correlates umbilical cord vitamin D, ionized calcium and birthweight with the heart rate-systolic pressure product (RPP), an indicator of myocardial oxygen demand. Cord blood vitamin D and ionized calcium concentrations were compared for vitamin D normal (≥50 nM, 20 ng/mL) and vitamin D deficiency (<50 nM, 20 ng/mL) in normal weight (≥2500 g) and low birthweight (LBW, <2500 g) newborns. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured during postnatal transition and RPP was computed. RPP was positively correlated with birthweight (r = +0.52, p < 0.001) and with cord ionized calcium level (r = +0.42, p < 0.01) in the normal and LBW newborns. RPP was positively correlated with cord vitamin D level in the LBW newborns (raw r = +0.50, p < 0.05, normalized for birthweight r = +0.73, p < 0.01). Small RPP, an indicator of low myocardial oxygen demand, in LBW newborns appears to correlate with low umbilical cord vitamin D and ionized calcium levels, suggestive of pathological heart development.

  6. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Ionization Energy Lowering in Water Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2004-01-01

    In studying various interstellar and solar system ice analogs, we have recently found that upon vacuum ultraviolet photolysis, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frozen in water ice at low temperatures are easily ionized and indefinitely stabilized as trapped ions (Gudipati; Gudipati & Allamandola). Here we report the first experimental study that shows that PAH ionization energy is significantly lowered in PAH/H2O ices, in agreement with recent theoretical work (Woon & Park). The ionization energy (IE) of the PAH studied here, quaterrylene (C40H20, IE = 6.11 eV), is lowered by up to 2.11 eV in water ice. PAH ionization energy reduction in low-temperature water ice substantially expands the astronomical regions in which trapped ions and electrons may be important. This reduction in ionization energy should also hold for other types of trapped species in waterrich interstellar, circumstellar, and solar system ices. Subject headings: ISM: clouds - methods: laboratory - molecular processes - radiation mechanisms: nonthermal -ultraviolet: ISM - ultraviolet: solar system

  7. Generation of polypeptide-templated gold nanoparticles using ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Candace Rae; Pushpavanam, Karthik; Nair, Divya Geetha; Potta, Thrimoorthy; Sutiyoso, Caesario; Kodibagkar, Vikram D; Sapareto, Stephen; Chang, John; Rege, Kaushal

    2013-08-13

    Ionizing radiation, including γ rays and X-rays, are high-energy electromagnetic radiation with diverse applications in nuclear energy, astrophysics, and medicine. In this work, we describe the use of ionizing radiation and cysteine-containing elastin-like polypeptides (C(n)ELPs, where n = 2 or 12 cysteines in the polypeptide sequence) for the generation of gold nanoparticles. In the presence of C(n)ELPs, ionizing radiation doses higher than 175 Gy resulted in the formation of maroon-colored gold nanoparticle dispersions, with maximal absorbance at 520 nm, from colorless metal salts. Visible color changes were not observed in any of the control systems, indicating that ionizing radiation, gold salt solution, and C(n)ELPs were all required for nanoparticle formation. The hydrodynamic diameters of nanoparticles, determined using dynamic light scattering, were in the range of 80-150 nm, while TEM imaging indicated the formation of gold cores 10-20 nm in diameter. Interestingly, C2ELPs formed 1-2 nm diameter gold nanoparticles in the absence of radiation. Our results describe a facile method of nanoparticle formation in which nanoparticle size can be tailored based on radiation dose and C(n)ELP type. Further improvements in these polypeptide-based systems can lead to colorimetric detection of ionizing radiation in a variety of applications.

  8. Renormalization group method based on the ionization energy theory

    SciTech Connect

    Arulsamy, Andrew Das, E-mail: sadwerdna@gmail.com; School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006

    2011-03-15

    Proofs are developed to explicitly show that the ionization energy theory is a renormalized theory, which mathematically exactly satisfies the renormalization group formalisms developed by Gell-Mann-Low, Shankar and Zinn-Justin. However, the cutoff parameter for the ionization energy theory relies on the energy-level spacing, instead of lattice point spacing in k-space. Subsequently, we apply the earlier proofs to prove that the mathematical structure of the ionization-energy dressed electron-electron screened Coulomb potential is exactly the same as the ionization-energy dressed electron-phonon interaction potential. The latter proof is proven by means of the second-order time-independent perturbation theory with the heavier effective mass condition,more » as required by the electron-electron screened Coulomb potential. The outcome of this proof is that we can derive the heat capacity and the Debye frequency as a function of ionization energy, which can be applied in strongly correlated matter and nanostructures.« less

  9. Ionization of Rydberg atoms colliding with a metal surface

    SciTech Connect

    Sjakste, J.; Borisov, A. G.; Gauyacq, J. P.

    2006-04-15

    We report on a theoretical study of the ionization process of Xe* Rydberg atoms colliding with a metal surface, in the presence of an external electric field. The evolution of the Xe* outer electron is studied by a wave packet propagation approach, allowing to include all dynamical aspects of the collision, in particular nonadiabatic inter-Rydberg transitions. We investigate how the different Xe* Stark states formed in the external field couple together and ionize on the surface and how the different polarizations of the electronic cloud in the Xe* states are reflected in their ionization properties. We show that the presencemore » of the external electric field can significantly perturb the dynamics of the ionization process. Our results account for recent results from Dunning et al. [Nucl. Inst. Meth. B 203, 69 (2003)]. In particular, it is explained how the external electric field present in the experimental procedure of Dunning et al. leads to the apparent absence of a polarization effect in the ionization process.« less

  10. Pre-Ionization Controlled Laser Plasma Formation for Ignition Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shneider, Mikhail

    The presented research explored new physics and ignition schemes based on laser induced plasmas that are fundamentally distinct from past laser ignition research focused on single laser pulses. Specifically, we consider the use of multiple laser pulses where the first pulse provides pre-ionization allowing controlled absorption of the second pulse. In this way, we can form tailored laser plasmas in terms of their ionization fraction, gas temperature (e.g. to achieve elevated temperature of ~2000 K ideally suited for an ignition source), reduced energy loss to shock waves and radiation, and large kernel size (e.g. length ~1-10 cm). The proposed researchmore » included both experimental and modeling efforts, at Colorado State University, Princeton University and University of Tennessee, towards the basic science of the new laser plasma approach with emphasis on tailoring the plasmas to practical propulsion systems. Experimental results (CSU) show that the UV beam produces a pre-ionized volume which assists in breakdown of the NIR beam, leading to reduction in NIR breakdown threshold by factor of >2. Numerical modeling is performed to examine the ionization and breakdown of both beams. The main theoretical and computational parts of the work were done at Princeton University. The modeled breakdown threshold of the NIR, including assist by pre-ionization, is in reasonable agreement with the experimental results.« less

  11. Losartan sensitizes selectively prostate cancer cell to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Yazdannejat, H; Hosseinimehr, S J; Ghasemi, A; Pourfallah, T A; Rafiei, A

    2016-01-11

    Losartan is an angiotensin II receptor (AT-II-R) blocker that is widely used by human for blood pressure regulation. Also, it has antitumor property. In this study, we investigated the radiosensitizing effect of losartan on cellular toxicity induced by ionizing radiation on prostate cancer and non-malignant fibroblast cells. Human prostate cancer (DU-145) and human non-malignant fibroblast cells (HFFF2) were treated with losartan at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 10, 50 and 100 µM) and then these cells were exposed to ionizing radiation. The cell proliferation was determined using MTT assay. Our results showed that losartan exhibited antitumor effect on prostate cancer cells; it was reduced cell survival to 66% at concentration 1 µM. Losartan showed an additive killing effect in combination with ionizing radiation on prostate cancer cell. The cell proliferation was reduced to 54% in the prostate cancer cells treated with losartan at concentration 1 µM in combination with ionizing radiation. Losartan did not exhibit any toxicity on HFFF2 cell. This result shows a promising effect of losartan on enhancement of therapeutic effect of ionizing radiation in patients during therapy.

  12. Avalanche multiplication and impact ionization in amorphous selenium photoconductive target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Wug-Dong; Tanioka, Kenkichi

    2014-03-01

    The avalanche multiplication factor and the hole ionization coefficient in the amorphous selenium (a-Se) high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor (HARP) target depend on the electric field. The phenomenon of avalanche multiplication and impact ionization in the 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP target is investigated. The hot carrier energy in the 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP target increases linearly as the target voltage increases. The energy relaxation length of hot carriers in the a-Se photoconductor of the 0.4-µm-thick HARP target saturates as the electric field increases. The average energy Eav of a hot carrier and the energy relaxation length λE in the a-Se photoconductor of the 0.4-µm-thick HARP target at 1 × 108 V/m were 0.25 eV and 2.5 nm, respectively. In addition, the hole ionization coefficient β and the avalanche multiplication factor M are derived as a function of the electric field, the average energy of a hot carrier, and the impact ionization energy. The experimental hole ionization coefficient β and the avalanche multiplication factor M in the 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP target agree with the theoretical results.

  13. Specific cationic emission of cisplatin following ionization by swift protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto-Capelle, Patrick; Champeaux, Jean-Philippe; Deville, Charlotte; Sence, Martine; Cafarelli, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    We have investigated collision-induced ionization and fragmentation by 100 keV protons of the radio sensitizing molecule cisplatin, which is used in cancer treatments. A large emission of HCl+ and NH2+ is observed, but surprisingly, no cationic fragments containing platinum are detected, in contrast to ionization-dissociation induced by electronic collision. Theoretical investigations show that the ionization processes take place on platinum and on chlorine atoms. We propose new ionization potentials for cisplatin. Dissociation limits corresponding to the measured fragmentation mass spectrum have been evaluated and the theoretical results show that the non-observed cationic fragments containing platinum are mostly associated with low dissociation energies. We have also investigated the reaction path for the hydrogen transfer from the NH3 group to the Cl atom, as well as the corresponding dissociation limits from this tautomeric form. Here again the cations containing platinum correspond to lower dissociation limits. Thus, the experimental results suggest that excited states, probably formed via inner-shell ionization of the platinum atom of the molecule, correlated to higher dissociation limits are favored.

  14. Fast Ionized X-ray Absorbers in AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumura, K.; Tombesi, F.; Kazanas, D.; Shrader, C.; Behar, E.; Contopoulos, I.

    2015-07-01

    We present a study of X-ray ionization of MHD accretion-disk wind models in an effort to explain the highly-ionized ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) identified as X-ray absorbers recently detected in various sub-classes of Seyfert AGNs. Our primary focus is to show that magnetically-driven outflows are physically plausible candidates to account for the AGN X-ray spectroscopic observations. We calculate its X-ray ionization and the ensuing X-ray absorption line spectra in comparison with an XXM-Newton/EPIC spectrum of the narrow-line Seyfert AGN, PG 1211+143. We find, through identifying the detected features with Fe Kα transitions, that the absorber has a characteristic ionization parameter of log(xi[erg cm/s]) = 5-6 and a hydrogen-equivalent column density on the order of 1e23 cm-2, outflowing at a sub-relativistic velocity of v/c = 0.1-0.2. The best-fit model favors its radial location at R = 200 Rs (Rs is the Schwarzschild radius), with a disk inner truncation radius at Rt = 30Rs. The overall K-shell feature in data is suggested to be dominated by Fe XXV with very little contribution from Fe XXVI and weakly-ionized iron, which is in a good agreement with a series of earlier analysis of the UFOs in various AGNs including PG 1211+143.

  15. Experimental Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization (REMPI) studies of small molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehmer, J. L.; Dehmer, P. M.; Pratt, S. T.; Ohalloran, M. A.; Tomkins, F. S.

    1987-01-01

    Resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) utilizes tunable dye lasers to ionize an atom or molecule by first preparing an excited state by multiphoton absorption and then ionizing that state before it can decay. This process is highly selective with respect to both the initial and resonant intermediate states of the target, and it can be extremely sensitive. In addition, the products of the REMPI process can be detected as needed by analyzing the resulting electrons, ions, fluorescence, or by additional REMPI. This points to a number of exciting opportunities for both basic and applied science. On the applied side, REMPI has great potential as an ultrasensitive, highly selective detector for trace, reactive, or transient species. On the basic side, REMPI affords an unprecedented means of exploring excited state physics and chemistry at the quantum-state-specific level. An overview of current studies of excited molecular states is given to illustrate the principles and prospects of REMPI.

  16. Ionization waves of arbitrary velocity driven by a flying focus

    SciTech Connect

    Palastro, J. P.; Turnbull, D.; Bahk, S. -W.

    A chirped laser pulse focused by a chromatic lens exhibits a dynamic, or flying, focus in which the trajectory of the peak intensity decouples from the group velocity. In a medium, the flying focus can trigger an ionization front that follows this trajectory. By adjusting the chirp, the ionization front can be made to travel at an arbitrary velocity along the optical axis. For this study, we present analytical calculations and simulations describing the propagation of the flying focus pulse, the self-similar form of its intensity profile, and ionization wave formation. The ability to control the speed of the ionizationmore » wave and, in conjunction, mitigate plasma refraction has the potential to advance several laser-based applications, including Raman amplification, photon acceleration, high-order-harmonic generation, and THz generation.« less

  17. Shock-wave structure in a partially ionized gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, C. S.; Huang, A. B.

    1974-01-01

    The structure of a steady plane shock in a partially ionized gas has been investigated using the Boltzmann equation with a kinetic model as the governing equation and the discrete ordinate method as a tool. The effects of the electric field induced by the charge separation on the shock structure have also been studied. Although the three species of an ionized gas travel with approximately the same macroscopic velocity, the individual distribution functions are found to be very different. In a strong shock the atom distribution function may have double peaks, while the ion distribution function has only one peak. Electrons are heated up much earlier than ions and atoms in a partially ionized gas. Because the interactions of electrons with atoms and with ions are different, the ion temperature can be different from the atom temperature.

  18. Ionization of Atoms by Slow Heavy Particles, Including Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    Roberts, B M; Flambaum, V V; Gribakin, G F

    2016-01-15

    Atoms and molecules can become ionized during the scattering of a slow, heavy particle off a bound electron. Such an interaction involving leptophilic weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) is a promising possible explanation for the anomalous 9σ annual modulation in the DAMA dark matter direct detection experiment [R. Bernabei et al., Eur. Phys. J. C 73, 2648 (2013)]. We demonstrate the applicability of the Born approximation for such an interaction by showing its equivalence to the semiclassical adiabatic treatment of atomic ionization by slow-moving WIMPs. Conventional wisdom has it that the ionization probability for such a process should be exponentially small. We show, however, that due to nonanalytic, cusplike behavior of Coulomb functions close to the nucleus this suppression is removed, leading to an effective atomic structure enhancement. We also show that electron relativistic effects actually give the dominant contribution to such a process, enhancing the differential cross section by up to 1000 times.

  19. Temperature dependence of electron impact ionization coefficient in bulk silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mowfaq Jalil

    2017-09-01

    This work exhibits a modified procedure to compute the electron impact ionization coefficient of silicon for temperatures between 77 and 800K and electric fields ranging from 70 to 400 kV/cm. The ionization coefficients are computed from the electron momentum distribution function through solving the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE). The arrangement is acquired by joining Legendre polynomial extension with BTE. The resulting BTE is solved by differences-differential method using MATLAB®. Six (X) equivalent ellipsoidal and non-parabolic valleys of the conduction band of silicon are taken into account. Concerning the scattering mechanisms, the interval acoustic scattering, non-polar optical scattering and II scattering are taken into consideration. This investigation showed that the ionization coefficients decrease with increasing temperature. The overall results are in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical reported data predominantly at high electric fields.

  20. The ionizing radiation of Seyfert 2 galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Luis C.; Shields, Joseph C.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    1993-01-01

    We report the discovery of a nonrandom trend in the dispersion of emission-line intensity ratios for Seyfert 2 galaxies. The sense of this pattern suggests the influence of a single physical parameter, the hardness of the ionizing continuum, which controls the heating energy per ionizing photon. We compare the observed line ratios with new photoionization calculations and find that the observed distributions can be reproduced if the ionizing continuum is parametrized by a power law. Our results also suggest an inverse correlation between luminosity and continuum hardness for Seyfert 2 nuclei; if true, this trend extends a similar pattern known in quasars and Seyfert 1 galaxies to active galactic nuclei of lower luminosity. Samples of Seyfert 2 nuclei with improved selection uniformity are desirable for elaboration of these findings.

  1. Scaling Cross Sections for Ion-atom Impact Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2003-06-06

    The values of ion-atom ionization cross sections are frequently needed for many applications that utilize the propagation of fast ions through matter. When experimental data and theoretical calculations are not available, approximate formulas are frequently used. This paper briefly summarizes the most important theoretical results and approaches to cross section calculations in order to place the discussion in historical perspective and offer a concise introduction to the topic. Based on experimental data and theoretical predictions, a new fit for ionization cross sections is proposed. The range of validity and accuracy of several frequently used approximations (classical trajectory, the Born approximation,more » and so forth) are discussed using, as examples, the ionization cross sections of hydrogen and helium atoms by various fully stripped ions.« less

  2. Measuring Ionization in Highly Compressed, Near-Degenerate Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doeppner, Tilo; Kraus, D.; Neumayer, P.; Bachmann, B.; Collins, G. W.; Divol, L.; Kritcher, A.; Landen, O. L.; Pak, A.; Weber, C.; Fletcher, L.; Glenzer, S. H.; Falcone, R. W.; Saunders, A.; Chapman, D.; Baggott, R.; Gericke, D. O.; Yi, A.

    2016-10-01

    A precise knowledge of ionization at given temperature and density is required to accurately model compressibility and heat capacity of materials at extreme conditions. We use x-ray Thomson scattering to characterize the plasma conditions in plastic and beryllium capsules near stagnation in implosion experiments at the National Ignition Facility. We expect the capsules to be compressed to more than 20x and electron densities approaching 1025 cm-3, corresponding to a Fermi energy of 170 eV. Zinc Heα x-rays (9 keV) scattering at 120° off the plasma yields high sensitivity to K-shell ionization, while at the same time constraining density and temperature. We will discuss recent results in the context of ionization potential depression at these extreme conditions. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Nonsequential double ionization with mid-infrared laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ying -Bin; Wang, Xu; Yu, Ben -Hai

    Using a full-dimensional Monte Carlo classical ensemble method, we present a theoretical study of atomic nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) with mid-infrared laser fields, and compare with results from near-infrared laser fields. Unlike single-electron strong-field processes, double ionization shows complex and unexpected interplays between the returning electron and its parent ion core. As a result of these interplays, NSDI for mid-IR fields is dominated by second-returning electron trajectories, instead of first-returning trajectories for near-IR fields. Here, some complex NSDI channels commonly happen with near-IR fields, such as the recollision-excitation-with-subsequent-ionization (RESI) channel, are virtually shut down by mid-IR fields. Besides, the finalmore » energies of the two electrons can be extremely unequal, leading to novel e-e momentum correlation spectra that can be measured experimentally.« less

  4. Nonsequential double ionization with mid-infrared laser fields

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Ying -Bin; Wang, Xu; Yu, Ben -Hai; ...

    2016-11-18

    Using a full-dimensional Monte Carlo classical ensemble method, we present a theoretical study of atomic nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) with mid-infrared laser fields, and compare with results from near-infrared laser fields. Unlike single-electron strong-field processes, double ionization shows complex and unexpected interplays between the returning electron and its parent ion core. As a result of these interplays, NSDI for mid-IR fields is dominated by second-returning electron trajectories, instead of first-returning trajectories for near-IR fields. Here, some complex NSDI channels commonly happen with near-IR fields, such as the recollision-excitation-with-subsequent-ionization (RESI) channel, are virtually shut down by mid-IR fields. Besides, the finalmore » energies of the two electrons can be extremely unequal, leading to novel e-e momentum correlation spectra that can be measured experimentally.« less

  5. Dynamic conductivity and partial ionization in dense fluid hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaghoo, Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    A theoretical description for optical conduction experiments in dense fluid hydrogen is presented. Different quantum statistical approaches are used to describe the mechanism of electronic transport in hydrogen's high-temperature dense phase. We show that at the onset of the metallic transition, optical conduction could be described by a strong rise in atomic polarizability, due to increased ionization, whereas in the highly degenerate limit, the Ziman weak scattering model better accounts for the observed saturation of reflectance. The inclusion of effects of partial ionization in the highly degenerate region provides great agreement with experimental results. Hydrogen's fluid metallic state is revealed to be a partially ionized free-electron plasma. Our results provide some of the first theoretical transport models that are experimentally benchmarked, as well as an important guide for future studies.

  6. Ionization waves of arbitrary velocity driven by a flying focus

    DOE PAGES

    Palastro, J. P.; Turnbull, D.; Bahk, S. -W.; ...

    2018-03-01

    A chirped laser pulse focused by a chromatic lens exhibits a dynamic, or flying, focus in which the trajectory of the peak intensity decouples from the group velocity. In a medium, the flying focus can trigger an ionization front that follows this trajectory. By adjusting the chirp, the ionization front can be made to travel at an arbitrary velocity along the optical axis. For this study, we present analytical calculations and simulations describing the propagation of the flying focus pulse, the self-similar form of its intensity profile, and ionization wave formation. The ability to control the speed of the ionizationmore » wave and, in conjunction, mitigate plasma refraction has the potential to advance several laser-based applications, including Raman amplification, photon acceleration, high-order-harmonic generation, and THz generation.« less

  7. Dynamic Conductivity and Partial Ionization in Warm, Dense Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaghoo, M.; Silvera, I. F.

    2017-10-01

    A theoretical description for optical conduction experiments in dense fluid hydrogen is presented. Different quantum statistical approaches are used to describe the mechanism of electron transport in hydrogen's high-temperature dense phase. We show that at the onset of the metallic transition, optical conduction could be described by a strong rise in the atomic polarizability, resulting from increased ionization; whereas in the highly degenerate limit, the Ziman weak-scattering model better describes the observed saturation of reflectance. In the highly degenerate region, the inclusion of partial ionization effects provides excellent agreement with experimental results. Hydrogen's fluid metallic state is revealed to be a partially ionized free-electron plasma. These results provide a crucial benchmark for ab initio calculations as well as an important guide for future experiments. Research supported by DOE Stockpile Stewardship Academic Alliance Program, Grant DE-FG52-10NA29656, and NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship Program, Award NNX14AP17H.

  8. Propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in optically ionized gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A.; Luo, Y.; Suckewer, S.; Gordon, D. F.; Sprangle, P.

    2010-02-01

    Propagation of 800 nm, 120 fs laser pulses with intensities of 4×1016 W/cm2 in supersonic gas jets of N2 and H2 is studied using a shear-type interferometer. The plasma density distribution resulting from photoionization is resolved in space and time with simultaneously measured initial neutral density distribution. A distinct difference in laser beam propagation distance is observed when comparing propagation in jets of H2 and N2. This is interpreted in terms of ionization induced refraction, which is stronger when electrons are produced from states of higher ionization potential. Three dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, based on directly solving the Maxwell-Lorentz system of equations, show the roles played by the forward Raman and ionization scattering instabilities, which further affect the propagation distance.

  9. Spatially resolved thermal desorption/ionization coupled with mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse, Stephen; Van Berkel, Gary J; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2013-02-26

    A system and method for sub-micron analysis of a chemical composition of a specimen are described. The method includes providing a specimen for evaluation and a thermal desorption probe, thermally desorbing an analyte from a target site of said specimen using the thermally active tip to form a gaseous analyte, ionizing the gaseous analyte to form an ionized analyte, and analyzing a chemical composition of the ionized analyte. The thermally desorbing step can include heating said thermally active tip to above 200.degree. C., and positioning the target site and the thermally active tip such that the heating step forms themore » gaseous analyte. The thermal desorption probe can include a thermally active tip extending from a cantilever body and an apex of the thermally active tip can have a radius of 250 nm or less.« less

  10. Low-Pressure, Field-Ionizing Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank; Smith, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A small mass spectrometer utilizing a miniature field ionization source is now undergoing development. It is designed for use in a variety of applications in which there are requirements for a lightweight, low-power-consumption instrument that can analyze the masses of a wide variety of molecules and ions. The device can operate without need for a high-vacuum, carrier-gas feed radioactive ionizing source, or thermal ionizer. This mass spectrometer can operate either in the natural vacuum of outer space or on Earth at any ambient pressure below 50 torr (below about 6.7 kPa) - a partial vacuum that can easily be reached by use of a small sampling pump. This mass spectrometer also has a large dynamic range - from singly charged small gas ions to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragments larger than 104 atomic mass units - with sensitivity adequate for detecting some molecules and ions at relative abundances of less than one part per billion. This instrument (see figure) includes a field ionizer integrated with a rotating-field mass spectrometer (RFMS). The field ionizer effects ionization of a type characterized as "soft" in the art because it does not fragment molecules or initiate avalanche arcing. What makes the "soft" ionization mode possible is that the distance between the ionizing electrodes is less than mean free path for ions at the maximum anticipated operating pressure, so that the ionizer always operates on the non-breakdown side of the applicable Paschen curve (a standard plot of breakdown potential on the ordinate and pressure electrode separation on the abscissa). The field ionizer in this instrument is fabricated by micromachining a submicron-thick membrane out of an electrically nonconductive substrate, coating the membrane on both sides to form electrodes, then micromachining small holes through the electrodes and membrane. Because of the submicron electrode separation, even a potential of only 1 V applied between the electrodes gives rise to an electric

  11. Decomposition of persistent pharmaceuticals in wastewater by ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Osawa, Misako; Taguchi, Mitsumasa

    2012-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals in wastewater were treated by the combined method of activated sludge and ionizing radiation in laboratory scale. Oseltamivir, aspirin, and ibuprofen at 5 μmol dm-3 in wastewater were decomposed by the activated sludge at reaction time for 4 h. Carbamazepine, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, clofibric acid, and diclofenac were not biodegraded completely, but were eliminated by γ-ray irradiation at 2 kGy. The rate constants of the reactions of these pharmaceuticals with hydroxyl radicals were estimated by the competition reaction method to be 4.0-10×109 mol-1 dm3 s-1. Decompositions of the pharmaceuticals in wastewater by ionizing radiation were simulated by use of the rate constants and the amount of total organic carbon as parameters. Simulation curves of concentrations of these pharmaceuticals as a function of dose described the experimental data, and the required dose for the elimination of them in wastewater by ionizing radiation can be estimated by this simulation.

  12. Comparison of Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization and Field Ionization Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Large Saturated Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunfen; Viidanoja, Jyrki; Li, Mingzhe; Zhang, Yuyang; Ikonen, Elias; Root, Andrew; Romanczyk, Mark; Manheim, Jeremy; Dziekonski, Eric; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

    2016-11-01

    Direct infusion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) was compared to field ionization mass spectrometry (FI-MS) for the determination of hydrocarbon class distributions in lubricant base oils. When positive ion mode APCI with oxygen as the ion source gas was employed to ionize saturated hydrocarbon model compounds (M) in hexane, only stable [M - H] + ions were produced. Ion-molecule reaction studies performed in a linear quadrupole ion trap suggested that fragment ions of ionized hexane can ionize saturated hydrocarbons via hydride abstraction with minimal fragmentation. Hence, APCI-MS shows potential as an alternative of FI-MS in lubricant base oil analysis. Indeed, the APCI-MS method gave similar average molecular weights and hydrocarbon class distributions as FI-MS for three lubricant base oils. However, the reproducibility of APCI-MS method was found to be substantially better than for FI-MS. The paraffinic content determined using the APCI-MS and FI-MS methods for the base oils was similar. The average number of carbons in paraffinic chains followed the same increasing trend from low viscosity to high viscosity base oils for the two methods.

  13. Critical assessment of ionization patterns and applications of ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using FAPA-MS.

    PubMed

    Brüggemann, Martin; Karu, Einar; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    Ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MS) has gained growing interest during the last decade due to its high analytical performance and yet simplicity. Here, one of the recently developed ambient desorption/ionization MS sources, the flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) source, was investigated in detail regarding background ions and typical ionization patterns in the positive as well as the negative ion mode for a variety of compound classes, comprising alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, organic peroxides and alkaloids. A broad range of signals for adducts and losses was found, besides the usually emphasized detection of quasimolecular ions, i.e. [M + H](+) and [M - H](-) in the positive and the negative mode, respectively. It was found that FAPA-MS is best suited for polar analytes containing nitrogen and/or oxygen functionalities, e.g. carboxylic acids, with low molecular weights and relatively high vapor pressures. In addition, the source was used in proof-of-principle studies, illustrating the capabilities and limitations of the technique: Firstly, traces of cocaine were detected and unambiguously identified on euro banknotes using FAPA ionization in combination with tandem MS, suggesting a correlation between cocaine abundance and age of the banknote. Secondly, FAPA-MS was used for the identification of acidic marker compounds in organic aerosol samples, indicating yet-undiscovered matrix and sample surface effects of ionization pathways in the afterglow region. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Choosing between atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and electrospray ionization interfaces for the HPLC/MS analysis of pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Ferrer, I.; Barcelo, D.

    2001-01-01

    An evaluation of over 75 pesticides by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) clearly shows that different classes of pesticides are more sensitive using either atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) or electrospray ionization (ESI). For example, neutral and basic pesticides (phenylureas, triazines) are more sensitive using APCI (especially positive ion). While cationic and anionic herbicides (bipyridylium ions, sulfonic acids) are more sensitive using ESI (especially negative ion). These data are expressed graphically in a figure called an ionization-continuum diagram, which shows that protonation in the gas phase (proton affinity) and polarity in solution, expressed as proton addition or subtraction (pKa), is useful in selecting APCI or ESI. Furthermore, sodium adduct formation commonly occurs using positive ion ESI but not using positive ion APCI, which reflects the different mechanisms of ionization and strengthens the usefulness of the ionization-continuum diagram. The data also show that the concept of "wrong-way around" ESI (the sensitivity of acidic pesticides in an acidic mobile phase) is a useful modification of simple pKa theory for mobile-phase selection. Finally, this finding is used to enhance the chromatographic separation of oxanilic and sulfonic acid herbicides while maintaining good sensitivity in LC/MS using ESI negative.

  15. Quantifying Uranium Isotope Ratios Using Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry: The Influence of Laser Parameters on Relative Ionization Probability

    SciTech Connect

    Isselhardt, Brett H.

    2011-09-01

    Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS) has been developed as a method to measure relative uranium isotope abundances. In this approach, RIMS is used as an element-selective ionization process to provide a distinction between uranium atoms and potential isobars without the aid of chemical purification and separation. We explore the laser parameters critical to the ionization process and their effects on the measured isotope ratio. Specifically, the use of broad bandwidth lasers with automated feedback control of wavelength was applied to the measurement of 235U/ 238U ratios to decrease laser-induced isotopic fractionation. By broadening the bandwidth of the first laser inmore » a 3-color, 3-photon ionization process from a bandwidth of 1.8 GHz to about 10 GHz, the variation in sequential relative isotope abundance measurements decreased from >10% to less than 0.5%. This procedure was demonstrated for the direct interrogation of uranium oxide targets with essentially no sample preparation. A rate equation model for predicting the relative ionization probability has been developed to study the effect of variation in laser parameters on the measured isotope ratio. This work demonstrates that RIMS can be used for the robust measurement of uranium isotope ratios.« less

  16. Massive Stars and the Ionization of the Diffuse Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahre, Lauren E.; Walterbos, Rene A. M.

    2015-08-01

    Diffuse ionized Gas (DIG, sometimes called the warm ionized medium or WIM) has been recognized as a major component of the interstellar medium (ISM) in disk galaxies. A general understanding of the characteristics of the DIG is emerging, but several questions remain unanswered. One of these is the ionization mechanism for this gas, believed to be connected to OB stars and HII regions. Using 5-band (NUV (2750 A), U, V, B, and I) photometric imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Legacy Extragalactic Ultraviolet Survey (LEGUS) and ground-based Halpha data from the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) survey and HST Halpha data from LEGUS, we will investigate the photoionization of HII regions and DIG in nearly 50 galaxies. The 5-band photometry will enable us to determine properties of the most massive stars and reddening corrections for specific regions within a galaxy. Luminosities and ages for groups and clusters will be obtained from SED-fitting of photometric data. For individual stars ages will be determined from isochrone-fitting using reddening-corrected color-magnitude diagrams. We can then obtain estimates of the ionizing luminosities by matching these photometric properties for massive stars and clusters to various stellar atmosphere models. We will compare these predictions to the inferred Lyman continuum production rates from reddening-corrected ground- and HST-based Halpha data for HII regions and DIG. This particular presentation will demonstrate the above process for a set of selected regions in galaxies within the LEGUS sample. It will subsequently be expanded to cover the full LEGUS sample, with the overall goals of obtaining a better understanding of the radiative energy feedback from massive stars on the ISM, particularly their ability to ionize the surrounding ISM over a wide range of spatial scales and SFR surface densities, and to connect the ionization of the ISM to HII region morphologies.

  17. Penning ionization widths by Fano-algebraic diagrammatic construction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Renjie; Narevicius, Edvardas; Averbukh, Vitali

    2018-03-01

    We present an ab initio theory and computational method for Penning ionization widths. Our method is based on the Fano theory of resonances, algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC) scheme for many-electron systems, and Stieltjes imaging procedure. It includes an extension of the Fano-ADC scheme [V. Averbukh and L. S. Cederbaum, J. Chem. Phys. 123, 204107 (2005)] to triplet excited states. Penning ionization widths of various He*-H2 states are calculated as a function of the distance R between He* and H2. We analyze the asymptotic (large-R) dependences of the Penning widths in the region where the well-established electron transfer mechanism of the decay is suppressed by the multipole- and/or spin-forbidden energy transfer. The R-12 and R-8 power laws are derived for the asymptotes of the Penning widths of the singlet and triplet excited states of He*(1s2s1,3S), respectively. We show that the electron transfer mechanism dominates Penning ionization of He*(1s2s 3S)-H2 up until the He*-H2 separation is large enough for the radiative decay of He* to become the dominant channel. The same mechanism also dominates the ionization of He*(1s2s 1S)-H2 when R < 5 Å. We estimate that the regime of energy transfer in the He*-H2 Penning ionization cannot be reached by approaching zero collisional temperature. However, the multipole-forbidden energy transfer mechanism can become important for Penning ionization in doped helium droplets.

  18. THE FRACTIONAL IONIZATION OF THE WARM NEUTRAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Edward B., E-mail: ebj@astro.princeton.edu

    2013-02-10

    When the neutral interstellar medium is exposed to extreme-ultraviolet and soft X-ray radiation, the argon atoms in it are far more susceptible to being ionized than the hydrogen atoms. We make use of this fact to determine the level of ionization in the nearby warm neutral medium. By analyzing Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer observations of ultraviolet spectra of 44 hot subdwarf stars a few hundred parsecs away from the Sun, we can compare column densities of Ar I to those of O I, where the relative ionization of oxygen can be used as a proxy for that of hydrogen. The measuredmore » deficiency [Ar I/O I]=-0.427{+-}0.11 dex below the expectation for a fully neutral medium implies that the electron density n(e) Almost-Equal-To 0.04 cm{sup -3} if n(H) = 0.5 cm{sup -3}. This amount of ionization is considerably larger than what we expect from primary photoionizations resulting from cosmic rays, the diffuse X-ray background, and X-ray emitting sources within the medium, along with the additional ionizations caused by energetic secondary photoelectrons, Auger electrons, and photons from helium recombinations. We favor an explanation that bursts of radiation created by previous, nearby supernova remnants that have faded by now may have elevated the ionization, and the gas has not yet recombined to a quiescent level. A different alternative is that the low-energy portion of the soft X-ray background is poorly shielded by the H I because it is frothy and has internal pockets of very hot, X-ray emitting gases.« less

  19. Local shear instabilities in weakly ionized, weakly magnetized disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaes, Omer M.; Balbus, Steven A.

    1994-01-01

    We extend the analysis of axisymmetric magnetic shear instabilities from ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows to weakly ionized plasmas with coupling between ions and neutrals caused by collisions, ionization, and recombination. As part of the analysis, we derive the single-fluid MHD dispersion relation without invoking the Boussinesq approximation. This work expands the range of applications of these instabilities from fully ionized accretion disks to molecular disks in galaxies and, with somewhat more uncertainty, to protostellar disks. Instability generally requires the angular velocity to decrease outward, the magnetic field strengths to be subthermal, and the ions and neutrals to be sufficiently well coupled. If ionization and recombination processes can be neglected on an orbital timescale, adequate coupling is achieved when the collision frequency of a given neutral with the ions exceeds the local epicyclic freqency. When ionization equilibrium is maintained on an orbital timescale, a new feature is present in the disk dynamics: in contrast to a single-fluid system, subthermal azimuthal fields can affect the axisymmetric stability of weakly ionized two-fluid systems. We discuss the underlying causes for this behavior. Azimuthal fields tend to be stabilizing under these circumstances, and good coupling between the neutrals and ions requires the collision frequency to exceed the epicyclic frequency by a potentially large secant factor related to the magnetic field geometry. When the instability is present, subthermal azimuthal fields may also reduce the growth rate unless the collision frequency is high, but this is important only if the field strengths are very subthermal and/or the azimuthal field is the dominant field component. We briefly discuss our results in the context of the Galactic center circumnuclear disk, and suggest that the shear instability might be present there, and be responsible for the observed turbulent motions.

  20. IDENTIFYING IONIZED REGIONS IN NOISY REDSHIFTED 21 cm DATA SETS

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, Matthew; Lidz, Adam, E-mail: mattma@sas.upenn.edu

    One of the most promising approaches for studying reionization is to use the redshifted 21 cm line. Early generations of redshifted 21 cm surveys will not, however, have the sensitivity to make detailed maps of the reionization process, and will instead focus on statistical measurements. Here, we show that it may nonetheless be possible to directly identify ionized regions in upcoming data sets by applying suitable filters to the noisy data. The locations of prominent minima in the filtered data correspond well with the positions of ionized regions. In particular, we corrupt semi-numeric simulations of the redshifted 21 cm signalmore » during reionization with thermal noise at the level expected for a 500 antenna tile version of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), and mimic the degrading effects of foreground cleaning. Using a matched filter technique, we find that the MWA should be able to directly identify ionized regions despite the large thermal noise. In a plausible fiducial model in which {approx}20% of the volume of the universe is neutral at z {approx} 7, we find that a 500-tile MWA may directly identify as many as {approx}150 ionized regions in a 6 MHz portion of its survey volume and roughly determine the size of each of these regions. This may, in turn, allow interesting multi-wavelength follow-up observations, comparing galaxy properties inside and outside of ionized regions. We discuss how the optimal configuration of radio antenna tiles for detecting ionized regions with a matched filter technique differs from the optimal design for measuring power spectra. These considerations have potentially important implications for the design of future redshifted 21 cm surveys.« less

  1. CMOS sensor as charged particles and ionizing radiation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Piña López, I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports results of CMOS sensor suitable for use as charged particles and ionizing radiation detector. The CMOS sensor with 640 × 480 pixels area has been integrated into an electronic circuit for detection of ionizing radiation and it was exposed to alpha particle (Am-241, Unat), beta (Sr-90), and gamma photons (Cs-137). Results show after long period of time (168 h) irradiation the sensor had not loss of functionality and also the energy of the charge particles and photons were very well obtained.

  2. Effect of ionization on the oxidation kinetics of aluminum nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yao-Ting; He, Min; Cheng, Guang-xu; Zhang, Zaoxiao; Xuan, Fu-Zhen; Wang, Zhengdong

    2018-03-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation (MD) of the observed stepwise oxidation of core-shell structured Al/Al2O3 nanoparticles is presented. Different from the metal ion hopping process in the Cabrera-Mott model, which is assumed to occur only at a certain distance from the oxide layer, the MD simulation shows that Al atoms jump over various interfacial gaps directly under the thermal driving force. The energy barrier for Al ionization is found to be increased along with the enlargement of interfacial gap. A mechanism of competition between thermal driving force and ionization potential barrier is proposed in the interpretation of stepwise oxidation behavior.

  3. Classical subharmonic resonances in microwave ionization of lithium Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Michael W.; Griffith, W. M.; Gallagher, T. F.

    2000-12-01

    We have studied the ionization of lithium Rydberg atoms by pulsed microwave fields in the regime in which the microwave frequency is equal to or a subharmonic of the classical Kepler frequency of the two-body Coulomb problem. We have observed a series of resonances where the atom is relatively stable against ionization. The resonances are similar to those seen previously in hydrogen, but with significant quantitative differences. We also present measurements of the distribution of states that remain bound after the microwave interaction for initial states near one of the classical subharmonic resonances.

  4. Heater-induced ionization inferred from spectrometric airglow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hysell, D. L.; Miceli, R. J.; Kendall, E. A.; Schlatter, N. M.; Varney, R. H.; Watkins, B. J.; Pedersen, T. R.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Huba, J. D.

    2014-03-01

    Spectrographic airglow measurements were made during an ionospheric modification experiment at High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program on 12 March 2013. Artificial airglow enhancements at 427.8, 557.7, 630.0, 777.4, and 844.6 nm were observed. On the basis of these emissions and using a methodology based on the method of Backus and Gilbert (1968, 1970), we estimate the suprathermal electron population and the subsequent equilibrium electron density profile, including contributions from electron impact ionization. We find that the airglow is consistent with heater-induced ionization in view of the spatial intermittency of the airglow.

  5. Ionization and expansion of barium clouds in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, T.-Z.; Schunk, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    A recently envelope 3D model is used here to study the motion of the barium clouds released in the ionosphere, including the ionization stage. The ionization and the expansion of the barium clouds and the interaction between the clouds and the background ions are investigated using three simulations: a cloud without a directional velocity, a cloud with an initial velocity of 5 km/s across the B field, and a cloud with initial velocity components of 2 km/s both along and across the B field.

  6. Analytic saddlepoint approximation for ionization energy loss distributions

    DOE PAGES

    Sjue, Sky K. L.; George, Jr., Richard Neal; Mathews, David Gregory

    2017-07-27

    Here, we present a saddlepoint approximation for ionization energy loss distributions, valid for arbitrary relativistic velocities of the incident particle 0 < v/c < 1, provided that ionizing collisions are still the dominant energy loss mechanism. We derive a closed form solution closely related to Moyal’s distribution. This distribution is intended for use in simulations with relatively low computational overhead. The approximation generally reproduces the Vavilov most probable energy loss and full width at half maximum to better than 1% and 10%, respectively, with significantly better agreement as Vavilov’s κ approaches 1.

  7. Heater-induced ionization inferred from spectrometric airglow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hysell, D. L.; Miceli, R. J.; Varney, R. H.; Schlatter, N.; Huba, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Spectrographic airglow measurements were made during an ionospheric modification experiment at HAARP on March 12, 2013. Artificial airglow enhancements at 427.8, 557.7, 630.0, 777.4, and 844.6 nm were observed. On the basis of these emissions and using a methodology based on the method of Backus and Gilbert [1968, 1970], we estimate the suprathermal electron population and the subsequent equilibrium electron density profile, including contributions from electron impact ionization. We find that the airglow is consistent with significant induced ionization in view of the spatial intermittency of the airglow.

  8. Theoretical and observational determinations of the ionization coefficient of meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, William

    1997-07-01

    We examine the problem of the determination of the ionization coefficient beta from both the theoretical and observational points of view. In the past, theoretical evaluations of beta in terms of the relevant scattering cross-sections have used the Massey-Sida formula, which we show to give results which are plainly incorrect. We derive an integral equation for beta and compare the results of its application to copper and iron with laboratory simulations. Agreement for the variation of the ionization coefficient with velocity is good. The ionization coefficient has been determined observationally by Verniani & Hawkins from a comparison of radar and visual observations, employing the luminous efficiency tau also obtained observationally by Verniani. However, this determination of tau would appear to be invalidated by fragmentation. There is good evidence that the radiation of cometary meteors is dominated by that of iron in the visual range, and we have accordingly re-analysed the data of Verniani & Hawkins using the luminous efficiency of iron obtained in simulation experiments. However, it is not possible to choose an iron concentration which gives agreement between the determination of the ionization coefficient by this means and its determination from the theoretical equation in terms of either scattering coefficients or simulation methods. The observational ionization coefficients are much lower than predicted by the present theory and we provisionally explain this as a consequence of transfer of charge from the meteoric ion to a molecule of the air. It is now possible for the meteoric atom to be re-ionized, but it is also possible at sufficiently high initial line densities for significant dissociative recombination of the electrons and nitrogen or oxygen to take place. This recombination will not take place in meteor trains simulated in an ionization chamber. We thus conclude that the present theory is limited to faint radio meteors at lower velocities (v<~35

  9. Low-energy electron-impact single ionization of helium

    SciTech Connect

    Colgan, J.; Pindzola, M. S.; Childers, G.

    2006-04-15

    A study is made of low-energy electron-impact single ionization of ground-state helium. The time-dependent close-coupling method is used to calculate total integral, single differential, double differential, and triple differential ionization cross sections for impact electron energies ranging from 32 to 45 eV. For all quantities, the calculated cross sections are found to be in very good agreement with experiment, and for the triple differential cross sections, good agreement is also found with calculations made using the convergent close-coupling technique.

  10. Ionizing radiation calculations and comparisons with LDEF data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.; Watts, J. W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    In conjunction with the analysis of LDEF ionizing radiation dosimetry data, a calculational program is in progress to aid in data interpretation and to assess the accuracy of current radiation models for future mission applications. To estimate the ionizing radiation environment at the LDEF dosimeter locations, scoping calculations for a simplified (one dimensional) LDEF mass model were made of the primary and secondary radiations produced as a function of shielding thickness due to trapped proton, galactic proton, and atmospheric (neutron and proton cosmic ray albedo) exposures. Preliminary comparisons of predictions with LDEF induced radioactivity and dose measurements were made to test a recently developed model of trapped proton anisotropy.

  11. Analytic saddlepoint approximation for ionization energy loss distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjue, S. K. L.; George, R. N.; Mathews, D. G.

    2017-09-01

    We present a saddlepoint approximation for ionization energy loss distributions, valid for arbitrary relativistic velocities of the incident particle 0 < v / c < 1 , provided that ionizing collisions are still the dominant energy loss mechanism. We derive a closed form solution closely related to Moyal's distribution. This distribution is intended for use in simulations with relatively low computational overhead. The approximation generally reproduces the Vavilov most probable energy loss and full width at half maximum to better than 1% and 10%, respectively, with significantly better agreement as Vavilov's κ approaches 1.

  12. Structure of Multiply Ionized Heavy Ions and Associated Collision Phenomena.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    Charge-State Dependence in K-Shell Ionization of Neon, Silicon , and Argon Gases by Lithium Proj ectiles ,” Physics Lett. 60A, 292 (1977). • “Charge...Projectile Charge-State Dependence in K-shell Ionization of Neon, Silicon , and Argon Gases by Lithium Projectiles,” Bull.Am. Phys. Soc. 22, 655 (1977...Probabilities , I . Martinson , ed. (Lunds Univeristet , Lund) , p. 8 (1977) . “Der 252S_2p 2 P° Doublettübergan g in Li-~hnlichem Schwefel , ” Verhandi

  13. [Use of ionizing radiation sources in metallurgy: risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Giugni, U

    2012-01-01

    Use of ionizing radiation sources in the metallurgical industry: risk assessment. Radioactive sources and fixed or mobile X-ray equipment are used for both process and quality control. The use of ionizing radiation sources requires careful risk assessment. The text lists the characteristics of the sources and the legal requirements, and contains a description of the documentation required and the methods used for risk assessment. It describes how to estimate the doses to operators and the relevant classification criteria used for the purpose of radiation protection. Training programs must be organized in close collaboration between the radiation protection expert and the occupational physician.

  14. Increased upstream ionization due to formation of a double layer.

    PubMed

    Thakur, S Chakraborty; Harvey, Z; Biloiu, I A; Hansen, A; Hardin, R A; Przybysz, W S; Scime, E E

    2009-01-23

    We report observations that confirm a theoretical prediction that formation of a current-free double layer in a plasma expanding into a chamber of larger diameter is accompanied by an increase in ionization upstream of the double layer. The theoretical model argues that the increased ionization is needed to balance the difference in diffusive losses upstream and downstream of the expansion region. In our expanding helicon source experiments, we find that the upstream plasma density increases sharply at the same antenna frequency at which the double layer appears.

  15. Quantum statistical mechanics of dense partially ionized hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, H. E.; Rogers, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    The theory of dense hydrogen plasmas beginning with the two component quantum grand partition function is reviewed. It is shown that ionization equilibrium and molecular dissociation equilibrium can be treated in the same manner with proper consideration of all two-body states. A quantum perturbation expansion is used to give an accurate calculation of the equation of state of the gas for any degree of dissociation and ionization. The statistical mechanical calculation of the plasma equation of state is intended for stellar interiors. The general approach is extended to the calculation of the equation of state of the outer layers of large planets.

  16. Stagnation-point heat transfer correlation for ionized gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bade, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    Based on previous laminar boundary-layer solutions for argon, xenon, nitrogen, and air, it is shown that the effect of gas ionization on stagnation-point heat transfer can be correlated with the variation of the frozen Prandtl number across the boundary layer. A formula is obtained for stagnation-point heat transfer in a noble gas and is shown to be valid from the low-temperature range to the region of strong ionization. It is concluded that the considered effect can be well correlated by the 0.7 power of the Prandtl-number ratio across the boundary layer.

  17. Strategic Directions in Heliophysics Research Related to Weakly Ionized Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the Heliophysics Division of NASA published its triennial roadmap entitled "Heliophysics; the solar and space physics of a new era." In this document contains a science priority that is recommended that will serve as input into the recently initiated NRC Heliophysics Decadal Survey. The 2009 roadmap includes several science targets recommendations that are directly related to weakly ionized plasmas, including on entitled "Ion-Neutral Coupling in the Atmosphere." This talk will be a brief overview of the roadmap with particular focus on the science targets relevant to weakly ionized plasmas.

  18. Analytic saddlepoint approximation for ionization energy loss distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Sjue, Sky K. L.; George, Jr., Richard Neal; Mathews, David Gregory

    Here, we present a saddlepoint approximation for ionization energy loss distributions, valid for arbitrary relativistic velocities of the incident particle 0 < v/c < 1, provided that ionizing collisions are still the dominant energy loss mechanism. We derive a closed form solution closely related to Moyal’s distribution. This distribution is intended for use in simulations with relatively low computational overhead. The approximation generally reproduces the Vavilov most probable energy loss and full width at half maximum to better than 1% and 10%, respectively, with significantly better agreement as Vavilov’s κ approaches 1.

  19. Ion energies in high power impulse magnetron sputtering with and without localized ionization zones

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yuchen; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720; Tanaka, Koichi

    2015-03-23

    High speed imaging of high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges has revealed that ionization is localized in moving ionization zones but localization disappears at high currents for high yield targets. This offers an opportunity to study the effect ionization zones have on ion energies. We measure that ions have generally higher energies when ionization zones are present, supporting the concept that these zones are associated with moving potential humps. We propose that the disappearance of ionization zones is caused by an increased supply of atoms from the target which cools electrons and reduces depletion of atoms to be ionized.

  20. Gas chromatography/chemical ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis of anabolic steroids: ionization and collision-induced dissociation behavior.

    PubMed

    Polet, Michael; Van Gansbeke, Wim; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen

    2016-02-28

    The detection of new anabolic steroid metabolites and new designer steroids is a challenging task in doping analysis. Switching from electron ionization gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS/MS) to chemical ionization (CI) has proven to be an efficient way to increase the sensitivity of GC/MS/MS analyses and facilitate the detection of anabolic steroids. CI also extends the possibilities of GC/MS/MS analyses as the molecular ion is retained in its protonated form due to the softer ionization. In EI it can be difficult to find previously unknown but expected metabolites due to the low abundance or absence of the molecular ion and the extensive (and to a large extent unpredictable) fragmentation. The main aim of this work was to study the CI and collision-induced dissociation (CID) behavior of a large number of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) as their trimethylsilyl derivatives in order to determine correlations between structures and CID fragmentation. Clarification of these correlations is needed for the elucidation of structures of unknown steroids and new metabolites. The ionization and CID behavior of 65 AAS have been studied using GC/CI-MS/MS with ammonia as the reagent gas. Glucuronidated AAS reference standards were first hydrolyzed to obtain their free forms. Afterwards, all the standards were derivatized to their trimethylsilyl forms. Full scan and product ion scan analyses were used to examine the ionization and CID behavior. Full scan and product ion scan analyses revealed clear correlations between AAS structure and the obtained mass spectra. These correlations were confirmed by analysis of multiple hydroxylated, methylated, chlorinated and deuterated analogs. AAS have been divided into three groups according to their ionization behavior and into seven groups according to their CID behavior. Correlations between fragmentation and structure were revealed and fragmentation pathways were postulated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley

  1. Measurement of energies using a glass-scintillator ionization spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, C. R.; Huggett, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    A method is proposed for obtaining the energies of high-energy hadrons incident upon a glass-scintillator ionization spectrometer. The description of the apparatus and of its calibration with cosmic ray muons is followed by a demonstration of the processing of the data obtained.

  2. The Activity-Related Ionization in Carbonic Anhydrase

    PubMed Central

    Appleton, David W.; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    1974-01-01

    The catalytic activity of carbonic anhydrase (EC 4.2.1.1) is linked to the ionization of a group in close proximity to the essential zinc ion. Studies have been undertaken to delineate the ionizations germane to the active-site chelate system. Several imidazole ligand systems were studied in order to approach a representative chelate. The simplest involved the complexation of Zn(II) by imidazole and by N-methylimidazole. As well, two bidentate systems, Zn(II)-4,4′-bis-imidazoylmethane and Co(II)-cyclic-L-histidyl-L-histidine were investigated. It was found that in a species containing metal-bound water and imidazole coordinated by means of the pyridinium nitrogen, the most acidic group was the pyrrole N-H in the imidazole ring. By the use of N-methylimidazole, the pKa of a metal-bound water molecule in a tri-imidazole ligand field was found to be 9.1. Noting the preference for labilization of the pyrrole hydrogen, the catalytic features of carbonic anhydrase are reexamined assuming that the pKenz is associated with the N-H ionization, and not with the ionization of metal-bound water. PMID:4209558

  3. Radiation hydrodynamical instabilities in cosmological and galactic ionization fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, Daniel J.; Norman, Michael L.

    2011-11-01

    Ionization fronts, the sharp radiation fronts behind which H/He ionizing photons from massive stars and galaxies propagate through space, were ubiquitous in the universe from its earliest times. The cosmic dark ages ended with the formation of the first primeval stars and galaxies a few hundred Myr after the Big Bang. Numerical simulations suggest that stars in this era were very massive, 25-500 solar masses, with H(II) regions of up to 30,000 light-years in diameter. We present three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical calculations that reveal that the I-fronts of the first stars and galaxies were prone to violent instabilities, enhancing the escape of UV photons into the early intergalactic medium (IGM) and forming clumpy media in which supernovae later exploded. The enrichment of such clumps with metals by the first supernovae may have led to the prompt formation of a second generation of low-mass stars, profoundly transforming the nature of the first protogalaxies. Cosmological radiation hydrodynamics is unique because ionizing photons coupled strongly to both gas flows and primordial chemistry at early epochs, introducing a hierarchy of disparate characteristic timescales whose relative magnitudes can vary greatly throughout a given calculation. We describe the adaptive multistep integration scheme we have developed for the self-consistent transport of both cosmological and galactic ionization fronts.

  4. Effects of ionizing radiation on charge-coupled imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killiany, J. M.; Baker, W. D.; Saks, N. S.; Barbe, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on three different charge coupled imagers have been investigated. Device performance was evaluated as a function of total gamma ray dose. The principal failure mechanisms have been identified for each particular device structure. The clock and bias voltages required for high total dose operation of the devices are presented.

  5. Signature of charge migration in modulations of double ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauger, François; Abanador, Paul M.; Bruner, Adam; Sissay, Adonay; Gaarde, Mette B.; Lopata, Kenneth; Schafer, Kenneth J.

    2018-04-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of charge migration following strong-field ionization in a multielectron system. We study a model homonuclear molecule with two electrons, each restricted to one dimension (1 +1 D ), interacting with a strong, static electric field. We show that in this system charge migration results from the interplay between multiple ionization channels that overlap in space, creating a coherent electron-hole wave packet in the cation. We also find that, in our case, charge migration following the first ionization manifests as a modulation of the subsequent double-ionization signal. We derive a parametrized semiclassical model from the full multielectron system and we discuss the importance of the choice of cation electronic-structure basis for the efficacy of the semiclassical representation. We use the ab initio solution of the full 1 +1 D system as a reference for the qualitative and quantitative results of the parametrized semiclassical model. We discuss the extension of our model to long-wavelength time-dependent fields with full-dimension, many-electron targets.

  6. Fragmentation pathways of tungsten hexacarbonyl clusters upon electron ionization.

    PubMed

    Neustetter, M; Jabbour Al Maalouf, E; Limão-Vieira, P; Denifl, S

    2016-08-07

    Electron ionization of neat tungsten hexacarbonyl (W(CO)6) clusters has been investigated in a crossed electron-molecular beam experiment coupled with a mass spectrometer system. The molecule is used for nanofabrication processes through electron beam induced deposition and ion beam induced deposition techniques. Positive ion mass spectra of W(CO)6 clusters formed by electron ionization at 70 eV contain the ion series of the type W(CO)n (+) (0 ≤ n ≤ 6) and W2(CO)n (+) (0 ≤ n ≤ 12). In addition, a series of peaks are observed and have been assigned to WC(CO)n (+) (0 ≤ n ≤ 3) and W2C(CO)n (+) (0 ≤ n ≤ 10). A distinct change of relative fragment ion intensity can be observed for clusters compared to the single molecule. The characteristic fragmentation pattern obtained in the mass spectra can be explained by a sequential decay of the ionized organometallic, which is also supported by the study of the clusters when embedded in helium nanodroplets. In addition, appearance energies for the dissociative ionization channels for singly charged ions have been estimated from experimental ion efficiency curves.

  7. Quantitative prediction of ionization effect on human skin permeability.

    PubMed

    Baba, Hiromi; Ueno, Yusuke; Hashida, Mitsuru; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi

    2017-04-30

    Although skin permeability of an active ingredient can be severely affected by its ionization in a dose solution, most of the existing prediction models cannot predict such impacts. To provide reliable predictors, we curated a novel large dataset of in vitro human skin permeability coefficients for 322 entries comprising chemically diverse permeants whose ionization fractions can be calculated. Subsequently, we generated thousands of computational descriptors, including LogD (octanol-water distribution coefficient at a specific pH), and analyzed the dataset using nonlinear support vector regression (SVR) and Gaussian process regression (GPR) combined with greedy descriptor selection. The SVR model was slightly superior to the GPR model, with externally validated squared correlation coefficient, root mean square error, and mean absolute error values of 0.94, 0.29, and 0.21, respectively. These models indicate that Log D is effective for a comprehensive prediction of ionization effects on skin permeability. In addition, the proposed models satisfied the statistical criteria endorsed in recent model validation studies. These models can evaluate virtually generated compounds at any pH; therefore, they can be used for high-throughput evaluations of numerous active ingredients and optimization of their skin permeability with respect to permeant ionization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Partially ionized hydrogen plasma in strong magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Potekhin, A Y; Chabrier, G; Shibanov, Y A

    1999-08-01

    We study the thermodynamic properties of a partially ionized hydrogen plasma in strong magnetic fields, B approximately 10(12)-10(13) G, typical of neutron stars. The properties of the plasma depend significantly on the quantum-mechanical sizes and binding energies of the atoms, which are strongly modified by thermal motion across the field. We use new fitting formulas for the atomic binding energies and sizes, based on accurate numerical calculations and valid for any state of motion of the atom. In particular, we take into account decentered atomic states, neglected in previous studies of thermodynamics of magnetized plasmas. We also employ analytic fits for the thermodynamic functions of nonideal fully ionized electron-ion Coulomb plasmas. This enables us to construct an analytic model of the free energy. An ionization equilibrium equation is derived, taking into account the strong magnetic field effects and the nonideality effects. This equation is solved by an iteration technique. Ionization degrees, occupancies, and the equation of state are calculated.

  9. Reducing ionizing radiation doses during cardiac interventions in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Orchard, Elizabeth; Dix, Sarah; Wilson, Neil; Mackillop, Lucy; Ormerod, Oliver

    2012-09-01

    There is concern over ionizing radiation exposure in women who are pregnant or of child-bearing age. Due to the increasing prevalence of congenital and acquired heart disease, the number of women who require cardiac interventions during pregnancy has increased. We have developed protocols for cardiac interventions in pregnant women and women of child-bearing age, aimed at substantially reducing both fluoroscopy duration and radiation doses. Over five years, we performed cardiac interventions on 15 pregnant women, nine postpartum women and four as part of prepregnancy assessment. Fluoroscopy times were minimized by simultaneous use of intracardiac echocardiography, and by using very low frame rates (2/second) during fluoroscopy. The procedures most commonly undertaken were closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) or patent foramen ovale (PFO) in 16 women, coronary angiograms in seven, right and left heart catheters in three and two stent placements. The mean screening time for all patients was 2.38 minutes (range 0.48-13.7), the median radiation dose was 66 (8.9-1501) Gy/cm(2). The median radiation dose to uterus was 1.92 (0.59-5.47) μGy, and the patient estimated dose was 0.24 (0.095-0.80) mSv. Ionizing radiation can be used safely in the management of severe cardiac structural disease in pregnancy, with very low ionizing radiation dose to the mother and extremely low exposure to the fetus. With experience, ionizing radiation doses at our institution have been reduced.

  10. Status of LDEF ionizing radiation measurements and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    The LDEF-1 results from the particle astrophysics, radiation environments, and dosimetry measurements on LDEF-1 are summarized, including highlights from presentations at the 2nd symposium. Progress in using LDEF data to improve radiation environment models and calculation methods is reviewed. Radiation effects, or the lack thereof are discussed. Future plans of the LDEF Ionizing Radiation Special Investigation Group are presented.

  11. Influence of Dust Loading on Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Gronoff, Guillaume; Mertens, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the radiation environment at the surface of Mars is the primary goal of the Radiation Assessment Detector on the NASA Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover. One of the conditions that Curiosity will likely encounter is a dust storm. The objective of this paper is to compute the cosmic ray ionization in different conditions, including dust storms, as these various conditions are likely to be encountered by Curiosity at some point. In the present work, the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety model, recently modified for Mars, was used along with the Badhwar & O'Neill 2010 galactic cosmic ray model. In addition to galactic cosmic rays, five different solar energetic particle event spectra were considered. For all input radiation environments, radiation dose throughout the atmosphere and at the surface was investigated as a function of atmospheric dust loading. It is demonstrated that for galactic cosmic rays, the ionization depends strongly on the atmosphere profile. Moreover, it is shown that solar energetic particle events strongly increase the ionization throughout the atmosphere, including ground level, and can account for the radio blackout conditions observed by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft. These results demonstrate that the cosmic rays' influence on the Martian surface chemistry is strongly dependent on solar and atmospheric conditions that should be taken into account for future studies.

  12. Advanced p-MOSFET Ionizing-Radiation Dosimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G.; Blaes, Brent R.

    1994-01-01

    Circuit measures total dose of ionizing radiation in terms of shift in threshold gate voltage of doped-channel metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (p-MOSFET). Drain current set at temperature-independent point to increase accuracy in determination of radiation dose.

  13. High resolution resonance ionization imaging detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Winefordner, James D.; Matveev, Oleg I.; Smith, Benjamin W.

    1999-01-01

    A resonance ionization imaging device (RIID) and method for imaging objects using the RIID are provided, the RIID system including a RIID cell containing an ionizable vapor including monoisotopic atoms or molecules, the cell being positioned to intercept scattered radiation of a resonance wavelength .lambda..sub.1 from the object which is to be detected or imaged, a laser source disposed to illuminate the RIID cell with laser radiation having a wavelength .lambda..sub.2 or wavelengths .lambda..sub.2, .lambda..sub.3 selected to ionize atoms in the cell that are in an excited state by virtue of having absorbed the scattered resonance laser radiation, and a luminescent screen at the back surface of the RIID cell which presents an image of the number and position of charged particles present in the RIID cell as a result of the ionization of the excited state atoms. The method of the invention further includes the step of initially illuminating the object to be detected or imaged with a laser having a wavelength selected such that the object will scatter laser radiation having the resonance wavelength .lambda..sub.1.

  14. Accuracy of theory for calculating electron impact ionization of molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaluvadi, Hari Hara Kumar

    The study of electron impact single ionization of atoms and molecules has provided valuable information about fundamental collisions. The most detailed information is obtained from triple differential cross sections (TDCS) in which the energy and momentum of all three final state particles are determined. These cross sections are much more difficult for theory since the detailed kinematics of the experiment become important. There are many theoretical approximations for ionization of molecules. One of the successful methods is the molecular 3-body distorted wave (M3DW) approximation. One of the strengths of the DW approximation is that it can be applied for any energy and any size molecule. One of the approximations that has been made to significantly reduce the required computer time is the OAMO (orientation averaged molecular orbital) approximation. In this dissertation, the accuracy of the M3DW-OAMO is tested for different molecules. Surprisingly, the M3DW-OAMO approximation yields reasonably good agreement with experiment for ionization of H2 and N2. On the other hand, the M3DW-OAMO results for ionization of CH4, NH3 and DNA derivative molecules did not agree very well with experiment. Consequently, we proposed the M3DW with a proper average (PA) calculation. In this dissertation, it is shown that the M3DW-PA calculations for CH4 and SF6 are in much better agreement with experimental data than the M3DW-OAMO results.

  15. Influence of ionizing radiation on the immune response

    SciTech Connect

    Brocadeszaalberg, O.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on the immune response are reviewed. Following an introduction on the function of the immune apparatus, the effect of radiation in the different cell types of the immune system is described. The possible consequences of these effects on the prognosis of radiation victims are discussed. (GRA)

  16. The Formation and Physical Origin of Highly Ionized Cooling Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordoloi, Rongmon; Wagner, Alexander Y.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Norman, Colin A.

    2017-10-01

    We present a simple model that explains the origin of warm, diffuse gas seen primarily as highly ionized absorption-line systems in the spectra of background sources. We predict the observed column densities of several highly ionized transitions such as O VI, O vii, Ne viii, N v, and Mg x, and we present a unified comparison of the model predictions with absorption lines seen in the Milky Way disk, Milky Way halo, starburst galaxies, the circumgalactic medium, and the intergalactic medium at low and high redshifts. We show that diffuse gas seen in such diverse environments can be simultaneously explained by a simple model of radiatively cooling gas. We show that most such absorption-line systems are consistent with being collisionally ionized, and we estimate the maximum-likelihood temperature of the gas in each observation. This model satisfactorily explains why O VI is regularly observed around star-forming low-z L* galaxies, and why N v is rarely seen around the same galaxies. We further present some consequences of this model in quantifying the dynamics of the cooling gas around galaxies and predict the shock velocities associated with such flows. A unique strength of this model is that while it has only one free (but physically well-constrained) parameter, it nevertheless successfully reproduces the available data on O VI absorbers in the interstellar, circumgalactic, intragroup, and intergalactic media, as well as the available data on other absorption lines from highly ionized species.

  17. Dynamic Reactive Ionization with Cluster Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hua; Wucher, Andreas; Winograd, Nicholas

    2016-02-01

    Gas cluster ion beams (GCIB) have been tuned to enhance secondary ion yields by doping small gas molecules such as CH4, CO2, and O2 into an Ar cluster projectile, Arn + ( n = 1000-10,000) to form a mixed cluster. The `tailored beam' has the potential to expand the application of secondary ion mass spectrometry for two- and three-dimensional molecular specific imaging. Here, we examine the possibility of further enhancing the ionization by doping HCl into the Ar cluster. Water deposited on the target surface facilitates the dissociation of HCl. This concerted effect, occurring only at the impact site of the cluster, arises since the HCl is chemically induced to ionize to H+ and Cl- , allowing improved protonation of neutral molecular species. This hypothesis is confirmed by depth profiling through a trehalose thin film exposed to D2O vapor, resulting in ~20-fold increase in protonated molecules. The results show that it is possible to dynamically maintain optimum ionization conditions during depth profiling by proper adjustment of the water vapor pressure. H-D exchange in the trehalose molecule M was monitored upon deposition of D2O on the target surface, leading to the observation of [Mn* + H]+ or [Mn* + D]+ ions, where n = 1-8 hydrogen atoms in the trehalose molecule M have been replaced by deuterium. In general, we discuss the role of surface chemistry and dynamic reactive ionization of organic molecules in increasing the secondary ion yield.

  18. Degradation spectra and ionization yields of electrons in gases

    SciTech Connect

    Inokuti, M.; Douthat, D.A.; Rau, A.R.P.

    1975-01-01

    Progress in the microscopic theory of electron degradation in gases by Platzman, Fano, and co-workers is outlined. The theory consists of (1) the cataloging of all major inelastic-collision cross sections for electrons (including secondary-electron energy distribution in a single ionizing collision) and (2) the evaluation of cumulative consequences of individual electron collisions for the electrons themselves as well as for target molecules. For assessing the data consistency and reliability and extrapolating the data to the unexplored ranges of variables (such as electron energy), a series of plots devised by Platzman are very powerful. Electron degradation spectra were obtained through numericalmore » solution of the Spencer--Fano equation for all electron energies down to the first ionization thresholds for a few examples such as He and Ne. The systematics of the solutions resulted in the recognition of approximate scaling properties of the degradation spectra for different initial electron energies and pointed to new methods of more efficient treatment. Systematics of the ionization yields and their energy dependence on the initial electron energy were also recognized. Finally, the Spencer--Fano equation for the degradation spectra and the Fowler equation for the ionization and other yields are tightly linked with each other by a set of variational principles. (52 references, 7 figures) (DLC)« less

  19. Ionization rate from the electron precipitation during August 2011 storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Huang, C. Y.; Su, Y.

    2013-12-01

    We apply a parameterization by Fang et al. [2010] (Fang2010) to the complex energy spectra measured by DMSP F16 satellites to calculate the ionization rate from electron precipitation during a moderate storm on August 6th, 2011. The DMSP electron flux measurements show that there is clear enhancement of electron fluxes in the polar cap. The mean energy in the polar cap is mostly above 100 eV, while the mean energy of auroral zone is above 1 keV. F16 also captures a strong Poynting flux enhancement in the polar cap. The electron impact ionization rates using thermospheric densities and temperatures from NRLMSISE-00, TIE-GCM and GITM show clear enhancement at F-region altitudes in the polar cap region due to the low-energy electrons precipitated. Using the default empirical formulations of electron impact ionization in GCMs, TIE-GCM and GITM do not capture the F-region ionization shown in the results of Fang2010 parameterization. Fang, X, C. E. Randall, D. Lummerzheim, W. Wang, G. Lu, S. C. Solomon, and R. A. Frahm (2010), Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L22106, doi:10.1029/2010GL045406.

  20. CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS OF LOW DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carcinogenic Effects of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation

    R Julian Preston, Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

    The form of the dose-response curve for radiation-induced cancers, particu...